WorldWideScience

Sample records for previous evaluation cycles

  1. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlouf, Ali; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10 3 MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO 2 eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10 −6 t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10 −6 t SO 2 eq respectively

  2. Multidimensional evaluation on FR cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Ryodai; Fujii, Sumio; Takakuma, Katsuyuki; Katoh, Atsushi; Ono, Kiyoshi; Ohtaki, Akira; Shiotani, Hiroki

    2004-01-01

    This report explains some results of the multidimensional evaluation on various fast reactor cycle system concepts from an interim report of the 2nd phase of ''Feasibility Study on Commercialized FR Cycle System''. This method is designed to give more objective and more quantitative evaluations to clarify commercialized system candidate concepts. Here we brief current evaluation method from the five viewpoints of safety, economy, environment, resource and non-proliferation, with some trial evaluation results for some cycles consist of promising technologies in reactor, core and fuel, reprocessing and fuel manufacture. Moreover, we describe FR cycle deployment scenarios which describe advantages and disadvantages of the cycles from the viewpoints of uranium resource and radioactive waste based on long-term nuclear material mass flow analyses and advantages of the deployment of FR cycle itself from the viewpoints of the comparison with alternative power supplies as well as cost and benefit. (author)

  3. Life cycle assessment of nuclear-based hydrogen production using thermochemical water decomposition: extension of previous work and future needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, L.I.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    An extension of a previous Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of nuclear-based hydrogen production using thermochemical water decomposition is reported. The copper-chlorine thermochemical cycle is considered, and the environmental impacts of the nuclear and thermochemical plants are assessed, while future needs are identified. Environmental impacts are investigated using CML 2001 impact categories. The nuclear fuel cycle and construction of the hydrogen plant contribute significantly to total environmental impacts. The environmental impacts for the operation of the thermochemical hydrogen production plant contribute much less. Changes in the inventory of chemicals needed in the thermochemical plant do not affect significantly the total impacts. Improvement analysis suggests the development of more sustainable processes, particularly in the nuclear plant. Other important and necessary future extensions of the research reported are also provided. (author)

  4. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Real Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Havlíček

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper describes the nuclear fuel cycle. It is divided into three parts. The first part, called Front-End, covers all activities connected with fuel procurement and fabrication. The middle part of the cycle includes fuel reload design activities and the operation of the fuel in the reactor. Back-End comprises all activities ensuring safe separation of spent fuel and radioactive waste from the environment. The individual stages of the fuel cycle are strongly interrelated. Overall economic optimization is very difficult. Generally, NPV is used for an economic evaluation in the nuclear fuel cycle. However the high volatility of uranium prices in the Front-End, and the large uncertainty of both economic and technical parameters in the Back-End, make the use of NPV difficult. The real option method is able to evaluate the value added by flexibility of decision making by a company under conditions of uncertainty. The possibility of applying this method to the nuclear fuel cycle evaluation is studied. 

  5. Economic evaluation of multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Ryuta; Kuno, Yusuke; Omoto, Akira; Tanaka, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    Recently previous works have shown that multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach has benefits not only of non-proliferation but also of cost effectiveness. This is because for most facilities in nuclear fuel cycle, there exist economies of scale, which has a significant impact on the costs of nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, the evaluation of economic rationality is required as one of the evaluation factors for the multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach. In this study, we consider some options with respect to multilateral approaches to nuclear fuel cycle in Asian-Pacific region countries that are proposed by the University of Tokyo. In particular, the following factors are embedded into each type: A) no involvement of assurance of services, B) provision of assurance of services including construction of new facility, without transfer of ownership, and C) provision of assurance of service including construction of new joint facilities with ownership transfer of facilities to multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach. We show the overnight costs taking into account install and operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities for each option. The economic parameter values such as uranium price, scale factor, and market output expansion influences the total cost for each option. Thus, we show how these parameter values and economic risks affect the total overnight costs for each option. Additionally, the international facilities could increase the risk of transportation for nuclear material compared to national facilities. We discuss the potential effects of this transportation risk on the costs for each option. (author)

  6. Scientific opinion on the evaluation of substances as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Shipping of edible fats and oils into Europe is permitted in bulk tanks, provided that the previous cargo is included in a positive list. The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the acceptability as previous cargoes for fats and oils the substances calcium lignosulphonate, methyl acetate......, ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and ammonium sulphate. The evaluation was based on the same criteria as those used for the evaluation of the substances currently on the list in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils. Methyl acetate and ETBE meet...

  7. Evaluation of Menstrual Cycle on Periodontal Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Sargolzaee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bacterial plaque has been identified as the primary factor for the onset of periodontal disease. Although pathogens are very important in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, the hosts’ systemic and predisposing factors should also be considered. Sex hormones are important factors contributing to periodontal diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of menstruation cycle on periodontal indices. Materials & Methods: In this study, 20 premenopausal women (17-45 years old were selected. Before the examination, scaling and oral health instruction for all subjects was done. Clinical examinations were done during the menstrual cycle specifically during ovulation (OV time, during pre-menstruation (PM and during menstruation (M with four month in tervals. Indices evaluated included: 1 Plaque index (PI 2 Gingival index (GI 3 Probing depth (PD around the (Ramfjord teeth. Friedman test was used for comparison among the three durations and for two by two comparisons, Wilcoxon test was used.Results: Results showed a significant difference among the phases of the menstrual cycle for gingival index (P0.05.Conclusion: During menstrual cycle due to the hormonal changes, gingival index and inflammation is significantly increased indicating that in order to prevent periodontal diseases, oral health should be maintained.

  8. International nuclear fuel cycle evaluation (INFCE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlupp, C.

    1986-07-01

    The study describes and analyzes the structures, the procedures and decision making processes of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE). INFCE was agreed by the Organizing Conference to be a technical and analytical study and not a negotiation. The results were to be transmitted to governments for their consideration in developing their nuclear energy policies and in international discussions concerning nuclear energy cooperation and related controls and safeguards. Thus INFCE provided a unique example for decision making by consensus in the nuclear world. It was carried through under mutual respect for each country's choices and decisions, without jeopardizing their respective fuel cycle policies or international co-operation agreements and contracts for the peaceful use of nuclear energy, provided that agreed safeguards are applied. (orig.)

  9. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance...... on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis...... of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key ‘‘lessons learned’’ from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches...

  10. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieger, Khara D.; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko; Christensen, Frans; Baun, Anders; Olsen, Stig I.

    2012-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key “lessons learned” from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches for using these methods together for NM: “LC-based RA” (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and “RA-complemented LCA” (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods for NM-risk research efforts to date as the former is rather a continuation of normal RA according to standard assessment procedures (e.g., REACH). Both these approaches along with recommendations for using LCA and RA together for NM are similar to those made previously for chemicals, and thus, there does not appear to be much progress made specific for NM. We have identified one issue in particular that may be specific for NM when applying LCA and RA at this time: the need to establish proper dose metrics within both methods.

  11. Reflectance spectroscopy for evaluating hair follicle cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhu, Dan

    2014-02-01

    Hair follicle, as a mini-organ with perpetually cycling of telogen, anagen and catagen, provides a valuable experimental model for studying hair and organ regeneration. The transition of hair follicle from telogen to anagen is a significant sign for successful regeneration. So far discrimination of the hair follicle stage is mostly based on canonical histological examination and empirical speculation based on skin color. Hardly a method has been proposed to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage. In this work, a commercial optical fiber spectrometer was applied to monitor diffuse reflectance of mouse skin with hair follicle cycling, and then the change of reflectance was obtained. Histological examination was used to verify the hair follicle stage. In comparison with the histological examination, the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high for mouse with telogen hair follicles; it decreased once hair follicles transited to anagen stage; then it increased reversely at catagen stage. This study provided a new method to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for the basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration.

  12. Limitations of previously published systematic reviews evaluating the outcome of endodontic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.K.; Shemesh, H.; Wesselink, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the limitations of previously published systematic reviews evaluating the outcome of root canal treatment. Traditionally, periapical radiography has been used to assess the outcome of root canal treatment with the absence of a periapical radiolucency being

  13. Nonproliferation and safeguard considerations: Pebble Bed reactor fuel cycle evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    Nuclear fuel cycles were evaluated for the Pebble Bed Gas Cooled Reactor under development in the Federal Republic of Germany. The basic fuel cycle specified for the HTR-K and PNP is well qualified and will meet the requirements of these reactors. Twenty alternate fuel cycles are described, including high-conversion cycles, net-breeding cycles, and proliferation-resistant cycles. High-conversion cycles, which have a high probability of being successfully developed, promise a significant improvement in resource utilization. Proliferation-resistant cycles, also with a high probability of successful development, conpare very favorably with those for other types of reactors. Most of the advanced cycles could be adapted to first-generation pebble bed reactors with no significant modifications

  14. Radiation belt electron dynamics at low L (<4): Van Allen Probes era versus previous two solar cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Baker, D. N.; Zhao, H.; Zhang, K.; Jaynes, A. N.; Schiller, Q.; Kanekal, S. G.; Blake, J. B.; Temerin, M.

    2017-05-01

    Long-term (>2 solar cycles) measurements reveal that MeV electron fluxes, solar wind speed, and geomagnetic activity have been extremely low during this current solar cycle, including years before and during the Van Allen Probes era. This study examines solar wind speed, the geomagnetic storm index (Dst), >2 MeV electrons at geostationary orbit, and 2 MeV electrons across various L shells measured by Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer in low Earth orbit (LEO) and by the Van Allen Probes/Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT) in a geotransfer-like orbit; the latter measurements are normalized to LEO based on comparison with Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment/Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile) measurements in LEO. The average ratio of REPTile/REPT varies in a systematic manner with L, 16% at L = 2.7, decreasing with L and reaching 0.7% at L = 4.7, and increasing again with L though with greater uncertainty. We show that there have been no 2 MeV electron enhancements inside L 2.6 since 2006, prior to which numerous penetrations of 2 MeV electrons into L periods of stronger solar wind conditions (in terms of high-speed solar wind, magnitude of interplanetary magnetic field, B, and a sustained southward Bz) and thus stronger geomagnetic activity. We conclude that results from the Van Allen Probes, which have been providing the finest measurements but in operation during a quiet solar activity period, may not be representative of radiation belt dynamics, particularly for the inner edge of the outer belt, during other solar cycle phases.

  15. Evaluating the diurnal cycle in cloud top temperature from SEVIRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sarah; Stier, Philip; White, Bethan; Finkensieper, Stephan; Stengel, Martin

    2017-06-01

    The variability of convective cloud spans a wide range of temporal and spatial scales and is of fundamental importance for global weather and climate systems. Datasets from geostationary satellite instruments such as the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) provide high-time-resolution observations across a large area. In this study we use data from SEVIRI to quantify the diurnal cycle of cloud top temperature within the instrument's field of view and discuss these results in relation to retrieval biases. We evaluate SEVIRI cloud top temperatures from the new CLAAS-2 (CLoud property dAtAset using SEVIRI, Edition 2) dataset against Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) data. Results show a mean bias of +0.44 K with a standard deviation of 11.7 K, which is in agreement with previous validation studies. Analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of these errors shows that absolute retrieval biases vary from less than 5 K over the southeast Atlantic Ocean up to 30 K over central Africa at night. Night- and daytime retrieval biases can also differ by up to 30 K in some areas, potentially contributing to biases in the estimated amplitude of the diurnal cycle. This illustrates the importance of considering spatial and diurnal variations in retrieval errors when using the CLAAS-2 dataset. Keeping these biases in mind, we quantify the seasonal, diurnal, and spatial variation of cloud top temperature across SEVIRI's field of view using the CLAAS-2 dataset. By comparing the mean diurnal cycle of cloud top temperature with the retrieval bias, we find that diurnal variations in the retrieval bias can be small but are often of the same order of magnitude as the amplitude of the observed diurnal cycle, indicating that in some regions the diurnal cycle apparent in the observations may be significantly impacted by diurnal variability in the accuracy of the retrieval. We show that the CLAAS-2 dataset can measure the diurnal cycle of cloud tops

  16. Evaluation of the national health surveillance program of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain (2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Montserrat García; Castañeda, Rosario; López, Vega García; Vidal, Manuel Martínez; Villanueva, Vicent; Espinosa, Mercedes Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Although asbestos was banned in Spain in 2001, monitoring the health of previously-exposed workers is required. In 2002 the Ministry of Health and the autonomous regions of Spain planned a health surveillance program for workers exposed to asbestos (Programa de Vigilancia de la Salud de los Trabajadores Expuestos al Amianto [PIVISTEA]) with employers' organizations, trade unions and scientific societies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PIVISTEA to improve its effectiveness. A questionnaire with indicators for the year 2008 was sent to Spain's 17 autonomous regions, as well as to the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla. The results were analyzed by evaluating the compliance of each program with the activities established by the PIVISTEA. In December 2008, a total of 22,158 workers from 14 autonomous regions and 306 companies were included in the program. The program had been started in 88% of the regions but surveillance activities remained scarce in 24%. Fifty-seven percent of the autonomous regions (69% of the total number of workers) provided the information requested. Seven autonomous regions provided data on the relationship between the diseases found and asbestos exposure. Only 5% of these diseases entitled affected individuals to receive compensation for occupational diseases. The health surveillance of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain, as well as medical-legal recognition of diseases caused by exposure at work, remain in adequate. Although the trend is positive, the effectiveness of many regional programs is limited, and inter-regional inequalities among affected workers have been detected. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of PAWP and PLC? Expression in Infertile Men with Previous ICSI Fertilization Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Nahid; Nazarian, Hamid; Nazari, Leila; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Piryaei, Abbas; Heidari, Mohammad Hassan; Masteri Farahani, Reza; Sadjadpour, Seyedeh Susan

    2018-02-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate postacrosomal sheet WW domain binding protein (PAWP) and phospholipase C ? (PLC?) protein expression in patients with fertilization failure. Semen samples were collected from 15 fertile men (control group) and 15 patients with previous fertilization failure following ICSI (FF group) and were analyzed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. The mean percentages of PAWP and PLC? positive sperm and the total level of PAWP and PLC? proteins were assessed using immunofluorescence staining. A significantly lower level and lower percentage of PAWP positive sperm in patients with fertilization failure was found compared to the control group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). The mean percentage ofPLC? positive sperm and level of PLC? protein were significantly lower in FF group compared to the control group (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.04, respectively). Significant positive correlations was observed between PAWP and PLC? positive sperms (r = 0.4, P = 0.008) and also total level of expression of PLC? and PAWP proteins (r = 0.4, P = 0.02) in all participants in the study. This is the first study that evaluates two main candidates for sperm-borne oocyte activating factors (SOAFs) simultaneously in patients with fertilization failure. Considering lower expression of PAWP and PLC? proteins in such patients, it seems like both factors might have the potential to be considered as SOAFs and diagnostic markers for the oocyte activation ability.

  18. Evaluation of Waste Arising from Future Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubin, Robert Thomas; Taiwo, Temitope; Wigeland, Roald

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive study was recently completed at the request of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to evaluate and screen nuclear fuel cycles. The final report was issued in October 2014. Uranium- and thorium-based fuel cycles were evaluated using both fast and thermal spectrum reactors. Once-through, limited-recycle, and continuous-recycle cases were considered. This study used nine evaluation criteria to identify promising fuel cycles. Nuclear waste management was one of the nine evaluation criteria. The waste generation criterion from this study is discussed herein.

  19. Does local endometrial injury in the nontransfer cycle improve the IVF-ET outcome in the subsequent cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF? A randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Narvekar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of repeated implantation failure despite transfer of good-quality embryos still remains a dilemma for ART specialists. Scrapping of endometrium in the nontransfer cycle has been shown to improve the pregnancy rate in the subsequent IVF/ET cycle in recent studies. Aim: The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT was to determine whether endometrial injury caused by Pipelle sampling in the nontransfer cycle could improve the probability of pregnancy in the subsequent IVF cycle in patients who had previous failed IVF outcome. Setting: Tertiary assisted conception center. Design: Randomized controlled study. Materials and Methods: 100 eligible patients with previous failed IVF despite transfer of good-quality embryos were randomly allocated to the intervention group and control groups. In the intervention group, Pipelle endometrial sampling was done twice: One in the follicular phase and again in the luteal phase in the cycle preceding the embryo transfer cycle. Outcome Measure: The primary outcome measure was live birth rate. The secondary outcome measures were implantation and clinical pregnancy rates. Results: The live birth rate was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to control group (22.4% and 9.8% P = 0.04. The clinical pregnancy rate in the intervention group was 32.7%, while that in the control group was 13.7%, which was also statistically significant ( P = 0.01. The implantation rate was significantly higher in the intervention group as compared to controls (13.07% vs 7.1% P = 0.04. Conclusions: Endometrial injury in nontransfer cycle improves the live birth rate,clinical pregnancy and implantation rates in the subsequent IVF-ET cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF cycles.

  20. Targeted pathologic evaluation of bone marrow donors identifies previously undiagnosed marrow abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilson, Matthew P; Jones, Richard J; Sexauer, Amy; Griffin, C A; Morsberger, Laura A; Batista, Denise A S; Small, Donald; Burns, Kathleen H; Gocke, Christopher D; Vuica-Ross, Milena; Borowitz, Michael J; Duffield, Amy S

    2013-08-01

    Potential bone marrow donors are screened to ensure the safety of both the donor and recipient. At our institution, potential donors with abnormal peripheral blood cell counts, a personal history of malignancy, or age >60 years are evaluated to ensure that they are viable candidates for donation. Evaluation of the marrow includes morphologic, flow cytometric, and cytogenetic studies. A total of 122 potential donors were screened between the years of 2001 and 2011, encompassing approximately 10% of all donors. Of the screened potential donors, the mean age was 59 years and there were 59 men and 63 women. The donors were screened because of age >60 years (n = 33), anemia (n = 22), cytopenias other than anemia (n = 27), elevated peripheral blood counts without a concurrent cytopenia (n = 20), elevated peripheral blood counts with a concurrent cytopenia (n = 10), history of malignancy (n = 4), abnormal peripheral blood differential (n = 3), prior graft failure (n = 1), history of treatment with chemotherapy (n = 1), and body habitus (n = 1). Marrow abnormalities were detected in 9% (11 of 122) of donors. These donors were screened because of anemia (5 of 22, 23%), age >60 years (2 of 33, 6%), history of malignancy (2 of 4, 50%), elevated peripheral blood counts (1 of 20, 5%), and body habitus (1 of 1, 100%). Abnormalities included plasma cell dyscrasia (n = 3), abnormal marrow cellularity (n = 3), clonal cytogenetic abnormalities (n = 2), low-grade myelodysplastic syndrome (1), a mutated JAK2 V617F allele (n = 1), and monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis (n = 1). Our experience indicates that extended screening of potential donors identifies a significant number of donors with previously undiagnosed marrow abnormalities. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of previous leaders on the evaluation of new leaders: an alternative to prototype matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Barbara A; Lord, Robert G

    2007-11-01

    In 2 studies, this research demonstrated the existence of leader transference, a cognitive process whereby mental representations of previous leaders are activated and used for evaluation when new, similar leaders are encountered. The 1st study demonstrated that exposure to a new leader who was similar to a past leader led to erroneous generalization of leader characteristics and associated underlying attributions. The 2nd study showed that expectations of just treatment and abuse were also subject to transfer from old to new, similar leaders, although positive and negative affective responses were not. Results suggested that individuals exposed to a leader who was not reminiscent of an old leader were more likely to use a general leader prototype to form leader expectations, whereas individuals exposed to a leader who was similar to an old leader activated a significant other mental representation for use in making judgments. These results have implications for individual- and relational-level processes as characterized by implicit leadership theory and leader-member exchange theory as well as macro theories of leader succession and organizational culture change. (c) 2007 APA

  2. Fuel cycle cost evaluation to burnable absorber and feed assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, S. M.; Lee, D. J.; Choi, H.

    1999-01-01

    The comparative analysis of fuel cycle cost for 16 equilibrium cores was performed to evaluate the fuel cycle cost depending on the combination of four different types of burnable absorbers (BAs) and feed assemblies for 18 month cycle operation of Westinghouse type 3-loop plant using 17*17 Vantage 5H fuel. The BAs considered are IFBA, Gadolinia, Erbia, and WABA and four cases of number of feed assemblies are 56, 60, 64, and 68. The optimal and practical combination of BA and number of feed assemblies is proposed. The optimum equilibrium core loading patterns for 16 cases were generated by using self-generating method and core design characteristics and the fuel cycle cost were evaluated for each loading pattern. The cycle lengths for all the cases were fixed as 480 EPFD to exclude effect of capital cost. Uranium ore cost, conversion cost, enrichment cost, fabrication cost, and back-end cycle cost were considered to evaluate fuel cycle cost. When considering the front-end cycle cost only, with the assumption of 8% discount rate, the 60 feed assemblies with using WABA case shows best result from the economic viewpoint. But the cost differences among the cases of using WABA, IFBA, and Gadolinia were negligible. And it was founded that the major factor for fuel cycle cost is BA price. In view of the core design characteristics, IFBA and Erbia were found to be more flexible than WABA and Gadolinia

  3. Fuel cycle cost evaluation to burnable absorber and feed assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sung Man; Kim, Yun Ho; Shin, Ho Chul

    2001-01-01

    The comparative analysis of fuel cycle cost for 16 equilibrium cores was performed to evaluate the fuel cycle cost depending on the combination of four different types of burnable absorbers (BAs) and feed assemblies for 18 month cycle operation of Westinghouse type 3-loop plant using 17X17 Vantage 5H fuel. The BAs considered are IFBA, Gadolinia, Erbia, and W ABA and four cases of number of feed assemblies are 56, 00, 64, and 68. The optimal and practical combination of BA and number of feed assemblies is proposed. The optimum equilibrium core loading patterns for 16 cases were generated by using self-generating method and core design characteristics and the fuel cycle cost were evaluated for each loading pattern. The cycle lengths for all the cases were fixed as 480 EPFD to exclude effect of capital cost. Uranium ore cost, conversion cost, enrichment cost, fabrication cost, and back-end cycle cost were considered to evaluate fuel cycle cost. When considering the front-end cycle cost only, with the assumption of 8% discount rate, the 60 feed assemblies with using WABA case shows best result from the economic viewpoint. But the cost differences among the cases of using WABA, IFBA, and Gadolinia were negligible. And it was founded that the major factor for fuel cycle cost is BA price. In view of the core design characteristics, IFBA and Erbia were found to be more flexible than WABA and Gadolinia

  4. Hormonal Cycle and Contraceptive Effects on Amygdala and Salience Resting-State Networks in Women with Previous Affective Side Effects on the Pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engman, Jonas; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Moby, Lena; Wikström, Johan; Fredrikson, Mats; Gingnell, Malin

    2018-02-01

    The mechanisms linking ovarian hormones to negative affect are poorly characterized, but important clues may come from the examination of the brain's intrinsic organization. Here, we studied the effects of both the menstrual cycle and oral contraceptives (OCs) on amygdala and salience network resting-state functional connectivity using a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled design. Hormone levels, depressive symptoms, and resting-state functional connectivity were measured in 35 healthy women (24.9±4.2 years) who had previously experienced OC-related negative affect. All participants were examined in the follicular phase of a baseline cycle and in the third week of the subsequent cycle during treatment with either a combined OC (30 μg ethinyl estradiol/0.15 mg levonorgestrel) or placebo. The latter time point targeted the midluteal phase in placebo users and steady-state ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel concentrations in OC users. Amygdala and salience network connectivity generally increased with both higher endogenous and synthetic hormone levels, although amygdala-parietal cortical connectivity decreased in OC users. When in the luteal phase, the naturally cycling placebo users demonstrated higher connectivity in both networks compared with the women receiving OCs. Our results support a causal link between the exogenous administration of synthetic hormones and amygdala and salience network connectivity. Furthermore, they suggest a similar, potentially stronger, association between the natural hormonal variations across the menstrual cycle and intrinsic network connectivity.

  5. KBSA Life Cycle Evaluation, Volume 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boehm, Barry

    1999-01-01

    ...) and Evolutionary Design of Complex Software (EDCS) process concepts and technology on software development effort and schedule, and to use these technical approaches to perform comparative evaluations of technology...

  6. KBSA Life Cycle Evaluation, Volume 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boehm, Barry

    1999-01-01

    ...) and Evolutionary Design of Complex Software (EDCS) process concepts and technology on software development effort and schedule, and to use these technical approaches to perform comparative evaluations of technology...

  7. Preliminary analysis of alternative fuel cycles for proliferation evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ripfel, H.C.F.; Rainey, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    The ERDA Division of Nuclear Research and Applications proposed 67 nuclear fuel cycles for assessment as to their nonproliferation potential. The object of the assessment was to determine which fuel cycles pose inherently low risk for nuclear weapon proliferation while retaining the major benefits of nuclear energy. This report is a preliminary analysis of these fuel cycles to develop the fuel-recycle data that will complement reactor data, environmental data, and political considerations, which must be included in the overall evaluation. This report presents the preliminary evaluations from ANL, HEDL, ORNL, and SRL and is the basis for a continuing in-depth study

  8. Preliminary analysis of alternative fuel cycles for proliferation evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M. J.; Ripfel, H. C.F.; Rainey, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The ERDA Division of Nuclear Research and Applications proposed 67 nuclear fuel cycles for assessment as to their nonproliferation potential. The object of the assessment was to determine which fuel cycles pose inherently low risk for nuclear weapon proliferation while retaining the major benefits of nuclear energy. This report is a preliminary analysis of these fuel cycles to develop the fuel-recycle data that will complement reactor data, environmental data, and political considerations, which must be included in the overall evaluation. This report presents the preliminary evaluations from ANL, HEDL, ORNL, and SRL and is the basis for a continuing in-depth study. (DLC)

  9. Effect of a supplementation with myo-inositol plus melatonin on oocyte quality in women who failed to conceive in previous in vitro fertilization cycles for poor oocyte quality: a prospective, longitudinal, cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unfer, Vittorio; Raffone, Emanuela; Rizzo, Piero; Buffo, Silvia

    2011-11-01

    Several factors can affect oocyte quality and therefore pregnancy outcome in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. Recently, a number of studies have shown that the presence of several compounds in the follicular fluid positively correlates with oocyte quality and maturation (i.e., myo-inositol and melatonin). In the present study, we aim to evaluate the pregnancy outcomes after the administration of myo-inositol combined with melatonin in women who failed to conceive in previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles due to poor oocyte quality. Forty-six women were treated with 4 g/day myo-inositol and 3 mg/day melatonin (inofolic® and inofolic® Plus, Lo.Lipharma, Rome) for 3 months and then underwent a new IVF cycle. After treatment, the number of mature oocytes, the fertilization rate, the number of both, total and top-quality embryos transferred were statistically higher compared to the previous IVF cycle, while there was no difference in the number of retrieved oocyte. After treatment, a total of 13 pregnancies occurred, 9 of them were confirmed echographically; four evolved in spontaneous abortion. The treatment with myo-inositol and melatonin improves ovarian stimulation protocols and pregnancy outcomes in infertile women with poor oocyte quality.

  10. Evaluation method for regional water cycle health based on nature-society water cycle theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanghong; Fan, Weiwei; Yi, Yujun; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Jiahong

    2017-08-01

    Regional water cycles increasingly reflect the dual influences of natural and social processes, and are affected by global climate change and expanding human activities. Understanding how to maintain a healthy state of the water cycle has become an important proposition for sustainable development of human society. In this paper, natural-social attributes of the water cycle are synthesized and 19 evaluation indices are selected from four dimensions, i.e., water-based ecosystem integrity, water quality, water resource abundance and water resource use. A hierarchical water-cycle health evaluation system is established. An analytic hierarchy process is used to set the weight of the criteria layer and index layer, and the health threshold for each index is defined. Finally, a water-cycle health composite-index assessment model and fuzzy recognition model are constructed based on the comprehensive index method and fuzzy mathematics theory. The model is used to evaluate the state of health of the water cycle in Beijing during 2010-2014 and in the planning year (late 2014), considering the transfer of 1 billion m3 of water by the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP). The results show health scores for Beijing of 2.87, 3.10, 3.38, 3.11 and 3.02 during 2010-2014. The results of fuzzy recognition show that the sub-healthy grade accounted for 54%, 49%, 61% and 49% of the total score, and all years had a sub-healthy state. Results of the criteria layer analysis show that water ecosystem function, water quality and water use were all at the sub-healthy level and that water abundance was at the lowest, or sick, level. With the water transfer from the SNWDP, the health score of the water cycle in Beijing reached 4.04. The healthy grade accounted for 60% of the total score, and the water cycle system was generally in a healthy state. Beijing's water cycle health level is expected to further improve with increasing water diversion from the SNWDP and industrial

  11. Software Platform Evaluation - Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. J. Jacobson; D. E. Shropshire; W. B. West

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this Software Platform Evaluation (SPE) is to document the top-level evaluation of potential software platforms on which to construct a simulation model that satisfies the requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). See the Software Requirements Specification for Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model (INEEL/EXT-05-02643, Rev. 0) for a discussion of the objective and scope of the VISION model. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies. This document will serve as a guide for selecting the most appropriate software platform for VISION. This is a ''living document'' that will be modified over the course of the execution of this work

  12. The evaluation of disphagic syndrome, in patients with previously acquired brain damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartuli, F N; Luciani, F; Marino, S; Bramanti, E; Cecchetti, F; Arcuri, C

    2010-04-01

    Recently clinical studies have proved without doubts that in patients affect by neurological diseases, like stroke, parkinsonism syndromes and others neurodegenerative pathologies, there is a very elevated incidence of swallowing disorders even severe. The disease can show up in a full blown way, with clinical evident signs like suffocation or frequent and sudden cough, at the moment in which the patient tries to feed or to drink; or it can appear in a less clear way, through an unable protection of the low airway and with possible pathologies ab ingestis. The first signals are represented by frequent resulting of cough reflex at nutrition or hydratation. Important is to assess the validity of this reflection, monitoring the amount of food reflux in the mouth after swallowing, which then could be perceived like foreign body and be aspired. The main diagnostic tests are the pHmetry in 24h, ultrasound, esophagography, videofluoroscopy, endoscopic examination and scintigraphy. Through the FEES (Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing) we can then identify the time of swallowing deficit. Early diagnosis of Dysphagia Syndrome is important to improve living condition and survival of patients.

  13. Concept Evaluation Using the PDSA Cycle for Continuous Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverentz, Delois Meyer; Kumm, Sharon

    As concept-based nursing education gains popularity, there is little literature on how to sustain quality after initiation of the curriculum. Critical appraisal of concepts in a university program revealed varying definitions, attributes, and exemplars resulting in student confusion. The Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) cycle for continuous quality improvement was used for concept evaluation. The goals of the evaluation project were: 1) to develop common definition and attributes for concepts and 2) to develop horizontal and vertical leveling of exemplars to build on prior student learning. The continuous quality improvement process can be used to prevent "concept creep" and ensure internal consistency of concept definitions, attributes, and exemplars.

  14. Evaluation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for Roadway Drainage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Diana M; Grabowski, Marta K; Benitez, Amy C B; Schmidt, Arthur R; Guest, Jeremy S

    2017-08-15

    Roadway drainage design has traditionally focused on cost-effectively managing water quantity; however, runoff carries pollutants, posing risks to the local environment and public health. Additionally, construction and maintenance incur costs and contribute to global environmental impacts. While life cycle assessment (LCA) can potentially capture local and global environmental impacts of roadway drainage and other stormwater systems, LCA methodology must be evaluated because stormwater systems differ from wastewater and drinking water systems to which LCA is more frequently applied. To this end, this research developed a comprehensive model linking roadway drainage design parameters to LCA and life cycle costing (LCC) under uncertainty. This framework was applied to 10 highway drainage projects to evaluate LCA methodological choices by characterizing environmental and economic impacts of drainage projects and individual components (basin, bioswale, culvert, grass swale, storm sewer, and pipe underdrain). The relative impacts of drainage components varied based on functional unit choice. LCA inventory cutoff criteria evaluation showed the potential for cost-based criteria, which performed better than mass-based criteria. Finally, the local aquatic benefits of grass swales and bioswales offset global environmental impacts for four impact categories, highlighting the need to explicitly consider local impacts (i.e., direct emissions) when evaluating drainage technologies.

  15. Effect of Administration of Single Dose GnRH Agonist in Luteal Phase on Outcome of ICSI-ET Cycles in Women with Previous History of IVF/ICSI Failure: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafardoust, Simin; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Kamali, Koroush; Mokhtar, Sara; Badehnoosh, Bita; Arjmand-Teymouri, Fatemeh; Fatemi, Farnaz; Mohammadzadeh, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background GnRH agonist administration in the luteal phase has been suggested to beneficially affect the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryo transfer (ET) cycles. This blind randomized controlled study evaluates the effect of GnRH (Gonadotropine Releasing Hormone) agonist administration on ICSI outcome in GnRH antagonist ovarian stimulation protocol in women with 2 or more previous IVF/ICSI-ET failures. Methods One hundred IVF failure women who underwent ICSI cycles and stimulated with GnRH antagonist ovarian stimulation protocol, were included in the study. Women were randomly assigned to intervention (received a single dose injection of GnRH agonist (0.1 mg of Decapeptil) subcutaneously 6 days after oocyte retrieval) and control (did not receive GnRH agonist) groups. Implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were the primary outcome measures. Results Although the age of women, the number of embryos transferred in the current cycle and the quality of the transferred embryos were similar in the two groups, there was a significantly higher rate of implantation (Mann Whitney test, p = 0.041) and pregnancy (32.6% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.030, OR = 3.3, 95%CI, 1.08 to 10.4) in the intervention group. Conclusion Our results suggested that, in addition to routine luteal phase support using progesterone, administration of 0.1 mg of Decapeptil 6 days after oocyte retrieval in women with previous history of 2 or more IVF/ICSI failures led to a significant improvement in implantation and pregnancy rates after ICSI following ovarian stimulation with GnRH antagonist protocol. PMID:25927026

  16. An environmental impact measure for nuclear fuel cycle evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2004-01-01

    Review of the models and measures for repository performance assessment has revealed that dedicated measures for environmental impacts need to be developed for the purpose of nuclear-fuel-cycle evaluation from the viewpoint of environmental impact minimization. The present study proposes the total toxicity index of released radionuclides that have accumulated in the region exterior to the repository as an environmental impact measure. The measure is quantitatively evaluated by a radionuclide transport model that incorporates the effects of canister-array configuration and the initial mass loading in the waste canister. With the measure, it is demonstrated that the environmental impact of the repository can be effectively reduced by reduction of the initial mass loading and change in the canister-array configuration in the repository. Environmental impacts of the mill tailings and the depleted uranium are as important as those from the high-level radioactive wastes repository. For a fair comparison of various fuel cycles, the sum of these impacts should be compared. (author)

  17. Microalgal biomass production pathways: evaluation of life cycle environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaimes, George G; Khanna, Vikas

    2013-06-20

    Microalgae are touted as an attractive alternative to traditional forms of biomass for biofuel production, due to high productivity, ability to be cultivated on marginal lands, and potential to utilize carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial flue gas. This work examines the fossil energy return on investment (EROIfossil), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and direct Water Demands (WD) of producing dried algal biomass through the cultivation of microalgae in Open Raceway Ponds (ORP) for 21 geographic locations in the contiguous United States (U.S.). For each location, comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed for multiple microalgal biomass production pathways, consisting of a combination of cultivation and harvesting options. Results indicate that the EROIfossil for microalgae biomass vary from 0.38 to 1.08 with life cycle GHG emissions of -46.2 to 48.9 (g CO2 eq/MJ-biomass) and direct WDs of 20.8 to 38.8 (Liters/MJ-biomass) over the range of scenarios analyzed. Further anaylsis reveals that the EROIfossil for production pathways is relatively location invariant, and that algae's life cycle energy balance and GHG impacts are highly dependent on cultivation and harvesting parameters. Contrarily, algae's direct water demands were found to be highly sensitive to geographic location, and thus may be a constraining factor in sustainable algal-derived biofuel production. Additionally, scenarios with promising EROIfossil and GHG emissions profiles are plagued with high technological uncertainty. Given the high variability in microalgae's energy and environmental performance, careful evaluation of the algae-to-fuel supply chain is necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of emerging algal biofuel systems. Alternative production scenarios and technologies may have the potential to reduce the critical demands of biomass production, and should be considered to make algae a viable and more efficient biofuel alternative.

  18. Computed tomography in the evaluation of abdominal fat distribution associated with a hyperlipidic diet in previously undernourished rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Program of Post-graduation in Clinical and Experimental Physiopathology; Alves, Erika Gomes; Gonzalez, Gabriele Paula; Barbosa, Thais Barcellos Cortez; Lima, Veronica Demarco; Nascimento, Renata; Moura, Egberto Gaspar de; Saba, Celly Cristina Alves do Nascimento [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. of Physiological Sciences]. E-mail: cellysaba@terra.com.br; Monteiro, Alexandra Maria Vieira [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2007-09-15

    Objective: To study, by means of computed tomography, the repercussion of post-weaning dietary supplementation with soy oil or canola oil on the abdominal fat distribution in previously undernourished rats. Materials and methods: Dams submitted to 50% food restriction (FR) compared with dams receiving a standard diet (C). After weaning, undernourished rats received a diet supplemented with 19% soy oil (19% FR-soy) or 19% canola oil (19% FR-canola). Rats in the control group received a diet with 7% soy oil (7% C-soy) until the end of the experimental period. At the age of 60 days old, the rats were submitted to computed tomography for evaluation of total abdominal and visceral fat area. The rats' length and body mass were evaluated and, after their sacrifice, the abdominal fat depots were excised weighted. The data are reported as mean {+-} mean standard error, with p < 0.05 considered as significance level. Results: Rats in the group 19% FR presented similar length, body weight and visceral fat mass. As a whole, the evaluations have shower results significantly lower in relation to the control group (7% C-soy). However, computed tomography has found significant differences in abdominal fat distribution for the groups 19% FR-soy and 19% FR-canola. Conclusion: Computed tomography has demonstrated that the abdominal fat distribution may be dependent on the type of vegetable oil included in the diet. (author)

  19. Cell-cycle research with synchronous cultures: an evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstetter, C. E.; Thornton, M.; Grover, N. B.

    2001-01-01

    The baby-machine system, which produces new-born Escherichia coli cells from cultures immobilized on a membrane, was developed many years ago in an attempt to attain optimal synchrony with minimal disturbance of steady-state growth. In the present article, we put forward a model to describe the behaviour of cells produced by this method, and provide quantitative evaluation of the parameters involved, at each of four different growth rates. Considering the high level of selection achievable with this technique and the natural dispersion in interdivision times, we believe that the output of the baby machine is probably close to optimal in terms of both quality and persistence of synchrony. We show that considerable information on events in the cell cycle can be obtained from populations with age distributions very much broader than those achieved with the baby machine and differing only modestly from steady state. The data presented here, together with the long and fruitful history of findings employing the baby-machine technique, suggest that minimisation of stress on cells is the single most important factor for successful cell-cycle analysis.

  20. Evaluating landfill aftercare strategies: A life cycle assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, David A; Beaven, Richard P; Woodman, Nick D

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the potential impacts caused by the loss of active environmental control measures during the aftercare period of landfill management. A combined mechanistic solute flow model and life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used to evaluate the potential impacts of leachate emissions over a 10,000year time horizon. A continuum of control loss possibilities occurring at different times and for different durations were investigated for four different basic aftercare scenarios, including a typical aftercare scenario involving a low permeability cap and three accelerated aftercare scenarios involving higher initial infiltration rates. Assuming a 'best case' where control is never lost, the largest potential impacts resulted from the typical aftercare scenario. The maximum difference between potential impacts from the 'best case' and the 'worst case', where control fails at the earliest possible point and is never reinstated, was only a fourfold increase. This highlights potential deficiencies in standard life cycle impact assessment practice, which are discussed. Nevertheless, the results show how the influence of active control loss on the potential impacts of landfilling varies considerably depending on the aftercare strategy used and highlight the importance that leachate treatment efficiencies have upon impacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of questionnaire-based information on previous physical work loads. Stockholm MUSIC 1 Study Group. Musculoskeletal Intervention Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgén, M; Winkel, J; Alfredsson, L; Kilbom, A

    1999-06-01

    The principal aim of the present study was to evaluate questionnaire-based information on past physical work loads (6-year recall). Effects of memory difficulties on reproducibility were evaluated for 82 subjects by comparing previously reported results on current work loads (test-retest procedure) with the same items recalled 6 years later. Validity was assessed by comparing self-reports in 1995, regarding work loads in 1989, with worksite measurements performed in 1989. Six-year reproducibility, calculated as weighted kappa coefficients (k(w)), varied between 0.36 and 0.86, with the highest values for proportion of the workday spent sitting and for perceived general exertion and the lowest values for trunk and neck flexion. The six-year reproducibility results were similar to previously reported test-retest results for these items; this finding indicates that memory difficulties was a minor problem. The validity of the questionnaire responses, expressed as rank correlations (r(s)) between the questionnaire responses and workplace measurements, varied between -0.16 and 0.78. The highest values were obtained for the items sitting and repetitive work, and the lowest and "unacceptable" values were for head rotation and neck flexion. Misclassification of exposure did not appear to be differential with regard to musculoskeletal symptom status, as judged by the calculated risk estimates. The validity of some of these self-administered questionnaire items appears sufficient for a crude assessment of physical work loads in the past in epidemiologic studies of the general population with predominantly low levels of exposure.

  2. Evaluation of a rapid dipstick (Crystal VC for the diagnosis of cholera in Zanzibar and a comparison with previous studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Ley

    Full Text Available The gold standard for the diagnosis of cholera is stool culture, but this requires laboratory facilities and takes at least 24 hours. A rapid diagnostic test (RDT that can be used by minimally trained staff at treatment centers could potentially improve the reporting and management of cholera outbreaks.We evaluated the Crystal VC™ RDT under field conditions in Zanzibar in 2009. Patients presenting to treatment centers with watery diarrhea provided a stool sample for rapid diagnostic testing. Results were compared to stool culture performed in a reference laboratory. We assessed the overall performance of the RDT and evaluated whether previous intake of antibiotics, intravenous fluids, location of testing, and skill level of the technician affected the RDT results.We included stool samples from 624 patients. Compared to culture, the overall sensitivity of the RDT was 93.1% (95%CI: 88.7 to 96.2%, specificity was 49.2% (95%CI: 44.3 to 54.1%, the positive predictive value was 47.0% (95%CI: 42.1 to 52.0% and the negative predictive value was 93.6% (95%CI: 89.6 to 96.5%. The overall false positivity rate was 50.8% (213/419; fieldworkers frequently misread very faint test lines as positive.The observed sensitivity of the Crystal VC RDT evaluated was similar compared to earlier versions, while specificity was poorer. The current version of the RDT could potentially be used as a screening tool in the field. Because of the high proportion of false positive results when field workers test stool specimens, positive results will need to be confirmed with stool culture.

  3. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b) In... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. 436.42... PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost...

  4. Evaluation of the radial design of fuel cells in an operation cycle of a BWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez C, J.; Martin del Campo M, C.

    2003-01-01

    This work is continuation of one previous in the one that the application of the optimization technique called Tabu search to the radial design of fuel cells of boiling water reactors (BWR, Boiling Water Reactor) is presented. The objective function used in the optimization process only include neutron parameters (k-infinite and peak of radial power) considering the cell at infinite media. It was obtained to reduce the cell average enrichment completing the characteristics of reactivity of an original cell. The objective of the present work is to validate the objective function that was used for the radial design of the fuel cell (test cell), analyzing the operation of a one cycle of the reactor in which fuels have been fresh recharged that contain an axial area with the nuclear database of the cell designed instead of the original cell. For it is simulated it with Cm-Presto the cycle 10 of the reactor operation of the Unit 1 of the Nuclear Power station of Laguna Verde (U1-CNLV). For the cycle evaluation its were applied so much the simulation with the Haling strategy, as the simulation of the one cycle with control rod patterns and they were evaluated the energy generation and several power limits and reactivity that are used as design parameters in fuel reloads of BWR reactors. The results at level of an operation cycle of the reactor, show that the objective function used in the optimization and radial design of the cell is adequate and that it can induce to one good use of the fuel. (Author)

  5. An evaluation of life cycle assessment of European milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming-Jia; Humphreys, James; Holden, Nicholas M

    2011-03-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a method regulated by ISO that conveys the environmental impact of products. LCA studies of the same product should be comparable to benefit environmental policy making. LCA of milk production has evaluated environmental issues such as greenhouse gas emissions, resource utilisation and land use change. Thirteen LCA studies of European milk production were analysed for comparability, and direct comparison was difficult due to technical issues, arbitrary choices and inconsistent assumptions. The strengths and weaknesses of LCA for evaluating an agricultural system are identified and improvements for comparability of future studies are also considered. Future LCA of milk production should ensure that: (1) the production system is appropriately characterized according to the goal of study; (2) a clear description of the system boundary and allocation procedures is provided according to ISO standards; (3) a common functional unit, probably Energy Corrected Milk, should be used or assumed fat and protein content presented to enable comparisons; (4) where appropriate, site-specific emission factors and characterization factors should be used in environmental hotspots (e.g. manure management, spreading of synthetic fertilizer, production of purchased feed), and phosphorous loss should be better addressed; (5) a range of impact categories including climate change, energy use, land use, acidification and eutrophication should be used to assess pollution swapping, all of which are subject to national or regional directives; perhaps in the future biodiversity should also be included; and (6) the sensitivity to choices of methods and uncertainty of final results should be evaluated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nitrogen Cycle Evaluation (NiCE) Chip for the Simultaneous Analysis of Multiple N-Cycle Associated Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiki, Mamoru; Segawa, Takahiro; Ishii, Satoshi

    2018-02-02

    Various microorganisms play key roles in the Nitrogen (N) cycle. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and PCR-amplicon sequencing of the N cycle functional genes allow us to analyze the abundance and diversity of microbes responsible in the N transforming reactions in various environmental samples. However, analysis of multiple target genes can be cumbersome and expensive. PCR-independent analysis, such as metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, is useful but expensive especially when we analyze multiple samples and try to detect N cycle functional genes present at relatively low abundance. Here, we present the application of microfluidic qPCR chip technology to simultaneously quantify and prepare amplicon sequence libraries for multiple N cycle functional genes as well as taxon-specific 16S rRNA gene markers for many samples. This approach, named as N cycle evaluation (NiCE) chip, was evaluated by using DNA from pure and artificially mixed bacterial cultures and by comparing the results with those obtained by conventional qPCR and amplicon sequencing methods. Quantitative results obtained by the NiCE chip were comparable to those obtained by conventional qPCR. In addition, the NiCE chip was successfully applied to examine abundance and diversity of N cycle functional genes in wastewater samples. Although non-specific amplification was detected on the NiCE chip, this could be overcome by optimizing the primer sequences in the future. As the NiCE chip can provide high-throughput format to quantify and prepare sequence libraries for multiple N cycle functional genes, this tool should advance our ability to explore N cycling in various samples. Importance. We report a novel approach, namely Nitrogen Cycle Evaluation (NiCE) chip by using microfluidic qPCR chip technology. By sequencing the amplicons recovered from the NiCE chip, we can assess diversities of the N cycle functional genes. The NiCE chip technology is applicable to analyze the temporal dynamics of the N cycle gene

  7. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of satellite based water cycle components

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2016-06-15

    Advances in multi-satellite based observations of the earth system have provided the capacity to retrieve information across a wide-range of land surface hydrological components and provided an opportunity to characterize terrestrial processes from a completely new perspective. Given the spatial advantage that space-based observations offer, several regional-to-global scale products have been developed, offering insights into the multi-scale behaviour and variability of hydrological states and fluxes. However, one of the key challenges in the use of satellite-based products is characterizing the degree to which they provide realistic and representative estimates of the underlying retrieval: that is, how accurate are the hydrological components derived from satellite observations? The challenge is intrinsically linked to issues of scale, since the availability of high-quality in-situ data is limited, and even where it does exist, is generally not commensurate to the resolution of the satellite observation. Basin-scale studies have shown considerable variability in achieving water budget closure with any degree of accuracy using satellite estimates of the water cycle. In order to assess the suitability of this type of approach for evaluating hydrological observations, it makes sense to first test it over environments with restricted hydrological inputs, before applying it to more hydrological complex basins. Here we explore the concept of hydrological consistency, i.e. the physical considerations that the water budget impose on the hydrologic fluxes and states to be temporally and spatially linked, to evaluate the reproduction of a set of large-scale evaporation (E) products by using a combination of satellite rainfall (P) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations of storage change, focusing on arid and semi-arid environments, where the hydrological flows can be more realistically described. Our results indicate no persistent hydrological

  8. An Economic Evaluation of Binary Cycle Geothermal Electricity Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzgerald, Crissie

    2003-01-01

    .... Variables such as well flow rate, geothermal gradient and electricity prices were varied to study their influence on the economic payback period for binary cycle geothermal electricity production...

  9. [Integrated evaluation of circular agriculture system: a life cycle perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Long; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Gao, Wang-Sheng

    2010-11-01

    For the point of view that recycling economy system is one of ways to achieve the low-carbon economy, we have made an evaluation on a typical circular agriculture duck industry in Hunan Province, China, through improving the framework of life cycle assessment (LCA). The analysis indicated that the consumption of non-renewable resources, land and water were 48.629 MJ, 2.36 m2 and 1 321.41 kg, while the potential greenhouse gas (GHGs), acidification, eutrophication, human toxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity were 11 543.26 g (CO2 eq), 52.36g (SO2eq), 25.83g (PO4eq), 1.26, 60.74 and 24.65 g (1,4-DCBeq), respectively. The potential damage of aquatic eutrophication, freshwater ecotoxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity was more serious than that of GHGs. Main results were following: i. the circular agricultural chain promoted the principle of "moderate circulation", which based on the traditional production methods; ii. circular agriculture could not blindly pursue low carbon development. Instead, soil and biological carbon sequestration should be considered, in addition to reducing carbon emissions; iii. circular economy and circular agriculture should take other potential environmental impacts into account such as acidification, eutrophication and ecotoxicity,with the exception to carbon emissions,to developed integrated system assessment; iv. LCA could provide a comprehensive assessment of circular agriculture, and it was worth of further study.

  10. Life cycle evaluation of emerging lignocellulosic ethanol conversion technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatari, Sabrina; Bagley, David M; MacLean, Heather L

    2010-01-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol holds promise for addressing climate change and energy security issues associated with personal transportation through lowering the fuel mixes' carbon intensity and petroleum demand. We compare the technological features and life cycle environmental impacts of near- and mid-term ethanol bioconversion technologies in the United States. Key uncertainties in the major processes: pre-treatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation are evaluated. The potential to reduce fossil energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions varies among bioconversion processes, although all options studied are considerably more attractive than gasoline. Anticipated future performance is found to be considerably more attractive than that published in the literature as being achieved to date. Electricity co-product credits are important in characterizing the GHG impacts of different ethanol production pathways; however, in the absence of near-term liquid transportation fuel alternatives to gasoline, optimizing ethanol facilities to produce ethanol (as opposed to co-products) is important for reducing the carbon intensity of the road transportation sector and for energy security.

  11. Fuel Cycle Scenario Definition, Evaluation, and Trade-offs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson; Christopher T. Laws; Lee C. Cadwallader; Abdellatif M. Yacout; Robert N. Hill; J. D. Smith; Andrew S. Goldmann; George Bailey

    2006-08-01

    This report aims to clarify many of the issues being discussed within the AFCI program, including Inert Matrix Fuel (IMF) versus Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel, single-pass versus multi-pass recycling, thermal versus fast reactors, potential need for transmutation of technetium and iodine, and the value of separating cesium and strontium. It documents most of the work produced by INL, ANL, and SNL personnel under their Simulation, Evaluation, and Trade Study (SETS) work packages during FY2005 and the first half of FY2006. This report represents the first attempt to calculate a full range of metrics, covering all four AFCI program objectives - waste management, proliferation resistance, energy recovery, and systematic management/economics/safety - using a combination of "static" calculations and a system dynamic model, DYMOND. In many cases, we examine the same issue both dynamically and statically to determine the robustness of the observations. All analyses are for the U.S. reactor fleet. This is a technical report, not aimed at a policy-level audience. A wide range of options are studied to provide the technical basis for identifying the most attractive options and potential improvements. Option improvement could be vital to accomplish before the AFCI program publishes definitive cost estimates. Information from this report will be extracted and summarized in future policy-level reports. Many dynamic simulations of deploying those options are included. There are few "control knobs" for flying or piloting the fuel cycle system into the future, even though it is dark (uncertain) and controls are sluggish with slow time response: what types of reactors are built, what types of fuels are used, and the capacity of separation and fabrication plants. Piloting responsibilities are distributed among utilities, government, and regulators, compounding the challenge of making the entire system work and respond to changing circumstances. We identify four approaches that would

  12. Fuel Cycle Scenario Definition, Evaluation, and Trade-offs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven J. Piet; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson; Christopher T. Laws; Lee C. Cadwallader; Abdellatif M. Yacout; Robert N. Hill; J. D. Smith; Andrew S. Goldmann; George Bailey

    2006-01-01

    This report aims to clarify many of the issues being discussed within the AFCI program, including Inert Matrix Fuel (IMF) versus Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel, single-pass versus multi-pass recycling, thermal versus fast reactors, potential need for transmutation of technetium and iodine, and the value of separating cesium and strontium. It documents most of the work produced by INL, ANL, and SNL personnel under their Simulation, Evaluation, and Trade Study (SETS) work packages during FY2005 and the first half of FY2006. This report represents the first attempt to calculate a full range of metrics, covering all four AFCI program objectives--waste management, proliferation resistance, energy recovery, and systematic management/economics/safety--using a combination of ''static'' calculations and a system dynamic model, DYMOND. In many cases, we examine the same issue both dynamically and statically to determine the robustness of the observations. All analyses are for the U.S. reactor fleet. This is a technical report, not aimed at a policy-level audience. A wide range of options are studied to provide the technical basis for identifying the most attractive options and potential improvements. Option improvement could be vital to accomplish before the AFCI program publishes definitive cost estimates. Information from this report will be extracted and summarized in future policy-level reports. Many dynamic simulations of deploying those options are included. There are few ''control knobs'' for flying or piloting the fuel cycle system into the future, even though it is dark (uncertain) and controls are sluggish with slow time response: what types of reactors are built, what types of fuels are used, and the capacity of separation and fabrication plants. Piloting responsibilities are distributed among utilities, government, and regulators, compounding the challenge of making the entire system work and respond to changing circumstances. We identify four approaches that would

  13. Prevention, Evaluation, and Rehabilitation of Cycling-Related Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Dana H; Babu, Ashwin N; Robidoux, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The unique quality of the bicycle is its ability to accommodate a wide variety of injuries and disabilities. Cycling for recreation, transportation, and competition is growing nationwide, and has proven health and societal benefits. The demands of each type of cycling dictate the necessary equipment, as well as potential for injury. Prevention of cycling-related injury in both the athlete and the recreational cyclist involves understanding the common mechanisms for both traumatic and overuse injury, and early correction of strength and flexibility imbalances, technique errors, and bicycle fit.

  14. Gas reactor international cooperative program interim report. Pebble bed reactor fuel cycle evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    Nuclear fuel cycles were evaluated for the Pebble Bed Gas Cooled Reactor under development in the Federal Republic of Germany. The basic fuel cycle specified for the HTR-K and PNP is well qualified and will meet the requirements of these reactors. Twenty alternate fuel cycles are described, including high-conversion cycles, net-breeding cycles, and proliferation-resistant cycles. High-conversion cycles, which have a high probability of being successfully developed, promise a significant improvement in resource utilization. Proliferation-resistant cycles, also with a high probability of successful development, compare very favorably with those for other types of reactors. Most of the advanced cycles could be adapted to first-generation pebble bed reactors with no significant modifications

  15. Evaluation of carbon-14 life cycle in reactors VVER-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysakova, Katerina; Neumann, Jan; Vonkova, Katerina

    2012-09-01

    This work is aimed at the evaluation of carbon-14 life cycle in light water reactors VVER-1000. Carbon-14 is generated as a side product in different systems of nuclear reactors and has been an issue not only in radioactive waste management but mainly in release into the environment in the form of gaseous effluents. The principal sources of this radionuclide are in primary cooling water and fuel. Considerable amount of C-14 is generated by neutron reactions with oxygen 17 O and nitrogen 14 N present in water coolant and fuel. The reaction likelihood and consequently volume of generated radioisotope depends on several factors, especially on the effective cross-section, concentrations of parent elements and conditions of power plant operating strategies. Due to its long half-life and high capability of integration into the environment and thus into the living species, it is very important to monitor the movement of carbon-14 in all systems of nuclear power plant and to manage its release out of NPP. The dominant forms of radioactive carbon-14 are the hydrocarbons owing to the combinations with hydrogen used for absorption of radiolytic oxygen. These organic compounds, such as formaldehyde, methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol and formic acid can be mostly retained on ion exchange resins used in the system for purifying primary cooling water. The gaseous carbon compounds (CH 4 and CO 2 ) are released into the atmosphere via the ventilation systems of NPP. Based on the information and data obtained from different sources, it has been designed a balance model of possible carbon-14 pathways throughout the whole NPP. This model includes also mass balance model equations for each important node in system and available sampling points which will be the background for further calculations. This document is specifically not to intended to describe the best monitoring program attributes or technologies but rather to provide evaluation of obtained data and find the optimal way to

  16. Evaluation of various fuel cycles to control inventories of plutonium and minor in advanced fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.F.; Anderson, T.; Preston, J.; Humberstone, M.; Hou, J.; McConn, J.; Van Den Durpel, L.

    2007-01-01

    Inventories of Plutonium and minor actinides are important factors in determination of the risk associated with the use of nuclear energy. This includes the potential of exceeding release limits from a repository and the potential for proliferation. The amount of these materials in any given fleet of reactors is determined in large part by the choice of fuel cycle and by the types of reactors selected for operation. Most of the US reactor fleet will need to be replaced within the next 30 years and additional reactors will need to be added if the contribution of power from nuclear energy is expanded. In order to minimize risk and to make judicious use of repository space, inventories of all radionuclides will need to be effectively managed. Use of hard-spectrum reactors to burn excess Plutonium and other actinides is technologically feasible and is most likely less costly than any other options for minimizing various risks. Calculations for the inventories of several categories of radionuclides indicate that introduction of a modest fraction of fast reactors into the US reactor fleet is effective in stabilizing the growth of problematic radioisotopes. Results are obtained from the DANESS (Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies)1,2 Code and from the solution of algebraic equations that define steady state inventories. There are various different possible fuel cycle scenarios to utilize in the implementation of fast, thermal and intermediate spectrum reactors into the U.S. fleet. Results include various combinations of reactor types and fuel with varying times of implementations. Mass flows with uncertainties for equilibrium cycles will also be reported. Time-dependent scenarios are modeled with the DANESS code, and algebraic equations for various fuel cycles are derived. Uncertainties are obtained using Monte Carlo simulations based on estimates of parameters in the models. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of various fuel cycles to control inventories of plutonium and minor in advanced fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.F.; Anderson, T.; Preston, J.; Humberstone, M.; Hou, J.; McConn, J. [Tennessee Univ., Nuclear Engineering Dept., Knoxville, TN (United States); Van Den Durpel, L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Inventories of Plutonium and minor actinides are important factors in determination of the risk associated with the use of nuclear energy. This includes the potential of exceeding release limits from a repository and the potential for proliferation. The amount of these materials in any given fleet of reactors is determined in large part by the choice of fuel cycle and by the types of reactors selected for operation. Most of the US reactor fleet will need to be replaced within the next 30 years and additional reactors will need to be added if the contribution of power from nuclear energy is expanded. In order to minimize risk and to make judicious use of repository space, inventories of all radionuclides will need to be effectively managed. Use of hard-spectrum reactors to burn excess Plutonium and other actinides is technologically feasible and is most likely less costly than any other options for minimizing various risks. Calculations for the inventories of several categories of radionuclides indicate that introduction of a modest fraction of fast reactors into the US reactor fleet is effective in stabilizing the growth of problematic radioisotopes. Results are obtained from the DANESS (Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies)1,2 Code and from the solution of algebraic equations that define steady state inventories. There are various different possible fuel cycle scenarios to utilize in the implementation of fast, thermal and intermediate spectrum reactors into the U.S. fleet. Results include various combinations of reactor types and fuel with varying times of implementations. Mass flows with uncertainties for equilibrium cycles will also be reported. Time-dependent scenarios are modeled with the DANESS code, and algebraic equations for various fuel cycles are derived. Uncertainties are obtained using Monte Carlo simulations based on estimates of parameters in the models. (authors)

  18. Role of nondestructive evaluation in life cycle management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, H.

    1997-12-18

    This paper provides an overview of some common NDE methods and several examples for the use of different NDE techniques throughout the life cycle of a product. NDE techniques are being used to help determine material properties, design new implants, extend the service life of aircraft, and help dispose of radioactive waste in a safe manner. It is the opinion of this author and others that the NDE community needs to work more closely with end users in the life cycle of a product to better incorporate NDE techniques. The NDE community needs to highlight the importance of NDE in the entire life-cycle process of a product by showing real costs savings to the manufacturing community.

  19. Development of a driving cycle to evaluate the energy economy of electric vehicles in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, John; O’Mahony, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a driving cycle to evaluate energy economy of electric vehicles. • Improves on existing driving cycles by using real world data from electric vehicles. • Driving data from different road types and traffic conditions included. - Abstract: Understanding real-world driving conditions in the form of driving cycles is instrumental in the design of efficient powertrains and energy storage systems for electric vehicles. In addition, driving cycles serve as a standardised measurement procedure for the certification of a vehicle’s fuel economy and driving range. They also facilitate the evaluation of the economic and lifecycle costs of emerging vehicular technologies. However, discrepancies between existing driving cycles and real-world driving conditions exist due to a number of factors such as insufficient data, inadequate driving cycle development methodologies and methods to assess the representativeness of developed driving cycles. The novel aspect of the work presented here is the use of real-world data from electric vehicles, over a six month period, to derive a driving cycle appropriate for their assessment. A stochastic and statistical methodology is used to develop and assess the representativeness of the driving cycle against a separate set of real world electric vehicle driving data and the developed cycle performs well in that comparison. Although direct comparisons with internal combustion engine driving cycles are not that informative or relevant due to the marked differences between how they and electric vehicles operate, some discussion around how the developed electric vehicle cycle relates to them is also included.

  20. Evaluation of different doses of gamma radiation on conservation of the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of previously fried potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Frederico Scarin do; Sanches, Maria Angelica Santos Fernandes; Arthur, Valter

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of previously fried potatoes, conserved under temperature of refrigeration from 7 to 10 deg C. The irradiation process aims to discharge the refrigeration that increases the cost of the product and the useful life and decreases the microbial load. The previously fried potatoes were in the commerce of Piracicaba City and led to CENA - a laboratory of Food Irradiation. The potatoes were defrosted and stored in plastic packages and irradiated. They were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source type Gammacell-220 (dose rate of 698 Gy/hour), with doses of 2,0 kGy, 4,0 kGy and 6,0 kGy. The loss of fresh weight was analyzed as well as smell and color (factors L, a, b), after 1, 4 and 6 days of radiation. The experimental delineation used was entirely at random with six repetitions. The irradiated previously fried potatoes presented more significant variations in relation to those not irradiated in relation to their color and smell. The potatoes were darkened and there was alteration of smell (rancidity) more intense in the samples with doses of irradiation of 4,0 and 6,0 kGy. The smell alteration caused by the irradiation of 4,0 and 6,0 kGy. The smell alteration caused by the irradiation happens because of the state of rancidity of the oil used in the previous-fried process. In the sample of 2,0 kGy there was no alteration of color and smell. The colorimetric rates: L, a, b, did not present statistically - coherent results. However it was visually noted in the irradiated samples with doses of 4,0 and 6,0 kGy the loss of the characteristic coloration of the previously fried potato, predominating an opaque color (gray) because of the degradation of pigments (betacarotenoids, etc). It is also an consequence of the irradiation. By analyzing the results it was concluded that the irradiated sample with doses of 2,0 kGy was the sample that maintained

  1. Thermodynamic property evaluation and magnetic refrigeration cycle analysis for gadolinium gallium garnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, R.W.

    1994-12-01

    Based on relevant material property data and previous model formulations, a magnetothermodynamic property map for gadolinium gallium garnet (Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12}) was adapted for refrigeration cycle analysis in the temperature range 4-40 K and the magnetic field range 0-6 T. Employing methods similar to those previously developed for other materials and temperature ranges, assessments of limitations and relative performance were made for Carnot, ideal regenerative, and pseudo-constant field regenerative cycles. It was found that although Carnot cycle limitations on available temperature lift for gadolinium gallium garnet are not as severe as the limitations for materials previously examined, considerable improvement in cooling capacity and temperature lift combinations can be achieved by using regenerative cycles if serious loss mechanisms are avoided.

  2. Life cycle assessment. Specific indicators for Italy in impact evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoni, P.

    1999-01-01

    After a brief recall and a short description of the LCA (life cycle assessment) methodology, the work is focused on the impact assessment step, discussing the state of the art and a critical identification of environmental indicators, of normalization and weighting principles for the different environmental categories specific for Italy. The application methodology to a case study concerning the production of butter by the Consorzio Granterre of Modena (Italy) is also described [it

  3. Principals' Supervision and Evaluation Cycles: Perspectives from Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidston, David J.; McKim, Courtney Ann; Mette, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    The goals for this quantitative study were to examine principals' perceptions regarding supervision and evaluation within their own evaluations. Three research questions guided the inquiry: (1) What are the perceptions of principals' regarding their own supervision?; (2) What are the perceptions of principals' regarding their own evaluation?; and…

  4. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Screening Findings on Partitioning and Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigeland, R.A.; Taiwo, T.A.; Gehin, J.C.; Jubin, R.; Todosow, M.

    2015-01-01

    A Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Screening (E and S) study has recently been completed in the United States. The study considered the entire fuel cycle, included considerations for both once-through and recycle fuel cycle options, evaluated a set of 40 fuel cycles that allowed a comprehensive assessment of fuel cycle performance, identified a relatively small number of promising fuel cycle options that have the potential for achieving substantial improvements compared to the current nuclear fuel cycle in the United States, and allowed the identification of research and development (R and D) activities needed to support the development of the promising fuel cycle options. Nine high-level criteria (Nuclear Waste Management, Proliferation Risk, Nuclear Material Security Risk, Safety, Environmental Impact, Resource Utilisation, Development and Deployment Risk, Institutional Issues, and Financial Risk and Economics) and associated metrics were used in the study to compare the performance of nuclear fuel cycle options to that of the current fuel cycle practiced in the United States. The study also evaluated a number of fuel cycle characteristics that may have the potential to impact future R and D directions. These included for example: 1) The fuel resources used, i. e., uranium and/or thorium. 2) Impact of extremely high burnup fuels. 3) Minor actinide recycle. 4) The impact of losses during separations (partitioning). 5) Critical versus subcritical (externally-driven) systems for material irradiation. 6) Impact of spectrum of irradiation system, i.e., fast, thermal or intermediate. 7) Waste generation reduction, all of which were quantified in the study. The E and S study has implemented a framework that can be used now and in the future to objectively inform on the potential of alternative nuclear fuel cycles, providing decision-makers and others with perspective on fuel cycle capabilities. (authors)

  5. Criticality safety evaluation of the fuel cycle facility electrorefiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lell, R.M.; Mariani, R.D.; Fujita, E.K.; Benedict, R.W.; Turski, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    The integral Fast Reactor (IFR) being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) combines the advantages of metal-fueled, liquid-metal cooled reactors and a closed-loop fuel cycle. Some of the primary advantages are passive safety for the reactor and resistance to diversion for the heavy metal in the fuel cycle. in addition, the IFR pyroprocess recycles all the long-lived actinide activation products for casting into new fuel pins so that they may be burned in the reactor. A key component in the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) recycling process is the electrorefiner (ER) in which the actinides are separated from the fission products. In the process, the metal fuel is electrochemically dissolved into a high-temperature molten salt, and electrorefined uranium or uranium/plutonium products are deposited at cathodes. This report addresses the new and innovative aspects of the criticality analysis ensuing from processing metallic fuel, rather than metal oxide fuel, and from processing the spent fuel in batch operations. in particular, the criticality analysis employed a mechanistic approach as opposed to a probabilistic one. A probabilistic approach was unsuitable because of a lack of operational experience with some of the processes, rendering the estimation of accident event risk factors difficult. The criticality analysis also incorporated the uncertainties in heavy metal content attending the process items by defining normal operations envelopes (NOES) for key process parameters. The goal was to show that reasonable process uncertainties would be demonstrably safe toward criticality for continuous batch operations provided the key process parameters stayed within their NOES. Consequently the NOEs became the point of departure for accident events in the criticality analysis

  6. Evaluation of life cycle inventory data for recycling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Damgaard, Anders; Jensen, Morten Bang

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews databases on material recycling (primary as well as secondary production) used in life cycle assessments (LCA) of waste management systems. A total of 366 datasets, from 1980 to 2010 and covering 14 materials, were collected from databases and reports. Totals for CO2-equivalent...... that the choice of dataset used to represent the environmental load of a material recycling process and credited emissions from the avoided production of virgin materials is crucial for the outcome of an LCA on waste management. Great care and a high degree of transparency are mandatory, but advice on which...

  7. Evaluation of Cycle Life and Characterization of YTP 45 Ah Li-Ion Battery for EMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Jeevarajan, Judith; Rehm, Raymond; Bragg, Bobby; Strangways, Brad

    2002-01-01

    Li-ion batteries, with longer cycle life and higher energy density features, are now more and more attractive and applied in multiple fields. The YTP 45 Ah Li-ion battery has been evaluated here and may be employed in EMU in the future. Evaluations were on: (1) Cycle life tests - 500 cycles total (completed 40 cycles in simulated shuttle use mode and 460 cycles in an accelerated use mode, and recorded differential voltage of individual cell in battery); (2) Characterization test - discharge capacity measurement in environment temperature of -10, 25, 50 C before and after 500 cycles; and (3) Thermal testing - charge and discharge at 50 C and -10 C before and after 500 cycles. The battery showed less than a 9% drop of initial discharge capacity and energy within 500 cycles with 475 cycles 59% DOD plus 25 cycles 100% DOD. The EOD voltage ranged from 16.0 to 18.0 V, which fits the requirement for operating the EMU.

  8. Evaluation of Functional Electrical Stimulation to Assist Cycling in Four Adolescents with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Tokay Harrington

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP often have difficulty participating in exercise at intensities necessary to improve cardiovascular fitness. Functional electrical stimulation- (FES- assisted cycling is proposed as a form of exercise for adolescents with CP. The aims of this paper were to adapt methods and assess the feasibility of applying FES cycling technology in adolescents with CP, determine methods of performing cycling tests in adolescents with CP, and evaluate the immediate effects of FES assistance on cycling performance. Materials/Methods. Four participants (12–14 years old; GMFCS levels III-IV participated in a case-based pilot study of FES-assisted cycling in which bilateral quadriceps muscles were activated using surface electrodes. Cycling cadence, power output, and heart rate were collected. Results. FES-assisted cycling was well tolerated (n=4 and cases are presented demonstrating increased cadence (2–43 rpm, power output (19–70%, and heart rates (4-5% and decreased variability (8–13% in cycling performance when FES was applied, compared to volitional cycling without FES assistance. Some participants (n=2 required the use of an auxiliary hub motor for assistance. Conclusions. FES-assisted cycling is feasible for individuals with CP and may lead to immediate improvements in cycling performance. Future work will examine the potential for long-term fitness gains using this intervention.

  9. Evaluating the life cycle environmental impact of short span bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Pettersson, Lars; Karoumi, Raid

    2016-01-01

    Bridge infrastructure consumes large amount of energy and raw materials, leading to considerable environmental burdens. The traditional infrastructure construction prioritizes its technical and economic viability. In recent years, the society devotes an ever-increased attention to the environmental...... impact of the construction sector. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systematic method for assessing the environmental impact of products and systems, but its application in bridges is scarce. In Swede, most of the bridges are short spans and the type of concrete slab-frame bridge (CFB) accounts...... for a large share. Soil steel composite bridge (SSCB) is a functional equivalent solution for CFB. In order to mitigate the environmental burdens of short span bridges, this paper performed a comparative LCA study between these two types of bridge. The results indicate that the initial material consumption...

  10. Measurement of proton capture reactions in the hot cycles: an evaluation of experimental methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leleux, P. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    1998-06-01

    In the hot cycles, most of the proton capture reactions involve radioactive nuclei in the entrance and exit channels. This paper evaluates the specific methods that were designed to measure such reactions. (orig.)

  11. EVALUATION OF PUBLIC DATABASES AS SOURCES OF DATA FOR LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to determine the environmental effects of production systems must encourage a comprehensive evaluation of all "upstream" and "downstream" effects and their interrelationships. This cradle-to-grave approach, called Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), has led to the development...

  12. Reload safety evaluation report for Kori nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Oh; Moon, Bok Ja; Cho, Byeong Ho; Nam, Kee Il; Kim, Oh Hwan; Chang, Doo Soo; Yoon, Han Young; Kim, Du Ill; Ban, Chang Hwan; Choi, Dong Uk

    1993-03-01

    This report presents the reload safety evaluation for Kori-1, Cycle 13 and demonstrates that the reactor core being composed of various fuel assembly types applied in this evaluation will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the reload fuel assemblies have been reviewed for the Cycle 13 core and results are described in this report. (Author)

  13. Reload safety evaluation report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 1 cycle 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Oh; Kim, Yong Rae; Son, Sang Rin; Oh, Dong Seok; Kim, Hong Jin; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Yoon, Han Young; Choi, Han Rim; Choi, Dong Uk

    1992-12-01

    This report presents the reload safety evaluation for Ulchin 1, Cycle 5 and demonstrates that the reactor core being composed of various fuel assembly types applied in this evaluation will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the reload fuel assemblies have been reviewed for the Cycle 5 core and results are described in this report. (Author)

  14. Evaluating the Sustainability of Manufacturing: Process and Life Cycle Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Circular Economy is a popular term in environmental studies, but methods are needed to quickly and accurately evaluate recycling opportunities rather than assuming that recycling is appropriate. Through the study of recycling processes (i.e., processes that turn wastes into ...

  15. Evaluation of Mycobacterium leprae antigens in the monitoring of a dapsone-based chemotherapy of previously untreated lepromatous patients in Cebu, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klatser, P. R.; de Wit, M. Y.; Fajardo, T. T.; Cellona, R. V.; Abalos, R. M.; de la Cruz, E. C.; Madarang, M. G.; Hirsch, D. S.; Douglas, J. T.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-five previously untreated lepromatous patients receiving dapsone-based therapy were monitored throughout their 5-year period of treatment by serology and by pathology. Sequentially collected sera were used to evaluate the usefulness of four Mycobacterium leprae antigens as used in ELISA to

  16. Feasibility study on commercialization of fast breeder reactor cycle system. Interim report of phase 2. Technical study report on synthetic evaluation for FBR cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotani, Hiroki; Ohtaki, Akira; Ono, Kiyoshi; Yasumatsu, Naoto; Kubota, Sadae; Heta, Masanori

    2004-09-01

    This report presents the outline of the development and the results of Synthetic evaluation on the candidate Fast Reactor (FR) cycle system concepts, scenario study on FR cycle deployment and cost-benefit analysis on the candidate FR cycle system concepts in the interim evaluation (FY2001 through FY2003) of the phase 2 of the Japanese 'Feasibility Study on Commercialization of Fast Reactor Cycle System (FS)'. The characteristic evaluation extended to evaluate a new view point of social acceptance besides the viewpoints of safety, economics, reduction of environmental burden, efficient utilization of uranium resource, proliferation resistance, and technical feasibility, which has been considered since the phase 1 of FS. As for the six view points, hierarchy structures and utility functions for quantitative evaluation have been developed and/or improved. Furthermore, the methodology for weighing the viewpoints, which was also developed, made it possible to examine the characteristics of the candidate concepts from all the seven viewpoints. Generally, the FR cycles with sodium-cooled FR were highly evaluated. The characteristic evaluation for alternative power supply systems was also tried in this report for the first time. FR cycle deployment scenarios clarified the necessity of FR cycle deployment and the desirable core features, etc. through the long-term mass flow analysis, which includes comparison among other nuclear fuel cycle schemes and analysis for evaluating the degree to meet future needs, on the typical FR cycle systems. Regarding cost-benefit analysis, both the amount of the cost estimated by the past R and D and the cost in the Road map of FS are used as the investment for FR cycle research and development (R and D), the results showed that the benefit derived from the commercialization of FR cycle will be more than the investment. (author)

  17. Numerical evaluation of the Kalina cycle for concentrating solar power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish

    Concentrating solar power plants use a number of reflecting mirrors to focus and convert the incident solar energy to heat, and a power cycle to convert this heat into electricity. One of the key challenges currently faced by the solar industry is the high cost of electricity production....... These costs may be driven down by developing more cost-effective plant components and improving the system designs. This thesis focuses on the power cycle aspect of the concentrating solar power plants by studying the use a Kalina cycle with ammonia-water mixtures as the cycle working fluid. The potential...... of using a Kalina cycle is evaluated with a thermoeconomic optimization with a turbine inlet temperature of 500 C for a central receiver solar power plant with direct vapour generation, and 370 C for a parabolic trough solar power plant with Therminol VP-1 as the solar field heat transfer fluid. No thermal...

  18. Compost benefits for agriculture evaluated by life cycle assessment. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez-Blanco, Julie; Lazcano, Cristina; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2013-01-01

    in previous studies, the assessment of the benefits of compost on plant and soil has been only partially included in few published works. In the present study, we reviewed the recent progresses made in the quantification of the positive effects associated to biowaste compost use on land by using life cycle...

  19. Reinforced wind turbine blades--an environmental life cycle evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merugula, Laura; Khanna, Vikas; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2012-09-04

    A fiberglass composite reinforced with carbon nanofibers (CNF) at the resin-fiber interface is being developed for potential use in wind turbine blades. An energy and midpoint impact assessment was performed to gauge impacts of scaling production to blades 40 m and longer. Higher loadings force trade-offs in energy return on investment and midpoint impacts relative to the base case while remaining superior to thermoelectric power generation in these indicators. Energy-intensive production of CNFs forces impacts disproportionate to mass contribution. The polymer nanocomposite increases a 2 MW plant's global warming potential nearly 100% per kWh electricity generated with 5% CNF by mass in the blades if no increase in electrical output is realized. The relative scale of impact must be compensated by systematic improvements whether by deployment in higher potential zones or by increased life span; the trade-offs are expected to be significantly lessened with CNF manufacturing maturity. Significant challenges are faced in evaluating emerging technologies including uncertainty in future scenarios and process scaling. Inventories available for raw materials and monte carlos analysis have been used to gain insight to impacts of this development.

  20. Thermodynamic evaluation of the Kalina split-cycle concepts for waste heat recovery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Knudsen, Thomas; Larsen, Ulrik; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    The Kalina split-cycle is a thermodynamic process for converting thermal energy into electrical power. It uses an ammonia–water mixture as a working fluid (like a conventional Kalina cycle) and has a varying ammonia concentration during the pre-heating and evaporation steps. This second feature results in an improved match between the heat source and working fluid temperature profiles, decreasing the entropy generation in the heat recovery system. The present work compares the thermodynamic performance of this power cycle with the conventional Kalina process, and investigates the impact of varying boundary conditions by conducting an exergy analysis. The design parameters of each configuration were determined by performing a multi-variable optimisation. The results indicate that the Kalina split-cycle with reheat presents an exergetic efficiency by 2.8% points higher than a reference Kalina cycle with reheat, and by 4.3% points without reheat. The cycle efficiency varies by 14% points for a variation of the exhaust gas temperature of 100 °C, and by 1% point for a cold water temperature variation of 30 °C. This analysis also pinpoints the large irreversibilities in the low-pressure turbine and condenser, and indicates a reduction of the exergy destruction by about 23% in the heat recovery system compared to the baseline cycle. - Highlights: • The thermodynamic performance of the Kalina split-cycle is assessed. • The Kalina split-cycle is compared to the Kalina cycle, with and without reheat. • An exergy analysis is performed to evaluate its thermodynamic performance. • The impact of varying boundary conditions is investigated. • The Kalina split-cycle displays high exergetic efficiency for low- and medium-temperature applications

  1. Evaluation of material integrity on electricity power steam generator cycles (turbine casing) component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histori; Benedicta; Farokhi; S A, Soedardjo; Triyadi, Ari; Natsir, M

    1999-01-01

    The evaluation of material integrity on power steam generator cycles component was done. The test was carried out on casing turbine which is made from Inconel 617. The tested material was taken from t anjung Priok plant . The evaluation was done by metallography analysis using microscope with magnification of 400. From the result, it is shown that the material grains are equiaxed

  2. Evaluation and optimization of a supercritical carbon dioxide power conversion cycle for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvego, Edwin A.; McKellar, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    There have been a number of studies involving the use of gases operating in the supercritical mode for power production and process heat applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is particularly attractive because it is capable of achieving relatively high power conversion cycle efficiencies in the temperature range between 550degC and 750degC. Therefore, it has the potential for use with any type of high-temperature nuclear reactor concept, assuming reactor core outlet temperatures of at least 550degC. The particular power cycle investigated in this paper is a supercritical CO 2 recompression Brayton Cycle. The CO 2 recompression Brayton Cycle can be used as either a direct or indirect power conversion cycle, depending on the reactor type and reactor outlet temperature. The advantage of this cycle when compared to the helium Brayton Cycle is the lower required operating temperature; 550degC versus 750degC. However, the supercritical CO 2 recompression Brayton Cycle requires a high end operating pressure in the range of 20 MPa, which is considerably higher than the required helium Brayton cycle high end operating pressure of 7 MPa. This paper presents results of analyses performed using the UniSim process analyses software to evaluate the performance of the supercritical CO 2 recompression Brayton cycle for different reactor coolant outlet temperatures and mass flow rates. The UniSim model assumed a 600 MWt reactor power source, which provides heat to the power cycle at a maximum temperature of between 550degC and 850degC. Sensitivity calculations were also performed to determine the affect of reactor coolant mass flow rates for a reference reactor coolant outlet temperature of 750degC. The UniSim model used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete power conversion system. CO 2 properties were evaluated, and the operating range for the cycle was adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing conditions near the

  3. Morphological evaluation of canine oocytes recovered in different phases of the estrous cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez R., Alfonso; Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Santo Tomás, Viña del Mar; Ahumada C., Carolina; Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Santo Tomás, Viña del Mar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain and morphologically evaluate canine oocytes from females at different phases of the estrous cycle and to compare the proportions of oocytes potentially suitable for in vitro maturation (IVM). Ovaries of 24 bitches, 6 for each phase of the estrous cycle, were sliced to recover the oocytes. These were morphologically classified into fit and unfit oocytes for IVM. The largest proportion of oocytes fit for IVM (86.6%) was recovered from females in proestrus and ...

  4. Reload safety evaluation report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 2, cycle 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jin Gon; Park, Jin Ha; Kim, Oh Hwan; Oh, Dong Seok; Kim, Du Ill; Choi, Han Rim; Ku, Dong Uk; Bae, Hoo Gun

    1994-07-01

    This report presents a reload safety evaluation for Ulchin-2, cycle 6 and demonstrates that the core being composed of various fuel types as described in the report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the cycle 6 core and results are described in the report. (Author) 1 ref., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Reload safety evaluation report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Rae; Kwon, Hyuk Sung; Kim, Oh Hwan; Choi, Han Rim; Yoon, Han Young; Ku, Dong Uk; Suh, Jung Min; Bae, Hoo Gun

    1995-02-01

    This report presents a reload safety evaluation for UCN-2, Cycle 7 and demonstrates that the core being entirely composed of KOFA as described in the report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the Cycle 7 core and results are described in this report. (Author) 1 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Reload safety evaluation report for yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 1 cycle 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Oh; Kwon, Tae Je; Park, Sang Yoon; Sung, Kang Sik; Kim, Ki Hang; Yim, Jeong Sik; Kim, Du Ill; Choi, Han Rim; Bae, Hoo Gun

    1992-06-01

    This report presents the reload safety evaluation for YGN-1, Cycle 7 and demonstrates that the reactor core being entirely composed of KOFA as discribed below will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the reload fuel assemblies have been reviewed for the Cycle 7 core and results are described in this report. (Author)

  7. Reload safety evaluation report for ulchin nuclear power plant unit 2, cycle 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Oh; Park, Yong Soo; Kim, Hong Jin; Kim, Il Kon; Oh, Dong Seok; Yoon, Han Yong; Choi, Han Rim; Choi, Dong Uk; Lee, Chung Chan; Zee, Sung Kyun

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a reload safety evaluation for Ulchin-2, Cycle 4 and demonstrates that the core being composed of various fuel types as described in the report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the Cycle 4 core and results are described in the report. (Author)

  8. Reload safety evaluation report for yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 2 cycle 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, Sung Kyun; Choi, Gyoo Hwan; Lee, Ki Bog; Park, Sang Yoon

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the reload safety evaluation for YGN-2, Cycle 7 and demonstrates that the reactor core being entirely composed of KOFA as described below will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which would potentially be affected by the reload fuel assemblies have been reviewed for the Cycle 7 core design described herein. (Author)

  9. Reload safety evaluation report for Kori nuclear power unit 1, cycle 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joo Young; Kim, Oh Hwan; Nam, Kee Il; Kim, Du Ill; Ban, Chang Hwan; Choi, Dong Uk

    1994-05-01

    This report presents the reload safety evaluation for Kori-1, Cycle 14 and demonstrate that the reactor core being entirely composed of KOFA as described in the report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the Cycle 14 core design described herein. (Author) 1 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Reload safety evaluation report for Yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jae; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Cho, Young Chul; Kim, Jae Hak; Um, Kil Sup; Choi, Han Rim; Kim, Ki Hang; Sung, Kang Sik

    1993-09-01

    This report presents a reload safety evaluation for YGN-1, cycle 8 and demonstrates that the core being entirely composed of KOFA as described in the report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the cycle 8 core and results are described in the report. (Author) 1 ref., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Reload safety evaluation report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Yong Rae; Kim, Oh Hwan; Kwon, Hyuk Sung; Yoon, Han Young; Choi, Han Rim; Ku, Dong Uk

    1993-11-01

    This report presents a reload safety evaluation for Ulchin 1, cycle 6 and demonstrates that the reactor core being fully composed of KOFA as described in this report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the cycle 6 core and results are described in this report. (Author) 1 ref., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Reload safety evaluation report for kori nuclear power plant unit 4, cycle 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Oh; Jung, Yil Sup; Kim, Si Yong; Kim, Ki Hang; Kwon, Hyuk Sung; Oh, Dong Seok; Kim, Du Ill; Ban, Chang Hwan; Choi, Dong Uk

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the reload safety evaluation for Kori-4, Cycle 8 and demonstrate that the reactor core being entirely composed of KOFA as described in the report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licening bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the Cycle 8 core design described herein. (Author)

  13. Reload safety evaluation report for Yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Chul; Nam, Kee Il; Kim, Ki Hang; Suh, Jung Min; Um, Kil Sup; Ban, Chang Hwan; Bae, Hoo Gun

    1995-02-01

    This report presents a reload safety evaluation for YGN-1, Cycle 9 and demonstrates that the core being entirely composed of KOFA as described in the report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the Cycle 9 core and results are described in this report. (Author) 1 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Reload safety evaluation report for kori nuclear power plant unit 2 cycle 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Beom Jin; Kim, Si Yong; Kim, Oh Hwan; Nam, Kee Il; Um, Gil Sup; Ban, Chang Hwan; Choi, Dong Uk; Yoon, Kyung Ho

    1992-04-01

    The Kori Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 (Kori-2) is anticipated to be refuelled with 16x16 Korean Fuel Assemblies (KOFA), which are based on the KAERI design starting from Cycle 8. This report presents a reload safety evaluation for Kori-2, Cycle 9 and demonstrates that the reactor core being composed of various fuel assembly types as described below will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. The evaluation of Kori-2, Cycle 9 was accomplished utilizing the methodology described in 'Reload Transition Safety Report for KORI 2' (Ref. /1-1/). The reload core for Kori-2, Cycle 9 is entirely comprised of 16x16 KOFA. In the Kori-2 licensing documentation to KEPCO the reference safety evaluation was provided for the operation of a reactor core fully loaded with KOFA as well as associated proposed changes to the Kori-2 Technical Specifications. The reload for Kori-2, Cycle 9 also introduces UO 2 /Gd 2 O 3 containing fuel rods. The use of fuel rods with Gd 2 O 3 poisoning of the fuel has been approved as a part of the above mentioned licensing documentation. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the Cycle 9 core design described herein. (Author)

  15. TWO NOVEL PARAMETERS TO EVALUATE THE GLOBAL COMPLEXITY OF THE SUN'S MAGNETIC FIELD AND TRACK THE SOLAR CYCLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, L.; Landi, E.; Gibson, S. E.

    2013-01-01

    Since the unusually prolonged and weak solar minimum between solar cycles 23 and 24 (2008-2010), the sunspot number is smaller and the overall morphology of the Sun's magnetic field is more complicated (i.e., less of a dipole component and more of a tilted current sheet) compared with the same minimum and ascending phases of the previous cycle. Nearly 13 yr after the last solar maximum (∼2000), the monthly sunspot number is currently only at half the highest value of the past cycle's maximum, whereas the polar magnetic field of the Sun is reversing (north pole first). These circumstances make it timely to consider alternatives to the sunspot number for tracking the Sun's magnetic cycle and measuring its complexity. In this study, we introduce two novel parameters, the standard deviation (SD) of the latitude of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) and the integrated slope (SL) of the HCS, to evaluate the complexity of the Sun's magnetic field and track the solar cycle. SD and SL are obtained from the magnetic synoptic maps calculated by a potential field source surface model. We find that SD and SL are sensitive to the complexity of the HCS: (1) they have low values when the HCS is flat at solar minimum, and high values when the HCS is highly tilted at solar maximum; (2) they respond to the topology of the HCS differently, as a higher SD value indicates that a larger part of the HCS extends to higher latitude, while a higher SL value implies that the HCS is wavier; (3) they are good indicators of magnetically anomalous cycles. Based on the comparison between SD and SL with the normalized sunspot number in the most recent four solar cycles, we find that in 2011 the solar magnetic field had attained a similar complexity as compared to the previous maxima. In addition, in the ascending phase of cycle 24, SD and SL in the northern hemisphere were on the average much greater than in the southern hemisphere, indicating a more tilted and wavier HCS in the north than the

  16. Model development for quantitative evaluation of proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong; Yang, Myung Seung

    2000-07-01

    This study addresses the quantitative evaluation of the proliferation resistance which is important factor of the alternative nuclear fuel cycle system. In this study, model was developed to quantitatively evaluate the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycles. The proposed models were then applied to Korean environment as a sample study to provide better references for the determination of future nuclear fuel cycle system in Korea. In order to quantify the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycle, the proliferation resistance index was defined in imitation of an electrical circuit with an electromotive force and various electrical resistance components. The analysis on the proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles has shown that the resistance index as defined herein can be used as an international measure of the relative risk of the nuclear proliferation if the motivation index is appropriately defined. It has also shown that the proposed model can include political issues as well as technical ones relevant to the proliferation resistance, and consider all facilities and activities in a specific nuclear fuel cycle (from mining to disposal). In addition, sensitivity analyses on the sample study indicate that the direct disposal option in a country with high nuclear propensity may give rise to a high risk of the nuclear proliferation than the reprocessing option in a country with low nuclear propensity

  17. Model development for quantitative evaluation of proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong; Yang, Myung Seung

    2000-07-01

    This study addresses the quantitative evaluation of the proliferation resistance which is important factor of the alternative nuclear fuel cycle system. In this study, model was developed to quantitatively evaluate the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycles. The proposed models were then applied to Korean environment as a sample study to provide better references for the determination of future nuclear fuel cycle system in Korea. In order to quantify the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycle, the proliferation resistance index was defined in imitation of an electrical circuit with an electromotive force and various electrical resistance components. The analysis on the proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles has shown that the resistance index as defined herein can be used as an international measure of the relative risk of the nuclear proliferation if the motivation index is appropriately defined. It has also shown that the proposed model can include political issues as well as technical ones relevant to the proliferation resistance, and consider all facilities and activities in a specific nuclear fuel cycle (from mining to disposal). In addition, sensitivity analyses on the sample study indicate that the direct disposal option in a country with high nuclear propensity may give rise to a high risk of the nuclear proliferation than the reprocessing option in a country with low nuclear propensity.

  18. The utility of clinical care pathways in determining perinatal outcomes for women with one previous caesarean section; a retrospective service evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuga Robinson N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising rates of primary caesarean section have resulted in a larger obstetric population with scarred uteri. Subsequent pregnancies in these women are risk-prone and may complicate. Besides ensuring standardised management, care pathways could be used to evaluate for perinatal outcomes in these high risk pregnancies. We aim to demonstrate the use of a care pathway for vaginal birth after caesarean section as a service evaluation tool to determine perinatal outcomes. Methods A retrospective service evaluation by review of delivery case notes and records was undertaken at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya between January 2008 and December 2009 Women with ≥2 previous caesarean sections, previous classical caesarean section, multiple gestation, breech presentation, severe pre-eclampsia, transverse lie, placenta praevia, conditions requiring induction of labour and incomplete records were excluded. Outcome measures included the proportion of eligible women who opted for test of scar (ToS, success rate of vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC; proportion on women opting for elective repeat caesarean section (ERCS and their perinatal outcomes. Results A total of 215 women with one previous caesarean section were followed up using a standard care pathway. The median parity (minimum-maximum was 1.01234. The other demographic characteristics were comparable. Only 44.6% of eligible mothers opted to have a ToS. The success rate for VBAC was 49.4% with the commonest (31.8% reason for failure being protracted active phase of labour. Maternal morbidity was comparable for the failed and successful VBAC group. The incidence of hemorrhage was 2.3% and 4.4% for the successful and failed VBAC groups respectively. The proportion of babies with acidotic arterial PH ( Conclusions Besides ensuring standardised management, care pathways could be objective audit and service evaluation tools for determining perinatal outcomes.

  19. ANALYSIS OF MERCURY IN VERMONT AND NEW HAMPSHIRE LAKES: EVALUATION OF THE REGIONAL MERCURY CYCLING MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    An evaluation of the Regional Mercury Cycling Model (R-MCM, a steady-state fate and transport model used to simulate mercury concentrations in lakes) is presented based on its application to a series of 91 lakes in Vermont and New Hampshire. Visual and statistical analyses are pr...

  20. Effect of Autoclave Cycles on Surface Characteristics of S-File Evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavian, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Pedram; Mojtahedi, Hamid; Nazeri, Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Presence of surface defects in endodontic instruments can lead to unwanted complications such as instrument fracture and incomplete preparation of the canal. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of autoclave cycles on surface characteristics of S-File by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In this experimental study, 17 brand new S-Files (#30) were used. The surface characteristics of the files were examined in four steps (without autoclave, 1 autoclave cycle, 5 autoclave cycles and 10 autoclave cycles) by SEM under 200× and 1000× magnifications. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software and the paired sample t-test, independent sample t-test and multifactorial repeated measures ANOVA. The level of significance was set at 0.05. New files had debris and pitting on their surfaces. When the autoclave cycles were increased, the mean of surface roughness also increased at both magnifications (Pautoclave increased the surface roughness of the files and this had was directly related to the number of autoclave cycles.

  1. Evaluating Indicators and Life Cycle Inventories for Processes in Early Stages of Technical Readiness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Raymond [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

    2017-11-01

    This presentation examines different methods for analyzing manufacturing processes in the early stages of technical readiness. Before developers know much detail about their processes, it is valuable to apply various assessments to evaluate their performance. One type of assessment evaluates performance indicators to describe how closely processes approach desirable objectives. Another type of assessment determines the life cycle inventories (LCI) of inputs and outputs for processes, where for a functional unit of product, the user evaluates the resources used and the releases to the environment. These results can be compared to similar processes or combined with the LCI of other processes to examine up-and down-stream chemicals. The inventory also provides a listing of the up-stream chemicals, which permits study of the whole life cycle. Performance indicators are evaluated in this presentation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's GREENSCOPE (Gauging Reaction Effectiveness for ENvironmental Sustainability with a multi-Objective Process Evaluator) methodology, which evaluates processes in four areas: Environment, Energy, Economics, and Efficiency. The method develops relative scores for indicators that allow comparisons across various technologies. In this contribution, two conversion pathways for producing cellulosic ethanol from biomass, via thermochemical and biochemical routes, are studied. The information developed from the indicators and LCI can be used to inform the process design and the potential life cycle effects of up- and down-stream chemicals.

  2. Improvement of system code importing evaluation of Life Cycle Analysis of tokamak fusion power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobori, Hikaru [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta, E-mail: r-kasada@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hiwatari, Ryoji [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We incorporated the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of tokamak type DEMO reactor and following commercial reactors as an extension of a system code. • We calculated CO{sub 2} emissions from reactor construction, operation and decommissioning that is considered as a major environmental cost. • We found that the objective of conceptual design of the tokamak fusion power reactor is moved by changing evaluation index. • The tokamak fusion reactor can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the life cycle effectively by reduction of the amount involved in the replacement of internal components. • The tokamak fusion reactor achieves under 0.174$/kWh electricity cost, the tokamak fusion reactor is contestable with 1500 degrees-class LNG-fired combined cycle power plant. - Abstract: This study incorporate the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of tokamak type DEMO reactor and following commercial reactors as an extension of a system code to calculate CO{sub 2} emissions from reactor construction, operation and decommissioning that is considered as a major environmental cost. Competitiveness of tokamak fusion power reactors is expected to be evaluated by the cost and environmental impact represented by the CO{sub 2} emissions, compared with present and future power generating systems such as fossil, nuclear and renewables. Result indicated that (1) The objective of conceptual design of the tokamak fusion power reactor is moved by changing evaluation index. (2) The tokamak fusion reactor can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the life cycle effectively by reduction of the amount involved in the replacement of internal components. (3) The tokamak fusion reactor achieves under 0.174$/kWh electricity cost, the tokamak fusion reactor is contestable with 1500 degrees-class LNG-fired combined cycle power plant.

  3. Improvement of system code importing evaluation of Life Cycle Analysis of tokamak fusion power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobori, Hikaru; Kasada, Ryuta; Hiwatari, Ryoji; Konishi, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We incorporated the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of tokamak type DEMO reactor and following commercial reactors as an extension of a system code. • We calculated CO 2 emissions from reactor construction, operation and decommissioning that is considered as a major environmental cost. • We found that the objective of conceptual design of the tokamak fusion power reactor is moved by changing evaluation index. • The tokamak fusion reactor can reduce CO 2 emissions in the life cycle effectively by reduction of the amount involved in the replacement of internal components. • The tokamak fusion reactor achieves under 0.174$/kWh electricity cost, the tokamak fusion reactor is contestable with 1500 degrees-class LNG-fired combined cycle power plant. - Abstract: This study incorporate the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of tokamak type DEMO reactor and following commercial reactors as an extension of a system code to calculate CO 2 emissions from reactor construction, operation and decommissioning that is considered as a major environmental cost. Competitiveness of tokamak fusion power reactors is expected to be evaluated by the cost and environmental impact represented by the CO 2 emissions, compared with present and future power generating systems such as fossil, nuclear and renewables. Result indicated that (1) The objective of conceptual design of the tokamak fusion power reactor is moved by changing evaluation index. (2) The tokamak fusion reactor can reduce CO 2 emissions in the life cycle effectively by reduction of the amount involved in the replacement of internal components. (3) The tokamak fusion reactor achieves under 0.174$/kWh electricity cost, the tokamak fusion reactor is contestable with 1500 degrees-class LNG-fired combined cycle power plant.

  4. Evaluating the impacts of new walking and cycling infrastructure on carbon dioxide emissions from motorized travel: a controlled longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Christian; Goodman, Anna; Ogilvie, David

    2014-09-01

    Walking and cycling is widely assumed to substitute for at least some motorized travel and thereby reduce energy use and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. While the evidence suggests that a supportive built environment may be needed to promote walking and cycling, it is unclear whether and how interventions in the built environment that attract walkers and cyclists may reduce transport CO 2 emissions. Our aim was therefore to evaluate the effects of providing new infrastructure for walking and cycling on CO 2 emissions from motorised travel. A cohort of 1849 adults completed questionnaires at baseline (2010) and one-year follow-up (2011), before and after the construction of new high-quality routes provided as part of the Sustrans Connect2 programme in three UK municipalities. A second cohort of 1510 adults completed questionnaires at baseline and two-year follow-up (2012). The participants reported their past-week travel behaviour and car characteristics from which CO 2 emissions by mode and purpose were derived using methods described previously. A set of exposure measures of proximity to and use of the new routes were derived. Overall transport CO 2 emissions decreased slightly over the study period, consistent with a secular trend in the case study regions. As found previously the new infrastructure was well used at one- and two-year follow-up, and was associated with population-level increases in walking, cycling and physical activity at two-year follow-up. However, these effects did not translate into sizeable CO 2 effects as neither living near the infrastructure nor using it predicted changes in CO 2 emissions from motorised travel, either overall or disaggregated by journey purpose. This lack of a discernible effect on travel CO 2 emissions are consistent with an interpretation that some of those living nearer the infrastructure may simply have changed where they walked or cycled, while others may have walked or cycled more but few, if any, may have

  5. Evaluating the impacts of new walking and cycling infrastructure on carbon dioxide emissions from motorized travel: a controlled longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Christian; Goodman, Anna; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Walking and cycling is widely assumed to substitute for at least some motorized travel and thereby reduce energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. While the evidence suggests that a supportive built environment may be needed to promote walking and cycling, it is unclear whether and how interventions in the built environment that attract walkers and cyclists may reduce transport CO2 emissions. Our aim was therefore to evaluate the effects of providing new infrastructure for walking and cycling on CO2 emissions from motorised travel. A cohort of 1849 adults completed questionnaires at baseline (2010) and one-year follow-up (2011), before and after the construction of new high-quality routes provided as part of the Sustrans Connect2 programme in three UK municipalities. A second cohort of 1510 adults completed questionnaires at baseline and two-year follow-up (2012). The participants reported their past-week travel behaviour and car characteristics from which CO2 emissions by mode and purpose were derived using methods described previously. A set of exposure measures of proximity to and use of the new routes were derived. Overall transport CO2 emissions decreased slightly over the study period, consistent with a secular trend in the case study regions. As found previously the new infrastructure was well used at one- and two-year follow-up, and was associated with population-level increases in walking, cycling and physical activity at two-year follow-up. However, these effects did not translate into sizeable CO2 effects as neither living near the infrastructure nor using it predicted changes in CO2 emissions from motorised travel, either overall or disaggregated by journey purpose. This lack of a discernible effect on travel CO2 emissions are consistent with an interpretation that some of those living nearer the infrastructure may simply have changed where they walked or cycled, while others may have walked or cycled more but few, if any, may have substituted

  6. The method of micro-motion cycle feature extraction based on confidence coefficient evaluation criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chuanzi; Ren, Hongmei; Bo, Li; Jing, Huang

    2017-11-01

    In radar target recognition, the micro motion characteristics of target is one of the characteristics that researchers pay attention to at home and abroad, in which the characteristics of target precession cycle is one of the important characteristics of target movement characteristics. Periodic feature extraction methods have been studied for years, the complex shape of the target and the scattering center stack lead to random fluctuations of the RCS. These random fluctuations also exist certain periodicity, which has a great influence on the target recognition result. In order to solve the problem, this paper proposes a extraction method of micro-motion cycle feature based on confidence coefficient evaluation criteria.

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of a Cycling Cleat Designed for Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Ryan T; Smith, Steven R; Ghazizadeh, Ramin; Yalla, Sai V; Wu, Stephanie C

    2017-11-01

    Offloading devices for diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) generally restrict exercise. In addition to traditional health benefits, exercise could benefit DFU by increasing blood flow and acting as thermotherapy. This study functionally evaluated a cycling cleat designed for forefoot DFU. Fifteen individuals at risk of developing a DFU used a recumbent stationary bicycle to complete one 5-minute cycling bout with the DFU cleat on their study foot and one 5-minute bout without it. Foot stress was evaluated by plantar pressure insoles during cycling. Laser Doppler perfusion monitored blood flow to the hallux. Infrared photographs measured foot temperature before and after each cycling bout. The specialized cleat significantly reduced forefoot plantar pressure (9.9 kPa versus 62.6 kPa, P cleat allowed participants to exercise with minimal forefoot stress. The observed increase in perfusion suggests that healing might improve if patients with active DFU were to use the cleat. Potential thermotherapy for DFU was not supported by this study. Evaluation of the device among individuals with active DFU is now warranted.

  8. Adhesive cementation of zirconia posts to root dentin: evaluation of the mechanical cycling effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Ávila Galhano

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of mechanical cycling on the bond strength of zirconia posts to root dentin. Thirty single-rooted human teeth were transversally sectioned to a length of 16 mm. The canal preparation was performed with zirconia post system drills (CosmoPost, Ivoclar to a depth of 12 mm. For post cementation, the canals were treated with total-etch, 3-steps All-Bond 2 (Bisco, and the posts were cemented with Duolink dual resin cement (Bisco. Three groups were formed (n = 10: G1 - control, no mechanical cycling; G2 - 20,000 mechanical cycles; G3 - 2,000,000 mechanical cycles. A 1.6-mm-thick punch induced loads of 50 N, at a 45° angle to the long axis of the specimens and at a frequency of 8 Hz directly on the posts. To evaluate the bond strengths, the specimens were sectioned perpendicular to the long axis of the teeth, generating 2-mm-thick slices, approximately (5 sections per teeth, which were subjected to the push-out test in a universal testing machine at a 1 mm/min crosshead speed. The push-out bond strength was affected by the mechanical cycling (1-way ANOVA, p = .0001. The results of the control group (7.7 ± 1.3 MPa were statistically higher than those of G2 (3.9 ± 2.2 MPa and G3 (3.3 ± 2.3 MPa. It was concluded that the mechanical cycling damaged the bond strength of zirconia posts to root dentin.

  9. Evaluation of a workplace intervention to promote commuter cycling: a RE-AIM analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuy, Veerle; De Cocker, Katrien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Maes, Lea; Seghers, Jan; Lefevre, Johan; De Martelaer, Kristine; Cardon, Greet

    2013-06-17

    Originating from the interdisciplinary collaboration between public health and the transportation field a workplace intervention to promote commuter cycling, 'Bike to Work: cyclists are rewarded', was implemented. The intervention consisted of two cycling contests, an online loyalty program based on earning 'cycling points' and the dissemination of information through folders, newsletters, posters and a website. The study purpose was to evaluate the dissemination efforts of the program and to gain insights in whether free participation could persuade small and middle-sized companies to sign up. The RE-AIM framework was used to guide the evaluation. Two months after the start of the intervention a questionnaire was send to 4880 employees. At the end of the intervention each company contact person (n = 12) was interviewed to obtain information on adoption, implementation and maintenance.Comparison analyses between employees aware and unaware of the program were conducted using independent-samples t-tests for quantitative data and chi-square tests for qualitative data. Difference in commuter cycling frequency was assessed using an ANOVA test. Non-parametric tests were used for the comparison analyses between the adopting and non-adopting companies. In total seven of the twelve participating companies adopted the program and all adopting companies implemented all intervention components. No significant differences were found in the mean number of employees (p = 0.15) or in the type of business sector (p = 0.92) between adopting and non-adopting companies. Five out of seven companies had the intention to continue the program. At the individual level, a project awareness of 65% was found. Employees aware of the program had a significantly more positive attitude towards cycling and reported significantly more commuter cycling than those unaware of the program (both p sustainability of the intervention is needed.

  10. EVALUATING THE LIFE CYCLE COSTS OF PLANT ASSETS – A MULTIDIMENSIONAL VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Gram

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the task group "Asset life cycle management" of the AustrianScientific Maintenance and Asset Management Association (ÖVIA. One purpose of the researchactivities is to create a generic life cycle model for physical assets which includes all costs in everyphase of the asset life cycle. The first step is a literature review determining the most established lifecycle cost models. This is the input for discussing the completeness of such frameworks with theparticipating industrial companies. A general model is deducted from existing approaches and thedetermined costs are evaluated with respect to priority and practical relevance. The result of theevaluation shows which costs are taken into account for investment decisions. Another outcome ofthe study is the verification of importance of the proposed costs for industrial companies, especiallyfor the process industry. The derived life cycle cost framework is the basis for developing a calculationtool and subsequently, for further research in the flied of uncertainty-based methodologies forlife cycle cost analyzing of physical plant assets.

  11. EVALUATION OF CELL CYCLE OF Aspergillus nidulans EXPOSED TO THE EXTRACT OF Copaifera officinalis L PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Jurema Ruggeri Chiuchetta, Uériton Dias de Oliveira e Josy Fraccaro de Marins

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The oil extracted from the Copaifera officinalis L plant has been used in popular medicine to the treatment of several diseases, like cancer. In eukaryotic cells, the process of cellular proliferation follows a standard cycle, named cellular cycle. The transformation of a normal cell in a malignant one requires several steps, in which genes that control normal cellular division or cellular death are modified. Aspergillus nidulans fungus is an excellent system for the study of the cellular differentiation. Its asexual cycle results in the formation of conidia, which are disposed like chains, constituting a structure named conidiophore. This structure consists in an aerial hifae, multinucleate vesicle and uninucleate cells. Current research evaluated the capacity of the C. officinalis L plant extract in promoting alterations in the cellular cycle of A. nidulans diploid strains, by observing macroscopic and microscopic alterations in cellular growth of this fungus. Results shown that no macroscopic alterations were observed in cellular growth of strains exposed to the extract, however, microscopic alterations of conidiophore have been observed in the different extract concentrations analyzed. In this way, the study of the action of C. officinalis L plant extract becomes important considering the fact that this substance is capable to promote alterations in cellular cycle of eukaryotic cells.

  12. Elements for evaluation of the potential of the thorium cycle in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcuera, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the most important elements to be taken into account for the evaluation and, eventually, the implementation of the introduction of thorium cycle strategies in argentinian heavy-water type power plants, and also of the associated development of the external fuel cycle, is presented. Particularly, the up-dated situations summarized here cover resources and prices of natural uranium and thorium, development of the various stages of the external fuel cycle, description of the most important strategies and their capabilities for the best use of mineral resources and, finally, the economic implications and the global comparison of those strategies. Various data and parameter values are added to those given in AECL's external reports. Some appendices are devoted to the definitions of a 'global fuel-cycle conversion factor' and to the analysis of the effective use of mineral resources, taking into account fissile and fertile material losses in the external fuel cycle., for the different cases of fuel conversion and breeding. (Author) [es

  13. Prospective evaluation of patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes following SBRT ± cetuximab for locally-recurrent, previously-irradiated head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargo, John A.; Heron, Dwight E.; Ferris, Robert L.; Rwigema, Jean-Claude M.; Wegner, Rodney E.; Kalash, Ronny; Ohr, James; Kubicek, Greg J.; Burton, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as a promising salvage strategy for unresectable, previously-irradiated recurrent squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (rSCCHN). Here-in, we report the first prospective evaluation of patient-reported quality-of-life (PR-QoL) following re-irradiation with SBRT ± cetuximab for rSCCHN. Materials and methods: From November 2004 to May 2011, 150 patients with unresectable, rSCCHN in a previously-irradiated field receiving >40 Gy were treated with SBRT to 40–50 Gy in 5 fractions ± concurrent cetuximab. PR-QoL was prospectively acquired using University of Washington Quality-of-Life Revised (UW-QoL-R). Results: Overall PR-QoL, health-related PR-QoL, and select domains commonly affected by re-irradiation progressively increase following an initial 1-month decline with statistically significant improvements noted in swallowing (p = 0.025), speech (p = 0.017), saliva (p = 0.041), activity (p = 0.032) and recreation (p = 0.039). Conclusions: Especially for patients surviving >1-year, improved tumor control associated with SBRT re-irradiation may ameliorate decreased PR-QoL resulting from rSCCHN. These improvements in PR-QoL transcend all measured domains in a validated PR-QoL assessment tool independent of age, use of cetuximab, tumor volume, and interval since prior irradiation.

  14. A European evaluation of cosmetic treatment of facial volume loss with Juvéderm™ Voluma™ in patients previously treated with Restylane Sub-Q™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tanja C

    2010-12-01

    Juvéderm™ VOLUMA™ (Voluma) is a new injectable, long-lasting, resorbable hyaluronic acid filler. It restores facial volume, resulting in a more youthful appearance. To evaluate current in-market perceptions of the aesthetic result and use of Voluma. Men and women >30 years who had received Restylane SubQ™ (Restylane) face, specifically in the malar and chin areas or both (mean 1.36 mL each to the right and left sides of the face). Seventy-five percent of injectors found Voluma fairly/very easy to inject and 84.5% found it easy to sculpt/massage. Most patients (98%) and physicians (98%) rated the aesthetic effect of Voluma as improved. Injectors rated Voluma as better than previous Restylane use in 69.1% of patients (P massage. Physicians and patients rated the cosmetic effects highly, and both groups reported a preference for Voluma in those patients previously treated with Restylane. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Life Cycle Based Evaluation of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Agricultural Productions in the Mediterranean Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA applied to estimate the cradle-to-grave environmental impact of agricultural products or processes. Furthermore, including in the analysis an economic evaluation, from the perspective of an integrated life cycle approach, appears nowadays as a fundamental improvement. In particular, Life Cycle Costing (LCC, is a method that could integrate financial data and cost information with metrics of life cycle approaches. In this study, LCA in conjunction with LCC methods were used, with the aim to evaluate the main cost drivers—environmental and economic—of five widely diffused and market-valued agricultural productions (organic tomato and pear, integrated wheat, apple and chicory and to combine the results in order to understand the long-term externalities impacts of agricultural productions. Data obtained in local assessment show a wide margin of improvement of resources management at farms level in the short-term, but also allow for the investigation of future effects of environmental impacts not expressed in product price on the market. Reaching a real sustainable model for agriculture could be a value added approach firstly for farmers, but also for all the people who live in rural areas or use agricultural products.

  16. Model development for quantitative evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle alternatives and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il

    2000-02-01

    This study addresses the quantitative evaluation of the proliferation resistance and the economics which are important factors of the alternative nuclear fuel cycle system. In this study, model was developed to quantitatively evaluate the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycles, and a fuel cycle cost analysis model was suggested to incorporate various uncertainties in the fuel cycle cost calculation. The proposed models were then applied to Korean environment as a sample study to provide better references for the determination of future nuclear fuel cycle system in Korea. In order to quantify the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycle, the proliferation resistance index was defined in imitation of an electrical circuit with an electromotive force and various electrical resistance components. In this model, the proliferation resistance was described an a relative size of the barrier that must be overcome in order to acquire nuclear weapons. Therefore, a larger barriers means that the risk of failure is great, expenditure of resources is large and the time scales for implementation is long. The electromotive force was expressed as the political motivation of the potential proliferators, such as an unauthorized party or a national group to acquire nuclear weapons. The electrical current was then defined as a proliferation resistance index. There are two electrical circuit models used in the evaluation of the proliferation resistance: the series and the parallel circuits. In the series circuit model of the proliferation resistance, a potential proliferator has to overcome all resistance barriers to achieve the manufacturing of the nuclear weapons. This phenomenon could be explained by the fact that the IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency)'s safeguards philosophy relies on the defense-in-depth principle against nuclear proliferation at a specific facility. The parallel circuit model was also used to imitate the risk of proliferation for

  17. An evaluation of once-through homogeneous thorium fuel cycle for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, H. K.; Noh, J. M.; Yoo, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    The other ways enhancing the economic potential of thorium fuel has been assessed ; the utilization of lower enriched uranium in thorium-uranium fuel, duplex thorium fuel concept, thorium utilization in the mixed core with uranium fuel assembly and thorium blanket utilization in the uranium core. The fuel economics of the proposed ways of thorium fuel increased compared to the previous homogeneous thorium fuel cycle. Compared to uranium fuel cycle, however, they do not show any economic incentives. From the view of proliferation resistance potential, thorium fuel option has the advantage to reduce the inventory of plutonium production. Any of proposed thorium options are less economical than uranium fuel option, the thorium fuel option has the potential to be utilized in the future for the sake of the effective consumption of excessive plutonium and the preparation against the using up of uranium resource

  18. Environmental balance of the UK biogas sector: An evaluation by consequential life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styles, David, E-mail: d.styles@bangor.ac.uk; Dominguez, Eduardo Mesa; Chadwick, Dave

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is expanding rapidly in the UK. Previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have highlighted the sensitivity of environmental outcomes to feedstock type, fugitive emissions, biomethane use, energy conversion efficiency and digestate management. We combined statistics on current and planned AD deployment with operational data from a survey of biogas plant operators to evaluate the environmental balance of the UK biogas sector for the years 2014 and 2017. Consequential LCA was applied to account for all major environmental credits and burdens incurred, including: (i) substitution of composting, incineration, sewer disposal, field decomposition and animal feeding of wastes; (ii) indirect land use change (ILUC) incurred by the cultivation of crops used for biogas production and to compensate for bakery and brewery wastes diverted from animal feed. In 2014, the UK biogas sector reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 551–755 Gg CO{sub 2}e excluding ILUC, or 238–755 Gg CO{sub 2}e including ILUC uncertainty. Fossil energy depletion was reduced by 8.9–10.8 PJe, but eutrophication and acidification burdens were increased by 1.8–3.4 Gg PO{sub 4}e and 8.1–14.6 Gg SO{sub 2}e, respectively. Food waste and manure feedstocks dominate GHG abatement, largely through substitution of in-vessel composting and manure storage, whilst food waste and crop feedstocks dominate fossil energy credit, primarily through substitution of natural gas power generation. Biogas expansion is projected to increase environmental credits and loadings by a factor of 2.4 by 2017. If all AD bioelectricity replaced coal generation, or if 90% of biomethane replaced transport diesel or grid natural gas, GHG abatement would increase by 131%, 38% and 20%, respectively. Policies to encourage digestion of food waste and manures could maximize GHG abatement, avoiding the risk of carbon leakage associated with use of crops and wastes otherwise used to feed livestock. Covering

  19. Evaluation of the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hydroelectricity Generation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Kadiyala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from different hydroelectricity generation systems by first performing a comprehensive review of the hydroelectricity generation system life cycle assessment (LCA studies and then subsequent computation of statistical metrics to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions (expressed in grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt hour, gCO2e/kWh. A categorization index (with unique category codes, formatted as “facility type-electric power generation capacity” was developed and used in this study to evaluate the life cycle GHG emissions from the reviewed hydroelectricity generation systems. The unique category codes were labeled by integrating the names of the two hydro power sub-classifications, i.e., the facility type (impoundment (I, diversion (D, pumped storage (PS, miscellaneous hydropower works (MHPW and the electric power generation capacity (micro (µ, small (S, large (L. The characterized hydroelectricity generation systems were statistically evaluated to determine the reduction in corresponding life cycle GHG emissions. A total of eight unique categorization codes (I-S, I-L, D-µ, D-S, D-L, PS-L, MHPW-µ, MHPW-S were designated to the 19 hydroelectricity generation LCA studies (representing 178 hydropower cases using the proposed categorization index. The mean life cycle GHG emissions resulting from the use of I-S (N = 24, I-L (N = 8, D-µ (N = 3, D-S (N = 133, D-L (N = 3, PS-L (N = 3, MHPW-µ (N = 3, and MHPW-S (N = 1 hydroelectricity generation systems are 21.05 gCO2e/kWh, 40.63 gCO2e/kWh, 47.82 gCO2e/kWh, 27.18 gCO2e/kWh, 3.45 gCO2e/kWh, 256.63 gCO2e/kWh, 19.73 gCO2e/kWh, and 2.78 gCO2e/kWh, respectively. D-L hydroelectricity generation systems produced the minimum life cycle GHGs (considering the hydroelectricity generation system categories with a representation of at least two cases.

  20. Effect of Autoclave Cycles on Surface Characteristics of S-File Evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Razavian, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Pedram; Mojtahedi, Hamid; Nazeri, Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Presence of surface defects in endodontic instruments can lead to unwanted complications such as instrument fracture and incomplete preparation of the canal. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of autoclave cycles on surface characteristics of S-File by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods and Materials: In this experimental study, 17 brand new S-Files (#30) were used. The surface characteristics of the files were examined in four steps (without autocla...

  1. Duty cycle testing and performance evaluation of the SM-229 teleoperator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoughton, R.S.; Kuban, D.P.

    1985-11-01

    This paper contains the first known experimental studies and analyses of teleoperator performance for specific duty cycles. The results are presented in two distinct areas as position usage patterns, and as three-dimensional power grids. The position usage patterns are a valuable means to assess the available motion range. The power grids are a unique concept for evaluating joint performance. Final conclusions contain recommendations to upgrade the teleoperator for optimum performance. 3 refs., 16 figs

  2. Life cycle assessment to evaluate the environmental impact of biochar implementation in conservation agriculture in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrevik, Magnus; Field, John L; Martinsen, Vegard; Breedveld, Gijs D; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2013-02-05

    Biochar amendment to soil is a potential technology for carbon storage and climate change mitigation. It may, in addition, be a valuable soil fertility enhancer for agricultural purposes in sandy and/or weathered soils. A life cycle assessment including ecological, health and resource impacts has been conducted for field sites in Zambia to evaluate the overall impacts of biochar for agricultural use. The life cycle impacts from conservation farming using cultivation growth basins and precision fertilization with and without biochar addition were in the present study compared to conventional agricultural methods. Three different biochar production methods were evaluated: traditional earth-mound kilns, improved retort kilns, and micro top-lit updraft (TLUD) gasifier stoves. The results confirm that the use of biochar in conservation farming is beneficial for climate change mitigation purposes. However, when including health impacts from particle emissions originating from biochar production, conservation farming plus biochar from earth-mound kilns generally results in a larger negative effect over the whole life cycle than conservation farming without biochar addition. The use of cleaner technologies such as retort kilns or TLUDs can overcome this problem, mainly because fewer particles and less volatile organic compounds, methane and carbon monoxide are emitted. These results emphasize the need for a holistic view on biochar use in agricultural systems. Of special importance is the biochar production technique which has to be evaluated from both environmental/climate, health and social perspectives.

  3. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Repository Impact Evaluation FY-05 Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W G

    2005-01-01

    An important long-term objective of advanced nuclear fuel cycle (AFC) technologies is to provide improvement in the long-term management of radioactive waste. Compared to a once-thru fuel cycle, it is possible to generate far less waste, and potentially easier waste to manage, with advanced fuel cycles. However, the precise extent and value of these benefits are complex and difficult to quantify. This document presents a status report of efforts within AFCI Systems Analysis to define and quantify the AFC benefits to geologic disposal, development of cooperative efforts with the US repository program, and participation with international evaluations of AFC impacts on waste management. The primary analysis of repository benefits is conducted by ANL. This year repository impact evaluations have included: (1) Continued evaluation of LWR recycle benefits in support of scenario analysis. (2) Extension of repository analyses to consider long-term dose reductions. (3) Developing the opportunity for cooperation with the U.S. repository program. (4) International cooperation with OECD-NEA

  4. Evaluation of the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Different Biomass Feedstock Electricity Generation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Kadiyala

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from the use of different biomass feedstock categories (agriculture residues, dedicated energy crops, forestry, industry, parks and gardens, wastes independently on biomass-only (biomass as a standalone fuel and cofiring (biomass used in combination with coal electricity generation systems. The statistical evaluation of the life cycle GHG emissions (expressed in grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt hour, gCO2e/kWh for biomass electricity generation systems was based on the review of 19 life cycle assessment studies (representing 66 biomass cases. The mean life cycle GHG emissions resulting from the use of agriculture residues (N = 4, dedicated energy crops (N = 19, forestry (N = 6, industry (N = 4, and wastes (N = 2 in biomass-only electricity generation systems are 291.25 gCO2e/kWh, 208.41 gCO2e/kWh, 43 gCO2e/kWh, 45.93 gCO2e/kWh, and 1731.36 gCO2e/kWh, respectively. The mean life cycle GHG emissions for cofiring electricity generation systems using agriculture residues (N = 10, dedicated energy crops (N = 9, forestry (N = 9, industry (N = 2, and parks and gardens (N = 1 are 1039.92 gCO2e/kWh, 1001.38 gCO2e/kWh, 961.45 gCO2e/kWh, 926.1 gCO2e/kWh, and 1065.92 gCO2e/kWh, respectively. Forestry and industry (avoiding the impacts of biomass production and emissions from waste management contribute the least amount of GHGs, irrespective of the biomass electricity generation system.

  5. Longitudinal Evaluation of Hospitalized Burn Patients in Sivas City Center for Six Months and Comparison with a Previously Held Community-based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk Erin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to longitudinally demonstrate the rate and epidemiology of hospitalized burn patients in Sivas city center within 6 months. The second aim was to compare the results of the current study with those of a previously held community-based survey in the same region. Material and Methods: Patients who were hospitalized due to burn injuries in Sivas city for six months were longitudinally evaluated. Epidemiological data of these patients were analyzed. Results: During the course of the study, 87 patients (49 males and 38 females were hospitalized. The ratio of burn patients to the total number of hospitalized patients was 0.38%. The most common etiologic factor was scalds (70.1%. Burns generally took place in the kitchen (41.4% and living room (31.4%, and majority of the patients received cold water as first-aid treatment at the time of injury. The vast majority of patients were discharged from the hospital without the need of surgical intervention (83.9%, and the duration of treatment was between 1 and 14 days for 73.6% of the patients. Sixty patients (68.9% had a total burn surface area under 10%. The total cost of the hospitalization period of these patients was 137.225 Turkish Lira (83.308–92.908$, and the average cost per patient was 1.577 Turkish Lira (957–1067$. Conclusion: Our study revealed a considerable inconsistency when compared with the results of the community-based survey, which had been previously conducted in the same region. We concluded that hospital-based studies are far from reflecting the actual burn trauma potential of a given district in the absence of a reliable, standard, nation-wide record system. Population-based surveys should be encouraged to make an accurate assessment of burn rates in countries lacking reliable record systems.

  6. Economic evaluation of externally fired gas turbine cycles for small-scale biomass cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheden, Marie [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2001-01-01

    In this conceptual study, externally fired gas turbine (EFGT) cycles in combination with a biomass-fueled, atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) furnace are investigated for small scale heat and power production ({approx} 8 MW fuel input). Three cycle configurations are considered: closed cycle, with nitrogen, helium, and a helium/carbon dioxide mixture as working fluids; open cycle operating in parallel to the CFB system; and open cycle with a series connection to the CFB system. Intercooling, postcooling, and recuperation are employed with the goal of maximizing efficiency. Aside from a thermodynamic performance analysis, the study includes an economic analysis of both the closed and open externally fired gas turbine configurations, and comparisons are made with existing and emerging alternatives for small-scale biomass cogeneration. Simulation results show that thermodynamic performance varies slightly between the different configurations and working fluids, with electrical efficiencies of 31-38% (LHV) and total efficiency of 85-106% (LHV). The economic evaluation shows that the turbomachinery and the CFB furnace dominate the total plant cost, with each contributing about 1/3 of the total installed equipment cost. The specific capital cost for installation in Sweden in 1998 currency is calculated as 26-31 kSEK/kW{sub e} which is equivalent to 3 200-3 900 USD/kW{sub e} or 2 700-3 300 EUR/kW{sub e} .The cost of electricity, COE, is estimated to 590-670 SEK/MWh{sub e} (equivalent to 73-84 USD/MWh{sub e} or 62-71 EUR/MWh{sub e}) for 4 000 full load hours per year in a cogeneration application. Comparing the economic results for the externally fired gas turbine cycles in a slightly larger scale (40-50 MW{sub f}) to the economics of conventional biomass fired steam turbine cycles shows that the cost of electricity for the two plant configurations are roughly the same with a COE of 300-350 SEK/MWh{sub e}. It is believed that the economic performance of the EFGT

  7. Transvaginal sonographic evaluation at different menstrual cycle phases in diagnosis of uterine lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajishaiha M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Masomeh Hajishaiha1, Mohammad Ghasemi-rad2, Nazila Karimpour1, Nikol Mladkova3, Farzaneh Boromand11Department of Gynecology, 2Student Research Committee (SRC, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Islamic Republic of Iran; 3Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, London, UKPurpose: Intrauterine lesions (IULs are a common finding in women of reproductive age, particularly infertile women. Transvaginal sonography (TVS is a popular tool for IUL detection, but there are conflicting data with respect to its accuracy.Methods: Five hundred and six women were enrolled into the study. Of these, 496 underwent hysterosalpingography and subsequent TVS six different times during the course of their menstrual cycle. If a lesion was detected, it was further evaluated by sonohysterography (SHG and hysteroscopy.Results: Of 496 women, 41 were shown to have IULs by TVS and those lesions were confirmed in 39 by SHG and hysteroscopy. All 39 lesions were detectable during the ovulatory and early luteal phase (days 16–19 of the menstrual cycle. Accuracy of TVS during different phases was largely dependent on the size of the lesion. TVS falsely detected two lesions and missed fine adhesions in two patients.Conclusion: Accuracy of TVS in detection of IULs is highly dependent on the menstrual cycle phase, with the ovulatory and early luteal phase being the optimal time for this examination.Keywords: menstrual cycle phase, space occupying lesions, transvaginal sonography

  8. An Evaluation of the Proliferation Resistance of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H. L.; Gao, F. X.; Ko, W. I.; Kim, H. D.

    2010-01-01

    The wet processing of spent fuel is not an option for Korea due to its proliferation risks. The Direct Use of PWR Spent fuel in Candu Reactors had been developed in the 1990s in consideration of the unique mix of PWR and Candu reactors in Korea. The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process, proposed as an alternative to the DPCA fuel cycle in the mid-1990s, was to change the spent fuel from the oxides form into metallic form so as to reduce the volume and heat load which will increase the capacity of a final repository. Then, in the early 2000s, pyro processing of spent fuel of which the objective was to produce transuranic fuel for sodium-cooled fast reactors was seen as one of the most viable R and D options for spent fuel and resource management in Korea. Since the perfluoroctanesulfonate is one of the key issues in the fuel cycle option studies, the proliferation resistance of the pyro processing of spent fuel was evaluated and compared with those of other fuel cycle options. The preliminary analysis on the proliferation resistance of the pyro processing-SFR fuel cycle indicates that pyro processing could be a feasible option of Korea for the spent fuel and resource management. Since a detailed vulnerability assessment of pyro processing can only be made when sufficient process and design information is available in the future, KAERI is currently performing an MSS program with the IAEA which will identify the gaps that need to be addressed

  9. Evaluation of spectral shift controlled reactors operating on the uranium fuel cycle. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, R.A.; Sider, F.M.

    1979-08-01

    The performance of the spectral shift controlled reactor (SSCR) operating on uranium fuel cycles was evaluated and compared with the conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR). In order to analyze the SSCR, the PSR design methodology was extended to include systems moderated by mixtures of light water and heavy water and these methods were validated by comparison with experimental results. Once the design methods had been formulated, the resouce requirements and power costs were determined for the uranium-fueled SSCR. The ore requirements of the UO 2 once-through fuel cycle and the UO 2 fuel cycle with self-generated recycle (SGR) of plutonium were found to be 10% and 19% less than those of similarly fueled PWRs, respectively. A fuel cycle optimization study was performed for the UO 2 once-through SSCR and the SGR SSCR. By individually altering lattice parameters, discharge exposure or number of in-core batches, savings of less than 8% in resource requirements and less than 1% in power costs were obtained

  10. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-01-01

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  11. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-12-15

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  12. Towards evaluation and prediction of building sustainability using life cycle behaviour simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzouk Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays researchers and practitioners are oriented towards questioning how effective are the different building life cycle activities contribution to preserving the environment and fulfilling the need for equilibrium. Terminologies such as Building sustainability and Green Buildings have long been adopted yet the evaluation of such has been driven through the use of rating systems. LEED of the United States, BREEAM of the United Kingdom, and Pearl of the United Arab Emirates are namely good examples of these rating systems. This paper introduces a new approach for evaluation of building life cycle sustainability through simulation of activities interaction and studying its behaviour. The effort focuses on comprehending impact and effect of suitability related activities over the whole building life cycle or period of time. The methodology includes gathering a pool of parameters through benchmarking of five selected rating systems, analytical factorization for the gathered parameters is used to elect the most influencing parameters. Followed by simulation modelling using System dynamics to capture the interaction of the considered parameters. The resulting behaviour obtained from simulation is studied and used in designing a tool for prediction of sustainability.

  13. An integrated automatic system to evaluate U and Th dynamic lixiviation from solid matrices, and to extract/pre-concentrate leached analytes previous ICP-MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Melisa Rodas; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor; Ferrer, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Leached fractions of U and Th from different environmental solid matrices were evaluated by an automatic system enabling the on-line lixiviation and extraction/pre-concentration of these two elements previous ICP-MS detection. UTEVA resin was used as selective extraction material. Ten leached fraction, using artificial rainwater (pH 5.4) as leaching agent, and a residual fraction were analyzed for each sample, allowing the study of behavior of U and Th in dynamic lixiviation conditions. Multivariate techniques have been employed for the efficient optimization of the independent variables that affect the lixiviation process. The system reached LODs of 0.1 and 0.7ngkg -1 of U and Th, respectively. The method was satisfactorily validated for three solid matrices, by the analysis of a soil reference material (IAEA-375), a certified sediment reference material (BCR- 320R) and a phosphogypsum reference material (MatControl CSN-CIEMAT 2008). Besides, environmental samples were analyzed, showing a similar behavior, i.e. the content of radionuclides decreases with the successive extractions. In all cases, the accumulative leached fraction of U and Th for different solid matrices studied (soil, sediment and phosphogypsum) were extremely low, up to 0.05% and 0.005% of U and Th, respectively. However, a great variability was observed in terms of mass concentration released, e.g. between 44 and 13,967ngUkg -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. French previously untreated patients with severe hemophilia A after exposure to recombinant factor VIII : incidence of inhibitor and evaluation of immune tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, C; Laurian, Y; Satre, E P; Borel Derlon, A; Chambost, H; Moreau, P; Goudemand, J; Parquet, A; Peynet, J; Vicariot, M; Beurrier, P; Claeyssens, S; Durin, A; Faradji, A; Fressinaud, E; Gaillard, S; Guérin, V; Guérois, C; Pernod, G; Pouzol, P; Schved, J F; Gazengel, C

    1998-11-01

    Fifty French previously untreated patients with severe hemophilia A (factor VIII brand of recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII), were evaluated for inhibitor development, assessment of risk factors and outcome of immune tolerance regimen. The median period on study was 32 months (range 9-74) since the first injection of rFVIII. Fourteen patients (28%) developed an inhibitor, four of whom (8%) with a high titer (> or = 10 BU). All inhibitor patients but one continued to receive rFVIII either for on-demand treatment or for immune tolerance regimen (ITR). Among these patients, inhibitor was transient in 2 (4%), became undetectable in 6 and was still present in 6. The prevalence of inhibitor was 12%. Presence of intron 22 inversion was found to be a risk factor for inhibitor development. Immune tolerance was difficult to achieve in our series despite a follow-up period of 16 to 30 months: immune tolerance was complete in only one out of the 3 patients undergoing low dose ITR and in one out of the 5 patients with high dose ITR.

  15. Evaluation of carbon dioxide blends with isopentane and propane as working fluids for organic Rankine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Pardeep; Kumar, Pramod; Srinivasan, Kandadai; Dutta, Pradip

    2013-01-01

    The main theme of this paper is to study the flammability suppression of hydrocarbons by blending with carbon dioxide, and to evaluate these mixtures as possible working fluids in organic Rankine cycle for medium temperature concentrated solar power applications. The analysis takes into account inevitable irreversibilities in the turbine, the pump, and heat exchangers. While the isopentane + CO 2 mixture suffers from high irreversibility mainly in the regenerator owing to a large temperature glide, the propane + CO 2 mixture performs more or less the same as pure propane albeit with high cycle pressures. In general, large temperature glides at condensing pressures extend the heat recovery into the two-phase dome, which is an advantage. However, at the same time, the shift of the pinch point towards the warm end of the regenerator is found to be a major cause of irreversibility. In fact, as the number of carbon atoms in alkanes decreases, their blend with CO 2 moves the pinch point to the colder end of the regenerator. This results in lower entropy generation in the regenerator and improved cycle efficiency of propane + CO 2 mixtures. With this mixture, real cycle efficiencies of 15–18% are achievable at a moderate source temperature of 573 K. Applicability for a wide range of source temperatures is found to be an added advantage of this mixture. -- Highlights: ► Non-water based working fluids and their mixtures for power generation. ► Results for carbon dioxide blends with isopentane and propane. ► Appropriation of irreversibilities in cycle components. ► Entropy generation based on pinch point of regenerator and heat source temperature

  16. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  17. Evaluation of mechanisms for trans-nationalizing research and development for reducing life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Kurakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article demonstrates that alongside the process of trans-nationalizing the scientific driven and hightech production there is a trend arising in trans-nationalising scientific-technological sphere and global venture capital. There is evaluated the scale of the diffusion of Russian venture capital and its investment preferences. Using the examples of projects, related to the development of the new generation of antitumor drugs, there are analysed models for reducing the life cycle of domestic scientific developments in the format of using the benefits of various national innovation ecosystems and practices. A conclusion is made about the relevancy of reproduction of the life cycle of a high-tech product in the global scope of resources, markets and investments.

  18. The Life Cycle CO2 (LCCO2 Evaluation of Retrofits for Water-Saving Fittings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutoshi Shimizu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of measures being taken against global warming, the reduction of CO2 emissions by retrofitting for water-saving fittings in homes is spreading throughout the world. However, although this retrofitting reduces the environmental impact at the use stage, it generates new impacts at the production and disposal stages. In addition, there has been little research that discusses the reduction in environmental impact obtained by retrofitting from the viewpoint of the overall life cycle of such fittings. In this paper, an evaluation of the environmental impact of retrofitting in terms of the entire life cycle was carried out for toilet bowls and showerheads. The findings show that even for a toilet bowl that generates a large environmental load at the production stage, there is no overall increase in the environmental impact by retrofitting for the average usable life of 20 years.

  19. Oil and gas platforms with steam bottoming cycles: System integration and thermoenvironomic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Tock, Laurence; Breuhaus, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The integration of steam bottoming cycles on oil and gas platforms is currently regarded as the most promising option for improving the performance of these energy-intensive systems. In this paper, a North Sea platform is taken as case study, and a systematic analysis of its energy requirements...... is conducted. The site-scale integration of steam networks is evaluated, based on thermodynamic, economic and environmental performance indicators. The penalties induced by operational restrictions such as (i) the use of a heat transfer loop, (ii) the demand for a heat buffer, (iii) the selection of a specific...... cooling utility, and (iv) the weight limitations on the platform are quantitatively assessed. The results illustrate the benefits of converting the gas turbine process into a combined cycle, since the fuel gas consumption and the total CO2-emissions can be reduced by more than 15 %. Using the cooling...

  20. Evaluation of advanced coal gasification combined-cycle systems under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems have not been commercially demonstrated, and uncertainties remain regarding their commercial-scale performance and cost. Therefore, a probabilistic evaluation method has been developed and applied to explicitly consider these uncertainties. The insights afforded by this method are illustrated for an IGCC design featuring a fixed-bed gasifier and a hot gas cleanup system. Detailed case studies are conducted to characterize uncertainties in key measures of process performance and cost, evaluate design trade-offs under uncertainty, identify research priorities, evaluate the potential benefits of additional research, compare results for different uncertainty assumptions, and compare the advanced IGCC system to a conventional system under uncertainty. The implications of probabilistic results for research planning and technology selection are discussed in this paper

  1. Evaluation of the Effects of Menstrual Cycle on Anterior Chamber Parameters as Measured with Pentacam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Seyhan Karatepe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the effects of endogenous gonadotropic hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and sex steroids (progesterone, estrogen to anterior segment parameters. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Thirty healthy females who had a menstrual cycle of 28±1 day and with a mean age of 36.5±7.56 (range, 20 – 46 years were included in the study. Starting from the first day of their cycle, Pentacam Scheimpflug camera measurements were performed on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 12th, 16th, 21st, 26th, and 28th days. The central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, anterior segment volume, keratometric values, anterior chamber angle value, and pupilla diameter of both eyes were evaluated. Repeated measures analysis of variance test was used for statistical analysis. Re sults: No difference that reaches statistical significance was found in the means of central corneal thickness, anterior chamber volume, keratometric values, anterior chamber angle, and pupilla diameter between the days. Mean anterior chamber depth measurement of the right eyes on the 1st day was 2.72±0.44 mm, whereas it was 2.77±0.46 mm on the 26th day. Mean anterior chamber depth measurement of the left eyes on the 1st day was 2.74±0.42 mm, whereas it was 2.80±0.43 mm on the 26th day. This increment of anterior chamber depth value from the 1st to the 26th days was found to be statistically significant (p≤0.05. Dis cus si on: Progesterone and estrogen that rise in the second half of the menstrual cycle might have a deepening effect on the anterior chamber. These findings should be further investigated with more profound studies that also evaluate the hormonal values and their correlations with anterior segment parameters. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 15-8

  2. Evaluation of Electromyographic Frequency Domain Changes during a Three-Minute Maximal Effort Cycling Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Wang, David H. Fukuda, Jeffrey R. Stout, Edward H. Robinson, Amelia A. Miramonti, Maren S. Fragala, Jay R. Hoffman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the time course of EMG frequency changes during a three-minute maximal effort cycling test (3MT session and to examine which parameter between mean (MNF and median (MDF frequency is more suitable for evaluation of changes in neuromuscular function throughout a 3MT. Eighteen recreationally-active men volunteered to participate in this study. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC was measured using a dynamometer to determine maximal EMG frequency of the vastus lateralis (VL of the kicking leg during isometric knee extension. A maximal oxygen consumption test (VO2peak on a cycle ergometer was performed to establish the appropriate load profile for the 3MT which was completed after a period of at least 48 hours. MNF, MDF and power output (PO values were measured at 10-second epochs throughout the duration of the 3MT. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare the changes in EMG frequency, relative to maximal values from the MVC, and change in PO during the testing procedure. MNF, Root Mean Square (RMS, and PO significantly decreased during the 3MT, while MDF did not change significantly. Statistically, EMG frequency and PO decreased at first and remained constant in response to the 3MT, which may be reflective of differing patterns of muscle fiber type fatigue throughout the testing session. Due to decreased variability, changes in neuromuscular function during this protocol may be better evaluated using MNF than MDF.

  3. System Life Cycle Evaluation(SM) (SLiCE): harmonizing water treatment systems with implementers' needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joseph; Caravati, Kevin; Foote, Andrew; Nelson, Molly; Woods, Emily

    2013-06-01

    One of the methods proposed to improve access to clean drinking water is the mobile packaged water treatment system (MPWTS). The lack of published system performance comparisons combined with the diversity of technology available and intended operating conditions make it difficult for stakeholders to choose the system best suited for their application. MPWTS are often deployed in emergency situations, making selection of the appropriate system crucial to avoiding wasted resources and loss of life. Measurable critical-to-quality characteristics (CTQs) and a system selection tool for MPWTS were developed by utilizing relevant literature, including field studies, and implementing and comparing seven different MPWTS. The proposed System Life Cycle Evaluation (SLiCE) method uses these CTQs to evaluate the diversity in system performance and harmonize relevant performance with stakeholder preference via a selection tool. Agencies and field workers can use SLiCE results to inform and drive decision-making. The evaluation and selection tool also serves as a catalyst for communicating system performance, common design flaws, and stakeholder needs to system manufacturers. The SLiCE framework can be adopted into other emerging system technologies to communicate system performance over the life cycle of use.

  4. The Life Cycle Evaluation Model of External Diseconomy of Open-loop Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Hu, Tianjun

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, with the continuous deterioration of pollution, resource space is gradually narrowed, the number of waste items increased, people began to use the method of recycling on waste products to ease the pressure on the environment. This paper adopted the external diseconomy of open-loop supply chain as the research object and constructed the model by the life cycle evaluation method, comparative analysis through the case. This paper also concludes that the key to solving the problem is to realize the closed-loop supply chain and building reverse logistics system is of great significance.

  5. Study on the FBR cycle introduction scenario. 4. Evaluation of the FBR cycle introduction scenario from the viewpoints of the fuel cycle requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Kiyoshi; Shiotani, Hiroki; Hirao, Kazunori

    2003-07-01

    This report is intended to explain the outline of the scenario studies on FBR (Fast Breeder Reactor) cycle introduction. Recently, people value the reduction of environmental impact in addition to the recycle of energy resources and the energy security in these scenario studies. This report summarizes the analysis about the necessity of plutonium recycling in LWR (Light water Reactor) from short-term view and about the necessity of FBR cycle introduction from a long-term view in Japan, by comparing 'FBR scenario' with 'LWR once-through scenario' and 'Pu recycle in LWR scenario', from the viewpoints of cumulative uranium demand, spent fuel storage, radioactive waste arising, etc. It becomes clear that the plutonium recycling in LWR has a good effect on the reduction of spent fuel storage and the cumulative natural uranium demand before FBR cycle introduction, from short-term view (20-30 years). On the other hand, this analysis also shows that there is much effect of FBR deployment not only on saving amount of uranium use and energy security but also on reduction of high-level radioactive waste (spent fuels and vitrified waste) and minor actinide arising, from long-term view (100-200 years). (author)

  6. Development of new historical global Nitrogen fertilizer map and the evaluation of their impacts on terrestrial N cycling and the evaluation of their impacts on terrestrial N cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishina, K.; Ito, A.; Hayashi, S.

    2015-12-01

    The use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer was rapidly growing up after the birth of Haber-Bosch process in the early 20th century. The recent N loading derived from these sources on terrestrial ecosystems was estimated 2 times higher than biogenic N fixation in terrestrial ecosystems (Gruber et al., 2009). However, there are still large uncertainties in cumulative N impacts on terrestrial impact at global scale. In this study, to assess historical N impacts at global scale, we made a new global N fertilizer input map, which was a spatial-temporal explicit map (during 1960-2010) and considered the fraction of NH4+ and NO3- in the N fertilizer inputs. With the developed N fertilizer map, we evaluated historical N20 cycling changes by land-use changes and N depositions in N cycling using ecosystem model 'VISIT'. Prior to the downscaling processes for global N fertilizer map, we applied the statistical data imputation to FAOSTAT data due to there existing many missing data especially in developing countries. For the data imputation, we used multiple data imputation method proposed by Honaker & King (2010). The statistics of various types of synthetic fertilizer consumption are available in FAOSTAT, which can be sorted by the content of NH4+ and NO3-, respectively. To downscaling the country by country N fertilizer consumptions data to the 0.5˚x 0.5˚ grid-based map, we used historical land-use map in Earthstat (Rumankutty et al., 1999). Before the assignment of N fertilizer in each grid, we weighted the double cropping regions to be more N fertilizer input on to these regions. Using M3-Crops Data (Monfreda et al., 2008), we picked up the dominant cropping species in each grid cell. After that, we used Crop Calendar in SAGE dataset (Sacks et al., 2010) and determined schedule of N fertilizer input in each grid cell using dominant crop calendar. Base fertilizer was set to be 7 days before transplanting and second fertilizer to be 30 days after base fertilizer application

  7. Evaluation of isotopic composition of fast reactor core in closed nuclear fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Georgy; Ternovykh, Mikhail; Saldikov, Ivan; Fomichenko, Peter; Gerasimov, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    The strategy of the development of nuclear power in Russia provides for use of fast power reactors in closed nuclear fuel cycle. The PRORYV (i.e. «Breakthrough» in Russian) project is currently under development. Within the framework of this project, fast reactors BN-1200 and BREST-OD-300 should be built to, inter alia, demonstrate possibility of the closed nuclear fuel cycle technologies with plutonium as a main source of energy. Russia has a large inventory of plutonium which was accumulated in the result of reprocessing of spent fuel of thermal power reactors and conversion of nuclear weapons. This kind of plutonium will be used for development of initial fuel assemblies for fast reactors. The closed nuclear fuel cycle concept of the PRORYV assumes self-supplied mode of operation with fuel regeneration by neutron capture reaction in non-enriched uranium, which is used as a raw material. Operating modes of reactors and its characteristics should be chosen so as to provide the self-sufficient mode by using of fissile isotopes while refueling by depleted uranium and to support this state during the entire period of reactor operation. Thus, the actual issue is modeling fuel handling processes. To solve these problems, the code REPRORYV (Recycle for PRORYV) has been developed. It simulates nuclide streams in non-reactor stages of the closed fuel cycle. At the same time various verified codes can be used to evaluate in-core characteristics of a reactor. By using this approach various options for nuclide streams and assess the impact of different plutonium content in the fuel, fuel processing conditions, losses during fuel processing, as well as the impact of initial uncertainties on neutron-physical characteristics of reactor are considered in this study.

  8. AGRONOMIC EVALUATION OF BANANA PLANTS IN THREE PRODUCTION CYCLES IN SOUTHWESTERN STATE OF BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRO DE MAGALHÃES ARANTES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This assay was conducted in the experimental area of the Federal Institute of Bahia, Campus Guanambi, BA, and aimed to evaluate agronomic traits of Prata, Cavendish, Gros Michel and Maçã banana cultivars three production cycles. The 72 treatments, 24 cultivars and three production cycles were arranged in a split plot scheme in time, in a completely randomized design with five replications and four plants per plot. Plots were arranged in 24 cultivars, Prata-Anã, Maravilha, FHIA-18, FHIA-18 BRS, BRS Platina, JV42-135, Pacovan, Japira, PV79-34, Pacovan-Ken, Preciosa, Guarantida, Maçã, Caipira, BRS Tropical, BRS Princesa, YB42-03, YB42-07, YB42-47, Grande-Naine, Calypso, Buccaneiro, FHIA-23 and FHIA-17; and subplots consisted of three production cycles. Data obtained were submitted to analysis of variance. The average of the cultivars were grouped by Scott-Knott criterion (p<0.05 and production cycles compared by Tukey test (p<0.05. ‘JV42-235’, ‘Japira’ and ‘Pacovan-Ken’ cultivars had larger size and ‘Grande Naine’ had smaller size. ‘Prata-Anã’ cultivar had higher number of leaves at harvest, with leaf area index similar to the others. ‘BRS Platina’ cultivar is earlier at flowering and harvest. ‘Maravilha’, ‘BRS Platina’, ‘FHIA-23’, ‘BRS Tropical and BRS Princesa’ cultivars presented greater potential for use by farmers.

  9. Evaluation of isotopic composition of fast reactor core in closed nuclear fuel cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tikhomirov Georgy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The strategy of the development of nuclear power in Russia provides for use of fast power reactors in closed nuclear fuel cycle. The PRORYV (i.e. «Breakthrough» in Russian project is currently under development. Within the framework of this project, fast reactors BN-1200 and BREST-OD-300 should be built to, inter alia, demonstrate possibility of the closed nuclear fuel cycle technologies with plutonium as a main source of energy. Russia has a large inventory of plutonium which was accumulated in the result of reprocessing of spent fuel of thermal power reactors and conversion of nuclear weapons. This kind of plutonium will be used for development of initial fuel assemblies for fast reactors. The closed nuclear fuel cycle concept of the PRORYV assumes self-supplied mode of operation with fuel regeneration by neutron capture reaction in non-enriched uranium, which is used as a raw material. Operating modes of reactors and its characteristics should be chosen so as to provide the self-sufficient mode by using of fissile isotopes while refueling by depleted uranium and to support this state during the entire period of reactor operation. Thus, the actual issue is modeling fuel handling processes. To solve these problems, the code REPRORYV (Recycle for PRORYV has been developed. It simulates nuclide streams in non-reactor stages of the closed fuel cycle. At the same time various verified codes can be used to evaluate in-core characteristics of a reactor. By using this approach various options for nuclide streams and assess the impact of different plutonium content in the fuel, fuel processing conditions, losses during fuel processing, as well as the impact of initial uncertainties on neutron-physical characteristics of reactor are considered in this study.

  10. Multicentre evaluation of targeted and systematic biopsies using magnetic resonance and ultrasound image-fusion guided transperineal prostate biopsy in patients with a previous negative biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Nienke L; Kesch, Claudia; Barrett, Tristan; Koo, Brendan; Radtke, Jan P; Bonekamp, David; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Warren, Anne Y; Wieczorek, Kathrin; Hohenfellner, Markus; Kastner, Christof; Hadaschik, Boris

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the detection rates of targeted and systematic biopsies in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) image-fusion transperineal prostate biopsy for patients with previous benign transrectal biopsies in two high-volume centres. A two centre prospective outcome study of 487 patients with previous benign biopsies that underwent transperineal MRI/US fusion-guided targeted and systematic saturation biopsy from 2012 to 2015. Multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) was reported according to Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) Version 1. Detection of Gleason score 7-10 prostate cancer on biopsy was the primary outcome. Positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values including 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Detection rates of targeted and systematic biopsies were compared using McNemar's test. The median (interquartile range) PSA level was 9.0 (6.7-13.4) ng/mL. PI-RADS 3-5 mpMRI lesions were reported in 343 (70%) patients and Gleason score 7-10 prostate cancer was detected in 149 (31%). The PPV (95% CI) for detecting Gleason score 7-10 prostate cancer was 0.20 (±0.07) for PI-RADS 3, 0.32 (±0.09) for PI-RADS 4, and 0.70 (±0.08) for PI-RADS 5. The NPV (95% CI) of PI-RADS 1-2 was 0.92 (±0.04) for Gleason score 7-10 and 0.99 (±0.02) for Gleason score ≥4 + 3 cancer. Systematic biopsies alone found 125/138 (91%) Gleason score 7-10 cancers. In patients with suspicious lesions (PI-RADS 4-5) on mpMRI, systematic biopsies would not have detected 12/113 significant prostate cancers (11%), while targeted biopsies alone would have failed to diagnose 10/113 (9%). In equivocal lesions (PI-RADS 3), targeted biopsy alone would not have diagnosed 14/25 (56%) of Gleason score 7-10 cancers, whereas systematic biopsies alone would have missed 1/25 (4%). Combination with PSA density improved the area under the curve of PI-RADS from 0.822 to 0.846. In patients with high probability mpMRI lesions, the highest detection rates of Gleason

  11. Integrated evaluation framework. Based on the logical framework approach for project cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This Integrated Evaluation Framework (IEF) was developed by TC Evaluation with the aim of presenting in a comprehensive manner the logic of thinking used when evaluating projects and programmes. Thus, in the first place, the intended audience for this report are evaluation officers, so that when applying the evaluation procedures and check lists, data can be organized following a systematic and logical scheme and conclusions can be derived ''objectively''. The value of such a framework for reporting on performance and in providing a quality reference for disbursements represents one of its major advantages. However, when developing and applying the IEF, it was realized that a Logical Framework Approach (LFA), like the one upon which the IEF is based, needs to be followed throughout the project life cycle, from the Country Programme Framework planning stage, through project design and implementation. Then, the helpful consequences flow into project design quality and smooth implementation. It is only in such an environment that meaningful and consistent evaluation can take place. Therefore the main audience for this report are Agency staff involved in planning, designing and implementing TC projects as well as their counterparts in Member States. In this understanding, the IEF was subjected to review by a consultants meeting, which included both external consultants and Agency staff. This Consultants Review Meeting encouraged the Secretariat to further adopt the LFA into the TC management process

  12. Clinical evaluation of recombinant factor VIII preparation (Kogenate) in previously treated patients with hemophilia A: descriptive meta-analysis of post-marketing study data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, A; Fukutake, K; Takamatsu, J; Shirahata, A

    2006-08-01

    The safety and efficacy of Kogenate, a recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) preparation for the treatment of bleeding episodes, were studied in a 123-patient meta-analysis population of previously treated patients (PTPs), including 15 enrolled in the registration Phase III trial (PTP-I group), 93 from the post-marketing special investigation (PTP-II group), and 15 from short-term special investigations in surgery or tooth extraction (SI group). These patients (82 severe, 31 moderate, 9 mild, and 1 unknown), aged 11 months to 72 years, were enrolled in 28 centers in Japan. Blood samples taken at the baseline and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after the introduction of Kogenate were evaluated for FVIII inhibitor antibodies, antibodies formed against trace proteins derived from the rFVIII production process, and for general changes in laboratory test results. Mean exposure to Kogenate was 1103 days in PTP-I, 86 days in PTP-II, 27 days in patients in surgery, and 2 days in patients with tooth extraction. Assessment of FVIII inhibitor activity was conducted in 115 of the 123 patients by means of the Bethesda assay. Twelve patients were found to have a low titer of FVIII inhibitor (0.5-3.0 BU/mL) prior to any administration of Kogenate, and 103 were inhibitor-negative at the baseline. Among this latter group, 3 patients (2.9%) tested inhibitor-positive, with titers ranging from 1.2 to 2.1 BU/mL, with 4 patients below 1.0 BU/mL. One patient in the 11 PTPs investigated (PTP-I) developed antibodies against baby hamster kidney protein and mouse immunoglobulin G, but these findings were transient and asymptomatic. Hemostasis was achieved (markedly effective or effective) in 3666 of the 3855 bleeding episodes (95.1%) observed in 108 patients. Only 1 infusion was necessary in 3790 (98.3%) of these episodes. These data indicate that Kogenate is safe and very effective for the treatment of bleeding in PTPs with hemophilia A.

  13. Malignant mixed Mullerian tumors of the uterus: histopathological evaluation of cell cycle and apoptotic regulatory proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senger Jenna-Lynn B

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim The aim of our study was to evaluate survival outcomes in malignant mixed Mullerian tumors (MMMT of the uterus with respect to the role of cell cycle and apoptotic regulatory proteins in the carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. Methods 23 cases of uterine MMMT identified from the Saskatchewan Cancer Agency (1970-1999 were evaluated. Immunohistochemical expression of Bad, Mcl-1, bcl-x, bak, mdm2, bax, p16, p21, p53, p27, EMA, Bcl-2, Ki67 and PCNA was correlated with clinico-pathological data including survival outcomes. Results Histopathological examination confirmed malignant epithelial component with homologous (12 cases and heterologous (11 cases sarcomatous elements. P53 was strongly expressed (70-95% in 15 cases and negative in 5 cases. The average survival in the p53+ve cases was 3.56 years as opposed to 8.94 years in p53-ve cases. Overexpression of p16 and Mcl-1 were observed in patients with longer survival outcomes (> 2 years. P16 and p21 were overexpressed in the carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements respectively. Cyclin-D1 was focally expressed only in the carcinomatous elements. Conclusions Our study supports that a cell cycle and apoptotic regulatory protein dysregulation is an important pathway for tumorigenesis and b p53 is an important immunoprognostic marker in MMMT of the uterus.

  14. Evaluation of bioaugmentation using multiple life cycle assessment approaches: A case study of constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyue; Yang, Jixian; Zhang, Xuedong; Wang, Li; Ma, Fang

    2017-11-01

    Bioaugmentation is a promising technology to enhance the removal of specific pollutants; however, environmental impacts of implementing bioaugmentation have not been considered in most studies. Appropriate methodology is required for the evaluation from both in-depth and comprehensive perspectives, which leads to this study initiating the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) of bioaugmentation. Two LCA methods (CML and e-Balance) were applied to a bioaugmentation case with the aim of illustrating how to evaluate the environmental impacts of bioaugmentation from different perspectives based on the selection of different LCA methods. The results of the case study demonstrated that the LCA methods with different methodology emphasis produced different outcomes, which could lead to differentiated optimization strategies depending on the associated perspectives. Furthermore, three important aspects are discussed, including coverage of impact categories, the selection of characterization modeling for specific pollutants, and the requirement of including economic indicators for future investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. MEBS, a software platform to evaluate large (meta)genomic collections according to their metabolic machinery: unraveling the sulfur cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Anda, Valerie; Zapata-Peñasco, Icoquih; Poot-Hernandez, Augusto Cesar; Eguiarte, Luis E; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Souza, Valeria

    2017-11-01

    The increasing number of metagenomic and genomic sequences has dramatically improved our understanding of microbial diversity, yet our ability to infer metabolic capabilities in such datasets remains challenging. We describe the Multigenomic Entropy Based Score pipeline (MEBS), a software platform designed to evaluate, compare, and infer complex metabolic pathways in large "omic" datasets, including entire biogeochemical cycles. MEBS is open source and available through https://github.com/eead-csic-compbio/metagenome_Pfam_score. To demonstrate its use, we modeled the sulfur cycle by exhaustively curating the molecular and ecological elements involved (compounds, genes, metabolic pathways, and microbial taxa). This information was reduced to a collection of 112 characteristic Pfam protein domains and a list of complete-sequenced sulfur genomes. Using the mathematical framework of relative entropy (H΄), we quantitatively measured the enrichment of these domains among sulfur genomes. The entropy of each domain was used both to build up a final score that indicates whether a (meta)genomic sample contains the metabolic machinery of interest and to propose marker domains in metagenomic sequences such as DsrC (PF04358). MEBS was benchmarked with a dataset of 2107 non-redundant microbial genomes from RefSeq and 935 metagenomes from MG-RAST. Its performance, reproducibility, and robustness were evaluated using several approaches, including random sampling, linear regression models, receiver operator characteristic plots, and the area under the curve metric (AUC). Our results support the broad applicability of this algorithm to accurately classify (AUC = 0.985) hard-to-culture genomes (e.g., Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator), previously characterized ones, and metagenomic environments such as hydrothermal vents, or deep-sea sediment. Our benchmark indicates that an entropy-based score can capture the metabolic machinery of interest and can be used to efficiently classify

  16. Evaluation of ejector performance for an organic Rankine cycle combined power and cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kun; Chen, Xue; Markides, Christos N.; Yang, Yong; Shen, Shengqiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance of an ejector in an Organic Rankine Cycle and ejector refrigeration cycle (EORC) was evaluated. • The achieved entrainment ratio and COP of an EORC system is affected significantly by the evaporator conditions (such as temperature, pressure and flow rate). • An optimum distance of 6 mm nozzle position was found that ensures a maximum entrainment ratio, the best efficiency and lowest loss in the ejector. • A reduced total pressure loss between the nozzle inlet and exit leads to a lower energy loss, a higher entrainment ratio and better overall ejector performance. - Abstract: Power-generation systems based on organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) are well suited and increasingly employed in the conversion of thermal energy from low temperature heat sources to power. These systems can be driven by waste heat, for example from various industrial processes, as well as solar or geothermal energy. A useful extension of such systems involves a combined ORC and ejector-refrigeration cycle (EORC) that is capable, at low cost and complexity, of producing useful power while having a simultaneous capacity for cooling that is highly desirable in many applications. A significant thermodynamic loss in such a combined energy system takes place in the ejector due to unavoidable losses caused by irreversible mixing in this component. This paper focuses on the flow and transport processes in an ejector, in order to understand and quantify the underlying reasons for these losses, as well as their sensitivity to important design parameters and operational variables. Specifically, the study considers, beyond variations to the geometric design of the ejector, also the role of changing the external conditions across this component and how these affect its performance; this is not only important in helping develop ejector designs in the first instance, but also in evaluating how the performance may shift (in fact, deteriorate) quantitatively when the device

  17. Performance evaluation of free piston compressor coupling organic Rankine cycle under different operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yongqiang; Kang, Jianjian; Zhang, Guangpan; Liu, Zhongchang; Tian, Jing; Chai, Jiahong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An ORC-FPC is proposed to recover the waste heat of exhaust gas. • The simulation model has been established in GT-Suite ver. 7.0. • Performances of ORC-FPC under different operating conditions have been evaluated. • Performances prediction of the ORC-FPC for real application has been made in the paper. - Abstract: An organic Rankine cycle coupling free piston compressor (ORC-FPC) system has been proposed, which is used in recovering the waste heat of exhaust gas from the stationary compressed nature gas (CNG) fueled internal combustion compressor. The free piston compressor functions as an expander in ORC and operates reciprocally to compress natural gas in compression cylinders to demanded pressure. After capturing the waste heat available and turning into vapor in evaporator, the working fluid R245ca can provide power to drive the free piston moving reciprocally in expander. The model of ORC-FPC built up in the GT-suite ver. 7.0 assists evaluating performances of this system under different operating conditions. In this paper, the operating condition includes two aspects: thermodynamic state of working fluid and input power. The purpose of simulation based on the model is to specify appropriate thermodynamic states of working fluid which yield high value of η (the ratio of work produced by the power piston to enthalpy reduction of working fluid in the power cylinder) and k (the ratio of output CNG’s mass to enthalpy reduction of working fluid in the power cylinder) value. Performances of the ORC-FPC under different input power, which determined by the operating frequency and injection quantity of the heated working fluid, have also been evaluated. Results show that when the heated working fluid is at 11.5 bar and 383 K, the system achieves better performances than other thermodynamic states, of which k is 601.1 mg/kJ and η is 44.3%. Based on the optimum thermodynamic state and the principle of obtaining the maximum k, the specific input

  18. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  19. Assessing Cycling Participation in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Rissel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning and evaluating cycling programs at a national or state level requires accurate measures of cycling participation. However, recent reports of cycling participation have produced very different estimates. This paper examines the reported rates of cycling in five recent population surveys of cycling. Three surveys (one national and two from Sydney asking respondents when they last rode a bicycle generated cycling participation (cycled in the past year estimates of 29.7%, 34.1% and 28.9%. Two other national surveys which asked participants to recall (unprompted any physical activity done for exercise, recreation or sport in the previous 12 months, estimated cycling in the past year as 11.1% and 6.5%. While unprompted recall of cycling as a type of physical activity generates lower estimates of cycling participation than specific recall questions, both assessment approaches produced similar patterns of cycling by age and sex with both approaches indicating fewer women and older adults cycling. The different question styles most likely explain the substantial discrepancies between the estimates of cycling participation. Some differences are to be expected due to sampling variability, question differences, and regional variation in cycling.

  20. Cycling Promotion and Non-Communicable Disease Prevention: Health Impact Assessment and Economic Evaluation of Cycling to Work or School in Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Cristina; Gnesotto, Roberto; Forni, Silvia; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo; Vannucci, Andrea; Garofalo, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effects of cycling promotion on major non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and costs from the public healthcare payer’s perspective. Design Health impact assessment and economic evaluation using a dynamic model over a ten-year period and according to two cycling promotion scenarios. Setting Cycling to work or school in Florence, Italy. Population All individuals aged 15 and older commuting to work or school in Florence. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measures were changes in NCD incidence and healthcare direct costs for the Tuscany Regional Health Service (SST) due to increased cycling. The secondary outcome was change in road traffic accidents. Results Increasing cycling modal share in Florence from 7.5% to about 17% (Scenario 1) or 27% (Scenario 2) could decrease the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 1.2% or 2.5%, and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke by 0.6% or 1.2%. Within 10 years, the number of cases that can be prevented is 280 or 549 for type 2 diabetes, 51 or 100 for AMI, and 51 or 99 for stroke in Scenario 1 or Scenario 2, respectively. Average annual discounted savings for the SST are estimated to amount to €400,804 or €771,201 in Scenario 1 or Scenario 2, respectively. In Florence, due to the high use of vulnerable motorized vehicles (such as scooters, mopeds, and motorcycles), road traffic accidents are expected to decline in both our scenarios. Sensitivity analyses showed that health benefits and savings for the SST are substantial, the most sensitive parameters being the relative risk estimates of NCDs and active commuting. Conclusions Effective policies and programs to promote a modal shift towards cycling among students and workers in Florence will contribute to reducing the NCD burden and helping long-term economic sustainability of the SST. PMID:25928421

  1. Function's evaluation, perfusion and metabolism by positron emission tomography associated with multislice tomography (PET/CT) in patient with previous diagnosis to myocardial necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campisi, Roxana; Aramayo, Natalia; Osorio, Amilcar

    2010-01-01

    A 64-years-old male patient with previous diagnosis of myocardial necrosis as assessed by myocardial perfusion gated single photon emission computed tomography (gSPECT) with 3-vessel-disease, left ventricular dysfunction and symptomatic by epigastric pain. The patient was referred for myocardial viability assessment by positron emission tomography (PET) to define clinical management decision. (authors) [es

  2. Health education to improve repeat participation in the Dutch breast cancer screening programme: evaluation of a leaflet tailored to previous participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Boer, Hendrik; Seydel, E.R.

    1996-01-01

    Participation in breast cancer screening programmes often declines in the course of the programme. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether health education could diminish the amount of drop-outs between two screening rounds. The health education was tailored to women who previously

  3. Thermoeconomic evaluation and optimization of a Brayton–Rankine–Kalina combined triple power cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Omendra Kumar; Kaushik, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Combustion chamber performance can improve much by investment in efficient design. • Steam turbine performance would also improve by investment in efficient design. • Minimum total cost rate of plant found at gas cycle pressure ratio of around 14. • Total cost rate decreases significantly by decreasing the inlet air temperature. • Total cost rate decreases a little by increasing the inlet air relative humidity. - Abstract: This paper presents thermoeconomic analysis and optimization of a Brayton–Rankine–Kalina combined triple power cycle using Specific Exergy Costing (SPECO) methodology. Cost-balance and auxiliary equations are formulated for each component and for each node and solved through a MATLAB program to get the average cost per unit exergy at different state points. To evaluate the cost effectiveness of the system, the values of thermoeconomic variables for each component are calculated. Large relative cost difference is observed in the steam turbine, HRSG’s, combustion chambers, compressors, recuperators and ammonia–water evaporator. Therefore, these components require greater attention. The performance of steam turbine, combustion chambers, recuperators and ammonia–water evaporator can be appreciably improved by capital investment into more efficient design due to their low values of exergoeconomic factor. The performance of HRSG’s can be improved only marginally due to slightly higher value of exergoeconomic factor but no such recommendation can be made for the compressors which have a quite high value of exergoeconomic factor. The objective function of the thermoeconomic optimization is the minimization of the total cost rate for the whole plant. Its minimum value is found to occur at a gas cycle pressure ratio of around 14. Decreasing inlet air temperature decreases this objective function parameter significantly while increasing relative humidity causes a small decrease in it

  4. Evaluation of a solar-powered organic Rankine cycle using dry organic working fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Spayde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model to evaluate the performance of a solar-powered organic Rankine cycle (ORC. The system was evaluated in Jackson, MS, using five dry organic working fluids, R218, R227ea, R236ea, R236fa, and RC318. The purpose of this study is to investigate how hourly temperature change affects the electricity production and exergy destruction rates of the solar ORC, and to determine the effect of the working fluid on the proposed system. The system was also evaluated in Tucson, AZ, to investigate the effect of average hourly outdoor temperatures on its performance. The potential of the system to reduce primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions is also investigated. A parametric analysis to determine how temperature and pressure of the organic working fluid, the solar collector area, and the turbine efficiency affect the electricity production is performed. Results show that the ORC produces the most electricity during the middle of the day, when the temperatures are the highest and when the solar collectors have the highest efficiency. Also, R-236ea is the working fluid that shows the best performance of the evaluated fluids. An economic analysis was performed to determine the capital cost available for the proposed system.

  5. Once-through thorium fuel cycle evaluation for TVA's Browns Ferry-3 Boiling Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, G.C. (comp.)

    1982-05-01

    This report documents benchmark evaluations to test thorium lattice predictive methods and neutron cross sections against available data and summarizes specific evaluations of the once-through thorium cycle when applied to the Browns Ferry-3 BWR. It was concluded that appreciable uncertainties in thorium cycle nuclear data cloud the ability to reliably predict the fuel cycle performance and that power reactor irradiations of ThO/sub 2/ rods in BWRs are desirable to resolve uncertainties. Benchmark evaluations indicated that the ENDF/B-IV data used in the evaluations should cause an underprediction of U-233/ThO/sub 2/ fuel reactivity, and, therefore, the results of the preliminary evaluations completed under the program should be conservative.

  6. Evaluation of alternatives of exothermic methanization cycle for combined electricity and heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balajka, J.; Princova, H.

    1987-01-01

    The possibilities are discussed of using the ADAM-EVA system for remote heat supply from nuclear heat sources to district heating systems. Attention is devoted to the use of the exothermal methanization process (ADAM station) for the combined power and heat production, this making use of the existing hot water power distribution network. The basic parameter for the evaluation of the over-all efficiency of the combined power and heat production is the maximum methanization cycle temperature which depends on the life of the methanization catalyst. Upon temperature drop below 550 degC, the conversion process can only be secured by means of two-stage methanization, which leads to a simplification of the cycle and a reduction in investment cost. At a temperature lower than 500 degC, combined power and heat production cannot be implemented. On the contrary, a considerable amount of electric power supplied from outside the system would be needed for compression work. (Z.M.)

  7. Evaluation of U-Zr hydride fuel for a thorium fuel cycle in an RTR concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Taek; Cho, Nam Zin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    In this paper, we performed a design study of a thorium fueled reactor according to the design concept of the Radkowsky Thorium Reactor (RTR) and evaluated its overall performance. To enhance its performance and alleviate its problems, we introduced a new metallic uranium fuel, uranium-zirconium hydride (U-ZrH{sub 1.6}), as a seed fuel. For comparison, typical ABB/CE-type PWR based on SYSTEM 80+and standard RTR-type thorium reactor were also studied. From the results of performance analysis, we could ascertain advantages of RTR-type thorium fueled reactor in proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and back-end fuel cycle. Also, we found that enhancement of proliferation resistance and safer operating conditions may be achieved by using the U-ZrH{sub 1.6} fuel in the seed region without additional penalties in comparison with the standard RTR`s U-Zr fuel. 6 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  8. The usefulness of GPS bicycle tracking data for evaluating the impact of infrastructure change on cycling behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesch, Kristiann C; Langdon, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Issue addressed A key strategy to increase active travel is the construction of bicycle infrastructure. Tools to evaluate this strategy are limited. This study assessed the usefulness of a smartphone GPS tracking system for evaluating the impact of this strategy on cycling behaviour. Methods Cycling usage data were collected from Queenslanders who used a GPS tracking app on their smartphone from 2013-2014. 'Heat' and volume maps of the data were reviewed, and GPS bicycle counts were compared with surveillance data and bicycle counts from automatic traffic-monitoring devices. Results Heat maps broadly indicated that changes in cycling occurred near infrastructure improvements. Volume maps provided changes in counts of cyclists due to these improvements although errors were noted in geographic information system (GIS) geo-coding of some GPS data. Large variations were evident in the number of cyclists using the app in different locations. These variations limited the usefulness of GPS data for assessing differences in cycling across locations. Conclusion Smartphone GPS data are useful in evaluating the impact of improved bicycle infrastructure in one location. Using GPS data to evaluate differential changes in cycling across multiple locations is problematic when there is insufficient traffic-monitoring devices available to triangulate GPS data with bicycle traffic count data. So what? The use of smartphone GPS data with other data sources is recommended for assessing how infrastructure improvements influence cycling behaviour.

  9. Guidelines for evaluation of the environmental expense in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Cintia Nagako

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to establish guidelines to fit the environment account in the nuclear fuel cycle, using as study of case the uranium hexafluoride production unit of Centro Tecnologico da Marinha in Sao Paulo. The environment accounting, branch of the accounting science, supply a source of tools capable to measure the protection efforts, the nature preservation, the environment monitoring and the recovering during all the conversion phase (since the uranium concentrated, the yellow cake, up to the Uranium hexafluoride production). It was performed several researches, visits to the Centre, databank creation, interviews and extensive consulting to the preliminary safety report, in order to obtain the percentage of the total expenses related to environment protection in regarding to the total amount invested in the unit. It was also evaluated the total preserved green area making possible a preliminary environment accounting balance. (author)

  10. Life-cycle-based multicriteria sustainability evaluation of industrial parks: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin; Qi, Jing; Zhou, Shiyi; Jiang, Meiming

    2012-01-01

    Along with increasing concerns on environmental protection and global warming mitigation, new industrial organization modes such as "Ecoindustrial Park" and "Low Carbon Industrial Park" are emerging. Since ecoindustrial parks and low carbon industrial parks may offer multifaceted benefits to the users, it naturally follows that the sustainability assessment of the industrial parks ought to adopt a multicriteria methodology. In this paper, a multicriteria sustainable evaluation framework is proposed in combination with the life cycle analysis and applied to a low carbon and high end industrial park (LCHE) in Beijing, China. Results show that the LCHE industrial park can contribute to both energy-saving and greenhouse gas emission mitigations compared with other industrial parks. In terms of economic performance, although the economic profits are considerable, the investment per constructed area is relatively high. The results of sustainable analysis of the LCHE industrial park can thus shed light on future upgrading of industrial parks.

  11. Life-Cycle-Based Multicriteria Sustainability Evaluation of Industrial Parks: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with increasing concerns on environmental protection and global warming mitigation, new industrial organization modes such as “Ecoindustrial Park” and “Low Carbon Industrial Park” are emerging. Since ecoindustrial parks and low carbon industrial parks may offer multifaceted benefits to the users, it naturally follows that the sustainability assessment of the industrial parks ought to adopt a multicriteria methodology. In this paper, a multicriteria sustainable evaluation framework is proposed in combination with the life cycle analysis and applied to a low carbon and high end industrial park (LCHE in Beijing, China. Results show that the LCHE industrial park can contribute to both energy-saving and greenhouse gas emission mitigations compared with other industrial parks. In terms of economic performance, although the economic profits are considerable, the investment per constructed area is relatively high. The results of sustainable analysis of the LCHE industrial park can thus shed light on future upgrading of industrial parks.

  12. Improving evaluation of climate change impacts on the water cycle by remote sensing ET-retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. García Galiano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and intense consumptive water uses are generating pressures on water resources in the southeast of Spain. Improving the knowledge of the climate change impacts on water cycle processes at the basin scale is a step to building adaptive capacity. In this work, regional climate model (RCM ensembles are considered as an input to the hydrological model, for improving the reliability of hydroclimatic projections. To build the RCMs ensembles, the work focuses on probability density function (PDF-based evaluation of the ability of RCMs to simulate of rainfall and temperature at the basin scale. To improve the spatial calibration of the continuous hydrological model used, an algorithm for remote sensing actual evapotranspiration (AET retrieval was applied. From the results, a clear decrease in runoff is expected for 2050 in the headwater basin studied. The plausible future scenario of water shortage will produce negative impacts on the regional economy, where the main activity is irrigated agriculture.

  13. Evaluation of the importance of VlsE antigenic variation for the enzootic cycle of borrelia burgdorferi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient acquisition and transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi by the tick vector, and the ability to persistently infect both vector and host, are important elements for the life cycle of the Lyme disease pathogen. Previous work has provided strong evidence implicating the significance of the vls l...

  14. Development of a financing model for nuclear fuel cycle cost evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Yajima, Masayuki

    1984-01-01

    It is necessary to evaluate the prices of nuclear fuel pre- and post-processing in order to analyse the costs of the nuclear power generation. Those prices are directly related to the costs of construction and operation of facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. In this report, we propose a model which evaluates financing of an undertaking that constructs and operates one of the facilities such as uranium enrichment, reprocessing or interim storage of spent fuels. The model is divided into two phases, the construction phase and the operation phase. In the construction phase, it calculates expenses during the facility construction and corresponding financings for each term. In the operation phase, the model refers to the results of the construction phase and performs calculations on profits and losses, cash-flow, and disposition to profits term by according to a certain operation schedule. Using this model, feasibility of the undertaking and effects of various pricing strategies on the nuclear fuel costs can be evaluated by simulations. (author)

  15. Performance Evaluation of a Solar-Powered Regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle in Different Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Spayde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A model to evaluate the performance of a solar powered regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle (R-ORC using five dry organic fluids: RC318, R227ea, R236ea, R236fa, and R218, is presented in this paper. The system is evaluated in two locations in the U.S.: Jackson, MS and Tucson, AZ. The weather data for each location is used to determine the heat available from the solar collector that could be used by the R-ORC to generate power. Results from the R-ORC performance are compared with a basic ORC using first and second law criteria as well as primary energy consumption (PEC and carbon dioxide emission (CDE savings for both locations. An economic analysis to determine the maximum capital cost for a desired payback period is presented in this paper. A parametric analysis is also performed to study the effect of the turbine efficiency as well as the open feed organic fluid heater intermediate pressure on the system performance. Results indicate that the R-ORC is able to generate more power than the basic ORC for some of the selected working fluids. For the R-ORC, R236ea is the working fluid that show the best performance among the evaluated fluids under the modeled conditions. On the other hand, the basic ORC with R236ea as the working fluid outperformed three of the fluids in the R-ORC. Also, the R-ORC evaluated in Tucson, AZ is able to generate more power, to provide more PEC and CDE savings, and had a higher available capital cost than the R-ORC evaluated in in Jackson, MS.

  16. Wisconsin Secondary Vocational Education: 1978-1982 Aggregate of Data. Evaluation Report, Cycle I. Bulletin No. 3266.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    The first five-year cycle of the Wisconsin Secondary Vocational Program Evaluation System was completed on December 31, 1982 to aid in planning and assessing vocational education in the state and to portray its impact at local, state and national levels. This aggregate report presents first phase data from high school self-evaluations. The second…

  17. Supporting Sustainable Markets Through Life Cycle Assessment: Evaluating emerging technologies, incorporating uncertainty and the consumer perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merugula, Laura

    As civilization's collective knowledge grows, we are met with the realization that human-induced physical and biological transformations influenced by exogenous psychosocial and economic factors affect virtually every ecosystem on the planet. Despite improvements in energy generation and efficiencies, demand of material goods and energy services increases with no sign of a slowing pace. Sustainable development requires a multi-prong approach that involves reshaping demand, consumer education, sustainability-oriented policy, and supply chain management that does not serve the expansionist mentality. Thus, decision support tools are needed that inform developers, consumers, and policy-makers for short-term and long-term planning. These tools should incorporate uncertainty through quantitative methods as well as qualitatively informing the nature of the model as imperfect but necessary and adequate. A case study is presented of the manufacture and deployment of utility-scale wind turbines evaluated for a proposed change in blade manufacturing. It provides the first life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluating impact of carbon nanofibers, an emerging material, proposed for integration to wind power generation systems as blade reinforcement. Few LCAs of nanoproducts are available in scientific literature due to research and development (R&D) for applications that continues to outpace R&D for environmental, health, and safety (EHS) and life cycle impacts. LCAs of emerging technologies are crucial for informing developers of potential impacts, especially where market growth is swift and dissipative. A second case study is presented that evaluates consumer choice between disposable and reusable beverage cups. While there are a few studies that attempt to make the comparison using LCA, none adequately address uncertainty, nor are they representative for the typical American consumer. By disaggregating U.S. power generation into 26 subregional grid production mixes and evaluating

  18. Environmental correlates of cycling: Evaluating urban form and location effects based on Danish micro-data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    2013-01-01

    transportation level-of-service, as well as competition between walking and cycling depending on environmental features can be added. Attractive conditions for using public transportation or walking are related to less cycling. The findings quantify the effects of urban form on the probability of cycling......The paper analyses the environmental correlates of cycling based on Danish transportation and urban form micro-data. The results show that established walkability factors such as density, connectivity and diversity are related to cycling, but access to retail concentrations/centres, public...

  19. A double-blind cross-over controlled study to evaluate the effect of human biosynthetic growth hormone on ovarian stimulation in previous poor responders to in-vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S M; Huang, Z H; Morris, I D; Matson, P L; Buck, P; Lieberman, B A

    1994-01-01

    The effect of exogenous human biosynthetic growth hormone (HGH; 12 IU/day; Norditropin, Novo-Nordisk) on the response to ovarian stimulation using a buserelin/human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG) regimen was assessed in women who had previously shown a 'poor response' in spite of increasing doses of HMG. Forty patients were recruited into a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study. The serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on day 2-5 of a menstrual cycle (HGH compared to the placebo cycle resulted in increased serum concentrations of fasting insulin on the 8th (median 3.9 versus 5.8 mU/l; P HGH. After 8 days of co-treatment with HGH the number of cohort follicles (14-16.9 mm) was significantly increased, but this change was not sustained on the day of HCG administration. No statistical difference in the serum oestradiol on the 8th day of HMG or day of HCG, length of the follicular phase, total dose of HMG used, or the number of oocytes collected was seen between the placebo or HGH cycles. This study demonstrates that HGH does not improve the ovarian response to ovulation induction in previous poor responders.

  20. Life cycle assessment as a tool to evaluate the impact of reducing crude protein in pig diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Nardina Trícia Rigo Monteiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Environmental impacts of livestock systems, especially pig production, have come under increasing debate in recent years. The challenge is in meeting the growing demand for food at an affordable cost, without compromising environmental integrity. Previous studies have shown that feed production is responsible for the majority of CO2-eq. emission resulting from pig farming systems. This seems to indicate that feed strategies could be an effective tool to achieve the sustainability of the pork chain. Therefore, dietary crude protein reduction, through the addition of industrial amino acids, lessens the nitrogen excretion by pigs and, consequently, could mitigate the effects on the environment of pig production. In this sense, to effectively evaluate the environmental impacts of pig production systems, life cycle assessment has been widely used in agriculture, but the effects of feed are still understudied in Brazilian conditions. Owing to the importance and the great concern in this research area, we presented in this paper an updated review focusing on the nutritional techniques and their potential to reduce the global warming potential of pig production, considering both the direct effects, related to the choice of feed ingredients and the indirect effects, related to changes in the efficiency of use of nutrient by the animals.

  1. Evaluating the performance of ENVI-met model in diurnal cycles for different meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Juan A.; Arrizabalaga, Jon

    2018-01-01

    Urban areas are known to modify meteorological variables producing important differences in small spatial scales (i.e. microscale). These affect human thermal comfort conditions and the dispersion of pollutants, especially those emitted inside the urban area, which finally influence quality of life and the use of public open spaces. In this study, the diurnal evolution of meteorological variables measured in four urban spaces is compared with the results provided by ENVI-met (v 4.0). Measurements were carried out during 3 days with different meteorological conditions in Bilbao in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. The evaluation of the model accuracy (i.e. the degree to which modelled values approach measured values) was carried out with several quantitative difference metrics. The results for air temperature and humidity show a good agreement of measured and modelled values independently of the regional meteorological conditions. However, in the case of mean radiant temperature and wind speed, relevant differences are encountered highlighting the limitation of the model to estimate these meteorological variables precisely during diurnal cycles, in the considered evaluation conditions (sites and weather).

  2. Improving The Average Session Evaluation Score Of Supervisory Programby Using PDCA Cycle At PT XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Jonny

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available PT XYZ took People Development tasks as important things in order to provide great leaders for handling its business operations. It had several leadership programs such as basic management program, supervisory program, managerial program, senior management program, general management program, and the executive program. For basic management and supervisory programs, PT XYZ had appointed ABC division to solely handled them, while the rest, ABC division should cooperate with other training providers who were reputable in leadership ones. The aim of this study was to ensure that the appropriate leadership style has been delivered accordingly to the guideline to the employees by ABC division to improve the average session evaluation score of the supervisory program by using PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, and Action cycle. The method of this research was by gathering quantitative and qualitative data by using session and program evaluation format to see current condition. The research finds that the reasons why the program is below target 4,10 score. It is related to the new facilitator, no framework, and teaching aids. 

  3. Life Cycle Assessment for Evaluating On-farm Energy Production: The Case of Sunflower Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bona

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to evaluate the production of sunflower oil as a source of bioenergy and its use on the farm. Representative farms of the Veneto Region were analyzed in order to evaluate the possibility of using different biofuels. The results showed that there are only a few feasible alternatives at farm level. The conversion of oil to biodiesel appeared unachievable because of the large number of hectares necessary for optimizing use of the transesterification equipment. A life cycle environmental analysis (LCA was applied to eight different farm types simulating the total replacement of diesel oil by pure vegetable oil (sunflower. The results were not uniform because, considering all the LCA impact categories, some of them turned to be worse than the original scenario (use of diesel oil but there was a substantial advantage for all the farm types in terms of reduction of substances with effects on climate change. Some farms, termed horticultural farm large, unspecialized farm large and unspecialized farm small, had a reduction of more than 99% in the substances with effects on climate change by changing from diesel oil to sunflower oil. The biofuel is not yet competitive as no free market exists for it, but it represents a practical way to avoid the shift of economic benefits from agriculture to industry, as happens with biodiesel production.

  4. Life Cycle Cost Evaluation of Noise and Vibration Control Methods at Urban Railway Turnouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Tavares de Freitas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A focus of the railway industry over the past decades has been to research, find and develop methods to mitigate noise and vibration resulting from wheel/rail contact along track infrastructure. This resulted in a wide range of abatement measures that are available for today’s engineers. The suitability of each method must be analysed through budget and timeframe limitations, which includes building, maintenance and inspection costs and time allocation, while also aiming at delivering other benefits, such as environmental impact and durability of infrastructure. There are several situations that need noise and vibration mitigation methods, but each design allocates different priorities on a case-by-case basis. Traditionally, the disturbance caused by railways to the community are generated by wheel/rail contact sound radiation that is expressed in different ways, depending on the movement of the rolling stock and track alignment, such as rolling noise, impact noise and curve noise. More specifically, in special trackworks such as turnouts (or called “switches and crossings”, there are two types of noise that can often be observed: impact noise and screeching noise. With respect to the screeching (or flanging, its mitigation methods are usually associated with curve lubrications. In contrast, the impact noise emerges from the sound made by the rolling stock moving through joints and discontinuities (i.e., gaps, resulting in various noise abatement features to minimise such noise impact. Life cycle analysis is therefore vital for cost efficiency benchmarking of the mitigation methods. The evaluation is based on available data from open literature and the total costs were estimated from valid industry reports to maintain coherency. A 50-year period for a life cycle analysis is chosen for this study. As for the general parameters, an area with a high density of people is considered to estimate the values for a community with very strict limits

  5. Developments in life cycle assessment applied to evaluate the environmental performance of construction and demolition wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, M D; Powell, J C

    2016-04-01

    This paper provides a review of the literature that applies the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to the assessment of the environmental performance of the life cycle of construction and demolition waste (CDW) management systems. This article is focused on generating a general mapping of the literature and on identifying the best practices in compliance with LCA framework and proposing directions for future LCA studies in this field. The temporal evolution of the research in this field and the aim of the studies have grown in parallel with the legal framework related to waste and energy efficiency of buildings. Most studies have been published in Europe, followed by USA. Asia and Australia, being at an incipient application stage to the rest of the world. Topics related to "LCA of buildings, including their EoL" and "LCA of general CDW management strategies" are the most frequently analysed, followed by "LCA of EoL of construction elements" and "LCA of natural material vs recycled material". Regarding the strategies, recycling off-site and incineration, both combined with landfill for the rejected fractions, are the most commonly applied. Re-use or recycling on-site is the strategy least applied. The key aspect when LCA is applied to evaluate CDW management systems is the need to normalise which processes to include in the system boundary and the functional unit, the use of inventory data adapted to the context of the case study and the definition of a common set of appropriate impact assessment categories. Also, it is important to obtain results disaggregated by unit processes. This will allow the comparison between case studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. On the use of naturalistic methods to examine safety-relevant behaviours amongst children and evaluate a cycling education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J; Dozza, M; Patton, D A; Maharaj, P; Boufous, S; Eveston, T

    2017-11-01

    School-based cycling education programs aim to improve cycling safety and participation amongst children. Available research suggests that typical programs, which focus on bicycle manoeuvring skills, have limited effects on behaviour observed on a track or planned route. The current study uses theoretically more valid, naturalistic cycling data, to evaluate Safe Cycle, a program that incorporates hazard and self-awareness training. Soon after Safe Cycle was delivered at treatment schools, research bicycles instrumented with a rearward- and a forward-facing camera were loaned to six children from treatment schools and six children from (waitlist) control schools. In each group half the children were in Year 6, and half were in Year 7/8. Each child was instructed to ride the research bicycle instead of their own bicycle for the 1-2 weeks that they had a research bicycle. Video data were reduced using a purpose-designed coding scheme that identified whether participants performed specific safety-relevant behaviours in appropriate circumstances. While the participants controlled their bicycles well, gave way appropriately to traffic at intersections, and stopped at red lights, participants frequently removed one or both hands from the handlebars, and seldom signalled turns, conducted over-shoulder-checks when changing lanes, or looked in multiple directions at intersections (except when crossing a road). While aspects of design and small sample sizes limited evaluation findings, this research demonstrated the feasibility and potential of naturalistic data to support cycling education program evaluation. Further, the study substantially extended available naturalistic study of children's cycling behaviour to highlight behaviours which might be targeted by cycling safety initiatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Effect of Local Endometrial Injury on the Clinical Pregnancy Rate of Frozen Embryo Transfer Cycles in Patients With Repeated Implantation Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensieh Shahrokh-Tehraninejad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Repeated implantation failure (RIF is a condition in which the embryos implantation decreases in the endometrium. So, our aim was to evaluate the effect of local endometrial injury on embryo transfer results.Materials and methods: In this simple randomized clinical trial (RCT, a total of 120 patients were selected. The participants were less than 40 years old, and they are in their minimum two cycles of vitro fertilization (IVF. Patients were divided randomly into two groups of LEI (Local endometrial injury and a control group (n = 60 in each group. The first group had four small endometrial injuries from anterior, posterior, and lateral uterus walls which were obtained from people who were in 21th day of their previous IVF cycle. The second group was the patients who have not received any intervention.Results: The experimental and control patients were matched in the following factors. Regarding the clinical pregnancy rate, there was no significant difference noted between the experimental and the control group.Conclusion: Local endometrial injury in a preceding cycle does not increase the clinical pregnancy rate in the subsequent FET cycle of patients with repeated implantation failure.

  8. Life cycle assessment and evaluation of sustainable product design strategies for combined cycle power plants; Lebenszyklusanalyse und Bestimmung von Einflussfaktoren zur nachhaltigen Produktgestaltung von GuD-Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthey, Falko

    2010-03-26

    an aggregated form enables decision makers and customers to evaluate design choices and decide accordingly. Furthermore, the starting point for the green-house gas reporting according to the GHG Protocol over the entire product life cycle has been established. Eventually, the results will be published as Type II Environmental Product Declaration acc. ISO 14021 and serve as reference value for the determination of the CO2-intensity of the respective grid mix. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of repetitive stimulation test (RST in 30 patients with Myasthenia Gravis, who were previously confirmed by clinical sign and tensilon test 1996-99

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Ghabaee M

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available est (RST is the most commonly used electrodiagnostic test to asses the defect of neuromuscular transmission, which is reported to be positive in the diffuse and restricted ocular forms 60-95% and 14-50%, respectively. In a cross-sectional study, to determine the efficacy of repetitive stimulation test in myasthenia gravis, we evaluated the results in 30 cases who were hospitalized in Imam Khomeini Hospital during 1996-1999. Patients were first selected clinically and then confirmed by Tensilon test.Various clinical types including generalized and restricted ocular forms with different severity and duration were entered in this study. Considering the fact that the positiveness of the test is enhanced by assessment of more muscle groups, we evaluated decremental response in the facial, proximal and distal muscles of limbs. 90% of patients had the generalized form of the disease, whereas ocular myasthenia gravis was seen only in 10% of the cases. 74% of females and 73% of males showed positive response (overall: 73.3%. No significant association was found between the positive response, and age and sex. Peaks of incidences of the disease for the males were in fourth and sixth decades and for the females in thired decades

  10. Evaluation of surface roughness of microhybrid and nanofilled composites after pH-cycling and simulated toothbrushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, Roberta Alves Pinto Moura; Tonholo, Josealdo; Júnior, José Ginaldo; Silva, Milton Fernando de Andrade; Queiroz, Celso da Silva; Cavalli, Vanessa; Rego, Marcos Augusto do; Liporoni, Priscila Christiane Suzy

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated the surface roughness patterns of two resin-based composite restorative materials, a microhybrid (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) and a nanofilled (Filtek Supreme, 3M ESPE), subjected to a regimen that simulated dynamic pH-cycling and toothbrushing. Twelve standardized cylindrical specimens of each resin-based composite material were prepared, finished, and mechanically polished. The experimental units were submitted to a pH-cycling regimen followed by 50,000 toothbrushing cycles, after which the surface roughness was measured using an atomic force microscope (AFM). AFM surface roughness was evaluated at three intervals: (1) immediately after specimen preparation (baseline), (2) after pH-cycling, and (3) after simulated toothbrushing. The results were then analyzed using a split-plot design and followed by linear regression and a Tukey's test at a significance level of ptoothbrushing provoked a remarkable increase in surface roughness for both types of composite resins tested (p=0.0031). However, pH-cycling did not alter the surface of the composite under the conditions of this experiment. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that simulated toothbrushing was capable of increasing the surface roughness of the microhybrid (Filtek Z250) and the nanofilled (Filtek Supreme) composites tested. Surface roughness of nanofilled and microhybrid composites is significantly increased after toothbrushing, although pH-cycling, as tested in this study, does not appear to affect the morphology of either composite material.

  11. Evaluation of environmental impacts of cellulosic ethanol using life cycle assessment with technological advances over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawelzik, Paul F.; Zhang, Qiong

    2012-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used in quantifying the environmental impacts of materials, processes, products, or systems across their entire lifespan from creation to disposal. To evaluate the environmental impact of advancing technology, Life Cycle Assessment with Technological Advances over Time (LCA-TAT) incorporates technology improvements within the traditional LCA framework. In this paper, the LCA-TAT is applied to quantify the environmental impacts of ethanol production using cellulosic biomass as a feedstock through the simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) process as it improves over time. The data for the SSCF process are taken from the Aspen Plus ® simulation developed by the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL). The Environmental Fate and Risk Assessment Tool (EFRAT) is used to calculate the fugitive emissions and SimaPro 7.1 software is used to quantify the environmental impacts of processes. The impact indicators of the processes are calculated using the Eco-indicator 95 method; impact categories analyzed include ozone layer depletion, heavy metals, carcinogens, summer smog, winter smog, pesticides, greenhouse effect, acidification, and eutrophication. Based on the LCA-TAT results, it is found that removal of the continuous ion exchange step within the pretreatment area increases the environmental impact of the process. The main contributor to the increase in the environmental impact of the process is the heavy metal indicator. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed to identify major inputs and outputs that affect environmental impacts of the overall process. Based on this analysis it is observed that an increase in waste production and acid use have the greatest effect on the environmental impacts of the SSCF process. Comparing economic analysis with projected technological advances performed by NREL, the improvement in environmental impact was not matched by a concomitant improvement in economic performance. In

  12. Effect of feeding strategy on environmental impacts of pig fattening in different contexts of production: evaluation through life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, A N T R; Garcia-Launay, F; Brossard, L; Wilfart, A; Dourmad, J-Y

    2016-11-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used in many studies to evaluate the effect of feeding strategy on the environmental impact of pig production. However, because most studies have been conducted in European conditions, the question of possible interactions with the context of production is still under debate. The objective of this study was to evaluate these effects in 2 contrasted geographic contexts of production, South America (Brazil) and Europe (France). The LCA considered the process of pig fattening, including production and transport of feed ingredients and feed, raising of fattening pigs, and manure storage, transport, and spreading. Impacts were calculated at the farm gate, and the functional unit considered was 1 kg of BW gain over the fattening period. The performances of pigs were simulated for each scenario using the InraPorc population model (2,000 pigs per scenario considering between-animal variability). The LCA calculations were performed for each pig according to its own performance and excretion, and the results were subjected to variance analysis. The results indicate that for some impacts there are clear interactions between the effects of the feeding program, the origin of soybean, and the location of production. For climate change, interest in phase feeding and incorporation of crystalline AA (CAA) is limited and even counterproductive in Brazil with soybeans from the South (without deforestation), whereas they appear to be efficient strategies with soybeans from the Center West (with deforestation), especially in France. Rather similar effects, as those for climate change, were observed for cumulative energy demand. Conversely, potential eutrophication and acidification impacts were reduced by phase feeding and CAA addition in a rather similar way in all situations. Individual daily feeding, the only strategy that took into account between-animal variability, was the most effective approach for reducing the life cycle impact of pig

  13. Combined intravenous, topical and oral tranexamic acid administration in total knee replacement: Evaluation of safety in patients with previous thromboembolism and effect on hemoglobin level and transfusion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Joris A; Lameijer, Joost R C; Snoeker, Barbara A M

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the safety of combined intravenous, oral and topical tranexamic acid (TXA) in primary total knee replacement. We assessed dose-related efficacy on hemoglobin level, transfusion, length of stay and thromboembolic complications. In addition, TXA safety in patients with previous history of thromboembolism >12months ago was monitored specifically. From January 2013 until January 2016, 922 patients were included who received TXA after primary total knee replacement. Patients without TXA administration or with thromboembolic events dosage groups were divided into ≤10mg/kg, >10-25mg/kg and >25-50mg/kg. Between the three TXA groups no significant difference was found in thromboembolic complications (deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE)), wound leakage and transfusion rate. For patients with DVT or PE in their history >12months ago specifically, no more complications were noted in higher-TXA-dosage groups compared to the low-dosage group. Length of stay was shorter in the highest-TXA-dosage group compared with lower-dosage groups (median two vs three days). With high TXA dose a smaller difference between pre- and postoperative Hb was found: the >25-50mg/kg TXA group had a 0.419mmol/l smaller decrease in postoperative hemoglobin compared to the lowest-dosage group (P12months ago. High dosage (>25-50mg/kg) TXA resulted in the smallest decrease in postoperative hemoglobin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating urban form and location effects on cycling based on Danish micro-data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    Extended abstract The paper analyses the environmental correlates of cycling based on Danish transportation and urban form micro-data. Established walkability factors such as density, connectivity and diversity are related to cycling, but access to retail concentrations/centers, public...... transportation level-of-service, as well a competition between walking and cycling depending on environmental features can be added Attractive conditions for using public transportation or walking relate to less cycling. Highly relevant in the context of cycling promotion the results points to some opposite...... can be seen as a potential means to reduce congestion and increase the sustainability of transportation, but also as a means to increase physical activity and public health. Consequently the factors conditioning cycling have received increasing attention in public policy as well as in research...

  15. Evaluation of the maximized power of a regenerative endoreversible Stirling cycle using the thermodynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad H.; Mohammadi, Amir H.; Dehghani, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimal power of an endoreversible Stirling cycle is investigated. • In the endoreversible cycle, external heat transfer processes are considered irreversible. • Optimal temperature of the heat source leading to a maximum power for the cycle is detained. • Effect of design parameters on the power and its corresponding thermal efficiency is studied. - Abstract: In this communication, the optimal power of an endoreversible Stirling cycle with perfect regeneration is investigated. In the endoreversible cycle, external heat transfer processes are irreversible. Optimal temperature of the heat source leading to a maximum power for the cycle is detained. Moreover, effect of design parameters of the Stirling engine on the maximized power of the engine and its corresponding thermal efficiency is studied

  16. Thermodynamic performance evaluation of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle integrated with thermoelectric subcooler and expander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Baomin; Liu, Shengchun; Zhu, Kai; Sun, Zhili; Ma, Yitai

    2017-01-01

    New configurations of transcritical CO 2 refrigeration cycle combined with a thermoelectric (TE) subcooler and an expander (TES+EXP HM and TES+EXP ML ) are proposed. The expander can operate between the high-pressure to the vessel pressure, or from vessel pressure to evaporation pressure. A power system is utilized to balance and supply power to thermoelectric subcooler and compressor. Thermodynamic performance optimizations and analyses are presented. Comparisons are carried out with the BASE, EXP HM , EXP ML , and TES cycles. The results show that the coefficient of performance (COP) improvement is more notable when the expander is installed between the liquid receiver and the evaporator. Maximum COP is obtained for the new cycles with a simultaneous optimization of discharge pressure and subcooling temperature. The new proposed TES+EXP ML cycle shows an excellent and steady performance than other cycles. It operates not only with the highest COP, but also the lowest discharge pressure. Under the working conditions of high gas cooler outlet temperature or low evaporation temperature, the merits of COP improvement and discharge pressure reduction are more prominent. The new cycle is more suitable for the hot regions where the CO 2 can not be sufficiently subcooled or the refrigerated space operates at low evaporation temperature. - Highlights: • New configurations of transcritical CO 2 refrigeration cycle are proposed. • New cycles are optimized and compared with other cycles. • The position of expander has an evident influence on the performance of CO 2 cycle. • TES+EXP ML cycle shows the highest COP and lowest discharge pressure. • The range of application for the TES+EXP ML cycle is recommended.

  17. Evaluation of the cycling city and towns programme: Qualitative research with residents

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, J.; Chatterjee, K.; Marsh, S.; Sherwin, H.; Jain, J.

    2012-01-01

    Between 2008 and 2011, the Department for Transport , Cycling England and the Department of Health invested over £43m (plus local match funding) to create the twelve Cycling City and Towns (CCTs): Greater Bristol, Blackpool, Cambridge, Chester, Colchester, Leighton-Linslade, Shrewsbury, Stoke-on-Trent, Southend, Southport, Woking and York. The aim of the programme was to explore the relationship between investment in cycling, as part of a whole-town strategy, and the number of cyclists and fr...

  18. An operational method for the evaluation of resource use and environmental impacts of dairy farms by life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Hayo M G; Kanyarushoki, Claver; Corson, Michael S

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes and applies EDEN-E, an operational method for the environmental evaluation of dairy farms based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) conceptual framework. EDEN-E requires a modest amount of data readily available on-farm, and thus can be used to assess a large number of farms at a reasonable cost. EDEN-E estimates farm resource use and pollutant emissions mostly at the farm scale, based on-farm-gate balances, amongst others. Resource use and emissions are interpreted in terms of potential impacts: eutrophication, acidification, climate change, terrestrial toxicity, non-renewable energy use and land occupation. The method distinguishes for each total impact a direct component (impacts on the farm site) and an indirect component (impacts associated with production and supply of inputs used). A group of 47 dairy farms (41 conventional and six organic) was evaluated. Expressed per 1000kg of fat-and-protein-corrected milk, total land occupation was significantly larger for organic than for conventional farms, while total impacts for eutrophication, acidification, climate change, terrestrial toxicity, and non-renewable energy use were not significantly different for the two production modes. When expressed per ha of land occupied all total impacts were significantly larger for conventional than organic farms. This study largely confirms previously published findings concerning the effect of production mode on impacts of dairy farms. However, it strikingly reveals that, for the set of farms examined, the contribution of production mode to overall inter-farm variability of impacts was minor relative to inter-farm variability within each of the two production modes examined. The mapping of impact variability through EDEN-E opens promising perspectives to move towards sustainable farming systems by identifying the structural and management characteristics of the farms presenting the lowest impacts.

  19. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Shahin; Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Mousazadeh, Hossein; Clark, Sean

    2016-08-15

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457kg CO2,eq. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Life-cycle inventory and impact evaluation of mining municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Pradeep; Powell, Jon T; Smith, Justin L; Townsend, Timothy G; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2014-01-01

    Recent research and policy directives have emerged with a focus on sustainable management of waste materials, and the mining of old landfills represents an opportunity to meet sustainability goals by reducing the release of liquid- and gas-phase contaminants into the environment, recovering land for more productive use, and recovering energy from the landfilled materials. The emissions associated with the landfill mining process (waste excavation, screening, and on-site transportation) were inventoried on the basis of diesel fuel consumption data from two full-scale mining projects (1.3-1.5 L/in-place m(3) of landfill space mined) and unit emissions (mass per liter of diesel consumption) from heavy equipment typically deployed for mining landfills. An analytical framework was developed and used in an assessment of the life-cycle environmental impacts of a few end-use management options for materials deposited and mined from an unlined landfill. The results showed that substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions can be realized in both the waste relocation and materials and energy recovery scenarios compared to a "do nothing" case. The recovery of metal components from landfilled waste was found to have the greatest benefit across nearly all impact categories evaluated, while emissions associated with heavy equipment to mine the waste itself were found to be negligible compared to the benefits that mining provided.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Biomass Power Generation Systems in China Using Hybrid Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huacai Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid growth in using agricultural residues as an energy source to generate electricity in China. Biomass power generation (BPG systems may vary significantly in technology, scale, and feedstock and consequently in their performances. A comparative evaluation of five typical BPG systems has been conducted in this study through a hybrid life cycle inventory (LCI approach. Results show that requirements of fossil energy savings, and greenhouse gas (GHG emission reductions, as well as emission reductions of SO2 and NOx, can be best met by the BPG systems. The cofiring systems were found to behave better than the biomass-only fired system and the biomass gasification systems in terms of energy savings and GHG emission reductions. Comparing with results of conventional process-base LCI, an important aspect to note is the significant contribution of infrastructure, equipment, and maintenance of the plant, which require the input of various types of materials, fuels, services, and the consequent GHG emissions. The results demonstrate characteristics and differences of BPG systems and help identify critical opportunities for biomass power development in China.

  2. Effect of menstrual cycle phase and hormonal treatments on evaluation of tubal patency in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jeffrey T; Hanna, Carol; Mishler, Emily; Lim, Jeong Y; Slayden, Ov D

    2018-02-01

    We evaluated whether menstrual cycle phase influences the assessment of tubal patency by hysterosalpingography (HSG) in baboons. Retrospective analysis of baseline tubal patency studies and serum estradiol (E 2 ) and progesterone (P4) values obtained from female baboons used as models for development of non-surgical permanent contraception in women. The main outcome measure was bilateral tubal patency (BTP) in relationship with estradiol level. Female baboons (n = 110) underwent a single (n = 81), two (n = 26), or three (n = 3) HSG examinations. In 33/142 (23%) HSG examinations, one or both tubes showed functional occlusion (FO). The median E 2 in studies with BTP (49 pg/mL) was significantly higher than in those studies with FO (32 pg/mL, P = .005). Among 18 animals with repeat examinations where serum E 2 changed from <60 to ≥ 60 pg/mL, 13 results changed from FO to BTP (P = .0001). No sets showed a change from BTP to FO with an increase in estradiol. In baboons, functional occlusion of the fallopian tube is associated with low estradiol levels, supporting a role for estrogen-mediated relaxation of the utero-tubal junction. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Primatology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Biomass Power Generation Systems in China Using Hybrid Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huacai; Yin, Xiuli; Wu, Chuangzhi

    2014-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth in using agricultural residues as an energy source to generate electricity in China. Biomass power generation (BPG) systems may vary significantly in technology, scale, and feedstock and consequently in their performances. A comparative evaluation of five typical BPG systems has been conducted in this study through a hybrid life cycle inventory (LCI) approach. Results show that requirements of fossil energy savings, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, as well as emission reductions of SO2 and NOx, can be best met by the BPG systems. The cofiring systems were found to behave better than the biomass-only fired system and the biomass gasification systems in terms of energy savings and GHG emission reductions. Comparing with results of conventional process-base LCI, an important aspect to note is the significant contribution of infrastructure, equipment, and maintenance of the plant, which require the input of various types of materials, fuels, services, and the consequent GHG emissions. The results demonstrate characteristics and differences of BPG systems and help identify critical opportunities for biomass power development in China. PMID:25383383

  4. Evaluation of external heat loss from a small-scale expander used in organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Pei Gang; Li Yunzhu; Ji Jie

    2011-01-01

    With the scaling down of the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), the engine shaft power is not only determined by the enthalpy drop in the expansion process but also the external heat loss from the expander. Theoretical and experimental support in evaluating small-scale expander heat loss is rare. This paper presents a quantitative study on the convection, radiation, and conduction heat transfer from a kW-scale expander. A mathematical model is built and validated. The results show that the external radiative or convective heat loss coefficient was about 3.2 or 7.0 W/K.m 2 when the ORC operated around 100 o C. Radiative and convective heat loss coefficients increased as the expander operation temperature increased. Conductive heat loss due to the connection between the expander and the support accounted for a large proportion of the total heat loss. The fitting relationships between heat loss and mean temperature difference were established. It is suggested that low conductivity material be embodied in the support of expander. Mattress insulation for compact expander could be eliminated when the operation temperature is around 100 o C. - Highlights: → A close examination of external heat loss from a small expander is presented. → Theoretical analysis and experimental test were conducted. → The established formulas can be applied to other small ORC expanders. → The results are useful in further research of small-scale ORC.

  5. Evaluation of Life-Cycle Assessment Studies of Chinese Cement Production: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hongyou; Masanet, Eric; Price, Lynn

    2009-05-29

    The use of life-cycle assessment (LCA) to understand the embodied energy, environmental impacts, and potential energy-savings of manufactured products has become more widespread among researchers in recent years. This paper reviews recent LCA studies in the cement industry in China and in other countries and provides an assessment of the methodology used by the researchers compared to ISO LCA standards (ISO 14040:2006, ISO 14044:2006, and ISO/TR 14048:2002). We evaluate whether the authors provide information on the intended application, targeted audience, functional unit, system boundary, data sources, data quality assessment, data disaggregation and other elements, and draw conclusions regarding the level of adherence to ISO standards for the papers reviewed. We found that China researchers have gained much experience during last decade, but still have room for improvement in establishing boundaries, assessing data quality, identifying data sources, and explaining limitations. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future LCA research in China.

  6. Thermo-Economic Evaluation of Organic Rankine Cycles for Geothermal Power Generation Using Zeotropic Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heberle

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a thermo-economic evaluation of binary power plants based on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC for geothermal power generation. The focus of this study is to analyse if an efficiency increase by using zeotropic mixtures as working fluid overcompensates additional requirements regarding the major power plant components. The optimization approach is compared to systems with pure media. Based on process simulations, heat exchange equipment is designed and cost estimations are performed. For heat source temperatures between 100 and 180 °C selected zeotropic mixtures lead to an increase in second law efficiency of up to 20.6% compared to pure fluids. Especially for temperatures about 160 °C, mixtures like propane/isobutane, isobutane/isopentane, or R227ea/R245fa show lower electricity generation costs compared to the most efficient pure fluid. In case of a geothermal fluid temperature of 120 °C, R227ea and propane/isobutane are cost-efficient working fluids. The uncertainties regarding fluid properties of zeotropic mixtures, mainly affect the heat exchange surface. However, the influence on the determined economic parameter is marginal. In general, zeotropic mixtures are a promising approach to improve the economics of geothermal ORC systems. Additionally, the use of mixtures increases the spectrum of potential working fluids, which is important in context of present and future legal requirements considering fluorinated refrigerants.

  7. Social Stimulus Perception and Self-Evaluation: Effects of Menstrual Cycle Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, Sheryle W.; Hamilton, Jean A.

    1986-01-01

    Women in different phases of the menstrual cycle were compared to men in their responses to a social interaction stimulus: a videotape depicting a female nurse interacting with a hospitalized patient. Sex differences and cycle-phase differences were found for both affective and cognitive dimensions. Premenstrual women differed from other women,…

  8. Evaluating the N-cycle module of LPJ-GUESS at the site-scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleischer, Katrin; Warlind, David; van der Molen, Michiel; Rebel, Karin; Willem Erisman, Jan; Arneth, Almut; Wassen, Martin; Smith, Ben; Dolman, Han

    Global scale dynamic vegetation models simulate the global C cycle and atmosphere-vegetation interactions, an essential component in the global climate system. The important role of the N-cycle in determining fluxes of carbon and climate dynamics is unequivocally evident. The current generation of

  9. Thermodynamic evaluation of the Kalina split-cycle concepts for waste heat recovery applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Knudsen, Thomas; Larsen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    The Kalina split-cycle is a thermodynamic process for converting thermal energy into electrical power. It uses an ammonia–water mixture as a working fluid (like a conventional Kalina cycle) and has a varying ammonia concentration during the pre-heating and evaporation steps. This second feature...

  10. Evaluation and intercomparison of three-dimensional global marine carbon cycle models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldeira, K., LLNL

    1998-07-01

    -Reimer, 1990; Sarmiento et al., 1992, Najjar et al., 1992). These twin needs for the development of marine carbon cycle models are expressed in two of the main elements of JGOFS SMP: (1) extrapolation and prediction, and (2) global and regional balances of carbon and related biologically-active substances. We propose to address these program elements through a coordinated, multi-investigator project to evaluate and intercompare several 3-D global marine carbon cycle models.

  11. Life cycle GHG evaluation of organic rice production in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodkhum, Sanwasan; Gheewala, Shabbir H; Sampattagul, Sate

    2017-07-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission is one of the serious international environmental issues that can lead to severe damages such as climate change, sea level rise, emerging disease and many other impacts. Rice cultivation is associated with emissions of potent GHGs such as methane and nitrous oxide. Thai rice has been massively exported worldwide however the markets are becoming more competitive than ever since the green market has been hugely promoted. In order to maintain the same level or enhance of competitiveness, Thai rice needs to be considered for environmentally conscious products to meet the international environmental standards. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the greenhouse gas emissions throughout the life cycle of rice production in order to identify the major emission sources and possible reduction strategies. In this research, the rice variety considered is Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105) cultivated by organic practices. The data sources were Don-Chiang Organic Agricultural Cooperative (DCOAC), Mae-teang district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand and the Office of Agricultural Economics (OAE) of Thailand with onsite records and interviews of farmers in 2013. The GHG emissions were calculated from cradle-to-farm by using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach and the 2006 IPCC Guideline for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. The functional unit is defined as 1 kg of paddy rice at farm gate. Results showed that the total GHG emissions of organic rice production were 0.58 kg CO 2 -eq per kg of paddy rice. The major source of GHG emission was from the field emissions accounting for 0.48 kg CO 2 -eq per kg of paddy rice, about 83% of total, followed by land preparation, harvesting and other stages (planting, cultivation and transport of raw materials) were 9, 5 and 3% of total, respectively. The comparative results clearly showed that the GHG emissions of organic paddy rice were considerably lower than conventional rice production due to the

  12. Evaluation of the effects of fragmented steam exposure cycles on the survival of bacterial spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirtz, J T; Soli, T C; Allen, W E; Stellwag, E J; McConnell, T J

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the population and resistance characteristics of bacterial spores which have been exposed to an abbreviated steam sterilization cycle. The philosophy of many pharmaceutical manufacturers is to require a second complete terminal sterilization cycle in the event of an unplanned interruption during the terminal sterilization of a production batch. The impact of abbreviated steam sterilization cycles was examined for their effect on the survivability and resistance of bacterial spores following an inadequate sterilization cycle. Steam sterilization cycles of two minutes and four minutes were performed on separate groups of Biological Indicator spore strips. These groups were then held at room temperature and re-exposed to a range of sterilization conditions after 24, 48, and 72 hours, i.e., start cycle, abort, hold, start cycle, abort. Spore survivor curves were calculated and resistance estimations were determined. The results of the study indicated that the log level of the surviving spores remained fairly constant, but variability within groups increased as sterilization time increased. The resistance of these surviving spores, as measured by D value, also remained relatively constant throughout the holding period. Abbreviated cycles were similarly conducted on ampules containing a spore suspension, and the spore populations and moist heat resistances were determined over time. Contrary to the spore strip, the population of the subject ampules was less stable showing a gradual decline over the same observation period. The study also included a comparison of the surviving population of short and long fragmented cycles. The results of this study demonstrate that a second complete sterilization cycle is unnecessary to assure the absence of living matter in the sterilized units.

  13. LIFE-CYCLE EVALUATION OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses a life-cycle evaluation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal soild waste (MSW) management in the U.S. (NOTE: Using integrated waste management, recycling/composting, waste-to-energy, and better control of landfill gas, communities across the U.S. a...

  14. The Evaluation Life Cycle: A Retrospective Assessment of Stages and Phases of the Circles of Care Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Gary; Allen, James; Deters, Pamela B.

    2004-01-01

    A life cycle metaphor characterizes the evolving relationship between the evaluator and program staff. This framework suggests that common developmental dynamics occur in roughly the same order across groups and settings. There are stage-specific dynamics that begin with Pre-History, which characterize the relationship between the grantees and…

  15. Evaluating the transport, health and economic impacts of new urban cycling infrastructure in Sydney, Australia - protocol paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissel, Chris; Greaves, Stephen; Wen, Li Ming; Capon, Anthony; Crane, Melanie; Standen, Chris

    2013-10-17

    There are repeated calls to build better cycling paths in Australian cities if the proportion of people cycling is to increase. Yet the full range of transport, health, environmental and economic impacts of new cycling infrastructure and the extent to which observed changes are sustained is not well understood. The City of Sydney is currently building a new bicycle network, which includes a new bicycle path separated from road traffic in the south Sydney area. This protocol paper describes a comprehensive method to evaluate this new cycling infrastructure. A cohort of residents within two kilometres of the new bicycle path will be surveyed at baseline before a new section of bicycle path is built, and again 12 and 24 months later to assess changes in travel behaviour, sense of community, quality of life and health behaviours. Residents in a comparable area of Sydney that will not get a new separated bike path will act as a comparison group. At baseline a sub-set of residents who volunteer will also take a small GPS device with them for one week to assess travel behaviour. This research should contribute to the advancement in evaluation and appraisal methods for cycling projects.

  16. Evaluation of Indirect Combined Cycle in Very High Temperature Gas--Cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh; Robert Barner; Cliff Davis; Steven Sherman; Paul Pickard

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and Idaho National Laboratory are developing a very high temperature reactor to serve as a demonstration of state-of-the-art nuclear technology. The purpose of the demonstration is twofold: (a) efficient, low-cost energy generation and (b) hydrogen production. Although a next-generation plant could be developed as a single-purpose facility, early designs are expected to be dual purpose, as assumed here. A dual-purpose design with a combined cycle of a Brayton top cycle and a bottom Rankine cycle was investigated. An intermediate heat transport loop for transporting heat to a hydrogen production plant was used. Helium, CO2, and a helium-nitrogen mixture were studied to determine the best working fluid in terms of the cycle efficiency. The relative component sizes were estimated for the different working fluids to provide an indication of the relative capital costs. The relative size of the turbomachinery was measured by comparing the power input/output of the component. For heat exchangers the volume was computed and compared. Parametric studies away from the baseline values of the cycle were performed to determine the effects of varying conditions in the cycle. This gives some insight into the sensitivity of the cycle to various operating conditions as well as trade-offs between efficiency and component size. Parametric studies were carried out on reactor outlet temperature, mass flow, pressure, and turbine cooling

  17. Evaluation of DD and DT fusion fuel cycles for different fusion-fission energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A study has been carried out in order to investigate the characteristics of an energy system to produce a new source of fissile fuel for existing fission reactors. The denatured fuel cycles were used because it gives additional proliferation resistance compared to other fuel cycles. DT and DD fusion drivers were examined in this study with a thorium or uranium blanket for each fusion driver. Various fuel cycles were studied for light-water and heavy-water reactors. The cost of electricity for each energy system was calculated

  18. Sequence stratigraphy and high-frequency cycles: New aspects for a quantitative evaluation of the Gulf of Suez basin, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nio, S.D.; Yang, C.S. (International Geoservices, Leiderdorp (Netherlands)); Tewfik, N.; Darwish, M. (Earth Resource Exploration, Cairo (Egypt)); Jonkman, H. (International Geoservices, Leiderdorp (Netherlands))

    1993-09-01

    A new development in the application of sequence stratigraphic concepts in marine as well as continental basins is the recognition of high-frequency cyclic patterns in rock successions in the subsurface. Studies of six wells from the northern, central, and southern parts of the Gulf of Suez show the presence of well-preserved, high-frequency cycles with periodicities similar to the orbitally forced Malankovitch parameters. Subsurface rock successions, third-order sequences, and high-frequency cycles were compared with outcrops. After establishing the biostratigraphic framework for the above-mentioned wells, a sequence analysis was performed. Sequence boundaries and maximum flooding positions in each well were calibrated with the occurrences and evaluation of the high-frequency cycles. It became obvious that there is an intimate relationship between these high-frequency Milankovitch cycles and sequence organization. In addition, a close relationship can be observed in the subsurface as well as in outcrops between high-frequency climatic changes (connected to the Milankovitch cycles) and (litho)facies variability. Quantitative evaluations of each sequence and/or systems tract can be computed with the International Geoservices' cyclicity analysis tool (MILABAR). The results are summarized in a well composite chart, rate (NAR), and ratio of preserved time. In correlations between the wells, an accuracy of 500-100 Ka can be obtained. The quantitative evaluation of the sequence and high-frequency cycle analysis gave some new aspects concerning the (litho)facies and geodynamic development during the pre- as well as the synrift stages of the Gulf of Suez Basin.

  19. The influence of evaluation protocol on time spent exercising at a high level of oxygen uptake during continuous cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Merry, KL; Glaister, Mark; Howatson, Glyn; Van Someren, Ken A.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: This study evaluated the effects of protocol variation on the time spent exercising at ≥95% .VO2max during cycle ergometer trials performed at the exercise intensity associated with .VO2max (i .VO2max).\\ud METHODS: Nine male triathletes (age: 32±10 years; body mass: 73.3±6.1 kg; stature: 1.79±0.07 m; .VO2max: 3.58±0.45 L.min-1) performed four exercise tests. During tests 1 and 2, participants performed a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test using different stage durations (1 min and ...

  20. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiee, Shahin, E-mail: shahinrafiee@ut.ac.ir [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshnevisan, Benyamin, E-mail: b_khoshnevisan@ut.ac.ir [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Environmental Specialist Research Team (ESRTeam), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Musazadeh, Hossein [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Clark, Sean [Agriculture and Natural Resources Program, Berea College, Berea, KY (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000 kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457 kg CO{sub 2,eq}. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens. - Highlights: • Environmental aspects of milk production in Iran were investigated using LCA. • Feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory were taken into account. • Feed production stage was

  1. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiee, Shahin; Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Musazadeh, Hossein; Clark, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000 kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457 kg CO 2,eq . Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens. - Highlights: • Environmental aspects of milk production in Iran were investigated using LCA. • Feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory were taken into account. • Feed production stage was the

  2. Cycle water chemistry based on film forming amines at power plants: evaluation of technical guidance documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyachenko, F. V.; Petrova, T. I.

    2017-11-01

    Efficiency and reliability of the equipment in fossil power plants as well as in combined cycle power plants depend on the corrosion processes and deposit formation in steam/water circuit. In order to decrease these processes different water chemistries are used. Today the great attention is being attracted to the application of film forming amines and film forming amine products. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) consolidated the information from all over the World, and based on the research studies and operating experience of researchers and engineers from 21 countries, developed and authorized the Technical Guidance Document: “Application of Film Forming Amines in Fossil, Combined Cycle, and Biomass Power Plants” in 2016. This article describe Russian and International technical guidance documents for the cycle water chemistries based on film forming amines at fossil and combined cycle power plants.

  3. Evaluation of corneal thickness alterations during menstrual cycle in productive age women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Amiri Ghahfarokhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the change in corneal thickness through different phases of menstrual cycle in women who are in their productive age. Materials and Methods: Fifty healthy women with normal past medical history were enrolled in this prospective study. Central corneal thickness was measured with ultrasound pachymeter three times during a menstrual cycle: Beginning of the cycle (days 1-3, ovulation time, and at the end of cycle (days 27-32. We confirmed ovulation time with determining a peak in luteinizing hormone in urine. To avoid the diurnal variation of the corneal thickness which is well recognized, we checked all our subjects at 10 in the morning. Results: In days 1 to 3 of menstruation, mean corneal thickness was 541.40±11.36 and 540.82±11.70 microns for left and right eyes respectively. At ovulation time the mean thickness changed to 556.50±7.11 and 555.98±7.26 microns for left and right eyes respectively, and at the end of the cycle, the corneal thickness turned in to 536.38±12.83 and 535.48±13.08 microns for left and right eyes respectively. The difference of corneal thickness was statistically significant relating to the different stages of menstrual cycle. Conclusion: The thickest cornea during the menstruation cycle is achieved at the ovulation time and the thinnest at the end of the cycle and this should be taken in to account whilst plan to do a corneal refractive surgery.

  4. Evaluation of the fertilizer and contamination potential of different broiler litter types subjected to various use cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lucía Zapata Marín

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate two types of poultry bedding litter (wood shavings and coffee husks with increasing use cycles, the best time to proceed with composting based on the carbon/nitrogen ratio and the ability to generate ammonia. The results obtained with the present experiment conditions indicated that the litter with wood shavings in the first cycle and the litter with coffee husks in the first and second cycles presented the best behavior in terms of the C/N ratio needed for later use as compost. In regards to the contamination potential, it was found that increasing the number of reutilizations for both the wood-shaving and coffee-husk litters resulted in a greater ammonia emission.

  5. Carbon footprint evaluation of coal-to-methanol chain with the hierarchical attribution management and life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Zhen; Zhai, Guofu; Wu, Xiaomei; Yu, Yunsong; Zhang, Zaoxiao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hierarchical attribution management method is proposed for life cycle assessment. • Carbon footprint of the coal-to-methanol chain in China is at 2.971 t CO 2,e /t methanol. • Gasification and WGS unit are the main contributors for GHG generation in life cycle chain. • Methanol synthesis unit is a potential “carbon sink” for CO 2 utilization. • CCS is proved to be an effective method to reduce carbon footprint. - Abstract: Coal is considered as an abundant energy source in China and coal-to-methanol chain is an essential routing on account of methanol’s irreplaceable status in chemical industries. However, coal-based methanol production aroused controversy due to its intensive energy consumption and high greenhouse gas emission, compared with other processes by oil or natural gas. Carbon footprint is an improved indicator that evaluates both direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions in the life cycle perspective and guides policymakers for better industry-chain planning. In this study we proposed the idea of hierarchical attribution management (HAM) to provide a classified method for evaluating carbon footprint of coal-to-methanol chain, combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) and the tool of ASPEN Plus. The results show that the life cycle carbon footprint was 2.971 t CO 2,e /t methanol. By the HAM, it’s concluded that methanol production process was the largest emission contributor in the defined life cycle system with a share of 92.86%, followed by coal mining process with 4.34%. Gasification unit and water-gas shift unit were two major greenhouse gas generators, accounting for 21.26% and 52.80% of life cycle emission, respectively, while methanol synthesis unit showed the potential for CO 2 utilization and emission reduction. Additionally, the results of sensitivity analysis showed that electricity emission factor with a sensitivity factor of 189.11 was the most extensive influence factor on life cycle emission due to its

  6. Retrofitted Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for Swedish Single-Family Houses—Evaluation of a Prototype and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ricardo Bernardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available According to recent technology road maps, system cost reductions and development of standardised plug-and-function systems are some of the most important goals for solar heating technology development. Retrofitting hot water boilers in single-family houses when installing solar collectors has the potential to significantly reduce both material and installation costs. Previous studies have investigated such retrofitting, using theoretical simulations and laboratory tests, but no actual installations were made and tested in practice. This article describes the installation, measured performance and cost effectiveness of a retrofitting solution that converts existing domestic hot water heaters to a solar domestic hot water system. The measured performance is characterised by the monthly and annual solar fractions. The cost effectiveness is evaluated by a life-cycle cost analysis, comparing the retrofitted system to a conventional solar domestic hot water system and the case without any solar heating system. Measurements showed that approximately 50% of the 5000 kWh/year of domestic hot water consumption was saved by the retrofitted system in south Sweden. Such savings are in agreement with previous estimations and are comparable to the energy savings when using a conventional solar domestic hot water system. The life-cycle cost analysis showed that, according to the assumptions and given climate, the return on investment of the retrofitted system is approximately 17 years, while a conventional system does not reach profitability during its lifetime of 25 years.

  7. Assessment of Proliferation Resistance of Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle System with Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors Using INPRO Evaluation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee; Won, Byung Chool; Lee, Dong Uk

    2007-11-01

    Using the INPRO methodology, the proliferation resistance of an innovative nuclear energy system(INS) defined as a closed nuclear fuel cycle system consisting of KALIMER and pyroprocessing, has been assessed. Considering a very early development stage of the INS concept, the PR assessment is carried out based on intrinsic features, if required information and data are not available. The PR assessment of KALIMER and JSFR using the INPRO methodology affirmed that an adequate proliferation resistance has been achieved in both INSs CNFC-SFR, considering the assessor's progress and maturity of design development. KALIMER and JSFR are developed or being developed conforming to the targets and criteria defined for developing Gen IV nuclear reactor system. Based on these assessment results, proliferation resistance and physical protection(PR and PP) of KALIMER and JSFR are evaluated from the viewpoint of requirements for future nuclear fuel cycle system. The envisioned INSs CNFC-SFR rely on active plutonium management based on a closed fuel cycle, in which a fissile material is recycled in an integrated fuel cycle facility within proper safeguards. There is no isolated plutonium in the closed fuel cycle. The material remains continuously in a sequence of highly radioactive matrices within inaccessible facilities. The proliferation resistance assessment should be an ongoing analysis that keeps up with the progress and maturity of the design of Gen IV SFR

  8. An empirical evaluation of lightweight random walk based routing protocol in duty cycle aware wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Adnan Noor; Fatima, Mehwish; Khan, Raees; Prakash, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency is an important design paradigm in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and its consumption in dynamic environment is even more critical. Duty cycling of sensor nodes is used to address the energy consumption problem. However, along with advantages, duty cycle aware networks introduce some complexities like synchronization and latency. Due to their inherent characteristics, many traditional routing protocols show low performance in densely deployed WSNs with duty cycle awareness, when sensor nodes are supposed to have high mobility. In this paper we first present a three messages exchange Lightweight Random Walk Routing (LRWR) protocol and then evaluate its performance in WSNs for routing low data rate packets. Through NS-2 based simulations, we examine the LRWR protocol by comparing it with DYMO, a widely used WSN protocol, in both static and dynamic environments with varying duty cycles, assuming the standard IEEE 802.15.4 in lower layers. Results for the three metrics, that is, reliability, end-to-end delay, and energy consumption, show that LRWR protocol outperforms DYMO in scalability, mobility, and robustness, showing this protocol as a suitable choice in low duty cycle and dense WSNs.

  9. Comparison of different back end fuel cycle concepts and evaluation of their feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baetke, K.; Baumgaertel, G.; Bechthold, W.; Becker, R.; Closs, K.D.; Dippel, T.; Engelmann, H.J.; Fischer, P.M.; Fischer, U.; Haug, H.O.

    1980-09-01

    The study represents a comparison between the two alternative back end fuel cycle concepts, i.e., the 'integrated back end fuel cycle concept', (reprocessing, recycling of uranium and plutonium) and the 'spent fuel disposal concept', under aspects of technical feasibility, radiation accidents, radiological impact, and energy policy as well as with respect of the proliferation hazards issuing from each of these concepts. An overall comparison of the two back end fuel cycle concepts and the two fuel cycles, respectively, is not yet feasible at the present time, pending clarification of a number of problems of detail. For this reason, the Study also indicates the research activities that must still be carried out on spent fuel disposal in the next few years, in order to allow the comparison of the two back end fuel cycle alternatives to be carried out with respect to safety, as demanded by the heads of government of the Federal Republic and the Federal States for the mid-eighties. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Emergy evaluation of water utilization benefits in water-ecological-economic system based on water cycle process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.; Wu, Z.; Lv, C.

    2017-12-01

    The water utilization benefits are formed by the material flow, energy flow, information flow and value stream in the whole water cycle process, and reflected along with the material circulation of inner system. But most of traditional water utilization benefits evaluation are based on the macro level, only consider the whole material input and output and energy conversion relation, and lack the characterization of water utilization benefits accompanying with water cycle process from the formation mechanism. In addition, most studies are from the perspective of economics, only pay attention to the whole economic output and sewage treatment economic investment, but neglect the ecological function benefits of water cycle, Therefore, from the perspective of internal material circulation in the whole system, taking water cycle process as the process of material circulation and energy flow, the circulation and flow process of water and other ecological environment, social economic elements were described, and the composition of water utilization positive and negative benefits in water-ecological-economic system was explored, and the performance of each benefit was analyzed. On this basis, the emergy calculation method of each benefit was proposed by emergy quantitative analysis technique, which can realize the unified measurement and evaluation of water utilization benefits in water-ecological-economic system. Then, taking Zhengzhou city as an example, the corresponding benefits of different water cycle links were calculated quantitatively by emergy method, and the results showed that the emergy evaluation method of water utilization benefits can unify the ecosystem and the economic system, achieve uniform quantitative analysis, and measure the true value of natural resources and human economic activities comprehensively.

  11. Evaluation of the of thermal shock resistance of a castable containing andalusite aggregates by thermal shock cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.C.R.; Santos, E.M.B.; Ribeiro, S.; Rodrigues, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal shock resistance of refractory materials is one of the most important characteristics that determine their performance in many applications, since abrupt and drastic differences in temperature can damage them. Resistance to thermal shock damage can be evaluated based on thermal cycles, i.e., successive heating and cooling cycles followed by an analysis of the drop in Young's modulus occurring in each cycle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance to thermal shock damage in a commercial refractory concrete with andalusite aggregate. Concrete samples that were sintered at 1000 deg C and 1450 deg C for 5 hours to predict and were subjected to 30 thermal shock cycles, soaking in the furnace for 20 minutes at a temperature of 1000 deg C, and subsequent cooling in circulating water at 25 deg C. The results showed a decrease in Young's modulus and rupture around 72% for samples sintered at 1000 ° C, and 82% in sintered at 1450 ° C. The refractory sintered at 1450 deg C would show lower thermal shock resistance than the refractory sintered at 1000 deg C. (author)

  12. A comparison of advanced heat recovery power cycles in a combined cycle for large ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Sigthorsson, Oskar; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Strong motivation exists within the marine sector to reduce fuel expenses and to comply with ever stricter emission regulations. Heat recovery can address both of these issues. The ORC (organic Rankine cycle), the Kalina cycle and the steam Rankine cycle have received the majority of the focus...... model is combined with a turbocharger model and bottoming cycle models written in Matlab. Genetic algorithm optimisation results suggest that the Kalina cycle possess no significant advantages compared to the ORC or the steam cycle. While contributing to very high efficiencies, the organic working...... in the literature. In the present work we compare these cycles in a combined cycle application with a large marine two-stroke diesel engine. We present an evaluation of the efficiency and the environmental impact, safety concerns and practical aspects of each of the cycles. A previously validated numerical engine...

  13. Evaluation of color and radon exhalation rate in granite rocks between accelerated aging cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Francisco Diones Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Data used for the assessment of the analyzes performed on three types of dimension stone (Juparana Bordeaux, Branco Nevasca and Golden Artico), in natural state and after several cycles of accelerated aging are presented, correlating them with the gas exhalation rate radon issued by the analyzed lithologies. In the samples were conducted permeability, porosity, colorimetry, image analysis, petrographic and exhalation rate of radon, accompanied by aging tests on climate simulation chamber which simulates change situations of materials by weathering agents, accelerating wear and tear samples. The measurements were performed on samples in natural state, with 50 and 100 cycles of aging acceleration, where each cycle corresponds to variations in temperature and humidity in climatic simulation chamber, with the addition of an internal atmosphere of SO 2 with 25 concentration ppm. The results obtained during the tests were related to better analysis of the changes observed on the samples and the variation rate of exhalation radon emitted. The rocks have radon concentration values above the limits suggested by relevant international agencies (200-400 Bq/m³), with average values in the natural state, in 6149, 1619 and 866 Bq/m³ for Juparana Bordeaux, Branco Nevasca and Golden Arctic, respectively. The other aging cycles (50 and 100 cycles) showed an average increase of 0.8% for Juparana Bordeaux, 6.9% for White Blizzard and -23.87% for the Golden Arctic, with 50 cycles. From 50 to 100 cycles, there was reduction of 3.43% for Juparana Bordeaux and 22.15% for Branco Nevasca and an increase of 13.82% in the Golden Artico. The porosity results in the natural state obtained values an average of 0.696% for Juparana Bordeaux, 0.919% for Branco Nevasca and 0.830% for Golden Artico, and after 50 cycles of accelerated aging, obtained 0.621% to Juparana Bordeaux, 0.910% for Branco Nevasca and 0.840% for Golden Artico. The permeability of the samples showed values in the natural

  14. A Framework for Economic Evaluation of Highway Development Projects Based on Network-Level Life Cycle Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ziari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For economic evaluation of a highway development project, multiple criteria must be considered on a timeframe longer than the project implementation interval and a geographical area larger than the project zone. In this study, a framework is proposed based on the Network-Level Life Cycle Cost Analysis (NL-LCCA to assess the effect of highway development projects on mobility, safety, economy, environment and other monetizable criteria. In this approach, project impacts are estimated within physical boundaries of highway network over the network life cycle. This framework can be used as a decision-making support for evaluation and ranking of pre-defined development projects, proposing new cost-effective development projects, assessment of cost efficiency of existing highway network and budget allocation optimization.

  15. Evaluation of fuel fabrication and the back end of the fuel cycle for light-water- and heavy-water-cooled nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, W.L.; Olsen, A.R.

    1979-06-01

    The classification of water-cooled nuclear reactors offers a number of fuel cycles that present inherently low risk of weapons proliferation while making power available to the international community. Eight fuel cycles in light water reactor (LWR), heavy water reactor (HWR), and the spectral shift controlled reactor (SSCR) systems have been proposed to promote these objectives in the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) program. Each was examined in an effort to provide technical and economic data to INFCE on fuel fabrication, refabrication, and reprocessing for an initial comparison of alternate cycles. The fuel cycles include three once-through cycles that require only fresh fuel fabrication, shipping, and spent fuel storage; four cycles that utilize denatured uranium--thorium and require all recycle operations; and one cycle that considers the LWR--HWR tandem operation requiring refabrication but no reprocessing

  16. [Polarized light microscopy for evaluation of oocytes as a prognostic factor in the evolution of a cycle in assisted reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortega, C; Cancino-Villarreal, P; Alonzo-Torres, V E; Martínez-Robles, I; Pérez-Peña, E; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, A M

    2016-04-01

    Identification of the best embryos to transfer is a key element for success in assisted reproduction. In the last decade, several morphological criteria of oocytes and embryos were evaluated with regard to their potential for predicting embryo viability. The introduction of polarization light microscopy systems has allowed the visualization of the meiotic spindle and the different layers of the zona pellucida in human oocytes on the basis of birefringence in a non-destructive way. Conflicting results have been reported regarding the predictive value in ICSI cycles. To assess the predictive ability of meiotic spindle and zona pellucida of human oocytes to implant by polarized microscopy in ICSI cycles. Prospective and observational clinical study. 903 oocytes from 94 ICSI cycles were analyzed with polarized microscopy. Meiotic spindle visualization and zona pellucida birefringence values by polarized microscopy were correlated with ICSI cycles results. Meiotic spindle visualization and birefringence values of zona pellucida decreased in a direct basis with increasing age. In patients aged over the 35 years, the percentage of a visible spindle and mean zona pellucida birefringence was lower than in younger patients. Fertilization rate were higher in oocytes with visible meiotic spindle (81.3% vs. 64%; p < 0.0001), as well as embryo quality (47.4% vs. 39%; p=0.01). Fertilization rate was higher in oocytes with positive values of birefringence (77.5 % vs. 68.5% p=0.005) with similar embryo quality. Conception cycles showed oocytes with higher mean value of zona birefringence and visible spindle vs. no-conception cycles (p<0.05). Polarized light microscopy improves oocyte selection, which significantly impacts in the development of embryos with greater implantation potential. The use of polarized light microscopy with sperm selection methods, blastocyst culture and deferred embryo transfers will contribute to transfer fewer embryos without diminishing rates of live

  17. Improvements in the life cycle approach as an environmental evaluation tool in organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antón, A.; Núñez, M.; Montero, J.I.; Muñoz, P.; Stanghellini, C.

    2014-01-01

    Very few studies objectively quantify environmental impact of organic farming practices. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tool has proved to be an accurate, objective, and transparent tool to quantify many environmental impacts. The purpose of this paper is to disseminate the LCA methodology,

  18. Comparative evaluation of life cycle assessment models for solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Joerg; Bilitewski, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    This publication compares a selection of six different models developed in Europe and America by research organisations, industry associations and governmental institutions. The comparison of the models reveals the variations in the results and the differences in the conclusions of an LCA study done with these models. The models are compared by modelling a specific case - the waste management system of Dresden, Germany - with each model and an in-detail comparison of the life cycle inventory results. Moreover, a life cycle impact assessment shows if the LCA results of each model allows for comparable and consecutive conclusions, which do not contradict the conclusions derived from the other models' results. Furthermore, the influence of different level of detail in the life cycle inventory of the life cycle assessment is demonstrated. The model comparison revealed that the variations in the LCA results calculated by the models for the case show high variations and are not negligible. In some cases the high variations in results lead to contradictory conclusions concerning the environmental performance of the waste management processes. The static, linear modelling approach chosen by all models analysed is inappropriate for reflecting actual conditions. Moreover, it was found that although the models' approach to LCA is comparable on a general level, the level of detail implemented in the software tools is very different

  19. LED street lighting evaluation -- phase II : LED specification and life-cycle cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Phase II of this study focused on developing a draft specification for LED luminaires to be used by IDOT : and a life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) tool for solid state lighting technologies. The team also researched the : latest developments related to...

  20. Life-Cycle Evaluation of Concrete Building Construction as a Strategy for Sustainable Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadel, Alexander [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gursel, Petek [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Masanet, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-18

    Structural materials in commercial buildings in the United States account for a significant fraction of national energy use, resource consumption, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Robust decisions for balancing and minimizing these various environmental effects require that structural materials selections follow a life-cycle, systems modeling approach. This report provides a concise overview of the development and use of a new life-cycle assessment (LCA) model for structural materials in U.S. commercial buildings-the Berkeley Lab Building Materials Pathways (B-PATH) model. B-PATH aims to enhance environmental decision-making in the commercial building LCA, design, and planning communities through the following key features: (1) Modeling of discrete technology options in the production, transportation, construction, and end of life processes associated U.S. structural building materials; (2) Modeling of energy supply options for electricity provision and directly combusted fuels across the building life cycle; (3) Comprehensiveness of relevant building mass and energy flows and environmental indicators; (4) Ability to estimate modeling uncertainties through easy creation of different life-cycle technology and energy supply pathways for structural materials; and (5) Encapsulation of the above features in a transparent public use model. The report summarizes literature review findings, methods development, model use, and recommendations for future work in the area of LCA for commercial buildings.

  1. Software Integration of Life Cycle Assessment and Economic Analysis for Process Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakula, Sawitree; Malakula, Pomthong; Siemanonda, Kitipat

    2013-01-01

    .. Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact...

  2. Evaluating Managerial Styles for System Development Life Cycle Stages to Ensure Software Project Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocherla, Showry

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) projects are considered successful if they are completed on time, within budget, and within scope. Even though, the required tools and methodologies are in place, IT projects continue to fail at a higher rate. Current literature lacks explanation for success within the stages of system development life-cycle (SDLC) such…

  3. Performing Vaginal Lavage, Crystal Violet Staining, and Vaginal Cytological Evaluation for Mouse Estrous Cycle Staging Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Ashleigh C.; Valenzuela, Nicolas; Fai, Stephen; Bennett, Steffany A.L.

    2012-01-01

    A rapid means of assessing reproductive status in rodents is useful not only in the study of reproductive dysfunction but is also required for the production of new mouse models of disease and investigations into the hormonal regulation of tissue degeneration (or regeneration) following pathological challenge. The murine reproductive (or estrous) cycle is divided into 4 stages: proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus. Defined fluctuations in circulating levels of the ovarian steroids 17-β-estradiol and progesterone, the gonadotropins luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones, and the luteotropic hormone prolactin signal transition through these reproductive stages. Changes in cell typology within the murine vaginal canal reflect these underlying endocrine events. Daily assessment of the relative ratio of nucleated epithelial cells, cornified squamous epithelial cells, and leukocytes present in vaginal smears can be used to identify murine estrous stages. The degree of invasiveness, however, employed in collecting these samples can alter reproductive status and elicit an inflammatory response that can confound cytological assessment of smears. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive protocol that can be used to determine the stage of the estrous cycle of a female mouse without altering her reproductive cycle. We detail how to differentiate between the four stages of the estrous cycle by collection and analysis of predominant cell typology in vaginal smears and we show how these changes can be interpreted with respect to endocrine status. PMID:23007862

  4. Double Girder Bridge Crane with Double Cycling: Scheduling Strategy and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel quay crane design, double girder bridge crane (DGBC. DGBC is capable of handling containers of two adjacent bays simultaneously, avoiding crane collisions, saving travelling and reposition cost, and eventually improving terminal efficiency. This problem is formulated as a resource-constrained project scheduling with objective to minimize the maximum completion time. A two-stage heuristic algorithm is proposed in which an operating sequences on each bay is obtained by double cycling, and the integrated timetable for both bays is constructed by solving resource conflicts using the proposed minimum cost strategy. We examine effectiveness and performance of applying DGBC with double cycling. A case study is presented to illustrate how DGBC works with the two-stage method. Three extreme cases with respective conflict types are investigated to develop the performance bounds of DGBC with double cycling. The results show that DGBC can significantly improve terminal productivity, and outperforms single girder crane in both makespan and the lift operation percentage. The highest DGBC efficiency does not require maximum double cycles in two bay schedules; rather the integrated timetable for two bays is the main contribution to the DGBC performance as it yields better cooperation between two spreaders and the driver.

  5. Development and evaluation of the carbon-nitrogen cycle module for the GPFARM-Range model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands cover approximately 50% of the terrestrial surface of the earth. The soil carbon and nitrogen storage and turnover in rangeland systems are becoming increasingly important for sustainable grazing management and adaptations to climate change. In this study, a carbon-nitrogen (C-N) cycle m...

  6. Evaluation of von Willebrand factor during pregnancy, lactation and oestrous cycle in bitches affected and unaffected by von Willebrand disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoso, C R S; Takahira, R K; Beier, S L; Araujo, J P; Corrente, J E

    2013-06-01

    Plasmatic concentrations of von Willebrand Factor (vWF) increase during pregnancy in humans and dogs; however the mechanism of such increase is still not well defined. The aims of this study were: (i) to evaluate changes in vWF concentration during pregnancy and during the subsequent oestrous cycle in bitches affected and unaffected by von Willebrand Disease (vWD); (ii) to correlate the vWF levels and cortisol levels in both groups. Seven vWD affected (GI) and nine unaffected (GII) bitches were used. The animals were assessed during pregnancy, parturition, lactation and non-gestational oestrous cycle in 11 moments (Pregnancy 1, Pregnancy 2, Parturition, Lactation 1, Lactation 2, Lactation 3, Anestrus, Proestrus, Oestrus, Diestrus 1, and Diestrus 2). The following tests were performed; measurement of von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF:Ag), albumin and cortisol. In both groups, vWF concentration remained stable during the non-gestational oestrous cycle, but increased during pregnancy, with the highest value observed at parturition. Increases of 70% and 124% in vWF were seen in GI and GII, respectively, compared to anestrus. No correlation was found between vWF and cortisol. Values of vWF:Ag changed during pregnancy, with a peak at parturition, both in vWD affected and unaffected animals. Values of vWF were not altered in the different phases of the oestrous cycle following pregnancy in both groups. Evaluation of vWF during pregnancy can cause false negative results for vWD, but assessment can be performed at any point in the oestrous cycle of non-pregnant bitches. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Application of life cycle assessment for an evaluation of wastewater treatment and reuse project--case study of Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q H; Wang, X C; Xiong, J Q; Chen, R; Cao, B

    2010-03-01

    In order to illuminate the benefit of a wastewater treatment and reuse project, a life cycle assessment (LCA) model was proposed by combining the process-based LCA and the input-output based LCA in one framework and using energy consumption as the sole parameter for quantitative evaluation of the project. The life cycle consumption was evaluated mainly by life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis taking into account the construction phase, operation phase and demolishment phase of the project. For evaluating the life cycle benefit of treated water reuse, attention was paid to the decrease of secondary effluent discharge and water saving. As a result of comprehensive LCA analysis of a case project in Xi'an, China, it was understood that the life cycle benefit gained from treated wastewater reuse much surpassed the life cycle energy consumption. The advantage of wastewater treatment and reuse was well shown by LCA analysis using the proposed model. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the atmospheric moisture and hydrological cycle in the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenberth, K. E.; Guillemot, C. J.

    An evaluation is carried out of the moisture fields, the precipitation P and evaporation E, and the moisture transport and divergence in the atmosphere from the global atmospheric National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)-NCAR reanalyses produced with four-dimensional-data assimilation. The moisture fields are summarized by the precipitable water which is compared with analyzed fields from NVAP based primarily on Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) over the oceans and rawinsonde measurements over land, plus TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS). The moisture budgets are evaluated through computation of the freshwater flux at the surface E-P from the divergence of the total moisture transport, and this is compared with the reanalysis E-P that is based upon a 6-hour integration of the assimilating model and thus depends on the model parametrizations. The P field is evaluated using Xie- Arkin global precipitation estimates which, although containing considerable uncertainties, are believed to be reliable and good enough to show that there are substantial biases in the NCEP P. There are many fields of interest and which are improved over previous information available. On an annual mean basis the largest evaporation of over 6 mm/day is in the subtropical Indian Ocean. However, the NCEP moisture fields are shown to contain large and significant biases in the tropics. The tropical structures are less well defined and values are generally smaller where they should be high and higher where they should be low. In addition, the NCEP moisture fields contain less variability from year to year. The NCEP model P generally reveals a double intertropical convergence zone in the central Pacific and the location of the South Pacific Convergence Zone is not well captured. Rainfall amounts are lower than observed in the oceanic tropical convergence zones. The variability in the central tropical Pacific of P associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is

  9. Evaluation Analysis of the CO2 Emission and Absorption Life Cycle for Precast Concrete in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyoung Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To comply with recent international trends and initiatives, and in order to help achieve sustainable development, Korea has established a greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction target of 37% (851 million tons of the business as usual (BAU rate by 2030. Regarding environmentally-oriented standards such as the IGCC (International Green Construction Code, there are also rising demands for the assessment on CO2 emissions during the life cycle in accordance with ISO (International Standardization Organization’s Standard 14040. At present, precast concrete (PC engineering-related studies primarily cover structural and construction aspects, including improvement of structural performance in the joint, introduction of pre-stressed concrete and development of half PC. In the manufacture of PC, steam curing is mostly used for the early-strength development of concrete. In steam curing, a large amount of CO2 is produced, causing an environmental problem. Therefore, this study proposes a method to assess CO2 emissions (including absorption throughout the PC life cycle by using a life cycle assessment (LCA method. Using the proposed assessment method, CO2 emissions during the life cycle of a precast concrete girder (PCG were assessed. In addition, CO2 absorption was assessed against a PCG using conventional carbonation and CO2 absorption-related models. As a result, the CO2 emissions throughout the life cycle of the PCG were 1365.6 (kg-CO2/1 PCG. The CO2 emissions during the production of raw materials among the CO2 emissions throughout the life cycle of the PCG were 1390 (kg-CO2/1 PCG, accounting for a high portion to total CO2 emissions (nearly 90%. In contrast, the transportation and manufacture stages were 1% and 10%, respectively, having little effect on total CO2 emissions. Among the use of the PCG, CO2 absorption was mostly decided by the CO2 diffusion coefficient and the amount of CO2 absorption by cement paste. The CO2 absorption by carbonation

  10. Development of a hybrid energy storage sizing algorithm associated with the evaluation of power management in different driving cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoud, Masih Tehrani; Mohammad Reza, Ha'iri Yazdi; Esfahanian, Vahid; Sagha, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid energy storage sizing algorithm for electric vehicles is developed to achieve a semi optimum cost effective design. Using the developed algorithm, a driving cycle is divided into its micro-trips and the power and energy demands in each micro trip are determined. The battery size is estimated because the battery fulfills the power demands. Moreover, the ultra capacitor (UC) energy (or the number of UC modules) is assessed because the UC delivers the maximum energy demands of the different micro trips of a driving cycle. Finally, a design factor, which shows the power of the hybrid energy storage control strategy, is utilized to evaluate the newly designed control strategies. Using the developed algorithm, energy saving loss, driver satisfaction criteria, and battery life criteria are calculated using a feed forward dynamic modeling software program and are utilized for comparison among different energy storage candidates. This procedure is applied to the hybrid energy storage sizing of a series hybrid electric city bus in Manhattan and to the Tehran driving cycle. Results show that a higher aggressive driving cycle (Manhattan) requires more expensive energy storage system and more sophisticated energy management strategy

  11. Evaluation of an operational water cycle prediction system for the Laurentian Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Vincent; Durnford, Dorothy; Smith, Gregory; Dyck, Sarah; Martinez, Yosvany; Mackay, Murray; Winter, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) is implementing new numerical guidance products based on fully coupled numerical models to better inform the public as well as specialized users on the current and future state of various components of the water cycle, including stream flow and water levels. Outputs from this new system, named the Water Cycle Prediction System (WCPS), have been available for the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River watershed since June 2016. WCPS links together ECCC's weather forecasting model, GEM, the 2-D ice model C-ICE, the 3-D lake and ocean model NEMO, and a 2-D hydrological model, WATROUTE. Information concerning the water cycle is passed between the models at intervals varying from a few minutes to one hour. It currently produces two forecasts per day for the next three days of the complete water cycle in the Great Lakes region, the largest freshwater lake system in the world. Products include spatially-varying precipitation, evaporation, river discharge, water level anomalies, surface water temperatures, ice coverage, and surface currents. These new products are of interest to water resources and management authority, flood forecasters, hydroelectricity producers, navigation, environmental disaster managers, search and rescue teams, agriculture, and the general public. This presentation focuses on the evaluation of various elements forecasted by the system, and weighs the advantages and disadvantages of running the system fully coupled.

  12. Evaluation of Externality Costs in Life-Cycle Optimization of Municipal Solid Waste Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Levis, James W.; Damgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The development of sustainable solid waste management (SWM) systems requires consideration of both economic and environmental impacts. Societal life-cycle costing (S-LCC) provides a quantitative framework to estimate both economic and environmental impacts, by including "budget costs......" and "externality costs". Budget costs include market goods and services (economic impact), whereas externality costs include effects outside the economic system (e.g., environmental impact). This study demonstrates the applicability of S-LCC to SWM life-cycle optimization through a case study based on an average...... suburban U.S. county of 500 000 people generating 320 000 Mg of waste annually. Estimated externality costs are based on emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, VOC, CO, NH3, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr (VI), Ni, As, and dioxins. The results indicate that incorporating S-LCC into optimized SWM strategy...

  13. Performance evaluation of a solar ejector-vapour compression cycle for cooling application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megdouli, K; Mhimid, A; Elakhdar, M; Nahdi, E; Kairouani, L

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with the performance of the ejector-vapour compression cycle assisted by solar. The effect of operating conditions on the combined cycle performance is examined. Also, a comparison of the system performance with environment friendly refrigerants (R134a, R600, R123, R141b, R142b, R152a, R290, and R245fa) is made. This performance is calculated using an empirical correlation. Thermodynamic properties of functioning fluids are obtained with package REFPROP 8. Using the typical meteorological year file containing the weather data of the city of Tunis, the system performance is computed for three collector types. The theoretical results show that the R290 offers the highest coefficient of performance, COP=3.75, for generator temperature T B = 78°C, condenser temperature T c = 30°C and the intercooler temperature T e = 15°C

  14. Evaluation of MSW management practices in Portugal using Life Cycle Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Xará, Susana; Almeida, Manuel Fonseca; Silva, Margarida; Costa, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a case study where the evolution of MSW management practices for three municipalities in Portugal were analyzed using the Life Cycle Assessment technique. This evolution was mainly due to legislative pressures that led to changes in MSW collection and treatment or disposal systems implemented between 1990 and 2000. The municipalities participating in the study were Porto, Maia and Gondomar, all part of LIPOR, the intermunicipal entity responsible for the...

  15. Evaluation of catalyst for closed cycle operation of high energy pulsed CO2 lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, R. S.; Miller, I. M.; Wood, G.; Schryer, D. R.; Hess, R. V.; Upchurch, B. T.

    1983-01-01

    Several catalyst materials have been tested for efficiency of converting CO and O2 to CO2 for use in a high energy CO2 laser. The composition of the gas mixtures was monitored by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography. A copper/copper oxide catalyst and a platinum/tin oxide catalyst were used for closed cycle operation of a CO2 laser (0.7 joules/pulse), operating at 10 pulses/sec.

  16. Evaluating the thermodynamic efficiency of hydrogen cycles at wet-steam nuclear power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Egorov, A. N.

    2013-04-01

    Various schematic solutions for implementing a hydrogen cycle on the basis of thermal and nuclear power stations are discussed. Different approaches to construction of cooling systems for the combustion chambers used in hydrogen-oxygen steam generators are described. An example of solution is given in which the combustion chamber is cooled by steam, which is the most efficient one in the thermodynamic respect. Results from an assessment of the thermodynamic efficiency of hydrogen cycles organized on the basis of the power unit of a wet-steam nuclear power station equipped with a K-1000-60/1500 turbine are presented. The thermodynamic efficiency of different schematic and parametric versions of implementing a hydrogen cycle, including those with a satellite turbine operating on displaced steam, is carried out. It is shown that the use of satellite turbines allows the power output and efficiency of the power unit of a wet-steam nuclear power station to be upgraded in a reliable and effective manner.

  17. Oestrogen receptor evaluation in Pomeranian dogs with hair cycle arrest (alopecia X) on melatonin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Linda A; Donnell, Robert L; Kania, Stephen A

    2006-08-01

    The role of oestrogen receptors in dogs with hair cycle arrest (alopecia X) was investigated by immunohistochemistry. The purpose of this study was to determine if hair regrowth in dogs with hair cycle arrest treated with melatonin was associated with a decrease in follicular oestrogen receptors. Fifteen Pomeranians (excluding intact females) with hair cycle arrest were enrolled. Two biopsies were obtained from alopecic areas of the trunk before and after 3 months on melatonin. Haematoxylin and eosin-stained tissues were examined and oestrogen receptor-alpha was demonstrated immunohistochemically. Common histopathological findings included hyperkeratosis, follicular keratosis, excessive tricholemmal keratinization (flame follicles), thin epidermis, few small anagen bulbs, epidermal pigmentation and melanin aggregates within follicular keratin. Melanin aggregates within basal cells and hair were an occasional finding. After 3 months, 40% (six) dogs had mild to moderate hair regrowth. Biopsies from six dogs showed histological evidence of an increase in anagen hairs and eight dogs had a decrease in epidermal pigmentation. Moderate to marked staining intensity of oestrogen receptor-alpha was noted in all sebaceous gland basal cells, all small hair bulbs and follicular epithelium of telogen hairs. There was no oestrogen receptor-alpha staining of nuclei within the epidermis, apocrine glands or dermal fibroblasts. Large anagen hair bulbs had minimal to no oestrogen receptor staining. Hair regrowth was not associated with a change in oestrogen receptor-alpha staining.

  18. Evaluating the impacts of climate change on diurnal wind power cycles using multiple regional climate models

    KAUST Repository

    Goddard, Scott D.

    2015-05-01

    Electrical utility system operators must plan resources so that electricity supply matches demand throughout the day. As the proportion of wind-generated electricity in the US grows, changes in daily wind patterns have the potential either to disrupt the utility or increase the value of wind to the system over time. Wind power projects are designed to last many years, so at this timescale, climate change may become an influential factor on wind patterns. We examine the potential effects of climate change on the average diurnal power production cycles at 12 locations in North America by analyzing averaged and individual output from nine high-resolution regional climate models comprising historical (1971–1999) and future (2041–2069) periods. A semi-parametric mixed model is fit using cubic B-splines, and model diagnostics are checked. Then, a likelihood ratio test is applied to test for differences between the time periods in the seasonal daily averaged cycles, and agreement among the individual regional climate models is assessed. We investigate the significant changes by combining boxplots with a differencing approach and identify broad categories of changes in the amplitude, shape, and position of the average daily cycles. We then discuss the potential impact of these changes on wind power production.

  19. Evaluation of the seminiferous epithelial cycle, spermatogonial kinetics and niche in donkeys (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarini-Garcia, Hélio; Alves-Freitas, Daniel; Barbosa, Ivan S; Almeida, Fernanda R L C

    2009-11-01

    Kinetics of spermatogonia as well as localization in niches have been described in rodents, but rarely in large animals or in species of economical interest. In this regard, and envisioning the possibility of spermatogonial transplantation from donkeys (Equus asinus) to mules (Equus mulus mulus), many variables that may contribute for an enhanced understanding of the spermatogonial biology in donkeys were investigated. Testes from five adult donkeys were routinely processed for high-resolution light microscopy. Donkey seminiferous epithelium can be divided in XII stages based on the development of the acrosomal system. In addition, spermatogonial morphology and morphometric analysis were performed allowing the characterization of two groups of spermatogonia: undifferentiated (A(und)) and differentiating (A(1), A(2), A(3), B(1) and B(2)). A(und) spermatogonia were present along all XII stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle of this species, whereas differentiating spermatogonia were only at specific stages. Number of differentiating spermatogonia gradually increased as the cycle progressed, despite the apparent rigid regulation of the balance between mitosis and apoptosis throughout the spermatogenic process. Understanding of spermatogonial biology and kinetics in donkeys, revealed that type A(und) spermatogonia are located in specific microenvironments, the spermatogonial niches. The present results enhance understanding of spermatogonial biology in donkeys providing information about subtypes, morphology, number and mitosis/apoptosis along the seminiferous epithelium cycle.

  20. Evaluation of salivary electrolytes during estrous cycle in Murrah buffaloes with reference to estrus detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Devi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Timely estrus detection is one of the critical factors for increasing reproductive efficiency in buffaloes. In recent decades, saliva has become a more popular as a noninvasive source for determining physiological status of animals by various biochemical electrolytes. This study was designed to assess and correlate changes in different salivary minerals concentration (calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride during different stages of the estrous cycle in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The saliva samples were collected during the different phases of the estrous cycle from 20 Murrah buffaloes in early morning hours and were assayed using respective minerals assay kits. Results: The concentrations of calcium (8.76±0.08-12.11±0.11 mg/dl, inorganic phosphorus (6.56±0.13-14.72±4.50 mg/dl, magnesium (2.27±0.14-5.79±0.15 mg/dl, sodium (139.47±0.31-159.62±1.22 mmol/L, potassium (12.40±0.22-26.85±1.22 mmol/L, and chloride (109.28±0.41-137.07±0.68 mmol/L varied during the different phases of estrous cycle. The concentration of calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride in saliva were significantly (p<0.01 higher during estrus phase compared to other phases of the estrous cycle. All these minerals were positively and significantly (p<0.0001 related to estrogen concentration while salivary concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride showed a significant (p<0.0001 negative correlation with progesterone level in blood plasma. Conclusion: These preliminary findings indicate that there are definite variations in salivary mineral and electrolyte concentrations during different phases of the estrous cycle. These results may be used as an aid for estrus detection/ confirmation in buffaloes although validation of the results using a large number of animals is required.

  1. System Evaluations and Life-Cycle Cost Analyses for High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O' Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-05-01

    This report presents results of system evaluations and lifecycle cost analyses performed for several different commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) hydrogen production concepts. The concepts presented in this report rely on grid electricity and non-nuclear high-temperature process heat sources for the required energy inputs. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate both central plant designs for large-scale hydrogen production (50,000 kg/day or larger) and forecourt plant designs for distributed production and delivery at about 1,500 kg/day. The HYSYS software inherently ensures mass and energy balances across all components and it includes thermodynamic data for all chemical species. The optimized designs described in this report are based on analyses of process flow diagrams that included realistic representations of fluid conditions and component efficiencies and operating parameters for each of the HTE hydrogen production configurations analyzed. As with previous HTE system analyses performed at the INL, a custom electrolyzer model was incorporated into the overall process flow sheet. This electrolyzer model allows for the determination of the average Nernst potential, cell operating voltage, gas outlet temperatures, and electrolyzer efficiency for any specified inlet steam, hydrogen, and sweep-gas flow rates, current density, cell active area, and external heat loss or gain. The lifecycle cost analyses were performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. There are standard default sets of assumptions that the methodology uses to ensure consistency when comparing the cost of different production or plant design options. However, these assumptions may also be varied within the

  2. Parametric images evaluation of selected phases of the heart cycle with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, U.; Will, E.; Beuthien Baumann, B.; Bredow, J.

    2002-01-01

    The standard evaluation of dynamic heart acquisitions with PET uses image data not corrected for heart wall movement. The evaluation of parametric data sets (Patlak Plot) was investigated for gated studies of selected heart phases (diastolic, systolic) and compared to the standard evaluation. Parametric images of selected heart phases have improved resolution. The values for metabolic rate are different for a ''normal'' and gated evaluation, up to 50% more for the systole compared to the normal one. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of cell cycle changes activated by the administration of 177Lu-DOTA-antiCD20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos B, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    In the present project, cytometric evaluation of cell cycle changes induced by the 177 Lu-DOTA-antiCD20 thermostatic radiopharmaceutical was performed, in which a cell culture of Raji cells from Burkitts lymphoma were used, which are CD20+; for flow cytometry different parameters were measured in which the cells were synchronized in G0/G1 and G2/M, to calculate the dose to nucleus that were given to the cells the Monte Carlo method was used at a dose interval from 1 to 5 Gy. The purpose of this work is to be able to observe by flow cytometry the arrest in the cell cycle with a lower dose interval than the one applied in other papers. (Author)

  4. Evaluation of green building rating tools based on existing green building achievement in Indonesia using Life Cycle Assessment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basten, Van; Latief, Yusuf; Berawi, Mohammed Ali; Budiman, Rachmat; Riswanto

    2017-03-01

    Total completed building construction value in Indonesia increased 116% during 2009 to 2011. That's followed by increasing 11% energy consumption in Indonesia in the last three years with 70% energy met to the electricity needs of commercial building. In addition, a few application of green building concept in Indonesia made the greenhouse gas emissions or CO2 amount increased by 25%. Construction, operation, and maintain of building cost consider relatively high. The evaluation in this research is used to improve the building performance with some of green concept alternatives. The research methodology is conducted by combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches through interview and case study. Assessing the successful of optimization functions in the existing green building is based on the operational and maintenance phase with the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Method. The result of optimization that is the largest efficiency and effective of building life cycle.

  5. Evaluation of a combined cycle based on an HCCI (Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition) engine heat recovery employing two organic Rankine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaljani, M.; Saray, R. Khoshbakhti; Bahlouli, K.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a combined power cycle which includes a HCCI (Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition) engine and two ORCs (Organic Rankine Cycles) is introduced. In the proposed cycle, the waste heats from the engine cooling water and exhaust gases are utilized to drive the ORCs. A parametric study is conducted to show the effects of decision parameters on the performance and on the total cost rate of cycle. Results of the parametric study reveal that increasing the pinch point temperature difference of evaporator and temperature of the condenser leads to reduction in both exergy efficiency and total cost rate of the bottoming cycle. There is a specific evaporator temperature where exergy efficiency is improved, but the total cost rate of the bottoming cycle is maximized. Also, a multi-objective optimization strategy is performed to achieve the best system design parameters from both thermodynamic and economic aspects. The exergy efficiency and the total cost rate of the system have been considered as objective functions. Optimization results indicate that the exergy efficiency of the cycle increases from 44.96% for the base case to 46.02%. Also, approximately1.3% reduction in the cost criteria is achieved. Results of the multi-objective optimization justify the results obtained through the parametric study and demonstrate that the design parameters of both ORCs have conflict effect on the objective functions. - Highlights: • Two Organic Rankine bottoming cycles are coupled with an HCCI Engine. • Exergetic and Exergo-economic analysis of the bottoming cycle are reported. • The system is optimized using multi-objective genetic algorithm. • Objective functions are exergy efficiency and total cost rate of the system. • The exergy efficiency of the cycle increases from 44.96% to 46.02%.

  6. Selection and evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle strategies. Technical and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, F.J.P.; Main, F.K.

    1983-01-01

    The original choices of thermal reactors and fuel cycles were largely determined by specific national circumstances and by experience and facilities acquired from defence-related programmes. These led to the development of LWRs in the USA and to the natural uranium/gas/graphite system in the United Kingdom and France, while Canada selected the HWR. Most countries with nuclear power programmes saw the plutonium-fuelled fast reactor, with its breeding potential, as the means to ensure that exhaustion of economic uranium resources would not prematurely curtail the contribution of nuclear power to world energy supplies. Fuel reprocessing was essential to this fuel cycle or indeed to other recycling options to make better use of the available uranium; it was also favoured for waste management reasons. Early expectations of nuclear power growth suggested that a transition from thermal to fast reactors would occur during the present century but the urgency has been reduced by world economic recession, slower increases in nuclear capacity and the continued availability of supplies of low-priced uranium. Reprocessing costs have risen and economics of scale favour large plants, which are therefore most likely to be built in countries with substantial thermal reactor capacities; these countries will be able to provide reprocessing services to others. As the ultimate strategic need for fast reactors has not been reduced by this slowdown it is important to continue the development and demonstration of fast-reactor technology and the associated fuel cycles. Uncertainties in future fuel prices mean that it could be advantageous to introduce fast reactors as soon as they become an economic, although not necessarily the most economic, choice. Notably, fast reactors may be installed initially when and where they become economic compared to coal-fired generation, in order to lay the foundation for more rapid expansion when economic break-even with thermal reactors occurs. (author)

  7. Life cycle evaluation of an intercooled gas turbine plant used in conjunction with renewable energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thank-God Isaiah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle estimation of power plants is important for gas turbine operators. With the introduction of wind energy into the grid, gas turbine operators now operate their plants in Load–Following modes as back-ups to the renewable energy sources which include wind, solar, etc. The motive behind this study is to look at how much life is consumed when an intercooled power plant with 100 MW power output is used in conjunction with wind energy. This operation causes fluctuations because the wind energy is unpredictable and overtime causes adverse effects on the life of the plant – The High Pressure Turbine Blades. Such fluctuations give rise to low cycle fatigue and creep failure of the blades depending on the operating regime used. A performance based model that is capable of estimating the life consumed of an intercooled power plant has been developed. The model has the capability of estimating the life consumed based on seasonal power demands and operations. An in-depth comparison was undertaken on the life consumed during the seasons of operation and arrives at the conclusion that during summer, the creep and low cycle life is consumed higher than the rest periods. A comparison was also made to determine the life consumed between Load–Following and stop/start operating scenarios. It was also observed that daily creep life consumption in summer was higher than the winter period in-spite of having lower average daily operating hours in a Start–Stop operating scenario.

  8. The evaluation of data from the MACRO tracer experiment. The report for Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watari, Shingo

    1999-12-01

    On understanding the radionuclide transport in Natural Barrier in radioactive waste isolation research, the macroscopic dispersion in heterogeneous permeability field in the underground rock is regarded as an important process. Therefore, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) developed the MACRO experiment with an artificial heterogeneous permeability field and has been conducted lots of tracer experiments. To estimate the effect of characteristics of field on the macroscopic dispersion using data from those tracer experiments, the evaluation of dispersion coefficient is required. In this report, the macroscopic dispersion coefficients were evaluated for the results of the tracer experiments using the MACRO facility with a single well. The coefficients for the experiments of 18 cases were evaluated by the fitting of analytical solution to the breakthrough curve measured in the well. In the evaluations, the correction of data measured in the experiments and of the accuracy in the evaluation were considered. The conclusions are as follows. The macroscopic dispersion coefficients for 18 cases were evaluated using Least Square Method by fitting the analytical evaluation to the result of experiment. Consequently, the coefficients for 7 cases were evaluated with not enough accurate fitting results. Therefore, another evaluations for those 7 cases were required to be with more accuracy. Then, those coefficients were evaluated with enough accuracy. It was verified that the macroscopic dispersion coefficient tend to be increased with increase of the average radius of tracer front. In some cases, however, the trend was not verified because of the limit of accuracy for data measured in the experiment and for the evaluation method of the coefficient. It was found that the macroscopic dispersion coefficients evaluated for the cases with heterogeneous permeability field type B tend to be higher than those with heterogeneous permeability field type A. (author)

  9. Land use impact evaluation in life cycle assessment based on ecosystem thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagendorp, Tim; Gulinck, Hubert; Coppin, Pol; Muys, Bart

    2006-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies of products with a major part of their life cycle in biological production systems (i.e. forestry and agriculture) are often incomplete because the assessment of the land use impact is not operational. Most method proposals include the quality of the land in a descriptive way using rank scores for an arbitrarily selected set of indicators. This paper first offers a theoretical framework for the selection of suitable indicators for land use impact assessment, based on ecosystem thermodynamics. According to recent theories on the thermodynamics of open systems, a goal function of ecosystems is to maximize the dissipation of exogenic exergy fluxes by maximizing the internal exergy storage under form of biomass, biodiversity and complex trophical networks. Human impact may decrease this ecosystem exergy level by simplification, i.e. decreasing biomass and destroying internal complexity. Within this theoretical framework, we then studied possibilities for assessing the land use impact in a more direct way by measuring the ecosystems' capacity to dissipate solar exergy. Measuring ecosystem thermal characteristics by using remote sensing techniques was considered a promising tool. Once operational, it could offer a quick and cheap alternative to quantify land use impacts in any terrestrial ecosystem of any size. Recommendations are given for further exploration of this method and for its integration into an ISO compatible LCA framework

  10. Evaluating the effect of nutrient redistribution by animals on the phosphorus cycle of lowland Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Buendía

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P availability decreases with soil age and potentially limits the productivity of ecosystems growing on old and weathered soils. Despite growing on ancient soils, ecosystems of lowland Amazonia are highly productive and are among the most biodiverse on Earth. P eroded and weathered in the Andes is transported by the rivers and deposited in floodplains of the lowland Amazon basin creating hotspots of P fertility. We hypothesize that animals feeding on vegetation and detritus in these hotspots may redistribute P to P-depleted areas, thus contributing to dissipate the P gradient across the landscape. Using a mathematical model, we show that animal-driven spatial redistribution of P from rivers to land and from seasonally flooded to terra firme (upland ecosystems may sustain the P cycle of Amazonian lowlands. Our results show how P imported to land by terrestrial piscivores in combination with spatial redistribution of herbivores and detritivores can significantly enhance the P content in terra firme ecosystems, thereby highlighting the importance of food webs for the biogeochemical cycling of Amazonia.

  11. Combining agent-based modeling and life cycle assessment for the evaluation of mobility policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florent, Querini; Enrico, Benetto

    2015-02-03

    This article presents agent-based modeling (ABM) as a novel approach for consequential life cycle assessment (C-LCA) of large scale policies, more specifically mobility-related policies. The approach is validated at the Luxembourgish level (as a first case study). The agent-based model simulates the car market (sales, use, and dismantling) of the population of users in the period 2013-2020, following the implementation of different mobility policies and available electric vehicles. The resulting changes in the car fleet composition as well as the hourly uses of the vehicles are then used to derive consistent LCA results, representing the consequences of the policies. Policies will have significant environmental consequences: when using ReCiPe2008, we observe a decrease of global warming, fossil depletion, acidification, ozone depletion, and photochemical ozone formation and an increase of metal depletion, ionizing radiations, marine eutrophication, and particulate matter formation. The study clearly shows that the extrapolation of LCA results for the circulating fleet at national scale following the introduction of the policies from the LCAs of single vehicles by simple up-scaling (using hypothetical deployment scenarios) would be flawed. The inventory has to be directly conducted at full scale and to this aim, ABM is indeed a promising approach, as it allows identifying and quantifying emerging effects while modeling the Life Cycle Inventory of vehicles at microscale through the concept of agents.

  12. How Many Environmental Impact Indicators Are Needed in the Evaluation of Product Life Cycles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Zoran J N; Schipper, Aafke M; Hauck, Mara; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2016-04-05

    Numerous indicators are currently available for environmental impact assessments, especially in the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). Because decision-making on the basis of hundreds of indicators simultaneously is unfeasible, a nonredundant key set of indicators representative of the overall environmental impact is needed. We aimed to find such a nonredundant set of indicators based on their mutual correlations. We have used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in combination with an optimization algorithm to find an optimal set of indicators out of 135 impact indicators calculated for 976 products from the ecoinvent database. The first four principal components covered 92% of the variance in product rankings, showing the potential for indicator reduction. The same amount of variance (92%) could be covered by a minimal set of six indicators, related to climate change, ozone depletion, the combined effects of acidification and eutrophication, terrestrial ecotoxicity, marine ecotoxicity, and land use. In comparison, four commonly used resource footprints (energy, water, land, materials) together accounted for 84% of the variance in product rankings. We conclude that the plethora of environmental indicators can be reduced to a small key set, representing the major part of the variation in environmental impacts between product life cycles.

  13. Evaluating the effect of nutrient redistribution by animals on the phosphorus cycle of lowland Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía, Corina; Kleidon, Axel; Manzoni, Stefano; Reu, Björn; Porporato, Amilcare

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability decreases with soil age and potentially limits the productivity of ecosystems growing on old and weathered soils. Despite growing on ancient soils, ecosystems of lowland Amazonia are highly productive and are among the most biodiverse on Earth. P eroded and weathered in the Andes is transported by the rivers and deposited in floodplains of the lowland Amazon basin creating hotspots of P fertility. We hypothesize that animals feeding on vegetation and detritus in these hotspots may redistribute P to P-depleted areas, thus contributing to dissipate the P gradient across the landscape. Using a mathematical model, we show that animal-driven spatial redistribution of P from rivers to land and from seasonally flooded to terra firme (upland) ecosystems may sustain the P cycle of Amazonian lowlands. Our results show how P imported to land by terrestrial piscivores in combination with spatial redistribution of herbivores and detritivores can significantly enhance the P content in terra firme ecosystems, thereby highlighting the importance of food webs for the biogeochemical cycling of Amazonia.

  14. Evaluation of Electroless-Nickel Plated Polypropylene under Thermal Cycling and Mechanical Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Ajibola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The electroless-nickel composite (ENC consisting of bright metallic electroless-nickel (EN and dull electroless-nickel-phosphorus (EN-P were deposited on the polypropylene (PP substrate from the sodium hypophosphite baths. The ENC plated specimens were subjected to abrasive wear-adhesion test of 1750, 3500, 7000 and 14000 cycles; thermal cycle-adhesion tests, and tensile strength and creep tests. The deposition of ENC influenced the strength and creep strain properties of the PP. The maximum stress σ of 118 (MPa was obtained from EN-PP specimen at strain  of 0.1 mm/mm as compared with the PP having stress σ of 36 (MPa at strain  of 0.07 mm/mm before failure The surface appearances and microstructures of ENC film on PP substrates were examined under the higher resolution metallurgical microscope with digital camera and microscopic camera. The composition of ENC film was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses (Jeol JSM-7600F Field Emission SEM/EDX, The micrographs and spectra lines data generated were used to interpret the results.

  15. Evaluation of options for life cycle management of feeder cracking at the Point Lepreau Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendron, T.S.; Slade, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The CANDU industry has a predictive capability for most Heat Transport System (HTS) degradation issues that allows utilities to apply cost-effective maintenance programs. The standard approach for maintenance programs is focussed inspection and planned replacement. Some examples of degradation issues with deterministic failure rates are feeder thinning, and pressure tube elongation and deuterium ingress. However, the cracking observed in Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) outlet feeder first bends is one notable exception to this behaviour. A predictive capability for feeder cracking does not currently exist for several reasons. First, the mechanism of feeder cracking, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), has to some degree a random nature. Second, although a probable environment causing cracking has been identified, the precise stress and environmental conditions for feeder crack initiation and propagation have not been defined. Finally, the very low incidence of feeder cracking observed to-date (four, all at PLGS) precludes a probabilistic or statistical prediction of failure rate. Generally, utilities select a Life Cycle Management Plan that ensures safe operation and has the lowest Net Present Value cost. In preparing a Feeder Life Cycle Management Plan, New Brunswick Power (NBP) has recognized that the Net Present Value cost is very sensitive to failure rate. Since the failure rate for feeder cracking is not well defined, the following three scenarios were considered to bound the probability of future failures at PLGS. (author)

  16. A Multi-Approach Evaluation System (MA-ES) of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) used in waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Gequn; Yu, Guopeng; Tian, Hua; Wei, Haiqiao; Liang, Xingyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The MA-ES provides comprehensive valuations on ORC used for waste heat utilization. • The MA-ES covers energetic, exergetic and economic evaluations of typical ORCs. • The MA-ES is a general assessing method without restriction to specific ORC condition. • Two ORC cases of ICE waste-heat-recovery are exemplified applying the MA-ES. - Abstract: A Multi-Approach Evaluation System (MA-ES) is established in this paper providing comprehensive evaluations on Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) used for waste heat utilization. The MA-ES covers three main aspects of typical ORC performance: basic evaluations of energy distribution and system efficiency based on the 1st law of thermodynamics; evaluations of exergy distribution and exergy efficiency based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics; economic evaluations based on calculations of equipment capacity, investment and cost recovery. The MA-ES is reasonably organized aiming at providing a general method of ORC performance assessment, without restrictions to system configurations, operation modes, applications, working fluid types, equipment conditions, process parameters and so on. Two ORC cases of internal combustion engines’ (ICEs) waste-heat-recovery are exemplified to illustrate the applications of the evaluation system. The results clearly revealed the performance comparisons among ORC configurations and working fluids referred. The comparisons will provide credible guidance for ORC design, equipment selection and system construction

  17. Impact of an intra-cycle motion correction algorithm on overall evaluability and diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontone, Gianluca; Bertella, Erika; Baggiano, Andrea; Mushtaq, Saima; Loguercio, Monica; Segurini, Chiara; Conte, Edoardo; Beltrama, Virginia; Annoni, Andrea; Formenti, Alberto; Petulla, Maria; Trabattoni, Daniela; Pepi, Mauro [Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Milan (Italy); Andreini, Daniele; Montorsi, Piero; Bartorelli, Antonio L. [Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences and Community Health, Milan (Italy); Guaricci, Andrea I. [University of Foggia, Department of Cardiology, Foggia (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a novel intra-cycle motion correction algorithm (MCA) on overall evaluability and diagnostic accuracy of cardiac computed tomography coronary angiography (CCT). From a cohort of 900 consecutive patients referred for CCT for suspected coronary artery disease (CAD), we enrolled 160 (18 %) patients (mean age 65.3 ± 11.7 years, 101 male) with at least one coronary segment classified as non-evaluable for motion artefacts. The CCT data sets were evaluated using a standard reconstruction algorithm (SRA) and MCA and compared in terms of subjective image quality, evaluability and diagnostic accuracy. The mean heart rate during the examination was 68.3 ± 9.4 bpm. The MCA showed a higher Likert score (3.1 ± 0.9 vs. 2.5 ± 1.1, p < 0.001) and evaluability (94%vs.79 %, p < 0.001) than the SRA. In a 45-patient subgroup studied by clinically indicated invasive coronary angiography, specificity, positive predictive value and accuracy were higher in MCA vs. SRA in segment-based and vessel-based models, respectively (87%vs.73 %, 50%vs.34 %, 85%vs.73 %, p < 0.001 and 62%vs.28 %, 66%vs.51 % and 75%vs.57 %, p < 0.001). In a patient-based model, MCA showed higher accuracy vs. SCA (93%vs.76 %, p < 0.05). MCA can significantly improve subjective image quality, overall evaluability and diagnostic accuracy of CCT. (orig.)

  18. Experimental evaluation of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and pollutant emissions over real-world simulation driving cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaras, Georgios; Pistikopoulos, Panayotis; Samaras, Zissis

    2008-06-01

    The reduction of transport-generated CO2 emissions is currently a problem of global interest. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are considered as one promising technological solution for limiting transport-generated greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the number of HEVs in the market remains limited, but this picture will change in the years to come as HEVs are expected to pave the way for cleaner technologies in transport. In this paper, results are presented regarding fuel economy and pollutant emissions measurements of two hybrid electric production vehicles. The measurements were conducted on a Prius II and a Honda Civic IMA using both the European legislated driving cycle (New European Driving Cycle, NEDC) and real-world simulation driving cycles (Artemis). In addition to the emissions measurements, other vehicle-operating parameters were studied in an effort to better quantify the maximum CO2 reduction potential. Data from real-world operation of a Prius II vehicle were also used in the evaluation. Results indicate that in most cases both vehicles present improved energy efficiency and pollutant emissions compared to conventional cars. The fuel economy benefit of the two HEVs peaked under urban driving conditions where reductions of 60% and 40% were observed, respectively. Over higher speeds the difference in fuel economy was lower, reaching that of conventional diesel at 95 km h-1. The effect of ambient temperature on fuel consumption was also quantified. It is concluded that urban operation benefits the most of hybrid technology, leading to important fuel savings and urban air quality improvement.

  19. Improvement actions in waste management systems at the provincial scale based on a life cycle assessment evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigamonti, L.; Falbo, A.; Grosso, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • LCA was used for evaluating the performance of four provincial waste management systems. • Milano, Bergamo, Pavia and Mantova (Italy) are the provinces selected for the analysis. • Most of the data used to model the systems are primary. • Significant differences were found among the provinces located in the same Region. • LCA was used as a decision-supporting tool by Regione Lombardia. - Abstract: This paper reports some of the findings of the ‘GERLA’ project: GEstione Rifiuti in Lombardia – Analisi del ciclo di vita (Waste management in Lombardia – Life cycle assessment). The project was devoted to support Lombardia Region in the drafting of the new waste management plan by applying a life cycle thinking perspective. The present paper mainly focuses on four Provinces in the Region, which were selected based on their peculiarities. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was adopted as the methodology to assess the current performance of the integrated waste management systems, to discuss strengths and weaknesses of each of them and to design their perspective evolution as of year 2020. Results show that despite a usual business approach that is beneficial to all the provinces, the introduction of technological and management improvements to the system provides in general additional energy and environmental benefits for all four provinces. The same improvements can be easily extended to the whole Region, leading to increased environmental benefits from the waste management sector, in line with the targets set by the European Union for 2020

  20. Evaluation of Externality Costs in Life-Cycle Optimization of Municipal Solid Waste Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Levis, James W.; Damgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    development encourages the use of a mixed waste material recovery facility with residues going to incineration, and separated organics to anaerobic digestion. Results are sensitive to waste composition, energy mix and recycling rates. Most of the externality costs stem from SO2, NOx, PM2.5, CH4, fossil CO2......The development of sustainable solid waste management (SWM) systems requires consideration of both economic and environmental impacts. Societal life-cycle costing (S-LCC) provides a quantitative framework to estimate both economic and environmental impacts, by including "budget costs...... suburban U.S. county of 500 000 people generating 320 000 Mg of waste annually. Estimated externality costs are based on emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, VOC, CO, NH3, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr (VI), Ni, As, and dioxins. The results indicate that incorporating S-LCC into optimized SWM strategy...

  1. Potential emissions savings of lightweight composite aircraft components evaluated through life cycle assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA of structural aircraft materials has been utilised to assess and compare the total emissions produced during manufacturing, use and disposal of aerospace materials and their selected components. First, a comparison of aluminium, GLARE and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP plates was performed to investigate the potential of lightweight composites in reducing aviation emissions. Subsequently, a case study is presented on a tubular component for which more accurate manufacturing data were directly available. A structural steel tube was replaced with a composite tubular component. The analysis has shown that once the composite material is used as a component in the aircraft, there is a cumulative saving of aircraft fuel and emissions, in particular from CFRP structures. The environmental analysis included the long-term use predictions for CFRPs, involving detailed raw materials production, use and operation, and disposal scenarios.

  2. Development of the CO2 Emission Evaluation Tool for the Life Cycle Assessment of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyoung Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With the goal of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by 26.9% below business-as-usual by 2020, the construction industry is recognized as an environmentally harmful industry because of the large quantity of consumption and waste with which it is associated, and the industry has therefore been requested to become more environmentally friendly. Concrete, a common construction material, is known to emit large amounts of environmentally hazardous waste during the processes related to its production, construction, maintenance, and demolition. To aid the concrete industry’s efforts to reduce its GHG emissions, this study developed a software program that can assess GHG emissions incurred over the life cycle of a concrete product, and a case study was conducted to determine the impact of the proposed concrete assessment program on a construction project.

  3. Economic, energy and environmental evaluations of biomass-based fuel ethanol projects based on life cycle assessment and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Suiran; Tao Jing

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the research of Monte Carlo simulation-based Economic, Energy and Environmental (3E) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the three Biomass-based Fuel Ethanol (BFE) projects in China. Our research includes both theoretical study and case study. In the theoretical study part, 3E LCA models are structured, 3E Index Functions are defined and the Monte Carlo simulation is introduced to address uncertainties in BFE life cycle analysis. In the case study part, projects of Wheat-based Fuel Ethanol (WFE) in Central China, Corn-based Fuel Ethanol (CFE) in Northeast China, and Cassava-based Fuel Ethanol (CFE) in Southwest China are evaluated from the aspects of economic viability and investment risks, energy efficiency and airborne emissions. The life cycle economy assessment shows that KFE project in Guangxi is viable, while CFE and WFE projects are not without government's subsidies. Energy efficiency assessment results show that WFE, CFE and KFE projects all have positive Net Energy Values. Emissions results show that the corn-based E10 (a blend of 10% gasoline and 90% ethanol by volume), wheat-based E10 and cassava-base E10 have less CO 2 and VOC life cycle emissions than conventional gasoline, but wheat-based E10 and cassava-based E10 can generate more emissions of CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NO x , SO 2 , PM 10 and corn-based E10 can has more emissions of CH 4 , N 2 O, NO x , SO, PM 10 .

  4. Evaluation of hormonal changes in menstrual cycle of women infected with pulmonary tuberculosis in Nnewi, south eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukibe, N R; Onyenekwe, C C; Ahaneku, J E; Ukibe, S N; Meludu, S C; Emelumadu, O; Ifeadike, C O; Ilika, A; Ifeanyichukwu, M O; Igwegbe, A O; Nnadozie, O

    2014-04-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the hormonal changes in menstrual cycle of premenopausal women infected with pulmonary tuberculosis in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi. A prospective study involving sixty-seven (67) female participants within the child-bearing age were randomly recruited and grouped based on their tuberculosis status as: Symptomatic TB infected females (n=20), Symptomatic TB infected females on ATT (n=20) and Control females (n=27). After due consent, a detailed medical history was obtained and routine investigations of pulmonary tuberculosis and confirmation using Ziehl Neelsen and sputum culture techniques for AFB and chest x-ray were done. Blood samples collected from the participants were used for hormonal assay using immunoenzymometric method. The results showed that the serum levels of FSH and LH (IU/ml) were significantly higher while progesterone and estradiol were significantly lower in Symptomatic TB females compared to Symptomatic TB females on ATT at follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle (P<0.05). The serum levels of FSH and LH were significantly reduced in Symptomatic TB females on ATT while progesterone and estradiol were significantly increased at follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle (P<0.05). FSH was significantly higher at follicular phase while estradiol was significantly higher at luteal phase of menstrual cycle in Symptomatic TB females on ATT. Tuberculosis induced hypogonadism in affected women which seemed to be reversed on treatment. Routine investigation for Tuberculosis should be done for women presenting with infertility, since early treatment can reverse the abnormality.

  5. Evaluation of material integrity on electricity generator water steam cycles component (Main Steam Pipe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudardjo; Histori; Triyadi, Ari

    1998-01-01

    The evaluation of material integrity on electricity generator component has been done. That component was main steam pipe of Unit II Suralaya Coal Fired Power Plant. evaluation was done by replication technique. The damage was found are two porosity's, from two point samples of six points sample population. Based on cavity evaluation in steels, which proposed by Neubauer and Wedel that porosity's still at class A damage. For class A damage, its means no remedial action would be required until next major scheduled maintenance outage. That porosity's was grouped on isolated cavities and not need ti repair that main steam pipe component less than three year after replication test

  6. The importance of independent research and evaluation in assessing nuclear fuel cycle and waste management facility safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing, Walter D.; Patrick, Wesley C.; Sagar, Budhi

    2009-01-01

    In 1987, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) a federally funded research and development center. Known as the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), its overall mission is to provide NRC with an independent assessment capability on technical and regulatory issues related to a potential geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, as well as interim storage and other nuclear fuel-cycle facilities. For more than 20 years, the CNWRA has supported NRC through an extensive pre-licensing period of establishing the framework of regulations and guidance documents, developing computer codes and other review tools, and conducting independent laboratory, field, and numerical analyses. In June 2008, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) submitted a license application and final environmental impact statement to NRC seeking authorization to construct the nation's first geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The CNWRA will assist NRC in conducting a detailed technical review to critically evaluate the DOE license application to assess whether the potential repository has been designed and can be constructed and operated to safely dispose spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. NRC access to independent, unbiased, technical advice from the CNWRA is an important aspect of the evaluation process. This paper discusses why an independent perspective is important when dealing with nuclear fuel cycle and waste management issues. It addresses practical considerations such as avoiding conflicts of interest while at the same time maintaining a world-class research program in technical areas related to the nuclear fuel cycle. It also describes an innovative approach for providing CNWRA scientists and engineers a creative outlet for professional development through an internally funded research program that is focused on future nuclear waste

  7. Development, characterization and evaluation of materials for open cycle MHD. Quarterly report for the period ending June 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.L.; Marchant, D.D.; Daniel, J.L.

    1978-10-01

    The objectives of this program are directed toward the development and characterization of high temperature ceramics for open-cycle, coal-fired MHD power generators. The current activities are directed to electrode and insulator materials, and include (1) determination of the effects of alkali seed on the behavior of ceramics in a dc electric field; (2) development and testing of improved high temperature ceramic electrodes and insulators with controlled composition, microstructure, and properties; and (3) characterization and evaluation of materials utilized in channels being tested for MHD power generator development. Research is reported on (1) evaluation of metal electrodes from 250 hour MHD test, (2) characterization and properties of USSR MgO insulating wall material, (3) thermal diffusivity/thermal conductivity of electrode and insulator materials, (4) coprecipitation of ceramic powders, (5) properties of yttria chromites, and (6) rare earth hafnates. (WHK)

  8. Evaluation of rapid readout biological indicators for 132 degrees C gravity and 132 degrees C vacuum-assisted steam sterilization cycles using a new automated fluorescent reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfa, Michelle J; Olson, Nancy; DeGagne, Pat; Jackson, Michele

    2002-07-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate fluorescent readout results of Attest 1291 Biological Indicators (BIs) (3M Health Care, St. Paul, MN) and Attest 1296 BI test packs (containing Attest 1292 BIs) using full and fractional cycles compared with the growth data when prolonged incubation (7 days) was included. Gravity displacement and vacuum-assisted steam sterilization cycles were evaluated. A secondary objective of this study was to evaluate the new automated rapid fluorescent reader (Attest 290 Auto Reader). The rapid readout BIs for gravity displacement and vacuum-assisted steam autoclave cycles at 132 degrees C were processed using full (4 minutes) and four fractional cycles that provided 30% to 80% positive results for growth after 24 hours of incubation (48 hours of incubation for Attest 1292 BIs from the Attest 1296 test packs). Sixty of each type of BI were tested for each cycle (300 of each BI type in total). For all full steam sterilization cycles, results of the rapid fluorescent readout and the 24-hour, 48-hour, and 7-day growth tests were negative for all Attest 1291 and 1292 BIs tested. For all fractional cycles, the 24- and 48-hour growth results for the Attest 1291 and 1292 BIs, respectively, were the same as the 7-day growth results. The fractional cycle data indicated that fluorescent rapid readout was a more sensitive indicator than growth. There were rare (0.9%) false-negative results for BIs under fractional cycle conditions and these all correlated with short fractional cycle exposure times. The fluorescent rapid readout results of the 1291 BIs and 1296 BI test packs reliably predict both 24- and 48-hour and 7-day growth. These data support the value of rapid readout BIs for sterilizer monitoring for both the vacuum-assisted and the gravity displacement steam sterilization cycles. The new automated reader requires less manipulation of the BI and makes monitoring user friendly and less prone to user errors.

  9. Theorising 3D Visualisation Systems in Archaeology: Towards more effective design, evaluations and life cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Galeazzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available 3D visualisation in archaeology has become a suitable solution and effective instrument for the analysis, interpretation and communication of archaeological information. However, so far only a few attempts have been made to understand and evaluate the real impact that 3D imaging has on the discipline under its different forms (off-line immersive and not immersive, and on-line platform. There is a need in archaeology and cultural heritage for a detailed analysis of the different infrastructural options that are available and a precise evaluation of the differing impact that they can have in reshaping the discipline. To achieve this, it is important to develop new methodologies that consider the evaluation process as a fundamental and central part for assessing digital infrastructures. These new methods should include flexible evaluation approaches that can be adapted to the infrastructure that needs to be assessed. This article aims to provide some examples of 3D applications in archaeology and cultural heritage and describe how the selection of the infrastructure is related to specific needs of the project. This work will describe the different applications and propose guidelines and protocols for evaluating their impact within academia and the general public.

  10. Evaluation of the Analysis Influence on Transport in Reanalysis Regional Water Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, M. G.; Chen, J.; Robertson, F. R.

    2011-01-01

    Regional water cycles of reanalyses do not follow theoretical assumptions applicable to pure simulated budgets. The data analysis changes the wind, temperature and moisture, perturbing the theoretical balance. Of course, the analysis is correcting the model forecast error, so that the state fields should be more aligned with observations. Recently, it has been reported that the moisture convergence over continental regions, even those with significant quantities of radiosonde profiles present, can produce long term values not consistent with theoretical bounds. Specifically, long averages over continents produce some regions of moisture divergence. This implies that the observational analysis leads to a source of water in the region. One such region is the Unite States Great Plains, which many radiosonde and lidar wind observations are assimilated. We will utilize a new ancillary data set from the MERRA reanalysis called the Gridded Innovations and Observations (GIO) which provides the assimilated observations on MERRA's native grid allowing more thorough consideration of their impact on regional and global climatology. Included with the GIO data are the observation minus forecast (OmF) and observation minus analysis (OmA). Using OmF and OmA, we can identify the bias of the analysis against each observing system and gain a better understanding of the observations that are controlling the regional analysis. In this study we will focus on the wind and moisture assimilation.

  11. Acceptance criteria for the evaluation of Category 1 fuel cycle facility physical security plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, P.A.

    1991-10-01

    This NUREG document presents criteria developed from US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for the evaluation of physical security plans submitted by Category 1 fuel facility licensees. Category 1 refers to those licensees who use or possess a formula quantity of strategic special nuclear material.

  12. Acceptance criteria for the evaluation of Category 1 fuel cycle facility physical security plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, P.A.

    1991-10-01

    This NUREG document presents criteria developed from US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for the evaluation of physical security plans submitted by Category 1 fuel facility licensees. Category 1 refers to those licensees who use or possess a formula quantity of strategic special nuclear material

  13. Evaluation of a terrestrial carbon cycle submodel in an earth system model using networks of eddy covariance observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, K.; Suzuki, T.

    2010-12-01

    Improvement of terrestrial submodels in earth system models (ESMs) is important to reduce uncertainties in future projections of global carbon cycle and climate. Since these submodels lack detailed validation, evaluation of terrestrial submodels using networks of field observations is necessary. The purpose of this study is to improve an ESM by refining a terrestrial submodel using eddy covariance observations. To evaluate and improve the terrestrial submodel included in the UVic-ESCM, we conducted two experiments: an off-line experiment and an ESM experiment. In the off-line experiment, we used the terrestrial submodel forced by observed climate inputs (off-line model run). We evaluated and refined the model at a point scale using eddy covariance observations. In this process, we first tested the default terrestrial submodel with eddy covariance observations. Next, we refined the terrestrial submodel using eddy covariance observations. Then, in the ESM experiment (carbon cycle-climate coupled model run), we used the default and refined terrestrial submodel as a terrestrial submodel in the ESM. We tested the effects of the terrestrial submodel improvements on the ESM simulations at both site and global scales. First, we evaluated the terrestrial submodel as an off-line mode (the terrestrial submodel was extracted from ESM) at point scales using 48 eddy covariance observation data, and improved it through fixing model parameters and structures. The modifications were conducted to reproduce the seasonal simulation of the terrestrial carbon cycle by removing several biases in the terrestrial submodel through fixing parameters and models related to such as snow melting process, rooting depth, and photosynthesis efficiency. The terrestrial submodel was improved with the reduction of the root mean square error and the closer simulation of the seasonal carbon fluxes. Second, using the UVic-ESCM with the improved terrestrial submodel, we confirmed model improvement at most

  14. Evaluation of Krebs cycle enzymes in the brain of rats after chronic administration of antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaini, Giselli; Santos, Patricia M; Benedet, Joana; Rochi, Natália; Gomes, Lara M; Borges, Lislaine S; Rezin, Gislaine T; Pezente, Daiana P; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2010-05-31

    Several works report brain impairment of metabolism as a mechanism underlying depression. Citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase are enzymes localized within cells in the mitochondrial matrix and are important steps of Krebs cycle. In addition, citrate synthase has been used as a quantitative enzyme marker for the presence of intact mitochondria. Thus, we investigated citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase activities from rat brain after chronic administration of paroxetine, nortriptiline and venlafaxine. Adult male Wistar rats received daily injections of paroxetine (10mg/kg), nortriptiline (15mg/kg), venlafaxine (10mg/kg) or saline in 1.0mL/kg volume for 15 days. Twelve hours after the last administration, the rats were killed by decapitation, the hippocampus, striatum and prefrontal cortex were immediately removed, and activities of citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase were measured. We verified that chronic administration of paroxetine increased citrate synthase activity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex of adult rats; cerebellum was not affected. Chronic administration of nortriptiline and venlafaxine did not affect the enzyme activity in these brain areas. Succinate dehydrogenase activity was increased by chronic administration of paroxetine and nortriptiline in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex of adult rats; cerebellum was not affected either. Chronic administration of venlafaxine increased succinate dehydrogenase activity in prefrontal cortex, but did not affect the enzyme activity in cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex. Considering that metabolism impairment is probably involved in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders, an increase in these enzymes by antidepressants may be an important mechanism of action of these drugs. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. SU-E-T-266: Development of Evaluation System of Optimal Synchrotron Controlling Parameter for Spot Scanning Proton Therapy with Multiple Gate Irradiations in One Operation Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T; Fujii, Y; Miyamoto, N; Matsuura, T; Takao, S; Matsuzaki, Y; Koyano, H; Shirato, H; Nihongi, H; Umezawa, M; Matsuda, K; Umegaki, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We have developed a gated spot scanning proton beam therapy system with real-time tumor-tracking. This system has the ability of multiple-gated irradiation in a single synchrotron operation cycle controlling the wait-time for consecutive gate signals during a flat-top phase so that the decrease in irradiation efficiency induced by irregular variation of gate signal is reduced. Our previous studies have shown that a 200 ms wait-time is appropriate to increase the average irradiation efficiency, but the optimal wait-time can vary patient by patient and day by day. In this research, we have developed an evaluation system of the optimal wait-time in each irradiation based on the log data of the real-time-image gated proton beam therapy (RGPT) system. Methods: The developed system consists of logger for operation of RGPT system and software for evaluation of optimal wait-time. The logger records timing of gate on/off, timing and the dose of delivered beam spots, beam energy and timing of X-ray irradiation. The evaluation software calculates irradiation time in the case of different wait-time by simulating the multiple-gated irradiation operation using several timing information. Actual data preserved in the log data are used for gate on and off time, spot irradiation time, and time moving to the next spot. Design values are used for the acceleration and deceleration times. We applied this system to a patient treated with the RGPT system. Results: The evaluation system found the optimal wait-time of 390 ms that reduced the irradiation time by about 10 %. The irradiation time with actual wait-time used in treatment was reproduced with accuracy of 0.2 ms. Conclusion: For spot scanning proton therapy system with multiple-gated irradiation in one synchrotron operation cycle, an evaluation system of the optimal wait-time in each irradiation based on log data has been developed. Funding Support: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) through the FIRST

  16. Life-Cycle-Based Multicriteria Sustainability Evaluation of Industrial Parks: A Case Study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin; Qi, Jing; Zhou, Shiyi; Jiang, Meiming

    2012-01-01

    Along with increasing concerns on environmental protection and global warming mitigation, new industrial organization modes such as “Ecoindustrial Park” and “Low Carbon Industrial Park” are emerging. Since ecoindustrial parks and low carbon industrial parks may offer multifaceted benefits to the users, it naturally follows that the sustainability assessment of the industrial parks ought to adopt a multicriteria methodology. In this paper, a multicriteria sustainable evaluation framework is pr...

  17. The influence of evaluation protocol on time spent exercising at a high level of oxygen uptake during continuous cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, K L; Glaister, M; Howatson, G; Van Someren, K

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of protocol variation on the time spent exercising at ≥95% V̇O2max during cycle ergometer trials performed at the exercise intensity associated with V̇O2max (iV̇O2max). Nine male triathletes (age: 32±10 years; body mass: 73.3±6.1 kg; stature: 1.79±0.07 m; V̇O2max: 3.58±0.45 L.min(-1)) performed four exercise tests. During tests 1 and 2, participants performed a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test using different stage durations (1 min and 3 min) for the determination of iV̇O2max (1 min) and iV̇O2max (3 min). During tests 3 and 4, participants performed a continuous bout of exhaustive cycling at iV̇O2max (1 min) (CONT1) and iV̇O2max (3 min) (CONT3). iV̇O2max (1 min) was significantly greater (PCONT3 was significantly longer (PCONT3 than CONT1 (146±158 s vs. 11±20 s), and time spent at ≥95% V̇O2max was significantly longer (P=0.005) during CONT3 than CONT1 (326±211 s vs. 57±51 s). These results show that when exercising continuously at iV̇O2max, time spent at ≥95% V̇O2max is influenced by the initial measurement of iV̇O2max.

  18. Evaluation of resistance development and viability recovery by a non-enveloped virus after repeated cycles of aPDT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Liliana; Tomé, João P C; Neves, Maria G P M S; Tomé, Augusto C; Cavaleiro, José A S; Faustino, Maria A F; Cunha, Ângela; Gomes, Newton C M; Almeida, Adelaide

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays, the emergence of drug resistant microorganisms is a public health concern. The antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has an efficient action against a wide range of microorganisms and can be viewed as an alternative approach for treating microbial infections. The aim of this study was to determine if a model target virus (T4-like bacteriophage), in the presence of the tricationic porphyrin 5,10,15-tris(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)-20-(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin tri-iodide (Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF), can develop resistance to aPDT and recover its viability after photodynamic treatments. To assess the development of aPDT resistance after repeated treatments, a suspension of T4-like bacteriophage was irradiated with white light (40 Wm(-2)) for 120 min in the presence of 5.0 μM of Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF (99.99% of inactivation) and new phage suspensions were produced from the surviving phages, after each cycle of light exposure. The procedure was repeated ten times. To evaluate the recovery of viral viability after photoinactivation, a suspension of T4-like bacteriophage was irradiated with white light for 120 min in the presence of 5.0 μM of Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF on five consecutive days. In each day, an aliquot of the irradiated suspension was plated and the number of lysis plaques was counted after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h of dark incubation at 37 °C. The profile of bacteriophage photoinactivation did not change after ten consecutive cycles and no recovery of viability was detected after five accumulated cycles of photodynamic treatment. The results suggest that aPDT represents a valuable and promising alternative therapy to treat viral infections, overcoming the problem of microbial resistance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems. An evaluation based on life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giugliano, Michele; Cernuschi, Stefano; Grosso, Mario; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the environmental results, integrated with those arising from mass and energy balances, of a research project on the comparative analysis of strategies for material and energy recovery from waste, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. The project, involving the cooperation of five University research groups, was devoted to the optimisation of material and energy recovery activities within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. Four scenarios of separate collection (overall value of 35%, 50% without the collection of food waste, 50% including the collection of food waste, 65%) were defined for the implementation of energetic, environmental and economic balances. Two sizes of integrated MSW management system (IWMS) were considered: a metropolitan area, with a gross MSW production of 750,000 t/year and an average province, with a gross MSW production of 150,000 t/year. The environmental analysis was conducted using Life Cycle Assessment methodology (LCA), for both material and energy recovery activities. In order to avoid allocation we have used the technique of the expansion of the system boundaries. This means taking into consideration the impact on the environment related to the waste management activities in comparison with the avoided impacts related to the saving of raw materials and primary energy. Under the hypotheses of the study, both for the large and for the small IWMS, the energetic and environmental benefits are higher than the energetic and environmental impacts for all the scenarios analysed in terms of all the indicators considered: the scenario with 50% separate collection in a drop-off scheme excluding food waste shows the most promising perspectives, mainly arising from the highest collection (and recycling) of all the packaging materials, which is the activity giving the biggest energetic and environmental benefits. Main conclusions of the study in the general field of the

  20. Development and Use of Life-Cycle Analysis Capabilities To Evaluate, Select, and Implement Plans to Accelerate Hanford Site Cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, Michael R.; Johnson, Wayne L.; Frey, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past year the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has made significant progress in developing and executing plans to transform and accelerate cleanup of the Hanford Site. Notable progress has been in the cleanup of the River Corridor, including the relocation of spent nuclear fuel to the Central Plateau, and the stabilization of plutonium materials. However, difficult work still remains. DOE has already accelerated the completion of the Environmental Management (EM) cleanup mission from 2070 to 2035 and believes its completion can be achieved even sooner by reducing excess conservatism, substantively changing technical strategy and management approach, and making new front-end investments. Work is well under way in the detailed planning, analyses and decision making required to implement and support the execution of the accelerated cleanup program at Hanford. Various cleanup, contract, and regulatory approaches are being explored. DOE has instituted a process that allows DOE to efficiently explore and test alternative cleanup approaches using a life-cycle model. This paper provides a means to share the planning approach and the life-cycle modeling and analysis tools used with other sites and interested parties. This paper will be of particular interest to analysts performing similar planning and evaluations at other sites as well as provide insight into the current status of Hanford's cleanup program and DOE's plans for the future

  1. Performance evaluation of atmospheric biomass integrated gasifier combined cycle systems under different strategies for the use of low calorific gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Monica; Walter, Arnaldo; Faaij, Andre

    2007-01-01

    This work aims at a performance evaluation of atmospheric BIGCC (biomass integrated gasifier combined cycle) systems operating under different strategies for the use of low calorific fuel in gas turbines. The fuel is a synthetic gas derived from gasification of sugar cane residues. Two analysed strategies for surge control on gas turbines originally designed for operation on natural gas are de-rating and air extraction from the compressor. Another strategy for use of biomass derived gas is the retrofit of a gas turbine through modification of the expander geometry. Three generic gas turbines, whose main parameters have been taken from off the shelf machines, are proposed as representative of certain classes of gas turbines. Results are compared to the hypothetical situation in which it is possible to accept any increase in gas turbine pressure ratio. According to the results, de-rating is the worst surge control strategy, both from the point of view of power production and thermal efficiency. Conversely, results showed considerable gains that can be obtained on cycle power production when the gas turbine expander is modified. Additionally, an overview of issues concerning the suitability of sugar cane residues (bagasse and trash) for the production of gasified gas and its use in BIGCC plants is presented

  2. Treatment rationale and study design for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II study evaluating onartuzumab (MetMAb) in combination with bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX-6 in patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, Johanna C; Ervin, Thomas J; Gallinson, David; Singh, Jaswinder; Wallace, James A; Saleh, Mansoor N; Vallone, Marcy; Phan, See-Chun; Hack, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    Dysregulation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/MET pathway is associated with poor prognosis, more aggressive biological characteristics of the tumor, and shortened survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Onartuzumab (MetMAb) is a recombinant humanized monovalent monoclonal antibody directed against MET. We present the treatment rationale and protocol for an ongoing randomized multicenter placebo-controlled phase II study designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MetMAb combined with bevacizumab and mFOLFOX-6 (5-fluoruracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin). Eligible patients with previously untreated mCRC are randomized 1:1 to either mFOLFOX-6 combined with bevacizumab and placebo followed by 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin plus bevacizumab and placebo or mFOLFOX6, bevacizumab plus MetMAb followed by 5 FU/LV, bevacizumab, and MetMAb. The primary end point of this study is progression-free survival (PFS) in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Secondary end points include overall survival (OS), objective response rate, and safety. Subanalyses will be performed to evaluate the effect of MET receptor expression on study primary and secondary end points. Correlative studies will be performed on tissue- and blood-derived biomarkers related to both HGF/MET signaling and other associated pathway markers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Temperature and precipitation in the context of the annual cycle over Asia: Model evaluation and future change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Suyeon; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2017-05-01

    Since the early or late arrival of monsoon rainfall can be devastating to agriculture and economy, the prediction of the onset of monsoon is a very important issue. The Asian monsoon is characterized by a strong annual cycle with rainy summer and dry winter. Nevertheless, most of monsoon studies have focused on the seasonal-mean of temperature and precipitation. The present study aims to evaluate a total of 27 coupled models that participated in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) for projection of the time evolution and the intensity of Asian monsoon on the basis of the annual cycle of temperature and precipitation. And future changes of onset, retreat, and intensity of monsoon are analyzed. Four models for good seasonal-mean (GSM) and good harmonic (GH) groups, respectively, are selected. GSM is based on the seasonal-mean of temperature and precipitation in summer and winter, and GH is based on the annual cycle of temperature and precipitation which represents a characteristic of the monsoon. To compare how well the time evolution of the monsoon is simulated in each group, the onset, retreat, and duration of Asian monsoon are examined. The highest pattern correlation coefficient (PCC) of onset, retreat, and duration between the reanalysis data and model outputs demonstrates that GH models' MME predicts time evolution of monsoon most precisely, with PCC values of 0.80, 0.52, and 0.63, respectively. To predict future changes of the monsoon, the representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP 4.5) experiments for the period of 2073-2099 are compared with historical simulations for the period of 1979-2005 from CMIP5 using GH models' MME. The Asian monsoon domain is expanded by 22.6% in the future projection. The onset date in the future is advanced over most parts of Asian monsoon region. The duration of summer Asian monsoon in the future projection will be lengthened by up to 2 pentads over the Asian monsoon region, as a result of advanced

  4. Evaluating life cycle costs of perpetual pavements in China using operational pavement management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud A. Sultan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Highway transportation is considered as vital factor in China’s economic growth; many high grade highways have been constructed in China during the last decades. The research and application of perpetual asphalt pavement (PP technology have been deployed in China since 2000. The semi-rigid pavement has been normally considered as typical pavement of high class highways in the design according to the Chinese experience. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of different Chinese perpetual pavements using operational pavement management system and to examine its suitability for use in the design and construction of more economical and durable pavements. It has been found that the use of thin asphalt layers over semi-rigid pavement foundation in PP structure will create more sustainable, economical, and durable PP structures in comparison with typical thick asphalt layers PP structures.

  5. Challenges when evaluating Product/Service-Systems through Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Louise Laumann; Pagoropoulos, Aris; Schmidt, Jannick H.

    2016-01-01

    the environmental performance of PSS. We identify a set of PSS characteristics that can challenge an LCA study. Three relevant scopes are distinguished, where LCA may be applied: (1) evaluating options within the PSS itself; (2) comparing a PSS with an alternative; and (3) modelling the actual contextual changes...... caused by the PSS. We derive three pronounced challenges when conducting LCA within the three scopes: (i) identifying and defining the reference system; (ii) defining the functional unit; and (iii) setting system boundaries. We elaborate on how these challenges are discussed in current literature....... Recommended future work includes developing adapted guidelines and further empirical case studies that quantify the environmental changes and impacts caused by introducing PSS....

  6. Test-retest reliability of the different dynamometric variables used to evaluate pelvic floor musculature during the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis Nagano, Reny C; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela A; da Costa, Gilmar L; Amorim, Karina M; Fumagalli, Marco A; Amorim, César F; Politti, Fabiano

    2018-04-17

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of different dynamometric variables of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) in healthy women during different periods of menstrual cycle. Vaginal dynamometric equipment was developed by the authors and its reproducibility was tested. The PFM contractions of 20 healthy women were collected by two independent examiners over three consecutive weeks, always on the same day, with a seven-day interval between readings, starting from the first day after the end of the menstrual period. For the measurements, the branch of the dynamometer was positioned first on the sagittal plane and then on the frontal plane. Baseline, peak time, maximum PFM strength, impulse contraction, and average contraction force were calculated. Reproducibility was tested using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the data from different days. For intra-day and inter-day reliability between examiners, all the parameters collected on the sagittal plane presented good and excellent reproducibility (ICC 2,1  = 0.60 to 0.98), whereas reproducibility on the frontal plane was respectively poor and excellent (ICC 2,1  = 0.23 to 0.97). The ANOVA revealed significant differences between sessions only for the impulse of contraction for the sagittal (P = 0.005) and frontal (P = 0.03) planes. Time and contraction force parameters of the PFM are not influenced by hormonal alterations that occur during the menstrual cycle. The impulse of contraction was the only variable to demonstrate a significant difference between the first and second week of the data collection protocol. The baseline, maximum strength value, impulse of contraction, and average contraction force variables presented good to excellent reproducibility and can be safely used as a method of PFM evaluation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evaluation of the Effect of Surface Finish on High-Cycle Fatigue of SLM-IN718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    The surface finish of parts produced by additive manufacturing processes is much rougher than the surface finish generated by machining processes, and a rougher surface can reduce the fatigue strength of a part. This paper discusses an effort to quantify that reduction of strength in high-cycle fatigue for selective laser melt (SLM) coupons. A high-cycle fatigue (HCF) knockdown factor was estimated for Inconel 718, manufactured with the SLM process. This factor is the percentage reduction from the maximum stress in fatigue for low-stress ground (LSG) specimens to the maximum stress of those left with the original surface condition at the same fatigue life. Specimens were provided by a number of vendors, free to use their "best practice"; only one heat treat condition was considered; and several test temperatures were characterized, including room temperature, 800F, 1000F, and 1200F. The 1000F data had a large variance, and was omitted from consideration in this document. A first method used linear approximations extracted from the graphs, and only where data was available for both. A recommended knockdown factor of the as-built surface condition (average roughness of approximately 245 micro-inches/inch) versus low-stress ground condition (roughness no more than 4 micro-inches/inch) was established at approximately 1/3 or 33%. This is to say that for the as-built surface condition, a maximum stress of 2/3 of the stress for LSG can be expected to produce a similar life in the as-built surface condition. In this first evaluation, the knockdown factor did not appear to be a function of temperature. A second approach, the "KP method", incorporated the surface finish measure into a new parameter termed the pseudo-stress intensity factor, Kp, which was formulated to be similar to the fracture mechanics stress intensity factor. Using Kp, the variance seemed to be reduced across all sources, and knockdown factors were estimated using Kp over the range where data occurred. A

  8. Global carbon-water cycles patterns inferred from FLUXNET observations - useful for model evaluation? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichstein, M.; Jung, M.; Beer, C.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Tomelleri, E.; Papale, D.; Fluxnet Lathuille Synthesis Team (Cf. Www. Fluxdata. Org)

    2010-12-01

    The current FLUXNET database (www.fluxdata.org) of CO2, water and energy exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere contains almost 1000 site-years with data from more than 250 sites, encompassing all major biomes of the world and being processed in a standardized way (1-3). In this presentation we show that the information in the data is sufficient to derive generalized empirical relationships between vegetation/respective remote sensing information, climate and the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges across global biomes. These empirical patterns are used to generate global grids of the respective fluxes and derived properties (e.g. radiation and water-use efficiencies or climate sensitivities in general, bowen-ratio, AET/PET ratio). For example we re-estimate global “text-book” numbers such as global Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) as ca. 123PgC (4), or global evapotranspiration (ET) as ca. 65km3/yr (5) - for the first time with a more solid and direct empirical basis. Evaluation against independent data at regional to global scale (e.g. atmospheric carbon dioxide inversions, runoff data) lends support to the validity of our almost purely empirical up-scaling approaches. Moreover climate factors such as radiation, temperature and water balance are identified as driving factors for variations and trends of carbon and water fluxes, with distinctly different sensitivities between different regions. Hence, these global fields of biosphere-atmosphere exchange and the inferred relations between climate, vegetation type and fluxes should be used for evaluation or benchmarking of climate models or their land-surface components, while overcoming scale-issues with classical point-to-grid-cell comparisons. 1. M. Reichstein et al., Global Change Biology 11, 1424 (2005). 2. D. Baldocchi, Australian Journal of Botany 56,1 (2008). 3. D. Papale et al., Biogeosciences 3, 571 (2006). 4. Beer et al. Science 329 (2010). 5. Jung et al. Nature in press (doi:10

  9. Rhodium (II) cycle alkanecarboxylate: synthesis, spectroscopic and thermo analytic studies and evaluation of the antitumor potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Aparecido Ribeiro de

    1995-01-01

    Four new rhodium(II) carboxylates (cyclopropane, cyclobutane, cyclopentane, and cyclohexanecarboxylate), and other already known rhodium (II) carboxylates (acetate, propionate, butyrate, metoxyacetate, dichloroacetate, and trifluoroacetate), have been prepared for study in this work. The compounds were characterized by elementary and thermogravimetric analysis, magnetic susceptibility, and electronic, Raman, and infrared spectroscopy. The reaction of Rh CL 3 .aq with the sodium carboxylates was studied aiming to improve the understanding of the redox process involved. Spectroscopy studies (Raman and electronic) were made to examine the transition involved in the Rh-Rh and Rh-O bonds. The results have shown a direct relation between the force of the carboxylic acid and the Rh-O force, but show a inverse relation with the Rh-Rh bond force. Thermal analysis studies were undertaken and the obtained date show a resemblance of the TG/DTG curves with that found in literature. In the other hand, the DSC curves show a different results: in open crucible, the peaks associated with the cage breakdown are exothermic and, in closed crucible this peaks are endothermic. The thermodecomposition products were analyzed. The evolved gases were identified by GC?MS and 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra. The residues were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Antitumor activity of rhodium cyclopropanecarboxylate was evaluated in vitro (cell cultures K562 and Ehrlich) and in vivo (Balb-c mice with ascite Ehrlich tumor), indicating an increased life span (87.5%) of the treated animals. (author)

  10. Economic evaluation of the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES). Volume II. Detailed results. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The energy effectiveness and the economic viability of the ACES concept are examined. ACES is studied in a variety of different applications and compared to a number of conventional systems. The different applications are studied in two groups: the class of building into which the ACES is incorporated and the climatic region in which the ACES is located. Buildings investigated include single-family and multi-family residences and a commercial office building. The application of ACES to each of these building types is studied in Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Philadelphia. The economic evaluation of the ACES is based on a comparison of the present worth of the ACES to the present worth of conventional systems; namely, electric resistance heating, electric air conditioning, and electric domestic water heating; air-to-air heat pump and electric domestic water heating; oil-fired furnace, electric air conditioning, and electric domestic water heating; and gas-fired furnace, electric air conditioning, and gas domestic water heating.

  11. Design study and evaluation of fuel fabrication systems for FR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namekawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Kenya; Kawaguchi, Koichi; Koike, Kazuhiro; Shimuta, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yoshihiro

    2004-01-01

    The plant concept for each FBR fuel fabrication system has been constructed and evaluated, which achieves economical improvement, decrease in the environmental burden, better resource utilization, and proliferation resistance by the various innovative techniques employed. The results are as follows: (1) For oxide fuels, the simplified pelletizing method has a high technical feasibility, and it is possible to apply this method to practical process at early stage, because this method is based on wealth results of a conventional method. (2) For oxide fuels, the sphere packing fuel fabrication system by gelation and vibro-compaction processes has the advantage of lesser dispersion of the fine powder due to the use of solution and granule in the process. However this system shoulders additional cost for the liquid waste treatment process to dispose a large bulk of process liquid waste. (3) For the metal fuel, the casting system is generally expected to have high economical efficiency even for small-scale facilities, although verification for fabrication of the TRU alloy slug is required. (author)

  12. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  13. Exergetic, economic, and environmental evaluations and multi-objective optimization of an internal-reforming SOFC-gas turbine cycle coupled with a Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminyavari, Mehdi; Mamaghani, Alireza Haghighat; Shirazi, Ali; Najafi, Behzad; Rinaldi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An exergetic-economic-environmental analysis of an SOFC-GT-ST plant was performed. • Exergetic efficiency and total cost rate of the plant were considered as objectives. • Multi-objective optimization was conducted to obtain a set of optimal solutions. • Exergy destruction rate and capital cost of components of the plant were determined. • The Rankine bottoming cycle enhanced the exergetic efficiency of the plant by 8.84%. - Abstract: In the present study, a detailed thermodynamic model for an internal-reforming solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrid system integrated with a Rankine (steam) cycle is developed, and exergetic, economic and environmental analyses have been carried out on the plant. Considering the exergetic efficiency and the total cost rate of the system as conflicting objectives, a multi-objective optimization of the system is conducted to determine the optimal design point of the plant. A set of optimal solutions (Pareto front) is achieved, each of which is a trade-off between the chosen objectives. Finally, TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution) decision-making method is used to choose the final optimal design parameters. The results demonstrate that the final optimal design of the proposed plant leads to an exergetic efficiency of 65.11% and total cost rate of 0.13745 €/s. Furthermore, the optimization results reveal that the integration of the Rankine cycle with the SOFC-GT system has led to an 8.84% improvement in the total exergetic efficiency of the plant, producing additional 8439.2 MW h of electricity and avoiding ∼5900 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions annually.

  14. In silico design and biological evaluation of a dual specificity kinase inhibitor targeting cell cycle progression and angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony M Latham

    Full Text Available Protein kinases play a central role in tumor progression, regulating fundamental processes such as angiogenesis, proliferation and metastasis. Such enzymes are an increasingly important class of drug target with small molecule kinase inhibitors being a major focus in drug development. However, balancing drug specificity and efficacy is problematic with off-target effects and toxicity issues.We have utilized a rational in silico-based approach to demonstrate the design and study of a novel compound that acts as a dual inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1. This compound acts by simultaneously inhibiting pro-angiogenic signal transduction and cell cycle progression in primary endothelial cells. JK-31 displays potent in vitro activity against recombinant VEGFR2 and CDK1/cyclin B proteins comparable to previously characterized inhibitors. Dual inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A-mediated signaling response and CDK1-mediated mitotic entry elicits anti-angiogenic activity both in an endothelial-fibroblast co-culture model and a murine ex vivo model of angiogenesis.We deduce that JK-31 reduces the growth of both human endothelial cells and human breast cancer cells in vitro. This novel synthetic molecule has broad implications for development of similar multi-kinase inhibitors with anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer properties. In silico design is an attractive and innovative method to aid such drug discovery.

  15. In silico design and biological evaluation of a dual specificity kinase inhibitor targeting cell cycle progression and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Antony M; Kankanala, Jayakanth; Fearnley, Gareth W; Gage, Matthew C; Kearney, Mark T; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Fishwick, Colin W G; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases play a central role in tumor progression, regulating fundamental processes such as angiogenesis, proliferation and metastasis. Such enzymes are an increasingly important class of drug target with small molecule kinase inhibitors being a major focus in drug development. However, balancing drug specificity and efficacy is problematic with off-target effects and toxicity issues. We have utilized a rational in silico-based approach to demonstrate the design and study of a novel compound that acts as a dual inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). This compound acts by simultaneously inhibiting pro-angiogenic signal transduction and cell cycle progression in primary endothelial cells. JK-31 displays potent in vitro activity against recombinant VEGFR2 and CDK1/cyclin B proteins comparable to previously characterized inhibitors. Dual inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)-mediated signaling response and CDK1-mediated mitotic entry elicits anti-angiogenic activity both in an endothelial-fibroblast co-culture model and a murine ex vivo model of angiogenesis. We deduce that JK-31 reduces the growth of both human endothelial cells and human breast cancer cells in vitro. This novel synthetic molecule has broad implications for development of similar multi-kinase inhibitors with anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer properties. In silico design is an attractive and innovative method to aid such drug discovery.

  16. Life-cycle evaluation of nitrogen-use in rice-farming systems: implications for economically-optimal nitrogen rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N fertilizer plays an important role in agricultural systems in terms of food yield. However, N application rates (NARs are often overestimated over the rice (Oryza sativa L. growing season in the Taihu Lake region of China. This is largely because negative externalities are not entirely included when evaluating economically-optimal nitrogen rate (EONR, such as only individual N losses are taken into account, or the inventory flows of reactive N have been limited solely to the farming process when evaluating environmental and economic effects of N fertilizer. This study integrates important material and energy flows resulting from N use into a rice agricultural inventory that constitutes the hub of the life-cycle assessment (LCA method. An economic evaluation is used to determine an environmental and economic NAR for the Taihu Lake region. The analysis reveals that production and exploitation processes consume the largest proportion of resources, accounting for 77.2 % and 22.3 % of total resources, respectively. Regarding environmental impact, global warming creates the highest cost with contributions stemming mostly from fertilizer production and farming processes. Farming process incurs the biggest environmental impact of the three environmental impact categories considered, whereas transportation has a much smaller effect. When taking account of resource consumption and environmental cost, the marginal benefit of 1 kg rice would decrease from 2.4 to only 1.05 yuan. Accordingly, our current EONR has been evaluated at 187 kg N ha−1 for a single rice-growing season. This could enhance profitability, as well as reduce the N losses associated with rice growing.

  17. Life-cycle evaluation of nitrogen-use in rice-farming systems: implications for economically-optimal nitrogen rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Y.; Yan, X.

    2011-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizer plays an important role in agricultural systems in terms of food yield. However, N application rates (NARs) are often overestimated over the rice (Oryza sativa L.) growing season in the Taihu Lake region of China. This is largely because negative externalities are not entirely included when evaluating economically-optimal nitrogen rate (EONR), such as only individual N losses are taken into account, or the inventory flows of reactive N have been limited solely to the farming process when evaluating environmental and economic effects of N fertilizer. This study integrates important material and energy flows resulting from N use into a rice agricultural inventory that constitutes the hub of the life-cycle assessment (LCA) method. An economic evaluation is used to determine an environmental and economic NAR for the Taihu Lake region. The analysis reveals that production and exploitation processes consume the largest proportion of resources, accounting for 77.2 % and 22.3 % of total resources, respectively. Regarding environmental impact, global warming creates the highest cost with contributions stemming mostly from fertilizer production and farming processes. Farming process incurs the biggest environmental impact of the three environmental impact categories considered, whereas transportation has a much smaller effect. When taking account of resource consumption and environmental cost, the marginal benefit of 1 kg rice would decrease from 2.4 to only 1.05 yuan. Accordingly, our current EONR has been evaluated at 187 kg N ha-1 for a single rice-growing season. This could enhance profitability, as well as reduce the N losses associated with rice growing.

  18. A comparison of advanced heat recovery power cycles in a combined cycle for large ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Sigthorsson, Oskar; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Strong motivation exists within the marine sector to reduce fuel expenses and to comply with ever stricter emission regulations. Heat recovery can address both of these issues. The ORC (organic Rankine cycle), the Kalina cycle and the steam Rankine cycle have received the majority of the focus in the literature. In the present work we compare these cycles in a combined cycle application with a large marine two-stroke diesel engine. We present an evaluation of the efficiency and the environmental impact, safety concerns and practical aspects of each of the cycles. A previously validated numerical engine model is combined with a turbocharger model and bottoming cycle models written in Matlab. Genetic algorithm optimisation results suggest that the Kalina cycle possess no significant advantages compared to the ORC or the steam cycle. While contributing to very high efficiencies, the organic working fluids possess high global warming potentials and hazard levels. It is concluded that the ORC has the greatest potential for increasing the fuel efficiency, and the combined cycle offers very high thermal efficiency. While being less efficient, the steam cycle has the advantages of being well proven, harmless to the environment as well as being less hazardous in comparison. - Highlights: • We compare steam, ORC (organic Rankine cycle) and Kalina cycles for waste heat recovery in marine engines. • We evaluate the efficiency and important qualitative differences. • The Kalina cycle presents no apparent advantages. • The steam cycle is well known, harmless and has a high efficiency. • The ORC has the highest efficiency but also important drawbacks

  19. Evaluation of Endometrial Angiogenesis in Mice Uterus Before Implantation in Natural Cycles Followed by Use of Human Menopausal Gonadotropin - Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Drugs and Epigallocatechin Gallate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Rashidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Angiogenesis plays a major role in endometrial receptivity and thickening of the endometrium immediately before implantation. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the antiangiogenic properties of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG from green tea in angiogenesis of endometrium. Materials and Methods: In this study, forty adult female NMARI mice randomly divided into four groups. Control group received vehicle; human menopausal gonadotropin/human chorionic gonadotropin (HMG/HCG group received 7.5 IU HMG intraperitoneal (IP and 48 h later 7.5 IU HCG was injected (IP for ovarian stimulation; HMG/HCG + EGCG group received HMG and HCG in the same manner as the previous group and also received 5 mg/kg EGCG at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after injection of HMG; and the group EGCG received 5 mg/kg EGCG. A male mouse was kept with two female animals in the same cage for mating. Mice were dissected 96 h after administration of HMG (immediately before implantation and tissue processing was carried out for the uterine specimens. CD31-positive cells were counted by use of histological and immunohistochemical methods. Results: Angiogenesis in EGCG-treated group was less than that of control and gonadotropin group (P < 0.05. The number of endothelial cells was counted by CD31 marker under a light microscope and showed significant differences between all groups (P < 0.05. Conclusion: EGCG significantly inhibited the angiogenesis in endometrium (in natural cycles through antiangiogenic effects.

  20. Evaluation of Endometrial Angiogenesis in Mice Uterus Before Implantation in Natural Cycles Followed by Use of Human Menopausal Gonadotropin - Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Drugs and Epigallocatechin Gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Bahman; Malekzadeh, Mehrnoush

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays a major role in endometrial receptivity and thickening of the endometrium immediately before implantation. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the antiangiogenic properties of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) from green tea in angiogenesis of endometrium. In this study, forty adult female NMARI mice randomly divided into four groups. Control group received vehicle; human menopausal gonadotropin/human chorionic gonadotropin (HMG/HCG) group received 7.5 IU HMG intraperitoneal (IP) and 48 h later 7.5 IU HCG was injected (IP) for ovarian stimulation; HMG/HCG + EGCG group received HMG and HCG in the same manner as the previous group and also received 5 mg/kg EGCG at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after injection of HMG; and the group EGCG received 5 mg/kg EGCG. A male mouse was kept with two female animals in the same cage for mating. Mice were dissected 96 h after administration of HMG (immediately before implantation) and tissue processing was carried out for the uterine specimens. CD31-positive cells were counted by use of histological and immunohistochemical methods. Angiogenesis in EGCG-treated group was less than that of control and gonadotropin group ( P < 0.05). The number of endothelial cells was counted by CD31 marker under a light microscope and showed significant differences between all groups ( P < 0.05). EGCG significantly inhibited the angiogenesis in endometrium (in natural cycles) through antiangiogenic effects.

  1. Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive General email updates Enter email Submit Menstrual Cycle The menstrual cycle is the hormonal process ... Preventing problems with your menstrual cycle View more Menstrual Cycle resources Related information Endometriosis Infertility Polycystic ovary ...

  2. Dietas com nitrogênio não-proteico para fêmeas bovinas superovuladas sem prévia adaptação durante curto tempo e em diferentes fases do ciclo estral Effect of short term non-protein nitrogen feeding for superovulated beef cows without previous adaptation and at different periods of the oestrus cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Rocha Alves

    2010-09-01

    effects of short term non-protein nitrogen feeding at different periods of the oestrus cycle in superovulated cows, without previous adaptation, on yield, quality and development degree of recovered embryos. A total of sixty-eight Nelore cows were distributed in three groups: the control group (C and two groups with urea supply before (UB; urea supply from day -5 to day 0 and after (UA; supply from day 0 to day 5 artificial insemination. Animals were kept grazing and received 3.0 kg/animal/day of concentrate during 16 days. Two concentrates were formulated and the total diets (concentrate and estimate forage intake showed 12.0% (control diet and 14.6% (non-protein diet of crude protein. Animals were synchronized, superovulated and inseminated. The embryos were collected and analysed seven days (day 7 after insemination (day 0. Blood samples were collected on days -5, 0 and 5 to determine concentration of plasmatic urea nitrogen, glucose, insulin and progesterone. The time of urea supply affected average plasmatic urea nitrogen concentration on days -5, 0 5 but it did not affect concetrations of glucose, insulin and progesterone. The moment of urea inclusion had effect on compact morula percentage in relation to the total number of structures (UB = 51.4 vs. UA = 15.3%, to the total number of fertilized oocytes (UB = 62.5 vs. UA = 30.6% and to the total number of viable embryos (UB = 68.8 vs. UA = 38.6%. In the after insemination group of urea supply there was 70.2% of reduction on compact morula proportion over the total structures in relation to the group that received urea before insemination. Non-protein nitrogen feeding immediately after insemination promotes faster rates of embryo development.

  3. Simulated Solar Flare X-Ray and Thermal Cycling Durability Evaluation of Hubble Space Telescope Thermal Control Candidate Replacement Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Scheiman, David A.

    1998-01-01

    During the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) second servicing mission (SM2), astronauts noticed that the multilayer insulation (MLI) covering the telescope was damaged. Large pieces of the outer layer of MLI (aluminized Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP)) were torn in several locations around the telescope. A piece of curled up Al-FEP was retrieved by the astronauts and was found to be severely embrittled, as witnessed by ground testing. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) organized a HST MLI Failure Review Board (FRB) to determine the damage mechanism of FEP in the HST environment, and to recommend replacement insulation material to be installed on HST during the third servicing mission (SM3) in 1999. Candidate thermal control replacement materials were chosen by the FRB and tested for environmental durability under various exposures and durations. This paper describes durability testing of candidate materials which were exposed to charged particle radiation, simulated solar flare x-ray radiation and thermal cycling under load. Samples were evaluated for changes in solar absorptance and tear resistance. Descriptions of environmental exposures and durability evaluations of these materials are presented.

  4. A review on Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Energy Assessment and Life Cycle Carbon Emissions Assessment on buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, C.K.; Leung, T.M.; Ng, W.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Three streams of life cycle studies, namely LCA, LCEA and LCCO 2 A, were compared. • Previous findings from the three streams were reviewed. • Cases led to discrepancies of results arising from different types of life cycle studies were discussed. • Limitations in using life cycle studies as decision tools for building design were identified. - Abstract: This paper provides a review on three streams of life cycle studies that have been frequently applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of building construction with a major focus on whether they can be used for decision making. The three streams are Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Life Cycle Energy Assessment (LCEA) and Life Cycle Carbon Emissions Assessment (LCCO 2 A). They were compared against their evaluation objectives, methodologies, and findings. Although they share similar objectives in evaluating the environmental impacts over the life cycle of building construction, they show some differences in the major focuses of evaluation and methodologies employed. Generally, it has been revealed that quite consistent results can be derived from the three streams with regard to the relative contribution of different phases of life cycle. However, discrepancies occur among the findings obtained from the three streams when different compositions of fuel mixes are used in power generation, or when the overall impacts are not contributed mostly by greenhouse gases emissions. The use of different functional units in different studies also makes it difficult to compare results with benchmarks or results from previous studies. Besides, there are drawbacks in boundary scoping, methodology framework, data inventory and practices which impair their usefulness as a decision making support tool for sustainable building designs

  5. Evaluating the potential of renewable diesel production from algae cultured on wastewater: techno-economic analysis and life cycle assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Juneja

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Algae, a renewable energy source, has an added advantage of consuming nutrients from wastewater and consequently aiding in wastewater treatment. The algae thus produced can be processed using alternative paths for conversion to fuels. However, due to high moisture content of algae, wet algae processing methods are being encouraged to avoid the dewatering cost and energy. Hydrothermal liquefaction is one such technology that converts the algae into high heating value bio-oil under high temperature and pressure. This bio-oil can be further upgraded to renewable diesel (RD which can be used in diesel powered vehicles without any modifications. The objective of this study is to evaluate the economic viability and to estimate the energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions during life cycle of RD production from algae grown in wastewater using hydrothermal liquefaction. Economic analysis of RD production on commercial scale was performed using engineering process model of RD production plant with processing capacity of 60 Mgal wastewater/day, simulated in SuperPro designer. RD yields for algae were estimated as 10.18 MML/year with unit price of production as $1.75/RD. The GHG emissions during life cycle of RD production were found to be 6.2 times less than those produced for conventional diesel. Sensitivity analysis indicated a potential to reduce ethanol production cost either by using high lipid algae or increasing the plant size. The integrated economic and ecological assessment analyses are helpful in determining long-term sustainability of a product and can be used to drive energy policies in an environmentally sustainable direction.

  6. Evaluation of the radial design of fuel cells in an operation cycle of a BWR reactor; Evaluacion del diseno radial de celdas de combustible en un ciclo de operacion de un reactor BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez C, J.; Martin del Campo M, C. [Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: jgco@ver.megared.net.mx

    2003-07-01

    This work is continuation of one previous in the one that the application of the optimization technique called Tabu search to the radial design of fuel cells of boiling water reactors (BWR, Boiling Water Reactor) is presented. The objective function used in the optimization process only include neutron parameters (k-infinite and peak of radial power) considering the cell at infinite media. It was obtained to reduce the cell average enrichment completing the characteristics of reactivity of an original cell. The objective of the present work is to validate the objective function that was used for the radial design of the fuel cell (test cell), analyzing the operation of a one cycle of the reactor in which fuels have been fresh recharged that contain an axial area with the nuclear database of the cell designed instead of the original cell. For it is simulated it with Cm-Presto the cycle 10 of the reactor operation of the Unit 1 of the Nuclear Power station of Laguna Verde (U1-CNLV). For the cycle evaluation its were applied so much the simulation with the Haling strategy, as the simulation of the one cycle with control rod patterns and they were evaluated the energy generation and several power limits and reactivity that are used as design parameters in fuel reloads of BWR reactors. The results at level of an operation cycle of the reactor, show that the objective function used in the optimization and radial design of the cell is adequate and that it can induce to one good use of the fuel. (Author)

  7. The Circum-Chryse Region as a Possible Example of a Hydrologic Cycle on Mars: Geologic Observations and Theoretical Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Clow, Gary D.; Davis, Wanda L.; Gulick, Virginia C.; Janke, David R.; McKay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R.; Zent, Aaron P.

    1995-01-01

    dipping subsurface layer accessed along the southern edge of the lake, recharging the flood-source aquifers. H2O not redeposited in the flood-source region was largely lost to the hydrologic cycle. This loss progressively lowered the vitality of the cycle, probably by now killing it. Our numerical evaluations indicate that of the two hypotheses we formulated, the groundwater seep cycle seems by far the more viable. Optimally, approximately 3/4 of the original mass of an ice-covered cylindrical lake (albedo 0.5, 1 km deep, 100-km radius, draining along its rim for one quarter of its circumference into substrata with a permeability of 3000 darcies) can be modeled to have moved underground (on timescales of the order of 10(exp 3) years) before the competing mechanisms of sublimation and freeze down choked off further water removal. Once underground, this water can travel distances equal to the separation between Chryse basin and flood-source sites in geologically short (approximately 10(exp 6) year-scale) times. Conversely, we calculate that optimally only approximately 40% of the H2O carried from Chryse can condense at the highlands, and most of the precipitate would either collect at the base of the highlands/lowlands scrap or sublimate at rates greater than it would accumulate over the flood-source sites. Further observations from forthcoming missions may permit the determination of which mechanisms may have operated to recycle the Chryse flood-waters.

  8. Evaluating the Role of First Polar Body Morphology on Rates of Fertilization and Embryo Development in ICSI Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Halvaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that morphology of the first polar body (1st PBis related to oocyte viability, which can be used as a prognostic tool to predict oocyte performanceand pregnancy outcomes in an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI program. According to somestudies, there is a correlation between oocyte performance and 1st PB morphology, while others havenot reported any correlation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the role of 1st PB morphologyon rates of fertilization and embryo development in ICSI cases.Materials and Methods: In this prospective study morphological characteristics of 470 metaphaseII (MII oocytes were assessed in 80 ICSI cycles. The women were ages 21-42 years (mean 32.6 ±0.2. Their oocytes were retrieved after a hyperstimulation protocol. After denudation, all oocyteswere evaluated for 1st PB morphology. The oocytes were divided into two groups of A (normal 1stPB and B (abnormal fragmented 1st PB. In addition, other abnormalities, such as refractile bodies(RF, wide previtelline space (wPVS, central and general granulation, bull’s eye, vacuole, smoothendoplasmic reticulum cluster (SERc, debris in PVS, shape and dark oocyte were checked. Forverifying of fertilization, about 18-19 hours post-ICSI, oocytes were checked for two-pronuclear.Assessments of embryo quality, development and embryo transfer were done at day two. Chisquare,Fisher’s exact and independent sample t tests were chosen for statistical analysis.Results: Twenty-seven percent of oocytes had fragmented 1st PB, while the remainder was associatedwith other morphological abnormalities. A total of 46.1% and 26.9% of oocytes showed double andmultiple defects, respectively. RF was the most common abnormality observed in group B. Nosignificant differences in women’s’ ages between groups A and B were noted (p=0.3. A total of 179and 107 oocytes (61.5% vs. 59.8% were fertilized in groups A and B, respectively (p=0.7. Therates of

  9. Utility of Brain SPECT 99mTc-HMPAO scintigraphy for the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow changes in patients suffering from dissociative amnesia DA and dissociative motor disorders DMD (previously termed as hysteria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the study was to assess the utility of Brain SPECT 99 mTc-HMPAO scintigraphy for the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow changes in patients suffering from dissociative amnesia (DA) and dissociative motor disorders (DMD) (previously termed as Hysteria). Materials and Methods: 20 patients were included in the study with a mean age of 26 years, 08 of them suffering from DA and 12 from DMDs. A consultant psychiatrist on the basis of ICD-10 criteria made the diagnosis. Patients were divided into two categories according to the duration of their illness. Category A; included 10 patients having less than six months duration of illness. Category B; included 10 patients having duration of illness more than six months. Ten normal controls having no signs and symptoms of any psychiatric disorder were also included in the study. Brain SPECT study was carried out using 99 mTc-HMPAO. Semiquantitative analysis was done by calculating cortical and cerebellar ratios in normals and comparing the same in the patients. Results: By comparing regional cerebral blood flow ratios of both the categories with normal group, patients suffering from DA showed hypoperfusion in bilateral temporal lobes, in both frontal association areas and both orbito frontal regions and patients suffering for more than 06 months showed a slightly more exaggerated pattern of hypoperfusion in the same cortical areas. On the other hand in DMD only the patients suffering for more than 06 months showed altered cerebral blood perfusion like hypoperfusion in both of the frontal motor areas, hypoperfusion in both temporal lobes and marked hyperperfusion in both orbito frontal areas. Conclusion: Patients of DA show abnormal cerebral perfusion pattern whether in acute or chronic stage while only chronic DMD states precipitate altered cerebral perfusion patterns and these can be visualized on a Brain SPECT study. (author)

  10. Validating a refractometer to evaluate immunoglobulin G concentration in Jersey colostrum and the effect of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on evaluating colostrum quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, K M; Robertson, K E; Spring, M M; Robinson, A L; Tyler, H D

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) validate a method using refractometry to rapidly and accurately determine immunoglobulin (IgG) concentration in Jersey colostrum, (2) determine whether there should be different refractive index (nD) and %Brix cut points for Jersey colostrum, and (3) evaluate the effect of multiple freeze-thaw (FT) cycles on radial immunodiffusion (RID) and a digital refractometer to determine IgG concentration in Jersey colostrum. Samples (n=58; 3L) of colostrum were collected from a dairy in northwestern Iowa. Samples were analyzed within 2h of collection for IgG concentration by RID, %Brix, and nD by refractometer and an estimate of IgG by colostrometer. Samples were frozen, placed on dry ice, and transported to the laboratory at Iowa State University (Ames). Samples arrived frozen and were placed in a -20°C manual-defrost freezer until further analysis. On d 7 (1FT), d 14 (2FT), and 1yr (3FT) all samples were thawed, analyzed for IgG by RID, %Brix, nD by refractometer, and IgG estimate by colostrometer, and frozen until reanalysis at the next time point. Fresh colostrum had a mean (±SD) IgG concentration of 72.91 (±33.53) mg/mL, 21.24% (±4.43) Brix, and nD 1.3669 (±0.0074). Multiple FT cycles did affect IgG as determined by RID and colostrometer reading. The IgG concentrations were greater in fresh and 1FT samples as compared with 2FT and 3FT samples (72.91, 75.38, 67.20, and 67.31mg of IgG/mL, respectively). The colostrometer reading was lower in 1FT samples compared with fresh and 2FT samples. Multiple FT cycles had no effect on nD or %Brix reading. In fresh samples, IgG concentration was moderately correlated with nD (r=0.79), %Brix (r=0.79), and colostrometer reading (r=0.79). Diagnostic test characteristics using the recommended cut point of 1.35966 nD resulted in similar sensitivities for 1FT and 2 FT samples (94.87 and 94.74%, respectively). Cut points of 18 and 19% Brix resulted in the greatest sensitivities (92.31 and 84

  11. Guidance for the evaluation of innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. Report of Phase 1A of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The IAEA General Conference in 2000 invited all interested Member States to combine their efforts under the aegis of the IAEA in considering the issues of the nuclear fuel cycle, in particular by examining innovative and proliferation-resistant nuclear technology. Resolutions of the UN General Assembly in 2001 and 2002 provided additional endorsement for INPRO, by emphasizing the unique role that the IAEA can play in developing user requirements and in addressing safeguards, safety, and environmental questions for innovative reactors and their fuel cycles and stressing the need for international collaboration in the development of innovative nuclear technology. As of April 2003, INPRO had 15 members: Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Germany, India, Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Spain, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Turkey and the European Commission. The main objectives of INPRO are to: Help to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in fulfilling energy needs in the 21st century in a sustainable manner; and to Bring together both technology holders and technology users to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. The 21st century promises the most competitive, globalized markets in human history, the most rapid pace of technological change ever, and the greatest expansion of energy use, particularly in developing countries. For a technology to make a truly substantial contribution to energy supplies, innovation is essential. It will be the defining feature of a successful nuclear industry and a critical feature of international co-operation in support of that industry, co-operation that ranges from joint scientific and technological initiatives, to safety standards and guidelines, and to security and safeguards activities. Innovation is also essential to attract a growing, high-quality pool of talented scientists, engineers and

  12. Suggestion of Design Evaluation Plan based on Star Life Cycle to introduce the Information Minimalism Concept of KOREA Nuclear Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Gwi-sook; Lee, Seung-min; Park, Gee-yong

    2018-01-01

    The design of Korea Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) main control rooms (MCR) has been changed to be fully digitalized. Five or six display devices are assigned to each operator in NPP MCR to provide the information of safety parameter and plant status, and various control functions by connecting computerized control devices. Under this circumstance, the distributed displays can induce a dispersion of the operators' attention and increase the workload while conducting monitoring and control tasks efficiently. In addition, to support human operators to reduce their workload and increase the performance, the concepts of the ecological interface design (EID) and the operator-centered design were applied to the design HMI display. However these designs are applied to a limited set of screens and did not differ largely from the traditional HMI design in that the layout of the information is somewhere similar to P&IDs. In this paper, we propose a design evaluation plan based on star life cycle to introduce the information minimalism concept for designing an HMI display.

  13. Life Cycle Assessment, ExternE and Comprehensive Analysis for an integrated evaluation of the environmental impact of anthropogenic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrapertosa, F.; Cosmi, C. [National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis C.N.R.-I.M.A.A. C.da S.Loja, I-85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy); National Research Council, National Institute for the Physics of Matter, C.N.R.-I.N.F.M. Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Macchiato, M. [Federico II University, Department of Physical Sciences, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); National Research Council, National Institute for the Physics of Matter, C.N.R.-I.N.F.M. Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Salvia, M.; Cuomo, V. [National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis C.N.R.-I.M.A.A. C.da S.Loja, I-85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    The implementation of resource management strategies aimed at reducing the impacts of the anthropogenic activities system requires a comprehensive approach to evaluate on the whole the environmental burdens of productive processes and to identify the best recovery strategies from both an environmental and an economic point of view. In this framework, an analytical methodology based on the integration of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), ExternE and Comprehensive Analysis was developed to perform an in-depth investigation of energy systems. The LCA methodology, largely utilised by the international scientific community for the assessment of the environmental performances of technologies, combined with Comprehensive Analysis allows modelling the overall system of anthropogenic activities, as well as sub-systems, the economic consequences of the whole set of environmental damages. Moreover, internalising external costs into partial equilibrium models, as those utilised by Comprehensive Analysis, can be useful to identify the best paths for implementing technology innovation and strategies aimed to a more sustainable energy supply and use. This paper presents an integrated application of these three methodologies to a local scale case study (the Val D'Agri area in Basilicata, Southern Italy), aimed to better characterise the environmental impacts of the energy system, with particular reference to extraction activities. The innovative methodological approach utilised takes advantage from the strength points of each methodology with an added value coming from their integration as emphasised by the main results obtained by the scenario analysis. (author)

  14. Cycling infrastructure for reducing cycling injuries in cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Caroline A; Smith, Sherie; Watson, Michael C; Parkin, John; Coupland, Carol; Miller, Philip; Kendrick, Denise; McClintock, Hugh

    2015-12-10

    Cycling is an attractive form of transport. It is beneficial to the individual as a form of physical activity that may fit more readily into an individual's daily routine, such as for cycling to work and to the shops, than other physical activities such as visiting a gym. Cycling is also beneficial to the wider community and the environment as a result of fewer motorised journeys. Cyclists are seen as vulnerable road users who are frequently in close proximity to larger and faster motorised vehicles. Cycling infrastructure aims to make cycling both more convenient and safer for cyclists. This review is needed to guide transport planning. To:1. evaluate the effects of different types of cycling infrastructure on reducing cycling injuries in cyclists, by type of infrastructure;2. evaluate the effects of cycling infrastructure on reducing the severity of cycling injuries in cyclists;3. evaluate the effects of cycling infrastructure on reducing cycling injuries in cyclists with respect to age, sex and social group. We ran the most recent search on 2nd March 2015. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase Classic + Embase(OvidSP), PubMed and 10 other databases. We searched websites, handsearched conference proceedings, screened reference lists of included studies and previously published reviews and contacted relevant organisations. We included randomised controlled trials, cluster randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after studies, and interrupted time series studies which evaluated the effect of cycling infrastructure (such as cycle lanes, tracks or paths, speed management, roundabout design) on cyclist injury or collision rates. Studies had to include a comparator, that is, either no infrastructure or a different type of infrastructure. We excluded studies that assessed collisions that occurred as a result of competitive cycling. Two review authors examined the titles and

  15. Modified natural cycle versus controlled ovarian hyperstimulation IVF : a cost-effectiveness evaluation of three simulated treatment scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Henk; Tonch, Nino; Simons, Arnold H. M.; van der Veen, Fulco; Hoek, Annemieke; Land, Jolande A.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Can modified natural cycle IVF or ICSI (MNC) be a cost-effective alternative for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation IVF or ICSI (COH)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The comparison of simulated scenarios indicates that a strategy of three to six cycles of MNC with minimized medication is a

  16. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity, cell-cycle arrest, and apoptotic induction by Euphorbia hirta in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Yuet Ping; Saito, Tamio; Ibrahim, Darah; Al-Hassan, Faisal Muti Saleh; Ein Oon, Chern; Chen, Yeng; Jothy, Subramanion L; Kanwar, Jagat R; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2016-07-01

    Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) has been used as a folk remedy in Southeast Asia for the treatment of various ailments. The current study evaluates the cytotoxicity, cell-cycle arrest, and apoptotic induction by E. hirta in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cytotoxic activity of methanol extract of whole part of E. hirta was determined by the MTT assay at various concentrations ranging from 1.96 to 250.00 µg/mL in MCF-7 cells. Cell morphology was assessed by light and fluorescence microscopy. Apoptosis and cell-cycle distribution were determined by annexin V staining and flow cytometry. DNA fragmentation, caspase activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays were performed using the commercially available kits. To identify the cytotoxic fraction, E. hirta extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation. Euphorbia hirta exhibited significant inhibition of the survival of MCF-7 cells and the half inhibitory concentration (IC50) values was 25.26 µg/mL at 24 h. Microscopic studies showed that E. hirta-treated cells exhibited marked morphological features characteristic of apoptosis. Euphorbia hirta extract also had an ignorable influence on the LDH leakage and generating intracellular ROS. The flow cytometry study confirmed that E. hirta extract induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Euphorbia hirta also resulted in DNA fragmentation in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, E. hirta treatment resulted in the accumulation of cells at the S and G2/M phases as well as apoptosis. The caspase activity study revealed that E. hirta extract induced apoptosis through the caspase-3-independent pathway by the activation of caspase-2, 6, 8, and 9. Euphorbia hirta hexane fraction, namely HFsub4 fraction, demonstrated highest activity among all the fractions tested with an IC50 value of 10.01 µg/mL at 24 h. This study revealed that E. hirta induced apoptotic cell death and suggests that E. hirta could be used as an apoptosis-inducing anticancer agent for breast cancer treatment

  17. Evaluate the use of tanning agent in leather industry using material flow analysis, life cycle assessment and fuzzy multi-attribute decision making (FMADM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarisi, Salman; Sutono, Sugoro Bhakti; Sutopo, Wahyudi

    2017-11-01

    Tanning industry is one of the companies that produce many pollutants and cause the negative impact on the environment. In the production process of tanning leather, the use of input material need to be evaluated. The problem of waste, not only have a negative impact on the environment, but also human health. In this study, the impact of mimosa as vegetable tanning agent evaluated. This study will provide alternative solutions for improvements to the use of vegetable tanning agent. The alternative solution is change mimosa with indusol, gambier, and dulcotan. This study evaluate the vegetable tanning of some aspects using material flow analysis and life cycle assessment approach. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate the environmental impact of vegetable tanning agent. Alternative solution selection using fuzzy multi-attribute decision making (FMADM) approach. Results obtained by considering the environment, human toxicity, climate change, and marine aquatic ecotoxicity, is to use dulcotan.

  18. Evaluation of a new rapid readout biological indicator for use in 132°C and 135°C vacuum-assisted steam sterilization cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philip M

    2014-02-01

    Sterilization is a process that cannot be inspected or tested in a practical manner to assure that all microorganisms have been inactivated. The process must therefore be validated for all of the specific items processed or monitored on a per cycle basis. A new, faster rapid readout biological indicator (RRBI) has been developed for use in 132°C and 135°C vacuum-assisted steam sterilization cycles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of this new 1-hour readout RRBI at 132°C in side-by-side testing with an existing 3-hour readout RRBI and also evaluate the performance of the new RRBI in 135°C cycles. Readout responses of 1 hour (fluorescent) and 48 hours and 7 days (growth) of the new RRBI were compared with 3-hour, 48-hour, and 7-day readouts of the 3-hour RRBI following exposures in 132°C cycles using a highly controlled test vessel, ie, a steam resistometer. Additional testing of the 1-hour RRBIs was also performed in 135°C cycles. The number and percentage of fluorescent-positive 1-hour RRBIs were virtually identical to those of the 3-hour RRBIs after 1 and 3 hours of incubation, respectively. Testing of the 1-hour RRBI in 135°C cycles paralleled the results of the testing at 132°C but with the expected shorter exposure times. The results of this study suggest that the 1-hour RRBI is equivalent to the 3-hour RRBI and would be suitable for use in monitoring dynamic air removal steam sterilization cycles at both 132°C and 135°C per recommended practice guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Life cycle assessment and evaluation of energy payback time on high-concentration photovoltaic power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, A.; Hayashi, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Hirota, M.; Kato, S.; Ito, M.; Araki, K.; Hu, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the environmental load of photovoltaic power generation system (PV) during its life cycle and energy payback time (EPT) are evaluated by LCA scheme. Two hypothetical case studies in Toyohashi, Japan and Gobi dessert in China have been carried out to investigate the influence of installation location and PV type on environmental load and EPT. The environmental load and EPT of a high-concentration photovoltaic power generation system (hcpV) and a multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic power generation system (mc-Si PV) are studied. The study shows for a PV of 100 MW size, the total impacts of the hcpV installed in Toyohashi is larger than that of the hcpV installed in Gobi desert by 5% without consideration of recycling stage. The EPT of the hcpV assumed to be installed in Gobi desert is shorter than EPT of the hcpV assumed to be installed in Toyohashi by 0.64 year. From these results, the superiority to install PV in Gobi desert is certificated. Comparing with hcpV and mc-Si PV, the ratio of the total impacts of mc-Si PV to that of hcpV is 0.34 without consideration of recycling stage. The EPT of hcpV is longer than EPT of mc-Si PV by 0.27 year. The amount of global solar radiation contributing to the amount of power generation of mc-Si PV is larger than the amount of direct solar radiation contributing to the amount of power generation of hcpV by about 188 kW h/(m 2 year) in Gobi desert. Consequently, it appears that using mc-Si PV in Gobi desert is the best option.

  20. The Effect of Cycling Intensity on Cycling Economy During Seated and Standing Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkesteijn, Marco; Jobson, Simon; Hopker, James; Passfield, Louis

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has shown that cycling in a standing position reduces cycling economy compared with seated cycling. It is unknown whether the cycling intensity moderates the reduction in cycling economy while standing. The aim was to determine whether the negative effect of standing on cycling economy would be decreased at a higher intensity. Ten cyclists cycled in 8 different conditions. Each condition was either at an intensity of 50% or 70% of maximal aerobic power at a gradient of 4% or 8% and in the seated or standing cycling position. Cycling economy and muscle activation level of 8 leg muscles were recorded. There was an interaction between cycling intensity and position for cycling economy (P = .03), the overall activation of the leg muscles (P = .02), and the activation of the lower leg muscles (P = .05). The interaction showed decreased cycling economy when standing compared with seated cycling, but the difference was reduced at higher intensity. The overall activation of the leg muscles and the lower leg muscles, respectively, increased and decreased, but the differences between standing and seated cycling were reduced at higher intensity. Cycling economy was lower during standing cycling than seated cycling, but the difference in economy diminishes when cycling intensity increases. Activation of the lower leg muscles did not explain the lower cycling economy while standing. The increased overall activation, therefore, suggests that increased activation of the upper leg muscles explains part of the lower cycling economy while standing.

  1. Soil carbon model alternatives for ECHAM5/JSBACH climate model: Evaluation and impacts on global carbon cycle estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thum, T.; Raisanen, P.; Sevanto, S.

    2011-01-01

    The response of soil organic carbon to climate change might lead to significant feedbacks affecting global warming. This response can be studied by coupled climate-carbon cycle models but so far the description of soil organic carbon cycle in these models has been quite simple. In this work we used...... the coupled climate-carbon cycle model ECHAM5/JSBACH (European Center/Hamburg Model 5/Jena Scheme for Biosphere-Atmosphere Coupling in Hamburg) with two different soil carbon modules, namely (1) the original soil carbon model of JSBACH called CBALANCE and (2) a new soil carbon model Yasso07, to study...... the interaction between climate variability and soil organic carbon. Equivalent ECHAM5/JSBACH simulations were conducted using both soil carbon models, with freely varying atmospheric CO2 for the last 30 years (1977-2006). In this study, anthropogenic CO2 emissions and ocean carbon cycle were excluded. The new...

  2. Fuel cycle assessment: A compendium of models, methodologies, and approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to profile analytical tools and methods which could be used in a total fuel cycle analysis. The information in this document provides a significant step towards: (1) Characterizing the stages of the fuel cycle. (2) Identifying relevant impacts which can feasibly be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively. (3) Identifying and reviewing other activities that have been conducted to perform a fuel cycle assessment or some component thereof. (4) Reviewing the successes/deficiencies and opportunities/constraints of previous activities. (5) Identifying methods and modeling techniques/tools that are available, tested and could be used for a fuel cycle assessment.

  3. The Role of Infertility Etiology in Success Rate of Intrauterine Insemination Cycles: An Evaluation of Predictive Factors for Pregnancy Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Rashidi, Mandana; Ghasemi, Afsaneh; Arabipoor, Arezoo; Daghighi, Sara; Pourasghari, Parisa; Zolfaghari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to identify the prognostic factors that influence the outcome of ovarian stimulation with intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles in couples with different infertility etiology. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed in data of 1348 IUI cycles with ovarian stimulation by clomiphene citrate (CC) and/or gonadotropins in 632 women with five different infertility etiology subgroups at Akbarabbadi Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Results: Th...

  4. Evaluation of the hydrological cycle of MATCH driven by NCEP reanalysis data: comparison with GOME water vapor measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines two key parameters of the hydrological cycle, water vapor (WV and precipitation rates (PR, as modelled by the chemistry transport model MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry driven by National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP reanalysis data (NRA. For model output evaluation we primarily employ WV total column data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME on ERS-2, which is the only instrument capable measuring WV on a global scale and over all surface types with a substantial data record from 1995 to the present. We find that MATCH and NRA WV and PR distributions are closely related, but that significant regional differences in both parameters exist in magnitude and distribution patterns when compared to the observations. We also find that WV residual patterns between model and observations show remarkable similarities to residuals observed in the PR when comparing MATCH and NRA output to observations comprised by the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP. We conclude that deficiencies in model parameters shared by MATCH and NRA, like in the surface evaporation rates and regional transport patterns, are likely to lead to the observed differences. Monthly average regional differences between MATCH modelled WV columns and the observations can be as large as 2 cm, based on the analysis of three years. Differences in the global mean WV values are, however, below 0.1 cm. Regional differences in the PR between MATCH and GPCP can be above 0.5 cm per day and MATCH computes on average a higher PR than what has been observed. The lower water vapor content of MATCH is related to shorter model WV residence times by up to 1 day as compared to the observations. We find that MATCH has problems in modelling the WV content in regions of strong upward convection like, for example, along the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone, where it appears to be generally too dry as compared to the observations. We

  5. The effect of mechanical load cycling and polishing time on microleakage of class V glass-ionomer and composite restorations: A scanning electron microscopy evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoreh Mirzaie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microleakage is one of the challenging concerns in direct filling restorations. Understanding of its related factors is important in clinical practice. The aim of this study was scanning electron microscopy (SEM evaluation of marginal integrity in three types of tooth-colored restorative materials in class V cavity preparations and the effect of load cycling and polishing time on the microleakage. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro experimental study, class V cavity preparations were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 60 bovine incisors. The specimens were divided into three groups each containing 20 teeth: group 1: Filtek Z350, Group 2: Fuji IX/G Coat Plus, Group 3: Fuji II LC/GC varnish. In each group, 2 subgroups (n = 20 were established based on finishing time (immediate or delayed by 24 h. All specimens were thermocycled (×2,000, 5-50°C. In each sub groups, half of the teeth were load cycled. Epoxy resin replicas of 24 specimens were evaluated under field emission-SEM and interfacial gaps were measured. All teeth were then immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin dye for 24 h, sectioned and observed under stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis′ test and Mann-Whitney U test and a comparison between incisal and cervical microleakage was made with Wilcoxon test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Load cycling and filling material had a significant effect on microleakage, but polishing time did not. Cervical microleakage in Z350/load cycle/immediate polish and Fuji IX/load cycle/immediate or delayed polish and Fuji IX/no load cycle/immediate polish were significantly higher than incisal microleakage. Conclusion: It was concluded that the cervical sealing ability of Fuji IX under load cycling was better than Fuji II LC. Under load cycling and immediate polishing Z350 showed better marginal integrity than both Fuji II LC and Fuji IX. The immediate polishing didn′t cause a statistically

  6. Evaluation of duty cycles for heavy-duty urban vehicles : final report of IEA AMF Annex 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.O.; Erkkila, K. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Clark, N. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Rideout, G. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Centre, Emissions Research and Measurement Div

    2007-07-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles in Europe and North America will require incylinder measures or exhaust gas after-treatment technology to control emissions and meet ever stringent emission requirements. Alternatively, manufacturers can choose clean burning alternative fuels such as natural gas. Although there are no international standards for heavy-duty vehicle chassis dynamometer testing at present, the IEA Implementing Agreements offer excellent platforms for international collaborative research. Harmonization of test methods for vehicles and fuels is one important task. This paper reported on the work of 3 laboratories that have produced emission results for complete heavy-duty vehicles. VTT Technical Research of Finland, Environment Canada and West Virginia University measured standard size urban buses driving various duty cycles on chassis dynamometers. The number of transient test cycles per laboratory varied from 6 to 16. European and North American diesel and natural gas vehicles were included in the vehicle matrix. The objective was to demonstrate how the driving cycle affects the emission performance of conventional and advanced urban buses. Several driving cycles were run on urban buses to better understand the characteristics of different duty cycles; produce a key for cross-interpretation of emission results generated with different cycles; and study the interaction between vehicle, exhaust after-treatment and fuel technologies and test procedures. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions were measured. The results varied significantly not only by test cycle, but also by vehicle technology. In general, vehicles emissions were directly proportioned to the amount of fuel consumed, with the exception of NOx-emissions from SCR-vehicles. There was a clear difference in the emission profiles of European and North American vehicles. In Europe, fuel efficiency was emphasized, while in North America, more focus was given to regulated exhaust emissions, especially low

  7. Parametric analysis for a new combined power and ejector-absorption refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiangfeng; Dai Yiping; Zhang Taiyong; Ma Shaolin

    2009-01-01

    A new combined power and ejector-absorption refrigeration cycle is proposed, which combines the Rankine cycle and the ejector-absorption refrigeration cycle, and could produce both power output and refrigeration output simultaneously. This combined cycle, which originates from the cycle proposed by authors previously, introduces an ejector between the rectifier and the condenser, and provides a performance improvement without greatly increasing the complexity of the system. A parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the effects of the key thermodynamic parameters on the cycle performance. It is shown that heat source temperature, condenser temperature, evaporator temperature, turbine inlet pressure, turbine inlet temperature, and basic solution ammonia concentration have significant effects on the net power output, refrigeration output and exergy efficiency of the combined cycle. It is evident that the ejector can improve the performance of the combined cycle proposed by authors previously.

  8. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  9. A service evaluation and improvement project: a three year systematic audit cycle of the physiotherapy treatment for Lateral Epicondylalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Paul A; Selfe, James

    2017-09-22

    To improve outcomes of physiotherapy treatment for patients with Lateral Epicondylalgia. A systematic audit and quality improvement project over three phases, each of one year duration. Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust Teaching Hospital Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy out-patients department. n=182. Phase one - individual discretion; Phase two - strengthening as a core treatment however individual discretion regarding prescription and implementation; Phase three - standardised protocol using high load isometric exercise, progressing on to slow combined concentric & eccentric strengthening. Global Rating of Change Scale, Pain-free grip strength, Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation, Tampa Scale of Kinesophobia-11. Phase three demonstrated a reduction in the average number of treatments by 42% whilst improving the number of responders to treatment by 8% compared to phase one. Complete cessation of non-evidence based treatments was also observed by phase three. Strengthening should be a core treatment for LE. Load setting needs to be sufficient. In phase three of the audit a standardised tendon loading programme using patient specific high load isometric exercises into discomfort/pain demonstrated a higher percentage of responders compared to previous phases. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Groundwater chemistry around a repository for spent nuclear fuel over a glacial cycle. Evaluation for SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auque, L.F.; Gimeno, M.J.; Gomez, J.B. [University of Zaragoza (Spain); Puigdomenech, I. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Smellie, J. [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Tullborg, E.L. [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the rock volume surrounding a spent nuclear fuel repository is of importance to many factors that affect repository performance. The geochemical characteristics of present-day Swedish groundwater systems are governed by successive mixing events of several waters during the post-glacial evolution of the sites. The expected development of groundwaters at two Swedish sites - Forsmark and Laxemar - during a glacial cycle has been evaluated within the SR-Can project, and the results are presented in this report. For the temperate period following repository closure, an approach is proposed here to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of groundwater geochemistry by coupling hydrogeological and geochemical models in a sequential way. The procedure combines hydrogeological results obtained with CONNECTFLOW within the SR-Can project with a mixing and reaction path simulation using PHREEQC. The hydrological results contain mixing proportions of four component waters (a deep brine, glacial meltwater, marine water, and meteoric infiltration) at each time step and at every node of the D regional model domain. In this work the mixing fractions are fed into PHREEQC using software developed to build formatted input files and to extract the information from output files for subsequent plotting and analysis. The geochemical calculations included both chemical mixing and equilibrium reactions with selected minerals: calcite, chalcedony and an Fe(III) oxy-hydroxide. Results for the Forsmark and Laxemar sites are graphically presented as histograms and box-and-whisker plots. Cross sections, where each node is colour-coded with respect to an important variable (pH, Eh or concentrations of main elements), are used to visualize the future evolution of the site. Sensitivity analyses are made to evaluate the effects of the different reactions and/or assumptions. The results reflect the progressive inflow of meteoric waters into the sites

  11. Pilot study: evaluation of the effect of functional electrical stimulation cycling on muscle metabolism in nonambulatory people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mary Ann; McCully, Kevin; Burdett, Blake; Manella, Christine; Hawkins, Laura; Backus, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the changes in muscle oxygen consumption (mV˙O2) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) after 4 weeks of training with functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling in nonambulatory people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Four-week before-after trial to assess changes in mV˙O2 after an FES cycling intervention. Rehabilitation hospital. People (N=8; 7 men, 1 women) from a volunteer/referred sample with moderate to severe MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale score>6.0). Participants cycled 30 minutes per session, 3d/wk for 4 weeks or a total of 12 sessions. mV˙O2 of the right vastus lateralis muscle was measured with NIRS before and within 1 week after the intervention. Six bouts of 15-second electrical stimulation increasing from 2 to 7Hz were used to activate the muscle. mV˙O2 was assessed by analyzing the slope of the NIRS oxygen signal during a 10-second arterial occlusion after each electrical stimulation bout. Significant FES training by electrical stimulation frequency level interaction was observed (P=.031), with an average increase in mV˙O2 of 47% across frequencies with a main effect of training (P=.047). FES cycling for 4 weeks improved mV˙O2, suggesting that FES cycling is a potential therapy for improving muscle health in people with MS who are nonambulatory. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A partial life cycle assessment approach to evaluate the energy intensity and related greenhouse gas emission in dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelia Murgia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farming is constantly evolving towards more intensive levels of mechanization and automation which demand more energy consumption and result in higher economic and environmental costs. The usage of fossil energy in agricultural processes contributes to climate change both with on-farm emissions from the combustion of fuels, and by off-farm emissions due to the use of grid power. As a consequence, a more efficient use of fossil resources together with an increased use of renewable energies can play a key role for the development of more sustainable production systems. The aims of this study were to evaluate the energy requirements (fuels and electricity in dairy farms, define the distribution of the energy demands among the different farm operations, identify the critical point of the process and estimate the amount of CO2 associated with the energy consumption. The inventory of the energy uses has been outlined by a partial Life Cycle Assessment (LCA approach, setting the system boundaries at the farm level, from cradle to farm gate. All the flows of materials and energy associated to milk production process, including crops cultivation for fodder production, were investigated in 20 dairy commercial farms over a period of one year. Self-produced energy from renewable sources was also accounted as it influence the overall balance of emissions. Data analysis was focused on the calculation of energy and environmental sustainability indicators (EUI, CO2-eq referred to the functional units. The production of 1 kg of Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM required on average 0.044 kWhel and 0.251 kWhth, corresponding to a total emission of 0.085 kg CO2-eq. The farm activities that contribute most to the electricity requirements were milk cooling, milking and slurry management, while feeding management and crop cultivation were the greatest diesel fuel consuming operation and the largest in terms of environmental impact of milk production (73% of

  13. Pain from the life cycle perspective: Evaluation and Measurement through psychophysical methods of category estimation and magnitude estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros; Silva, Talita de Cássia Raminelli da; Siqueira, Hilze Benigno de Oliveira Moura; Saltareli, Simone; Gomez, Rodrigo Ramon Falconi; Hortense, Priscilla

    2016-08-18

    to describe acute and chronic pain from the perspective of the life cycle. participants: 861 people in pain. The Multidimensional Pain Evaluation Scale (MPES) was used. in the category estimation method the highest descriptors of chronic pain for children/ adolescents were "Annoying" and for adults "Uncomfortable". The highest descriptors of acute pain for children/adolescents was "Complicated"; and for adults was "Unbearable". In magnitude estimation method, the highest descriptors of chronic pain was "Desperate" and for descriptors of acute pain was "Terrible". the MPES is a reliable scale it can be applied during different stages of development. descrever a dor aguda e a crônica na perspectiva do ciclo vital. Métodos: participaram 861 pessoas com dor. Foi utilizada a Escala Multidimensional de Avaliação da Dor (EMADOR). Resultados: no método da estimação de categoria o descritor da dor crônica de maior atribuição para crianças e adolescentes foi "Chata" e para adultos foi "Desconfortável". Os descritores de maior atribuição para dor aguda em crianças e adolescentes foram "Complicada" e em adultos "Insuportável". No método de estimação de magnitude, o descritor de maior atribuição na dor crônica foi "Atormentadora" e na dor aguda foi "Terrível". a EMADOR é uma escala confiável e pode ser utilizada nas diferentes etapas do desenvolvimento humano. la descripción del dolor agudo y crónico desde las perspectiva del ciclo de vida. participaron 861 personas con dolor. Se utilizó la Escala Multidimensional de Evaluación del Dolor (EMEDOR). en el método de estimación de categoría el descriptor de dolor crónico más alto para niños y adolescentes fue de Molesto y para adultos fue Incómodo. Los descriptores mayores de dolor agudo para niños y adolescentes fueron Complejo y para adultos Insoportable. En el método de estimación de magnitud, el mayor descriptor de dolor crónico fueron Atormentador y el mayor de dolor agudo fue Terrible

  14. Energy performance and economic evaluation of heat pump/organic rankine cycle system with sensible thermal storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2016-01-01

    that consists of a ground-source heat pump with possibility of reversing operation as an ORC power cycle combined with solar heating in a single-family building is introduced. The ORC mode enables the use of solar energy in periods of no heat energy demand and reverses the heat pump cycle to supply electrical......The interaction between electrical and thermal energy demands represent a potential area for balancing supply and demand that could contribute to the integration of intermittent renewables in energy systems. To enable the interaction between thermal and electric energy, an innovative concept......-life conditions knowledge, the paper considers two different sensible energy storage (TES) configurations for the reversible heat pump/organic Rankine cycle (HP/ORC) system: a buffer tank for both space heating and domestic hot water and a hot water storage tank used exclusively for domestic hot water...

  15. Performance Evaluation of HP/ORC (Heat Pump/Organic Rankine Cycle) System with Optimal Control of Sensible Thermal Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Carmo, Carolina Madeira Ramos; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2016-01-01

    come to contribute to the integration of intermittent renewables.This paper describes an innovative concept that consists of the addition of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) to a combined solar system coupled to a ground-source heat pump (HP) in a single-family building. The ORC enables the use of solar...... energy in periods of no thermal energy demand and reverses the heat pump cycle to supply electrical power. A dynamic model based on empirical data of this system is used to determine the annual performance. Furthermore, this work assesses the benefits of different control strategies that address...... of the users. Results show that real load control logic can lessen the adverse effects of cycling in the compressor of the system as well as increase the thermal demand (up to 33%) and the electrical demand (max. 8.4%) covered by renewable energy (solar). However, the extension of these improvements is highly...

  16. Technical evaluation of the end-of-cycle recirculation pump trip for Duane Arnold Energy Center. (Docket No. 50-331)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, L.R.

    1980-03-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the end-of-cycle recirculation pump trip for the Duane Arnold Energy Center. The review criteria are based on IEEE Std-279-1971, IEEE Std-323-1974, IEEE Std-338-1977, and General Design Criteria 13, 20 through 24, ad 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 50, Appendix A requirements for determining the acceptability of the proposed system

  17. Evaluation of methods of detecting cell reactive oxygen species production for drug screening and cell cycle studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lampson M; Li, Jian-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is essential to normal cell function. However, excessive ROS production causes oxidative damage and cell death. Many pharmacological compounds exert their effects on cell cycle progression by changing intracellular redox state and in many cases cause oxidative damage leading to drug cytotoxicity. Appropriate measurement of intracellular ROS levels during cell cycle progression is therefore crucial in understanding redox-regulation of cell function and drug toxicity and for the development of new drugs. However, due to the extremely short half-life of ROS, measuring the changes in intracellular ROS levels during a particular phase of cell cycle for drug intervention can be challenging. In this article, we have provided updated information on the rationale, the applications, the advantages and limitations of common methods for screening drug effects on intracellular ROS production linked to cell cycle study. Our aim is to facilitate biomedical scientists and researchers in the pharmaceutical industry in choosing or developing specific experimental regimens to suit their research needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Establishment and prioritization of relevant factors to the safety of fuel cycle facilities non reactor through dynamics archetypes evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Anna Leticia Barbosa de

    2012-01-01

    The present work aims to establish and prioritize factors that are important to the safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities in order to model, analyze and design safety as a physical system, employing systemic models in an innovative way. This work takes into consideration the fact that models that use adaptations of methodologies for nuclear reactors will not properly work due to the specificities of fuel cycle facilities. Based on the fundamentals of the theory of systems, the four levels of system thinking, and the relationship of eight socio technical factors, a mental model has been developed for safety management in the nuclear fuel cycle context. From this conceptual model, safety archetypes were constructed in order to identify and highlight the processes of change and decision making that allow the system to migrate to a state of loss of safety. After that, stock and flow diagrams were created so that their behavior could be assessed by the system's dynamics. The results from the analysis using the model that simulates the dynamic behavior of the variables (socio technical factors) indicated, as expected, that the system's dynamics proved to be an appropriate and efficient tool for modeling fuel cycle safety as an emergent property. (author)

  19. Evaluating the Impact of Road Grade on Simulated Commercial Vehicle Fuel Economy Using Real-World Drive Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopp, Sean; Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-13

    Commercial vehicle fuel economy is known to vary significantly with both positive and negative road grade. Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating at highway speeds require incrementally larger amounts of energy to pull heavy payloads up inclines as road grade increases. Non-hybrid vehicles are then unable to recapture energy on descent and lose energy through friction braking. While the on-road effects of road grade are well understood, the majority of standard commercial vehicle drive cycles feature no climb or descent requirements. Additionally, existing literature offers a limited number of sources that attempt to estimate the on-road energy implications of road grade in the medium- and heavy-duty space. This study uses real-world commercial vehicle drive cycles from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to simulate the effects of road grade on fuel economy across a range of vocations, operating conditions, and locations. Drive-cycles are matched with vocation-specific vehicle models and simulated with and without grade. Fuel use due to grade is presented, and variation in fuel consumption due to drive cycle and vehicle characteristics is explored through graphical and statistical comparison. The results of this study suggest that road grade accounts for 1%-9% of fuel use in commercial vehicles on average and up to 40% on select routes.

  20. Holistic Evaluation of Decentralized Water Reuse: Life Cycle Assessment and Cost Analysis of Membrane Bioreactor Systems in Water Reuse Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understand environmental and cost impacts of transitional decentralized MBR systems with sewer mining Assess aerobic MBRs (AeMBR) and anaerobic MBRs (AnMBR) Use LCA and life cycle cost (LCC) analysis to quantify impacts Investigate LCA and LCC performance of MBRs under various re...

  1. MDCT evaluation of aortic root and aortic valve prior to TAVI. What is the optimal imaging time point in the cardiac cycle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurencak, Tomas; Turek, Jakub; Nijssen, Estelle C. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P. Debyelaan 25, P.O. Box 5800, AZ, Maastricht (Netherlands); Kietselaer, Bastiaan L.J.H. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P. Debyelaan 25, P.O. Box 5800, AZ, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Mihl, Casper; Kok, Madeleine; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Das, Marco [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P. Debyelaan 25, P.O. Box 5800, AZ, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht (Netherlands); Ommen, Vincent G.V.A. van [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Garsse, Leen A.F.M. van [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    To determine the optimal imaging time point for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) therapy planning by comprehensive evaluation of the aortic root. Multidetector-row CT (MDCT) examination with retrospective ECG gating was retrospectively performed in 64 consecutive patients referred for pre-TAVI assessment. Eighteen different parameters of the aortic root were evaluated at 11 different time points in the cardiac cycle. Time points at which maximal (or minimal) sizes were determined, and dimension differences to other time points were evaluated. Theoretical prosthesis sizing based on different measurements was compared. Largest dimensions were found between 10 and 20 % of the cardiac cycle for annular short diameter (10 %); mean diameter (10 %); effective diameter and circumference-derived diameter (20 %); distance from the annulus to right coronary artery ostium (10 %); aortic root at the left coronary artery level (20 %); aortic root at the widest portion of coronary sinuses (20 %); and right leaflet length (20 %). Prosthesis size selection differed depending on the chosen measurements in 25-75 % of cases. Significant changes in anatomical structures of the aortic root during the cardiac cycle are crucial for TAVI planning. Imaging in systole is mandatory to obtain maximal dimensions. (orig.)

  2. Optimizing a Test Method to Evaluate Resistance of Pervious Concrete to Cycles of Freezing and Thawing in the Presence of Different Deicing Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chehong Tsang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a standard test method for evaluating the resistance of pervious concrete to cycles of freezing and thawing in the presence of deicing salts is the motive behind this study. Different sample size and geometry, cycle duration, and level of submersion in brine solutions were investigated to achieve an optimized test method. The optimized test method was able to produce different levels of damage when different types of deicing salts were used. The optimized duration of one cycle was found to be 24 h with twelve hours of freezing at −18 °C and twelve hours of thawing at +21 °C, with the bottom 10 mm of the sample submerged in the brine solution. Cylinder samples with a diameter of 100 mm and height of 150 mm were used and found to produce similar results to 150 mm-cubes. Based on the obtained results a mass loss of 3%–5% is proposed as a failure criterion of cylindrical samples. For the materials and within the cycles of freezing/thawing investigated here, the deicers that caused the most damage were NaCl, CaCl 2 and urea, followed by MgCl 2 , potassium acetate, sodium acetate and calcium-magnesium acetate. More testing is needed to validate the effects of different deicers under long term exposures and different temperature ranges.

  3. Evaluation of technical feasibility of closed-cycle non-equilibrium MHD power generation with direct coal firing. Final report, Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal fired, closed cycle, magnetohydrodynamic power generation are detailed. These accomplishments relate to all system aspects of a CCMHD power generation system including coal combustion, heat transfer to the MHD working fluid, MHD power generation, heat and cesium seed recovery and overall systems analysis. Direct coal firing of the combined cycle has been under laboratory development in the form of a high slag rejection, regeneratively air cooled cyclone coal combustor concept, originated within this program. A hot bottom ceramic regenerative heat exchanger system was assembled and test fired with coal for the purposes of evaluating the catalytic effect of alumina on NO/sub x/ emission reduction and operability of the refractory dome support system. Design, procurement, fabrication and partial installation of a heat and seed recovery flow apparatus was accomplished and was based on a stream tube model of the full scale system using full scale temperatures, tube sizes, rates of temperature change and tube geometry. Systems analysis capability was substantially upgraded by the incorporation of a revised systems code, with emphasis on ease of operator interaction as well as separability of component subroutines. The updated code was used in the development of a new plant configuration, the Feedwater Cooled (FCB) Brayton Cycle, which is superior to the CCMHD/Steam cycle both in performance and cost. (WHK)

  4. Impact of Accreditation on Improvement of Operational Inputs after Two Cycles of Assessments in Some Ghanaian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattey, Kwame; Westerheijden, Don F.; Hofman, W. H. A.

    2017-01-01

    The study assesses the influence of accreditation, after two cycles of evaluation on some selected Ghanaian universities. This was done by examining the changes that had occurred in specified indicators, mainly because of the implementation of suggestions for improvement made by the previous cycle's evaluators. The study employed quantitative…

  5. Energy Performance and Economic Evaluation of Heat Pump/Organic Rankine Cycle System with Sensible Thermal Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, C.; Dumont, O.; Nielsen, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between electrical and thermal energy demands represent a potential area for balancing supply and demand that could contribute to the integration of intermittent renewables in energy systems. To enable the interaction between thermal and electric energy, an innovative concept...... that consists of a ground-source heat pump with possibility of reversing operation as an ORC power cycle combined with solar heating in a single-family building is introduced. The ORC mode enables the use of solar energy in periods of no heat energy demand and reverses the heat pump cycle to supply electrical....... The results with the two different configurations are simulated in the Modelica language and compared in terms of energy shift potential in order to optimize RES integration, as well as the economic feasibility of the system in a cold climate....

  6. Exergo-economic evaluation of electricity generation by the medium temperature geothermal resources, using a Kalina cycle: Simav case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguz, Arslan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Recent technical developments have made it possible to generate electricity from geothermal resources with low and medium enthalpy. One of these technologies is the Kalina Cycle System (KCS-34). In this study, electricity generation from Simav geothermal field is investigated. The optimum operating conditions for the KCS-34 plant design are determined on the basis of the exergetic and life-cycle-cost concepts. With the best design, power generation of 41.2 MW and electricity production of 346.1 GWh/a can be obtained with an energetic efficiency of 14.9% and exergetic efficiency of 36.2%. It is shown that, with the currently prevailing interest and inflation rates, the plant designs considered are economically feasible for values of the present worth factor (PWF) higher than 6. (author)

  7. The Role of Infertility Etiology in Success Rate of Intrauterine Insemination Cycles: An Evaluation of Predictive Factors for Pregnancy Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Rashidi, Mandana; Ghasemi, Afsaneh; Arabipoor, Arezoo; Daghighi, Sara; Pourasghari, Parisa; Zolfaghari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to identify the prognostic factors that influence the outcome of ovarian stimulation with intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles in couples with different infertility etiology. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed in data of 1348 IUI cycles with ovarian stimulation by clomiphene citrate (CC) and/or gonadotropins in 632 women with five different infertility etiology subgroups at Akbarabbadi Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Results: The pregnancy rate (PR)/ cycle was highest (19.9%) among couples with unexplained infertility and lowest (10.6%) in couples with multiple factors infertility. In cases of unexplained infertility, the best PRs were seen after CC plus gonadotropins stimulation (26.3%) and with inseminated motile sperm count>30×106 (21.9%), but the tendency didn’t reach statistical significant. In the ovarian factor group, the best PRs were observed in women aged between 30 and 34 years (20.8%), with 2-3 preovulatory follicles (37.8%) and infertility duration between 1and 3 years (20.8%), while only infertility duration (p=0.03) and number of preovulatory follicles (p=0.01) were statistically significant. Multiple logistic regression analysis determined that number of preovulatory follicles (p=0.02), duration of infertility (p=0.015), age (p=0.019), infertility etiology (p=0.05) and stimulation regimen (p=0.01) were significant independent factors in order to predict overall clinical PR. Conclusion: The etiology of infertility is important to achieve remarkable IUI success. It is worth mentioning that within different etiologies of infertility, the demographic and cycles characteristics of couples did not show the same effect. Favorable variables for treatment success are as follows: age infertility ≤5 years and a cause of infertility except of multiple factors. PMID:24520471

  8. Calculation of the surface water pollution index in the evaluation of environmental component of product life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Аскольдович Проскурнин

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The assessment feasibility of the combined effect of the product life cycle on the environment is grounded. As an example, the pollution of surface waters at the production stage is considered in the article. A mechanism of ranking indicators of surface water pollution according to their importance is proposed. An algorithm for checking the consistency of the statistical expert judgment in determining weight coefficient for the indicators of pollution, based on the use of the concordance coefficient, is given

  9. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Tirado, F.; Parra-López, C.; Romero-Gámez, M.

    2017-01-01

    Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and two functional units (FUs) were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  10. Life Cycle Sustainability Evaluations of Bio-based Value Chains: Reviewing the Indicators from a Swedish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Martin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Policymakers worldwide are promoting the use of bio-based products as part of sustainable development. Nonetheless, there are concerns that the bio-based economy may undermine the sustainability of the transition, e.g., from the overexploitation of biomass resources and indirect impacts of land use. Adequate assessment methods with a broad systems perspective are thus required in order to ensure a transition to a sustainable, bio-based economy. We review the scientifically published life cycle studies of bio-based products in order to investigate the extent to which they include important sustainability indicators. To define which indicators are important, we refer to established frameworks for sustainability assessment, and include an Open Space workshop with academics and industrial experts. The results suggest that there is a discrepancy between the indicators that we found to be important, and the indicators that are frequently included in the studies. This indicates a need for the development and dissemination of improved methods in order to model several important environmental impacts, such as: water depletion, indirect land use change, and impacts on ecosystem quality and biological diversity. The small number of published social life cycle assessments (SLCAs and life cycle sustainability assessments (LCSAs indicate that these are still immature tools; as such, there is a need for improved methods and more case studies.

  11. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Tirado, F.; Parra-López, C.; Romero-Gámez, M.

    2017-09-01

    Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and two functional units (FUs) were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  12. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Fernández-Tirado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA and two functional units (FUs were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  13. Mid-menstrual cycle ultrasound evaluation of endometrial thickness of fertile women and women with secondary infertility in Nsukka, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochie, K.; Eze, C.U.; Okoye, G.C.; Ohagwu, C.C.; Luntsi, G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prognostic value of endometrial thickness in achieving conception is still debatable. Objective: To compare the mid menstrual cycle thickness of the endometrium of fertile women and women with unexplained secondary infertility. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study targeting women of reproductive ages was conducted. The mid menstrual cycle endometrial thickness was measured at sonography in a group of fertile women and in another group of women with secondary infertility. The endometrial thicknesses in the two groups of women were statistically compared. Results: There was a preponderance of thickened endometrium among the fertile women. The majority of women with secondary infertility, 21 (30.0%) with a thickness range of 2.0–3.9 mm and 17 (24.29%) with 4.0–5.9 mm had thin endometrium and only a few of them, 8 (11.43%) had endometrium of 12 mm thickness of greater. The median value of mid menstrual cycle endometrial thickness for the fertile group was 10.8 mm (range 7.8–12.4 mm) and the interquartile range was 1.45 mm. For the group with secondary infertility, the median was 5.0 mm (range 2.0–17.0 mm) and the interquartile range 6.0 mm. The endometrium was significantly thinner in subjects with secondary infertility compared to fertile subjects (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The mid menstrual cycle endometrial thickness differs significantly between fertile women and women with secondary infertility. It is thicker in fertile women compared to women with secondary infertility. Therefore, mid menstrual cycle endometrial thickness has potential as a prognostic factor for secondary infertility in the studied population. - Highlights: • Endometrial thickness has potential as a prognostic factor for secondary infertility. • Endometrial thickness differs between fertile and secondarily infertile women. • Thin endometrium is common among women with secondary infertility. • Few women with secondary infertility may have

  14. Cycle life test. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells. [performance tests on silver zinc batteries, silver cadmium batteries, and nickel cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Considerable research is being done to find more efficient and reliable means of starting electrical energy for orbiting satellites. Rechargeable cells offer one such means. A test program is described which has been established in order to further the evaluation of certain types of cells and to obtain performance and failure data as an aid to their continued improvement. The purpose of the program is to determine the cycling performance capabilities of packs of cells under different load and temperature conditions. The various kinds of cells tested were nickel-cadmium, silver-cadmium, and silver-zinc sealed cells. A summary of the results of the life cycling program is given in this report.

  15. Computer code system for the R and D of nuclear fuel cycle with fast reactor. 2. Development and application of analytical evaluation system for thermal striping phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Toshiharu

    2001-01-01

    Fluid-structure thermal interaction phenomena characterized by stationary random temperature fluctuations, namely thermal striping are observed in the downstream region such as a T-junction piping system of liquid metal fast reactors (LMFRs). Therefore, the piping wall located in the downstream region must be protected against the stationary random thermal process, which might induce high-cycle fatigue. This paper describes the evaluation system based on numerical simulation methods consisting of three thermohydraulics computer programs AQUA, DINUS-3 and THEMIS and of three thermomechanical computer programs BEMSET, FINAS and CANIS, for the thermal striping developed at Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). Verification results for each computer code and the system are also introduced based on out-of-pile experimental data using water and sodium as working fluids. (author)

  16. Evaluation of venous blood gas levels, blood chemistry and haemocytometric parameters in milk fed veal calves at different periods of livestock cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambelluca, S; Fiore, E; Sadocco, A; Gianesella, M; Vazzana, I; Orefice, T; Morgante, M

    2016-12-01

    An evaluation of blood chemistry profile in relation to specific stages of livestock cycle can help better understand variations in physiological conditions in order to adjust management systems to animal needs. In addition to basal hematological investigation, the acid-base balance and blood gases are essential tools in evaluating metabolism in calves. The relationship between blood gas parameters, diet and growth should be further investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in acid-base status, blood gases, serum chemistry and hematological parameters in veal calves at different periods of livestock cycle. One hundred twenty-eight healthy cross breeding calves were enrolled in a farm in North-East Italy. Blood samplings were carried out from the jugular vein on day 1 (t1), 60 (t2) and 150 (t3) after arrival. Blood gas analysis was performed and hematological parameters were evaluated. One-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test were performed to assess differences between blood parameter values at the different periods. The main differences in blood gas parameter levels during the livestock cycle concerned pH, Base Excess and HCO3 with higher values recorded in t3. Urea, creatinine, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and bilirubin mean values were significantly higher in t1 than in t2 and t3. Aspartate aminotransferase increased from t1 to t2 and t3. Alkaline Phosphatase was higher in t2. Fe levels severely dropped in t2 and in t3, and the decrease led to a restrained but significant reduction in haemoglobin values. A correspondent decrease in the other haemocytometric parameters was found.

  17. Evaluation of convection-resolving models using satellite data: The diurnal cycle of summer convection over the Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Keller

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal moist convection is an important element of summer precipitation over Central Europe and the Alps. It is poorly represented in models using parameterized convection. In this study, we investigate the diurnal cycle of convection during 11 days in June 2007 using the COSMO model. The numerical simulations are compared with satellite measurements of GERB and SEVIRI, AVHRR satellite-based cloud properties and ground-based precipitation and temperature measurements. The simulations use horizontal resolutions of 12 km (convection-parameterizing model, CPM and 2 km (convection-resolving model, CRM and either a one-moment microphysics scheme (1M or a two-moment microphysics scheme (2M.They are conducted for a computational domain that covers an extended Alpine area from Northern Italy to Northern Germany. The CPM with 1M exhibits a significant overestimation of high cloud cover. This results in a compensation effect in the top of the atmosphere energy budget due to an underestimation of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR and an overestimation of reflected solar radiation (RSR. The CRM reduces high cloud cover and improves the OLR bias from a domain mean of −20.1 to −2.6 W/m2. When using 2M with ice sedimentation in the CRM, high cloud cover is further reduced. The stronger diurnal cycle of high cloud cover and associated convection over the Alps, compared to less mountainous regions, is well represented by the CRM but underestimated by the CPM. Despite substantial differences in high cloud cover, the use of a 2M has no significant impact on the diurnal cycle of precipitation. Furthermore, a negative mid-level cloud bias is found for all simulations.

  18. Life Cycle Assessment: A Tool for Evaluating and Comparing Different Treatment Options for Plastic Wastes from Old Television Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Dodbiba

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, energy recovery and mechanical recycling, two treatment options for plastic wastes from discarded television sets, have been assessed and compared in the context of the life cycle assessment methodology (LCA. The environmental impact of each option was assessed by calculating the depletion of abiotic resources (ADP and the global warming potential (GWP. Then, the indicators were compared, and the option with the smaller environmental impact was selected. The main finding of this study was that mechanical recycling of plastics is a more attractive treatment option in environmental terms than incineration for energy recovery.

  19. pH-cycling models for in vitro evaluation of the efficacy of fluoridated dentifrices for caries control: strengths and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite a plethora of in situ studies and clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of fluoridated dentifrices on caries control, in vitro pH cycling models are still broadly used because they mimic the dynamics of mineral loss and gain involved in caries formation. This paper critically reviews the current literature on existing pH-cycling models for the in vitro evaluation of the efficacy of fluoridated dentifrices for caries control, focusing on their strengths and limitations. A search was undertaken in the MEDLINE electronic journal database using the keywords "pH-cycling", "demineralization", "remineralization", "in vitro", "fluoride", "dentifrice". The primary outcome was the decrease of demineralization or the increase of remineralization as measured by different methods (e.g.: transverse microradiography or tooth fluoride uptake. Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. One hundred and sixteen studies were included, of which 42 addressed specifically the comparison of dentifrices using different pH-cycling models. The other studies included meta-analysis or reviews, data about the effect of different fluoride sources on de-remineralization, different methods for analysis de-remineralization and chemical variables and characteristics of dental hard tissues that might have influence on de-remineralization processes. Generally, the studies presented ability to detect known results established by clinical trials, to demonstrate dose-related responses in the fluoride content of the dentifrices, and to provide repeatability and reproducibility between tests. In order to accomplish these features satisfactorily, it is mandatory to take into account the type of substrate and baseline artificial lesion, as well as the adequate response variables and statistical approaches

  20. Evaluation of clinical and biological prognostic factors in relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients after previous treatment with rituximab and chemotherapy: results of the PRO-R-IPI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizo, Carlos; Rodríguez, Anny Jaramillo; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo; Díaz, Francisco Javier; González-Barca, Eva; de Oña, Raquel; Grande, Carlos; Sancho, Juan Manuel; García-Álvarez, María Flor; Sánchez-González, Blanca; Peñalver, Francisco Javier; Cannata, Jimena; Espeso, Manuel; Requena, María José; Gardella, Santiago; Durán, Soledad; González, Ana Pilar; Alfonso, Ana; Caballero, María Dolores

    2015-07-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous entity, showing a highly variable outcome. In patients with DLBCL relapsed/refractory to first-line treatment with rituximab the usefulness of the revised International Prognostic Index (R-IPI) as a prognostic tool remains unexplored. Some biological parameters (B-cell lymphoma 6 [Bcl-6], Bcl-2, p53, and multiple myeloma 1 [MUM1]) and blood populations (lymphocyte and monocyte counts) have been described as International Prognostic Index-independent prognostic factors. The objective was to evaluate the R-IPI to predict the outcome of DLBCL patients at the time of relapse after a front-line treatment with chemotherapy and rituximab and to establish in this population the relationship between biological parameters and outcome. We included patients with refractory/relapsed DLBCL after first-line treatment with rituximab-containing regimens; patients must have already finished a rescue treatment also including rituximab. Immunohistochemical assessment of Bcl-2, Bcl-6, p53, and MUM1 expression were undertaken in available biopsies. R-IPI factors were identified from the clinical data at diagnosis and at relapse. Response was assessed using National Cancer Institute-sponsored Working Group guidelines. R-IPI prognosis at relapse was not significantly associated with overall response rate (ORR) after Rituximab-chemotherapy rescue therapy. None of the immunohistochemical parameters analyzed correlated with rescue therapy results. In contrast, patients with absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) ≥ 1 × 10(9)/L at relapse were more likely to respond than patients with ALC IPI score calculated at relapse could not predict the ORR to second-line treatment. Lymphopenia is a simple and useful predictor for outcome in relapsed/refractory DLBCL and the only prognostic factor that in our hands could predict the overall response to a second-line treatment with rituximab and chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. THE LIS STUDY (LYUBERTSY STUDY ON MORTALITY RATE IN PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. EVALUATION OF DRUG THERAPY. PART 2. INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS DRUG TREATMENT ON LONG-TERM LIFE PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate drug therapy received by patients who had survived acute myocardial infarction (AMI in the framework of the AMI register (the “LIS” study and estimate this therapy influence on long-term outcomes of the disease. Material and methods. The total of 961 patients of 1133 enrolled in the “LIS” study , were discharged from hospital. 191 patients had died during follow-up. 632 patients (who had survived and consented to visit out-patient clinic underwent repeated examination (median of follow-up 1.6 [1.0; 2.4] years. Data about treatment before and during AMI were received from patient’s charts; data about treatment after AMI were obtained from out-patient medical records. Results. Before reference AMI only a small number of the patients received the main drug groups (antiplatelet agents, β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, statins, at that ACE inhibitors were prescribed more often than the others. Use of β-blockers and ACE inhibitors before reference AMI significantly improved long-term life prognosis [relative risk (RR 0.70 and 0.66, respectively]. Rate of the main drug groups prescribed in hospital was rather high with the exception of thrombolytics (less than 10%. Thrombolytics, β-blockers and antiplatelet agents prescribed in hospital significantly improved long-term life prognosis of patients (RR 0.42, 0.65 and 0.58 respectively. At the second visit (according to data of out-patient medical records rate of antiplatelet agents, ACE inhibitors, β-blockers and statins prescription exceeded 60%. Conclusion. Very low prevalence of adequate drug therapy preceding AMI determines high mortality rate among survived acute stage of myocardial infarction patients in long-term period.

  2. THE LIS STUDY (LYUBERTSY STUDY ON MORTALITY RATE IN PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. EVALUATION OF DRUG THERAPY. PART 2. INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS DRUG TREATMENT ON LONG-TERM LIFE PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate drug therapy received by patients who had survived acute myocardial infarction (AMI in the framework of the AMI register (the “LIS” study and estimate this therapy influence on long-term outcomes of the disease. Material and methods. The total of 961 patients of 1133 enrolled in the “LIS” study , were discharged from hospital. 191 patients had died during follow-up. 632 patients (who had survived and consented to visit out-patient clinic underwent repeated examination (median of follow-up 1.6 [1.0; 2.4] years. Data about treatment before and during AMI were received from patient’s charts; data about treatment after AMI were obtained from out-patient medical records. Results. Before reference AMI only a small number of the patients received the main drug groups (antiplatelet agents, β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, statins, at that ACE inhibitors were prescribed more often than the others. Use of β-blockers and ACE inhibitors before reference AMI significantly improved long-term life prognosis [relative risk (RR 0.70 and 0.66, respectively]. Rate of the main drug groups prescribed in hospital was rather high with the exception of thrombolytics (less than 10%. Thrombolytics, β-blockers and antiplatelet agents prescribed in hospital significantly improved long-term life prognosis of patients (RR 0.42, 0.65 and 0.58 respectively. At the second visit (according to data of out-patient medical records rate of antiplatelet agents, ACE inhibitors, β-blockers and statins prescription exceeded 60%. Conclusion. Very low prevalence of adequate drug therapy preceding AMI determines high mortality rate among survived acute stage of myocardial infarction patients in long-term period.

  3. Evaluating the Long-term Water Cycle Trends at a Global-scale using Satellite and Assimilation Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Lakshmi, V.

    2017-12-01

    Global-scale soil moisture and rainfall products retrieved from remotely sensed and assimilation datasets provide an effective way to monitor near surface soil moisture content and precipitation with sub-daily temporal resolution. In the present study, we employed the concept of the stored precipitation fraction Fp(f) in order to examine the long-term water cycle trends at a global-scale. The analysis was done for Fp(f) trends with the various geophysical aspects such as climate zone, land use classifications, amount of vegetation, and soil properties. Furthermore, we compared a global-scale Fp(f) using different microwave-based satellite soil moisture datasets. The Fp(f) is calculated by utilized surface soil moisture dataset from Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity, Advanced Scatterometer, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2, and precipitation information from Global Precipitation Measurement Mission and Global Land Data Assimilation System. Different results from microwave-based soil moisture dataset showed discordant results particularly over arid and highly vegetated regions. The results of this study provide us new insights of the long-term water cycle trends over different land surface areas. Thereby also highlighting the advantages of the recently available GPM and SMAP datasets for the uses in various hydrometeorological applications.

  4. Performance Evaluation of a Helical Coil Heat Exchanger Working under Supercritical Conditions in a Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Lazova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide interest in low grade heat valorization using organic Rankine cycle (ORC technologies has increased significantly. A new small-scale ORC with a net capacity of 3 kW was efficiently integrated with a concentrated solar power technology for electricity generation. The excess heat source from Photovoltaic (PV collectors with a maximum temperature of 100 °C was utilized through a supercritical heat exchanger that uses R-404A as working medium. By ensuring supercritical heat transfer leads to a better thermal match in the heat exchanger and improved overall cycle efficiency. A helical coil heat exchanger was designed by using heat transfer correlations from the literature. These heat transfer correlations were derived for different conditions than ORCs and their estimated uncertainty is ~20%. In order to account for the heat transfer correlation uncertainties this component was oversized by 20%. Next, a prototype was built and installed in an integrated concentrated photovoltaic/thermal (CPV/T/Rankine system. The results from the measurements show that for better estimation of the sizing of the heat exchanger a more accurate correlation is required in order to design an optimal configuration and thus employ cheaper components.

  5. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Using Double-Stage Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Ikegami

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC using non-azeotropic mixtures such as ammonia/water as working fluid and the multistage cycle has been investigated in order to improve the thermal efficiency of the cycle because of small ocean temperature differences. The performance and effectiveness of the multistage cycle are barely understood. In addition, previous evaluation methods of heat exchange process cannot clearly indicate the influence of the thermophysical characteristics of the working fluid on the power output. Consequently, this study investigated the influence of reduction of the irreversible losses in the heat exchange process on the system performance in double-stage Rankine cycle using pure working fluid. Single Rankine, double-stage Rankine and Kalina cycles were analyzed to ascertain the system characteristics. The simple evaluation method of the temperature difference between the working fluid and the seawater is applied to this analysis. From the results of the parametric performance analysis it can be considered that double-stage Rankine cycle using pure working fluid can reduce the irreversible losses in the heat exchange process as with the Kalina cycle using an ammonia/water mixture. Considering the maximum power efficiency obtained in the study, double-stage Rankine and Kalina cycles can improve the power output by reducing the irreversible losses in the cycle.

  6. Training Module on the Evaluation of Best Modeling Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building upon the fundamental concepts outlined in previous modules, the objectives of this module are to explore the topic of model evaluation and identify the 'best modeling practices' and strategies for the Evaluation Stage of the model life-cycle.

  7. Evaluation of Nonlinear Effects in the 3GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron of J-PARC

    CERN Document Server

    Hotchi, Hideaki; Machida, Shinji; Molodojentsev, Alexander Y; Noda, Fumiaki; Tani, Norio

    2005-01-01

    In order to accelerate an ultra-high intense beam with small particle losses, the 3GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of J-PARC, which is being constructed at JAERI, has a large acceptance. In this case the nonlinearity associated with the motion of particles at large amplitude and large momentum deviation plays a significant role. The sources of nonlinear magnetic fields in RCS are mainly connected with the fringe of the main dipole and quadrupole magnets and with the sextupole magnets used for the linear chromaticity correction. In this paper, we will present simulation results including such nonlinear effects. In addition, the possible correction scheme for the induced transverse resonances will be discussed.

  8. Assessment Report Sandia National Laboratories Fuel Cycle Technologies Quality Assurance Evaluation of FY15 SNL FCT M2 Milestone Deliverables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, Gordon John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) program activities are conducted in accordance with FCT Quality Assurance Program Document (FCT-QAPD) requirements. The FCT-QAPD interfaces with SNL approved Quality Assurance Program Description (SNL-QAPD) as explained in the Sandia National Laboratories QA Program Interface Document for FCT Activities (Interface Document). This plan describes SNL's FY16 assessment of SNL's FY15 FCT M2 milestone deliverable's compliance with program QA requirements, including SNL R&A requirements. The assessment is intended to confirm that SNL's FY15 milestone deliverables contain the appropriate authenticated review documentation and that there is a copy marked with SNL R&A numbers.

  9. A life cycle assessment and process system engineering integrated approach for sustainability : application to environmental evaluation of biofuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Gillani, Sayed Tamizuddin

    2013-01-01

    La méthode de l’Analyse du Cycle de Vie (ACV) est devenue ces dernières années un outil d’aide à la décision « environnementale » pour évaluer l’impact des produits et des processus associés. La pratique de l’ACV est documentée comme un outil pour l’évaluation d’impacts, la comparaison et la prise de décisions « orientée produit ». L’exploitation d’une telle méthode pour les procédés de l’industrie bio-physico-chimique a gagné récemment en popularité. Il existe de nombreux faisceaux d’amélior...

  10. Should Alberta upgrade oil sands bitumen? An integrated life cycle framework to evaluate energy systems investment tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choquette-Levy, Nicolas; MacLean, Heather L.; Bergerson, Joule A.

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions costs in energy systems investment decision-making requires the development of a framework that accounts for GHG and economic tradeoffs. This paper develops such a framework by integrating partial cost–benefit analysis with life cycle assessment to explore the question of whether bitumen should be upgraded in the Canadian province of Alberta to produce synthetic crude oil (SCO), or blended with light hydrocarbons to produce lower-quality diluted bitumen (dilbit). The net present value (NPV) of these options is calculated from the stakeholder perspectives of the oil sands industry, the Alberta public, and a climate-concerned Alberta resident. This calculation includes monetized GHG emissions costs stemming from a hypothetical economy-wide GHG price, and a sensitivity analysis explores the effects of variations in technical and economic conditions on stakeholders’ preferences. We find that under most plausible sets of conditions, industry would prefer the dilution option, while the climate-concerned Alberta resident would prefer the upgrading option. In contrast, the preferences of the general Alberta public depend on the values of key variables (e.g., the SCO-dilbit price differential). Key drivers of differences among stakeholders’ preferences include different perceptions of risks and responsibilities for life cycle GHG emissions. - Highlights: • We develop a novel integrated partial cost-benefit analysis/LCA framework. • We consider stakeholder perspectives, and technical and GHG price variations. • Upgrading is typically less GHG-intensive than dilution per barrel of bitumen. • Dilution is typically less GHG-intensive than upgrading per mega joule of gasoline. • Even stringent GHG prices may not align preferences on energy systems investment decisions

  11. Evaluation of Alternatives for the Passenger Road Transport Sector in Europe: A Life-Cycle Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Paulino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The road passenger transport is responsible for a large share of energy consumption and pollutants emission in Europe. Efforts have been made in the definition of new policies to reduce the environmental impacts of this sector. However, an integrated and consistent assessment of the most promising policies is required, using specific European indicators. For that matter, a life-cycle analysis was applied to the road passenger transport, for the European Union with 27 countries (EU27 in 2010, following a basket-of-products methodology and considering three main stages: production, use, and end-of-life of vehicles. Simapro 8 software was used, along with Ecoinvent 3 database and the impact assessment method International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD 2011 Midpoint+. Changes in vehicle production processes, vehicle constitution, and energy sources for vehicle propulsion were analyzed. The policies resulting in a decrease in all impact categories are the use of smaller or lightweight vehicles by positively influencing use, production, and end-of-life of vehicles. The use of more recent vehicles technology or diesel vehicles show substantial reductions in, respectively, five and eight impact categories (out of 15, justifying their adoption in the European fleet. Generally, the most notorious policies compared to the actual transport paradigm, like compressed natural gas (CNG, biofuels, or electric vehicles use, show the greatest reduction in climate change (up to 46% but also a very significant rise of impacts in the categories that in the conventional basket-of-products already resulted in the worst indicators after normalization.

  12. The Arctic Ocean marine carbon cycle: evaluation of air-sea CO2 exchanges, ocean acidification impacts and potential feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Bates

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, although seasonal sea-ice cover mitigates atmosphere-ocean gas exchange, the Arctic Ocean takes up carbon dioxide (CO2 on the order of −66 to −199 Tg C year−1 (1012 g C, contributing 5–14% to the global balance of CO2 sinks and sources. Because of this, the Arctic Ocean has an important influence on the global carbon cycle, with the marine carbon cycle and atmosphere-ocean CO2 exchanges sensitive to Arctic Ocean and global climate change feedbacks. In the near-term, further sea-ice loss and increases in phytoplankton growth rates are expected to increase the uptake of CO2 by Arctic Ocean surface waters, although mitigated somewhat by surface warming in the Arctic. Thus, the capacity of the Arctic Ocean to uptake CO2 is expected to alter in response to environmental changes driven largely by climate. These changes are likely to continue to modify the physics, biogeochemistry, and ecology of the Arctic Ocean in ways that are not yet fully understood. In surface waters, sea-ice melt, river runoff, cooling and uptake of CO2 through air-sea gas exchange combine to decrease the calcium carbonate (CaCO3 mineral saturation states (Ω of seawater while seasonal phytoplankton primary production (PP mitigates this effect. Biological amplification of ocean acidification effects in subsurface waters, due to the remineralization of organic matter, is likely to reduce the ability of many species to produce CaCO3 shells or tests with profound implications for Arctic marine ecosystems

  13. Lower Ionosphere Sensitivity to Solar X-ray Flares Over a Complete Solar Cycle Evaluated From VLF Signal Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macotela, Edith L.; Raulin, Jean-Pierre; Manninen, Jyrki; Correia, Emília; Turunen, Tauno; Magalhães, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The daytime lower ionosphere behaves as a solar X-ray flare detector, which can be monitored using very low frequency (VLF) radio waves that propagate inside the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. In this paper, we infer the lower ionosphere sensitivity variation over a complete solar cycle by using the minimum X-ray fluence (FXmin) necessary to produce a disturbance of the quiescent ionospheric conductivity. FXmin is the photon energy flux integrated over the time interval from the start of a solar X-ray flare to the beginning of the ionospheric disturbance recorded as amplitude deviation of the VLF signal. FXmin is computed for ionospheric disturbances that occurred in the time interval of December-January from 2007 to 2016 (solar cycle 24). The computation of FXmin uses the X-ray flux in the wavelength band below 0.2 nm and the amplitude of VLF signals transmitted from France (HWU), Turkey (TBB), and U.S. (NAA), which were recorded in Brazil, Finland, and Peru. The main result of this study is that the long-term variation of FXmin is correlated with the level of solar activity, having FXmin values in the range (1 - 12) × 10-7 J/m2. Our result suggests that FXmin is anticorrelated with the lower ionosphere sensitivity, confirming that the long-term variation of the ionospheric sensitivity is anticorrelated with the level of solar activity. This result is important to identify the minimum X-ray fluence that an external source of ionization must overcome in order to produce a measurable ionospheric disturbance during daytime.

  14. Measuring the expected increase in cycling in the city of Milan and evaluating the positive effects on the population's health status: a Community-Based Urban Planning experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecchi, A; Boati, L; Oppio, A; Buffoli, M; Capolongo, S

    2016-01-01

    It's scientifically known that inactivity is one of the major risk factors for Non-Communicable Diseases. One of the elements affecting the choice of transport mode, regarding circulation in the city, is the cities' urban morphology, i.e. the infrastructural facilities for the slow mobility service. Cyclability, in fact, can help to increase daily physical activity level, therefore becoming a protective factor for individual health. After a literature review about the state of the art regarding the correlation between built environment, active transport and quantification of the physical activity level, we have developed a specific questionnaire to collect information about current and forecast use of bicycle, in case of improvement and implementation of the cycling network. The questionnaire also investigated social and health aspects concerning the anamnesis of the interviewees (age, gender, health status, sport activity performed, etc) and users' opinions about existing infrastructure and planned interventions, designed to promote cycling mobility. Aim of the research was to quantify the increase of physical activity people would have realized in front of an improvement of the specific infrastructures, and the expected positive effects in terms of health. The collected data (343 interviewed in a district of Milan, named "Zona 7") demonstrate that through the implementation of the cycle network, there would be more cyclists to practice the 150 minutes weekly of physical activity recommended by WHO: time spent in cycling, indeed, would increases by 34.4% compared to the current level of cyclability, as detected by our survey. The investigation confirmed that urban interventions, especially those in small-scale, could play a key role in the promotion of healthy lifestyles, inducing therefore important positive effects on the population health. It was also carried out an application of the WHO "Health Economic Assessment Tool" to evaluate the benefits in terms of

  15. Towards a regulatory cycle? The use of evaluative information in impact assessments and ex-post evaluations in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Golen, Thomas; van Voorst, Stijn

    As a part of its Better Regulation agenda, the European Commission increasingly stresses the link between different types of regulatory evaluations. Predictions made by Impact Assessments (IAs) could be verified during ex-post legislative evaluations, while ex-post evaluations in turn could

  16. Evaluation of conceptual flowsheets for incorporating Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel materials in an advanced nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.T.; Burch, W.D.; Collins, E.D.; Forsberg, C.W.; Prince, B.E.; Bond, W.D.; Campbell, D.O.; Delene, J.G.; Mailen, J.C.

    1990-08-01

    A preliminary study by a group of experts at ORNL has generated and evaluated a number of aqueous and non-aqueous flowsheets for recovering transuranium actinides from LWR fuel for use as fuel in an LMR and, at the same time, for transmutation of the wastes to less hazardous materials. The need for proliferation resistance was a consideration in the flowsheets. The current state of development of the flowsheets was evaluated and recommendations for additional study were made. 3 refs., 6 figs

  17. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  18. A quantitative risk-assessment system (QR-AS) evaluating operation safety of Organic Rankine Cycle using flammable mixture working fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Wang, Xueying; Shu, Gequn; Wu, Mingqiang; Yan, Nanhua; Ma, Xiaonan

    2017-09-15

    Mixture of hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide shows excellent cycle performance in Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) used for engine waste heat recovery, but the unavoidable leakage in practical application is a threat for safety due to its flammability. In this work, a quantitative risk assessment system (QR-AS) is established aiming at providing a general method of risk assessment for flammable working fluid leakage. The QR-AS covers three main aspects: analysis of concentration distribution based on CFD simulations, explosive risk assessment based on the TNT equivalent method and risk mitigation based on evaluation results. A typical case of propane/carbon dioxide mixture leaking from ORC is investigated to illustrate the application of QR-AS. According to the assessment results, proper ventilation speed, safe mixture ratio and location of gas-detecting devices have been proposed to guarantee the security in case of leakage. The results revealed that this presented QR-AS was reliable for the practical application and the evaluation results could provide valuable guidance for the design of mitigation measures to improve the safe performance of ORC system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Critical Evaluation of Structural Analysis Tools used for the Design of Large Composite Wind Turbine Rotor Blades under Ultimate and Cycle Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekou, D.J.; Bacharoudis, K. C.; Farinas, A. B.

    2015-01-01

    are evaluated. This paper shows the major findings of the comparative work performed by six organizations (universities and research institutes) participating in the benchmark exercise. The case concerns a 90m Glass/Epoxy blade of a horizontal axis 10MW wind turbine. The detailed blade geometry, the material...... properties of the constitutive layers and the aero-elastic loads formed the base by which global and local blade stiffness and strength are evaluated and compared. Static, modal, buckling and fatigue analysis of the blade were performed by each partner using their own tools; fully in-house developed...... is compared in terms of displacements, stresses, strains and failure indices at the ply level of the blade structure, eigen-frequencies and eigen-modes, critical buckling loads and Palmgren-Miner damage indices due to cycle loading. Results indicate that differences between estimations range from 0.5% to even...

  20. Evaluating environmental impacts of alternative construction waste management approaches using supply-chain-linked life-cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukvar, Murat; Egilmez, Gokhan; Tatari, Omer

    2014-06-01

    Waste management in construction is critical for the sustainable treatment of building-related construction and demolition (C&D) waste materials, and recycling of these wastes has been considered as one of the best strategies in minimization of C&D debris. However, recycling of C&D materials may not always be a feasible strategy for every waste type and therefore recycling and other waste treatment strategies should be supported by robust decision-making models. With the aim of assessing the net carbon, energy, and water footprints of C&D recycling and other waste management alternatives, a comprehensive economic input-output-based hybrid life-cycle assessment model is developed by tracing all of the economy-wide supply-chain impacts of three waste management strategies: recycling, landfilling, and incineration. Analysis results showed that only the recycling of construction materials provided positive environmental footprint savings in terms of carbon, energy, and water footprints. Incineration is a better option as a secondary strategy after recycling for water and energy footprint categories, whereas landfilling is found to be as slightly better strategy when carbon footprint is considered as the main focus of comparison. In terms of construction materials' environmental footprint, nonferrous metals are found to have a significant environmental footprint reduction potential if recycled. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Evaluation of mercury cycling and hypolimnetic oxygenation in mercury-impacted seasonally stratified reservoirs in the Guadalupe River watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Stephen A.; Beutel, Marc W.; Dent, Stephen R.; Schladow, S. G.

    2016-10-01

    Surface water reservoirs trap inorganic mercury delivered from their watersheds, create conditions that convert inorganic mercury to highly toxic methylmercury (MeHg), and host sportfish in which MeHg bioaccumulates. The Santa Clara Valley Water District (District) actively manages and monitors four mercury-impaired reservoirs that help to serve communities in South San Francisco Bay, California. The Guadalupe River watershed, which contains three of those reservoirs, also includes the New Almaden mercury-mining district, the largest historic mercury producer in North America. Monthly vertical profiles of field measurements and grab samples in years 2011-2013 portray annual cycling of density stratification, dissolved oxygen (DO), and MeHg. Monitoring results highlight the role that hypolimnetic hypoxia plays in MeHg distribution in the water column, as well as the consistent, tight coupling between MeHg in ecological compartments (water, zooplankton, and bass) across the four reservoirs. Following the 2011-2013 monitoring period, the District designed and installed hypolimnetic oxygenation systems (HOS) in the four reservoirs in an effort to repress MeHg buildup in bottom waters and attain regulatory targets for MeHg in water and fish tissue. Initial HOS operation in Calero Reservoir in 2014 enhanced bottom water DO and depressed hypolimnetic buildup of MeHg, but did not substantially decrease mercury levels in zooplankton or small fish.

  2. Short-term safety evaluation of the offspring conceived by 7272 artificial insemination cycles with donor spermatozoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D; Song, S; Liao, A

    2016-09-01

    This case-control study was designed to investigate the safety of the AID technology. The health status of the offspring conceived by 1620 couples who underwent 7272 AID cycles in our Center for Reproductive Medicine between June 2006 and December 2012 was retrospectively analysed. The control group included 1018 women who naturally conceived and delivered in the same period. Twin birth rate was significantly higher in the AID group (no triplet birth) than in the control group (2.01% versus 0.39%, P  0.05). Compared to natural pregnancy, a pregnancy through AID resulted in higher multiple birth rate, premature delivery rate and neonatal congenital malformation rate. Increased multiple birth rate was attributable to ovulation induction, and increased rate of low-birthweight infants was related to multiplets and premature delivery. Caesarean delivery was preferred in couples who received AID treatment. The male/female ratio of the AID offspring was similar between natural pregnancy and AID pregnancy. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. The ''Castaing exercise'': an original contribution to the technological evaluation of the back end of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapira, J.P.; Zerbib, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    In December 1981, a panel was appointed by the French Government in order to review the various technical and environmental aspects of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. The so-called ''Commission Castaing'', from the name of his chairman Pr. Castaing, a well known physicist, included persons from various professional backgrounds together with people in charge of these questions at the French Atomic Authority (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, CEA). It was the first time in France that a Group including independent people was officially entrusted with such a sensitive task, normally dealt with inside the nuclear establishment. The 3 years experience of the Castaing Commission and the comparison between the present situations concerning surface and underground disposal, show the importance of external expertise in gaining public acceptance. These days, it is not enough for the public to be positively informed by the operators themselves; public opinion insists more and more on the importance of a minimal agreement among scientists from various background on a project which is marred by many uncertainties on long-term effects. Finally a certain separation of powers between the various institutional actors is necessary: this would not decrease the competence of the entire system. On the opposite, the lack of input from the outside and the lack of internal democracy can condemn an institution to sterility, a possible source of mistakes and wrong decisions. This is one of the major lesson of the original Castaing exercise

  4. The global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Reimer, E.

    1991-01-01

    Basic concepts of the global carbon cycle on earth are described; by careful analyses of isotopic ratios, emission history and oceanic ventilation rates are derived, which provide crucial tests for constraining and calibrating models. Effects of deforestation, fertilizing, fossil fuel burning, soil erosion, etc. are quantified and compared, and the oceanic carbon process is evaluated. Oceanic and terrestrial biosphere modifications are discussed and a carbon cycle model is proposed

  5. Evaluation of different end-of-life management alternatives for used natural cork stoppers through life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demertzi, Martha; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Matos, Arlindo; Arroja, Luís Manuel

    2015-12-01

    An important aspect of sustainable development is the implementation of effective and sustainable waste management strategies. The present study focuses on a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach to different waste management strategies for natural cork stoppers, namely incineration at a municipal solid waste incinerator, landfilling in a sanitary landfill, and recycling. In the literature, there are no LCA studies analyzing in detail the end-of-life stage of natural cork stoppers as well as other cork products. In addition, cork is usually treated as wood at the end-of-life stage. Thus, the outcome of this study can provide an important insight into this matter. The results showed that different management alternatives, namely incineration and recycling, could be chosen depending on the impact category considered. The former alternative presented the best environmental results in the impact categories of climate change, ozone depletion and acidification, while the latter for photochemical ozone formation and mineral and fossil resource depletion. The landfilling alternative did not present the best environmental performance in any of the impact categories. However, when the biogenic carbon dioxide emission was assessed for the climate change category, the landfilling alternative was found to be the most effective since most of the biogenic carbon would be permanently stored in the cork products and not emitted into the atmosphere. A sensitivity analysis was performed and the results showed that there are various parameters that can significantly influence the results (e.g., carbon content in cork and decay rate of cork in the landfill). Thus, LCA studies should include a detailed description concerning their assumptions when the end-of-life stage is included in the boundaries since they can influence the results, and furthermore, to facilitate the comparison of different end-of-life scenarios. The present study and the obtained results could be useful for the

  6. Life cycle environmental evaluation of kettles: Recommendations for the development of eco-design regulations in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-06-01

    Between 117 and 200 million kettles are used in the European Union (EU) every year. However, the full environmental impacts of kettles remain largely unknown. This paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment of conventional plastic and metallic kettles in comparison with eco-kettles. The results show that the use stage contributes 80% to the impacts. For this reason, the eco-kettle has over 30% lower environmental impacts due to a greater water efficiency and related lower energy consumption. These results have been extrapolated to the EU level to consider the implications for proposed eco-design regulations. For these purposes, the effects on the impacts of durability of kettles and improvements in their energy and water efficiency have been assessed as they have been identified as two key parameters in the proposed regulations. The results suggest that increasing the current average durability from 4.4 to seven years would reduce the impacts by less than 5%. Thus, improving durability is not a key issue for improving the environmental performance of kettles and does not justify the need for an eco-design regulation based exclusively on it. However, improvements in water and energy efficiency through eco-design can bring relevant environmental savings. Boiling the exact amount of water needed would reduce the impacts by around a third and using water temperature control by further 2%-5%. The study has also considered the effects of reducing significantly the number of kettles in use after the UK (large user of kettles) leaves the EU and reducing the excess water typically boiled by the consumer. Even under these circumstances, the environmental savings justify the development of a specific EU eco-design regulation for kettles. However, consumer engagement will be key to the implementation and achievement of the expected environmental benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to produce actionable findings: a rapid-cycle evaluation approach to improving implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Rosalind E; Crosson, Jesse C; O'Malley, Ann S; Cromp, DeAnn; Taylor, Erin Fries

    2017-02-10

    Much research does not address the practical needs of stakeholders responsible for introducing health care delivery interventions into organizations working to achieve better outcomes. In this article, we present an approach to using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to guide systematic research that supports rapid-cycle evaluation of the implementation of health care delivery interventions and produces actionable evaluation findings intended to improve implementation in a timely manner. To present our approach, we describe a formative cross-case qualitative investigation of 21 primary care practices participating in the Comprehensive Primary Care (CPC) initiative, a multi-payer supported primary care practice transformation intervention led by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Qualitative data include observational field notes and semi-structured interviews with primary care practice leadership, clinicians, and administrative and medical support staff. We use intervention-specific codes, and CFIR constructs to reduce and organize the data to support cross-case analysis of patterns of barriers and facilitators relating to different CPC components. Using the CFIR to guide data collection, coding, analysis, and reporting of findings supported a systematic, comprehensive, and timely understanding of barriers and facilitators to practice transformation. Our approach to using the CFIR produced actionable findings for improving implementation effectiveness during this initiative and for identifying improvements to implementation strategies for future practice transformation efforts. The CFIR is a useful tool for guiding rapid-cycle evaluation of the implementation of practice transformation initiatives. Using the approach described here, we systematically identified where adjustments and refinements to the intervention could be made in the second year of the 4-year intervention. We think the approach we describe has broad

  8. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  9. The fast neutrons reactors, the sodium, the fuel cycle: evaluation of the knowledge, innovation potential and forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, J.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the study, the design and the construction of fast neutrons reactors, cooled with sodium. From this evaluation, it details the innovation possibilities of this sector in the sustainable development context of the nuclear energy. Chapter one presents the physical and physico-chemical properties of the sodium. Chapter two analyzes the properties of the fast cores and the sodium advantages. Chapter three analyzes the great contribution of the EFR project. Chapter four takes stock on the innovation possibilities. And before the conclusion, chapter five shows that the fast neutrons reactors allow the electric power production in agreement with a sustainable development. (A.L.B.)

  10. Promoting cycling: a review of interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Ilkka

    2011-11-01

    To determine which approaches promote cycling, the size of the effects, and whether there are associated benefits on physical activity or anthropometric measures, by means of a systematic review. Intervention studies with a cycling outcome measure were identified from searches of 13 databases, previous systematic reviews, Web sites, and reference lists of selected articles. International experts were asked to identify further relevant published or unpublished studies. The search was completed in January 2010. The selection criteria were controlled trials and "before and after" studies of the effect of any intervention on cycling behavior; studies had to include a minimal or no intervention comparison group or a similar population; and a specific measure of cycling before and after the intervention was required. Studies using stationary bicycles were excluded. Of 32,916 records retrieved, 118 full-text articles were assessed, and 25 were included in the quantitative analysis. Each step in the selection process was independently reviewed by a second reviewer, and disagreements were resolved. Details of the study setting, objective, intervention, sample, duration, outcome measures, and results were extracted and checked by 2 reviewers, who also assessed validity (evaluated in summary as yes/no on randomization, representativeness, comparability, measurement, and use of statistical test). Disagreements were resolved by discussion. Outcomes were summarized as absolute changes in cycling after adjustment for changes in the control group. Meta-analysis was not possible because of heterogeneity and statistical inadequacies in the studies. Six studies [2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 1 cohort study, and 3 controlled repeat cross-sectional studies, all meeting ≥3 validity criteria] included interventions primarily intended to promote cycling. An RCT using individual counseling and incentives as interventions found that Swedish women with abdominal obesity in the

  11. Evaluation of the Fracture Toughness of a SMSS Subjected to Common Heat Treatment Cycles in an Aggressive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieta, G.; Leite, R.; Kwietniewski, C.; Clarke, T.; Strohaecker, T.

    2010-12-01

    Supermartensitic stainless steels (SMSS) are an alternative to corrosion-prone carbon steels and expensive duplex stainless steels in offshore tubing applications for the oil and gas industry. Due to their differentiated alloying, SMSS exhibit superior toughness, corrosion resistance, and weldability properties when compared with another viable option, conventional martensitic stainless steels. However, when cathodically protected in a seawater environment they can be susceptible to embrittlement due to hydrogen charging. In the present study, SMSS samples were removed from deep water pipelines and their fracture toughness in the as-received condition and with different heat treatments was evaluated. Tests were carried out in air and in harsh environmental and loading conditions, which were ensured by subjecting specimens to cathodic overprotection, simulating effects seen in structures with complex geometries, and to incremental step loads in a synthetic seawater environment, thus favoring hydrogen diffusion to the precrack tip. The fracture surfaces of the specimens were analyzed in order to identify hydrogen-induced embrittlement and fracture toughness values of specimens tested in air were compared to values obtained in environment-assisted experiments. The influence of microstructure was evaluated by control of the retained austenite and δ-ferrite contents of the specimens. The results show a significant drop in the fracture toughness of steel in the studied environment, with a fracture mode which is clearly more brittle and dependent on microstructural characteristics of the samples.

  12. On the Importance of Cycle Minimum in Sunspot Cycle Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.; Reichmann, Edwin J.

    1996-01-01

    The characteristics of the minima between sunspot cycles are found to provide important information for predicting the amplitude and timing of the following cycle. For example, the time of the occurrence of sunspot minimum sets the length of the previous cycle, which is correlated by the amplitude-period effect to the amplitude of the next cycle, with cycles of shorter (longer) than average length usually being followed by cycles of larger (smaller) than average size (true for 16 of 21 sunspot cycles). Likewise, the size of the minimum at cycle onset is correlated with the size of the cycle's maximum amplitude, with cycles of larger (smaller) than average size minima usually being associated with larger (smaller) than average size maxima (true for 16 of 22 sunspot cycles). Also, it was found that the size of the previous cycle's minimum and maximum relates to the size of the following cycle's minimum and maximum with an even-odd cycle number dependency. The latter effect suggests that cycle 23 will have a minimum and maximum amplitude probably larger than average in size (in particular, minimum smoothed sunspot number Rm = 12.3 +/- 7.5 and maximum smoothed sunspot number RM = 198.8 +/- 36.5, at the 95-percent level of confidence), further suggesting (by the Waldmeier effect) that it will have a faster than average rise to maximum (fast-rising cycles have ascent durations of about 41 +/- 7 months). Thus, if, as expected, onset for cycle 23 will be December 1996 +/- 3 months, based on smoothed sunspot number, then the length of cycle 22 will be about 123 +/- 3 months, inferring that it is a short-period cycle and that cycle 23 maximum amplitude probably will be larger than average in size (from the amplitude-period effect), having an RM of about 133 +/- 39 (based on the usual +/- 30 percent spread that has been seen between observed and predicted values), with maximum amplitude occurrence likely sometime between July 1999 and October 2000.

  13. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  14. A Framework for Evaluating R&D Impacts and Supply Chain Dynamics Early in a Product Life Cycle. Looking inside the black box of innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Gretchen [360 Innovation LLC (United States); Mote, Jonathan [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting Inc. (United States); Choi, Thomas [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Becker-Dippmann, Angela [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report provides a framework for evaluation of R&D investments aimed at speeding up the pace of innovation and strengthening domestic manufacturing and supply chains, which make up a portion of the investments of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOEs) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). These investments focus on early phases of the product life cycle, characterized as extending from pre-product, late stage R&D, to initial product introduction and through to early market growth. The investments aim to provide support for additional technology, supply-chain, manufacturing, and early market development to enhance or create markets for clean energy technologies and strengthen the U.S. industry base.

  15. Fuel cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbin, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The fuel cycle management is more and more dependent on the management of the generation means among the power plants tied to the grid. This is due mainly because of the importance taken by the nuclear power plants within the power system. The main task of the fuel cycle management is to define the refuelling pattern of the new and irradiated fuel assemblies to load in the core as a function of: 1) the differences which exist between the actual conditions of the core and what was expected for the present cycle, 2) the operating constraints and the reactor availability, 3) the technical requirements in safety and the technological limits of the fuel, 4) the economics. Three levels of fuel cycle management can be considered: 1) a long term management: determination of enrichments and expected cycle lengths, 2) a mid term management whose aim corresponds to the evaluation of the batch to load within the core as a function of both: the next cycle length to achieve and the integrated power history of all the cycles up to the present one, 3) a short term management which deals with the updating of the loaded fuel utilisations to take into account the operation perturbations, or with the alteration of the loading pattern of the next batch to respect unexpected conditions. (orig.) [de

  16. Benefit-Risk Assessment, Communication, and Evaluation (BRACE) throughout the life cycle of therapeutic products: overall perspective and role of the pharmacoepidemiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radawski, Christine; Morrato, Elaine; Hornbuckle, Kenneth; Bahri, Priya; Smith, Meredith; Juhaeri, Juhaeri; Mol, Peter; Levitan, Bennett; Huang, Han-Yao; Coplan, Paul; Li, Hu

    2015-12-01

    Optimizing a therapeutic product's benefit-risk profile is an on-going process throughout the product's life cycle. Different, yet related, benefit-risk assessment strategies and frameworks are being developed by various regulatory agencies, industry groups, and stakeholders. This paper summarizes current best practices and discusses the role of the pharmacoepidemiologist in these activities, taking a life-cycle approach to integrated Benefit-Risk Assessment, Communication, and Evaluation (BRACE). A review of the medical and regulatory literature was performed for the following steps involved in therapeutic benefit-risk optimization: benefit-risk evidence generation; data integration and analysis; decision making; regulatory and policy decision making; benefit-risk communication and risk minimization; and evaluation. Feedback from International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology members was solicited on the role of the pharmacoepidemiologist. The case example of natalizumab is provided to illustrate the cyclic nature of the benefit-risk optimization process. No single, globally adopted benefit-risk assessment process exists. The BRACE heuristic offers a way to clarify research needs and to promote best practices in a cyclic and integrated manner and highlight the critical importance of cross-disciplinary input. Its approach focuses on the integration of BRACE activities for risk minimization and optimization of the benefit-risk profile. The activities defined in the BRACE heuristic contribute to the optimization of the benefit-risk profile of therapeutic products in the clinical world at both the patient and population health level. With interdisciplinary collaboration, pharmacoepidemiologists are well suited for bringing in methodology expertise, relevant research, and public health perspectives into the BRACE process. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of an Absorption Heat Pump to Mitigate Plant Capacity Reduction Due to Ambient Temperature Rise for an Air-Cooled Ammonia and Water Cycle: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathan, D.; Nix, G.

    2001-08-06

    Air-cooled geothermal plants suffer substantial decreases in generating capacity at increased ambient temperatures. As the ambient temperature rises by 50 F above a design value of 50 F, at low brine-resource temperatures, the decrease in generating capacity can be more than 50%. This decrease is caused primarily by increased condenser pressure. Using mixed-working fluids has recently drawn considerable attention for use in power cycles. Such cycles are more readily amenable to use of absorption ''heat pumps.'' For a system that uses ammonia and water as the mixed-working fluid, this paper evaluates using an absorption heat pump to reduce condenser backpressure. At high ambient temperatures, part of the turbine exhaust vapor is absorbed into a circulating mixed stream in an absorber in series with the main condenser. This steam is pumped up to a higher pressure and heated to strip the excess vapor, which is recondensed using an additional air-cooled condenser. The operating conditions are chosen to reconstitute this condensate back to the same concentration as drawn from the original system. We analyzed two power plants of nominal 1-megawatt capacity. The design resource temperatures were 250 F and 300 F. Ambient temperature was allowed to rise from a design value of 50 F to 100 F. The analyses indicate that using an absorption heat pump is feasible. For the 300 F resource, an increased brine flow of 30% resulted in a net power increase of 21%. For the 250 F resource, the increase was smaller. However, these results are highly plant- and equipment-specific because evaluations must be carried out at off-design conditions for the condenser. Such studies should be carried out for specific power plants that suffer most from increased ambient temperatures.

  18. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  19. Phytochemical study and evaluation of cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, cell cycle kinetics and gene expression of Bauhinia holophylla (Bong.) Steud. in HepG2 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Diego Luis; Cilião, Heloísa Lizotti; Specian, Ana Flávia Leal; Serpeloni, Juliana Mara; De Oliveira, Marcelo Tempesta; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida; Vilegas, Wagner; Saldanha, Luiz Leonardo; Martínez-López, Wilner; Dokkedal, Anne Lígia; Cólus, Ilce Mara Syllos

    2018-04-01

    Bauhinia holophylla (Bong.) Steud. (Fabaceae) is a plant used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat diabetes and inflammation. This study evaluated the phytochemical properties, cytotoxic, apoptotic, mutagenic/antimutagenic effects and alterations in gene expression (RNAm) in HepG2 cells treated with the B. holophylla extract. The phytochemical profile highlight the presence of flavonoids isorhamentin and quercetin derivates. The MTT assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of different concentrations for different treatment times. Three concentrations (7.5, 15, 30 µg/mL) were chosen for assessment of apoptosis (AO/EB), mutagenicity (micronucleus), and cell cycle kinetics (flow cytometry). Thereafter, the concentration of 7.5 µg/mL was chosen to evaluate the protective effects against DNA damage induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). At concentrations higher than 7.5 µg/mL (between 10 and 50 µg/mL), the extract was cytotoxic, induced apoptosis, and caused antiproliferative effects. However, it did not induce micronucleus and a reduction of apoptotic and micronucleated cells was observed in treatments that included the extract and B[a]P. The protective effect is attributable to the presence of flavonoids, described as antioxidants, inhibitors of DNA adduct and activators of detoxifying enzymes. The results of the present study such as absence of cytotoxic and mutagenic effects and protective effects against known carcinogens suggest that B. holophylla has potential for use soon as herbal medicine.

  20. Evaluating the impact of environmental interventions across 2 countries: the International Bikeshare Impacts on Cycling and Collisions Study (IBICCS) Study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Gauvin, Lise; Dubé, Anne-Sophie; Winters, Meghan; Teschke, Kay; Russo, Elizabeth T; Camden, Andi; Mee, Carol; Friedman, Steven Marc

    2014-10-25

    Few international studies examine public bicycle share programs (PBSP) health impacts. We describe the protocol for the International Bikeshare Impacts on Cycling and Collisions Study (IBICCS). A quasi-experimental non-equivalent groups design was used. Intervention cities (Montreal, Toronto, Boston, New York and Vancouver) were matched to control cities (Chicago, Detroit, and Philadelphia) on total population, population density, cycling rates, and average yearly temperature. The study used three repeated, cross-sectional surveys in intervention and control cities in Fall 2012 (baseline), 2013 (year 1), and 2014 (year 2). A non-probabilistic online panel survey with a sampling frame of individuals residing in and around areas where PBSP are/would be implemented was used. A total of 12,000 respondents will be sampled. In each of the 8 cities 1000 respondents will be sampled with an additional 4000 respondents sampled based on the total population of the city. Survey questions include measures of self-rated health, and self-reported height and weight, knowledge and experience using PBSP, physical activity, bicycle helmet use and history of collisions and injuries while cycling, socio-demographic questions, and home/workplace locations. Respondents could complete questionnaires in English, French, and Spanish. Two weights will be applied to the data: inverse probability of selection and post-stratification on age and sex.A triple difference analysis will be used. This approach includes in the models, time, exposure, and treatment group, and interaction terms between these variables to estimate changes across time, between exposure groups and between cities. There are scientific and practical challenges in evaluating PBSP. Methodological challenges included: appropriate sample recruitment, exchangeability of treatment and control groups, controlling unmeasured confounding, and specifying exposure. Practical challenges arise in the evaluation of environmental

  1. The effect of load cycling on microleakage of low shrinkage methacrylate base composite compared with silorane base composite and SEM evaluation of marginal integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kermanshah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Marginal seal in class V cavity and determination of the best restorative material in reducing microleakage is of great concern in operative dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of load cycling on the microleakage of low shrinkage composites compared with methacrylate-based composites with low shirinkage rate in class V cavity preparation. Marginal integrity of these materials was assessed using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, class V cavity preparations were made on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 48 human premolars and molars (96 cavities. The specimens were divided into four groups each containing 12 teeth (24 cavities: group 1 (Kalore-GC+ G-Bond , group 2 (Futurabond NR+Grandio, group 3(All Bond SE+ Aelite LS Posterior, group 4 (LS System Adhesive Primer & Bond+Filtek P90. All the specimens were thermocycled for 2000 cycles (5-50oC. In each group, half of the specimens (n=12 were subjected to 200,000 cycles of loading at 80 N. Epoxy resin replicas of 32 specimens (4 restorations in each subgroup were evaluated using SEM and the interfacial gaps were measured. Finally, the teeth were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin dye for 24 hours at 370C, then sectioned and observed under stereomicroscope. The data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and the comparison between occlusal and gingival microleakage was made with Wilcoxon test. Results: Within unloaded or loaded specimens, there were no significant differences in microleakage among four groups on the occlusal margins (P>0.05. But there were statistically significant differences in microleakage between silorane and Aelite on the gingival margins (P0.05. Conclusion: Silorane did not perform better than the conventional low shrinkage methacrylate-based composite in terms of sealing ability (except Aelite. Cyclic loading did not increase the extent of leakage in any groups.

  2. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  3. Evaluation of the effect of chronic exposure to 137Cesium on sleep-wake cycle in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestaevel, Philippe; Dhieux, Bernadette; Tourlonias, Elie; Houpert, Pascale; Paquet, Francois; Voisin, Philippe; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Gourmelon, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl accident, the most significant problem for the population living in the contaminated areas is chronic exposure by ingestion of radionuclides, notably 137 Cs, a radioactive isotope of cesium. It can be found in the whole body, including the central nervous system. The present study aimed to assess the effect of 137 Cs on the central nervous system and notably on open-field activity and the electroencephalographic pattern. Rats were exposed up to 90 days to drinking water contaminated with 137 Cs at a dosage of 400 Bq kg -1 , which is similar to that ingested by the population living in contaminated territories. At this level of exposure, no significant effect was observed on open-field activity. On the other hand, at 30 days exposure, 137 Cs decreased the number of episodes of wakefulness and slow wave sleep and increased the mean duration of these stages. At 90 days exposure, the power of 0.5-4 Hz band of 137 Cs-exposed rats was increased in comparison with controls. These electrophysiological changes may be due to a regional 137 Cs accumulation in the brain stem. In conclusion, the neurocognitive effects of 137 Cs need further evaluation and central disorders of population living in contaminated territories must be considered

  4. Dynamics of serum testosterone during the menstrual cycle evaluated by daily measurements with an ID-LC-MS/MS method and a 2nd generation automated immunoassay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, Hong N.; Sluss, Patrick M.; Blincko, Stuart; Knol, Dirk L.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone concentrations in normally cycling women are assumed to be elevated around the time of ovulation. The clinical relevance of changing testosterone concentrations during the menstrual cycle, however, is unclear. Poor performance of current direct immunoassays for testosterone at low

  5. Evaluation of Crop-Water Consumption Simulation to Support Agricultural Water Resource Management using Satellite-based Water Cycle Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M.; Bolten, J. D.; Lakshmi, V.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity is one of the main factors limiting agricultural development. Numerical models integrated with remote sensing datasets are increasingly being used operationally as inputs for crop water balance models and agricultural forecasting due to increasing availability of high temporal and spatial resolution datasets. However, the model accuracy in simulating soil water content is affected by the accuracy of the soil hydraulic parameters used in the model, which are used in the governing equations. However, soil databases are known to have a high uncertainty across scales. Also, for agricultural sites, the in-situ measurements of soil moisture are currently limited to discrete measurements at specific locations, and such point-based measurements do not represent the spatial distribution at a larger scale accurately, as soil moisture is highly variable both spatially and temporally. The present study utilizes effective soil hydraulic parameters obtained using a 1-km downscaled microwave remote sensing soil moisture product based on the NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) using the genetic algorithm inverse method within the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM). Secondly, to provide realistic irrigation estimates for agricultural sites, an irrigation scheme within the land surface model is triggered when the root-zone soil moisture deficit reaches the threshold, 50% with respect to the maximum available water capacity obtained from the effective soil hydraulic parameters. An additional important criterion utilized is the estimation of crop water consumption based on dynamic root growth and uptake in root zone layer. Model performance is evaluated using MODIS land surface temperature (LST) product. The soil moisture estimates for the root zone are also validated with the in situ field data, for three sites (2- irrigated and 1- rainfed) located at the University of Nebraska Agricultural Research and Development Center near Mead, NE and monitored

  6. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  7. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  8. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  9. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  10. Happy Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...

  11. Glacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, Katarina

    We use a statistical model, the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, to assess the degree to which variations in Earth's orbit and endogenous climate dynamics can be used to simulate glacial cycles during the late Quaternary (390 kyr-present). To do so, we estimate models of varying complexi...

  12. CYCLE CONTROL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    changed to gestodene. Although large- scale comparative trials are needed to confirm this finding, evidence suggests that cycle control with gestodene is better than for monophasic preparations containing desogestrel, norgestimate or levonorgestrel,10 as well as for levonorg- estrel-or norethisterone-containing triphasics.

  13. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2008), s. 308-327 ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : global games * coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2008

  14. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    -, č. 274 (2005), s. 1-26 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp274.pdf

  15. Heterogeneous Boundary Layers through the Diurnal Cycle: Evaluation of the WRF Wind Farm Parameterization using Scanning Lidar Observations and Wind Turbine Power Measurements during a Range of Stability Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    As wind energy deployment increases, questions arise regarding impacts on local climates and how these impacts evolve with the diurnal cycle of the boundary layer. Satellite observations suggest nocturnal increases of surface temperatures, and measurements of turbine wakes document stronger and more persistent reductions of wind speed and increases in turbulence downwind of turbines during stable conditions. Validations of mesoscale parameterizations of these effects have been constrained to idealized conditions defined by neutrally-stratified conditions and/or limited wind directions and wind speeds, or by comparison to idealized large-eddy simulations. Synthesis of conventional meteorological measurements and unconventional measurements can offer unique insights for validating models over a large heterogeneous domain. The CWEX-13 field experiment provides an extensive dataset for such validation at spatial scales on the order of 10 km in a range of atmospheric stability and wind conditions. CWEX-13 took place within a 300 MW wind farm in central Iowa during summer 2013 and featured strong diurnal cycles. The wind turbines are sited irregularly, creating a heterogenous "canopy". Three profiling lidars, numerous surface flux stations, and a scanning lidar sampled wakes from multiple turbines. Further, the wind farm owner/operator has provided access to turbine power production and wind speed measurement data for model validation, providing ~ 200 measurements of proxies that integrate the wind profile over the rotor disk, from 40 m to 120 m above the surface. Building on previous work that identified optimal physics options, grid configurations, and boundary condition data sets by comparison to lidar wind profile measurements, we execute simulations with the WRF Wind Farm Parameterization for a ten-day period featuring moderate winds and strong diurnal cycles. We evaluate simulations with different modeling choices (e.g., vertical resolution, approaches to

  16. Cycle mining in active database environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Jennifer; Buckley, James P.

    2000-04-01

    Traditional data mining algorithms identify patterns in data that are not explicit. These patterns are denoted in the form of IF-THEN rules (IF antecedent THEN consequent), where the antecedent and consequent are logical conjunctions of propositions or first-order predicates. Generally, the mined rules apply to all time periods and specify no temporal interval between antecedent detection and consequent firing. Cycle mining algorithms identify meta-patterns of these associations depicting inferences forming cyclic chains of rule dependencies. Because traditional rules comprise these cycles, the mined cycles also apply to all time periods and do not currently possess the temporal interval of applicability. An active database is one that responds to stimuli in real time, operating in the event-condition-action (ECA) paradigm where a specific event is monitored, a condition is evaluated, and one or more actions are taken. The actions often involve real-time modification of the database. In this paper, we introduce the concepts and present algorithms for mining rules with firing intervals, and intervals of applicability. Using an active database environment, we describe a real time framework that incorporates the active database concept in order to ascertain previously undefined cycles in data over a specific time interval and thereby introduce the concept of interval of discovery. Comprised of discovered rules with firing intervals and intervals of applicability, the encompassing discovered cycles also possess a variation of these attributes. We illustrate this framework with an example from an E-commerce endeavor where data is mined for rules with firing intervals and intervals of applicability, which amalgamate to form a cycle in its interval of discovery. We describe the computer system INDED, the author's implementation of cycle mining, which we are currently interfacing to an active Oracle database using triggers and PL/SQL stored procedures.

  17. Evaluation of the life cycle of integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel; Avaliacao do ciclo de vida da producao integrada de etanol e biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Simone Pereira de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)], email: sp.souza@yahoo.com.br; Pacca; Sergio Almeida [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades], email: spacca@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane and palm are amongst the crops with the highest yields, which can reach 6 to 7.5 thousand liters of ethanol per hectare year and 4 to 6 metric tons of oil per hectare year, respectively. A joint production of biofuels from these crops is an interesting alternative for life cycle assessment improvement through fossil fuel and greenhouse gas emissions reduction, besides energy efficiency gains. The objective of this work is comparing the Brazilian production system sugarcane ethanol with an integrated system proposal where the ethanol and palm biodiesel are produced together. This comparative study is based on a life cycle approach using the ISO 14.044/2006 and appropriate indicators. Production systems in Cerrado, Cerradao and grassland ecosystem were considered. The energy balance, carbon balance and land use change were evaluated. The integrated system includes a 100% substitution of biodiesel by diesel, which is used in life cycle agriculture stages. Distinct fractions of sugarcane used for sugar production were assessed. When all sugarcane is sent to sugar production, ethanol is produced by molasses. The data were collected by direct observation method by questionnaire and secondary sources. Three sugarcane mills situated in Sao Paulo state and a palm mill located in Para state were surveyed. Results showed a 164% increase in energy balance for the joint production system in comparison to the traditional system. Besides this, the joint production system demonstrated a 24% GHG emission reduction. For ethanol production by molasses, the energy balance was up to 59% and 162% higher in scenarios 1 and 2, respectively, which differ each other through of the boiler that was utilized. For GHG emission, the reduction can reach 91%. The land use change identify an average ecosystem carbon payback time for Cerrado, Cerradao and Degraded Grassland of 5, 10, and -5 years, respectively. In conclusion, the joint production system of sugarcane ethanol and palm

  18. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  19. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  20. Thoron Mitigation System based on charcoal bed for applications in thorium fuel cycle facilities (part 2): Development, characterization, and performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeep Kumara, K; Sahoo, B K; Gaware, J J; Sapra, B K; Mayya, Y S; Karunakara, N

    2017-06-01

    Exposure due to thoron ( 220 Rn) gas and its decay products in a thorium fuel cycle facility handling thorium or 232 U/ 233 U mixture compounds is an important issue of radiological concern requiring control and mitigation. Adsorption in a flow-through charcoal bed offers an excellent method of alleviating the release of 220 Rn into occupational and public domain. In this paper, we present the design, development, and characterization of a Thoron Mitigation System (TMS) for industrial application. Systematic experiments were conducted in the TMS for examining the 220 Rn mitigation characteristics with respect to a host of parameters such as flow rate, pressure drop, charcoal grain size, charcoal mass and bed depth, water content, and heat of the carrier gas. An analysis of the experimental data shows that 220 Rn attenuation in a flow through charcoal bed is not exponential with respect to the residence time, L/U a (L: bed depth; U a : superficial velocity), but follows a power law behaviour, which can be attributed to the occurrence of large voids due to wall channeling in a flow through bed. The study demonstrates the regeneration of charcoal adsorption capacity degraded due to moisture adsorption, by hot air blowing technique. It is found that the mitigation factor (MF), which is the ratio of the inlet 220 Rn concentration (C in ) to the outlet 220 Rn concentration (C out ), of more than 10 4 for the TMS is easily achievable during continuous operation (>1000 h) at a flow rate of 40 L min -1 with negligible (charcoal bed offers a compact and effective device to remove 220 Rn from affluent air streams in a space constrained domain. The prototype system has been installed in a thorium fuel cycle facility where it is being evaluated for its long-term performance and overall effectiveness in mitigating 220 Rn levels in the workplace. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of Low Cycle Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue Interaction on Surface Morphology and Tensile Properties of 316L(N) Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariappan, K.; Shankar, Vani; Sandhya, R.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Laha, Kinkar

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, the deformation and damage evolution in 316L(N) stainless steel during low cycle fatigue (LCF) and creep-fatigue interaction (CFI) loadings have been compared by evaluating the residual tensile properties. Towards this, LCF and CFI experiments were carried out at constant strain amplitude of ±0.6 pct, strain rate of 3 × 10-3 s-1 and temperature of 873 K (600 °C). During CFI tests, 30 minutes hold period was introduced at peak tensile strain. Experiments were interrupted up to various levels of fatigue life viz. 5, 10, 30, 50, and 60 pct of the total fatigue life ( N f) under both LCF and CFI conditions. The specimens subjected to interrupted fatigue loadings were subsequently monotonically strained at the same strain rate and temperature up to fracture. Optical and scanning electron microscopy and profilometry were conducted on the untested and tested samples to elucidate the damage evolution during the fatigue cycling under both LCF and CFI conditions. The yield strength (YS) increased sharply with the progress of fatigue damage and attained saturation within 10 pct of N f under LCF condition. On the contrary, under CFI loading condition, the YS continuously increased up to 50 pct of N f, with a sharp increase of YS up to 5 pct of N f followed by a more gradual increase up to 50 pct of N f. The difference in the evolution of remnant tensile properties was correlated with the synergistic effects of the underlying deformation and damage processes such as cyclic hardening/softening, oxidation, and creep. The evolution of tensile properties with prior fatigue damage has been correlated with the change in surface roughness and other surface features estimated by surface replica technique and fractography.

  2. Energetic evaluation of the largest geomagnetic storms of solar cycle 24 on March 17, 2015 and September 8, 2017 during solar maximum and minimum, respectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomova, Dimitrinka; Velinov, Peter; Tassev, Yordan; Tomova, Dimitrinka

    2018-01-01

    Some of the most powerful Earth’s directed coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the current 24 solar cycle have been investigated. These are CMEs on March 15, 2015 and on September 4 and 6, 2017. As a result of these impacts of Sun on Earth, the highest intensity of the geomagnetic storms for the 24th solar cycle is observed. These G4 – Severe geomagnetic storms are in the periods March 17÷19, 2015 and September 7÷10, 2017. We use the solar wind parameters (velocity V, density or concentration N , temperature T p and intensity of the magnetic field B) from measurements by WIND, ACE and SOHO space crafts in the Lagrange equilibrium point L1 between Sun and Earth. We make calculations for the kinetic (dynamic) energy density E k , thermal energy density E t and magnetic energy density E m during the investigated periods May 10÷24, 2015 and September 2÷16, 2017. Both the energy densities for the individual events and the cumulative energy for each of them are evaluated. The quantitative analysis shows that not always the size of the geomagnetic reaction is commensurate with the density of the energy flux reaching the magnetosphere. In both studied periods, the energy densities have different behaviour over time. But for both periods, we can talk about the prognostic effect – with varying degrees of increase of the dynamic and thermal energies. Such an effect is not observed in the density of magnetic energy. An inverse relationship between the magnitude of the density of energies and the effect of Forbush decrease of the galactic cosmic rays is established. Key words: solar activity, flares, coronal mass ejection (CME), G4 –Severe geomagnetic storms, energy density of the solar wind, space weather

  3. Application of in situ thermography for evaluating the high-cycle and very high-cycle fatigue behaviour of cast aluminium alloy AlSi7Mg (T6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewerth, D; Weidner, A; Biermann, H

    2013-12-01

    The present paper illustrates the application of infrared thermal measurements for the investigation of crack initiation point and crack propagation in the high-cycle and the very high-cycle fatigue range of cast AlSi7Mg alloy (A356). The influence of casting defects, their location, size and amount was studied both by fractography and thermography. Besides internal and surface fatigue crack initiation as a further crack initiation type multiple fatigue crack initiation was observed via in situ thermography which can be well correlated with the results from fractography obtained by SEM investigations. In addition, crack propagation was studied by the development of the temperature measured via thermography. Moreover, the frequency influence on high-cycle fatigue behaviour was investigated. The presented results demonstrate well that the combination of fractography and thermography can give a significant contribution to the knowledge of crack initiation and propagation in the VHCF regime. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Plausibility of Menstrual Cycle Apps Claiming to Support Conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Freis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The interval of peak fertility during the menstrual cycle is of limited duration, and the day of ovulation varies, even in women with fairly regular cycles. Therefore, menstrual cycle apps identifying the “fertile window” for women trying to conceive must be quite precise. A deviation of a few days may lead the couple to focus on less- or non-fertile days for sexual intercourse and thus may be worse than random intercourse. The aim of the present investigation was to develop a scoring system for rating available apps for determining the fertile window and secondarily pilot test 12 apps currently available in both German and English (consisting of 6 calendar-based apps: Clue Menstruations- und Zykluskalender, Flo Menstruationskalender, Maya-Mein Periodentracker, Menstruationskalender Pro, Period Tracker Deluxe, and WomanLog-Pro-Kalender; 2 calculothermal apps: Ovy and Natural Cycles; and 4 symptothermal apps: myNFP, Lady Cycle, Lily, and OvuView. The calendar-based apps were investigated by entering several series of cycles with varying lengths, whereas the symptom-based apps were examined by entering data of cycles with known temperature rise, cervical mucus pattern, and clinical ovulation. The main criteria for evaluating the cycle apps were as follows: (1 What methods/parameters were used to determine the fertile window? (2 What study results exist concerning that underlying method/parameters? (3 What study results exist concerning the app itself? (4 Was there a qualified counseling service? The calendar-based apps predicted the fertile days based on data of previous cycles. They obtained zero points in our scoring system, as they did not comply with any of the evaluated criteria. Calculothermal apps had similar deficits for predicting the most fertile days and produced suboptimal results (Ovy 3/30 points and Natural Cycles 2/30 points. The symptothermal apps determined the fertile days based on parameters of the current cycle: Lady Cycle

  5. Plausibility of Menstrual Cycle Apps Claiming to Support Conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freis, Alexander; Freundl-Schütt, Tanja; Wallwiener, Lisa-Maria; Baur, Sigfried; Strowitzki, Thomas; Freundl, Günter; Frank-Herrmann, Petra

    2018-01-01

    The interval of peak fertility during the menstrual cycle is of limited duration, and the day of ovulation varies, even in women with fairly regular cycles. Therefore, menstrual cycle apps identifying the "fertile window" for women trying to conceive must be quite precise. A deviation of a few days may lead the couple to focus on less- or non-fertile days for sexual intercourse and thus may be worse than random intercourse. The aim of the present investigation was to develop a scoring system for rating available apps for determining the fertile window and secondarily pilot test 12 apps currently available in both German and English (consisting of 6 calendar-based apps: Clue Menstruations- und Zykluskalender, Flo Menstruationskalender, Maya-Mein Periodentracker, Menstruationskalender Pro, Period Tracker Deluxe, and WomanLog-Pro-Kalender; 2 calculothermal apps: Ovy and Natural Cycles; and 4 symptothermal apps: myNFP, Lady Cycle, Lily, and OvuView). The calendar-based apps were investigated by entering several series of cycles with varying lengths, whereas the symptom-based apps were examined by entering data of cycles with known temperature rise, cervical mucus pattern, and clinical ovulation. The main criteria for evaluating the cycle apps were as follows: (1) What methods/parameters were used to determine the fertile window? (2) What study results exist concerning that underlying method/parameters? (3) What study results exist concerning the app itself? (4) Was there a qualified counseling service? The calendar-based apps predicted the fertile days based on data of previous cycles. They obtained zero points in our scoring system, as they did not comply with any of the evaluated criteria. Calculothermal apps had similar deficits for predicting the most fertile days and produced suboptimal results (Ovy 3/30 points and Natural Cycles 2/30 points). The symptothermal apps determined the fertile days based on parameters of the current cycle: Lady Cycle scored 20

  6. Evaluation of Helping Babies Breathe Quality Improvement Cycle (HBB-QIC) on retention of neonatal resuscitation skills six months after training in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kc, Ashish; Wrammert, Johan; Nelin, Viktoria; Clark, Robert B; Ewald, Uwe; Peterson, Stefan; Målqvist, Mats

    2017-04-11

    Each year 700,000 infants die due to intrapartum-related complications. Implementation of Helping Babies Breathe (HBB)-a simplified neonatal resuscitation protocol in low-resource clinical settings has shown to reduce intrapartum stillbirths and first-day neonatal mortality. However, there is a lack of evidence on the effect of different HBB implementation strategies to improve and sustain the clinical competency of health workers on bag-and-mask ventilation. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of multi-faceted implementation strategy for HBB, as a quality improvement cycle (HBB-QIC), on the retention of neonatal resuscitation skills in a tertiary hospital of Nepal. A time-series design was applied. The multi-faceted intervention for HBB-QIC included training, daily bag-and-mask skill checks, preparation for resuscitation before every birth, self-evaluation and peer review on neonatal resuscitation skills, and weekly review meetings. Knowledge and skills were assessed through questionnaires, skill checklists, and Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE) before implementation of the HBB-QIC, immediately after HBB training, and again at 6 months. Means were compared using paired t-tests, and associations between skill retention and HBB-QIC components were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. One hundred thirty seven health workers were enrolled in the study. Knowledge scores were higher immediately following the HBB training, 16.4 ± 1.4 compared to 12.8 ± 1.6 before (out of 17), and the knowledge was retained 6 months after the training (16.5 ± 1.1). Bag-and-mask skills improved immediately after the training and were retained 6 months after the training. The retention of bag-and-mask skills was associated with daily bag-and-mask skill checks, preparation for resuscitation before every birth, use of a self-evaluation checklist, and attendance at weekly review meetings. The implementation strategies with the highest association to skill

  7. Fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.

    1989-01-01

    The situation of the nuclear fuel cycle for LWR type reactors in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany was presented in 14 lectures with the aim to compare the state-of-the-art in both countries. In addition to the momentarily changing fuilds of fuel element development and fueling strategies, the situation of reprocessing, made interesting by some recent developmnts, was portrayed and differences in ultimate waste disposal elucidated. (orig.) [de

  8. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  9. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  10. Application of a Hybrid Forest Growth Model to Evaluate Climate Change Impacts on Productivity, Nutrient Cycling and Mortality in a Montane Forest Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, Brad; Welham, Clive; Scoullar, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Climate change introduces considerable uncertainty in forest management planning and outcomes, potentially undermining efforts at achieving sustainable practices. Here, we describe the development and application of the FORECAST Climate model. Constructed using a hybrid simulation approach, the model includes an explicit representation of the effect of temperature and moisture availability on tree growth and survival, litter decomposition, and nutrient cycling. The model also includes a representation of the impact of increasing atmospheric CO2 on water use efficiency, but no direct CO2 fertilization effect. FORECAST Climate was evaluated for its ability to reproduce the effects of historical climate on Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine growth in a montane forest in southern British Columbia, Canada, as measured using tree ring analysis. The model was subsequently used to project the long-term impacts of alternative future climate change scenarios on forest productivity in young and established stands. There was a close association between predicted sapwood production and measured tree ring chronologies, providing confidence that model is able to predict the relative impact of annual climate variability on tree productivity. Simulations of future climate change suggest a modest increase in productivity in young stands of both species related to an increase in growing season length. In contrast, results showed a negative impact on stemwood biomass production (particularly in the case of lodgepole pine) for established stands due to increased moisture stress mortality.

  11. Life cycle assessment of energy products: environmental impact assessment of biofuels; Ecobilan d'agents energetiques. Evaluation ecologique de biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zah, R.; Boeni, H.; Gauch, M.; Hischier, R.; Lehmann, M.; Waeger, P.

    2007-05-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the results of a study that evaluated the environmental impact of the entire production chain of fuels made from biomass and used in Switzerland. Firstly, the study supplies an analysis of the possible environmental impacts of biofuels that can be used as a basis for political decisions. Secondly, an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of various biofuels is presented. In addition, the impacts of fuel use are compared with other uses for bioenergy such as the generation of electricity and heat. The methods used in the LCA are discussed, including the Swiss method of ecological scarcity (Environmental Impact Points, UBP 06), and the European Eco-indicator 99 method. The results of the study are discussed, including the finding that not all biofuels can reduce environmental impacts as compared to fossil fuels. The role to be played by biofuels produced in an environmentally-friendly way together with other forms of renewable energy in our future energy supply is discussed.

  12. Application of a Hybrid Forest Growth Model to Evaluate Climate Change Impacts on Productivity, Nutrient Cycling and Mortality in a Montane Forest Ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Seely

    Full Text Available Climate change introduces considerable uncertainty in forest management planning and outcomes, potentially undermining efforts at achieving sustainable practices. Here, we describe the development and application of the FORECAST Climate model. Constructed using a hybrid simulation approach, the model includes an explicit representation of the effect of temperature and moisture availability on tree growth and survival, litter decomposition, and nutrient cycling. The model also includes a representation of the impact of increasing atmospheric CO2 on water use efficiency, but no direct CO2 fertilization effect. FORECAST Climate was evaluated for its ability to reproduce the effects of historical climate on Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine growth in a montane forest in southern British Columbia, Canada, as measured using tree ring analysis. The model was subsequently used to project the long-term impacts of alternative future climate change scenarios on forest productivity in young and established stands. There was a close association between predicted sapwood production and measured tree ring chronologies, providing confidence that model is able to predict the relative impact of annual climate variability on tree productivity. Simulations of future climate change suggest a modest increase in productivity in young stands of both species related to an increase in growing season length. In contrast, results showed a negative impact on stemwood biomass production (particularly in the case of lodgepole pine for established stands due to increased moisture stress mortality.

  13. Thermoeconomic optimization of a Kalina cycle for a central receiver concentrating solar power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    2016-01-01

    with direct vapour generation and without storage. The use of the ammonia-water mixture as the power cycle working fluid with non-isothermal evaporation and condensation presents the potential to improve the overall performance of the plant. This however comes at a price of requiring larger heat exchangers......Concentrating solar power plants use a number of reflecting mirrors to focus and convert the incident solar energy to heat, and a power cycle to convert this heat into electricity. This paper evaluates the use of a high temperature Kalina cycle for a central receiver concentrating solar power plant...... because of lower thermal pinch and heat transfer degradation for mixtures as compared with using a pure fluid in a conventional steam Rankine cycle, and the necessity to use a complex cycle arrangement. Most of the previous studies on the Kalina cycle focused solely on the thermodynamic aspects...

  14. Happy Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Artiklens formål er at diskutere oplevede kvaliteter og adfærdsaspekter af mobilitet med udgangspunkt i spørgsmålet om cykling i byer og relationen mellem design og adfærd. Artiklen tager afsæt i et studie forløb der involverede studerende fra Urban Design, Industriel Design Arkitektskolen Aarhus...... og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...

  15. Set organic pollution as an impact category to achieve more comprehensive evaluation of life cycle assessment in wastewater-related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyue; Yang, Jixian; Ma, Fang

    2018-02-01

    For wastewater-related issues (WRI), life cycle assessment (LCA) is often used to evaluate environmental impacts and derive optimization strategies. To promote the application of LCA for WRI, it is critical to incorporate local impact of water pollutants. Organic pollution, a main type of water pollution, has not been given much consideration in current LCA systems. This paper investigates the necessity of setting a regionalized impact category to reflect the local impact of organic pollution. A case study is conducted concerning an upgraded wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in China, which is assumed to meet different sewage control strategies. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is selected to represent the organic pollution and treated as an individual impact category. CML 2002 is used to quantify the environmental impacts of different strategies. Results show that abnormal LCA results are generated with the traditional eutrophication impact category, and after the introduction of COD, more reasonable LCA results are obtained, making the entire comparison of different control strategies more meaningful and compelling. Moreover, BEES, Ecovalue 08, and Chinese factors are adopted here as different weighting methods. Different weighting results exhibited various trade-offs for the increasingly strict control strategies; the results of BEES and Ecovalue08 underlined the potential environmental burden, but the results of Chinese factors only emphasized the local environmental improvement. It is concluded that setting regionalized impact category for organic pollution can make LCA results more reasonable in wastewater treatment, especially in evaluating Chinese cases because of the serious water pollution caused by large quantities of COD emission.

  16. Multi-center clinical evaluation of the Access AMH assay to determine AMH levels in reproductive age women during normal menstrual cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Clarisa R; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Prewitt, Maureen; Chamberlin, Janna S; Lofaro, Lori R; Jones, Kristin L; Clendenin, Marta; Manzanera, Katherine E; Broyles, Dennis L

    2018-03-14

    AMH is widely used for assessing ovarian reserve, and it is particularly convenient, because it is thought to have minimal variability throughout the menstrual cycle. However, studies assessing the stability of AMH over the menstrual cycle have been conflicting. The purpose of this study is to determine whether AMH levels vary across the normal menstrual cycle. A multi-center, prospective cohort study conducted at three US centers. Fifty females with regular menstrual cycles aged 18-45 underwent serial venipuncture every 3-5 days starting in the early follicular phase and lasting up to 10 collections. AMH was tested using the Access 2 immunoassay system. Age-adjusted mixed-effect models utilizing data from 384 samples from 50 subjects demonstrated a within subject standard deviation of 0.81 (95% CI 0.75-0.88) with a coefficient of variation of 23.8% across the menstrual cycle and between subject standard deviation of 2.56 (95% CI 2.13-3.21) with a coefficient of variation of 75.1%. Intra-class correlation (ICC) of AMH across the menstrual cycle was 0.91. Overall, AMH levels, using the automated Access AMH assay, appear to be relatively stable across the menstrual cycle. Fluctuations, if any, appear to be small, and therefore, clinicians may advise patients to have AMH levels drawn at any time in the cycle.

  17. Safe cycling!

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  18. Evaluating the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate, ingested individually or in combination, and a taste-matched placebo on high-intensity cycling capacity in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Matthew F; Wilson, Susie; Hill, Cameron; Price, Mike J; Duncan, Mike; Tallis, Jason

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of ingesting sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or caffeine individually or in combination on high-intensity cycling capacity. In a counterbalanced, crossover design, 13 healthy, noncycling trained males (age: 21 ± 3 years, height: 178 ± 6 cm, body mass: 76 ± 12 kg, peak power output (Wpeak): 230 ± 34 W, peak oxygen uptake: 46 ± 8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed a graded incremental exercise test, 2 familiarisation trials, and 4 experimental trials. Trials consisted of cycling to volitional exhaustion at 100% Wpeak (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting a solution containing either (i) 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate (BIC), (ii) 5 mg·kg(-1) body mass caffeine plus 0.1 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (CAF), (iii) 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate plus 5 mg·kg(-1) body mass caffeine (BIC-CAF), or (iv) 0.1 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (PLA). Experimental solutions were administered double-blind. Pre-exercise, at the end of exercise, and 5-min postexercise blood pH, base excess, and bicarbonate ion concentration ([HCO3(-)]) were significantly elevated for BIC and BIC-CAF compared with CAF and PLA. TLIM (median; interquartile range) was significantly greater for CAF (399; 350-415 s; P = 0.039; r = 0.6) and BIC-CAF (367; 333-402 s; P = 0.028; r = 0.6) compared with BIC (313: 284-448 s) although not compared with PLA (358; 290-433 s; P = 0.249, r = 0.3 and P = 0.099 and r = 0.5, respectively). There were no differences between PLA and BIC (P = 0.196; r = 0.4) or between CAF and BIC-CAF (P = 0.753; r = 0.1). Relatively large inter- and intra-individual variation was observed when comparing treatments and therefore an individual approach to supplementation appears warranted.

  19. Using the tool of Life Cycle Assessment for evaluating processes of waste water and sludge treatment; Einsatzmoeglichkeiten des Life Cycle Assessment in der Bewertung von Verfahren der Abwasser- und Schlammbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gigerl, T.; Rosenwinkel, K.H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik; Wiebusch, B. [Eurawasser Aufbereitungs- und Entsorgungs GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Whenever advances in waste water treatment were achieved in the past they have spelt technically more sophisticated processes for the elimination of water-toxic products. At present, waste water treatment technology faces further demands. Apart from the issue of economy and the avoidance of excessive burdens to citizens, a question increasingly raised is whether waste water cleaning processes are themselves environment-friendly. Related studies are internationally known as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). (orig.) [German] Fortschritte in der Abwasserreinigung bedeuteten bisher jeweils technisch aufwendigerere Loesungen zur Eliminierung gewaesserschaedigender Stoffe. Heute muss sich die Abwassertechnik weiteren Anforderungen stellen. Neben der Wirtschaftlichkeit und damit der Vermeidung unzumutbarer Belastungen fuer die Buerger wird immer mehr die Frage gestellt, ob die Verfahren der Abwasserreinigung selbst umweltvertraeglich sind. Die damit verbundenen Untersuchungen werden international als 'Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)' bezeichnet. (orig.)

  20. Development and Application of a Novel Rasch-Based Methodology for Evaluating Multi-Tiered Assessment Instruments: Validation and Utilization of an Undergraduate Diagnostic Test of the Water Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, William L.; Schaffer, Dane L.; Barrow, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development and validation of a three-tiered diagnostic test of the water cycle (DTWC) and use it to evaluate the impact of prior learning experiences on undergraduates' misconceptions. While most approaches to instrument validation take a positivist perspective using singular criteria such as reliability and fit with a measurement…

  1. Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy in Previously Shunted Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brichtova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV is a routine and safe procedure for therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus. The aim of our study is to evaluate ETV success rate in therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus in pediatric patients formerly treated by ventriculoperitoneal (V-P shunt implantation. From 2001 till 2011, ETV was performed in 42 patients with former V-P drainage implantation. In all patients, the obstruction in aqueduct or outflow parts of the fourth ventricle was proved by MRI. During the surgery, V-P shunt was clipped and ETV was performed. In case of favourable clinical state and MRI functional stoma, the V-P shunt has been removed 3 months after ETV. These patients with V-P shunt possible removing were evaluated as successful. In our group of 42 patients we were successful in 29 patients (69%. There were two serious complications (4.7%—one patient died 2.5 years and one patient died 1 year after surgery in consequence of delayed ETV failure. ETV is the method of choice in obstructive hydrocephalus even in patients with former V-P shunt implantation. In case of acute or scheduled V-P shunt surgical revision, MRI is feasible, and if ventricular system obstruction is diagnosed, the hydrocephalus may be solved endoscopically.

  2. Modeling transit bus fuel consumption on the basis of cycle properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Oscar F; Clark, Nigel N; Thompson, Gregory J

    2011-04-01

    A method exists to predict heavy-duty vehicle fuel economy and emissions over an "unseen" cycle or during unseen on-road activity on the basis of fuel consumption and emissions data from measured chassis dynamometer test cycles and properties (statistical parameters) of those cycles. No regression is required for the method, which relies solely on the linear association of vehicle performance with cycle properties. This method has been advanced and examined using previously published heavy-duty truck data gathered using the West Virginia University heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with the trucks exercised over limited test cycles. In this study, data were available from a Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority emission testing program conducted in 2006. Chassis dynamometer data from two conventional diesel buses, two compressed natural gas buses, and one hybrid diesel bus were evaluated using an expanded driving cycle set of 16 or 17 different driving cycles. Cycle properties and vehicle fuel consumption measurements from three baseline cycles were selected to generate a linear model and then to predict unseen fuel consumption over the remaining 13 or 14 cycles. Average velocity, average positive acceleration, and number of stops per distance were found to be the desired cycle properties for use in the model. The methodology allowed for the prediction of fuel consumption with an average error of 8.5% from vehicles operating on a diverse set of chassis dynamometer cycles on the basis of relatively few experimental measurements. It was found that the data used for prediction should be acquired from a set that must include an idle cycle along with a relatively slow transient cycle and a relatively high speed cycle. The method was also applied to oxides of nitrogen prediction and was found to have less predictive capability than for fuel consumption with an average error of 20.4%.

  3. Evaluation of technical feasibility of closed-cycle non-equilibrium MHD power generation with direct coal firing. Final report, Task I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal-fired, closed-cycle MHD power generation are reported. This volume contains the following appendices: (A) user's manual for 2-dimensional MHD generator code (2DEM); (B) performance estimates for a nominal 30 MW argon segmented heater; (C) the feedwater cooled Brayton cycle; (D) application of CCMHD in an industrial cogeneration environment; (E) preliminary design for shell and tube primary heat exchanger; and (F) plant efficiency as a function of output power for open and closed cycle MHD power plants. (WHK)

  4. Evaluation of a multiple-cycle, recombinant virus, growth competition assay that uses flow cytometry to measure replication efficiency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, Carrie; Wang, Jiong; Jin, Xia; Planelles, Vicente; An, Dong Sung; Tallo, Amanda; Huang, Yangxin; Wu, Hulin; Demeter, Lisa M

    2006-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication efficiency or fitness, as measured in cell culture, has been postulated to correlate with clinical outcome of HIV infection, although this is still controversial. One limitation is the lack of high-throughput assays that can measure replication efficiency over multiple rounds of replication. We have developed a multiple-cycle growth competition assay to measure HIV-1 replication efficiency that uses flow cytometry to determine the relative proportions of test and reference viruses, each of which expresses a different reporter gene in place of nef. The reporter genes are expressed on the surface of infected cells and are detected by commercially available fluorescence-labeled antibodies. This method is less labor-intensive than those that require isolation and amplification of nucleic acids. The two reporter gene products are detected with similar specificity and sensitivity, and the proportion of infected cells in culture correlates with the amount of viral p24 antigen produced in the culture supernatant. HIV replication efficiencies of six different drug-resistant site-directed mutants were reproducibly quantified and were similar to those obtained with a growth competition assay in which the relative proportion of each variant was measured by sequence analysis, indicating that recombination between the pol and reporter genes was negligible. This assay also reproducibly quantified the relative fitness conferred by protease and reverse transcriptase sequences containing multiple drug resistance mutations, amplified from patient plasma. This flow cytometry-based growth competition assay offers advantages over current assays for HIV replication efficiency and should prove useful for the evaluation of patient samples in clinical trials.

  5. Your Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during your menstrual cycle What happens during your menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle includes not just your period, but the ... tool is based on a sample 28-day menstrual cycle, but every woman is different in how ...

  6. Prevalence and significance of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Beneventi, Fausta; Ramoni, Véronique; Caporali, Roberto; Locatelli, Elena; Simonetta, Margherita; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Alpini, Claudia; Albonico, Giulia; Prisco, Elena; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the rates of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy and their impact on the pregnancy outcome. Pregnant women in their first trimester were screened using a two-step approach using a self-administered 10-item questionnaire and subsequent testing for rheumatic autoantibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-extractable nuclear antigen, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and evaluation by a rheumatologist. Overall, the complications of pregnancy evaluated included fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, delivery at less than 34 weeks, neonatal resuscitation and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Out of the 2458 women screened, the authors identified 62 (2.5%) women with previously undiagnosed undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and 24 (0.98%) women with previously undiagnosed definite systemic rheumatic disease. The prevalences were seven (0.28%) for systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome, six (0.24%) for rheumatoid arthritis, three (0.12%) for antiphospholipid syndrome and one (0.04%) for systemic sclerosis. In multiple exact logistic regression, after adjustment for potential confounders, the OR of overall complications of pregnancy were 2.81 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.18) in women with UCTD and 4.57 (95% CI 1.57 to 13.57) in those with definite diseases, respectively, compared with asymptomatic controls. In our population approximately 2.5% and 1% of first trimester pregnant women had a previously undiagnosed UCTD and definite systemic rheumatic disease, respectively. These conditions were associated with significant negative effects on the outcome of pregnancy.

  7. A Conceptual Study of Using an Isothermal Compressor on a Supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle for SMART Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Jin Young; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Yoonhan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    To maximize the benefits of modularization, the supercritical CO{sub 2} (S-CO{sub 2}) power cycle can replace the conventional steam Rankine cycle to increase the cycle efficiency and reduce its system size. Previous works have been conducted to evaluate potential advantages of applying the S-CO{sub 2} cycle to SMRs, specifically to SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) which is an integral SMR developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Institute). One of the optimized S-CO{sub 2} cycle layouts is the recompressing Brayton cycle. This paper attempts to improve the cycle layout by replacing the conventional compressor with an isothermal compressor, of which its potential in the S-CO{sub 2} power cycle is conceptually being evaluated. The SMR applications, for which SMART reactor has been represented, can take advantage of the currently developing S-CO{sub 2} cycle greatly by the reduction of size. By introducing the isothermal compressor, the cycle layout considered in has been further improved by increasing the cycle net efficiency by around 0.5%.

  8. A Conceptual Study of Using an Isothermal Compressor on a Supercritical CO2 Brayton Cycle for SMART Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Jin Young; Lee, Jeong Ik; Ahn, Yoonhan

    2016-01-01

    To maximize the benefits of modularization, the supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ) power cycle can replace the conventional steam Rankine cycle to increase the cycle efficiency and reduce its system size. Previous works have been conducted to evaluate potential advantages of applying the S-CO 2 cycle to SMRs, specifically to SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) which is an integral SMR developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Institute). One of the optimized S-CO 2 cycle layouts is the recompressing Brayton cycle. This paper attempts to improve the cycle layout by replacing the conventional compressor with an isothermal compressor, of which its potential in the S-CO 2 power cycle is conceptually being evaluated. The SMR applications, for which SMART reactor has been represented, can take advantage of the currently developing S-CO 2 cycle greatly by the reduction of size. By introducing the isothermal compressor, the cycle layout considered in has been further improved by increasing the cycle net efficiency by around 0.5%

  9. A phase III study evaluating the safety and efficacy of NEPA, a fixed-dose combination of netupitant and palonosetron, for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting over repeated cycles of chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralla, R J; Bosnjak, S M; Hontsa, A; Balser, C; Rizzi, G; Rossi, G; Borroni, M E; Jordan, K

    2014-07-01

    Safe, effective and convenient antiemetic regimens that preserve benefit over repeated cycles are needed for optimal supportive care during cancer treatment. NEPA, an oral fixed-dose combination of netupitant, a highly selective NK1 receptor antagonist (RA), and palonosetron (PALO), a distinct 5-HT3 RA, was shown to be superior to PALO in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting after a single cycle of highly (HEC) or moderately (MEC) emetogenic chemotherapy in recent trials. This study was designed primarily to assess the safety but also to evaluate the efficacy of NEPA over multiple cycles of HEC and MEC. This multinational, double-blind, randomized phase III study (NCT01376297) in 413 chemotherapy-naïve patients evaluated a single oral dose of NEPA (NETU 300 mg + PALO 0.50 mg) given on day 1 with oral dexamethasone (DEX). An oral 3-day aprepitant (APR) regimen + PALO + DEX was included as a control (3:1 NEPA:APR randomization). In HEC, DEX was administered on days 1-4 and in MEC on day 1. Safety was assessed primarily