WorldWideScience

Sample records for previous empirical findings

  1. Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…

  2. Event sequence variability in healthy swallowing: building on previous findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-04-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard, and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs that always occurred in a stereotyped order and a most common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigated overall event sequencing and the same four paired events in a sample of swallows by healthy young (under 45 years old) volunteers. Data were collected during a 16-swallow lateral videofluoroscopy protocol, which included manipulations of bolus volume, barium density, bolus viscosity, and swallow cueing. Our results agreed with previous findings that variable event sequencing is found in healthy swallowing, and, in regard to obligatory sequencing of two paired events, movement of the arytenoids toward the base of the epiglottis begins prior to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening and maximum hyolaryngeal approximation occurs after UES opening. However, our data failed to replicate the previous findings that there is obligatory sequencing of maximum pharyngeal constriction after maximal UES distension and the UES opens before bolus arrival at the UES. The most common observed overall event sequence reported by Kendall et al. was observed in only 4/293 swallows in our dataset. Manipulations of bolus volume, bolus viscosity, barium concentration, swallow cueing, and swallow repetitions could not completely account for the differences observed between the two studies.

  3. Event Sequence Variability in Healthy Swallowing: Building on Previous Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired-events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs, which always occurred in a stereotyped order as well as a most-common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigate overall event sequencing and the same four paired-events in a sample of swallows by healthy, young (under 45 years old) volunt...

  4. Preliminary findings of a previously unrecognized porcine primary immunodeficiency disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuna, A G Cino; Rowland, R R R; Nietfeld, J C; Kerrigan, M A; Dekkers, J C M; Wyatt, C R

    2013-01-01

    Weaned pigs from a line bred for increased feed efficiency were enrolled in a study of the role of host genes in the response to infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV). Four of the pigs were euthanatized early in the study due to weight loss with illness and poor body condition; 2 pigs before PRRSV infection and the other 2 pigs approximately 2 weeks after virus inoculation. The 2 inoculated pigs failed to produce PRRSV-specific antibodies. Gross findings included pneumonia, absence of a detectable thymus, and small secondary lymphoid tissues. Histologically, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and Peyer's patches were sparsely cellular with decreased to absent T and B lymphocytes.

  5. Price Sensitivity and Television Advertising Exposures: Some Empirical Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay Kanetkar; Charles B. Weinberg; Doyle L. Weiss

    1992-01-01

    Empirical research (as well as theoretical reasoning) has led to contradictory findings with regard to whether increases in brand advertising activities lead to increases or decreases in consumer price sensitivity. Lack of data to measure the exposure of individual households to advertisements and to capture competitive activities has been an important limitation to date. This study, using single source data for a midwestern US market, finds that increased advertising exposures are associated...

  6. Transnational Corporate Ties: A Synopsis of Theories and Empirical Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nollert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In general, corporations are not isolated actors in an economic “war of all against all” but members of corporate networks of global reach. Although the literature on globalization emphasizes the increasing economic power of these networks and postulates the formation of a transnational capitalist class, there is still a lack of empirical findings. The article starts with a review of theoretical perspectives (resource dependence, social capital, coordination of markets, financial hegemony, class hegemony, inner circle, and transnational capitalist class which focuses on the functions and structures of corporate interlocks at the national and the transnational level. The subsequent section offers an outline of empirical studies concerning transnational corporate networks. These analyses of corporate ties (interlocking directorates, financial participations and policy group affiliations suggest the emergence of transnational economic elites whose members, however, have not lost their national identity. In the final section, the theoretical perspectives will be assessed and some prospects are sketched out. Finally, it will be argued that the disintegration of the world society, which is considerably driven by rent-seeking corporate networks, can only be restrained if a potential global regulatory agency will be anchored in a post-Washington consensus.

  7. The neuroimaging basis of apathy: Empirical findings and conceptual challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkstein, Sergio E; Brockman, Simone

    2018-02-02

    Apathy, usually defined as loss of motivation, is common in both neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, and acute neurological disorders such as stroke. Neuroradiological studies on the imaging correlates of apathy have used a variety of methods such as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and single photon and positron emission tomography to assess brain metabolic activity and specific synaptic receptors. Dysfunction of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the strongest anatomical correlate of apathy in Alzheimer's disease, whereas lesions of the basal ganglia are the most common correlates of apathy in cerebrovascular disorders. These findings should be considered in the context of important conceptual and empirical limitations. There are diverging definitions of apathy, and this behavioural disorder has not yet been validated in most neurological conditions. Moreover, apathy may be related not only to specific brain dysfunction, but to relevant contextual confounders which deserve further study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Family dynamics and housing: Conceptual issues and empirical findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Mulder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In this reflection I discuss my conceptual ideas and the latest empirical findings regarding the connections between leaving the parental home, marriage, parenthood, and separation on the one hand, and housing on the other. I also discuss the limitations of the research and directions for future research. CONCLUSIONS Parental housing of good quality keeps specific categories of potential nest-leavers in the parental home, but is also positively associated with the likelihood of young adults starting their housing careers as homeowners. The connections between housing and marriage and between housing and parenthood can be characterized using the concepts of housing space, quality, and safety or security - all three of which married couples and families need more than singles - and flexibility, which couples and families need less. These four needs are strongly subject to social norms. There is a strong tendency for married couples and prospective families to move into home ownership and higher quality homes. Separation tends to lead ex-partners with lower moving costs and fewer resources to move from the joint home, and tends to lead to a longer lasting decrease in housing quality, particularly for women. Future research could focus on the impact of housing on the transformation of dating partnerships into co-residential partnerships, the impact of housing quality and home ownership on the quality of partner relationships, partnership and housing histories rather than single events and short-term effects, unraveling the causal connections between family and housing, and incorporating the impact of the socio-spatial context in the research.

  9. Institutional quality and private sector participation: theory and empirical findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahel Schomaker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through several conduits, sound institutional quality is pivotal for economic development, as there is evidence that stable democratic institutions, rule of law and sound governance structures in the administration are highly conducive to promote growth. Therefore, a high institutional quality is not only the end point, but also the starting point of a more sustainable development. In this paper we provide some theoretical considerations as well as empirical evidence, based on several regression analyses, that the quality of institutions in a wider sense, and governance, which includes not only the level of “politics” itself, but also the administrative level, is relevant not only for the macro-level of development (i.e. the increase of the national welfare and foreign investment, but also on a micro-level: A stronger participation of private enterprises in public service provision and the introduction of public-private part¬nerships depends to a high degree on the institutional quality. This is even more relevant as the improvement of public services and of core infrastructures can be seen as crucial multipliers for future growth.

  10. Information visualization and proxemics: design opportunities and empirical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel R; Sahlemariam Haile, Yonas; Knudsen, Søren; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2013-12-01

    People typically interact with information visualizations using a mouse. Their physical movement, orientation, and distance to visualizations are rarely used as input. We explore how to use such spatial relations among people and visualizations (i.e., proxemics) to drive interaction with visualizations, focusing here on the spatial relations between a single user and visualizations on a large display. We implement interaction techniques that zoom and pan, query and relate, and adapt visualizations based on tracking of users' position in relation to a large high-resolution display. Alternative prototypes are tested in three user studies and compared with baseline conditions that use a mouse. Our aim is to gain empirical data on the usefulness of a range of design possibilities and to generate more ideas. Among other things, the results show promise for changing zoom level or visual representation with the user's physical distance to a large display. We discuss possible benefits and potential issues to avoid when designing information visualizations that use proxemics.

  11. Patients with a Previous History of Malignancy Undergoing Lung Cancer Screening: Clinical Characteristics and Radiologic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, Darragh F; Cunningham, Jane D; Long, Niamh M; Sosa, Ramon E; Ginsberg, Michelle S

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and radiologic findings in patients with a previous history of malignancy who underwent computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer. Patients with a previous history of malignancy and a life expectancy of at least 5 years who were referred for lung cancer screening between May 2, 2011, and September 24, 2014, were included. CT scan features assessed included nodule size, morphologic features, and number. The Lung-CT Reporting and Data System scoring system was retrospectively applied to all studies. A total of 139 patients were studied (mean age of 66 years and median smoking history of 50 pack-years). All had a previous history of cancer, most often breast cancer (60 patients [43%]), head or neck cancer (26 patients [19%]), and lung cancer (16 patients [12%]). Of these patients, 42 (30%) had a positive screening study result. Lung cancer was diagnosed in seven patients (5%), and a radiation-induced chest wall sarcoma was diagnosed in one patient (1%); 42 patients (30%) had a positive chest CT scan per the National Comprehensive Cancer Network lung cancer screening nodule follow-up algorithm. The rate of diagnosis of lung cancer in our patient population is higher than in several previously published studies. Smokers with a history of malignancy may be a group at particularly high risk for the development of subsequent lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Angiographic findings of collateral vessels in cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Dong Gyu; Han, Moon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Gi Seok; Yeon, Kung Mo

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the angiographic findings of collateral vessels in cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid arteries and to evaluate the extent of angiographic assessment needed before embolization. We retrospectively reviewed 10 cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid artery, which were 6 cases of arteriovenous malformation, 2 cases of carotid cavernous fistula, 1 case of hemangioma and 1 case of arteriovenous malformation with carotid cavernous fistula. The previously ligated arteries are proximal external carotid artery (n = 5), branches of external carotid artery (n = 2) and common carotid artery (n = 3). Common carotid artery or internal carotid artery (n = 9), vertebral artery (n = 5), ipsilateral external carotid artery (n = 4), contralateral external carotid artery (n = 5), costocervical trunk (n = 2), thyrocervical trunk (n = 2) were assessed by conventional angiography. Angiography of both carotid and vertebral arteries was performed in 5 cases. The collateral vascular channels were inferolateral trunk of internal carotid artery (n = 8), vertebral artery (n = 5), contralateral external carotid artery (n = 5), ipsilateral external carotid artery (n = 4), deep cervical artery (n = 2) and ascending cervical artery (n = 1). Embolization were performed in 9 cases with operative cannulation (n = 4), embolization via collateral branches of ipsilateral external carotid artery (n = 1), embolization via collateral branches of contralateral external carotid artery (n = 3) and balloon occlusion via direct puncture (n = 1). The collateral channels in cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid artery were inferolateral trunk of internal carotid artery, contralateral or ipsilateral external carotid artery, vertebral artery, deep cervical artery and ascending cervical artery on angiography. Complete angiographic assessment of possible collateral channels is mandatory for the

  13. Finding the attractor of anger: Bridging the gap between dynamic concepts and empirical data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, J.B.; Oosterlaan, J.; Schipper, E.; Koot, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Although it accounts for the prototypical course of emotions, the attractor concept has hardly ever been used empirically. Authors applied Empirical Differential Equations (EDE) to frequent (hourly) anger ratings to find the attractor of anger. The attractor concept, its neurological basis, and EDE

  14. Previous Mental Disorders and Subsequent Onset of Chronic Back or Neck Pain : Findings From 19 Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M

    Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of

  15. Previous Mental Disorders and Subsequent Onset of Chronic Back or Neck Pain: Findings From 19 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M

    2018-01-01

    Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of associations according to timing of events during the life course, and according to gender. Data were from population-based household surveys conducted in 19 countries (N = 52,095). Lifetime prevalence and age of onset of 16 mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and the occurrence and age of onset of back/neck pain were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Survival analyses estimated the associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent back/neck pain onset. All mental disorders were positively associated with back/neck pain in bivariate analyses; most (12 of 16) remained so after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Early-onset disorders were stronger predictors of pain; when adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, this remained the case for depression/dysthymia. No gender differences were observed. In conclusion, individuals with mental disorder, beyond depression and anxiety, are at higher risk of developing subsequent back/neck pain, stressing the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and highlight the need of assessing back/neck pain in mental health clinical settings. Previous mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition are positively associated with subsequent back/neck pain onset, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Earlier-onset mental disorders are stronger predictors of subsequent pain onset, compared with later-onset disorders

  16. Ignorance, Vulnerability and the Occurrence of "Radical Surprises": Theoretical Reflections and Empirical Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlicke, C.

    2009-04-01

    , that the flood was far beyond people's power of imagination (nescience). The reason therefore is that previous to the flood an institutionalized space of experience and horizon of expectation existed, which did not consider the possibility that the "stability" of the river is artificially created by engineering achievements to reduce its naturally given variability. Based on the empirical findings and the theoretical reasoning overall conclusions are drawn and implications for flood risk management under conditions global environmental change are outlined.

  17. Does better information about hospital quality affect patients’ choice? Empirical findings from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Wübker, Ansgar; Sauerland, Dirk; Wübker, Achim

    2008-01-01

    Background: Economic theory strongly suggests that better information about the quality of care affects patients’ choice of health service providers. However, we have little empirical evidence about the impact of information provided on provider’s choice in Germany. Problem: In Germany, we recently find publicly available information about hospital quality. For example, 50 percent of the hospitals in the Rhine-Ruhr area do now publish their quality data voluntarily in a comprehensive, underst...

  18. About motives behind Securitization and its Implications: An Overview of Empirical Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Jackowicz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews empirical findings concerning motives behind securitization and its implications. It turns out that the main reasons for securitization are: earnings management, regulatory capital arbitrage, liquidity management and funding problems. Securitization favours risk taking by entities in bad financial conditions and weakens, in some cases, incentives for careful screening of potential borrowers. On the macroeconomic level securitization lowers credit interest rates in the long term.

  19. In Search of a Theory: The Interpretative Challenge of Empirical Findings on Cultural Variance in Mindreading

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    Gut Arkadiusz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a battery of empirical findings on the relationship between cultural context and theory of mind that show great variance in the onset and character of mindreading in different cultures; discuss problems that those findings cause for the largely-nativistic outlook on mindreading dominating in the literature; and point to an alternative framework that appears to better accommodate the evident cross-cultural variance in mindreading. We first outline the theoretical frameworks that dominate in mindreading research, then present the relevant empirical findings, and finally we come back to the theoretical approaches in a discussion of their explanatory potential in the face of the data presented. The theoretical frameworks discussed are the two-systems approach; performance-based approach also known as modularity-nativist approach; and the social-communicative theory also known as the systems, relational-systems, dynamic systems and developmental systems theory. The former two, which both fall within the wider modular-computational paradigm, run into a challenge with the cross-cultural data presented, and the latter - the systemic framework - seems to offer an explanatorily potent alternative. The empirical data cited in this paper comes from research on cross-cultural differences in folk psychology and theory-of-mind development; the influence of parenting practices on the development of theory of mind; the development and character of theory of mind in deaf populations; and neuroimaging research of cultural differences in mindreading.

  20. Frequency and clinical significance of previously undetected incidental findings detected on computed tomography simulation scans for breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Naoki; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Takahashi, Osamu; Kikuchi, Mari; Honda, Satoshi; Shikama, Naoto; Akahane, Keiko; Sekiguchi, Kenji

    2012-11-01

    To determine the frequency and clinical significance of previously undetected incidental findings found on computed tomography (CT) simulation images for breast cancer patients. All CT simulation images were first interpreted prospectively by radiation oncologists and then double-checked by diagnostic radiologists. The official reports of CT simulation images for 881 consecutive postoperative breast cancer patients from 2009 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Potentially important incidental findings (PIIFs) were defined as any previously undetected benign or malignancy-related findings requiring further medical follow-up or investigation. For all patients in whom a PIIF was detected, we reviewed the clinical records to determine the clinical significance of the PIIF. If the findings from the additional studies prompted by a PIIF required a change in management, the PIIF was also recorded as a clinically important incidental finding (CIIF). There were a total of 57 (6%) PIIFs. The 57 patients in whom a PIIF was detected were followed for a median of 17 months (range, 3-26). Six cases of CIIFs (0.7% of total) were detected. Of the six CIIFs, three (50%) cases had not been noted by the radiation oncologist until the diagnostic radiologist detected the finding. On multivariate analysis, previous CT examination was an independent predictor for PIIF (p = 0.04). Patients who had not previously received chest CT examinations within 1 year had a statistically significantly higher risk of PIIF than those who had received CT examinations within 6 months (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-9.50; p = 0.01). The rate of incidental findings prompting a change in management was low. However, radiation oncologists appear to have some difficulty in detecting incidental findings that require a change in management. Considering cost, it may be reasonable that routine interpretations are given to those who have not received previous chest CT examinations within 1 year

  1. Assessment and treatment of PTSD after a motor vehicle collision: Empirical findings and clinical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J. Gayle; Coffey, Scott F.

    2007-01-01

    Individuals who experience a serious motor vehicle accident (MVA) are at increased risk for psychological problems, particularly Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In this article, we review the literature on PTSD among MVA survivors, with particular attention to available instruments to screen for and assess symptomatology of the disorder. Approaches to the treatment of PTSD in this population are reviewed, separated into interventions designed to prevent PTSD in unselected samples, treatment targeting individuals with Acute Stress Disorder that are designed to prevent subsequent development of PTSD, and therapy for individuals with chronic PTSD. Treatment process issues are discussed, in an effort to integrate empirical findings with clinical observations. The empirical literature suggests several approaches to treatment that have good potential outcomes, although continued work is needed to identify factors that predict treatment response, as well as augment individual-based treatment formats. PMID:18509507

  2. Measuring health lifestyles in a comparative analysis: theoretical issues and empirical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, T

    1991-01-01

    The concept of lifestyle bears great potential for research in medical sociology. Yet, weaknesses in current methods have restrained lifestyle research from realizing its full potentials. The present focus is on the links between theoretical conceptions and their empirical application. The paper divides into two parts. The first part provides a discussion of basic theoretical and methodological issues. In particular selected lines of thought from Max Weber are presented and their usefulness in providing a theoretical frame of reference for health lifestyle research is outlined. Next, a theory guided definition of the subject matter is introduced and basic problems in empirical applications of theoretical lifestyle concepts are discussed. In its second part the paper presents findings from comparative lifestyle analyses. Data from the U.S. and West Germany are utilized to explore issues of measurement equivalence and theoretical validity. Factor analyses indicate high conceptual equivalence for new measures of health lifestyle dimensions in both the U.S. and West Germany. Divisive cluster analyses detect three distinct lifestyle groups in both nations. Implications for future lifestyle research are discussed.

  3. On the Development of a Theory of Traveler Attitude-Behavior Interrelationships : Volume 2. Theoretical and Empirical Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    The second volume of this final report presents conceptual and empirical findings which support the development of a theory of traveler attitude-behavior interrelationships. Such a theory will be useful in the design of transport systems and operatin...

  4. Mapping spatial frames of reference onto time: a review of theoretical accounts and empirical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2014-09-01

    When speaking and reasoning about time, people around the world tend to do so with vocabulary and concepts borrowed from the domain of space. This raises the question of whether the cross-linguistic variability found for spatial representations, and the principles on which these are based, may also carry over to the domain of time. Real progress in addressing this question presupposes a taxonomy for the possible conceptualizations in one domain and its consistent and comprehensive mapping onto the other-a challenge that has been taken up only recently and is far from reaching consensus. This article aims at systematizing the theoretical and empirical advances in this field, with a focus on accounts that deal with frames of reference (FoRs). It reviews eight such accounts by identifying their conceptual ingredients and principles for space-time mapping, and it explores the potential for their integration. To evaluate their feasibility, data from some thirty empirical studies, conducted with speakers of sixteen different languages, are then scrutinized. This includes a critical assessment of the methods employed, a summary of the findings for each language group, and a (re-)analysis of the data in view of the theoretical questions. The discussion relates these findings to research on the mental time line, and explores the psychological reality of temporal FoRs, the degree of cross-domain consistency in FoR adoption, the role of deixis, and the sources and extent of space-time mapping more generally. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Policy Influence on Consumers’ Evolution into Prosumers—Empirical Findings from an Exploratory Survey in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Kotilainen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy sector is in transition to a flexible and sustainable energy system based on renewable energy sources. This complex transition is affecting multiple levels in the sociotechnical system. One driver of the transition is climate change that enforces the policy push from the macro level to change the way energy is produced, delivered, and used. As part of the energy system evolution, the role of the end user in the energy sector is undergoing profound changes, and consumers are increasingly being empowered to participate actively in the production and use of energy. This article investigates how policies might affect consumers’ interests in becoming prosumers of energy. We explore consumers’ attitudes toward using renewable energy technologies (RET by means of an empirical consumer survey that was conducted in five European countries. The partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM method was utilized to analyze the survey results. Our findings suggest that both economic and non-economic policies affect consumer attitudes toward using renewable energy technologies. We conclude that policies have different effects on consumers and prosumers, who have already made the decision to adopt renewable energy solutions. Based on the findings, we propose a set of policy and managerial implications.

  6. An empirical study to find important factors on building national brand: An Iranian tourism case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Hakimipour

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Building national brand plays an important role on today's economy to attract interested tourists in visiting various countries. There are different factors impacting national brand such as advertisement, natural attraction, etc. In this paper, we perform an empirical investigation to find the impact of ten most important factors on building brand. The study designs and distributes a questionnaire among 384 international tourists who visited Iran during the year of 2010 and it uses factor analysis to group important factors. The results extract four groups; the first factor includes three most important components including satellite advertisement programs, public awareness on economical power and public awareness on specialized symposium and conferences. The second factor includes three other important factors, which are public awareness on human right, advertisement programs through distribution brushers and internet advertisement. The third factor includes two variables, which are public awareness on education and access to educational services and introducing cultural heritage. Finally, the last factor includes introducing natural attraction and advertisement programs through distribution brushers.

  7. Rape treatment outcome research: empirical findings and state of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, Katrina A; Margolin, Gayla

    2009-07-01

    This article reviews empirical support for treatments targeting women sexually assaulted during adolescence or adulthood. Thirty-two articles were located using data from 20 separate samples. Of the 20 samples, 12 targeted victims with chronic symptoms, three focused on the acute period post-assault, two included women with chronic and acute symptoms, and three were secondary prevention programs. The majority of studies focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety as treatment targets. Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure have garnered the most support with this population. Stress Inoculation Training and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing also show some efficacy. Of the four studies that compared active treatments, few differences were found. Overall, cognitive behavioral interventions lead to better PTSD outcomes than supportive counseling does. However, even in the strongest treatments more than one-third of women retain a PTSD diagnosis at post-treatment or drop out of treatment. Discussion highlights the paucity of research in this area, methodological limitations of examined studies, generalizability of findings, and important directions for future research at various stages of trauma recovery.

  8. Radiographic findings of femoroacetabular impingement in National Football League Combine athletes undergoing radiographs for previous hip or groin pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepple, Jeffrey J; Brophy, Robert H; Matava, Matthew J; Wright, Rick W; Clohisy, John C

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of radiographic findings of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in elite football players with a history of hip pain or groin injury who underwent radiographs. We performed a retrospective review of athletes undergoing hip radiography at the National Football League Combine from 2007 to 2009. Radiographs were obtained in athletes with a history of hip pain or injury. Anteroposterior pelvis and frog-lateral radiographs were obtained in 123 hips (107 players) that met our inclusion criteria. Radiographic indicators of cam-type FAI (alpha angle, head-neck offset ratio) and pincer-type FAI (acetabular retroversion, center-edge angle, acetabular inclination) were recorded. Findings were correlated with clinical factors (previous groin/hip pain, position, race, and body mass index). The most common previous injuries included groin strain (n = 57) and sports hernia/abdominal strain (n = 21). Markers of cam- and/or pincer-type FAI were present in 94.3% of hips (116 of 123). Radiographic evidence of combined cam- and pincer-type FAI was the most common (61.8%, 76 hips), whereas isolated cam-type FAI (9.8%, 12 hips) and pincer-type FAI (22.8%, 28 hips) were less common. The most common deformities included acetabular retroversion (71.5%) and an abnormal alpha angle (61.8%). A body mass index greater than 35 was associated with the presence of global overcoverage (46.2% v 17.3%, P = .025). Radiographic indicators of FAI are very common among athletes evaluated at the National Football League Scouting Combine subjected to radiographic examination for the clinical suspicion of hip disease. Elite football athletes with significant or recurrent pain about the hip should be evaluated clinically and radiographically for FAI, because pain from FAI may be falsely attributed to or may be present in addition to other disorders. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America

  9. An optimisation approach for capacity planning: modelling insights and empirical findings from a tactical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Nunes Carvalho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The academic literature presents a research-practice gap on the application of decision support tools to address tactical planning problems in real-world organisations. This paper addresses this gap and extends a previous action research relative to an optimisation model applied for tactical capacity planning in an engineer-to-order industrial setting. The issues discussed herein raise new insights to better understand the practical results that can be achieved through the proposed model. The topics presented include the modelling of objectives, the representation of the production process and the costing approach, as well as findings regarding managerial decisions and the scope of action considered. These insights may inspire ideas to academics and practitioners when developing tools for capacity planning problems in similar contexts.

  10. The Influence of Previous Strategy Use on Individuals' Subsequent Strategy Choice: Findings from a Numerosity Judgement Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viki Schillemans

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted two experiments to test whether individuals' strategy choices in a numerosity judgement task are affected by the strategy that was used on the previous trials. Both experiments demonstrated that a previously used strategy indeed influences individuals' strategy choices. Individuals were more inclined to reuse the strategy that they had used on the previous trials. However, this study also demonstrated that this influence is limited to those items that do not have a strong association with a specific strategy. Possible underlying mechanisms for the observed effect are discussed.

  11. The impact of climate change and weather on transport: An overview of empirical findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.J.; Rietveld, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of the empirical literature on the effects of climate change and weather conditions on the transport sector. Despite mixed evidence on many issues, several patterns can be observed. On a global scale especially shifts in tourism and agricultural production due to

  12. Cherubism associated with neurofibromatosis type 1, and multiple osteolytic lesions of both femurs: A previously undescribed association of findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Tello, Francisco J. [Hospital Universitario ' ' 12 de Octubre' ' , Departamento de Anatomia Patologica, Madrid (Spain); Manjon-Luengo, Palmira [Hospital Universitario ' ' 12 de Octubre' ' , Department of Radiology, Madrid (Spain); Martin-Perez, Manuel [Hospital Universitario ' ' 12 de Octubre' ' , Department of Pathology, Madrid (Spain); Montes-Moreno, Santiago

    2005-12-01

    We present a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1, with the clinical, radiological and histological features of cherubism mandibular lesions, and multiple osteolytic, geographic lesions in both femurs, consistent with multiple non-ossifying fibromas. We have been unable to find a similar case in the world literature. We discuss our findings in relationship with a number of syndromes that present clinical, radiological or pathological similarities. (orig.)

  13. Analysis of over 10,000 Cases finds no association between previously reported candidate polymorphisms and ovarian cancer outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Kristin L; Vierkant, Robert A; Fogarty, Zachary C

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death among women. In an effort to understand contributors to disease outcome, we evaluated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) previously associated with ovarian cancer recurrence or survival, specifically in angiogenesis, inflammation, mitosis...

  14. Analysis of Over 10,000 Cases Finds No Association between Previously-Reported Candidate Polymorphisms and Ovarian Cancer Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kristin L.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Fogarty, Zachary C.; Charbonneau, Bridget; Block, Matthew S.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Rossing, Mary Anne; Cramer, Daniel W.; Pearce, C. Leigh; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Menon, Usha; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Levine, Douglas A.; Gronwald, Jacek; Culver, Hoda Anton; Whittemore, Alice S.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Lambrechts, Diether; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Bandera, Elisa V.; Hogdall, Estrid; Heitz, Florian; Kaye, Stanley B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Campbell, Ian; Goodman, Marc T.; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie; Lurie, Galina; Eccles, Diana; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Paul, James; Brown, Robert; Flanagan, James; Harter, Philipp; du Bois, Andreas; Schwaab, Ira; Hogdall, Claus K.; Lundvall, Lene; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Paddock, Lisa E.; Rudolph, Anja; Eilber, Ursula; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Ziolkowska-Seta, Izabela; Brinton, Louise; Yang, Hannah; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Despierre, Evelyn; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Sieh, Weiva; McGuire, Valerie; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Lubiński, Jan; Cybulski, Cezary; Menkiszak, Janusz; Jensen, Allan; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Berchuck, Andrew; Wu, Anna H.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Van Den Berg, David; Terry, Kathryn L.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Johnatty, Sharon; deFazio, Anna; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Sellers, Thomas A.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Goode, Ellen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death among women. In an effort to understand contributors to disease outcome, we evaluated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with ovarian cancer recurrence or survival, specifically in angiogenesis, inflammation, mitosis, and drug disposition genes. Methods Twenty-seven SNPs in VHL, HGF, IL18, PRKACB, ABCB1, CYP2C8, ERCC2, and ERCC1 previously associated with ovarian cancer outcome were genotyped in 10,084 invasive cases from 28 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium with over 37,000 observed person-years and 4,478 deaths. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between candidate SNPs and ovarian cancer recurrence or survival with and without adjustment for key covariates. Results We observed no association between genotype and ovarian cancer recurrence or survival for any of the SNPs examined. Conclusions These results refute prior associations between these SNPs and ovarian cancer outcome and underscore the importance of maximally powered genetic association studies. Impact These variants should not be used in prognostic models. Alternate approaches to uncovering inherited prognostic factors, if they exist, are needed. PMID:23513043

  15. Analysis of over 10,000 Cases finds no association between previously reported candidate polymorphisms and ovarian cancer outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kristin L; Vierkant, Robert A; Fogarty, Zachary C; Charbonneau, Bridget; Block, Matthew S; Pharoah, Paul D P; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Rossing, Mary Anne; Cramer, Daniel W; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Menon, Usha; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Levine, Douglas A; Gronwald, Jacek; Culver, Hoda Anton; Whittemore, Alice S; Karlan, Beth Y; Lambrechts, Diether; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Bandera, Elisa V; Hogdall, Estrid; Heitz, Florian; Kaye, Stanley B; Fasching, Peter A; Campbell, Ian; Goodman, Marc T; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie; Lurie, Galina; Eccles, Diana; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Paul, James; Brown, Robert; Flanagan, James M; Harter, Philipp; du Bois, Andreas; Schwaab, Ira; Hogdall, Claus K; Lundvall, Lene; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Paddock, Lisa E; Rudolph, Anja; Eilber, Ursula; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Ziolkowska-Seta, Izabela; Brinton, Louise; Yang, Hannah; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Despierre, Evelyn; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Sieh, Weiva; McGuire, Valerie; Rothstein, Joseph H; Ziogas, Argyrios; Lubinski, Jan; Cybulski, Cezary; Menkiszak, Janusz; Jensen, Allan; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Berchuck, Andrew; Wu, Anna H; Pike, Malcolm C; Van Denberg, David; Terry, Kathryn L; Vitonis, Allison F; Doherty, Jennifer A; Johnatty, Sharon E; Defazio, Anna; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Sellers, Thomas A; Phelan, Catherine M; Kalli, Kimberly R; Cunningham, Julie M; Fridley, Brooke L; Goode, Ellen L

    2013-05-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death among women. In an effort to understand contributors to disease outcome, we evaluated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) previously associated with ovarian cancer recurrence or survival, specifically in angiogenesis, inflammation, mitosis, and drug disposition genes. Twenty-seven SNPs in VHL, HGF, IL18, PRKACB, ABCB1, CYP2C8, ERCC2, and ERCC1 previously associated with ovarian cancer outcome were genotyped in 10,084 invasive cases from 28 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium with over 37,000-observed person-years and 4,478 deaths. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between candidate SNPs and ovarian cancer recurrence or survival with and without adjustment for key covariates. We observed no association between genotype and ovarian cancer recurrence or survival for any of the SNPs examined. These results refute prior associations between these SNPs and ovarian cancer outcome and underscore the importance of maximally powered genetic association studies. These variants should not be used in prognostic models. Alternate approaches to uncovering inherited prognostic factors, if they exist, are needed.

  16. Attitudes toward empirically-supported treatments among pastoral mental health care providers: exploratory findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Matthew T; Naugle, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The current study describes the findings of an online survey of pastoral mental health care providers The survey included brief demographic information, and a validated measure of attitudes toward empirically-supported psychological interventions, the Evidence-based Practices Attitude Scale (EBPAS; Aarons, 2004). The responses of 55 pastoral providers' are described and compared to national norms (Aarons et al., 2010). Recommendations for future collaboration between EST developers and pastoral clinicians are provided.

  17. Value and reliability of findings from previous epidemiologic studies in the assessment of radiation-related cancer risks. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasch, G.; Martignoni, K.

    1990-01-01

    The theories put forward here are predominantly based on pooled data from previous studies in a number of cohorts made up by mostly non-average individuals. These studies were carried out by various researchers and differed in procedures and aims. Factors of major importance to the validity and reliability of the conclusions drawn from this study are pointed out. In one chapter some light is thrown on factors known to bear a relation to the incidence of radiation-induced cancer of the breast, even though at present this can only very vaguely be described on a quantitative basis. These factors include fractionated dose regimens, pregnancies and parturitions, menarche, menopause, synergisms as well as secondary cancer of the breast. The available body of evidence suggests that exposure of each of 1 million women to a dose of 10 mGy (rad) can be linked with approx. 3 additional cases of mammary cancer reported on an average per year after the latency period. The fact that there is some statistical scatter around this value is chiefly attributable to age-related causes at the beginning of exposure. Differences in ethnic and cultural characteristics between the populations investigated appeared to be less important here. (orig./MG) [de

  18. EMNCS – Lessons On The Way To An Innovationbased Development. Empirical Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herciu Mihaela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of (the two parts of this article is on the emerging countries and their development paths. Particularly, it emphasizes on the role and contribution of innovation (of all kinds, in all its forms for multinational companies from emerging economies (EMNC; the entire research endeavor is placed under the auspices of the knowledge-based society - the one that makes knowledge the ultimate source of power, enabling entities to use and potentially multiply it at the same time at global scale. Analyzing the situation of some emerging economies (starting from their best ranked multinationals, the article draws some empirical and theoretical conclusions on the ways knowledge and innovation could become determinants of progress beyond national boundaries.

  19. Empirical findings on socioeconomic determinants of fertility differentials in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, M J; Geithman, D T

    1986-01-01

    "This paper seeks to (1) identify socioeconomic variables that are expected to generate fertility differentials; (2) hypothesize the direction and magnitude of the effect of each variable by reference to a demand-for-children model; and (3) test empirically the model using evidence from Costa Rica. The estimates are obtained from a ten-percent systematic random sample of all Costa Rican individual-family households. There are 15,924 families in the sample...." The authors specifically seek "to capture the effects of changing relative prices and available income and time constraints on parental preferences for children. Least-squares estimates show statistically significant relationships between household fertility and opportunity cost of time, parental education, occurrence of an extended family, medical care, household sanitation, economic sector of employment, and household stock of nonhuman capital." excerpt

  20. 'Measuring' Physical Literacy and Related Constructs: A Systematic Review of Empirical Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lowri C; Bryant, Anna S; Keegan, Richard J; Morgan, Kevin; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Jones, Anwen M

    2018-03-01

    The concept of physical literacy has received increased research and international attention recently. Where intervention programs and empirical research are gaining momentum, their operationalizations differ significantly. The objective of this study was to inform practice in the measure/assessment of physical literacy via a systematic review of research that has assessed physical literacy (up to 14 June, 2017). Five databases were searched using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols guidelines, with 32 published articles meeting the inclusion criteria. English-language, peer-reviewed published papers containing empirical studies of physical literacy were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Qualitative methods included: (1) interviews; (2) open-ended questionnaires; (3) reflective diaries; (4) focus groups; (5) participant observations; and (6) visual methods. Quantitative methods included: (1) monitoring devices (e.g., accelerometers); (2) observations (e.g., of physical activity or motor proficiency); (3) psychometrics (e.g., enjoyment, self-perceptions); (4) performance measures (e.g., exergaming, objective times/distances); (5) anthropometric measurements; and (6) one compound measure. Of the measures that made an explicit distinction: 22 (61%) examined the physical domain, eight (22%) the affective domain; five (14%) the cognitive domain; and one (3%) combined three domains (physical, affective, and cognitive) of physical literacy. Researchers tended to declare their philosophical standpoint significantly more in qualitative research compared with quantitative research. Current research adopts diverse often incompatible methodologies in measuring/assessing physical literacy. Our analysis revealed that by adopting simplistic and linear methods, physical literacy cannot be measured/assessed in a traditional/conventional sense. Therefore, we recommend that researchers are more creative in developing

  1. Environmental policy instruments and technological change in the energy sector: findings from comparative empirical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjaerseth, J.B.; Christiansen, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which and in what ways environmental policy instruments may affect patterns of environmental friendly technological change in the energy sector. Our argument is based on the assumption, however, that technological change is also affected by the political context in which the instruments are applied and by the nature of the problem itself. Comparative empirical research involving different European countries, sectors and policy fields were examined, including climate change, air pollution and wind power. The relationship between environmental policy instruments and technological change is extremely complex, not least due to the impact of other factors that may be more decisive than environmental ones. Against this backdrop, it was concluded that: 1) a portfolio of policy instruments works to the extent that different types of policy instruments affect the different drivers and stages behind technological change needed to solve specific problems. The need for a portfolio of policy instruments depends on the technological challenge being faced; 2) voluntary approaches facilitated constructive corporate strategies, but mandatory approaches tended to be more effective in stimulating short term major technological change; 3) voluntary approaches work well in the short term when the problem to be solved is characterized by lack of information and coordination. (author)

  2. Why do generic drugs fail to achieve an adequate market share in Greece? Empirical findings and policy suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasopoulos, T; Charonis, A; Athanasakis, K; Kyriopoulos, J; Pavi, E

    2017-03-01

    Since 2010, the memoranda of understanding were implemented in Greece as a measure of fiscal adjustment. Public pharmaceutical expenditure was one of the main focuses of this implementation. Numerous policies, targeted on pharma spending, reduced the pharmaceutical budget by 60.5%. Yet, generics' penetration in Greece remained among the lowest among OECD countries. This study aims to highlight the factors that affect the perceptions of the population on generic drugs and to suggest effective policy measures. The empirical analysis is based on a national cross-sectional survey that was conducted through a sample of 2003 individuals, representative of the general population. Two ordinal logistic regression models were constructed in order to identify the determinants that affect the respondents' beliefs on the safety and the effectiveness of generic drugs. The empirical findings presented a positive and statistically significant correlation with income, bill payment difficulties, safety and effectiveness of drugs, prescription and dispensing preferences and the views toward pharmaceutical companies. Also, age and trust toward medical community have a positive and statistically significant correlation with the perception on the safety of generic drugs. Policy interventions are suggested on the bases of the empirical results on 3 major categories; (a) information campaigns, (b) incentives to doctors and pharmacists and (c) to strengthen the bioequivalence control framework and the dissemination of results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Childhood abuse in adults in primary care: Empirical findings and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Jones, John R; Klamo, Rachel; Heeney, Rebecca

    2017-05-01

    In the healthcare setting, adult patients with histories of childhood abuse are of significant concern and are frequently encountered in the primary care setting. However, there is a dearth of studies investigating the relationships between psychopathology, overall health, healthcare utilization, physician ratings of patient difficulty, and childhood abuse. The present study examines these relationships in primary care patients with (N = 45) and without (N = 129) histories of childhood abuse (physical, sexual, and both). Findings revealed that adult patients with histories of childhood abuse generally scored significantly higher on measures of psychopathology, emergency room use, and doctor-patient relationship difficulty, and lower on a measure of mental and physician-rated physical health. In a multiple regression analysis, income and a history of childhood sexual abuse significantly predicted overall mental health. In a second multiple regression analysis, income, depression, somatization, borderline personality disorder, and difficult doctor-patient relationship ratings significantly predicted physician-rated physical health. Overall, these findings suggest that a history of childhood abuse is associated with a host of negative health outcomes. Findings also suggest that negative feelings about a patient may help physicians identify patients with histories of childhood abuse. It is especially important for physicians to routinely include an assessment of childhood abuse during the psychosocial portion of the medical interview or through screening instruments.

  4. Mourning and melancholia revisited: correspondences between principles of Freudian metapsychology and empirical findings in neuropsychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malizia Andrea L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Freud began his career as a neurologist studying the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system, but it was his later work in psychology that would secure his place in history. This paper draws attention to consistencies between physiological processes identified by modern clinical research and psychological processes described by Freud, with a special emphasis on his famous paper on depression entitled 'Mourning and melancholia'. Inspired by neuroimaging findings in depression and deep brain stimulation for treatment resistant depression, some preliminary physiological correlates are proposed for a number of key psychoanalytic processes. Specifically, activation of the subgenual cingulate is discussed in relation to repression and the default mode network is discussed in relation to the ego. If these correlates are found to be reliable, this may have implications for the manner in which psychoanalysis is viewed by the wider psychological and psychiatric communities.

  5. Civil Society Action and Governance in Vietnam: Selected Findings from an Empirical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Wischermann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, findings from 300 standardized interviews with representatives of Civic Organizations in Ho Chi Minh-City and Ha Noi are presented. Following a view of civil society as a specific mode of social action and interaction, data analysis unveils the existence of core dimensions of such action (respect, empathy/ sympathy, and the willingness to compromise and stick to agreed-upon rules, though the respective values of those dimensions vary strongly. Inseparably linked with such civil society action of whatever kind is consensus-seeking, an aversion to conflicts, and an affinity to synthesis. These attitudes and practices, dominating various Civic Organizations’ internal decision-making processes, represent elements of authoritarian political thinking in Civic Organizations’ leaders’ mindsets and courses of action. Combined, those characteristics make up civil society action “in Vietnamese colours”.

  6. Healthcare inequality issues among immigrant elders after neoliberal welfare reform: empirical findings from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Younsook

    2017-06-01

    Even with the increasing importance being placed on research into immigrant elders' healthcare use as countries change their policies to reflect their increasing immigrant and aging populations, little research has examined changes in healthcare use disparities between immigrant and native elders in relation to these policy changes. To fill this gap in the literature, this study examined healthcare disparities in relation to the welfare reform that the US implemented in 1996 and then compared significant indicators of immigrants' healthcare use during the pre- and post-reform periods. The difference-in-difference (DD) analyses and post hoc probing of the DD analyses were used in multivariate logistic regression of the National Health Information Survey data that were pooled for the pre- and post-reform periods. The results revealed that while inequalities in healthcare existed before the reform, they significantly increased after the reform. A further test showed that the changes in the inequalities were significant among relatively long-stay immigrants, but not significant among immigrants who entered the US before the reform and thus were exempted from the reform restrictions. During the pre-reform period, insurance, employment, sex, and race/ethnicity were related to healthcare use; however, the enabling factors (i.e., insurance, income, and education) and social structural factors (i.e., marital status, family structure, length of US residency, race/ethnicity, and geographical region) explained the post-reform immigrants' healthcare use, while controlling for healthcare needs factors. These findings suggest that welfare reform may be the driving force of inequalities in healthcare.

  7. Intelligence in Bali - A case study on estimating mean IQ for a population using various corrections based on theory and empirical findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rindermann, H.; te Nijenhuis, J.

    2012-01-01

    A high-quality estimate of the mean IQ of a country requires giving a well-validated test to a nationally representative sample, which usually is not feasible in developing countries. So, we used a convenience sample and four corrections based on theory and empirical findings to arrive at a

  8. Experimental paracoccidioidomycosis in the mouse. III. Histopathological and immunological findings after intravenous infection in the presence or absence of previous immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Moscardi Bacchi

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty male white Swiss mice aged 4 weeks were inoculated with 5 x 10(5 viable yeast forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (strain 18. Ten of these animals had been previously immunized with particulate P. brasiliensis antigenfor 4 weeks by intradermal injection. The controls consisted of 10 animals that were only immunized and 10 animals submitted to no treatment. The animals were sacrificed 2, 4, 7,11 and 16 weeks later. We studied: 1 the anti-P. brasiliensis delayed hypersensitivity response measured by the footpad test 24 hours prior to sacrifice; 2 the specific antibody production measured by double immunodiffusion in agar gel; 3 the histopathology of lungs, liver, spleen, adrenals and kidneys. We observed that: a the immunized animals developed more intense cell-immune responses than the infected ones; b infection reduced the cell- immune response of the immunized animals; c intravenous infection of mice with P. brasiliensis was characterized by a systemic and progressive granulomatous inflammation. The animals infected after previous immunization showed less extensive lung inflammation, with smaller granulomas and fewer fungi. The results indicate that the present murine model mimics some findings of the human subacute form of paracoccidioidomycosis (systemic disease with depressed cellular immunity and that the extrapulmonary immunization scheme was able to induce a certain degree of protection of the lung from infection with P. brasiliensisCinqüenta camundongos suíços, brancos, com quatro semanas de idade, foram inoculados com 5x10(5 formas leveduriformes, viáveis de Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis (cepa 18. Dez destes animais tinham sido previamente imunizados com antígeno particulado de P. brasiliensis, durante quatro semanas, por injeção intradérmica. Os controles consistiram de 10 animais que foram somente imunizados e 10 inoculados com solução salina estéril. Os animais foram sacrificados após 2, 4, 7, 11 e 16 semanas

  9. Finding proof negative: Tracing the empirical footprint of collective linguistic avoidance in historical American and British newspaper texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacQueen Donald S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic avoidance - the conscious or unconscious non-use of a problematic language expression and/or the substitution of another - is difficult to demonstrate empirically in historical terms, as it constitutes a negative action that leaves no positive trace. However, all hope is not lost for the empiricist: the very conspicuousness of the problematic expression’s absence can in fact be measured across a time period. A perhaps unique case in point in English is the avoidance of number-word expressions such as five millions of individuals and, alternatively, five million individuals precisely at the point in history when it became unclear which of the two expressions was the correct one, i.e. when usage was shifting. At this point, newspapers in the US and the UK, following patterns that were similar but not contemporaneous, began to favor numerical expressions like 5,000,000 individuals. The timing of the shift corresponded to the time gap between US and UK newspapers in their respective gradual rejection of the now obsolescent (Obs five millions of individuals in favor of the present-day English (PdE construction five million individuals. Then, in both countries, newspapers largely discontinued the use of numerical expressions like 5,000,000 individuals when it had become clear that the PdE construction had prevailed. In other words, the numerical expression was conspicuously substituted to avoid choosing between the Obs and PdE versions of the numberword expression, and this avoidance left a clear empirical trace.

  10. Legibility based on differentiation of characters: A review of empirical findings fundamental for the type design practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Nedeljković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyse findings in the field of the pattern recognition, visual word recognition and legibility ofgraphemes. The paper focuses on the most significant findings for comprehending the function of the graphemic characteristic during word and letter recognition. The aim of the study, as it is presented in the discussion part, was to analyse the factors which have induced inconsistencies between the findings acquired by confusion matrix, as well as to compare findings which continually lead type scholars to progression.

  11. Unexpected finding of T-cell lymphoma in a previously healthy 16-year-old patient after a thorax trauma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach Okholm-Hansen, Anna; Brorson, Stig

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We describe the clinical course and emphasize the difficulties in diagnosing T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. The differential diagnostic difficulties have previously been described in regard to pneumonia, but to the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first case report...... to describe lymphoma in relation to trauma.CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 16-year-old Danish boy presented to our hospital with chest pain and accentuated protruding thoracic veins. Ten days prior to hospitalization he had suffered a blunt thoracic trauma while playing soccer. After drainage...... of an excessive amount of pleural fluid, he developed severe respiratory distress. A chest tube was inserted and he was transferred to a level 1 trauma centre. Here, a computed tomography scan unexpectedly revealed significantly swollen mediastinal and retroperitoneal lymph nodes, and he was later diagnosed...

  12. Molecular analysis of clinical isolates previously diagnosed as Mycobacterium intracellulare reveals incidental findings of "Mycobacterium indicus pranii" genotypes in human lung infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Young; Park, Hye Yun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Han, Seung-Jung; Shin, Sung Jae; Koh, Won-Jung

    2015-09-30

    Mycobacterium intracellulare is a major cause of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease in many countries. Molecular studies have revealed several new Mycobacteria species that are closely related to M. intracellulare. The aim of this study was to re-identify and characterize clinical isolates from patients previously diagnosed with M. intracellulare lung disease at the molecular level. Mycobacterial isolates from 77 patients, initially diagnosed with M. intracellulare lung disease were re-analyzed by multi-locus sequencing and pattern of insertion sequences. Among the 77 isolates, 74 (96 %) isolates were designated as M. intracellulare based on multigene sequence-based analysis. Interestingly, the three remaining strains (4 %) were re-identified as "Mycobacterium indicus pranii" according to distinct molecular phylogenetic positions in rpoB and hsp65 sequence-based typing. In hsp65 sequevar analysis, code 13 was found in the majority of cases and three unreported codes were identified. In 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequevar analysis, all isolates of both species were classified within the Min-A ITS sequevar. Interestingly, four of the M. intracellulare isolates harbored IS1311, a M. avium-specific element. Two of three patients infected with "M. indicus pranii" had persistent positive sputum cultures after antibiotic therapy, indicating the clinical relevance of this study. This analysis highlights the importance of precise identification of clinical isolates genetically close to Mycobacterium species, and suggests that greater attention should be paid to nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease caused by "M. indicus pranii".

  13. Using adapted budget cost variance techniques to measure the impact of Lean – based on empirical findings in Lean case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Borup

    2015-01-01

    Lean is dominating management philosophy, but the management accounting techniques that best supports this is still not fully understood. Especially how Lean fits traditional budget variance analysis, which is a main theme of every management accounting textbook. I have studied three Scandinavian...... excellent Lean performing companies and their development of budget variance analysis techniques. Based on these empirical findings techniques are presented to calculate cost and cost variances in the Lean companies. First of all, a cost variance is developed to calculate the Lean cost benefits within...... the budget period by using master budget standards and updated standards. The variance between them represents systematic Lean cost improvements. Secondly, an additional cost variance calculation technique is introduced to assess improved and systematic cost variances across multiple budget periods...

  14. An Empirical Exploration of the Antecedents and Outcomes of NPD Portfolio Success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, L.; Hultink, H.J.; Griffin, A.

    2013-01-01

    The manuscript first combines theory and previous empirical findings to build a model of new product development portfolio success. Because relationships between product development portfolio decision-making effectiveness, portfolio success and firm-level success have not previously been

  15. CORRELATION BETWEEN RISK-TAKING AND RISK-AVERTING BEHAVIOR DURING THE WHITE-COLLAR CRIME PERPETRATING: EMPIRICAL FINDINGS FOR MOLDOVA AND ISRAEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia GÎRLA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article constitutes an independent scientific research in Criminology. Especially, authors have done their best to explain and to prove the correlation between risk-taking and risk averting behavior during the white-collar perpetrating. Authors have demonstrated that risk is not only a probability of losses but also forms a threat of unpredictable development of events. As a consequence, when a person avoids risking it is also a risk because there appears a great likelihood of undesirable expansion of events outside the risk. New theoretical concepts are formulated on the base of empirical findings obtained from the correlation of the personality traits (Extroversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Openness and Consciousness in male and female white-collar offenders predisposed to risky decisions in business administration because such decisions are based on intuition and there is detected a deficiency of reasonability.By means of empirical research based on psychological experiment and sociological interview of the white-collar offenders and the control groups there have been proved that inclination to risk being a quality of a person (a personality trait which is expressed in a permanent tendency to use new possibilities in some cases can indicate to a propensity of a person to commit white-collar crimes.Corelaţia dintre comportamentul centrat pe risc şi cel bazat pe evitarea riscului în procesul comiterii infracţiunii „gulerelor albe”: DATE EMPIRICE PENTRU MOLDOVA ŞI ISRAELAcest articol constituie un studiu ştiinţific independent în materia de criminologie. În special, autorii au încercat să explice şi să demonstreze corelaţia dintre comportamentul centrat pe risc şi cel bazat pe evitarea riscului în procesul comiterii infracţiunii gulerelor albe. Autorii au demonstrat că riscul reprezintă nu doar o probabilitate de pierderi, dar şi constituie o ameninţare prin evoluţia imprevizibilă a evenimentelor

  16. Lost in Translation: Piloting a Novel Framework to Assess the Challenges in Translating Scientific Uncertainty From Empirical Findings to WHO Policy Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Benmarhnia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Calls for evidence-informed public health policy, with implicit promises of greater program effectiveness, have intensified recently. The methods to produce such policies are not self-evident, requiring a conciliation of values and norms between policy-makers and evidence producers. In particular, the translation of uncertainty from empirical research findings, particularly issues of statistical variability and generalizability, is a persistent challenge because of the incremental nature of research and the iterative cycle of advancing knowledge and implementation. This paper aims to assess how the concept of uncertainty is considered and acknowledged in World Health Organization (WHO policy recommendations and guidelines. Methods We selected four WHO policy statements published between 2008-2013 regarding maternal and child nutrient supplementation, infant feeding, heat action plans, and malaria control to represent topics with a spectrum of available evidence bases. Each of these four statements was analyzed using a novel framework to assess the treatment of statistical variability and generalizability. Results WHO currently provides substantial guidance on addressing statistical variability through GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation ratings for precision and consistency in their guideline documents. Accordingly, our analysis showed that policy-informing questions were addressed by systematic reviews and representations of statistical variability (eg, with numeric confidence intervals. In contrast, the presentation of contextual or “background” evidence regarding etiology or disease burden showed little consideration for this variability. Moreover, generalizability or “indirectness” was uniformly neglected, with little explicit consideration of study settings or subgroups. Conclusion In this paper, we found that non-uniform treatment of statistical variability and generalizability

  17. Lost in Translation: Piloting a Novel Framework to Assess the Challenges in Translating Scientific Uncertainty From Empirical Findings to WHO Policy Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Huang, Jonathan Y; Jones, Catherine M

    2017-03-01

    Calls for evidence-informed public health policy, with implicit promises of greater program effectiveness, have intensified recently. The methods to produce such policies are not self-evident, requiring a conciliation of values and norms between policy-makers and evidence producers. In particular, the translation of uncertainty from empirical research findings, particularly issues of statistical variability and generalizability, is a persistent challenge because of the incremental nature of research and the iterative cycle of advancing knowledge and implementation. This paper aims to assess how the concept of uncertainty is considered and acknowledged in World Health Organization (WHO) policy recommendations and guidelines. We selected four WHO policy statements published between 2008-2013 regarding maternal and child nutrient supplementation, infant feeding, heat action plans, and malaria control to represent topics with a spectrum of available evidence bases. Each of these four statements was analyzed using a novel framework to assess the treatment of statistical variability and generalizability. WHO currently provides substantial guidance on addressing statistical variability through GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) ratings for precision and consistency in their guideline documents. Accordingly, our analysis showed that policy-informing questions were addressed by systematic reviews and representations of statistical variability (eg, with numeric confidence intervals). In contrast, the presentation of contextual or "background" evidence regarding etiology or disease burden showed little consideration for this variability. Moreover, generalizability or "indirectness" was uniformly neglected, with little explicit consideration of study settings or subgroups. In this paper, we found that non-uniform treatment of statistical variability and generalizability factors that may contribute to uncertainty regarding recommendations

  18. Inglorious Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khair, Tabish

    2017-01-01

    Review of 'Inglorious Empire: What the British did to India' by Shashi Tharoor, London, Hurst Publishers, 2017, 296 pp., £20.00......Review of 'Inglorious Empire: What the British did to India' by Shashi Tharoor, London, Hurst Publishers, 2017, 296 pp., £20.00...

  19. The Thurgood Marshall School of Law Empirical Findings: A Report of the Statistical Analysis of the July 2010 TMSL Texas Bar Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhi, Tau; Holley, D.

    2010-01-01

    The following report gives the statistical findings of the July 2010 TMSL Bar results. Procedures: Data is pre-existing and was given to the Evaluator by email from the Registrar and Dean. Statistical analyses were run using SPSS 17 to address the following research questions: 1. What are the statistical descriptors of the July 2010 overall TMSL…

  20. The Thurgood Marshall School of Law Empirical Findings: A Report of the Statistical Analysis of the February 2010 TMSL Texas Bar Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhi, T.; Holley, D.; Rudley, D.; Garrison, P.; Green, T.

    2010-01-01

    The following report gives the statistical findings of the 2010 Thurgood Marshall School of Law (TMSL) Texas Bar results. This data was pre-existing and was given to the Evaluator by email from the Dean. Then, in-depth statistical analyses were run using the SPSS 17 to address the following questions: 1. What are the statistical descriptors of the…

  1. The Thurgood Marshall School of Law Empirical Findings: A Report of the Watson-Glaser for the 2009-2010 Test Takers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhi, T.; Palasota, A.; Holley, D.; Rudley, D.

    2010-01-01

    The following report gives the statistical findings of the 2009-2010 Watson-Glaser test. Data is pre-existing and was given to the Evaluator by email from the Director, Center for Legal Pedagogy. Statistical analyses were run using SPSS 17 to address the following questions: 1. What are the statistical descriptors of the Watson-Glaser results of…

  2. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  3. Conceptual aspects: analyses law, ethical, human, technical, social factors of development ICT, e-learning and intercultural development in different countries setting out the previous new theoretical model and preliminary findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Smyrnova-Trybulska, Eugenia; Morze, Natalia; Issa, Tomayess; Issa, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    This paper, prepared by an international team of authors focuses on the conceptual aspects: analyses law, ethical, human, technical, social factors of ICT development, e-learning and intercultural development in different countries, setting out the previous and new theoretical model and preliminary

  4. Eclectic continuum, distinct discipline or sub-domain of communication studies? Theoretical considerations and empirical findings on the disciplinarity, multidisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity of journalism studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Löffelholz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Is journalism studies a sub-domain of communication studies, adistinct discipline, a multidisciplinary merger or a transdisciplinary endeavour? This question is discussed by analyzing the 2008 and2009 volumes of seven academic journals focusing on journalismresearch. The sample includes 349 articles published in BrazilianJournalism Research, Ecquid Novi, Journalism & CommunicationMonographs, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, PacificJournalism Review, Journalism Studies, or Journalism: Theory,Practice and Criticism. Overall, the findings reveal that journalismresearch mainly applies theoretical approaches and empiricalmethods deriving from other disciplines, particularly sociology, psychology or cultural studies. In many countries, however, journalism studies has reached a comparatively high level of institutionalization indicated by the large number of specific schools, professorships, professional associations and respective academic journals. In conclusion, we argue that journalism studies is a sub-domain of communication studies, which integrates andtranscends various disciplines aiming to become one of the axialsubjects of the 21st century.

  5. ECLECTIC CONTINUUM, DISTINCT DISCIPLINE OR SUB-DOMAIN OF COMMUNICATION STUDIES? Theoretical considerations and empirical findings on the disciplinarity, multidisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity of journalism studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Rothenberger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Is journalism studies a sub-domain of communication studies, adistinct discipline, a multidisciplinary merger or a transdisciplinary endeavour? This question is discussed by analyzing the 2008 and2009 volumes of seven academic journals focusing on journalismresearch. The sample includes 349 articles published in BrazilianJournalism Research, Ecquid Novi, Journalism & CommunicationMonographs, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, PacificJournalism Review, Journalism Studies, or Journalism: Theory,Practice and Criticism. Overall, the findings reveal that journalismresearch mainly applies theoretical approaches and empiricalmethods deriving from other disciplines, particularly sociology, psychology or cultural studies. In many countries, however, journalism studies has reached a comparatively high level of institutionalization indicated by the large number of specific schools, professorships, professional associations and respective academic journals. In conclusion, we argue that journalism studies is a sub-domain of communication studies, which integrates andtranscends various disciplines aiming to become one of the axialsubjects of the 21st century.

  6. Empirical likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, Art B

    2001-01-01

    Empirical likelihood provides inferences whose validity does not depend on specifying a parametric model for the data. Because it uses a likelihood, the method has certain inherent advantages over resampling methods: it uses the data to determine the shape of the confidence regions, and it makes it easy to combined data from multiple sources. It also facilitates incorporating side information, and it simplifies accounting for censored, truncated, or biased sampling.One of the first books published on the subject, Empirical Likelihood offers an in-depth treatment of this method for constructing confidence regions and testing hypotheses. The author applies empirical likelihood to a range of problems, from those as simple as setting a confidence region for a univariate mean under IID sampling, to problems defined through smooth functions of means, regression models, generalized linear models, estimating equations, or kernel smooths, and to sampling with non-identically distributed data. Abundant figures offer vi...

  7. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  8. Children Who Witness Domestic Violence: A Review of Empirical Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbo, Jerome R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents a review of the empirical literature examining the initial effects of witnessing domestic violence on children's functioning. Although results are somewhat inconclusive regarding children's social, cognitive, and physical development, findings of recently conducted investigations, when combined and compared with the previously reviewed…

  9. Empirical Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.; Talman, R.

    1987-01-01

    As proton accelerators get larger, and include more magnets, the conventional tracking programs which simulate them run slower. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method, still under development, in which element-by-element tracking around one turn is replaced by a single man, which can be processed far faster. It is assumed for this method that a conventional program exists which can perform faithful tracking in the lattice under study for some hundreds of turns, with all lattice parameters held constant. An empirical map is then generated by comparison with the tracking program. A procedure has been outlined for determining an empirical Hamiltonian, which can represent motion through many nonlinear kicks, by taking data from a conventional tracking program. Though derived by an approximate method this Hamiltonian is analytic in form and can be subjected to further analysis of varying degrees of mathematical rigor. Even though the empirical procedure has only been described in one transverse dimension, there is good reason to hope that it can be extended to include two transverse dimensions, so that it can become a more practical tool in realistic cases

  10. Empirical Findings from Dutch Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    van der Vorst, Jack G.A.J.; Peeters, Lotte; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    with environmental and social performance. Therefore, in 2012, we started a collaborative project on this topic named SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems). SCALE aims to improve the sustainability of food and drink supply chain logistics in the context of rising food demands, increasing energy prices and the need to reduce environmentally damaging emissions. More in particular, SCALE aims to deliver a number of tools and frameworks valuable for the agri-food sector to secure ...

  11. The aftermath of rape: recent empirical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Dean G; Veronen, Lois J; Resick, Patricia A

    1979-10-01

    In a longitudinal study of the effects of rape on a woman's subsequent psychological functioning, objective measures of mood state and psychological distress were obtained at four intervals from 46 recent rape victims and 35 nonvictims. Initial response to rape was characterized by intense generalized distress. Three months and six months later, this distress had diminished, leaving a residual of fear and anxiety problems that were clearly rape-related. Implications for treatment are discussed.

  12. Essays in empirical microeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Péter, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of three papers using empirical methods to study issues in public and social economics. My first paper, co-authored with Julian Betts, analyzes the performance of San Diego's charter schools using fixed-effect methods on panel student data. We find that charter school performance in San Diego varies by subject matter, grades served, school type and years of operation. In many cases, we find that charter school performance is indistinguishable from that of tradit...

  13. Empire Redux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercau, Ezequiel

    from the legacies of empire. Taking decolonization as a starting point, this thesis demonstrates how the idea of a ‘British world’ gained a new lease of life vis-à-vis the Falklands, as the Islanders adopted the rhetorical mantle of ‘abandoned Britons’. Yet this new momentum was partial and fractured......The Falklands War was shrouded in symbolism and permeated with imperial rhetoric, imagery and memories, bringing to the fore divergent conceptions of Britishness, kinship and belonging. The current dispute, moreover, is frequently framed in terms of national identity, and accusations of imperialism......, as evinced by the developments triggered by the Argentine invasion in 1982. Despite the apparent firmness of the British government’s commitment to the Islands, cracks and fissures over the meaning of Britishness were simultaneously magnified. The perceived temporal dislocation of defending loyal Britons...

  14. The nonlinear link between height and wages: an empirical investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Hübler, Olaf

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between individual wages and height using the German Socio-Economic Panel where five hypotheses are tested. Some explanations of a positive link exist and empirical studies confirm this hypothesis. In contrast to previous investigations which are only based on a linear effect this paper finds that the individual height effects on wages are curvilinear. During the considered period from 1985 to 2004 we observe a slightly nonlinear falling trend. After...

  15. Justifiability of Littering: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Benno Torgler; Maria A. Garcia-Valinas; Alison Macintyre

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between voluntary participation in environmental organisations and the justifiability of littering behaviour. Previous empirical work regarding determinants of littering and littering behaviour remains scarce, particularly in socio-economic analysis. We address these deficiencies, demonstrating a strong empirical link between environmental participation and reduced public littering in the European Values Survey (EVS) data for 30 Western and Eastern Eur...

  16. Between Empire and Anti-Empire: African Mission in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bate, Stuart C.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is always empire and anti-empire in societies. An analytical lens needs to see both together to provide a better understanding of human society. This is particularly important when it comes to issues of religion which resides in some form in both empire and anti-empire. This presentation will unpack five points. Firstly it will present a brief historiography of the existence of empire and anti-empire mainly but not exclusively as it relates to Christianity. Secondly it will provide the main parameters of a social analysis of the nature of empire and anti-empire. Thirdly it will articulate the specific role of religion (again mainly Christianity in the societies of empire and anti-empire. Fourthly it will apply these findings to the specific context of Africa (mainly South Africa indicating two signs of empire and anti-empire in our past and present context. Finally it will provide some goals for Mission in 21st century Africa which go beyond the empire/anti-empire paradigm. These are based on a vision of transformational authority centred in the paschal mystery.

  17. Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. I....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases....

  18. Empirical determinants of relationship lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Loukil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the determinants of the incidence of relationship lending. For our study, we combine established insights from the study of Elsas with empirical banking relationship lending literature. We relate loan contract and borrower characteristics to self-assessments of Tunisian banks with respect to the existence of close relationship. Using detailed loan contract information from Tunisian banks and a questionnaire addressed to loan officers, we report the first comprehensive evidence on the development of relationship lending. We find that access to information, the ability to influence the manager, and the solvency of the company are relevant factors. While the exclusivity and the duration of the relationship, classic measures of the existence of close ties with the bank, are not determining factors. So these proxy measures should be used with caution in future empirical works.

  19. The Myth of Global Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mires

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay openly questions the new phantom that is going all around the world, called the Marxism-Globalism. The critiques are exposed through the reading of one of the most discussed book in these last years: Empire, written by Richard Hardt y Toni Negri. According to the author of current essay, the difference between Marxism-Leninism and the Marxism-Globalism, is that the first of them brought with it the promise of total security (no properties, no State, no social classes, and the second one brought the dammed promise of total globality (Capitalism Empire, in which we find, in the right hand, the world market spirit, and, in the left hand, the globalities of postmodernism.

  20. Empirical Philosophy of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansnerus, Erika; Wagenknecht, Susann

    2015-01-01

    The book examines the emerging approach of using qualitative methods, such as interviews and field observations, in the philosophy of science. Qualitative methods are gaining popularity among philosophers of science as more and more scholars are resorting to empirical work in their study...... of scientific practices. At the same time, the results produced through empirical work are quite different from those gained through the kind of introspective conceptual analysis more typical of philosophy. This volume explores the benefits and challenges of an empirical philosophy of science and addresses...

  1. Theological reflections on empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan A. Boesak

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the meeting of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches in Accra, Ghana (2004, and the adoption of the Accra Declaration, a debate has been raging in the churches about globalisation, socio-economic justice, ecological responsibility, political and cultural domination and globalised war. Central to this debate is the concept of empire and the way the United States is increasingly becoming its embodiment. Is the United States a global empire? This article argues that the United States has indeed become the expression of a modern empire and that this reality has considerable consequences, not just for global economics and politics but for theological refl ection as well.

  2. Empires, Nations, and Revolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    This essay examines the ways in which the age of revolutions expanded the repertoire of political ideas and identities available to new and old political subjects. It questions the traditional narrative that replaces a model of old regimes and empires with a new one of imagined unitary nation-states. Instead, it argues that the nature of the political crisis of the Iberian empires gave rise to a reinvention of familiar categories, like monarchy and empire, and sired a wider range of new ones that did not fit the national mold.

  3. Life Writing After Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in order to understand how individual life writing reflects broader societal changes. From far-flung corners of the former British Empire, people have turned to life writing to manage painful or nostalgic memories, as well as to think about the past and future of the nation anew through the personal......A watershed moment of the twentieth century, the end of empire saw upheavals to global power structures and national identities. However, decolonisation profoundly affected individual subjectivities too. Life Writing After Empire examines how people around the globe have made sense of the post...... experience. In a range of innovative and insightful contributions, some of the foremost scholars of the field challenge the way we think about narrative, memory and identity after empire. This book was originally published as a special issue of Life Writing....

  4. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  5. Empirical philosophy of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann; Nersessian, Nancy J.; Andersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of philosophers of science make use of qualitative empirical data, a development that may reconfigure the relations between philosophy and sociology of science and that is reminiscent of efforts to integrate history and philosophy of science. Therefore, the first part...... of this introduction to the volume Empirical Philosophy of Science outlines the history of relations between philosophy and sociology of science on the one hand, and philosophy and history of science on the other. The second part of this introduction offers an overview of the papers in the volume, each of which...... is giving its own answer to questions such as: Why does the use of qualitative empirical methods benefit philosophical accounts of science? And how should these methods be used by the philosopher?...

  6. Empirical philosophy of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann; Nersessian, Nancy J.; Andersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of philosophers of science make use of qualitative empirical data, a development that may reconfigure the relations between philosophy and sociology of science and that is reminiscent of efforts to integrate history and philosophy of science. Therefore, the first part...... of this introduction to the volume Empirical Philosophy of Science outlines the history of relations between philosophy and sociology of science on the one hand, and philosophy and history of science on the other. The second part of this introduction offers an overview of the papers in the volume, each of which...

  7. Empirical comparison of theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opp, K.D.; Wippler, R.

    1990-01-01

    The book represents the first, comprehensive attempt to take an empirical approach for comparative assessment of theories in sociology. The aims, problems, and advantages of the empirical approach are discussed in detail, and the three theories selected for the purpose of this work are explained. Their comparative assessment is performed within the framework of several research projects, which among other subjects also investigate the social aspects of the protest against nuclear power plants. The theories analysed in this context are the theory of mental incongruities and that of the benefit, and their efficiency in explaining protest behaviour is compared. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. International competitiveness : Empirical findings from SME service firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coviello, NE; Ghauri, PN; Martin, KAM

    1998-01-01

    This article extends Buckley, Pass, and Prescott (1988, 1990, 1992) by using case research to examine factors contributing to international competitiveness, in the context of SME software developers and engineering consultants. The results indicate that universal prescriptions of international

  9. Corporate Social Responsibility in Agribusiness: Empirical Findings from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Heyder, Matthias; Theuvsen, Ludwig

    2009-01-01

    The social responsibility of businesses has developed into a highly debated issue in recent years. Especially in agribusiness, recent scandals as well as information asymmetries concerning food production have led to high external pressure on firms from the wider public. Being confronted with a variety of stakeholder goals and relationships, it could be particularly advantageous for enterprises in agribusiness to pursue a corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategy. Based on a literature r...

  10. Lean Manufacturing, Mass Customization and their relationships - empirical findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    2004-01-01

    The concepts of lean manufacturing and mass customization both depart from the paradigm of mass production and are suggested as new paradigms of manufacturing, however they differ conceptually and practically. Conceptually, it is debatable whether the concepts are mutually exclusive or supportive...... and from a practical point of view their maturity differs, i.e., lean manufacturing has a toolbox inherited from the JIT-age, a mapping tool “Value stream mapping” and a set of guiding principles, while mass customization is not developed to the same extent, and is still more a business concept than...... a manufacturing concept. A number of conceptual articles have discussed similarities and differences between the concepts of lean manufacturing and mass customization, however very few have investigated this quantitatively. This article describes the results of a survey conducted amongst some 75 Danish...

  11. Computers and Management Structure: Some Empirical Findings Re-examined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Daniel

    1977-01-01

    Studies that relate computerization to either centralization or decentralization of organizational decision making are reviewed. Four issues are addressed that relate to conceptual or methodological problems. (Author/MLF)

  12. Road Crashes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Empirical Findings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Key Words: Road Crash; Fatalities; Serious Injuries; Minor Injuries; Safety. Introduction. Road crashes nowadays are becoming a global public health concern, especially in. African countries. According to a World Health Organization report in 2015, Ethiopia is one of the 50 countries with the deadliest roads in the world ...

  13. Empirical findings about organisational innovation in a Danish Municipality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Laia

    innovation journey of the Children and Youth administration in Gentofte Municipality, Denmark . The investigation departures from the realisation of a new political school vision in Gentofte Municipality. In an innovative way the vision challenges the traditional organisation of the public school system...... how this can be done and reflects on the need for improving theory and methods of studying innovation. In addressing these gaps in the literature, this paper reports on an exploratory study which seeks to contribute to theory-building in this area. The paper presents the results of the first...

  14. Cultural continuity in values: Theoretical imperatives and empirical findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herk, H.; Poortinga, Y.H.

    2011-01-01

    There is supposed to be substantial consistency of values in a cultural group across historical time. This viewpoint is being supported by a host of arguments pointing to similarities between current cultural practices and ideas and those centuries and even millennia ago. First we will critically

  15. Empirical findings on progress and challenges in a novice students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Computer Science and Its Application. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. A note on: an empirical comparison of forgetting models

    OpenAIRE

    Sikström, Sverker; Jaber, Mohamad Y.

    2004-01-01

    In the above paper, Nembhard and Osothsilp (2001) empirically compared several forgetting models against empirical data on production breaks. Among the models compared was the learn–forget curve model (LFCM) developed by Jaber and Bonney(1996). In previous research, several studies have shown that the LFCM is advantageous to some of the models being investigated, however, Nembhard and Osothsilp (2001) found that the LFCM showed the largest deviation from empirical data. In this commentary, we...

  17. The Empire Strikes Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micklitz, Hans-W.; Pałka, Przemysław; Panagis, Yannis

    2017-01-01

    The authors argue that it is possible to partly automate the process of abstract control of fairness of clauses in online consumer contracts. The authors present a theoretical and empirical argument for this claim, including a brief presentation of the software they have designed. This type...

  18. Essays in empirical microeconomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Péter, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    The empirical studies in this thesis investigate various factors that could affect individuals' labor market, family formation and educational outcomes. Chapter 2 focuses on scheduling as a potential determinant of individuals' productivity. Chapter 3 looks at the role of a family factor on

  19. Empirically sampling Universal Dependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schluter, Natalie; Agic, Zeljko

    2017-01-01

    Universal Dependencies incur a high cost in computation for unbiased system development. We propose a 100% empirically chosen small subset of UD languages for efficient parsing system development. The technique used is based on measurements of model capacity globally. We show that the diversity o...

  20. Empirical Music Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    musical performance and reception is inspired by traditional approaches within aesthetics, but it also challenges some of the presuppositions inherent in them. As an example of such work I present a research project in empirical music aesthetics begun last year and of which I am a team member....

  1. Empirical research and logotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulenberg, Stefan E

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this paper was to outline suggestions for future logotherapy applications and research. Empirical studies are available on logotherapy constructs, but additional research is sorely needed. The psychometrics of logotherapy measures need to be expanded. Carefully conducted experimental studies may aid in refining long-standing logotherapy concepts and supporting or refuting new ones.

  2. Association between obstetric complications & previous pregnancy outcomes with current pregnancy outcomes in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deepti; Goli, Srinivas; Parsuraman, Sulabha

    2014-01-01

    A substantial proportion of pregnant women in India are at the risk of serious obstetric complications and reliable information on obstetric morbidity is scanty, particularly in socio-economically disadvantaged society. We studied the association between the obstetric complications in women in their current pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes in previous pregnancies in Uttar Pradesh, India. Data from District Level Household Survey (2007-2008) were used for empirical assessment. Bivariate, trivariate and Cox proportional hazard regression model analyses were applied to examine the effect of obstetric complications and previous pregnancy outcome on current pregnancy outcome among currently married women (age group 15-49 yr) in Uttar Pradesh, India. The results of this study showed that the obstetric complications in the current pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes in previous pregnancies were associated with the outcome of the current pregnancy. Cox proportional hazard regression model estimates revealed that the hazard ratio of having stillbirths were significantly higher among women with any obstetric complications compared to women with no obstetric complications. The adverse pregnancy outcome in a previous pregnancy was the largest risk factor for likelihood of developing similar type of adverse pregnancy outcome in the current pregnancy. The findings provided key insights for health policy interventions in terms of prevention of obstetric complications to avoid the adverse pregnancy outcome in women.

  3. Gazprom: the new empire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemoles, A.; Lazareva, A.

    2008-01-01

    Gazprom is conquering the world. The Russian industrial giant owns the hugest gas reserves and enjoys the privilege of a considerable power. Gazprom edits journals, owns hospitals, airplanes and has even built cities where most of the habitants work for him. With 400000 workers, Gazprom represents 8% of Russia's GDP. This inquiry describes the history and operation of this empire and show how its has become a masterpiece of the government's strategy of russian influence reconquest at the world scale. Is it going to be a winning game? Are the corruption affairs and the expected depletion of resources going to weaken the empire? The authors shade light on the political and diplomatic strategies that are played around the crucial dossier of the energy supply. (J.S.)

  4. Empires, Modernisation and Modernities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Ballantyne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In examining four recent books, this essay explores some key facets of contemporary scholarship on empire and the making of the modern world. Drawing on Dipesh Chakrabarty’s arguments about the often contingent relationship between modernisation as a set of material and institutional transformations and modernity as a cultural sensibility, it argues that the unfolding of the modern was messy, uneven, and remained in process until the age of decolonisation. The essay suggests that the range of modern formations that emerged out of empire-building were profoundly imprinted by local socio-political patterns and the weight of precolonial cultural traditions, meaning that modernisation never played out as an entirely homogenising force.

  5. Governance and Human Development: Empirical Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study empirically investigates the effects of governance on human development in Nigeria. Using annual time series data covering the period 1998 to 2010, obtained from various sources, and employing the classical least squares estimation technique, the study finds that corruption, foreign aid and government ...

  6. Trade and Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    2007-01-01

    This articles seeks to establish a new set of organizing concepts for the analysis of the Roman imperial economy from Republic to late antiquity: tributary empire, port-folio capitalism and protection costs. Together these concepts explain better economic developments in the Roman world than the ...... much used notion of an imperial market economy.  Roman imperial government was to weak to provide the institutional supports needed by a well functioning laissez-faire economy....

  7. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  8. Advancing empirical resilience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Raffael; Müller, Marianne B; Tüscher, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We are delighted by the broad, intense, and fruitful discussion in reaction to our target article. A major point we take from the many comments is a prevailing feeling in the research community that we need significantly and urgently to advance resilience research, both by sharpening concepts and theories and by conducting empirical studies at a much larger scale and with a much more extended and sophisticated methodological arsenal than is the case currently. This advancement can be achieved only in a concerted international collaborative effort. In our response, we try to argue that an explicitly atheoretical, purely observational definition of resilience and a transdiagnostic, quantitative study framework can provide a suitable basis for empirically testing different competing resilience theories (sects. R1, R2, R6, R7). We are confident that it should be possible to unite resilience researchers from different schools, including from sociology and social psychology, behind such a pragmatic and theoretically neutral research strategy. In sections R3 to R5, we further specify and explain the positive appraisal style theory of resilience (PASTOR). We defend PASTOR as a comparatively parsimonious and translational theory that makes sufficiently concrete predictions to be evaluated empirically.

  9. Reframing Serial Murder Within Empirical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurian, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    Empirical research on serial murder is limited due to the lack of consensus on a definition, the continued use of primarily descriptive statistics, and linkage to popular culture depictions. These limitations also inhibit our understanding of these offenders and affect credibility in the field of research. Therefore, this comprehensive overview of a sample of 508 cases (738 total offenders, including partnered groups of two or more offenders) provides analyses of solo male, solo female, and partnered serial killers to elucidate statistical differences and similarities in offending and adjudication patterns among the three groups. This analysis of serial homicide offenders not only supports previous research on offending patterns present in the serial homicide literature but also reveals that empirically based analyses can enhance our understanding beyond traditional case studies and descriptive statistics. Further research based on these empirical analyses can aid in the development of more accurate classifications and definitions of serial murderers.

  10. Epistemology and Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Hilary Kornblith has argued that epistemological investigation is substantially empirical. In the present paper, I will ¿rst show that his claim is not contingent upon the further and, admittedly, controversial assumption that all objects of epistemological investigation are natural kinds....... Then, I will argue that, contrary to what Kornblith seems to assume, this methodological contention does not imply that there is no need for attending to our epistemic concepts in epistemology. Understanding the make-up of our concepts and, in particular, the purposes they ¿ll, is necessary...

  11. Epistemology and Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Hilary Kornblith has argued that epistemological investigation is substantially empirical. In the present paper, I will ¿rst show that his claim is not contingent upon the further and, admittedly, controversial assumption that all objects of epistemological investigation are natural kinds....... Then, I will argue that, contrary to what Kornblith seems to assume, this methodological contention does not imply that there is no need for attending to our epistemic concepts in epistemology. Understanding the make-up of our concepts and, in particular, the purposes they ¿ll, is necessary...... for a proper acknowledgment of epistemology’s role in conceptual improvement...

  12. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  13. Interactions between Obsessional Symptoms and Interpersonal Ambivalences in Psychodynamic Therapy: An Empirical Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Cornelis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The classical symptom specificity hypothesis (Blatt, 1974 particularly associates obsessional symptoms to interpersonal behavior directed at autonomy and separation from others. Cross-sectional group research, however, has yielded inconsistent findings on this predicted association, and a previous empirical case study (Cornelis et al., in press; see Chapter 2 documented obsessional pathology to be rooted in profound ambivalences between autonomous and dependent interpersonal dynamics. Therefore, in the present empirical case study, concrete operationalizations of the classical symptom specificity hypothesis are contrasted to alternative hypotheses based on the observed complexities in Chapter 2. Dynamic associations between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal functioning is further explored, aiming at further contribution to theory building (i.e., through suggestions for potential hypothesis-refinement; Stiles, 2009. Similar to the first empirical case study (Chapter 1, Consensual Qualitative Research for Case studies is used to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the longitudinal, clinical interplay between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal dynamics throughout the process of supportive-expressive psychodynamic therapy. In line with findings from Chapter 1, findings reveal close associations between obsessions and interpersonal dynamics, and therapist interventions focusing on interpersonal conflicts are documented as related to interpersonal and symptomatic alterations. Observations predominantly accord to the ambivalence-hypothesis rather than to the classical symptom specificity hypothesis. Yet, meaningful differences are observed in concrete manifestations of interpersonal ambivalences within significant relationships. Findings are again discussed in light of conceptual and methodological considerations; and limitations and future research indications are addressed.

  14. Interactions between Obsessional Symptoms and Interpersonal Ambivalences in Psychodynamic Therapy: An Empirical Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Shana; Desmet, Mattias; Van Nieuwenhove, Kimberly L H D; Meganck, Reitske; Willemsen, Jochem; Inslegers, Ruth; Feyaerts, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    The classical symptom specificity hypothesis (Blatt, 1974) particularly associates obsessional symptoms to interpersonal behavior directed at autonomy and separation from others. Cross-sectional group research, however, has yielded inconsistent findings on this predicted association, and a previous empirical case study (Cornelis et al., in press; see Chapter 2) documented obsessional pathology to be rooted in profound ambivalences between autonomous and dependent interpersonal dynamics. Therefore, in the present empirical case study, concrete operationalizations of the classical symptom specificity hypothesis are contrasted to alternative hypotheses based on the observed complexities in Chapter 2. Dynamic associations between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal functioning is further explored, aiming at further contribution to theory building (i.e., through suggestions for potential hypothesis-refinement; Stiles, 2009). Similar to the first empirical case study (Chapter 1), Consensual Qualitative Research for Case studies is used to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the longitudinal, clinical interplay between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal dynamics throughout the process of supportive-expressive psychodynamic therapy. In line with findings from Chapter 1, findings reveal close associations between obsessions and interpersonal dynamics, and therapist interventions focusing on interpersonal conflicts are documented as related to interpersonal and symptomatic alterations. Observations predominantly accord to the ambivalence-hypothesis rather than to the classical symptom specificity hypothesis. Yet, meaningful differences are observed in concrete manifestations of interpersonal ambivalences within significant relationships. Findings are again discussed in light of conceptual and methodological considerations; and limitations and future research indications are addressed.

  15. What 'empirical turn in bioethics'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Samia

    2010-10-01

    Uncertainty as to how we should articulate empirical data and normative reasoning seems to underlie most difficulties regarding the 'empirical turn' in bioethics. This article examines three different ways in which we could understand 'empirical turn'. Using real facts in normative reasoning is trivial and would not represent a 'turn'. Becoming an empirical discipline through a shift to the social and neurosciences would be a turn away from normative thinking, which we should not take. Conducting empirical research to inform normative reasoning is the usual meaning given to the term 'empirical turn'. In this sense, however, the turn is incomplete. Bioethics has imported methodological tools from empirical disciplines, but too often it has not imported the standards to which researchers in these disciplines are held. Integrating empirical and normative approaches also represents true added difficulties. Addressing these issues from the standpoint of debates on the fact-value distinction can cloud very real methodological concerns by displacing the debate to a level of abstraction where they need not be apparent. Ideally, empirical research in bioethics should meet standards for empirical and normative validity similar to those used in the source disciplines for these methods, and articulate these aspects clearly and appropriately. More modestly, criteria to ensure that none of these standards are completely left aside would improve the quality of empirical bioethics research and partly clear the air of critiques addressing its theoretical justification, when its rigour in the particularly difficult context of interdisciplinarity is what should be at stake.

  16. The growth of business firms: theoretical framework and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dongfeng; Pammolli, Fabio; Buldyrev, S V; Riccaboni, Massimo; Matia, Kaushik; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Stanley, H Eugene

    2005-12-27

    We introduce a model of proportional growth to explain the distribution P(g)(g) of business-firm growth rates. The model predicts that P(g)(g) is exponential in the central part and depicts an asymptotic power-law behavior in the tails with an exponent zeta = 3. Because of data limitations, previous studies in this field have been focusing exclusively on the Laplace shape of the body of the distribution. In this article, we test the model at different levels of aggregation in the economy, from products to firms to countries, and we find that the predictions of the model agree with empirical growth distributions and size-variance relationships.

  17. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  18. Methods for Calculating Empires in Quasicrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the empire problem for quasiperiodic tilings and the existing methods for generating the empires of the vertex configurations in quasicrystals, while introducing a new and more efficient method based on the cut-and-project technique. Using Penrose tiling as an example, this method finds the forced tiles with the restrictions in the high dimensional lattice (the mother lattice that can be cut-and-projected into the lower dimensional quasicrystal. We compare our method to the two existing methods, namely one method that uses the algorithm of the Fibonacci chain to force the Ammann bars in order to find the forced tiles of an empire and the method that follows the work of N.G. de Bruijn on constructing a Penrose tiling as the dual to a pentagrid. This new method is not only conceptually simple and clear, but it also allows us to calculate the empires of the vertex configurations in a defected quasicrystal by reversing the configuration of the quasicrystal to its higher dimensional lattice, where we then apply the restrictions. These advantages may provide a key guiding principle for phason dynamics and an important tool for self error-correction in quasicrystal growth.

  19. New empirical generalizations on the determinants of price elasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Van Heerde, HJ; Pieters, RGM

    The importance of pricing decisions for firms has fueled an extensive stream of research on price elasticities. In an influential meta-analytical study, Tellis (1988) summarized price elasticity research findings until 1986. However, empirical generalizations on price elasticity require

  20. O que dizem os achados das Pesquisas Empíricas sobre o teste de impairment: uma análise dos Journals em língua inglesa - What the Empirical Research findings tell about impairment test: an analysis of english Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Zandonai

    2009-05-01

    procedure. Our study can be considered bibliometric, however it’s different because its concerns are all in the qualitative features, not in the quantitative aspects of the sample. The survey found 62 articles about impairment, however, only 13 were analyzed by are characterized as scientific empirical. The findings show that even in other countries, where the standard on impairment is in place longer, was verified a few number of empirical research on the subject. The specific analysis shows that the approach of the issue related to goodwill and oil and gas firms has been highlighted.

  1. New Empirical Earthquake Source‐Scaling Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Thingbaijam, Kiran Kumar S.

    2017-12-13

    We develop new empirical scaling laws for rupture width W, rupture length L, rupture area A, and average slip D, based on a large database of rupture models. The database incorporates recent earthquake source models in a wide magnitude range (M 5.4–9.2) and events of various faulting styles. We apply general orthogonal regression, instead of ordinary least-squares regression, to account for measurement errors of all variables and to obtain mutually self-consistent relationships. We observe that L grows more rapidly with M compared to W. The fault-aspect ratio (L/W) tends to increase with fault dip, which generally increases from reverse-faulting, to normal-faulting, to strike-slip events. At the same time, subduction-inter-face earthquakes have significantly higher W (hence a larger rupture area A) compared to other faulting regimes. For strike-slip events, the growth of W with M is strongly inhibited, whereas the scaling of L agrees with the L-model behavior (D correlated with L). However, at a regional scale for which seismogenic depth is essentially fixed, the scaling behavior corresponds to the W model (D not correlated with L). Self-similar scaling behavior with M − log A is observed to be consistent for all the cases, except for normal-faulting events. Interestingly, the ratio D/W (a proxy for average stress drop) tends to increase with M, except for shallow crustal reverse-faulting events, suggesting the possibility of scale-dependent stress drop. The observed variations in source-scaling properties for different faulting regimes can be interpreted in terms of geological and seismological factors. We find substantial differences between our new scaling relationships and those of previous studies. Therefore, our study provides critical updates on source-scaling relations needed in seismic–tsunami-hazard analysis and engineering applications.

  2. Can I Trust Your Findings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuervo-Cazurra, Alvaro; Andersson, Ulf; Yoko Brannen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    this complexity and ensure that readers can trust their findings. We provide suggestions for how to rule out alternative explanations, explaining key considerations not only in empirical analyses, but also in theory building and in research design. Our discussion covers both qualitative and quantitative studies...

  3. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  4. Predicting fruit consumption: the role of habits, previous behavior and mediation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Hein; Eggers, Sander M; Lechner, Lilian; van Osch, Liesbeth; van Stralen, Maartje M

    2014-07-18

    This study assessed the role of habits and previous behavior in predicting fruit consumption as well as their additional predictive contribution besides socio-demographic and motivational factors. In the literature, habits are proposed as a stable construct that needs to be controlled for in longitudinal analyses that predict behavior. The aim of this study is to provide empirical evidence for the inclusion of either previous behavior or habits. A random sample of 806 Dutch adults (>18 years) was invited by an online survey panel of a private research company to participate in an online study on fruit consumption. A longitudinal design (N = 574) was used with assessments at baseline and after one (T2) and two months (T3). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to assess the differential value of habit and previous behavior in the prediction of fruit consumption. Eighty percent of habit strength could be explained by habit strength one month earlier, and 64% of fruit consumption could be explained by fruit consumption one month earlier. Regression analyses revealed that the model with motivational constructs explained 41% of the behavioral variance at T2 and 38% at T3. The addition of previous behavior and habit increased the explained variance up to 66% at T2 and to 59% at T3. Inclusion of these factors resulted in non-significant contributions of the motivational constructs. Furthermore, our findings showed that the effect of habit strength on future behavior was to a large extent mediated by previous behavior. Both habit and previous behavior are important as predictors of future behavior, and as educational objectives for behavior change programs. Our results revealed less stability for the constructs over time than expected. Habit strength was to a large extent mediated by previous behavior and our results do not strongly suggest a need for the inclusion of both constructs. Future research needs to assess the conditions that determine direct

  5. Parametric Integration by Magic Point Empirical Interpolation

    OpenAIRE

    Gaß, Maximilian; Glau, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    We derive analyticity criteria for explicit error bounds and an exponential rate of convergence of the magic point empirical interpolation method introduced by Barrault et al. (2004). Furthermore, we investigate its application to parametric integration. We find that the method is well-suited to Fourier transforms and has a wide range of applications in such diverse fields as probability and statistics, signal and image processing, physics, chemistry and mathematical finance. To illustrate th...

  6. Parametric Integration by Magic Point Empirical Interpolation

    OpenAIRE

    Gaß, M., Glau, K.

    2016-01-01

    We derive analyticity criteria for explicit error bounds and an exponential rate of convergence of the magic point empirical interpolation method introduced by Barrault et al. (2004). Furthermore, we investigate its application to parametric integration. We find that the method is well-suited to Fourier transforms and has a wide range of applications in such diverse fields as probability and statistics, signal and image processing, physics, chemistry and mathematical finance. To illustrate th...

  7. Insurability of Cyber Risk: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Biener, Christian; Eling, Martin; Wirfs, Jan Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the adequacy of insurance for managing cyber risk. To this end, we extract 994 cases of cyber losses from an operational risk database and analyse their statistical properties. Based on the empirical results and recent literature, we investigate the insurability of cyber risk by systematically reviewing the set of criteria introduced by Berliner (1982). Our findings emphasise the distinct characteristics of cyber risks compared with other operational risks and bring to li...

  8. Sexual Liberalism-Conservatism: the effect of human values, gender, and previous sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Valeschka M; Gouveia, Valdiney V; Sousa, Deliane M; Lima, Tiago J; Freires, Leogildo A

    2012-08-01

    Despite theoretical associations, there is a lack of empirical studies on the axiological basis of sexual liberalism-conservatism. Two studies demonstrated important associations between these constructs for young adults. In Study 1, participants were 353 undergraduate students with a mean age of 20.13 (SD = 1.84), who completed the Sexual Liberalism-Conservatism Scale and the Basic Values Survey. In Study 2, participants were 269 undergraduate students, with a mean age of 20.3 (SD = 1.82), who completed a social desirability scale in addition to Study 1 instruments. Results showed how values can predict sexual liberalism-conservatism after controlling for social desirability. Attitudes towards one's own sexual behavior were more conservative whereas attitudes towards other's sexual behavior were more liberal. Gender was not a significant predictor of sexual attitudes whereas previous sexual experience showed a significant association to this construct. In general, results corroborated previous findings, showing that participants with a tendency to present socially desirable answers also tended to present themselves as sexually conservative.

  9. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  10. Civilization and Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suzuki, Shogo

    China and Japan engaged with this dualism, this book highlights a darker side of China and Japan’s socialization into International Society which previous studies have failed to acknowledge. Drawing on Chinese and Japanese primary sources seldom utilized in International Relations, this book makes...

  11. Empirical ground motion prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Archuleta

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available New methods of site-specific ground motion prediction in the time and frequency domains are presented. A large earthquake is simulated as a composite (linear combination of observed small earthquakes (subevents assuming Aki-Brune functional models of the source time functions (spectra. Source models incorporate basic scaling relations between source and spectral parameters. Ground motion predictions are consistent with the entire observed seismic spectrum from the lowest to the highest frequencies. These methods are designed to use all the available empirical Green’s functions (or any subset of observations at a site. Thus a prediction is not biased by a single record, and different possible source-receiver paths are taken into account. Directivity is accounted for by adjusting the apparent source duration at each site. Our time-series prediction algorithm is based on determination of a non-uniform distribution of rupture times of subevents. By introducing a specific rupture velocity we avoid the major problem of deficiency of predictions around the main event's corner frequency. A novel notion of partial coherence allows us to sum subevents' amplitude spectra directly without using any information on their rupture times and phase histories. Predictions by this spectral method are not Jependent on details of rupture nucleation and propagation, location of asperities and other predominantly phase-affecting factors, responsible for uncertainties in time-domain simulations.

  12. Empirical techniques in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Bhar, Ramaprasad

    2005-01-01

    This book offers the opportunity to study and experience advanced empi- cal techniques in finance and in general financial economics. It is not only suitable for students with an interest in the field, it is also highly rec- mended for academic researchers as well as the researchers in the industry. The book focuses on the contemporary empirical techniques used in the analysis of financial markets and how these are implemented using actual market data. With an emphasis on Implementation, this book helps foc- ing on strategies for rigorously combing finance theory and modeling technology to extend extant considerations in the literature. The main aim of this book is to equip the readers with an array of tools and techniques that will allow them to explore financial market problems with a fresh perspective. In this sense it is not another volume in eco- metrics. Of course, the traditional econometric methods are still valid and important; the contents of this book will bring in other related modeling topics tha...

  13. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  14. Final Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one....

  15. Remembrances of Empires Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Aldrich

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the colonial legacy is ever present in contemporary Europe. For a generation, most Europeans largely tried, publicly, to forget the colonial past, or remembered it only through the rose-coloured lenses of nostalgia; now the pendulum has swung to memory of that past – even perhaps, in the views of some, to a surfeit of memory, where each group agitates for its own version of history, its own recognition in laws and ceremonies, its own commemoration in museums and monuments, the valorization or repatriation of its own art and artefacts. Word such as ‘invasion,’ ‘racism’ and ‘genocide’ are emotional terms that provoke emotional reactions. Whether leaders should apologize for wrongs of the past – and which wrongs – remains a highly sensitive issue. The ‘return of the colonial’ thus has to do with ethics and politics as well as with history, and can link to statements of apology or recognition, legislation about certain views of history, monetary compensation, repatriation of objects, and—perhaps most importantly—redefinition of national identity and policy. The colonial flags may have been lowered, but many barricades seem to have been raised. Private memories—of loss of land, of unacknowledged service, of political, economic, social and cultural disenfranchisement, but also on the other side of defeat, national castigation and self-flagellation—have been increasingly public. Monuments and museums act not only as sites of history but as venues for political agitation and forums for academic debate – differences of opinion that have spread to the streets. Empire has a long after-life.

  16. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  17. A Guide to Visual Multi-Level Interface Design From Synthesis of Empirical Study Evidence

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    Displaying multiple levels of data visually has been proposed to address the challenge of limited screen space. Although many previous empirical studies have addressed different aspects of this question, the information visualization research community does not currently have a clearly articulated consensus on how, when, or even if displaying data at multiple levels is effective. To shed more light on this complex topic, we conducted a systematic review of 22 existing multi-level interface studies to extract high-level design guidelines. To facilitate discussion, we cast our analysis findings

  18. Empirical Support for Perceptual Conceptualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Alejandro Serrano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to show that perceptual conceptualism can be understood as an empirically meaningful position and, furthermore, that there is some degree of empirical support for its main theses. In order to do this, I will start by offering an empirical reading of the conceptualist position, and making three predictions from it. Then, I will consider recent experimental results from cognitive sciences that seem to point towards those predictions. I will conclude that, while the evidence offered by those experiments is far from decisive, it is enough not only to show that conceptualism is an empirically meaningful position but also that there is empirical support for it.

  19. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  20. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  1. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  2. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  3. Delivery outcomes at term after one previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y

    2007-12-01

    To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.

  4. Multiscale empirical interpolation for solving nonlinear PDEs

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a multiscale empirical interpolation method for solving nonlinear multiscale partial differential equations. The proposed method combines empirical interpolation techniques and local multiscale methods, such as the Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM). To solve nonlinear equations, the GMsFEM is used to represent the solution on a coarse grid with multiscale basis functions computed offline. Computing the GMsFEM solution involves calculating the system residuals and Jacobians on the fine grid. We use empirical interpolation concepts to evaluate these residuals and Jacobians of the multiscale system with a computational cost which is proportional to the size of the coarse-scale problem rather than the fully-resolved fine scale one. The empirical interpolation method uses basis functions which are built by sampling the nonlinear function we want to approximate a limited number of times. The coefficients needed for this approximation are computed in the offline stage by inverting an inexpensive linear system. The proposed multiscale empirical interpolation techniques: (1) divide computing the nonlinear function into coarse regions; (2) evaluate contributions of nonlinear functions in each coarse region taking advantage of a reduced-order representation of the solution; and (3) introduce multiscale proper-orthogonal-decomposition techniques to find appropriate interpolation vectors. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods on several nonlinear multiscale PDEs that are solved with Newton\\'s methods and fully-implicit time marching schemes. Our numerical results show that the proposed methods provide a robust framework for solving nonlinear multiscale PDEs on a coarse grid with bounded error and significant computational cost reduction.

  5. Linking Supply Chain Network Complexity to Interdependence and Risk-Assessment: Scale Development and Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyadip Chakraborty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concepts like supply chain network complexity, interdependence and risk assessment have been prominently discussed directly and indirectly in management literature over past decades and plenty of frameworks and conceptual prescriptive research works have been published contributing towards building the body of knowledge. However previous studies often lacked quantification of the findings. Consequently, the need for suitable scales becomes prominent for measuring those constructs to empirically support the conceptualized relationships. This paper expands the understanding of supply chain network complexity (SCNC and also highlights its implications on interdependence (ID between the actors and risk assessment (RAS in transaction relationships. In doing so, SCNC and RAS are operationalized to understand how SCNC affects interdependence and risk assessment between the actors in the supply chain network. The contribution of this study lies in developing and validating multi-item scales for these constructs and empirically establishing the hypothesized relationships in the Indian context based on firm data collected using survey–based questionnaire. The methodology followed included structural equation modeling. The study findings indicate that SCNC had significant relationship with interdependence, which in turn significantly affected risk assessment. This study carries both academic and managerial implications and provides an empirically supported framework linking network complexity with the two key variables (ID and RAS, playing crucial roles in managerial decision making. This study contributes to the body of knowledge and aims at guiding managers in better understanding transaction relationships.

  6. Empirical mode decomposition improves detection of SSVEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liya; Huang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yu-Te; Wang, Yijun; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Cheng, Chung-Kuan

    2013-01-01

    Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs) have been used to quantify attention-related neural activity to visual targets. This study investigates how empirical mode decomposition (EMD) can improve detection accuracy and rate of SSVEPs. First, the scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by EMD. Then, IMF components accounting for SSVEPs are selected for target frequency detection. Finally, target frequency is identified by two methods: Gabor transform and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). This study quantitatively explores the impact of EMD on the target frequency detection. Empirical results show that the EMD improves their recognition accuracy when Gabor transform is used, even in a shorter Gaussian window, but has little effects on the performance of the CCA. Further, this study finds that harmonic responses of the target frequency can be used to enhance the SSVEP detection both for the Gabor transform and CCA.

  7. Collyria seals in the Roman Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cambrodi, Rafael J; Pinero, David P; Mavrou, Ariadni; Cervino, Alejandro; Brautaset, Rune; Murube del Castillo, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Roman seals associated with collyria (Latin expression for eye drops/washes and lotions for eye maintenance) provide valuable information about eye care in the antiquity. These small, usually stone-made pieces bore engravings with the names of eye doctors and also the collyria used to treat an eye disease. The collyria seals have been found all over the Roman empire and Celtic territories in particular and were usually associated with military camps. In Hispania (Iberian Peninsula), only three collyria seals have been found. These findings speak about eye care in this ancient Roman province as well as about of the life of the time. This article takes a look at the utility and social significance of the collyria seals and seeks to give an insight in the ophthalmological practice of in the Roman Empire.

  8. Large deviation result for the empirical locality measure of typed random geometric graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Doku-Amponsah, Kwabena

    2014-01-01

    In this article for a finite typed random geometric graph we define the empirical locality distribution, which records the number of nodes of a given type linked to a given number of nodes of each type. We find large deviation principle (LDP) for the empirical locality measure given the empirical pair measure and the empirical type measure of the typed random geometric graphs. From this LDP, we derive large deviation principles for the degree measure and the proportion of detached nodes in th...

  9. Birds of the Mongol Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene N. Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty. It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Marco Polo also made notes on Mongol bird use. There are a few other records. This allows us to draw conclusions about Mongol ornithology, which apparently was sophisticated and detailed.

  10. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  11. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  12. Empirical Legality and Effective Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Pringe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The conditions that Kant’s doctrine establishes are examined for the predication of the effective reality of certain empirical objects. It is maintained that a for such a predication, it is necessary to have not only perception but also a certain homogeneity of sensible data, and b the knowledge of the existence of certain empirical objects depends on the application of regulative principles of experience.

  13. Empirical Research In Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly engineering design research involves the use of empirical studies that are conducted within an industrial environment [Ahmed, 2001; Court 1995; Hales 1987]. Research into the use of information by designers or understanding how engineers build up experience are examples of research...... of research issues. This paper describes case studies of empirical research carried out within industry in engineering design focusing upon information, knowledge and experience in engineering design. The paper describes the research methods employed, their suitability for the particular research aims...

  14. Critical Realism and Empirical Bioethics: A Methodological Exposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Alex

    2017-09-01

    This paper shows how critical realism can be used to integrate empirical data and philosophical analysis within 'empirical bioethics'. The term empirical bioethics, whilst appearing oxymoronic, simply refers to an interdisciplinary approach to the resolution of practical ethical issues within the biological and life sciences, integrating social scientific, empirical data with philosophical analysis. It seeks to achieve a balanced form of ethical deliberation that is both logically rigorous and sensitive to context, to generate normative conclusions that are practically applicable to the problem, challenge, or dilemma. Since it incorporates both philosophical and social scientific components, empirical bioethics is a field that is consistent with the use of critical realism as a research methodology. The integration of philosophical and social scientific approaches to ethics has been beset with difficulties, not least because of the irreducibly normative, rather than descriptive, nature of ethical analysis and the contested relation between fact and value. However, given that facts about states of affairs inform potential courses of action and their consequences, there is a need to overcome these difficulties and successfully integrate data with theory. Previous approaches have been formulated to overcome obstacles in combining philosophical and social scientific perspectives in bioethical analysis; however each has shortcomings. As a mature interdisciplinary approach critical realism is well suited to empirical bioethics, although it has hitherto not been widely used. Here I show how it can be applied to this kind of research and explain how it represents an improvement on previous approaches.

  15. Executive Function in Previously Institutionalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Emily C; Harlé, Katia M; Noble, Kimberly G; McCall, Robert B

    2016-06-01

    In studies of children adopted from institutions, being raised in an institution has been associated consistently with an increased risk of persistent cognitive, academic, and social-emotional problems. These findings raise questions about the neurocognitive mechanisms that contribute to these negative outcomes. Theory and models based on studies of animals indicate that development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and executive function (EF) may be particularly susceptible to environmental influences during early childhood. In this article, we review recent studies of postinstitutionalized children that examined EF components such as inhibitory control, working memory, shifting, and planning. We then describe emerging research on the structure and function of the PFC. Converging evidence suggests both EF difficulties and alterations in development of the PFC following early institutionalization. We conclude by discussing possible explanations for these findings and implications for prevention and intervention, and by offering suggestions for ongoing research.

  16. An empirically grounded framework to guide blogging for digital scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailey Minocha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This research project investigated how openness and sharing of knowledge are manifested through scholarly blogging. We aimed to identify the academics’ and researchers’ motivations for starting a blog; the contribution of blogging to their personal and professional development; and any challenges. Twenty-six participants were recruited. A pre-interview questionnaire was first emailed to the participants to collect background information. An initial unstructured interview was conducted by email, followed by a synchronous semi-structured interview. Textual and visual extracts of blog content were also collected. The datasets were analysed using different techniques. The findings revealed varied reasons for blogging. Some academics/researchers began a blog for its accessibility to self and others. Blogging aided the academics’ and researchers’ personal and professional development in several ways. Bloggers can quickly reach a wider audience compared to other forms of academic publishing. Among the challenges, there were concerns over validity of online content. Based on previous scholarship models and on our findings, we have derived an empirically grounded framework of blog use in academia and research. The framework describes how characteristics of digital scholarship such as openness and sharing are manifested through blogging. The framework can be used to guide academics and researchers who are interested in taking up blogging as a scholarly practice.

  17. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby

    OpenAIRE

    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla

    2014-01-01

    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  18. An Empirical Analysis of Humanitarian Warehouse Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander de Leeuw

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to empirically verify characteristics of current warehouse locations of humanitarian organizations (based on public information and to relate those to the model developed by Richardson, de Leeuw and Dullaert (2016. This paper is based on desk research. Public data such as (annual reports and databases are used to determine the features of the location in empirical terms. We find that a significant proportion of our sample co-locates their products at UNHRD premises. This suggests that organizations prefer to cluster their warehouse activities, particularly when there is no fee involved for using the warehouse (as is the case in the UNHRD network. The geographic map of the current warehouses, together with the quantified location factors, provides an overview of the current warehouse locations. We found that the characteristics of the current warehouse locations are aligned with literature on location selection factors. Current location can be characterized by infrastructure characteristics (in particular closeness to airport and safety concerns and by the low occurrence of disasters. Other factors that were considered by us but were not supported by empirical evidence were labor quality and availability as well as the political environment. In our study we were only able to use a limited sample of warehouses. We also focused our research on countries where two or more organizations have their warehouses located. We did not account for warehouse sizes or the kinds of products stored in our analysis.

  19. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  20. An empirical examination of restructured electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knittel, C.R.; Roberts, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    We present an empirical analysis of restructured electricity prices. We study the distributional and temporal properties of the price process in a non-parametric framework, after which we parametrically model the price process using several common asset price specifications from the asset-pricing literature, as well as several less conventional models motivated by the peculiarities of electricity prices. The findings reveal several characteristics unique to electricity prices including several deterministic components of the price series at different frequencies. An 'inverse leverage effect' is also found, where positive shocks to the price series result in larger increases in volatility than negative shocks. We find that forecasting performance in dramatically improved when we incorporate features of electricity prices not commonly modelled in other asset prices. Our findings have implications for how empiricists model electricity prices, as well as how theorists specify models of energy pricing. (author)

  1. Traditional Arabic & Islamic medicine: validation and empirical assessment of a conceptual model in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlRawi, Sara N; Khidir, Amal; Elnashar, Maha S; Abdelrahim, Huda A; Killawi, Amal K; Hammoud, Maya M; Fetters, Michael D

    2017-03-14

    Evidence indicates traditional medicine is no longer only used for the healthcare of the poor, its prevalence is also increasing in countries where allopathic medicine is predominant in the healthcare system. While these healing practices have been utilized for thousands of years in the Arabian Gulf, only recently has a theoretical model been developed illustrating the linkages and components of such practices articulated as Traditional Arabic & Islamic Medicine (TAIM). Despite previous theoretical work presenting development of the TAIM model, empirical support has been lacking. The objective of this research is to provide empirical support for the TAIM model and illustrate real world applicability. Using an ethnographic approach, we recruited 84 individuals (43 women and 41 men) who were speakers of one of four common languages in Qatar; Arabic, English, Hindi, and Urdu, Through in-depth interviews, we sought confirming and disconfirming evidence of the model components, namely, health practices, beliefs and philosophy to treat, diagnose, and prevent illnesses and/or maintain well-being, as well as patterns of communication about their TAIM practices with their allopathic providers. Based on our analysis, we find empirical support for all elements of the TAIM model. Participants in this research, visitors to major healthcare centers, mentioned using all elements of the TAIM model: herbal medicines, spiritual therapies, dietary practices, mind-body methods, and manual techniques, applied singularly or in combination. Participants had varying levels of comfort sharing information about TAIM practices with allopathic practitioners. These findings confirm an empirical basis for the elements of the TAIM model. Three elements, namely, spiritual healing, herbal medicine, and dietary practices, were most commonly found. Future research should examine the prevalence of TAIM element use, how it differs among various populations, and its impact on health.

  2. Intrathoracic gossypiboma: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosalen Junior, Roberto Antonio; Bosi, Thiago Carneiro da Cunha; Souza, Luis Ronan Marquez Ferreira de; Andrade, Fernando Coelho Goulart de; Candido, Daniela; Lopes, Gesner Pereira; Melo, Ana Lucia Kefalas Oliveira; Fatureto, Marcelo Cunha

    2006-01-01

    The authors report three cases of intrathoracic foreign body that is defined as a cotton matrix mass, mostly retained surgical sponge, a rare complication of a thoracic surgery. The patients were evaluated by chest radiography and computed tomography with the imaging findings confirmed after thoracotomy and anatomopathological study. The mainly imaging findings consisted of intrathoracic masses in patients with previous thoracic surgery that return to hospital with lower respiratory tract symptoms in different period after surgery procedure. The three cases were related with a brief review of the literature. (author)

  3. Optimal temperature for malaria transmission is dramaticallylower than previously predicted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Eerin A.; Paaijmans, Krijin P.; Johnson, Leah R.; Balzer, Christian; Ben-Horin, Tal; de Moor, Emily; McNally, Amy; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Smith, Thomas C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of transmission dating back nearly a century. We build a model with more realistic ecological assumptions about the thermal physiology of insects. Our model, which includes empirically derived nonlinear thermal responses, predicts optimal malaria transmission at 25 °C (6 °C lower than previous models). Moreover, the model predicts that transmission decreases dramatically at temperatures > 28 °C, altering predictions about how climate change will affect malaria. A large data set on malaria transmission risk in Africa validates both the 25 °C optimum and the decline above 28 °C. Using these more accurate nonlinear thermal-response models will aid in understanding the effects of current and future temperature regimes on disease transmission.

  4. Umayyad Relations with Byzantium Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Haidari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the political and military relations between Umayyad caliphates with the Byzantine Empire. The aim of this research is to clarify Umayyad caliphate’s relations with the Byzantine Empire. We know that these relations were mostly about war and fight. Because there were always intense conflicts between Muslims and the Byzantine Empire, they had to have an active continuous diplomacy to call truce and settle the disputes. Thus, based on the general policy of the Umayyad caliphs, Christians were severely ignored and segregated within Islamic territories. This segregation of the Christians was highly affected by political relationships. It is worthy of mentioning that Umayyad caliphs brought the governing style of the Sassanid kings and Roman Caesar into the Islamic Caliphate system but they didn’t establish civil institutions and administrative organizations.

  5. Race and Ethnicity in Empirical Research: An 18-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kimber L.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Wells, Eliza M.

    2009-01-01

    Extending previous research (E. A. Delgado-Romero, N. Galvan, P. Maschino, & M. Rowland, 2005) regarding race and ethnicity in counseling and counseling psychology, this article examined how race and ethnicity were reported and used in empirical studies published in diversity-focused journals from 1990 to 2007. The results are discussed and…

  6. On optimality of the empirical distribution function for the estimation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work we present some results on the optimality of the empirical distribution function as estimator of the invariant distribution function of an ergodic diffusion process. The results presented were obtained in different previous works under conditions that are are rewritten in a unified form that make comparable those ...

  7. Stimuli previously associated with reinforcement mitigate resurgence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Andrew R; Browning, Kaitlyn O; Shahan, Timothy A

    2017-09-01

    Resurgence refers to the recurrence of an extinguished target behavior following subsequent suspension of alternative reinforcement. Delivery of reinforcers during extinction of alternative behavior has been shown to mitigate resurgence. The present experiment aimed to determine whether delivering stimuli associated with reinforcers during resurgence testing similarly mitigates resurgence. Three groups of rats pressed target levers for food according to variable-interval 15-s schedules during Phase 1. In Phase 2, lever pressing was extinguished, and an alternative nose-poke response produced alternative reinforcement according to a variable-interval 15-s schedule. Food reinforcement was always associated with illumination of the food aperture and an audible click from the pellet dispenser during Phases 1 and 2. Phase 3 treatments differed between groups. For one group, nose poking continued to produce food and food-correlated stimuli. Both of these consequences were suspended for a second group. Finally, nose poking produced food-correlated stimuli but not food for a third group. Target-lever pressing resurged in the group that received no consequences and in the group that received only food-correlated stimuli for nose poking. Resurgence, however, was smaller for the group that received food-correlated stimuli than for the group that received no consequences for nose poking. Target-lever pressing did not increase between phases in the group that continued to receive food and associated stimuli. Thus, delivery of stimuli associated with food reinforcement after suspension of food reduced but did not eliminate resurgence of extinguished lever pressing. These findings contribute to potential methodologies for preventing relapse of extinguished problem behavior in clinical settings. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  8. Biomarker-based strategy for early discontinuation of empirical antifungal treatment in critically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzé, Anahita; Loridant, Séverine; Poissy, Julien; Dervaux, Benoit; Sendid, Boualem; Cornu, Marjorie; Nseir, Saad

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a biomarker-based strategy on early discontinuation of empirical antifungal treatment. Prospective randomized controlled single-center unblinded study, performed in a mixed ICU. A total of 110 patients were randomly assigned to a strategy in which empirical antifungal treatment duration was determined by (1,3)-β-D-glucan, mannan, and anti-mannan serum assays, performed on day 0 and day 4; or to a routine care strategy, based on international guidelines, which recommend 14 days of treatment. In the biomarker group, early stop recommendation was determined using an algorithm based on the results of biomarkers. The primary outcome was the percentage of survivors discontinuing empirical antifungal treatment early, defined as a discontinuation strictly before day 7. A total of 109 patients were analyzed (one patient withdraw consent). Empirical antifungal treatment was discontinued early in 29 out of 54 patients in the biomarker strategy group, compared with one patient out of 55 in the routine strategy group [54% vs 2%, p strategy compared with routine strategy [median (IQR) 6 (4-13) vs 13 (12-14) days, p strategy increased the percentage of early discontinuation of empirical antifungal treatment among critically ill patients with suspected invasive Candida infection. These results confirm previous findings suggesting that early discontinuation of empirical antifungal treatment had no negative impact on outcome. However, further studies are needed to confirm the safety of this strategy. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02154178.

  9. Empirical research on international environmental migration: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obokata, Reiko; Veronis, Luisa; McLeman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a systematic review of scholarly publications that report empirical findings from studies of environmentally-related international migration. There exists a small, but growing accumulation of empirical studies that consider environmentally-linked migration that spans international borders. These studies provide useful evidence for scholars and policymakers in understanding how environmental factors interact with political, economic and social factors to influence migration behavior and outcomes that are specific to international movements of people, in highlighting promising future research directions, and in raising important considerations for international policymaking. Our review identifies countries of migrant origin and destination that have so far been the subject of empirical research, the environmental factors believed to have influenced these migrations, the interactions of environmental and non-environmental factors as well as the role of context in influencing migration behavior, and the types of methods used by researchers. In reporting our findings, we identify the strengths and challenges associated with the main empirical approaches, highlight significant gaps and future opportunities for empirical work, and contribute to advancing understanding of environmental influences on international migration more generally. Specifically, we propose an exploratory framework to take into account the role of context in shaping environmental migration across borders, including the dynamic and complex interactions between environmental and non-environmental factors at a range of scales.

  10. Empirical estimates of the NAIRU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Brøchner

    2005-01-01

    Empirical studies have found that the non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment (NAIRU) has been fluctuating in OECD countries around a constant mean of several percentage points over the past decades. This mean is calculated from the constant terms carried over from the wage and price growth...

  11. Gazprom the new russian empire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosnard, D.

    2004-01-01

    The author analyzes the economical and political impacts of the great Gazprom group, leader in the russian energy domain, in Russia. Already number one of the world gas industry, this Group is becoming the right-hand of the Kremlin. Thus the author wonders on this empire transparency and limits. (A.L.B.)

  12. Empire as a Geopolitical Figure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2010-01-01

    after all that has happened in the late twentieth century to undermine nationalism and the national state. Empire is indeed a probable, even for some an attractive form of regime for extending order over the disorder produced by globalisation. Geopolitics articulated in imperial expansion is likely...

  13. Symmetry, empirical significance, and identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friederich, Simon

    The article proposes a novel approach to the much discussed question of which symmetries have ‘direct empirical significance’ and which do not. The approach is based on a development of a recently proposed framework by Hilary Greaves and David Wallace, who claim that, contrary to the standard

  14. Empirical Productivity Indices and Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Balk (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe empirical measurement of productivity change (or difference) by means of indices and indicators starts with the ex post profit/loss accounts of a production unit. Key concepts are profit, leading to indicators, and profitability, leading to indices. The main task for the productivity

  15. Phenomenology and the Empirical Turn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, Jochem; Blok, Vincent; Lemmens, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a phenomenological analysis of postphenomenological philosophy of technology. While acknowledging that the results of its analyses are to be recognized as original, insightful, and valuable, we will argue that in its execution of the empirical turn, postphenomenology forfeits

  16. Empirical laws, regularity and necessity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsveld, H.

    1973-01-01

    In this book I have tried to develop an analysis of the concept of an empirical law, an analysis that differs in many ways from the alternative analyse's found in contemporary literature dealing with the subject.

    1 am referring especially to two well-known views, viz. the regularity and

  17. Empirical analysis of consumer behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of consumer behavior. In the first essay, he investigates the role of a consumer's skill of product usage, and its imperfect transferability across brands, in her product choice. It shows that

  18. Learning as way-finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    motions of humans and non-human agencies. The findings reveal that learning; formal and informal can be conceptualized by the metaphor of way-finding; embodied, emotionally and/or cognitive both individually and socially. Way-finding, is argued, to be a contemporary concept for learning processes......Based on empirical case-study findings and the theoretical framework of learning by Illeris coupled with Nonaka & Takeuchis´s perspectives on knowledge creation, it is stressed that learning are conditioned by contextual orientations-processes in spaces near the body (peripersonal spaces) through......, knowledge development and identity-shaping, where learning emerges through motions, feeling and thinking within an information rich world in constant change....

  19. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  20. Empirical seasonal forecasts of the NAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchezgomez, E.; Ortizbevia, M.

    2003-04-01

    We present here seasonal forecasts of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) issued from ocean predictors with an empirical procedure. The Singular Values Decomposition (SVD) of the cross-correlation matrix between predictor and predictand fields at the lag used for the forecast lead is at the core of the empirical model. The main predictor field are sea surface temperature anomalies, although sea ice cover anomalies are also used. Forecasts are issued in probabilistic form. The model is an improvement over a previous version (1), where Sea Level Pressure Anomalies were first forecast, and the NAO Index built from this forecast field. Both correlation skill between forecast and observed field, and number of forecasts that hit the correct NAO sign, are used to assess the forecast performance , usually above those values found in the case of forecasts issued assuming persistence. For certain seasons and/or leads, values of the skill are above the .7 usefulness treshold. References (1) SanchezGomez, E. and Ortiz Bevia M., 2002, Estimacion de la evolucion pluviometrica de la Espana Seca atendiendo a diversos pronosticos empiricos de la NAO, in 'El Agua y el Clima', Publicaciones de la AEC, Serie A, N 3, pp 63-73, Palma de Mallorca, Spain

  1. Monetary Policy and Financial Asset Prices: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Umer Chhapra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Monetary transmission mechanism assumed to be significantly influenced by the effect of policy decisions on financial markets. However, various previous studies have come up with different outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of monetary policy on different asset classes (shares and bonds in Pakistan. This study using stock price and bond yield as dependent variable and discount rate, money supply, inflation, and exchange rate are independent variables. Data of all variables have collected from 2010 to 2016, and Vector Autoregressive (VAR technique has applied. The empirical results indicate that there is an impact of monetary policy components on both stock and bond market as an increase in policy rate causes decline in stocks prices and bonds yields. The findings of this study will help the potential investors in making long-term (in general and short-term (in particular investment strategies concerning monetary policy.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v7i2.7099

  2. Inadequate Empirical Antibiotic Therapy in Hospital Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, S; Rijal, B P; Yogi, K N; Sherchand, J B; Parajuli, K; Parajuli, N; Pokhrel, B M

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy for HAP is a common phenomena and one of the indicators of the poor stewardship. This study intended to analyze the efficacy of empirical antibiotics in the light of microbiological data in HAP cases. Suspected cases of HAP were followed for clinico-bacterial evidence, antimicrobial resistance and pre and post culture antibiotic use. The study was taken from February,2014 to July 2014 in department of Microbiology and department of Respiratory medicine prospectively. Data was analyzed by Microsoft Office Excel 2007. Out of 758 cases investigated, 77(10 %) cases were HAP, 65(84%) of them were culture positive and 48(74 %) were late in onset. In early onset cases, isolates were Acinetobacter 10(42%), Escherichia coli 5(21%), S.aureus 4(17%), Klebsiella 1(4%) and Pseudomonas 1(4%). From the late onset cases Acinetobacter 15(28%), Klebsiella 17(32%) and Pseudomonas 13(24%) were isolated. All Acinetobacter, 78% Klebsiella and 36% Pseudomonas isolates were multi drug resistant. Empirical therapies were inadequate in 12(70%) of early onset cases and 44(92%) of late onset type. Cephalosporins were used in 7(41%) of early onset infections but found to be adequate only in 2(12%) cases. Polymyxins were avoided empirically but after cultures were used in 9(19%) cases. Empirical antibiotics were vastly inadequate, more frequently so in late onset infections. Use of cephalosporins empirically in early onset infections and avoiding empirical use of polymyxin antibiotics in late onset infections contributed largely to the findings. Inadequate empirical regimen is a real time feedback for a practitioner to update his knowledge on the local microbiological trends.

  3. A research program in empirical computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    During the grant reporting period our primary activities have been to begin preparation for the establishment of a research program in experimental computer science. The focus of research in this program will be safety-critical systems. Many questions that arise in the effort to improve software dependability can only be addressed empirically. For example, there is no way to predict the performance of the various proposed approaches to building fault-tolerant software. Performance models, though valuable, are parameterized and cannot be used to make quantitative predictions without experimental determination of underlying distributions. In the past, experimentation has been able to shed some light on the practical benefits and limitations of software fault tolerance. It is common, also, for experimentation to reveal new questions or new aspects of problems that were previously unknown. A good example is the Consistent Comparison Problem that was revealed by experimentation and subsequently studied in depth. The result was a clear understanding of a previously unknown problem with software fault tolerance. The purpose of a research program in empirical computer science is to perform controlled experiments in the area of real-time, embedded control systems. The goal of the various experiments will be to determine better approaches to the construction of the software for computing systems that have to be relied upon. As such it will validate research concepts from other sources, provide new research results, and facilitate the transition of research results from concepts to practical procedures that can be applied with low risk to NASA flight projects. The target of experimentation will be the production software development activities undertaken by any organization prepared to contribute to the research program. Experimental goals, procedures, data analysis and result reporting will be performed for the most part by the University of Virginia.

  4. Empirically Testing Thematic Analysis (ETTA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkier Gildberg, Frederik; Bradley, Stephen; Tingleff, Ellen Boldrup

    2015-01-01

    Text analysis is not a question of a right or wrong way to go about it, but a question of different traditions. These tend to not only give answers to how to conduct an analysis, but also to provide the answer as to why it is conducted in the way that it is. The problem however may be that the li....../develop for themselves. The advantage of utilizing the presented analytic approach is argued to be the integral empirical testing, which should assure systematic development, interpretation and analysis of the source textual material....... between tradition and tool is unclear. The main objective of this article is therefore to present Empirical Testing Thematic Analysis, a step by step approach to thematic text analysis; discussing strengths and weaknesses, so that others might assess its potential as an approach that they might utilize...

  5. Functional Measurement in the Field of Empirical Bioethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, Etienne; Sorum, Paul C.; Teysseire, Nathalie; Nann, Stephanie; Martinez, Guadalupe Elizabeth Morales; Ahmed, Ramadan; Kamble, Shanmukh; Olivari, Cecilia; Sastre, Maria Teresa Munoz

    2012-01-01

    We present, in a synthetic way, some of the main findings from five studies that were conducted in the field of empirical bioethics, using the Functional Measurement framework. These studies were about (a) the rationing of rare treatments, (b) adolescents' abortions, (c) end-of-life decision-making regarding damaged neonates, (d) end-of-life…

  6. The Socratic Method: Empirical Assessment of a Psychology Capstone Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lawrence R.; Stephenson, Paul L.; Bellamy, Katy

    2016-01-01

    Although students make some epistemological progress during college, most graduate without developing meaning-making strategies that reflect an understanding that knowledge is socially constructed. Using a pre-test-post-test design and a within-subjects 2 × 2 mixed-design ANOVA, this study reports on empirical findings which support the Socratic…

  7. Empirical distribution function under heteroscedasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Víšek, Jan Ámos

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2011), s. 497-508 ISSN 0233-1888 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) GA402/09/0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Robustness * Convergence * Empirical distribution * Heteroscedasticity Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.724, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/SI/visek-0365534.pdf

  8. Corruption and Education: Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Dridi

    2014-01-01

    Corruption is widely believed to be detrimental to economic performance. However, little empirical evidence has been presented to assess its consequences on education.Using various education indicators, this paper aims to examine the effects of corruption on education both from a quantitative and qualitative point of view. The cross - country regression analysis shows a strong link between corruption and secondary school enrollment rates, but the relationship between corruption and education ...

  9. Empirical analysis of consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of consumer behavior. In the first essay, he investigates the role of a consumer's skill of product usage, and its imperfect transferability across brands, in her product choice. It shows that experienced consumers have higher but more specialized demand towards high-end products. The second essay investigates a consumer’s choice of considering a product before purchase. Because considera...

  10. Empirical research on Waldorf education

    OpenAIRE

    Randoll, Dirk; Peters, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Waldorf education began in 1919 with the first Waldorf School in Stuttgart and nowadays is widespread in many countries all over the world. Empirical research, however, has been rare until the early nineties and Waldorf education has not been discussed within educational science so far. This has changed during the last decades. This article reviews the results of surveys during the last 20 years and is mainly focused on German Waldorf Schools, because most investigations have been done in thi...

  11. The empirical war on drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitellone, Nicole

    2013-05-01

    In a special issue of the journal Addictions (1995) academics, researchers and health care professionals debated the status of the empirical in socially orientated drugs research. A number of researchers noted that our knowledge and understanding of drugs and drug users has changed significantly since the 1990s. Post AIDS this shift is identified as a consequence of the development of qualitative research methods. The qualitative turn in drugs research has involved a shift away form traditional epidemiological approaches and the pursuit of more socially focused methods. Whilst qualitative research has yielded important empirical data on risk behavior the pursuit of these methods has not been without controversy. In addressing the debate on methods in the drugs field this article investigates the effects of social science methods for research on injecting drug use. In so doing I examine what counts and what gets left out of research on injecting beaviour. Drawing on Actor Network Theory (ANT) I suggest Bruno Latour's methodological approach offers critical insights for addressing the empirical objects of injecting drug use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Two concepts of empirical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Malcolm

    2009-05-01

    The turn to empirical ethics answers two calls. The first is for a richer account of morality than that afforded by bioethical principlism, which is cast as excessively abstract and thin on the facts. The second is for the facts in question to be those of human experience and not some other, unworldly realm. Empirical ethics therefore promises a richer naturalistic ethics, but in fulfilling the second call it often fails to heed the metaethical requirements related to the first. Empirical ethics risks losing the normative edge which necessarily characterizes the ethical, by failing to account for the nature and the logic of moral norms. I sketch a naturalistic theory, teleological expressivism (TE), which negotiates the naturalistic fallacy by providing a more satisfactory means of taking into account facts and research data with ethical implications. The examples of informed consent and the euthanasia debate are used to illustrate the superiority of this approach, and the problems consequent on including the facts in the wrong kind of way.

  13. Empirical isotropic chemical shift surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czinki, Eszter; Csaszar, Attila G.

    2007-01-01

    A list of proteins is given for which spatial structures, with a resolution better than 2.5 A, are known from entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and isotropic chemical shift (ICS) values are known from the RefDB database related to the Biological Magnetic Resonance Bank (BMRB) database. The structures chosen provide, with unknown uncertainties, dihedral angles φ and ψ characterizing the backbone structure of the residues. The joint use of experimental ICSs of the same residues within the proteins, again with mostly unknown uncertainties, and ab initio ICS(φ,ψ) surfaces obtained for the model peptides For-(l-Ala) n -NH 2 , with n = 1, 3, and 5, resulted in so-called empirical ICS(φ,ψ) surfaces for all major nuclei of the 20 naturally occurring α-amino acids. Out of the many empirical surfaces determined, it is the 13C α ICS(φ,ψ) surface which seems to be most promising for identifying major secondary structure types, α-helix, β-strand, left-handed helix (α D ), and polyproline-II. Detailed tests suggest that Ala is a good model for many naturally occurring α-amino acids. Two-dimensional empirical 13C α - 1 H α ICS(φ,ψ) correlation plots, obtained so far only from computations on small peptide models, suggest the utility of the experimental information contained therein and thus they should provide useful constraints for structure determinations of proteins

  14. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  15. Toward an empirical classification for the DSM-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, T A; Frances, A J; Pincus, H A; Davis, W W; First, M B

    1991-08-01

    The provision of explicit and specific diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM; American Psychiatric Association, 1980, 1987) was instrumental in the production of a substantial amount of informative research. The major emphasis in the preparation of the DSM-IV has been to maximize the impact of this accumulating research on the revision and to document the rationale and empirical support for any changes that are made. In this article we discuss the empirical basis for the DSM-IV. The historical context provided by the previous editions is briefly presented and followed by a description of the process by which the DSM-IV is being constructed. The input of empirical data through literature reviews, data reanalyses, and field trials is described, and an illustration with the antisocial personality disorder diagnosis is given.

  16. The dilemma of service productivity and service innovation : An empirical exploration in financial services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aspara, Jaakko; Klein, Jan; Luo, Xueming; Tikkanen, Henrikki

    2017-01-01

    We conduct a systematic exploratory investigation of the effects of firms’ existing service productivity on the success of their new service innovations. Although previous research extensively addresses service productivity and service innovation, respectively, this is the first empirical study that

  17. Milan systemic family therapy: a review of 10 empirical investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Ten empirical investigations of Milan Family Therapy (MFT) are reviewed in this paper. The studies include both single and comparative group outcome trials; investigations of therapeutic process; clinical audit and consumer satisfaction surveys. Substantive findings and methodological issues are discussed in the light of family therapy and individual psychotherapy research generally. Findings indicate that MFT may lead to symptomatic change in two-thirds to three-quarters of cases and to syst...

  18. An empirical investigation of Australian Stock Exchange data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, William K.

    2004-10-01

    We present an empirical study of high frequency Australian equity data examining the behaviour of distribution tails and the existence of long memory. A method is presented allowing us to deal with Australian Stock Exchange data by splitting it into two separate data series representing an intraday and overnight component. Power-law exponents for the empirical density functions are estimated and compared with results from other studies. Using the autocorrelation and variance plots we find there to be a strong indication of long-memory type behaviour in the absolute return, volume and transaction frequency.

  19. Diagnosing organizational culture: An empirical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Jofreh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the behavior of members of an organization is a basic step in understanding the organization's culture. In fact, it is always necessary to consider organization culture when a new action is about to happen. In fact, by leveraging culture, it is getting easier to accomplish other tasks within organization. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing organizational culture in banking industry. The proposed study uses Denison’s standard questionnaire for diagnosing organizational culture. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.927, which is well about the acceptable limit. The results indicate that dimensions of job involvement (2.961 and organizational mission (2.914 are in better position compared with dimensions of compatibility (2.724 and consistency (2.621. The study proposes a new comprehensive organizational framework, which helps building new strategies.

  20. The Evaluation of Innovation in the IT Service Sector: Methodological and Empirical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Kazlauskienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — Nowadays services are comprehended as the key factor for economic activity, growth and employment. Developed economies are service-dominated though little is known about the innovation details in the service sector and this study field has been neglected for a while. The innovation in service sector activities needs to be thoroughly evaluated because innovation is an interconnected process and cannot be defined using one or few indicators. IT services are an integral part of contemporary life, particularly for business. It can be introduced and implemented in all fields, especially when the world is becoming more multidimensional. Innovation performance in the IT sector has been under-researched, despite the fact that IT service sector plays the innovation disseminator role in other sectors by appliance of IT products. Design/methodology/approach — Based on scientific literature and methodological aspects analyses, an empirical research methodology was designed and the qualitative research on innovation in information technology service sector was accomplished. Findings — The article presents methodological aspects of innovation evaluation in service sector and empirical aspects on innovation implementation and development in the IT service companies in Lithuania. Research limitations/implications — For more comprehensive understanding of innovation in service sector, especially in IT services, the theory of service innovation is necessary. Deeper understanding and perspectives on how innovation benefits the information technology sector should be revealed in further researches and the multi-country analysis is needed. Practical implications — The finding of the paper can be used to improve the development of innovation in information technology service companies and create a model for more exhaustive multi-country empirical researches. Originality/value — The impact of innovation and its development in information

  1. Science and the British Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mark

    2005-03-01

    The last few decades have witnessed a flowering of interest in the history of science in the British Empire. This essay aims to provide an overview of some of the most important work in this area, identifying interpretative shifts and emerging themes. In so doing, it raises some questions about the analytical framework in which colonial science has traditionally been viewed, highlighting interactions with indigenous scientific traditions and the use of network-based models to understand scientific relations within and beyond colonial contexts.

  2. Structural Patterns in Empirical Research Articles: A Cross-Disciplinary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling; Evans, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the major generic structures of empirical research articles (RAs), with a particular focus on disciplinary variation and the relationship between the adjacent sections in the introductory and concluding parts. The findings were derived from a close "manual" analysis of 433 recent empirical RAs from high-impact…

  3. Access to data and material for research: Putting empirical evidence into perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to put into critical perspective the empirical findings on secrecy and withholding in research. In other words, by taking existing empirical literature into account, it is intended that a crucial question is answered: Is secrecy and withholding in research harmful or

  4. Debunking Confabulation : Emotions and the Significance of Empirical Psychology for Kantian Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleingeld, Pauline; Cohen, Alix

    2014-01-01

    It is frequently argued that research findings in empirical moral psychology spell trouble for Kantian ethics. Sometimes the charge is merely that Kantianism is mistaken about the role of emotions in human action, but it has also been argued that empirical moral psychology ‘debunks’ Kantian ethics

  5. Empirical basis and forensic application of affective and predatory violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to address the empirical basis and forensic application of a bimodal theory of violence. The definitions of affective and predatory violence, the relevant animal and clinical research, and the current empirical evidence in neurochemistry, neuropsychology and psychophysiology are reviewed. Forensic evidence for the relevance of this bimodal theory is investigated. An appropriate methodology for data gathering, and two observational measures along with one self-report measure are explicated. Integration of this bimodal theory into forensic practice is suggested. Affective and predatory modes of violence represent an empirically valid bimodal theory of violence, find application in forensic psychiatry, and scientifically deepen the understanding of discrete violent acts for both retrospective and prospective psychiatric and psychological investigations. This bimodal theory of violence should have a place in forensic psychiatric practice.

  6. The Japanese Medical Empire and Its Iterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John DiMoia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hoi-eun Kim. Doctors of Empire: Medical and Cultural Encounters between Imperial Germany and Meiji Japan. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2014. 272 pp. $55 (cloth/ebook. As recently as the early 1980s, the literature in English concerning the broader transformation of East Asia as a space for emerging developments in science, technology, and medicine (STM was dominated almost exclusively by works on imperial China. This is not surprising, given its considerable historical legacy as the dominant cultural force in the region. It was perfectly acceptable within the field, moreover, to treat neighboring countries within this Sinocentric framework, or at least to regard their cultural and historical indebtedness to China as one of their central features of interest. If I exaggerate the hegemonic force of China studies in the recent past to make a rhetorical point, I do so to mark the arrival of a great deal of newer scholarship concerning the transformation of the East Asian region since the nineteenth century, and arguably since at least the seventeenth century, particularly within the field of medicine—whether Western, “traditional” (a problematic term, admittedly, or even, in more complex cases, those practices embedded within a dense nexus of religious worship and healing. The work under review here, Hoi-eun Kim’s Doctors of Empire, provides a new and welcome addition to the growing literature on Meiji Japan, following in the tradition of a substantial body of previous work on scientific and technological accomplishments, including studies by James Bartholomew (1993, Tessa Morris-Suzuki (1994, and Morris Low (2005, among many others....

  7. Empirical and dynamic primary energy factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilby, Mark Richard; Rodríguez González, Ana Belén; Vinagre Díaz, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    Current legislation, standards, and scientific research in the field of energy efficiency often make use of PEFs (primary energy factors). The measures employed are usually fixed and based on theoretical calculations. However given the intrinsically variable nature of energy systems, these PEFs should rely on empirical data and evolve in time. Otherwise the obtained efficiencies may not be representative of the actual energy system. In addition, incorrect PEFs may cause a negative effect on the energy efficiency measures. For instance, imposing a high value on the PEF of electricity may discourage the use of renewable energy sources, which have an actual value close to 1. In order to provide a solution to this issue, we propose an application of the Energy Networks (ENs), described in a previous work, to calculate dynamic PEFs based on empirical data. An EN represents an entire energy system both numerically and graphically, from its primary energy sources to their final energy forms, and consuming sectors. Using ENs we can calculate the PEF of any energy form and depict it in a simple and meaningful graph that shows the details of the contribution of each primary energy and the efficiency of the associated process. The analysis of these PEFs leads to significant conclusions regarding the energy models adopted among countries, their evolution in time, the selection of viable ways to improve efficiency, and the detection of best practices that could contribute to the overall energy efficiency targets. - Highlights: • Primary Energy Factors (PEFs) are foundation of much energy legislation and research. • Traditionally, they have been treated as geotemporally invariant. • This work provides a systematic and transparent methodology for adding variability. • It also shows the variability between regions due to market, policy, and technology. • Finally it demonstrates the utility of extended PEFs as a tool in their own right

  8. Science and the French Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Michael A

    2005-03-01

    Scholarly interest in French colonial science, interpreted to include colonial medical and scientific institutions as well as personages and other "actors" in France serving colonial agendas, has been robust for some two decades. This essay characterizes the complex and interlinked historical relationships between French metropolitan and colonial science as one of asymmetric coevolution. In analyzing scholarship on diverse topics from physics and military technology to colonial botany, medicine, geography, and racial theory, it interrogates the concepts of French nation and French empire and questions the historiographical and explanatory utility of the core-periphery model. Special scrutiny falls on a trope common to historigraphical studies of the postrevolutionary era, that of a firm French nationalism enabling largely rational colonial agendas and the promotion of these agendas by highly centralized Parisian bureaucracies. The essay calls for a reading of French history inclusive of regional colonialist activities and argues for the prevalence of municipal and regional maritime, technological, scientific, and military interests in constructing the modern French empire.

  9. Optimization of hydraulic machinery by exploiting previous successful designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, S A; Giannakoglou, K C [National Technical University of Athens, Parallel CFD and Optimization Unit, PO Box 64069, Athens 15710 (Greece); Weissenberger, S; Grafenberger, P, E-mail: stelios.Kyriacou@gmail.co [Andritz HYDRO, RD, Lunzerstrasse 78, 4031 Linz (Austria)

    2010-08-15

    A design-optimization method for hydraulic machinery is proposed. Optimal designs are obtained using the appropriate CFD evaluation software driven by an evolutionary algorithm which is also assisted by artificial neural networks used as surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. As shown in a previous IAHR paper by the same authors, such an optimization method substantially reduces the CPU cost, since the metamodels can discard numerous non-promising candidate solutions generated during the evolution, at almost negligible CPU cost, without evaluating them by means of the costly CFD tool. The present paper extends the optimization method of the previous paper by making it capable to accommodate and exploit pieces of useful information archived during previous relevant successful designs. So, instead of parameterizing the geometry of the hydraulic machine components, which inevitably leads to many design variables, enough to slow down the design procedure, in the proposed method all new designs are expressed as weighted combinations of the archived ones. The archived designs act as the design space bases. The role of the optimization algorithms is to find the set (or sets, for more than one objectives, where the Pareto front of non-dominated solutions is sought) of weight values, corresponding to the hydraulic machine configuration(s) with optimal performance. Since the number of weights is much less that the number of design variables of the conventional shape parameterization, the design space dimension reduces and the CPU cost of the metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithm is much lower. The design of a Francis runner is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method.

  10. Learning as way-finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    This paper is based on case study findings from studying undergraduate students’ perceptions of their navigation in a blended learning environment where different learning spaces are offered. In this paper learning is regarded as a multi-level and multi complex concept. In this regard the concept......, is based on the findings from research of the implementation of blended learning in two undergraduate programmes at University College North in Denmark. The data collection methods is based on eighteen focus-group interview collected in a period of the first two years of students enrolment in radiography...... and teachers education. Furthermore, a survey was conducted after three month of students’ enrolment and some few observations-studies in teachers’ education. The empirical data are interpreted in a narrative form through the use of prefiguration, configuration and refiguration and presented as themes around...

  11. Power spectrum model of visual masking: simulations and empirical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pedraza, Ignacio; Sierra-Vázquez, Vicente; Derrington, Andrew M

    2013-06-01

    In the study of the spatial characteristics of the visual channels, the power spectrum model of visual masking is one of the most widely used. When the task is to detect a signal masked by visual noise, this classical model assumes that the signal and the noise are previously processed by a bank of linear channels and that the power of the signal at threshold is proportional to the power of the noise passing through the visual channel that mediates detection. The model also assumes that this visual channel will have the highest ratio of signal power to noise power at its output. According to this, there are masking conditions where the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) occurs in a channel centered in a spatial frequency different from the spatial frequency of the signal (off-frequency looking). Under these conditions the channel mediating detection could vary with the type of noise used in the masking experiment and this could affect the estimation of the shape and the bandwidth of the visual channels. It is generally believed that notched noise, white noise and double bandpass noise prevent off-frequency looking, and high-pass, low-pass and bandpass noises can promote it independently of the channel's shape. In this study, by means of a procedure that finds the channel that maximizes the SNR at its output, we performed numerical simulations using the power spectrum model to study the characteristics of masking caused by six types of one-dimensional noise (white, high-pass, low-pass, bandpass, notched, and double bandpass) for two types of channel's shape (symmetric and asymmetric). Our simulations confirm that (1) high-pass, low-pass, and bandpass noises do not prevent the off-frequency looking, (2) white noise satisfactorily prevents the off-frequency looking independently of the shape and bandwidth of the visual channel, and interestingly we proved for the first time that (3) notched and double bandpass noises prevent off-frequency looking only when the noise

  12. The emotional involvement in the workplace: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Lucia-Casademunt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In a multitude of studies, it is verified that the generation of positive attitudes for employees such as job satisfaction or job involvement, have a positive influence on productivity levels of companies. The current investigation focus on the identification of employee-profile -who is emotionally involved with their work activity- through the use of a set of individual, job related and attitudinal factors.Design/methodology: A review of the literature about the main factors that affect the job involvement particularly on its emotional dimension has been completed. For its measurement at the empirical level, various items related to psychological well being of employees included in the IV European Working Conditions Survey-2010 are used. Moreover, those items are identified in Job Involvement Questionnaire (Lodahl & Kejner, 1965. Since then, an empirical and multidimensional study is carried out by applying a logistic regression model on the sample of 11,149 employees obtained with European survey cited previously.Findings: The logistic regression model identifies the factors, which are directly related to emotional involvement at the workplace. Ultimately, is raised a definitive model that define the European employee-profile -who is emotionally involved at the workplace-: a rather aged person who has been working at his/her present place of employment for several years in a medium-sized company where possibly there exist a good working relationship between workers and their superiors –social support-. These employees are “white-collar” workers, have career advancement opportunities in the organizational hierarchy. They perform variety, flexible and complex tasks, which leads to satisfaction in terms of pay and working conditions.Research limitations/implications: Emotional involvement has been measured through self-awareness and, therefore, the corresponding bias in the key variable must be assumed. In addition, the casual

  13. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor

    2016-07-26

    proteomics approach, we identified a previously unstudied member of the leukocidin family of pore-forming toxins as the virulence factor responsible for the observed cytotoxicity in eukaryotic cells, as well as a plethora of additional putative virulence factors secreted by this bacterium. Our findings reveal a functional new clan of the leukocidin toxin superfamily and establish this pathogen as a reservoir of potential toxins that can be used for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Ray et al.

  14. MR findings in mannosidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietemann, J L; Filippi de la Palavesa, M M; Tranchant, C; Kastler, B

    1990-01-01

    MR findings are reported in three patients presenting mannosidosis. Among a family of 8 children, 4 presented typical clinical and biological abnormalities related to mannosidosis. Brain MR examinations including sagittal T1 and axial T2 sections were obtained in three patients of this family (one 25-year-old male, one 34-year-old female, and one 35-year-old female). MR scans demonstrate seven types of modifications: (1) brachycephaly, (2) thick calvaria, (3) verticalization of the chiasmatic sulcus, (4) poor pneumatization of the sphenoid body, (5) partial empty sella turcica (6) cerebellar atrophy, and (7) white matter signal modifications. High signal abnormalities involving the parieto-occipital white matter are identified on axial T2-weighted scans in the three patients and are probably related to demyelination and associated gliosis as described previously by several authors on specimens.

  15. Prediction of mandibular rotation: an empirical test of clinician performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L; West, E E

    1984-11-01

    An experiment was conducted in an attempt to determine empirically how effective a number of expert clinicians were at differentiating "backward rotators" from "forward rotators" on the basis of head-film information which might reasonably have been available to them prior to instituting treatment for the correction of Class II malocclusion. As a result of a previously reported ongoing study, pre- and posttreatment head films were available for 188 patients treated in the mixed dentition for the correction of Class II malocclusion and for 50 untreated Class II subjects. These subjects were divided into 14 groups (average size of group, 17; range, 6 to 23) solely on the basis of type of treatment and the clinician from whose clinic the records had originated. From within each group, we selected the two or three subjects who had exhibited the most extreme backward rotation and the two or three subjects who had exhibited the most extreme forward rotation of the mandible during the interval between films. The sole criterion for classification was magnitude of change in the mandibular plane angle of Downs between the pre- and posttreatment films of each patient. The resulting sample contained 32 backward-rotator subjects and 32 forward-rotator subjects. Five expert judges (mean clinical experience, 28 years) were asked to identify the backward-rotator subjects by examination of the pretreatment films. The findings may be summarized as follows: (1) No judge performed significantly better than chance. (2) There was strong evidence that the judges used a shared, though relatively ineffective, set of rules in making their discriminations between forward and backward rotators. (3) Statistical analysis of the predictive power of a set of standard cephalometric measurements which had previously been made for this set of subjects indicated that the numerical data also failed to identify potential backward rotators at a rate significantly better than chance. We infer from these

  16. Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... issue Health Capsule Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia En español Send us your comments Scientists uncovered a mechanism behind genetic variations previously linked to schizophrenia. The findings may lead to new clinical approaches. ...

  17. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  18. Empirical links between achievement goal theory and self-determination theory in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoumanis, N

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the empirical links between achievement goal theory and self-determination theory in sport. Addressing theoretical and methodological limitations of previous research, the study tested the independent and interactive effects of goal orientations and perceived competence on seven motivational variables with different degrees of self-determination. Regression analyses of data collected from 247 British university students showed that task orientation predicted motivational variables with high self-determination. In contrast, ego orientation predicted motivational variables with low self-determination. Perceived competence predicted both high self-determined and low self-determined motivational variables. A significant interaction emerged between task and ego orientations in predicting external regulation. The results suggest the adaptive role of task orientation in facilitating self-determined motivation in sport. However, the findings are not conclusive, as the variance explained in most analyses was relatively small. Suggestions are offered for a more comprehensive empirical testing of the links between the two theories.

  19. The Macroeconomic Impact of Ebola Virus Disease (Evd: A Contribution to the Empirics of Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obukohwo Oba Efayena

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper addressed the formulation of a macro model to capture the macroeconomic impact of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD. Previous studies has adopted various models such as the dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE model, endogenous model and the LINKAGE model, but there is dire need to generate a step-by-step model which will comprehensively capture how the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD impacts on macroeconomic variables. Adopting the traditional neoclassical growth model, the model aggregated the various macroeconomic variables as well as captured the epidemic’s strain on each of these variables. The paper also empirically shows that the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD has direct, indirect and deferred indirect cost implications for the economy. Using case studies of countries in Africa, the study evaluated how the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD has affected the macroeconomic status of selected economies. The findings imply that there is dire need to control the spread of the deadly plague. The paper contribute immensely to empirical studies in the field of macroeconomics.

  20. A Multicenter Evaluation of Prolonged Empiric Antibiotic Therapy in Adult ICUs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Zachariah; Bandali, Farooq; Sankaranarayanan, Jayashri; Reardon, Tom; Olsen, Keith M

    2015-12-01

    empiric antibiotics ordered in critically ill patients are continued for at least 72 hours in absence of adjudicated infection. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine the risks and benefits of prolonged empiric therapy in the critically ill.

  1. Empirical Studies on Legitimation Strategies: A Case for International Business Research Extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on legitimation and legitimation strategies applied by companies. Following the process of systematic review, we analyze empirical studies exploring legitimation and legitimation strategies from different theoretical perspectives. Using the key findings by reconnoitering and com...... and comparing the theoretical background, approaches, methodologies, and findings of these empirical studies, we outline potential directions for research in the legitimation strategies of firms engaged in international business operations....

  2. Trebizond Conference as a Diplomatic Triumph of the Ottoman Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhipova Ekaterina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Trebizond conference is usually considered as the failed peace meeting of the Transcaucasian Sejm and the Ottoman Empire delegates. Researching the documents in the National Armenian Archive we could compare the declarations of the conference delegates with the unofficial negotiations by the delegates of the Transcaucasian Sejm. The Ottoman Empire delegation using the military forces as well as the diplomatic experience could introduce their head as the conference chairman and determine the frames of the negotiations. Obviously the Turkish delegation insisted on two issues: the date of the Transcaucasian Republic recognition, and their borders. Both issues contradicted the terms of the Brest Treaty. The Ottoman Empire obtained the new Caucasian state to recognize the treaty previously signed without its participation. The Caucasian delegates considered the Brest Treaty as a betrayal and refused to adopt it, but being not recognized as a state they felt no legal base to continue their policy. Consequently, they had to follow the diplomatic rules provided by Ottoman Empire delegation and to discuss the border line. But in the course of the border negotiations they could not reach the inner unity, and the interests of delegates were disintegrated. This discussion later became the base for disintegration of the Transcaucasian Republic. As a result, the Turkish policy forced the Transcaucasian delegates to recognize: 1 the Brest Treaty; 2 the contradictory national interests within the Transcaucasian Republic. The latest fact disintegrated their military forces in the front of the Turkish army.

  3. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  4. Electricity and Empire in 1920s Palestine under British Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Ronen

    2016-12-01

    This article examines some techno-political aspects of the early years of electrification in British-ruled 1920s Palestine. It emphasizes the importance of local technical, topographical and hydrological forms of knowledge for understanding the dynamics of electrification. Situating the analysis in a general colonial context of electrification, the study shows that British colonial rulers lagged behind both German firms and local entrepreneurs in understanding the specific conditions pertaining to electrification in Palestine. Subsequently, the study shows that the British had limited control of the actual electrification process and its declared/professed developmental purposes, thereby complicating assumptions about electrification as a tool of the Empire/tool of empire. Finding some similarities between the cases of electrifying Palestine and India, the article's findings may shed further light on the importance of micro-politics of knowledge for understanding the trajectory of electrification in the colonies.

  5. Teaching Empirical Software Engineering Using Expert Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Empirical software engineering aims at making software engineering claims measurable, i.e., to analyze and understand phenomena in software engineering and to evaluate software engineering approaches and solutions. Due to the involvement of humans and the multitude of fields for which software...... is crucial, software engineering is considered hard to teach. Yet, empirical software engineering increases this difficulty by adding the scientific method as extra dimension. In this paper, we present a Master-level course on empirical software engineering in which different empirical instruments...

  6. Economic Causes of Tropical Deforestation - A Global Empirical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Scrieciu, Silviu Serban

    2003-01-01

    The paper investigates the complex system of causes affecting tropical deforestation at a worldwide level. There is no generally accepted theory in the deforestation literature to indicate which variables should be included in a model of deforestation at an aggregate global level. The paper begins, therefore, by presenting an analytical structure based on formal farm household economic modelling literature. The empirical findings derived from a global regression model tend to confirm the prof...

  7. Tax morale : theory and empirical analysis of tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Torgler, Benno

    2003-01-01

    Tax morale is puzzling in our society. Observations show that tax compliance cannot be satisfactorily explained by the level of enforcement. Other factors may well be relevant. This paper contains a short survey of important theoretical and empirical findings in the tax morale literature, focussing on personal income tax morale. The following three key topics are discussed: moral sentiments, fairness and the relationship between taxpayer and government. The survey stresses the ...

  8. Corporate Governance and Firm Value: Empirical Evidence in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Mabel Yunn Ru

    2009-01-01

    Well governed firms have been noted to have higher firm performance. However, this is still an empirical question in the context of Malaysia. This paper aims to examine the effect of corporate governance practices on firm value among 151 public listed companies on Bursa Malaysia Main Board between 2006 and 2008. We use the overall governance practice scores (CGS) to measure the level of compliance carried out by the sample firms. The results find that better corporate governance is highly cor...

  9. Does Political Reservation Affect Voting Behavior? Empirical Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Yuko; Kurosaki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the impact of political reservation for disadvantaged groups on voting behavior. Using microdata from the National Election Study of the 2004 parliamentary elections in India, we find that in a reserved constituency, where only members of the disadvantaged castes can stand for election, voters of the disadvantaged castes are encouraged to vote. On the other hand, the system of constituency reservation does not have any impact on the turnout of voters belonging ...

  10. Victim countries of transnational terrorism: an empirical characteristics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakidze, Levan; Jin, Yanhong

    2012-12-01

    This study empirically investigates the association between country-level socioeconomic characteristics and risk of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. We find that a country's annual financial contribution to the U.N. general operating budget has a positive association with the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. In addition, per capita GDP, political freedom, and openness to trade are nonlinearly related to the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Exchange-rate regimes and economic growth: An empirical evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Sosvilla-Rivero; María del Carmen Ramos-Herrera

    2014-01-01

    Based on a dataset of 123 economies, this paper empirically investigates the relation between exchange-rate regimes and economic growth. We find that growth performance is best under intermediate exchange rate regimes, while the smallest growth rates are associated with flexible exchange rates. Nevertheless, this conclusion is tempered when we analyze the countries by income level: even though countries that adopt intermediate exchange-rate regimes are characterized by higher economic growth,...

  12. Globalization and Governance: A Critical Contribution to the Empirics

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu, Simplice; Efobi, Uchenna; Tchamyou, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the effect of globalisation on governance in 51 African countries for the period 1996-2011. Ten bundled and unbundled governance indicators and four globalisation variables are used. The empirical evidence is based on Generalised Method of Moments. The following findings are established. First, on political governance, only social globalisation improves political stability while only economic globalisation does not increase voice & accountability and political governance....

  13. Network Centrality and Market Prices: An Empirical Note

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Firgo; Dieter Pennerstorfer; Christoph R. Weiss

    2015-01-01

    We empirically investigate the importance of centrality (holding a central position in a spatial network) for strategic interaction in pricing for the Austrian retail gasoline market. Results from spatial autoregressive models suggest that the gasoline station located most closely to the market center - defined as the 1-median location - exerts the strongest effect on pricing decisions of other stations. We conclude that centrality influences firms' pricing behavior and further find that the ...

  14. Judgments under competition and uncertainty : empirical evidence from online poker

    OpenAIRE

    Engelbergs, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Playing poker has many aspects in common with the making of business decisions. Agents act in a strategically rich, dynamic environment, where they are repeatedly facing competition under uncertain prospects. Their main goal is to maximize their resources. However simple this goal is put down, it is difficult to fulfill. As vast and rich research has shown, heuristics and biases affect human decision-making. This work adds to these findings by providing empirical evidence for behavioral patte...

  15. Empirical analysis of sexual recidivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Natalija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper empirically examines relation of some static factors to recidivism among sexual offenders. The research sample consists of data gathered from personal files of 82 convicted persons who are either currently in the prison in Sremska Mitrovica or who have already served their sentences. Some of the hypotheses of the research have been confirmed. Firstly, a link between age at initial offending against sexual freedom and sexual recidivism is found to be statistically significant. Moreover, sexual recidivism is associated with the type of first criminal offense against sexual freedom - there are greater chances for recidivism if the first crime is less serious (prohibited sexual acts. Lastly, sexual offenders generally commit the same type of crimes against sexual freedom and this link is statistically significant. It is possible to make a clear distinction between two groups of recidivists - those who choose to victimize children and juveniles and those whose victims are adults. On the other hand, early onset of criminal career is not found to be statistically important. The same is concluded for marital and socio-economic status as well as for the history of rule violation (except sex crimes.

  16. [An encyclopedia for the empire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöltzner, Michael

    2008-03-01

    In the preface to the universal encyclopedia Die Kultur der Gegenwart (The Culture of the Present), the editor-in-chief Paul Hinneberg places his project--not openly but nevertheless unequivocally--in the tradition of the French Encyclopédie that Diderot and d'Alembert had organized from 1751 until 1765. The attempt to accomplish anew such a large-scale project and, in this way, to win the German Empire the kind of intellectual leadership which the Encyclopédie, in historical retrospect, had achieved for the epoch of Enlightenment, required to convince the leading scholars, scientists, and technicians of the nation to participate in the endeavor and to assemble their contributions under a common systematic agenda through which this universal encyclopedia would distinguish itself from all dictionaries and disciplinary encyclopedias. While the Encyclopédie followed to a large extent an empiricist philosophy, Hinneberg trusted in the integrative function of the concept of culture and the ability of his contributors to elucidate the history of their respective disciplines and to connect them with neighboring fields of culture. The present contributions argues that although, from a philosophical point of view, the historicist tack taken by Hinneberg makes the concept of culture quite blurry, it nevertheless provides enough cohesive structure such that the work, even though unfinished as a consequence of war and inflation, represents a faithful picture of its epoch that Hinneberg understands as an epoch of transition.

  17. An Empirical Mass Function Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S. G.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Power, C.

    2018-03-01

    The halo mass function, encoding the comoving number density of dark matter halos of a given mass, plays a key role in understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies. As such, it is a key goal of current and future deep optical surveys to constrain the mass function down to mass scales that typically host {L}\\star galaxies. Motivated by the proven accuracy of Press–Schechter-type mass functions, we introduce a related but purely empirical form consistent with standard formulae to better than 4% in the medium-mass regime, {10}10{--}{10}13 {h}-1 {M}ȯ . In particular, our form consists of four parameters, each of which has a simple interpretation, and can be directly related to parameters of the galaxy distribution, such as {L}\\star . Using this form within a hierarchical Bayesian likelihood model, we show how individual mass-measurement errors can be successfully included in a typical analysis, while accounting for Eddington bias. We apply our form to a question of survey design in the context of a semi-realistic data model, illustrating how it can be used to obtain optimal balance between survey depth and angular coverage for constraints on mass function parameters. Open-source Python and R codes to apply our new form are provided at http://mrpy.readthedocs.org and https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/tggd/index.html respectively.

  18. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  19. How does copayment for health care services affect demand, health and redistribution? A systematic review of the empirical evidence from 1990 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiil, Astrid; Houlberg, Kurt

    2014-11-01

    This article reviews the quantitative evidence on the behavioural effects of copayment within the health area across a wide range of countries. The review distinguishes itself from previous similar reviews by having a high degree of transparency for the search strategy used to identify the studies included in the review as well as the criteria for inclusion and by including the most recent literature. Empirical studies were identified by performing searches in EconLit. The literature search identified a total of 47 studies of the behavioural effects of copayment. Considering the demand effects, the majority of the reviewed studies found that copayment reduces the use of prescription medicine, consultations with general practitioners and specialists, and ambulatory care, respectively. The literature found no significant effects of copayment on the prevalence of hospitalisations. The empirical evidence on whether copayment for some services, but not for others, causes substitution from the services that are subject to copayment to the 'free' services rather than lower total use is sparse and mixed. Likewise, the health effects of copayment have only been analysed empirically in a limited number of studies, of which half did not find any significant effects in the short term. Finally, the empirical evidence on the distributional consequences of copayment indicates that individuals with low income and in particular need of care generally reduce their use relatively more than the remaining population in consequence of copayment. Hence, it is clear that copayment involves some important economic and political trade-offs.

  20. Access to bridge employment: Who finds and who does not find work after retirement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, E.; Henkens, K.; van Solinge, H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Empirical studies on the determinants of bridge employment have often neglected the fact that some retirees may be unsuccessful in finding a bridge job. We present an integrative framework that emphasizes socioeconomic factors, health status, social context, and psychological

  1. Access to Bridge Employment : Who Finds and Who Does Not Find Work After Retirement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, E.; Henkens, K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Empirical studies on the determinants of bridge employment have often neglected the fact that some retirees may be unsuccessful in finding a bridge job. We present an integrative framework that emphasizes socioeconomic factors, health status, social context, and psychological

  2. Access to Bridge Employment : Who Finds and Who Does Not Find Work After Retirement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, Ellen; Henkens, Kene; van Solinge, Hanna

    Purpose of the Study: Empirical studies on the determinants of bridge employment have often neglected the fact that some retirees may be unsuccessful in finding a bridge job. We present an integrative framework that emphasizes socioeconomic factors, health status, social context, and psychological

  3. Appropriate methodologies for empirical bioethics: it's all relative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Jonathan; Draper, Heather

    2009-05-01

    In this article we distinguish between philosophical bioethics (PB), descriptive policy orientated bioethics (DPOB) and normative policy oriented bioethics (NPOB). We argue that finding an appropriate methodology for combining empirical data and moral theory depends on what the aims of the research endeavour are, and that, for the most part, this combination is only required for NPOB. After briefly discussing the debate around the is/ought problem, and suggesting that both sides of this debate are misunderstanding one another (i.e. one side treats it as a conceptual problem, whilst the other treats it as an empirical claim), we outline and defend a methodological approach to NPOB based on work we have carried out on a project exploring the normative foundations of paternal rights and responsibilities. We suggest that given the prominent role already played by moral intuition in moral theory, one appropriate way to integrate empirical data and philosophical bioethics is to utilize empirically gathered lay intuition as the foundation for ethical reasoning in NPOB. The method we propose involves a modification of a long-established tradition on non-intervention in qualitative data gathering, combined with a form of reflective equilibrium where the demands of theory and data are given equal weight and a pragmatic compromise reached.

  4. Motives and chances of firm diversification: theory and empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briglauer, W.

    2001-11-01

    It is beyond controversy that the majority of the largest companies in the industrialized countries perform to a certain extent product diversification strategies. Tying up to this finding the underlying work firstly deals with alternative theoretical and empirical definitions of corporate diversification. Subsequently the theoretical part mainly elaborates an industrial economic framework for categorizing motives of firm diversification. Despite of some inevitable degree of arbitrariness, a relatively widespread and sufficient categorization can be presented. With regards to the relevant economic literature most explanations of product diversification can be classified appropriately. Observing diversification activities one would prima facie infer a positive relationship between product diversification and firm performance, but both, theory and empirical evidence, yield ambiguous results. The empirical part provides a list of existing studies, classified according to the theoretical categorization. In an overview some stylised facts are filtered and discussed consecutively. Most notably, it was found that related diversification strategies significantly outperform strategies of unrelated diversification. At the end of the empirical section econometric methods are applied to agricultural and industrial economic (relating to telecommunication markets) data sets. For the agricultural studies a significantly positive relationship between product diversification and firm performance was found. In contrast no significant results were obtained for the telecommunication markets. (author)

  5. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  6. Empirical tests of Zipf's law mechanism in open source Linux distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillart, T; Sornette, D; Spaeth, S; von Krogh, G

    2008-11-21

    Zipf's power law is a ubiquitous empirical regularity found in many systems, thought to result from proportional growth. Here, we establish empirically the usually assumed ingredients of stochastic growth models that have been previously conjectured to be at the origin of Zipf's law. We use exceptionally detailed data on the evolution of open source software projects in Linux distributions, which offer a remarkable example of a growing complex self-organizing adaptive system, exhibiting Zipf's law over four full decades.

  7. Empirical Moral Philosophy and Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjetne, Espen; Afdal, Hilde Wågsås; Anker, Trine; Johannesen, Nina; Afdal, Geir

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the possible contributions of empirical moral philosophy to professional ethics in teacher education. We argue that it is both possible and desirable to connect knowledge of how teachers empirically do and understand professional ethics with normative theories of teachers' professional ethics. Our argument is made in…

  8. Essays on empirical likelihood in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Z.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis intends to exploit the roots of empirical likelihood and its related methods in mathematical programming and computation. The roots will be connected and the connections will induce new solutions for the problems of estimation, computation, and generalization of empirical likelihood.

  9. Empirical Approaches to the Birthday Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Alfinio; Cauto, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    This article will describe two activities in which students conduct experiments with random numbers so they can see that having at least one repeated birthday in a group of 40 is not unusual. The first empirical approach was conducted by author Cauto in a secondary school methods course. The second empirical approach was used by author Flores with…

  10. The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

    2011-01-01

    Following last decade’s programmatic papers on Evolutionary Economic Geography, we report on recent empirical advances and how this empirical work can be positioned vis-a`-vis other strands of research in economic geography. First, we review studies on the path dependent nature of clustering, and

  11. Empirical training for conditional random fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Zhemin; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Apers, Peter M.G.; Wombacher, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper (Zhu et al., 2013), we present a practi- cally scalable training method for CRFs called Empir- ical Training (EP). We show that the standard train- ing with unregularized log likelihood can have many maximum likelihood estimations (MLEs). Empirical training has a unique closed form MLE

  12. Empirical Phenomenology: A Qualitative Research Approach (The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper introduces the philosophical foundation and practical application of empirical phenomenology in social research. The approach of empirical phenomenology builds upon the phenomenology of the philosophers Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger and the sociologist Alfred Schütz, but considers how their ...

  13. Why Don't the Chinese Play Cricket? Rethinking Progression in Historical Interpretations through the British Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Steven; Wallace, Pieter

    2006-01-01

    Let's stop saying sorry for the Empire! Thus Mastin and Wallace introduce one of their lessons on interpretations of the British Empire. They develop Gary Howells's ideas from the previous edition of "Teaching History" to demonstrate exactly what we might get our students to do with interpretations of the past. They produce an enquiry…

  14. Empirical verification of evolutionary theories of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyryakov, Pavlo; Gomez-Perez, Alejandra; Glebov, Anastasia; Asbah, Nimara; Bruno, Luigi; Meunier, Carolynne; Iouk, Tatiana; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2016-10-25

    We recently selected 3 long-lived mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a lasting exposure to exogenous lithocholic acid. Each mutant strain can maintain the extended chronological lifespan after numerous passages in medium without lithocholic acid. In this study, we used these long-lived yeast mutants for empirical verification of evolutionary theories of aging. We provide evidence that the dominant polygenic trait extending longevity of each of these mutants 1) does not affect such key features of early-life fitness as the exponential growth rate, efficacy of post-exponential growth and fecundity; and 2) enhances such features of early-life fitness as susceptibility to chronic exogenous stresses, and the resistance to apoptotic and liponecrotic forms of programmed cell death. These findings validate evolutionary theories of programmed aging. We also demonstrate that under laboratory conditions that imitate the process of natural selection within an ecosystem, each of these long-lived mutant strains is forced out of the ecosystem by the parental wild-type strain exhibiting shorter lifespan. We therefore concluded that yeast cells have evolved some mechanisms for limiting their lifespan upon reaching a certain chronological age. These mechanisms drive the evolution of yeast longevity towards maintaining a finite yeast chronological lifespan within ecosystems.

  15. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

  16. The Role of Empirical Research in Bioethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Alexander A.

    2010-01-01

    There has long been tension between bioethicists whose work focuses on classical philosophical inquiry and those who perform empirical studies on bioethical issues. While many have argued that empirical research merely illuminates current practices and cannot inform normative ethics, others assert that research-based work has significant implications for refining our ethical norms. In this essay, I present a novel construct for classifying empirical research in bioethics into four hierarchical categories: Lay of the Land, Ideal Versus Reality, Improving Care, and Changing Ethical Norms. Through explaining these four categories and providing examples of publications in each stratum, I define how empirical research informs normative ethics. I conclude by demonstrating how philosophical inquiry and empirical research can work cooperatively to further normative ethics. PMID:19998120

  17. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  18. International Divestments - An Empirical Perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagersma, P.K.; Gorp, D.

    2003-01-01

    Considering the flurry of international expansion over the last half century, it is perhaps inevitable that multinational enterprises have lately been finding the need to divest many of those foreign activities. Indeed, international divestment is a basic tool of every MNE's strategic business

  19. Human stool contains a previously unrecognized diversity of novel astroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guoyan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human astroviruses are a leading cause of gastrointestinal disease. Since their discovery in 1975, 8 closely related serotypes have been described in humans, and more recently, two new astrovirus species, astrovirus MLB1 and astrovirus VA1, were identified in diarrhea patients. In this study, we used consensus astrovirus primers targeting the RNA polymerase to define the diversity of astroviruses present in pediatric patients with diarrhea on two continents. From 416 stool specimens comprising two different cohorts from Vellore, India, 35 samples were positive. These positive samples were analyzed further by either sequencing of the ~400 bp amplicon generated by the consensus PCR or by performing additional RT-PCR specific for individual astroviruses. 19 samples contained the classic human astrovirus serotypes 1-8 while 7 samples were positive for the recently described astrovirus MLB1. Strikingly, from samples that were positive in the consensus PCR screen but negative in the specific PCR assays, five samples contained sequences that were highly divergent from all previously described astroviruses. Sequence analysis suggested that three novel astroviruses, tentatively named astroviruses VA2, MLB2 and VA3, were present in these five patient specimens (AstV-VA2 in 2 patients, AstV-MLB2 in 2 patients and AstV-VA3 in one patient. Using the same RT-PCR screening strategy, 13 samples out of 466 tested stool specimens collected in St. Louis, USA were positive. Nine samples were positive for the classic human astroviruses. One sample was positive for AstV-VA2, and 3 samples were positive for AstV-MLB2 demonstrating that these two viruses are globally widespread. Collectively, these findings underscore the tremendous diversity of astroviruses present in fecal specimens from diarrhea patients. Given that a significant fraction of diarrhea etiologies is currently unknown, it is plausible that these or other yet unrecognized astroviruses may be

  20. Empirical essays on energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoenes, Stefan

    2013-06-13

    The main part of this thesis consists of three distinct essays that empirically analyze economic issues related to energy markets in the United States and Europe. The first chapter provides an introduction and discusses the motivation for the different analyses pursued in this thesis. The second chapter examines attention effects in the market for hybrid vehicles. We show that local media coverage, gasoline price changes and unprecedented record gasoline prices have a significant impact on the consumers' attention. As attention is not directly observable, we analyze online search behavior as a proxy for the revealed consumer attention. Our study is based on a unique weekly panel dataset for 19 metropolitan areas in the US. Additionally, we use monthly state-level panel data to show that the adoption rate of hybrid vehicles is robustly related to our measure of attention. Our results show that the consumers' attention fluctuates strongly and systematically. The third chapter shows how the effect of fuel prices varies with the level of electricity demand. It analyzes the relationship between daily prices of electricity, natural gas and carbon emission allowances with a semiparametric varying smooth coefficient cointegration model. This model is used to analyze the market impact of the nuclear moratorium by the German Government in March 2011. Futures prices of electricity, natural gas and emission allowances are used to show that the market efficiently accounts for the suspended capacity and correctly expects that several nuclear plants will not be switched on after the moratorium. In the fourth chapter, we develop a structural vector autoregressive model (VAR) for the German natural gas market. In particular, we illustrate the usefulness of our approach by disentangling the effects of different fundamental influences during four specific events: The financial crisis starting in 2008, the Russian-Ukrainian gas dispute in January 2009, the Libyan civil war

  1. Empirical essays on energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoenes, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The main part of this thesis consists of three distinct essays that empirically analyze economic issues related to energy markets in the United States and Europe. The first chapter provides an introduction and discusses the motivation for the different analyses pursued in this thesis. The second chapter examines attention effects in the market for hybrid vehicles. We show that local media coverage, gasoline price changes and unprecedented record gasoline prices have a significant impact on the consumers' attention. As attention is not directly observable, we analyze online search behavior as a proxy for the revealed consumer attention. Our study is based on a unique weekly panel dataset for 19 metropolitan areas in the US. Additionally, we use monthly state-level panel data to show that the adoption rate of hybrid vehicles is robustly related to our measure of attention. Our results show that the consumers' attention fluctuates strongly and systematically. The third chapter shows how the effect of fuel prices varies with the level of electricity demand. It analyzes the relationship between daily prices of electricity, natural gas and carbon emission allowances with a semiparametric varying smooth coefficient cointegration model. This model is used to analyze the market impact of the nuclear moratorium by the German Government in March 2011. Futures prices of electricity, natural gas and emission allowances are used to show that the market efficiently accounts for the suspended capacity and correctly expects that several nuclear plants will not be switched on after the moratorium. In the fourth chapter, we develop a structural vector autoregressive model (VAR) for the German natural gas market. In particular, we illustrate the usefulness of our approach by disentangling the effects of different fundamental influences during four specific events: The financial crisis starting in 2008, the Russian-Ukrainian gas dispute in January 2009, the Libyan civil war in 2011 as

  2. Dermoscopy Findings of Hidroacanthoma Simplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yota Sato

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hidroacanthoma simplex (HAS, also known as intraepidermal eccrine poroma, is a rare eccrine adnexal tumor that tends to be misdiagnosed as other types of benign skin tumor, including clonal seborrheic keratosis. Notably, HAS is sometimes misdiagnosed and treated by cryosurgery as seborrheic keratosis, which could trigger the later development of porocarcinoma. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of HAS is indispensable for dermatologists to avoid the development of malignant tumors by an unsuitable treatment. In this report, we present the characteristic dermoscopy findings of HAS. Indeed, the dermoscopy findings might be related to the melanin-rich necrotic cells in the epidermis, which are quite different from dermoscopy findings of clonal seborrheic keratosis. As a previous report suggested, it is difficult for a dermatologist to differentiate HAS from clonal seborrheic keratosis by the naked eye. Our findings might be supportive for the early diagnosis of HAS.

  3. The Effect of Single Versus Repeated Previous Strategy Use on Individuals' Subsequent Strategy Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viki Schillemans

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that participants' strategy choices can be influenced by the previously-used strategy. This'perseveration effect' has been demonstrated both after a repeated use of the previous strategy (e.g., Schillemans, Luwel, Bulté, Onghena, & Verschaffel, 2009, but also after a single use of the previous strategy (Lemaire & Lecacheur, 2010. In the present study, we tested whether this perseveration effect would be stronger after a repeated than after a single previous strategy application. We were able to replicate the perseveration effect but we did not find evidence for an influence of the number of previous strategy applications on the strength of this effect. An additional cluster analysis revealed that only about one third of the participants was susceptible for the perseveration effect. The theoretical, methodological, and educational implications of these results are discussed.

  4. Strategic Orientation of SMEs: Empirical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Minović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the paper is to identify the sources of competitive advantage of small and medium-sized enterprises in Serbia. Gaining a competitive advantage is the key priority of market-oriented enterprises regardless of their size and sector. Since business environment in Serbia is not stimulating enough for enterprises’ growth and development, the paper highlights the role of strategic orientation in business promotion and development. In order to identify the sources of competitive advantage, the empirical research is conducted by using the survey method. The research sample is created by using a selective approach, namely, the sample includes enterprises with more than ten employees, and enterprises identified to have the potential for growth and development. The research results indicate that small and medium-sized enterprises in Serbia are generally focused on costs as a source of competitive advantage, i.e., they gain competitive advantage in a selected market segment by offering low price and average quality products/services. In addition, the results of the research point out that the Serbian small and medium-sized enterprises are innovation-oriented. Organizations qualifying as middle-sized enterprises are predominantly focused on process innovations, while small businesses are primarily oriented towards product innovations. One of the limitations of the research refers to the small presence of the research sample within the category of middle-sized enterprises. The smaller sample presence than it was previously planned is mostly due to the lack of managers’ willingness to participate in the research, as well as to the fact that these enterprises account for the smaller share in the total number of enterprises in the small-and medium-sized enterprises’ sector. Taking into account that the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises generates around 30% of the country’s GDP, we consider the research results to be

  5. Denial of Chronic Illness and Disability: Part II. Research Findings, Measurement Considerations, and Clinical Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch

    2009-01-01

    The concept of denial has been an integral part of the psychological and disability studies bodies of literature for over 100 years. Yet, denial is a highly elusive concept and has been associated with mixed, indeed conflicting theoretical perspectives, clinical strategies, and empirical findings. In part II the author reviews empirical findings,…

  6. An Empirical Investigation into a Subsidiary Absorptive Capacity Process Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleimer, Stephanie; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    and empirically test a process model of absorptive capacity. The setting of our empirical study is 213 subsidiaries of multinational enterprises and the focus is on the capacity of these subsidiaries to successfully absorb best practices in marketing strategy from their headquarters. This setting allows us...... to explore the process model in its entirety, including different drivers of subsidiary absorptive capacity (organizational mechanisms and contextual drivers), the three original dimensions of absorptive capacity (recognition, assimilation, application), and related outcomes (implementation...... and internalization of the best practice). The study’s findings reveal that managers have discretion in promoting absorptive capacity through the application of specific organizational mechanism and that the impact of contextual drivers on subsidiary absorptive capacity is not direct, but mediated...

  7. Empires and the Sovereign State Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2013-01-01

    . Is it, for example, adequate to imagine a world of states with occasional interference from one or more empires to cover anomalies or exceptions where standard models of international order do not seem to work? That still leaves the idea of empires on the sidelines, an intrusion, a sticking plaster...... for the occasional lesions in the model of the international system ‘as such’. It does not think through the implications of their historical presence: empires’ role in the past, present and possible future of the international system or systems. The purpose of this chapter is to reconsider how empires...

  8. The Value of Surprising Findings for Research on Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong

    2004-01-01

    In the work of Armstrong (Journal of Business Research, 2002), I examined empirical research on the scientific process and related these to marketing science. The findings of some studies were surprising. In this reply, I address surprising findings and other issues raised by commentators.

  9. Russian REDCo Findings in Support of Dialogue and Hermeneutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, Fedor

    2011-01-01

    REDCo findings question the ideal of neutrality of the teacher on ethical, epistemological and didactical grounds showing in particular that the exposure of the teacher's personal commitments and beliefs stimulates students to participate in dialogue. The findings support hermeneutical approaches to the empirical studies in education showing that…

  10. Thoracic textilomas: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Dianne Melo; Zanetti, Glaucia; Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e; Guimaraes, Marcos Duarte; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro (HUAP/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: the aim of this study was to analyze chest CT scans of patients with thoracic textiloma. Methods: this was a retrospective study of 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) with surgically confirmed thoracic textiloma. The chest CT scans of those patients were evaluated by two independent observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. Results: the majority (62.5%) of the textilomas were caused by previous heart surgery. The most common symptoms were chest pain (in 68.75%) and cough (in 56.25%). In all cases, the main tomographic finding was a mass with regular contours and borders that were well-defined or partially defined. Half of the textilomas occurred in the right hemithorax and half occurred in the left. The majority (56.25%) were located in the lower third of the lung. The diameter of the mass was ≤ 10 cm in 10 cases (62.5%) and > 10 cm in the remaining 6 cases (37.5%). Most (81.25%) of the textilomas were heterogeneous in density, with signs of calcification, gas, radiopaque marker, or sponge-like material. Peripheral expansion of the mass was observed in 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients in whom a contrast agent was used. Intraoperatively, pleural involvement was observed in 14 cases (87.5%) and pericardial involvement was observed in 2 (12.5%). Conclusions: it is important to recognize the main tomographic aspects of thoracic textilomas in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis of chest pain and cough in patients with a history of heart or thoracic surgery, thus promoting the early identification and treatment of this postoperative complication. (author)

  11. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...

  12. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...

  13. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.

  14. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  15. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  16. Triple outlet right ventricle: a previously unknown cardiac malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A

    2015-03-01

    We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.

  17. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  18. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  19. Matchmaking in organizational change : does every employee value participatory leadership? An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Rogiest, Sofie; Segers, Jesse; Witteloostuijn, van, Arjen

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Although leadership is generally considered an important lever to increase commitment during organizational change, empirical research has yet to unravel many of the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, we propose that the impact of participative leadership on affective commitment to change will be contingent on employees orientation toward leadership. In our empirical study in two police organizations, we find evidence that followers orientation toward leadership is a useful inter...

  20. Institutions and foreign direct investment (FDI) in Malaysia: empirical evidence using ARDL model

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Karim, Zulkefly; Zaidi, Mohd Azlan Shah; Ismail, Mohd Adib; Abdul Karim, Bakri

    2011-01-01

    Since 1990’s, institution factors have been regarded as playing important roles in stimulating foreign direct investments (FDI). However, empirical studies on their importance in affecting FDI are still lacking especially for small open economies. This paper attempts to investigate the role of institutions upon the inflow of foreign direct investment (FDI) in a small open economy of Malaysia. Using bounds testing approach (ARDL model), the empirical findings reveal that there exists a long ru...

  1. Have pharmaceutical R&D project success rates decreased? A critical review and new empirical results

    OpenAIRE

    Backfisch, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In the context of the ongoing debate about an innovation crisis in the pharmaceutical industry, we study the success rates of pharmaceutical R&D projects as a measure of innovative productivity. The empirical literature suggests success rates have been decreasing during recent decades. We critically review this literature and only find few studies with a focus on the development of success rates over time. Further, the empirical analysis of success rates imposes difficulties with respect to m...

  2. Inland empire logistics GIS mapping project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Inland Empire has experienced exponential growth in the area of warehousing and distribution facilities within the last decade and it seems that it will continue way into the future. Where are these facilities located? How large are the facilitie...

  3. Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth: Some Empirical Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe importance of entrepreneurship for achieving economic growth in contemporary economies is widely recognized, both by policy makers and economists. However, empirical evidence linking entrepreneurship to economic growth is scarce. This book investigates the relation between

  4. Impact of Empire Expansion on Household Diet: The Inka in Northern Chile's Atacama Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinton, Sheila Dorsey; Perry, Linda; Reinhard, Karl J.; Santoro, Calogero M.; Teixeira-Santos, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    The impact of expanding civilization on the health of American indigenous societies has long been studied. Most studies have focused on infections and malnutrition that occurred when less complex societies were incorporated into more complex civilizations. The details of dietary change, however, have rarely been explored. Using the analysis of starch residues recovered from coprolites, here we evaluate the dietary adaptations of indigenous farmers in northern Chile's Atacama Desert during the time that the Inka Empire incorporated these communities into their economic system. This system has been described as “complementarity” because it involves interaction and trade in goods produced at different Andean elevations. We find that as local farming societies adapted to this new asymmetric system, a portion of their labor had to be given up to the Inka elite through a corvée tax system for maize production. In return, the Inka system of complementarity introduced previously rare foods from the Andean highlands into local economies. These changes caused a disruption of traditional communities as they instituted a state-level economic system on local farmers. Combined with previously published infection information for the same populations under Inka rule, the data suggest that there may have been a dual health impact from disruption of nutrition and introduction of crowd disease. PMID:19956668

  5. Intelligence, previous convictions and interrogative suggestibility: a path analysis of alleged false-confession cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, R; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and previous convictions among 108 defendants in criminal trials, using a path analysis technique. It was hypothesized that previous convictions, which may provide defendants with interrogative experiences, would correlate negatively with 'shift' as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (Gudjonsson, 1984a), after intelligence and memory had been controlled for. The hypothesis was partially confirmed and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  6. Charged-Particle Thermonuclear Reaction Rates: IV. Comparison to Previous Work

    OpenAIRE

    Iliadis, Christian; Longland, Richard; Champagne, Art; Coc, Alain

    2010-01-01

    We compare our Monte Carlo reaction rates (see Paper II of this series) to previous results that were obtained by using the classical method of computing thermonuclear reaction rates. For each reaction, the comparison is presented using two types of graphs: the first shows the change in reaction rate uncertainties, while the second displays our new results normalized to the previously recommended reaction rate. We find that the rates have changed significantly for almost all reactions conside...

  7. Empirical Generalizations About Market Evolution and Stationarity

    OpenAIRE

    Marnik G. Dekimpe; Dominique M. Hanssens

    1995-01-01

    We present empirical generalizations about conditions under which marketing variables evolve or remain stationary. We first define evolution statistically and make the case why it is an important concept for increasing our understanding of long-run marketing effectiveness. We then briefly review ways in which evolution can be tested empirically from readily available data. We present a database of over 400 prior analyses and catalog the relative incidence of stationarity versus evolution in m...

  8. Gun Laws and Crime: An Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Matti Viren

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of gun laws on crime. Several empirical analyses are carried to investigate the relationship between five different crime rates and alternative law variables. The tests are based on cross-section data from US sates. Three different law variables are used in the analysis, together with a set of control variables for income, poverty, unemployment and ethnic background of the population. Empirical analysis does not lend support to the notion that crime laws would...

  9. Empirical direction in design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Norman H

    2001-01-01

    The goal of Norman H. Anderson's new book is to help students develop skills of scientific inference. To accomplish this he organized the book around the ""Experimental Pyramid""--six levels that represent a hierarchy of considerations in empirical investigation--conceptual framework, phenomena, behavior, measurement, design, and statistical inference. To facilitate conceptual and empirical understanding, Anderson de-emphasizes computational formulas and null hypothesis testing. Other features include: *emphasis on visual inspection as a basic skill in experimental analysis to help student

  10. The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Boschma; KOen Frenken

    2010-01-01

    Following last decadeÕs programmatic papers on Evolutionary Economic Geography, we report on recent empirical advances and how this empirical work can be positioned vis-ˆ-vis other strands of research in economic geography. First, we review studies on the path dependent nature of clustering, and how the evolutionary perspective relates to that of New Economic Geography. Second, we discuss research on agglomeration externalities in Regional Science, and how Evolutionary Economic Geography cont...

  11. Principles Involving Marketing Policies: An Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong; Randall L. Schultz

    2005-01-01

    We examined nine marketing textbooks, published since 1927, to see if they contained useful marketing principles. Four doctoral students found 566 normative statements about pricing, product, place, or promotion in these texts. None of these stateinents were supported by empirical evidence. Four raters agreed on only twenty of these 566 statements as providing meaningful principles. Twenty marketing professors rated whether the twenty meaningful principles were correct, supported by empirical...

  12. An empirical model of decadal ENSO variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, S. [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Atmospheric Sciences Group, P. O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2012-11-15

    This paper assesses potential predictability of decadal variations in the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) characteristics by constructing and performing simulations using an empirical nonlinear stochastic model of an ENSO index. The model employs decomposition of global sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies into the modes that maximize the ratio of interdecadal-to-subdecadal SST variance to define low-frequency predictors called the canonical variates (CVs). When the whole available SST time series is so processed, the leading canonical variate (CV-1) is found to be well correlated with the area-averaged SST time series which exhibits a non-uniform warming trend, while the next two (CV-2 and CV-3) describe secular variability arguably associated with a combination of Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) signals. The corresponding ENSO model that uses either all three (CVs 1-3) or only AMO/PDO-related (CVs 2 and 3) predictors captures well the observed autocorrelation function, probability density function, seasonal dependence of ENSO, and, most importantly, the observed interdecadal modulation of ENSO variance. The latter modulation, and its dependence on CVs, is shown to be inconsistent with the null hypothesis of random decadal ENSO variations simulated by multivariate linear inverse models. Cross-validated hindcasts of ENSO variance suggest a potential useful skill at decadal lead times. These findings thus argue that decadal modulations of ENSO variability may be predictable subject to our ability to forecast AMO/PDO-type climate modes; the latter forecasts may need to be based on simulations of dynamical models, rather than on a purely statistical scheme as in the present paper. (orig.)

  13. An empirical, integrated forest biomass monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert E.; Ohmann, Janet; Gregory, Matt; Roberts, Heather; Yang, Zhiqiang; Bell, David M.; Kane, Van; Hughes, M. Joseph; Cohen, Warren B.; Powell, Scott; Neeti, Neeti; Larrue, Tara; Hooper, Sam; Kane, Jonathan; Miller, David L.; Perkins, James; Braaten, Justin; Seidl, Rupert

    2018-02-01

    The fate of live forest biomass is largely controlled by growth and disturbance processes, both natural and anthropogenic. Thus, biomass monitoring strategies must characterize both the biomass of the forests at a given point in time and the dynamic processes that change it. Here, we describe and test an empirical monitoring system designed to meet those needs. Our system uses a mix of field data, statistical modeling, remotely-sensed time-series imagery, and small-footprint lidar data to build and evaluate maps of forest biomass. It ascribes biomass change to specific change agents, and attempts to capture the impact of uncertainty in methodology. We find that: • A common image framework for biomass estimation and for change detection allows for consistent comparison of both state and change processes controlling biomass dynamics. • Regional estimates of total biomass agree well with those from plot data alone. • The system tracks biomass densities up to 450–500 Mg ha‑1 with little bias, but begins underestimating true biomass as densities increase further. • Scale considerations are important. Estimates at the 30 m grain size are noisy, but agreement at broad scales is good. Further investigation to determine the appropriate scales is underway. • Uncertainty from methodological choices is evident, but much smaller than uncertainty based on choice of allometric equation used to estimate biomass from tree data. • In this forest-dominated study area, growth and loss processes largely balance in most years, with loss processes dominated by human removal through harvest. In years with substantial fire activity, however, overall biomass loss greatly outpaces growth. Taken together, our methods represent a unique combination of elements foundational to an operational landscape-scale forest biomass monitoring program.

  14. The Determinants of House Prices and Construction: An Empirical Investigation of the Swiss Housing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol

    2009-01-01

    , banking, demographic and real estate specific variables, the following findings are made: 1) real house price growth and construction activity dynamics are most sensitive to changes in population and construction prices, whereas real GDP, in contrary to common empirical findings in other countries, turns...

  15. Consistent constitutive modeling of metallic target penetration using empirical, analytical, and numerical penetration models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John (Jack P. Riegel III

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Historically, there has been little correlation between the material properties used in (1 empirical formulae, (2 analytical formulations, and (3 numerical models. The various regressions and models may each provide excellent agreement for the depth of penetration into semi-infinite targets. But the input parameters for the empirically based procedures may have little in common with either the analytical model or the numerical model. This paper builds on previous work by Riegel and Anderson (2014 to show how the Effective Flow Stress (EFS strength model, based on empirical data, can be used as the average flow stress in the analytical Walker–Anderson Penetration model (WAPEN (Anderson and Walker, 1991 and how the same value may be utilized as an effective von Mises yield strength in numerical hydrocode simulations to predict the depth of penetration for eroding projectiles at impact velocities in the mechanical response regime of the materials. The method has the benefit of allowing the three techniques (empirical, analytical, and numerical to work in tandem. The empirical method can be used for many shot line calculations, but more advanced analytical or numerical models can be employed when necessary to address specific geometries such as edge effects or layering that are not treated by the simpler methods. Developing complete constitutive relationships for a material can be costly. If the only concern is depth of penetration, such a level of detail may not be required. The effective flow stress can be determined from a small set of depth of penetration experiments in many cases, especially for long penetrators such as the L/D = 10 ones considered here, making it a very practical approach. In the process of performing this effort, the authors considered numerical simulations by other researchers based on the same set of experimental data that the authors used for their empirical and analytical assessment. The goals were to establish a

  16. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heathcote

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.

  17. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: a review of current empirical findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Reus, R.J.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the literature on aetiology, epidemiology and course, assessment and treatment of the obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). OCPD is a rather prevalent personality disorder, being one of the most prevalent personality disorders in the general

  18. What is value for food retail chains? Theoretical aspects and empirical findings from Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Bove, Karsten

    It is a well-established fact that creating value for customers (in the eyes of the customers) is a very important source of competitive advantage. No researchers have, however, analysed or defined what retail chains mean by value. In this study, building on a solid theoretical back-ground, we...

  19. Socio-economic health differences in the Netherlands: A review of recent empirical findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1992-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Evidence on variation in the frequency of health problems between socio-economic groups in the Dutch population has accumulated rapidly in recent years. This paper presents a review of these recent data. It is clear now that a lower socio-economic status is

  20. Socio-economic health differences in the Netherlands: A review of recent empirical findings

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenbach, Johan

    1992-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Evidence on variation in the frequency of health problems between socio-economic groups in the Dutch population has accumulated rapidly in recent years. This paper presents a review of these recent data. It is clear now that a lower socio-economic status is associated with a higher frequency of a wide range of health problems. This negative association has consistently been found for the following health indicators: birth weight; adult body height; prevalence of h...

  1. The Psychosocial Adjustment of the Southeast Asian Refugee: An Overview of Empirical Findings and Theoretical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicassio, Perry M.

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes clinical and research literature on Southeast Asian refugees' adjustment in the United States and proposes the adoption of theoretical models that may help explain individual differences. Reports that acculturation, learned helplessness, and stress management models appear to aid the conceptualizing of refugee problems and provide a…

  2. Professional Background and Working Practices of Consultants in School Development: Initial Empirical Findings from Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedering, Kathrin; Goecke, Martin; Rauh, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    In Germany, it can be observed that schools increasingly take advantage of experts from the outside in their further pedagogical and organizational development. Regarding their profession and the area of content to which they are assigned, these experts represent a heterogeneous group. This contribution assumes that several patterns can be…

  3. Sustainability Assessment Framework for Food Supply Chain Logistics: Empirical Findings from Dutch Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    van der Vorst, Jack G.A.J.; Peeters, Lotte; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    Food companies are increasingly challenged to balance business performance and economic gains with environmental and social performance. Therefore, in 2012, we started a collaborative project on this topic named SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems). SCALE aims to improve the sustainability of food and drink supply chain logistics in the context of rising food demands, increasing energy prices and the need to reduce environmentally damaging emissions. More in particular, SCALE...

  4. Peace Education, Militarism and Neo-Liberalism: Conceptual Reflections with Empirical Findings from the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Hartmut; Megoran, Nick; Carnaffan, Jane

    2018-01-01

    This article explores 'peace days' in English schools as a form of peace education. From a historical overview of academic discussions on peace education in the US and Great Britain since the First World War, we identify three key factors important for peace education: the "political" context, the "place" in which peace days…

  5. Engines without Fuel?--Empirical Findings on Finnish Higher Education Institutions as Education Exporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture formulated Finland's first education export strategy. This policy document attributed Finnish Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) a significant role in the emerging sector by declaring them as "engines" of education export. Situated in a phenomenological approach towards…

  6. A Journey into the Heart of Workaholism: empirical findings from several multi-sample studies

    OpenAIRE

    Del Líbano Miralles, Mario

    2011-01-01

    La adicción al trabajo es un concepto que con el tiempo ha generado cada vez mayor interés e investigación. A través de la realización de 5 estudios empíricos, en esta tesis se profundiza todavía más en su estudio. Concretamente se estudia cualitativamente la adicción al trabajo, proponiendo un modelo heurístico en el que constan diversos antecedentes y consecuentes de la misma. Así mismo se determina que la adicción al trabajo y el engagement (vinculación con el trabajo en español), son dos ...

  7. Computer-supported collaborative drawing in primary school education – Technical realization and empirical findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, Lars; Gijlers, Aaltje H.; van Joolingen, Wouter; Herskovic, H.; Hoppe, H.U.; Jansen, M.; Ziegler, J.

    2012-01-01

    Self-constructed external representation, especially when embedded in peer inter-actions, are supposed to be beneficial in learning and teaching and can positively affect the course and type of reasoning for various reasons, e.g. by providing a ground for explanations and self-explanations, by

  8. Sustainability Assessment Framework for Food Supply Chain Logistics: Empirical Findings from Dutch Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack G.A.J. van der Vorst

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Food companies are increasingly challenged to balance business performance and economic gains with environmental and social performance. Therefore, in 2012, we started a collaborative project on this topic named SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems. SCALE aims to improve the sustainability of food and drink supply chain logistics in the context of rising food demands, increasing energy prices and the need to reduce environmentally damaging emissions. More in particular, SCALE aims to deliver a number of tools and frameworks valuable for the agri-food sector to secure a step change in operational practices, which will improve the efficiency and sustainability of supply chain logistics. In the paper we present the first results of this project. Aim of this paper is (1 to present a sustainability research framework for food supply chains logistics including drivers, strategies, performance indicators, metrics and improvement opportunities to measure and potentially enhance sustainability performances; and (2 to analyse and diagnose the current status of Dutch food & drinks companies and logistics service providers using this framework. Results are found via a literature review, web-based research and structured interviews with Dutch food and logistics service industry.

  9. Are teachers ready to teach in the knowledge society? Considerations based on empirical findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, Joke; Schulz-Zander, Renate; Eickelmann, Birgit; Niesyto, Horst; Moser, Heinz; Grell, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Our society is moving towards a knowledge society, in which Information and Communication Technology has a crucial place. It is argued that these societal changes also imply that curricula and pedagogy have to change. This contribution discusses which competencies teachers need to be able to teach

  10. Inflation, financial development and human capital-based endogenous growth: an explanation of ten empirical findings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gillman, M.; Kejak, Michal

    -, CDMC07/03 (2007), s. 1-31 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : inflation * financial development * growth Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/economics/CDMA/papers/cp0703.pdf

  11. Rural crime in developing countries: Theoretical framework, empirical findings, research needs

    OpenAIRE

    Grote, Ulrike; Neubacher, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence and selected information from the International Crime Victims Survey suggest that crime is higher in developing countries than in developed countries and that there are regionally big differences. Explanations and solutions to the persistence and prevalence of rural crime in many developing countries are needed as rural crime undermines sustainable development to a large extent and may even affect social cohesiveness in rural communities. This discussion paper therefore cal...

  12. Picture-word interference is a Stroop effect: A theoretical analysis and new empirical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starreveld, Peter A; La Heij, Wido

    2017-06-01

    The picture-word interference (PWI) paradigm and the Stroop color-word interference task are often assumed to reflect the same underlying processes. On the basis of a PRP study, Dell'Acqua et al. (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14: 717-722, 2007) argued that this assumption is incorrect. In this article, we first discuss the definitions of Stroop- and picture-word interference. Next, we argue that both effects consist of at least four components that correspond to four characteristics of the distractor word: (1) response-set membership, (2) task relevance, (3) semantic relatedness, and (4) lexicality. On the basis of this theoretical analysis, we conclude that the typical Stroop effect and the typical PWI effect mainly differ in the relative contributions of these four components. Finally, the results of an interference task are reported in which only the nature of the target - color or picture - was manipulated and all other distractor task characteristics were kept constant. The results showed no difference between color and picture targets with respect to all behavioral measures examined. We conclude that the assumption that the same processes underlie verbal interference in color and picture naming is warranted.

  13. Picture-word interference is a Stroop effect : A theoretical analysis and new empirical findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starreveld, P.A.; La Heij, W.

    The picture-word interference (PWI) paradigm and the Stroop color-word interference task are often assumed to reflect the same underlying processes. On the basis of a PRP study, Dell’Acqua et al. (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14: 717-722, 2007) argued that this assumption is incorrect. In this

  14. Finding p-Hub Median Locations: An Empirical Study on Problems and Solution Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hub location problems have been studied by many researchers for almost 30 years, and, accordingly, various solution methods have been proposed. In this paper, we implement and evaluate several widely used methods for solving five standard hub location problems. To assess the scalability and solution qualities of these methods, three well-known datasets are used as case studies: Turkish Postal System, Australia Post, and Civil Aeronautics Board. Classical problems in small networks can be solved efficiently using CPLEX because of their low complexity. Genetic algorithms perform well for solving three types of single allocation problems, since the problem formulations can be neatly encoded with chromosomes of reasonable size. Lagrangian relaxation is the only technique that solves reliable multiple allocation problems in large networks. We believe that our work helps other researchers to get an overview on the best solution techniques for the problems investigated in our study and also stipulates further interest on cross-comparing solution techniques for more expressive problem formulations.

  15. Sustainability Assessment Framework for Food Supply Chain Logistics: Empirical Findings from Dutch Food Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Peeters, L.; Bloemhof, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Food companies are increasingly challenged to balance business performance and economic gains with environmental and social performance. Therefore, in 2012, we started a collaborative project on this topic named SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems). SCALE aims to improve the

  16. Spreadsheets Across the Curriculum, 3: Finding a List of Mathematical Skills for Quantitative Literacy Empirically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H L. Vacher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available What mathematical topics do educators committed to teaching mathematics in context choose for their students when given the opportunity to develop an educational resource explicitly to teach mathematics in context? This paper examines the choices made for the 55 modules by 40 authors in the General Collection of the Spreadsheets Across the Curriculum (SSAC library. About half of the modules were made by authors from natural science, and about 60% of the other modules were by authors from mathematics. The modules are tagged with terms of a search vocabulary developed for the browse page of the collection. The four terms most frequently used to tag the modules are: visual display of data (particularly XY plots and bar graphs; ratio and proportion; rates; and forward modeling (e.g., what-if?. Subdividing the modules into those authored by instructors from mathematics vs. natural science vs. other disciplines shows universal popularity of the first three choices. Forward modeling was a favorite of authors from mathematics and natural science. Manipulating equations, unit conversions, and logarithms (orders of magnitude, scientific notation were called for by authors from natural science. The paper concludes with a list of 15 concepts and skills that received the most “votes.”

  17. Emotional intelligence and medical specialty preference – findings from the empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pawełczyk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Literature emphasizes a positive impact of emotional intelligence on interpersonal and commu‑ nication skills, the doctor‑patient relationship, and the level of empathy. On the other hand, few research studies dealing with the correlation between emotional intelligence and medical specialty choice or preference are availa‑ ble. Our research was aimed at checking if there are differences in the ability to perceive and identify emotions ac‑ cording to facial expression (one of the dimensions of emotional intelligence between students preferring different medical specialties. Method: The research involved 251 six‑year students of the Medical Faculty, Medical Universi‑ ty of Łódź. The examined group consisted of 174 women (69.33% and 77 men (30.67%. The subjects’ average age was 24.7 years. The surgical specialty was preferred by 44 women (28.21% and 43 men (58.11%, non‑surgical by 112 women (71.79% and 31 men (41.89%. The subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire with demographic data (gender, age, preferred specialty and the Emotional Intelligence Scale – Faces (SIE‑T by Matczak, Piekarska and Studniarek. Results: Men significantly more frequently chose surgical specialty (58.11%, as compared to women (28.21%; chi2=19.08, p0.05. Similarly, no differences were found between the students preferring surgical and non‑surgical procedures; Mann‑Whitney U=‑0.93, p>0.05. Results: Male and fema‑ le students of the Medical Faculty do not differ in the level of emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence does not differentiate the students preferring surgical and non‑surgical specialties.

  18. Individual radiosensitivity: empirical findings and molecular-biological mechanisms; Empirische Erkenntnisse und molekularbiologische Mechanismen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, W.U. [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Strahlenbiologie

    2000-07-01

    Since some time, it is known that there are differences in radiosensitivity among organisms. One should expect that this knowledge has consequences in some radiation-related areas (radiation therapy, dose limits for occupationally radiation exposed people, therapy of victims of radiation accidents). That such consequences play only a minor role up to now, primarily depends on the fact that we do not have a reliable, quantitative method for the assessment of individual radiosensitivity. We hope that this will change in the near future. There are, however, a number of mechanisms known that determine individual radiosensitivity; genetic predisposition, genomic instability, and repair characteristics are particularly important in tis context. These mechanisms suggest, which test systems might be useful for the assessment of individual radiosensitivity. There is clear evidence that just one test will not be sufficient, but that we need a battery of tests. (orig.) [German] Seit geraumer Zeit ist bekannt, dass Organismen nicht gleich strahlenempfindlich sind. Dies muesste eigentlich Konsequenzen auf vielen Gebieten haben (Strahlentherapie, Grenzwerte fuer beruflich Strahlenexponierte, Behandlung von Strahlenunfall-Opfern). Dass solche Konsequenzen bisher ueberwiegend nicht gezogen wurden, haengt in erster Linie damit zusammen, dass es bis heute kein zuverlaessiges Messsystem gibt, mit dessen Hilfe man die individuelle Strahlenempfindlichkeit quantitativ erfassen kann. Es ist zu hoffen, dass sich dies in naechster Zeit aendert. Allerdings sind zahlreiche Mechanismen bekannt, die die individuelle Strahlenempfindlichkeit bestimmen, von denen nach derzeitigem Kenntnisstand die genetische Praedisposition, die genomische Instabilitaet und das Reparaturverhalten besonders wichtig sind. Diese Mechanismen legen es nahe, gerade fuer die Ermittlung dieser Faktoren Tests zu entwickeln. Es zeichnet sich ab, dass wir mit einem Test nicht auskommen werden, sondern dass mehrere Tests zu einem Testsystem vereinigt werden muessen. (orig.)

  19. Suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents: A review of empirical findings

    OpenAIRE

    Galaif, Elisha R; Sussman, Steve; Newcomb, Michael D; Locke, Thomas F

    2007-01-01

    Suicide is a serious health problem as it is currently the third leading cause of death for teenagers between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Depression, which is also a serious problem for adolescents, is the most significant biological and psychological risk factor for teen suicide. Alcohol use remains extremely widespread among today’s teenagers and is related to both suicidality and depression. Suicidality refers to the occurrence of suicidal thoughts or suicidal behavior. The consensus in e...

  20. Precision and accuracy of mechanistic-empirical pavement design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of mechanistic-empirical pavement design methods is increasing internationally. Although mechanistic-empirical design does offer some insight into pavement behaviour and performance, at least more so than empirical design methods...

  1. Find din stemme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Barnholdt

    2010-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Dorte Kock og Lene Kleinschmidts: Find din stemme. En brugsbog.Hans Reitzels Forlag 2010.......Anmeldelse af Dorte Kock og Lene Kleinschmidts: Find din stemme. En brugsbog.Hans Reitzels Forlag 2010....

  2. Influence of previous participation in physical activity on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda

  3. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  4. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  5. MRI finding of ethylmalonic encephalopathy: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Shi Kyung; Han, Chun Hwan; Rho, Eun Jin [Kangnam General Hospital Public Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    Ethylmalonic encephalopathy is a rare syndrom characterized by developmental delay, acrocyanosis, petechiae, chronic diarrhea, and ethylmalonic, lactic, and methylsuccinic aciduria. We report the MRI finding of ethylmalonic encephalopathy including previously unreported intracranial hematoma.

  6. [Influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haoran; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Yingfang; Wu, Beisheng; Peng, Chao

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation. A retrospective analysis of 3 283 cases of gynecological diseases by laparoscopic operation patients in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 January to 2012 December, among them, 719 (21.90%) patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery history (study Group), 2 564 (78.10%)patients have no history of abdominopelvic surgery (control group). Study group 719 patients, previous operation times: one time in 525 cases, 194 cases were multiple; previous operation: 185 cases of gynecological surgery, 305 cases of obstetric surgery, 108 cases of general surgery, and 121 complex surgery (include at least two kinds of surgery); previous operative approach: 650 cases laparotomy and 69 cases laparoscopy. Compared two groups of patients with abdominopelvic adhesion and the gynecologic laparoscopic operation situation, analyzed the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on abdominopelvic adhesion on and gynecological laparoscopic operation. The incidence of abdominopelvic adhesion in the patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery was 51.2% (368/719), which was significantly higher than that of 8.2% (211/2 564)in patients without previous abdominopelvic surgery (P surgery (23.1%, 166/719) was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.3% , 85/2 564;P laparotomy was 0.6% (4/719) significantly more than the control groups (0.1%, 2/2 564; P = 0.023). Compared with other groups, patients with gynecological or complex surgery or multiple operation history presented more severe abdominopelvic adhesion both in the score and degree (P laparotomy showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The laparoscopic operation could be carried out successfully and safely in patients with a history of various abdominopelvic operations, but the conversion rate increases, for patients with a history of multiple operation because of pelvic adhesion

  7. Linkages of Electoral Accountability: Empirical Results and Methodological Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Maloy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A basic theory of electoral accountability is widely accepted by academic opinion: voters cause politicians to gain or lose office through periodic elections, thereby influencing policy through the threat of electoral sanction. Empirical studies run the gamut from findings of strong support for this theory, to mixed or conditional support, to weak or negative results. When electoral processes are analyzed in terms of two distinct causal linkages within a three-part chain of accountability, however, positive findings are revealed as weaker than they appear while a compelling trend emerges toward findings ranging from conditional to negative in the last two decades. This trend is visible in three topical areas—economic voting, political corruption, and ideological congruence—and it holds for both presidential and parliamentary regimes as well as for a variety of electoral systems. The new electoral skepticism’s unsettling results and insightful methods may help to improve future research and reform efforts alike.

  8. Practice and effectiveness of internal corporate governance mechanisms in Saudi Arabia Stock Market: A review of empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marai Awidat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to shed light on the Saudi corporate governance code, its practices and effectiveness. To do so, the paper conducted a detailed review of the articles of the code related to internal corporate governance mechanisms and the previous studies regarding its effectiveness in Saudi stock market context. The main finding is that the provisions of Saudi corporate governance code are adequate. Annual reports (2009-2014 show an increase in the level of the compliance by listed companies, indicating that the code is achieving its aims. However, the empirical evidence seems to suggest that the code has an insignificant impact on company's performance and mitigating earnings management. The main reasons behind that are the following: the code is still in its early stages, there is weak legal enforcement, and there are also some social, cultural, and economic factors. Therefore, the code needs more time for good practice and improvement to achieve its purposes.

  9. Eikenella corrodens endocarditis and liver abscess in a previously healthy male, a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Anne Christine; Vøgg, Ruth Ottilia Birgitta; Permin, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eikenella corrodens is one of the HACEK bacteria constituting part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, however, still an uncommon pathogen. We report a case of a large Eikenella corrodens liver abscess with simultaneously endocarditis in a previously healthy male. CASE PRESENTATION...... corrodens concurrent liver abscess and endocarditis. The case report highlights that Eikenella corrodens should be considered as a cause of liver abscess. Empirical treatment of pyogenic liver abscess will most often cover Eikenella corrodens, but the recommended treatment is a third generation...... and abscess drainage, on which he slowly improved. He was discharged after 1.5 months of hospitalisation. On follow-up 2 months later, the patient was asymptomatic with normalized biochemistry and ultrasound showed complete regression of the abscess. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first case of documented Eikenella...

  10. Agricultural rent-seeking in developing countries: an empirical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna

    2014-01-01

    or rural development? This article finds empirical support for a proposed theory which suggests that the extent of agricultural rent-seeking, in the form of large-scale land acquisitions, is determined by the relative political power of an elite and a farmer group. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.......Recent increases in demand for agricultural land has fuelled academic, as well as public, interest in the potential effects of high value agricultural land, particularly in developing countries. The dominating question seems to be: will increasing demand for agricultural land imply land grabbing...

  11. Phillips and Wage Curves: Empirical Evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Omerčević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an empirical examination of the existence and characteristics of the Phillips curve and the wage curve in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The findings indicate that there is no evidence of the existence of the short-term Phillips curve. Instead, the data suggests that in the short-term an increase in inflation leads to an increase in unemployment. The estimated wage curves indicate that only increases in real payment increase employment. The conclusion of this study is that increases in inflation might have a negative short-term impact on the level of employment in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  12. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  13. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  14. Integrated empirical ethics: loss of normativity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Scheer, Lieke; Widdershoven, Guy

    2004-01-01

    An important discussion in contemporary ethics concerns the relevance of empirical research for ethics. Specifically, two crucial questions pertain, respectively, to the possibility of inferring normative statements from descriptive statements, and to the danger of a loss of normativity if normative statements should be based on empirical research. Here we take part in the debate and defend integrated empirical ethical research: research in which normative guidelines are established on the basis of empirical research and in which the guidelines are empirically evaluated by focusing on observable consequences. We argue that in our concrete example normative statements are not derived from descriptive statements, but are developed within a process of reflection and dialogue that goes on within a specific praxis. Moreover, we show that the distinction in experience between the desirable and the undesirable precludes relativism. The normative guidelines so developed are both critical and normative: they help in choosing the right action and in evaluating that action. Finally, following Aristotle, we plead for a return to the view that morality and ethics are inherently related to one another, and for an acknowledgment of the fact that moral judgments have their origin in experience which is always related to historical and cultural circumstances.

  15. The price of policy risk — Empirical insights from choice experiments with European photovoltaic project developers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lüthi, Sonja; Wüstenhagen, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Managing the transition to a renewable energy future is an important policy priority in many countries. Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology is expected to make an essential contribution, but due to relatively high cost, its growth to date has been largely driven by public policy, notably feed-in tariffs. Feed-in tariffs have been implemented in various countries, but with widely differing outcomes in terms of installed PV capacity. Previous research indicates that the level of policy risk may be an important driver for differences in renewable energy policy effectiveness. This paper suggests that project developers who make a decision between PV investment opportunities in different countries carefully weigh feed-in tariff-induced returns against a set of policy risks, and choose the country with the most favorable risk-return profile. This model is empirically tested by a stated preference survey among European PV project developers, consisting of 1575 choice decisions by 63 investors. The findings demonstrate that risk matters in PV policy design, and that a “price tag” can be attached to specific policy risks, such as the duration of administrative processes or uncertainty induced by an approaching capacity cap. Governments can build on these empirical results to design policies that will be effective in attracting private PV investment, while at the same time maintaining efficiency by providing an adequate compensation for policy risk. - Highlights: ► This study is based on 1575 choice and rating decisions made by 63 European PV project developers. ► This study confirms importance of “non-economic” barriers to deployment of renewable energy. ► This study measures “price of policy risk”, i.e. investors' willingness-to-accept certain policy risks.

  16. US fertility prevention as poverty prevention: an empirical question and social justice issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Diana; Agénor, Madina

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the US welfare reform family-cap policy on the childbearing decisions of poor and low-income women by posing two complementary questions, both placed within a broader historical context. Specifically, it raises an empirical question pertaining to the family cap's effectiveness and a social justice question pertaining to the policy's ethical and legal justification in terms of human and reproductive rights. To address the first question, a thorough review of past and current research pertaining to the family cap at both the state and national levels is provided. The second question is addressed with an overview of international human and reproductive rights documents of relevance to the family-cap policy, as well as an analysis of the covenants' numerous components with which the family cap is in conflict. Finally, this paper situates the family cap in its historical context by investigating previous governmental attempts to control and regulate the reproductive health and rights of poor women and women of color in the United States. The majority of empirical analyses of the family cap have found that the policy has not had an impact on poor women's reproductive health behaviors. In addition, the exclusive application of this policy to poor women receiving cash assistance is demonstrated to be in violation of eight international human and reproductive rights documents, several of which the US is a signatory. These two findings make a strong case that policy makers and social and health researchers alike critically reexamine whether a policy that has not achieved its ostensible goal and is applied in a disparate manner-primarily to poor women and families and women of color-should continue to be implemented by the states.

  17. Total brain, cortical and white matter volumes in children previously treated with glucocorticoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sara K; Madsen, Kathrine S; Vestergaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    , cortical grey and white matter volumes in children and adolescents previously treated with glucocorticoids compared to healthy controls may reflect both developmental and degenerative processes. Prospective longitudinal studies are warranted to clarify whether findings are related to treatment or disease.......Pediatric Research accepted article preview online, 18 December 2017. doi:10.1038/pr.2017.312....

  18. Pluvials, Droughts, Energetics, and the Mongol Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessl, A. E.; Pederson, N.; Baatarbileg, N.

    2012-12-01

    The success of the Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous land empire the world has ever known, is a historical enigma. At its peak in the late 13th century, the empire influenced areas from the Hungary to southern Asia and Persia. Powered by domesticated herbivores, the Mongol Empire grew at the expense of agriculturalists in Eastern Europe, Persia, and China. What environmental factors contributed to the rise of the Mongols? What factors influenced the disintegration of the empire by 1300 CE? Until now, little high resolution environmental data have been available to address these questions. We use tree-ring records of past temperature and water to illuminate the role of energy and water in the evolution of the Mongol Empire. The study of energetics has long been applied to biological and ecological systems but has only recently become a theme in understanding modern coupled natural and human systems (CNH). Because water and energy are tightly linked in human and natural systems, studying their synergies and interactions make it possible to integrate knowledge across disciplines and human history, yielding important lessons for modern societies. We focus on the role of energy and water in the trajectory of an empire, including its rise, development, and demise. Our research is focused on the Orkhon Valley, seat of the Mongol Empire, where recent paleoenvironmental and archeological discoveries allow high resolution reconstructions of past human and environmental conditions for the first time. Our preliminary records indicate that the period 1210-1230 CE, the height of Chinggis Khan's reign is one of the longest and most consistent pluvials in our tree ring reconstruction of interannual drought. Reconstructed temperature derived from five millennium-long records from subalpine forests in Mongolia document warm temperatures beginning in the early 1200's and ending with a plunge into cold temperatures in 1260. Abrupt cooling in central Mongolia at this time is

  19. Wireless and empire geopolitics radio industry and ionosphere in the British Empire 1918-1939

    CERN Document Server

    Anduaga, Aitor

    2009-01-01

    Although the product of consensus politics, the British Empire was based on communications supremacy and the knowledge of the atmosphere. Focusing on science, industry, government, the military, and education, this book studies the relationship between wireless and Empire throughout the interwar period.

  20. Empirical psychology, common sense, and Kant's empirical markers for moral responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierson, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    This paper explains the empirical markers by which Kant thinks that one can identify moral responsibility. After explaining the problem of discerning such markers within a Kantian framework I briefly explain Kant's empirical psychology. I then argue that Kant's empirical markers for moral responsibility--linked to higher faculties of cognition--are not sufficient conditions for moral responsibility, primarily because they are empirical characteristics subject to natural laws. Next. I argue that these markers are not necessary conditions of moral responsibility. Given Kant's transcendental idealism, even an entity that lacks these markers could be free and morally responsible, although as a matter of fact Kant thinks that none are. Given that they are neither necessary nor sufficient conditions, I discuss the status of Kant's claim that higher faculties are empirical markers of moral responsibility. Drawing on connections between Kant's ethical theory and 'common rational cognition' (4:393), I suggest that Kant's theory of empirical markers can be traced to ordinary common sense beliefs about responsibility. This suggestion helps explain both why empirical markers are important and what the limits of empirical psychology are within Kant's account of moral responsibility.

  1. Economic integration and government size: a review of the empirical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Gastaldi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the empirical literature concerning the impact of economic integration on the size and the composition of the public budget. From a theoretical perspective, a pessimistic view highlights the threat that economic integration constitutes to the action of the public sector. An optimistic view, instead, emphasizes the beneficial effects of integration in stimulating efficiency – enhancing public policies. Despite some well-established theoretical results, the empirical evidence on this topic is rather controversial. Some studies support the hypothesis that taxes and public spending may increase in order to compensate losers for the risks of a more open economic environment. Other studies support the opposite idea, that the public sector retrenches when having to face increasing mobility of the production factors. Yet, comparability of the wide empirical evidence on the topic is not straightforward and empirical regularities are hard to find.

  2. Implied Volatility of Interest Rate Options: An Empirical Investigation of the Market Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Hansen, Charlotte Strunk

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the empirical properties of the volatility implied in options on the 13-week US Treasury bill rate. These options have not been studied previously. It is shown that a European style put option on the interest rate is equivalent to a call option on a zero-coupon bond. We apply the LIBOR...... well in describing these options....

  3. Critical Access Hospitals and Retail Activity: An Empirical Analysis in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lara; Whitacre, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper takes an empirical approach to determining the effect that a critical access hospital (CAH) has on local retail activity. Previous research on the relationship between hospitals and economic development has primarily focused on single-case, multiplier-oriented analysis. However, as the efficacy of federal and state-level rural…

  4. Forest canopy effects on snow accumulation and ablation: an integrative review of empirical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres Varhola; Nicholas C. Coops; Markus Weiler; R. Dan Moore

    2010-01-01

    The past century has seen significant research comparing snow accumulation and ablation in forested and open sites. In this review we compile and standardize the results of previous empirical studies to generate statistical relations between changes in forest cover and the associated changes in snow accumulation and ablation rate. The analysis drew upon 33 articles...

  5. Empirical study of long-range connections in a road network offers new ingredient for navigation optimization models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pu; Liu, Like; Li, Xiamiao; Li, Guanliang; González, Marta C

    2014-01-01

    Navigation problem in lattices with long-range connections has been widely studied to understand the design principles for optimal transport networks; however, the travel cost of long-range connections was not considered in previous models. We define long-range connection in a road network as the shortest path between a pair of nodes through highways and empirically analyze the travel cost properties of long-range connections. Based on the maximum speed allowed in each road segment, we observe that the time needed to travel through a long-range connection has a characteristic time T h  ∼ 29 min, while the time required when using the alternative arterial road path has two different characteristic times T a  ∼ 13 and 41 min and follows a power law for times larger than 50 min. Using daily commuting origin–destination matrix data, we additionally find that the use of long-range connections helps people to save about half of the travel time in their daily commute. Based on the empirical results, we assign a more realistic travel cost to long-range connections in two-dimensional square lattices, observing dramatically different minimum average shortest path 〈l〉 but similar optimal navigation conditions. (paper)

  6. Denoising traffic collision data using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and its application for constructing continuous risk profile (CRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Seog; Chung, Koohong; Ahn, Seongchae; Yu, Jeong Whon; Choi, Keechoo

    2014-10-01

    Filtering out the noise in traffic collision data is essential in reducing false positive rates (i.e., requiring safety investigation of sites where it is not needed) and can assist government agencies in better allocating limited resources. Previous studies have demonstrated that denoising traffic collision data is possible when there exists a true known high collision concentration location (HCCL) list to calibrate the parameters of a denoising method. However, such a list is often not readily available in practice. To this end, the present study introduces an innovative approach for denoising traffic collision data using the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) method which is widely used for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data. The present study describes how to transform the traffic collision data before the data can be decomposed using the EEMD method to obtain set of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) and residue. The attributes of the IMFs were then carefully examined to denoise the data and to construct Continuous Risk Profiles (CRPs). The findings from comparing the resulting CRP profiles with CRPs in which the noise was filtered out with two different empirically calibrated weighted moving window lengths are also documented, and the results and recommendations for future research are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Analytical and empirical fluctuation functions of the EEG microstate random walk - Short-range vs. long-range correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wegner, F; Tagliazucchi, E; Brodbeck, V; Laufs, H

    2016-11-01

    We analyze temporal autocorrelations and the scaling behaviour of EEG microstate sequences during wakeful rest. We use the recently introduced random walk approach and compute its fluctuation function analytically under the null hypothesis of a short-range correlated, first-order Markov process. The empirical fluctuation function and the Hurst parameter H as a surrogate parameter of long-range correlations are computed from 32 resting state EEG recordings and for a set of first-order Markov surrogate data sets with equilibrium distribution and transition matrices identical to the empirical data. In order to distinguish short-range correlations (H ≈ 0.5) from previously reported long-range correlations (H > 0.5) statistically, confidence intervals for H and the fluctuation functions are constructed under the null hypothesis. Comparing three different estimation methods for H, we find that only one data set consistently shows H > 0.5, compatible with long-range correlations, whereas the majority of experimental data sets cannot be consistently distinguished from Markovian scaling behaviour. Our analysis suggests that the scaling behaviour of resting state EEG microstate sequences, though markedly different from uncorrelated, zero-order Markov processes, can often not be distinguished from a short-range correlated, first-order Markov process. Our results do not prove the microstate process to be Markovian, but challenge the approach to parametrize resting state EEG by single parameter models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Empirical study of long-range connections in a road network offers new ingredient for navigation optimization models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; Liu, Like; Li, Xiamiao; Li, Guanliang; González, Marta C.

    2014-01-01

    Navigation problem in lattices with long-range connections has been widely studied to understand the design principles for optimal transport networks; however, the travel cost of long-range connections was not considered in previous models. We define long-range connection in a road network as the shortest path between a pair of nodes through highways and empirically analyze the travel cost properties of long-range connections. Based on the maximum speed allowed in each road segment, we observe that the time needed to travel through a long-range connection has a characteristic time Th ˜ 29 min, while the time required when using the alternative arterial road path has two different characteristic times Ta ˜ 13 and 41 min and follows a power law for times larger than 50 min. Using daily commuting origin-destination matrix data, we additionally find that the use of long-range connections helps people to save about half of the travel time in their daily commute. Based on the empirical results, we assign a more realistic travel cost to long-range connections in two-dimensional square lattices, observing dramatically different minimum average shortest path but similar optimal navigation conditions.

  9. Potentials for Horizontal Cooperation in a Centralized Setting: Empirical Research on Hungarian Civil Servants’ Perceptions on Public Administration Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Márton GELLÉN

    2016-01-01

    The article describes empirical findings regarding the perceptions of the Hungarian central civil service on outsourcing and other forms of cooperation. The findings summarized in this article are part of a vast empirical research effort that took place in 2014 – shortly after the wave of a comprehensive centralization that affected the entire corpus of Hungarian public administration from the local level to the ministerial level. The complete research design consisted of qualitative and quan...

  10. What is neuroethics? Empirical and theoretical neuroethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2009-11-01

    Neuroethics is a recently emerging field that deals with predominantly empirical and practical issues of ethics in neuroscience. In contrast, theoretical and methodological considerations have rather been neglected and thus what may be called theoretical neuroethics. The review focuses on informed consent and moral judgment as examples of empirical neuroethics and norm-fact circularity and method-based neuroethics as issues of a theoretical neuroethics. It is argued that we need to consider theoretical and methodological issues in order to develop neuroethics as a distinct discipline, which as such can be distinguished from both philosophy/ethics and neuroscience.

  11. Empirical Model Building Data, Models, and Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, James R

    2011-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "This...novel and highly stimulating book, which emphasizes solving real problems...should be widely read. It will have a positive and lasting effect on the teaching of modeling and statistics in general." - Short Book Reviews This new edition features developments and real-world examples that showcase essential empirical modeling techniques Successful empirical model building is founded on the relationship between data and approximate representations of the real systems that generated that data. As a result, it is essential for researchers who construct these m

  12. Evaluation of empirical atmospheric diffusion data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horst, T.W.; Doran, J.C.; Nickola, P.W.

    1979-10-01

    A study has been made of atmospheric diffusion over level, homogeneous terrain of contaminants released from non-buoyant point sources up to 100 m in height. Current theories of diffusion are compared to empirical diffusion data, and specific dispersion estimation techniques are recommended which can be implemented with the on-site meteorological instrumentation required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A comparison of both the recommended diffusion model and the NRC diffusion model with the empirical data demonstrates that the predictions of the recommended model have both smaller scatter and less bias, particularly for ground-level sources.

  13. Evaluation of empirical atmospheric diffusion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, T.W.; Doran, J.C.; Nickola, P.W.

    1979-10-01

    A study has been made of atmospheric diffusion over level, homogeneous terrain of contaminants released from non-buoyant point sources up to 100 m in height. Current theories of diffusion are compared to empirical diffusion data, and specific dispersion estimation techniques are recommended which can be implemented with the on-site meteorological instrumentation required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A comparison of both the recommended diffusion model and the NRC diffusion model with the empirical data demonstrates that the predictions of the recommended model have both smaller scatter and less bias, particularly for groundlevel sources

  14. Empirical evaluation methods in computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Henrik I

    2002-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of methods for the empirical evaluation of computer vision techniques. The practical use of computer vision requires empirical evaluation to ensure that the overall system has a guaranteed performance. The book contains articles that cover the design of experiments for evaluation, range image segmentation, the evaluation of face recognition and diffusion methods, image matching using correlation methods, and the performance of medical image processing algorithms. Sample Chapter(s). Foreword (228 KB). Chapter 1: Introduction (505 KB). Contents: Automate

  15. Corporate interest rate risk management with derivatives in Australia: empirical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Ferreira Carneiro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Financial and insurance theories explain that large widely-held corporations manage corporate risks if doing so is costective to reduce frictional costs such as taxes, agency costs and financial distress costs. A large number of previous empirical studies, most in the U.S., have tested the hypotheses underlying corporate risk management with financial derivative instruments. In order to quantify corporate hedge demand, most previous studies have used the ratio of principal notional amount of derivatives to company size, although they recognize that company size is not an appropriate proxy for financial risk. This paper analyzes the interest-rate-risk hedge demand by Australian companies, measured through the ratio of principal notional amount of interest rate derivatives to interest-rate-riskbearing liabilities. Modern panel data methods are used, with two panel data sets from 1998 to 2003 (1102 and 465 observations, respectively. Detailed information about interest-rate-risk exposures was available after manual data collection from financial annual reports, which was only possible due to specific reporting requirements in Australian accounting standards. Regarding the analysis of the extent of hedge, our measurement of interest-rate-risk exposures generates some significant results di erent from those found in previous studies. For example, this study shows that total leverage (total debt ratio is not significantly important to interest-rate-risk hedge demand and that, instead, this demand is related to the specific risk exposure in the interest bearing part of the firms liabilities. This study finds significant relations of interest-rate-risk hedge to company size, floating-interest-rate debt ratio, annual log returns, and company industry type (utilities and non-banking financial institutions.

  16. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to...

  17. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  18. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  19. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  20. Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer. Abstract. The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor ...

  1. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  2. Suburethral sling procedures after previous surgery for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compare the outcome of suburethral sling procedures (tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), obturator tape (Ob-tape)) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with previous surgery for SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. A comparative, descriptive, retrospective study was done using information ...

  3. 5 CFR 532.405 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405 Section 532.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... rate may be based upon a rate of pay received during a temporary promotion, so long as the temporary...

  4. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  5. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...

  6. Bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment in a previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, we present a case of an 11‑year‑old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment to highlight that hemoglobinopathy induced orbital infarction should be considered in African children with acute onset proptosis with or without ...

  7. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  8. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Control of feed intake as affected by previous treatment | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with eighteen rumen cannulated sheep fed on a chopped lucerne diet. Previous level of intake significantly influenced the level at which sheep initially established voluntary feed intake. This difference had disappeared after three weeks on an ad lib. intake. Perturbation analysis of the results ...

  10. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  11. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, ...

  12. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  13. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  14. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study on timing of antenatal care booking at public health facilities in ... Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to collect data from 630 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care service at 10 governmental ...

  15. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  16. Mondor's Disease of the Breast in a Nigerian Woman Previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Case Report. How to cite this article: Olarinoye-Akorede SA, Silas BT. Mondor's disease of the breast in a Nigerian woman previously treated for invasive ductal carcinoma in the ... and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints .... malignancy. Financial support and sponsorship.

  17. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities manifested...

  18. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R

    2008-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  19. Kindness in Australia: an empirical critique of moral decline sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibis, Daphne; Hookway, Nicholas; Vreugdenhil, Anthea

    2016-09-01

    A new sociological agenda is emerging that interrogates how morality can be established in the absence of the moral certainties of the past but there is a shortage of empirical work on this topic. This article establishes a theoretical framework for the empirical analysis of everyday morality drawing on the work of theorists including Ahmed, Bauman and Taylor. It uses the Australian Survey of Social Attitudes to assess the state and shape of contemporary moralities by asking how kind are Australians, how is its expression socially distributed, and what are the motivations for kindness. The findings demonstrate that Australians exhibit a strong attachment and commitment to kindness as a moral value that is primarily motivated by interiorized sources of moral authority. We argue these findings support the work of theorists such as Ahmed and Taylor who argue authenticity and embodied emotion are legitimate sources of morality in today's secular societies. The research also provides new evidence that generational changes are shaping understandings and practices of kindness in unexpected ways. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  20. Empirical confirmation of creative destruction from world trade data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Klimek

    Full Text Available We show that world trade network datasets contain empirical evidence that the dynamics of innovation in the world economy indeed follows the concept of creative destruction, as proposed by J.A. Schumpeter more than half a century ago. National economies can be viewed as complex, evolving systems, driven by a stream of appearance and disappearance of goods and services. Products appear in bursts of creative cascades. We find that products systematically tend to co-appear, and that product appearances lead to massive disappearance events of existing products in the following years. The opposite-disappearances followed by periods of appearances-is not observed. This is an empirical validation of the dominance of cascading competitive replacement events on the scale of national economies, i.e., creative destruction. We find a tendency that more complex products drive out less complex ones, i.e., progress has a direction. Finally we show that the growth trajectory of a country's product output diversity can be understood by a recently proposed evolutionary model of Schumpeterian economic dynamics.

  1. Empirical confirmation of creative destruction from world trade data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Peter; Hausmann, Ricardo; Thurner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We show that world trade network datasets contain empirical evidence that the dynamics of innovation in the world economy indeed follows the concept of creative destruction, as proposed by J.A. Schumpeter more than half a century ago. National economies can be viewed as complex, evolving systems, driven by a stream of appearance and disappearance of goods and services. Products appear in bursts of creative cascades. We find that products systematically tend to co-appear, and that product appearances lead to massive disappearance events of existing products in the following years. The opposite-disappearances followed by periods of appearances-is not observed. This is an empirical validation of the dominance of cascading competitive replacement events on the scale of national economies, i.e., creative destruction. We find a tendency that more complex products drive out less complex ones, i.e., progress has a direction. Finally we show that the growth trajectory of a country's product output diversity can be understood by a recently proposed evolutionary model of Schumpeterian economic dynamics.

  2. Psychobiology of Male Homosexuality: Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Annicchia rico

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, empirical and theoretical reports which question the causes ofmale homosexuality are examined. According to these reports, male homosexualitydiffers from female homosexuality in some respects. Additionally,evidence favouring the consideration of male homosexuality as a biologicalcondition is shown: there are brain differences between gay men and heterosexualmen, there are genetic and perinatal factors associated to malehomosexuality, there are cognitive and behavioral differences between gayand heterosexual men, there are animal models for studying homosexuality;finally, there are negative findings concerning the psychosocial factorsassociated to male homosexuality.

  3. Radiological findings in NAO syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Otaibi, Leftan; Hugosson, Claes O. [Department of Radiology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Mayouf, Sulalman M.; Majeed, Mahmoud; Al-Eid, Wea' am; Bahabri, Sultan [Department of Paediatrics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2002-07-01

    Background: Diseases exhibiting osteolysis in children are rare hereditary conditions. Several types have been recognised with different clinical manifestations. One type includes subcutaneous nodules, arthropathy and osteolysis and has been termed NAO syndrome. Previous radiological reports have described the affected bones, usually the carpal and tarsal regions, but a detailed analysis of the radiological findings of both the axial as well as the appendicular skeleton has not been reported. Objectives: To describe the radiological findings in a large group of children with an autosomal recessive disease characterized by nodules, familial arthropathy and osteolysis. Materials and methods: The study comprises 14 patients from 9 families and all patients had the triad of nodulosis, arthropathy and osteolysis (NAO). Results: The most common radiological manifestations were osteopenia, undertubulation of long bones, arthritic changes, sclerotic sutures of the calvaria, osteolysis and muscle contractures. Other common findings were squared vertebrae, broad medial clavicles and brachycephaly. Progress of disease was documented in more than half of the patients. Conclusions: Our study is the first report of the detailed radiological findings of NAO syndrome. In NAO syndrome, both the axial and appendicular skeleton are involved (orig.)

  4. Radiological findings in NAO syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Otaibi, Leftan; Hugosson, Claes O.; Al-Mayouf, Sulalman M.; Majeed, Mahmoud; Al-Eid, Wea'am; Bahabri, Sultan

    2002-01-01

    Background: Diseases exhibiting osteolysis in children are rare hereditary conditions. Several types have been recognised with different clinical manifestations. One type includes subcutaneous nodules, arthropathy and osteolysis and has been termed NAO syndrome. Previous radiological reports have described the affected bones, usually the carpal and tarsal regions, but a detailed analysis of the radiological findings of both the axial as well as the appendicular skeleton has not been reported. Objectives: To describe the radiological findings in a large group of children with an autosomal recessive disease characterized by nodules, familial arthropathy and osteolysis. Materials and methods: The study comprises 14 patients from 9 families and all patients had the triad of nodulosis, arthropathy and osteolysis (NAO). Results: The most common radiological manifestations were osteopenia, undertubulation of long bones, arthritic changes, sclerotic sutures of the calvaria, osteolysis and muscle contractures. Other common findings were squared vertebrae, broad medial clavicles and brachycephaly. Progress of disease was documented in more than half of the patients. Conclusions: Our study is the first report of the detailed radiological findings of NAO syndrome. In NAO syndrome, both the axial and appendicular skeleton are involved (orig.)

  5. Dermoscopic findings in cicatricial alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seher Arı

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermoscopy is an important tool for the diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions. Newly, this method has also been used in the diagnosis and follow-up hair and scalp disorders. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate dermoscopic findings in a sample of patients with clinical and histopathological compatible with cicatricial alopecia. Methods: Twenty nine patients with cicatricial alopecia diagnosed by clinical and histological findings were examined by dermoscopy.. Results: Dermoscopic features evaluated included folliculitis decalvans (n=8, pseudopelade of Brocq (n=7, lichen planopilaris (n=6, discoid lupus erythematosus (n=2, dissecting cellulitis (n=1, and secondary cicatricial alopecia (n=5. Visualization of structures previously examined with naked eye were seen in great detail with dermoscopy. The loss of follicular orifices was seen in all patients with cicatricial alopecia. Perifollicular scaling, arborizing red lines, honeycomb pigment pattern, white dots and tufted hairs were the other most obvious findings. Conclusion: Use of dermoscopy in the clinical evaluation of cicatrical alopecia improves diagnostic capability beyond simple clinic inspection, but larger studies correlating dermoscopic findings with histopathology exams are needed to improve understanding of this method.

  6. Trade costs in empirical New Economic Geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, E.M.; Garretsen, J.H.

    Trade costs are a crucial element of New Economic Geography (NEG) models. Without trade costs there is no role for geography. In empirical NEG studies the unavailability of direct trade cost data calls for the need to approximate these trade costs by introducing a trade cost function. In doing so,

  7. Empirical Rationality in the Stock Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Peter

    2003-01-01

    for this empiricalrationality on part of the agent, the resulting empirical model assignslikelihood to the data actually observed, unlike in the unmodified rational expectationscase. A Lucas (1978)-type asset pricing model which incorporatesempirical rationality is constructed and estimated using U.S. stock data...

  8. Air pollutant taxation: an empirical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cansier, D.; Krumm, R.

    1997-01-01

    An empirical analysis of the current taxation of the air pollutants sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the Scandinavian countries, the Netherlands, France and Japan is presented. Political motivation and technical factors such as tax base, rate structure and revenue use are compared. The general concepts of the current polices are characterised

  9. Software Development Management: Empirical and Analytical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Keumseok

    2011-01-01

    Managing software development is a very complex activity because it must deal with people, organizations, technologies, and business processes. My dissertation consists of three studies that examine software development management from various perspectives. The first study empirically investigates the impacts of prior experience with similar…

  10. Legislation, Empirical Research and Juridical Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotel, B.

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at the incorporation of empirical research into legislation from a juridical law perspective. Juridical law is characterized by four elements: autonomous and artificial reasoning; making statements to authorize factual actions; mobilizing helpers of the proponent and de-mobilizing

  11. Downside Risk And Empirical Asset Pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van Vliet (Pim)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, the Nobel prize winning Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) celebrates its 40th birthday. Although widely applied in financial management, this model does not fully capture the empirical riskreturn relation of stocks; witness the beta, size, value and momentum effects. These

  12. Transition States from Empirical Force Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2003-01-01

    This is an overview of the use of empirical force fields in the study of reaction mechanisms. EVB-type methods (including RFF and MCMM) produce full reaction surfaces by mixing, in the simplest case, known force fields describing reactants and products. The SEAM method instead locates approximate...

  13. Unemployment and Mental Disorders - An Empirical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben; Eriksson, Tor Viking; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    1998-01-01

    from the Psychiatric case register. Secondly, we estimate conditional logistic regression models for case-control data on first admissions to a psychiatric hospital. The explanatory variables in the empirical analysis include age, gender, education, marital status, income, wealth, and unemployment (and...

  14. Commodity prices and growth : An empirical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collier, P.; Goderis, B.V.G.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas empirical evidence on the effect of higher commodity prices on the long-run growth of commodity exporters is ambiguous, time series analyses using vector autoregressive (VAR) models have found that commodity booms raise income in the short run. In this paper we adopt panel error correction

  15. Caught between Empires: Ambivalence in Australian Films ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caught between Empires: Ambivalence in Australian Films. Greg McCarthy. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for ...

  16. Engine gearbox fault diagnosis using empirical mode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents engine gearbox fault diagnosis based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and Naı¨ve Bayes algorithm. In this study, vibration signals from a gear box are acquired with healthy and different simulated faulty conditions of gear and bearing. The vibration signals are decomposed into a finite number ...

  17. Supporting graduation programs through empirical evidence and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supporting graduation programs through empirical evidence and leadership promotion. This project will support the scaling up of locally-tested interventions aimed at improving the livelihoods of women and youth in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. It targets special interventions for people who have fallen through the cracks ...

  18. Sending Scholarship Students Abroad in Ottoman Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaç, Onur; Özgür, Hüseyin

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of sending scholarship students abroad that started in the 19th century by Sultan Selim III in Ottoman Empire continued during the period of other Sultans became a significant reference point for the abroad scholarship policy of Turkey. The students that were firstly sent abroad especially for military training, were sent to…

  19. Spitsbergen - Imperialists beyond the British Empire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga; Hacquebord, Louwrens

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the relationship between Spitsbergen in the European High Arctic and the global British Empire in the first quarter of the twentieth century. Spitsbergen was an uninhabited no man's land and comprised an unknown quantity of natural resources. The concepts of geopolitics and New

  20. 16Nomads in the shadows of empires

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    different in terms of their social structure and psychological makeup. However, they used to have a ... empires extended their influence over these ethnic groups in southern Ethiopia and. Kenya, there was quite ... adopted a liberal outlook in dealing with sophisticated social and cultural issues. 263The gabbar system of ...

  1. Empirical research in OM: three paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, several articles have appeared in the operations management literature that have suggested that the link between operations management academics and operations management practitioners has been weakened. It has been suggested that to improve this link, more empirical research

  2. Empirical research on constructing Taiwan's ecoenvironmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the material flow indicators and ecological footprint approach structured are adopted to construct eco-environmental stress indicators. We use relevant data to proceed with the empirical analyses on environmental stress and ecological impacts in Taiwan between the years of 1998 and 2007. Analysis of ...

  3. The Linguistic Imperialism of Neoliberal Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the transition from the linguistic imperialism of the colonial and postcolonial ages to the increasingly dominant role of English as a neoimperial language. It analyzes "global" English as a key dimension of the U.S. empire. U.S. expansionism is a fundamental principle of the foreign policy of the United States that can be…

  4. Empirical scaling for present ohmic heated tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daughney, C.

    1975-06-01

    Empirical scaling laws are given for the average electron temperature and electron energy confinement time as functions of plasma current, average electron density, effective ion charge, toroidal magnetic field, and major and minor plasma radius. The ohmic heating is classical, and the electron energy transport is anomalous. The present scaling indicates that ohmic-heating becomes ineffective with larger experiments. (U.S.)

  5. An Empirical Investigation into Nigerian ESL Learners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    General observations indicate that ESL learners in Nigeria tend to manifest fear and anxiety in grammar classes, which could influence their performance negatively or positively. This study examines empirically some of the reasons for some ESL learners' apprehension of grammar classes. The data for the study were ...

  6. Empirically Based Myths: Astrology, Biorhythms, and ATIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, Ronald G.

    1980-01-01

    A myth may have an empirical basis through chance occurrence; perhaps Aptitude Treatment Interactions (ATIs) are in this category. While ATIs have great utility in describing, planning, and implementing instruction, few disordinal interactions have been found. Article suggests narrowing of ATI research with replications and estimates of effect…

  7. Alternative Approaches to Evaluation in Empirical Microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Richard; Dias, Monica Costa

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the most popular policy evaluation methods in empirical microeconomics: social experiments, natural experiments, matching, instrumental variables, discontinuity design, and control functions. It discusses identification of traditionally used average parameters and more complex distributional parameters. The adequacy,…

  8. Intuitive Expertise: Theories and Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteis, Christian; Billett, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Intuition has been long seen as an element of effective human performance in demanding tasks (i.e. expertise). But its form, constitutive elements and development remain subject to diverse explanations. This paper discusses these elements and explores theories and empirical evidence about what constitutes intuitive expertise, and offers an account…

  9. Empirical questions for collective-behaviour modelling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    suggestions for future research. 2. Empirical measurements of insect swarms. Unlike highly ordered animal aggregations such as bird flocks or fish schools, mating swarms of flying insects present a particular challenge for modelling as there is no simple average state of the swarm that can be used to benchmark a model.

  10. Quantitative analyses of empirical fitness landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szendro, Ivan G; Franke, Jasper; Krug, Joachim; Schenk, Martijn F; De Visser, J Arjan G M

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a fitness landscape is a powerful metaphor that offers insight into various aspects of evolutionary processes and guidance for the study of evolution. Until recently, empirical evidence on the ruggedness of these landscapes was lacking, but since it became feasible to construct all possible genotypes containing combinations of a limited set of mutations, the number of studies has grown to a point where a classification of landscapes becomes possible. The aim of this review is to identify measures of epistasis that allow a meaningful comparison of fitness landscapes and then apply them to the empirical landscapes in order to discern factors that affect ruggedness. The various measures of epistasis that have been proposed in the literature appear to be equivalent. Our comparison shows that the ruggedness of the empirical landscape is affected by whether the included mutations are beneficial or deleterious and by whether intragenic or intergenic epistasis is involved. Finally, the empirical landscapes are compared to landscapes generated with the rough Mt Fuji model. Despite the simplicity of this model, it captures the features of the experimental landscapes remarkably well. (paper)

  11. The Logic of Empirical Theories Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, J.

    2012-01-01

    Logic and philosophy of science share a long history, though contacts have gone through ups and downs. This paper is a brief survey of some major themes in logical studies of empirical theories, including links to computer science and current studies of rational agency. The survey has no new

  12. An Empirical Investigation into Programming Language Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefik, Andreas; Siebert, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in the literature have shown that syntax remains a significant barrier to novice computer science students in the field. While this syntax barrier is known to exist, whether and how it varies across programming languages has not been carefully investigated. For this article, we conducted four empirical studies on programming…

  13. Qualitative Case Study Research as Empirical Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, Andrea D.; McWhorter, Rochell

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of qualitative case study research as empirical inquiry. It defines and distinguishes what a case study is, the purposes, intentions, and types of case studies. It then describes how to determine if a qualitative case study is the preferred approach for conducting research. It overviews the essential steps in…

  14. Salmonella typhi time to change empiric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, C.; Engberg, J.; Weis, N.

    2008-01-01

    out of seven cases. We recommend that empiric treatment of suspected cases of typhoid fever includes a third generation cephalosporin such as ceftriaxon. Furthermore, the present report stresses the importance of typhoid vaccination of travellers to areas where typhoid is endemic Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/29...

  15. The problem analysis for empirical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, E.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a systematic methodology for the development of a problem analysis for cross-sectional, empirical research. This methodology is referred to as the 'Annabel approach'. It is suitable both for academic studies and applied (business) studies. In addition it can be used for both

  16. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  17. Empirical Bayes Approaches to Multivariate Fuzzy Partitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Max A.; Manton, Kenneth G.

    1991-01-01

    An empirical Bayes-maximum likelihood estimation procedure is presented for the application of fuzzy partition models in describing high dimensional discrete response data. The model describes individuals in terms of partial membership in multiple latent categories that represent bounded discrete spaces. (SLD)

  18. Empirically Determined Passenger Ferry Navigable Routes within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWASOGO

    modelling of hydrographic information is important to control waterways boat services with existing roadway ... channel accretion. KEYWORDS: Navigable routes, hydrographic information, empirical analysis, under-keel clearance, river bed, topography. [Received May 04 2017; .... on features that may affect safe navigation.

  19. Nicotine Elicits Methamphetamine-Seeking in Rats Previously Administered Nicotine

    OpenAIRE

    Neugebauer, N. M.; Harrod, S. B.; Bardo, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, ...

  20. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  1. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  2. Prevalence and significance of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Beneventi, Fausta; Ramoni, Véronique; Caporali, Roberto; Locatelli, Elena; Simonetta, Margherita; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Alpini, Claudia; Albonico, Giulia; Prisco, Elena; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the rates of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy and their impact on the pregnancy outcome. Pregnant women in their first trimester were screened using a two-step approach using a self-administered 10-item questionnaire and subsequent testing for rheumatic autoantibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-extractable nuclear antigen, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and evaluation by a rheumatologist. Overall, the complications of pregnancy evaluated included fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, delivery at less than 34 weeks, neonatal resuscitation and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Out of the 2458 women screened, the authors identified 62 (2.5%) women with previously undiagnosed undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and 24 (0.98%) women with previously undiagnosed definite systemic rheumatic disease. The prevalences were seven (0.28%) for systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome, six (0.24%) for rheumatoid arthritis, three (0.12%) for antiphospholipid syndrome and one (0.04%) for systemic sclerosis. In multiple exact logistic regression, after adjustment for potential confounders, the OR of overall complications of pregnancy were 2.81 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.18) in women with UCTD and 4.57 (95% CI 1.57 to 13.57) in those with definite diseases, respectively, compared with asymptomatic controls. In our population approximately 2.5% and 1% of first trimester pregnant women had a previously undiagnosed UCTD and definite systemic rheumatic disease, respectively. These conditions were associated with significant negative effects on the outcome of pregnancy.

  3. Previously infertile couples and the newborn intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, R F; Pruitt, R L; Greenfeld, D

    1989-05-01

    Having a newborn child admitted to a newborn intensive care unit can be a traumatic experience for parents; however, parents who previously have been infertile face unique problems in coping with this situation. The authors discuss the difficulties parents must overcome in resolving their crises and in developing a good relationship with their child, or, in some cases, coming to terms with the child's death or ongoing disability. In addition, the authors offer suggestions for effective social work intervention.

  4. Prevalence of Infraumbilical Adhesions in Women With Previous Laparoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lowell; Wong, Herb; Liu, C. Y.; Phelps, John Y.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of intraabdominal adhesions to the umbilicus following gynecologic laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all gynecologic laparoscopic procedures in a private practice setting to identify patients with a repeat laparoscopy who had a history of a previous laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Patients with a history of other surgeries were excluded. All repeat laparoscopies used a left upper quadrant entry technique where the abdominal cavity was surveyed for adhesions. We also reviewed adverse events attributable to the left upper quadrant entry approach. Results: We identified 151 patients who underwent a second laparoscopy and had a previous umbilical scar. Thirty-two of the 151 (21.2%) patients with a history of a laparoscopy had evidence of adhesions to the umbilical undersurface. No adverse events or injuries were attributed to the left upper quadrant entry technique. Conclusions: Adhesions to the umbilical undersurface occur in 21.2% of patients who have undergone a prior laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. For this reason, we recommend an alternate location for entry in patients with an umbilical scar from a previous laparoscopy. PMID:17651555

  5. The emotional sequelae of whistleblowing: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kath; Luck, Lauretta; Hutchinson, Marie; Wilkes, Lesley; Andrew, Sharon; Jackson, Debra

    2011-10-01

    To highlight and illuminate the emotional sequelae of whistleblowing from whistleblowers and subjects of whistleblowing complaints. Whistleblowing has the potential to have a negative impact on individuals' physical and emotional well-being. However, few empirical studies have been conducted using qualitative methods to provide an in-depth exploration of the emotional consequences for those involved in whistleblowing incidents. Qualitative narrative inquiry design. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants who had been involved in whistleblowing incidents. During interviews participants' accounts were digitally recorded and then transcribed verbatim. Data were then analysed by two researchers until consensus was reached. Findings revealed that participants' emotional health was considerably compromised as a result of the whistleblowing incident. Analysis of the data revealed the following dominant themes: 'I felt sad and depressed': overwhelming and persistent distress; 'I was having panic attacks and hyperventilating': acute anxiety; and, 'I had all this playing on my mind': nightmares, flashbacks and intrusive thoughts. While it has been previously acknowledged that whistleblowing has the potential to have a negative impact on all aspects of an individual's life, this study notably highlights the intensity of emotional symptoms suffered by participants as well as the extended duration of time these symptoms were apparent. As professionals, nurses, as well as organisations, have a responsibility to identify those who may be suffering the emotional trauma of whistleblowing and ensure they have access to appropriate resources. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Hysterosalpingographic findings in infertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, M. S.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, J. S.; Bai, B. C. [Seoul Red Cross Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-12-15

    Four hundred and fifty four cases of H.S.G. in infertility were analyzed and following brief results were obtained. 1. Most frequent age group was 25-29 year old, and those number of patient were 188 (41.4%). 2. Most frequent abnormal uterine findings was intravasation (113 cases), and malposition (119), irregular margin (104), filling defect (37), and diverticulum (6) in decreasing order. 3. Most frequent abnormal tubal finding was obstruction (199 cases), and hydrosalpinx (99), diverticulosis (22), intravasation (17), peritubal adhesion (13), and beaded tube (10) in decreasing order. 4. Nagative findings was seen in 155 cases (34.1%) of uterus and in 227 cases (50.0%) of fallopian tubes. 5. Nagative findings in both uterus and fallopian tubes was seen only 87 cases (19.2%)

  7. Hysterosalpingographic findings in infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, M. S.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, J. S.; Bai, B. C.

    1981-01-01

    Four hundred and fifty four cases of H.S.G. in infertility were analyzed and following brief results were obtained. 1. Most frequent age group was 25-29 year old, and those number of patient were 188 (41.4%). 2. Most frequent abnormal uterine findings was intravasation (113 cases), and malposition (119), irregular margin (104), filling defect (37), and diverticulum (6) in decreasing order. 3. Most frequent abnormal tubal finding was obstruction (199 cases), and hydrosalpinx (99), diverticulosis (22), intravasation (17), peritubal adhesion (13), and beaded tube (10) in decreasing order. 4. Nagative findings was seen in 155 cases (34.1%) of uterus and in 227 cases (50.0%) of fallopian tubes. 5. Nagative findings in both uterus and fallopian tubes was seen only 87 cases (19.2%)

  8. Find a Dermatologic Surgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Find a Dermatologic Surgeon Please select the following ...

  9. Find a Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Military Hospital or Clinic Change My Primary Care Manager Book Appointments Getting Care When Traveling What's Covered Health Care Dental Care Mental Health Care Pharmacy Special Needs Vision Care Benefit ...

  10. Bouveret's syndrome: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tueney, D.; Cimsit, C.

    2000-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction secondary to gallstones is seen in the older population and the level of obstruction is usually at the level of the terminal ileum. Obstruction at the level of the gastric outlet is called Bouveret's syndrome. A case with perforated cholecystitis and duodenal obstruction due to a gallstone is presented. The CT findings are presented along with the clinical findings and literature review. (orig.)

  11. Finding Autonomy in Birth*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Rebecca; Kuppermann, Miriam; Little, Margaret; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Mitchell, Lisa M; Armstrong, Elizabeth M.; Harris, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Over the last several years, as cesarean deliveries have grown increasingly common, there has been a great deal of public and professional interest in the phenomenon of women ‘choosing’ to deliver by cesarean section in the absence of any specific medical indication. The issue has sparked intense conversation, as it raises questions about the nature of autonomy in birth. Whereas mainstream bioethical discourse is used to associating autonomy with having a large array of choices, this conception of autonomy does not seem adequate to capture concerns and intuitions that have a strong grip outside of this discourse. An empirical and conceptual exploration of how delivery decisions ought to be negotiated must be guided by a rich understanding of women’s agency and its placement within a complicated set of cultural meanings and pressures surrounding birth. It is too early to be ‘for’ or ‘against’ women’s access to cesarean delivery in the absence of traditional medical indications - and indeed, a simple pro- or con- position is never going to do justice to the subtlety of the issue. The right question is not whether women ought to be allowed to choose their delivery approach, but rather, taking the value of women’s autonomy in decision-making around birth as a given, what sorts of guidelines, practices, and social conditions will best promote and protect women’s full inclusion in a safe and positive birth process. PMID:19076937

  12. The pathogenicity of genetic variants previously associated with left ventricular non-compaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasi, Yeganeh; Jabbari, Javad; Jabbari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    an updated list of previously reported LVNC-associated variants with biologic description and investigate the prevalence of LVNC variants in healthy general population to find false-positive LVNC-associated variants. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Human Gene Mutation Database and PubMed were systematically...... searched to identify all previously reported LVNC-associated variants. Thereafter, the Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) and the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC), that both represent the background population, was searched for all variants. Four in silico prediction tools were assessed to determine...

  13. Charged-particle thermonuclear reaction rates: IV. Comparison to previous work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliadis, C.; Longland, R.; Champagne, A.E.; Coc, A.

    2010-01-01

    We compare our Monte Carlo reaction rates (see Paper II of this issue) to previous results that were obtained by using the classical method of computing thermonuclear reaction rates. For each reaction, the comparison is presented using two types of graphs: the first shows the change in reaction rate uncertainties, while the second displays our new results normalized to the previously recommended reaction rate. We find that the rates have changed significantly for almost all reactions considered here. The changes are caused by (i) our new Monte Carlo method of computing reaction rates (see Paper I of this issue), and (ii) newly available nuclear physics information (see Paper III of this issue).

  14. Including Finite Surface Span Effects in Empirical Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of finite span on the jet-surface interaction noise source and the jet mixing noise shielding and reflection effects is considered using recently acquired experimental data. First, the experimental setup and resulting data are presented with particular attention to the role of surface span on far-field noise. These effects are then included in existing empirical models that have previously assumed that all surfaces are semi-infinite. This extended abstract briefly describes the experimental setup and data leaving the empirical modeling aspects for the final paper.

  15. Inflation and growth: A discussion of Robert Barro's recent findings

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Malte

    1995-01-01

    A recent empirical study conducted by Robert Barro and published by the Bank of England finds surprisingly little evidence for harmful effects of inflation on growth, seemingly refuting the many theories purporting the contrary. Have the costs of inflation been exaggerated in the past? Is inflation in fact essentially harmless?

  16. Relative age effect revisited: Findings from the dance domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, J.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The relative age effect is a worldwide phenomenon. While there is solid empirical evidence for the existence in sports like soccer and ice hockey, there are also some findings indicating the absence of the phenomenon. In an earlier study, no support was found with Dutch top-level athletes in table

  17. State ownership and firm performance: Empirical evidence from Chinese listed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available While the relationship between state ownership and firm performance has been widely researched, the empirical evidence has provided mixed results. This study applies panel data regression techniques to 10,639 firm-year observations of non-financial Chinese listed firms during 2003–2010 to examine the relationship between state ownership and firm performance. The results show that state ownership has a U-shaped relationship with firm performance. The Split Share Structure Reform in 2005–2006 played a positive role in enhancing the relationship between state ownership and firm profitability ratios. Although state ownership decreased significantly after 2006, it remains high in strategically important industry sectors such as the oil, natural gas and mining sector and the publishing, broadcasting and media sector. The findings reveal that a higher level of state ownership is superior to a dispersed ownership structure due to the benefits of government support and political connections. The Split Share Structure Reform made previously non-tradable shares legally tradable, improving corporate governance and reducing the negative effect of non-tradable state shares.

  18. PERFORMANCE IN CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE BRAZILIAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the cross-border acquisitions made by Brazilian companies over the past 15 years have improved their financial performance. Drawing on institutional, sociocultural, and organizational learning theories, this study develops and empirically tests several hypotheses on the determinants of M&A performance. The results demonstrate that the cross-border acquisition moves by Brazilian companies actually improve their financial performance. Financial performance tends to be positive when the cultural distance between the countries of the acquiring and acquired companies is low to medium and when the institutional context of the acquired company is a developed one. We also found an inverted-U shape relationship between acquiring companies’ previous international M&A experience and the performance of a new cross-border operation. These findings suggest that research on international M&As should include acquirers’ M&A experience as well as the institutional characteristics of their target countries.

  19. Reassessing the empirical relationship between the oil price and the dollar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coudert, Virginie; Mignon, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at reassessing the empirical relationship between the real price of oil and the U.S. dollar real effective exchange rate over the 1974–2015 period. We find that changes in both variables are now linked by a negative relationship, going from the dollar exchange rate to the real oil price. However, the same relationship is found positive when ending the sample in the mid-2000s, in line with the previous literature. To understand and investigate this evolution, we rely on a nonlinear, smooth transition regression model in which the oil price-dollar nexus depends on the dynamics followed by the U.S. currency. Our results show that the relationship is negative most of the times but turns positive when the dollar hits very high values, as in the early eighties. - Highlights: •We reassess the relationship between the real oil price and the dollar over the 1974–2015 period. •Changes in the two variables are linked by a negative relationship over the whole period. •The link between both variables is positive over the subsample ending in the mid-2000s. •We estimate a nonlinear model in which the oil price-dollar nexus depends on the evolution the dollar. •The relationship is negative most of the times, except when the dollar hits very high values.

  20. Romance of Experience, Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions: An Empirical Examination of International Delegates in Academic Conferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Faizan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing attention placed on experiences can be regarded as a mega-trend, and has given currency to the proposition that experiences are important for consumer’s self-perception and satisfaction with a specific visit. In order to assess this assumption, this study empirically examines the applicability of Pine and Gilmore’s ‘experience economy’ concept and examines the impact of its four dimensions i.e., education, escapism, esthetics, and entertainment on delegates’ satisfaction and behavioural intentions. Based on convenience sampling, 210 questionnaires are distributed to the delegates of 2 international academic conferences out of which 188 were deemed fit for further analysis 89% response rate. The results indicate that Pine and Gilmore’s model can further our understanding of the experience market. However, the findings in contrast with previous studies show that different experiential dimensions influence the delegates’ overall satisfaction in different contexts. For instance, the dimension of education has a relatively higher significant effect on the delegates’ overall satisfaction and behavioural intentions in the context of international academic conferences. The theoretical and practical implications of this study are also discussed.

  1. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib......). The causative pathogen was identified as H influenzae serotype f (Hif), and was successfully treated with ceftriaxone. An immunological evaluation revealed transient low levels of immunoglobulins but no apparent immunodeficiency was found 2 years after the clinical insult....

  2. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans

    2015-01-01

    vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions......,400 non-hyperthyroid control individuals (matched for age and sex), all identified from a random 5% sample of the Danish background population (n=339,481). In the second study population, 625 same-sex twin pairs, discordant for hyperthyroidism, were included. For each individual, the degree of co...

  3. Cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with previously undiagnosed HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kenneth; Tee, Shang-Ian; Ho, Madeline S L; Pan, Jiun Yit

    2015-08-01

    Protothecosis is an uncommon condition resulting from infection by achlorophyllous algae of the Prototheca species. Immunocompromised individuals are generally most susceptible to protothecal infection and tend to develop severe and disseminated disease. However, the association between protothecosis and HIV-induced immunosuppression is not clear, with only a handful of cases having been described to date. Here we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis in a Chinese man with previously undiagnosed HIV infection that responded well to oral itraconazole. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  4. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  5. Fulminant Pneumococcal Pericarditis in a Previously Healthy Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpkov, Cvetan; Nath, Ermin; Moon, Michael; Windram, Jonathan; Graham, Michelle M

    2017-04-01

    Purulent pericarditis is a rare acutely life-threatening condition. Initial symptoms, signs, and investigations can be nonspecific. Echocardiography is invaluable for establishing the diagnosis and initial management. We present a case of a previously healthy patient with purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the absence of a primary focus of infection. The patient deteriorated rapidly with cardiac tamponade and septic shock and was managed successfully by a combined medical and surgical approach. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrasonographic findings of gynecomastia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Yoon, Choon Sik; Park, Chang Yun [Yongdong Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    The purposes of our study were to find out characteristic ultrasonographic findings of gynecomastia and to analyze age distribution, causative factors of gynecomastia. For these purposes, medical records of 39 male patients with gynecomastia were reviewed and sonographic findings of 13 cases of gentamycin were analyzed. Gynecomastia was found most commonly in teenagers and commonly in twenties. Almostly, it occurred without any evident etiology and classified as idiopathic or pirbuterol type. Less frequently, it occurred due to drug administration, systemic disease, or male hormone deficiency. Unilateral involvement was seen in 29 cases; 17cases involving the left and 12 cases the right. Bilateral involvement was seen in 10 cases. Sonographically,gynecomastia appeared as hypoechoic or intermediate echoic mass with various shape in the subareolar area. One case showed diffuse fatty breast pattern without definable mass. On sonographic evaluation, prominent nipple should not be misinterpreted as a breast mass. For the correct diagnosis of gynecomastia, both side breasts should be evaluated for comparison

  7. Ultrasonographic findings of gynecomastia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Yoon, Choon Sik; Park, Chang Yun

    1993-01-01

    The purposes of our study were to find out characteristic ultrasonographic findings of gynecomastia and to analyze age distribution, causative factors of gynecomastia. For these purposes, medical records of 39 male patients with gynecomastia were reviewed and sonographic findings of 13 cases of gentamycin were analyzed. Gynecomastia was found most commonly in teenagers and commonly in twenties. Almostly, it occurred without any evident etiology and classified as idiopathic or pirbuterol type. Less frequently, it occurred due to drug administration, systemic disease, or male hormone deficiency. Unilateral involvement was seen in 29 cases ; 17cases involving the left and 12 cases the right. Bilateral involvement was seen in 10 cases. Sonographically,gynecomastia appeared as hypoechoic or intermediate echoic mass with various shape in the subareolar area. One case showed diffuse fatty breast pattern without definable mass. On sonographic evaluation, prominent nipple should not be misinterpreted as a breast mass. For the correct diagnosis of gynecomastia, both side breasts should be evaluated for comparison

  8. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  9. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  10. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI...... 0.13-1.01) before injections. After an average of 4.7 injections (range 1-15), mean visual acuity remained stable at 0.54 logMAR (95% CI 0.13-0.95) with a mean improvement of 0.03 (p = 0. 45, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.06). In 12 eyes (36%), visual acuity improved 0.1 logMAR or more, in 12 eyes (36%), vision...

  11. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  12. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  13. Efforts to promote vaginal delivery after a previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Yoko; Imanishi, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the results of vaginal delivery in patients with a past history of cesarean section. The type of delivery, interventions during delivery, and the prognoses of the mothers and babies were examined in 145 women with a history of cesarean section over the 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2009. A scheduled cesarean section was performed in 27 cases. Vaginal delivery was recommended in 118 cases and the success rate was 94.9% (112/118). Uterine rupture was observed in one patient who experienced a natural rupture at home and whose previous cesarean section was an inverse T incision. No cases required a blood transfusion or hysterectomy. The prognoses of both mothers and babies were good and the vaginal delivery success rate was 94.9%. Uterine rupture was observed in one case. Vaginal delivery with previous cesarean section should be considered in cases with expectation and informed consent. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Mobious syndrome: MR findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskal Revanna Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Möbius syndrome is an extremely rare congenital disorder. We report a case of Möbius syndrome in a 2-year-old girl with bilateral convergent squint and left-sided facial weakness. The characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of Möbius syndrome, which include absent bilateral abducens nerves and absent left facial nerve, were noted. In addition, there was absence of left anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA and absence of bilateral facial colliculi. Clinical features, etiology, and imaging findings are discussed.

  15. Finding optimal exact reducts

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of attribute reduction is an important problem related to feature selection and knowledge discovery. The problem of finding reducts with minimum cardinality is NP-hard. This paper suggests a new algorithm for finding exact reducts with minimum cardinality. This algorithm transforms the initial table to a decision table of a special kind, apply a set of simplification steps to this table, and use a dynamic programming algorithm to finish the construction of an optimal reduct. I present results of computer experiments for a collection of decision tables from UCIML Repository. For many of the experimented tables, the simplification steps solved the problem.

  16. Statistical detection of EEG synchrony using empirical bayesian inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Archana K; Asoh, Hideki; Takeda, Yuji; Phillips, Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in understanding how the brain utilizes synchronized oscillatory activity to integrate information across functionally connected regions. Computing phase-locking values (PLV) between EEG signals is a popular method for quantifying such synchronizations and elucidating their role in cognitive tasks. However, high-dimensionality in PLV data incurs a serious multiple testing problem. Standard multiple testing methods in neuroimaging research (e.g., false discovery rate, FDR) suffer severe loss of power, because they fail to exploit complex dependence structure between hypotheses that vary in spectral, temporal and spatial dimension. Previously, we showed that a hierarchical FDR and optimal discovery procedures could be effectively applied for PLV analysis to provide better power than FDR. In this article, we revisit the multiple comparison problem from a new Empirical Bayes perspective and propose the application of the local FDR method (locFDR; Efron, 2001) for PLV synchrony analysis to compute FDR as a posterior probability that an observed statistic belongs to a null hypothesis. We demonstrate the application of Efron's Empirical Bayes approach for PLV synchrony analysis for the first time. We use simulations to validate the specificity and sensitivity of locFDR and a real EEG dataset from a visual search study for experimental validation. We also compare locFDR with hierarchical FDR and optimal discovery procedures in both simulation and experimental analyses. Our simulation results showed that the locFDR can effectively control false positives without compromising on the power of PLV synchrony inference. Our results from the application locFDR on experiment data detected more significant discoveries than our previously proposed methods whereas the standard FDR method failed to detect any significant discoveries.

  17. Statistical detection of EEG synchrony using empirical bayesian inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana K Singh

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in understanding how the brain utilizes synchronized oscillatory activity to integrate information across functionally connected regions. Computing phase-locking values (PLV between EEG signals is a popular method for quantifying such synchronizations and elucidating their role in cognitive tasks. However, high-dimensionality in PLV data incurs a serious multiple testing problem. Standard multiple testing methods in neuroimaging research (e.g., false discovery rate, FDR suffer severe loss of power, because they fail to exploit complex dependence structure between hypotheses that vary in spectral, temporal and spatial dimension. Previously, we showed that a hierarchical FDR and optimal discovery procedures could be effectively applied for PLV analysis to provide better power than FDR. In this article, we revisit the multiple comparison problem from a new Empirical Bayes perspective and propose the application of the local FDR method (locFDR; Efron, 2001 for PLV synchrony analysis to compute FDR as a posterior probability that an observed statistic belongs to a null hypothesis. We demonstrate the application of Efron's Empirical Bayes approach for PLV synchrony analysis for the first time. We use simulations to validate the specificity and sensitivity of locFDR and a real EEG dataset from a visual search study for experimental validation. We also compare locFDR with hierarchical FDR and optimal discovery procedures in both simulation and experimental analyses. Our simulation results showed that the locFDR can effectively control false positives without compromising on the power of PLV synchrony inference. Our results from the application locFDR on experiment data detected more significant discoveries than our previously proposed methods whereas the standard FDR method failed to detect any significant discoveries.

  18. Accounting and Fiscality in the Ottoman Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available he Ottoman Empire was an imperial superpower that manifested its domination in the Mediterranean zone between 1299 and 1922. At the moment of their maximum glory, the ottomans ruled over three continents, meaning 19,9 millions km2. The tax system applied during 600 years, but also the accounting methods used, prove a remarkable administrative and fiscal organization in the Empire. There were taxes based on the Islamic law, but also taxes established by the sultan concerning the salaries of employees and the military campaigns. The necessity of a correct evidence of tax collecting and distribution required keeping registers “in stairs”, according to an accounting method overtook from the Arabs, named the “Merdiban Method”. The method was based on principles available until nowadays. It was applied until the end of XIXth century, when it was replaced with the method based on double-entry recording, overtook from the west.

  19. Empirical Bayesian inference and model uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poern, K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical or multistage empirical Bayesian approach for the estimation of uncertainty concerning the intensity of a homogeneous Poisson process. A class of contaminated gamma distributions is considered to describe the uncertainty concerning the intensity. These distributions in turn are defined through a set of secondary parameters, the knowledge of which is also described and updated via Bayes formula. This two-stage Bayesian approach is an example where the modeling uncertainty is treated in a comprehensive way. Each contaminated gamma distributions, represented by a point in the 3D space of secondary parameters, can be considered as a specific model of the uncertainty about the Poisson intensity. Then, by the empirical Bayesian method each individual model is assigned a posterior probability

  20. Empiric Antibiotic Therapy of Nosocomial Bacterial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotics are commonly used by physicians to treat various infections. The source of infection and causative organisms are not always apparent during the initial evaluation of the patient, and antibiotics are often given empirically to patients with suspected sepsis. Fear of attempting cephalosporins and carbapenems in penicillin-allergic septic patients may result in significant decrease in the spectrum of antimicrobial coverage. Empiric antibiotic therapy should sufficiently cover all the suspected pathogens, guided by the bacteriologic susceptibilities of the medical center. It is important to understand the major pharmacokinetic properties of antibacterial agents for proper use and to minimize the development of resistance. In several septic patients, negative cultures do not exclude active infection and positive cultures may not represent the actual infection. This article will review the important differences in the spectrum of commonly used antibiotics for nosocomial bacterial infections with a particular emphasis on culture-negative sepsis and colonization.

  1. A critical perspective on the measurement of performance in the empirical multinationality and performance literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Nicole Franziska; Schmidt, Robert; Ladwig, Tina J.

    2017-01-01

    used in empirical studies and the underlying theoretical streams that explain the effects on benefits and costs of multinationality. Our findings indicate that authors still largely rely on overall financial performance measures. Theoretical arguments, in contrast, refer to specific benefit and cost...

  2. Behavioural processes in marketing channel relationships: Review and integration of empirical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nils Bøgelund; Skytte, Hans

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical research on behavioural processes in marketing channel relationships. Systematically examining nine international journals, we find 49 papers on behavioural processes. On the basis of the hypothesis tests in the papers, we discuss the results and integrate...

  3. Gathering Empirical Evidence Concerning Links between Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musta'amal, Aede Hatib; Norman, Eddie; Hodgson, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Discussion is often reported concerning potential links between computer-aided designing and creativity, but there is a lack of systematic enquiry to gather empirical evidence concerning such links. This paper reports an indication of findings from other research studies carried out in contexts beyond general education that have sought evidence…

  4. Gender and Subject Choice: An Empirical Study on Undergraduate Students' Majors in Phnom Penh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dom, Vannak; Yi, Gihong

    2018-01-01

    The empirical study on 610 undergraduate students between the age of 16 to 25 in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, was set to examine the relationship of gender and subject choice. The findings have revealed that women were overrepresented in non-science subjects and their gender identity has strong connection with subject choice (*** p < 0.001). The study…

  5. Mean-Coherent Risk and Mean-Variance Approaches in Portfolio Selection : An Empirical Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polbennikov, S.Y.; Melenberg, B.

    2005-01-01

    We empirically analyze the implementation of coherent risk measures in portfolio selection.First, we compare optimal portfolios obtained through mean-coherent risk optimization with corresponding mean-variance portfolios.We find that, even for a typical portfolio of equities, the outcomes can be

  6. Language Interdependence between American Sign Language and English: A Review of Empirical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusher, Melissa Ausbrooks

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a contemporary definition of American Sign Language/English bilingual education (AEBE) and outlines an essential theoretical framework. Included is a history and evolution of the methodology. The author also summarizes the general findings of twenty-six (26) empirical studies conducted in the United States that directly or…

  7. An Empirical Review of Research Methodologies and Methods in Creativity Studies (2003-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Haiying

    2014-01-01

    Based on the data collected from 5 prestigious creativity journals, research methodologies and methods of 612 empirical studies on creativity, published between 2003 and 2012, were reviewed and compared to those in gifted education. Major findings included: (a) Creativity research was predominantly quantitative and psychometrics and experiment…

  8. College Education and Attitudes toward Democracy in China: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Wu, Liyun; Han, Rongbin

    2015-01-01

    The modernization theory contends that there is a link between education and democracy. Yet few empirical studies have been done to investigate the role of higher education on promoting democratic values in the Chinese context. Using China General Social Survey 2006, this paper generates several findings which are not completely consistent with…

  9. Relationship between the public's belief in recovery, level of mental illness stigma, and previous contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczyk, Amanda N

    2015-01-01

    Disbelief exits that individuals who have a mental health condition are able to recover and fully function in life. This study analyzed 1,437 adults from the 2006 General Social Survey. Structural equation modeling (1) examined the relationship between respondents' level of prejudicial attitudes and social distance (i.e., stigma) toward individuals who have a mental health condition and their belief in the potential of recovery (2) tested whether previous contact with an individual who received treatment was a mediator. Findings indicated that the belief in recovery led to lower levels of social distance. Prejudicial attitudes were found to be a predictor of one's level of social distance. Previous contact was not a mediator however; males, minorities and those with less education were less likely to have had previous contact. Results indicated a need to emphasize the probability of recovering from a mental health condition when developing target-specific stigma reducing strategies.

  10. Finding Their Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    Every time Dr. Larry Shinagawa teaches his "Introduction to Asian American Studies" course at the University of Maryland (UMD), College Park, he finds that 10 to 20 percent of his students are adoptees. Among other things, they hunger to better comprehend the social and political circumstances overseas leading to their adoption. In…

  11. Tooth Tutoring: The Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Richard; And Others

    Findings are reported on a three year cross-age tutoring program in which undergraduate dental hygiene students and college students from other disciplines trained upper elementary students to tutor younger students in the techniques of dental hygiene. Data includes pre-post scores on the Oral Hygiene Index of plaque for both experimental and…

  12. Finding Health Care Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have been diagnosed with cancer, finding a doctor and treatment hospital for your cancer care is an important step to getting the best treatment possible. Learn tips for choosing a doctor and treatment facility to manage your cancer care.

  13. Granulomatous mastitis: radiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, M.; Mavili, E.; Kahriman, G.; Akcan, A.C.; Ozturk, F. [Depts. of Radiology, Surgery, and Pathology, Erciyes Univ. Medical Faculty, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiological, ultrasonographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Material and Methods: Between April 2002 and June 2005, the mammography, ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, non enhanced MR, and dynamic MR findings of nine patients with the preliminary clinical diagnosis of malignancy and the final diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis were evaluated. Results: On mammography, asymmetrical focal densities with no distinct margins, ill-defined masses with spiculated contours, and bilateral multiple ill-defined nodules were seen. On ultrasound, in four patients a discrete, heterogenous hypoechoic mass, in two patients multiple abscesses, in one patient bilateral multiple central hypo peripheral hyperechoic lesions, in two patients heterogeneous hypo- and hyperechoic areas together with parenchymal distortion, and in one patient irregular hypoechoic masses with tubular extensions and abscess cavities were seen. Five of the lesions were vascular on color Doppler ultrasound. On MR mammography, the most frequent finding was focal or diffuse asymmetrical signal intensity changes that were hypointense on T1W images and hyperintense on T2W images, without significant mass effect. Nodular lesions were also seen. On dynamic contrast-enhanced mammography, mass-like enhancement, ring-like enhancement, and nodular enhancement were seen. The time-intensity curves differed from patient to patient and from lesion to lesion. Conclusion: The imaging findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis have a wide spectrum, and they are inconclusive for differentiating malignant and benign lesions.

  14. Retrospective analysis on malignant calcification previously misdiagnosed as benign on screening mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Su Min [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Chung Ang University Hospital, Seoul(Korea, Republic of); Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Hak Hee; Shin, Hee Jung; Chae, Eun Young; Choi, Woo Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the morphology and distribution of calcifications initially interpreted as benign or probably benign, but proven to be malignant by subsequent stereotactic biopsy, and to identify the reason for misinterpretation or underestimation at the initial diagnosis. Out of 567 women who underwent stereotactic biopsy for calcifications at our hospital between January 2012 and December 2014, 167 women were diagnosed with malignancy. Forty-six of these 167 women had previous mammography assessed as benign or probably benign which was changed to suspicious malignancy on follow-up mammography. Of these 46 women, three women with biopsy-proven benign calcifications at the site of subsequent cancer were excluded, and 43 patients were finally included. The calcifications (morphology, distribution, extent, associated findings) in the previous and follow-up mammography examinations were analyzed according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon and assessment category. We classified the patients into two groups: 1) group A patients who were still retrospectively re-categorized as less than or equal to BI-RADS 3 and 2) group B patients who were re-categorized as equal to or higher than BI-RADS 4a and whose results should have prompted previous diagnostic assessment. In the follow-up mammography examinations, change in calcification morphology (n = 27, 63%) was the most frequent cause of assessment change. The most frequent previous mammographic findings of malignant calcification were amorphous morphology (n = 26, 60%) and grouped distribution (n = 36, 84%). The most frequent calcification findings at reassessment were amorphous morphology (n = 4, 9%), fine pleomorphic calcification (n = 30, 70%), grouped distribution (n = 23, 53%), and segmental calcification (n = 12, 28%). There were 33 (77%) patients in group A, and 10 patients (23%) in group B. Amorphous morphology and grouped distribution were the most frequent

  15. Three tropes of empire: necessity, spectacle, affection:

    OpenAIRE

    Hariman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This essay identifies three recurrent appeals in the discourse of empire. These are presented through explication of Thucydides' last speech to the Athenian demos, a documentary essay by Max Boot, one of the intellectual architects of the invasion of Iraq, and Edmund Burke's speech regarding a colonial insurgency, "On Conciliation with America." Članek identificira tri ponavljajoče se apele v imperialnem diskurzu. Predstavljeni so z razlago zadnjega Tukididovega govora Atencem, dokumentarn...

  16. The empirical turn in international legal scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Shaffer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and assesses a new wave of em- pirical research on international law. Recent scholar- ship has moved away from theoretical debates over whether international law “matters,” and focuses in- stead on exploring the conditions under which inter- national law is created and produces effects. As this empirical research program has matured, it has al- lowed for new, midlevel theorizing that we call “conditional international law theory”. 

  17. Empirical heuristics for improving Intermittent Demand Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Petropoulos, Fotios; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Spithourakis, George; Assimakopoulos, Vassilios

    2013-01-01

    Purpose– Intermittent demand appears sporadically, with some time periods not even displaying any demand at all. Even so, such patterns constitute considerable proportions of the total stock in many industrial settings. Forecasting intermittent demand is a rather difficult task but of critical importance for corresponding cost savings. The current study aims to examine the empirical outcomes of three heuristics towards the modification of established intermittent demand forecasting approaches...

  18. Pesticide Risk Valuation in Empirical Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Nijkamp; Chiara Maria Travisi; Gabriella Vindigni

    2002-01-01

    Pesticide use in agriculture poses several risks to both human health and non-target agro-ecosystems. Due to lack of information on the monetary value of reducing pesticide risks, it is difficult to perform an economic analysis that addresses social efficiency of policy and draws conclusions about the appropriate degree of regulation.The aim of the current paper is to present a critical overview of the empirical literature on pesticide risk valuation that provides disaggregate willingness-to-...

  19. Positives approaches: new empirical research in accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Dorado, Juan Abel

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary debates of the accountancy discipline can be framed on the normative and positive approaches developed by researchers as: Mattessich, Ijiri, Zirnmerman, etc. This article attemps to organize in a systematic way the trends of the so called new empiric research in the positive accounting theory structure. The newempiric research undertakes a complex theoretical and experimental framework in the trends of the so called accounting aggregate market as well as the trend called acco...

  20. Impact of Office Automation: An Empirical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    imp F rq(I NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California N I < DTIC S ELECTEI THESIS -’° "I I MPACT OF OFFICE AUTOMATION : AN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT by...FLNDiNG NUMBERS PROGRAM PROCT TASK IWORK UNIT ELEMNT O NONO ACCESSION NO 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) IMPACT OF OFFICE AUTOMATION : AN...identity by block number) FIELD GROUP I SB-GROLP Productivity Assessment; SACONS; Office Automation I I 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary

  1. Empirical solar/stellar cycle simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ângela R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the magnetic cycle, the properties of the solar oscillations vary periodically. With the recent discovery of manifestations of activity cycles in the seismic data of other stars, the understanding of the different contributions to such variations becomes even more important. With this in mind, we built an empirical parameterised model able to reproduce the properties of the sunspot cycle. The resulting simulations can be used to estimate the magnetic-induced frequency shifts.

  2. Incidence of previously undetected disease in routine paediatric otolaryngology admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, H; Robinson, P

    1996-06-01

    The process of clerking routine pre-operative admissions involves the house officer taking a full medical history and performing a full physical examination. The diagnostic yield is thought to be low, and the educational value to the house officer is also small. This study addresses the question as to whether routine physical examination is always indicated. One hundred and nine children admitted for routine Otolaryngology procedures were prospectively studied to identify the importance of examination in the pre-operative assessment of patients. The results showed that 51 per cent of the children admitted had risk factors. The medical history was sufficient to identify these risk factors in all patients with the exception of one cardiac condition. This study concludes that a suitable alternative to the current process of clerking such as a standardized nurse history could be safely and efficiently undertaken. Eliminating the tiny percentage of previously unrecognized disease would be a prerequisite for such a change.

  3. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  4. Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy in a patient with previous esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, R A; Scott, J S; Unger, S W

    1991-04-01

    Establishment of a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy via direct jejunal puncture was accomplished in a 45-year-old woman five years after a partial esophagectomy with cervical esophagogastrostomy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. The patient had recurrence of the cancer at the anastomotic site with subsequent inability to eat, necessitating a feeding tube for prolonged enteral nutrition. Although percutaneous puncture of the jejunum has been previously described, it has been limited to patients who had undergone partial or complete gastrectomies with Bilroth II anastomoses. This case report of direct endoscopic jejunal tube placement in a patient after esophagectomy further establishes this procedure as a viable alternative to surgically placed feeding tubes in patients with altered gastric anatomy.

  5. Empirical methods for estimating future climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Applying the empirical approach permits the derivation of estimates of the future climate that are nearly independent of conclusions based on theoretical (model) estimates. This creates an opportunity to compare these results with those derived from the model simulations of the forthcoming changes in climate, thus increasing confidence in areas of agreement and focusing research attention on areas of disagreements. The premise underlying this approach for predicting anthropogenic climate change is based on associating the conditions of the climatic optimums of the Holocene, Eemian, and Pliocene with corresponding stages of the projected increase of mean global surface air temperature. Provided that certain assumptions are fulfilled in matching the value of the increased mean temperature for a certain epoch with the model-projected change in global mean temperature in the future, the empirical approach suggests that relationships leading to the regional variations in air temperature and other meteorological elements could be deduced and interpreted based on use of empirical data describing climatic conditions for past warm epochs. Considerable care must be taken, of course, in making use of these spatial relationships, especially in accounting for possible large-scale differences that might, in some cases, result from different factors contributing to past climate changes than future changes and, in other cases, might result from the possible influences of changes in orography and geography on regional climatic conditions over time

  6. American World Empire or Declining Hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Boswell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gowan challenges the usefulness of world-system theory in accounting for the emergence of an American world empire. His argument is based on one fundamental assumption, that of overwhelming U.S. power in the contemporary period. The assumption, however, is flawed. The U.S. is clearly an uncontested military superpower, a world leader with the ability to project its power and interests around the world. But its economic hegemony is in decline, and it is no longer the overwhelming presence it once was in the world-economy. Moreover, Gowan is unable to support his thesis that the U.S. is becoming an empire over Europe. Although the U.S. occupation and administration of Iraq is an example of colonial imperialism, there is no evidence to show that the U.S. has begun to establish a core-wide empire. On the contrary, U.S. political control over Europe has declined to its lowest level in the post-WWII period. The persuasiveness of world-system theory in explaining the changing global political economy remains strong.

  7. Surgical treatment of breast cancer in previously augmented patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanas, Yvonne L; Leong, Darren S; Da Lio, Andrew; Waldron, Kathleen; Watson, James P; Chang, Helena; Shaw, William W

    2003-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing each year. Concomitantly, cosmetic breast augmentation has become the second most often performed cosmetic surgical procedure. As the augmented patient population ages, an increasing number of breast cancer cases among previously augmented women can be anticipated. The surgical treatment of these patients is controversial, with several questions remaining unanswered. Is breast conservation therapy feasible in this patient population and can these patients retain their implants? A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients with a history of previous augmentation mammaplasty who were treated at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between 1991 and 2001 was performed. During the study period, 58 patients were treated. Thirty patients (52 percent) were treated with a modified radical mastectomy with implant removal. Twenty-eight patients (48 percent) underwent breast conservation therapy, which consisted of lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy. Twenty-two of the patients who underwent breast conservation therapy initially retained their implants. Eleven of those 22 patients (50 percent) ultimately required completion mastectomies with implant removal because of implant complications (two patients), local recurrences (five patients), or the inability to obtain negative margins (four patients). Nine additional patients experienced complications resulting from their implants, including contracture, erosion, pain, and rupture. The data illustrate that breast conservation therapy with maintenance of the implant is not ideal for the majority of augmented patients. Breast conservation therapy with explantation and mastopexy might be appropriate for rare patients with large volumes of native breast tissue. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction might be a more suitable choice for these patients.

  8. Effect of previous induced abortions on postabortion contraception selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Melissa; Roston, Alicia; Keith, Louis; Patel, Ashlesha

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to compare contraceptive method selection in women undergoing their first pregnancy termination versus women undergoing repeat pregnancy termination in an urban abortion clinic. We hypothesized that women undergoing repeat abortions will select highly effective contraceptives (intrauterine device, subdermal implant, tubal ligation) more often than patients undergoing their first abortion. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion at John H. Stroger, Jr., Hospital of Cook County from October 1, 2009, to October 31, 2011. We compared contraceptive method selection in the postabortion period after receipt of contraceptive counseling for 7466 women, stratifying women by history of no prior abortion versus one or more abortions. Of the 7466 women, 48.6% (3625) had no history of previous abortion. After controlling for age, race and number of living children, women with a history of abortion were more likely to select a highly effective method [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.33]. Most significantly, having living children was the strongest predictor of a highly effective method with an OR of 3.17 (95% CI 2.69-3.75). In women having a first-trimester abortion, the factors most predictive of selecting a highly effective method for postabortion contraception include history of previous abortion and having living children. The latter holds true independent of abortion history. This paper is unique in its ability to demonstrate the high interest in highly effective contraceptive selection in high-risk, low-income women with prior abortion history. Efforts to integrate provision of highly effective methods of contraception for postabortion care are essential for the reduction of future unintended pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  10. The Relation Between Policies Concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Philosophical Moral Theories - An Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Claus Strue

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind...... of common-sense morality? In order to address this issue, I conducted an empirical investigation examining the relation between moral theories and CSR policies, in companies engaged in CSR. Based on the empirical data I collected, I start by suggesting some normative arguments used by the respondents....... Secondly, I suggest that these moral arguments implicitly rely on some specific moral principles, which I characterise. Thirdly, on the basis of these moral principles, I suggest the moral theories upon which the CSR policies are built. Previous empirical studies examining the relation between...

  11. Nursing intellectual capital theory: operationalization and empirical validation of concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya

    2013-08-01

    To present the operationalization of concepts in the nursing intellectual capital theory and the results of a methodological study aimed at empirically validating the concepts. The nursing intellectual capital theory proposes that the stocks of nursing knowledge in an organization are embedded in two concepts, nursing human capital and nursing structural capital. The theory also proposes that two concepts in the work environment, nurse staffing and employer support for nursing continuing professional development, influence nursing human capital. A cross-sectional design. A systematic three-step process was used to operationalize the concepts of the theory. In 2008, data were collected for 147 inpatient units from administrative departments and unit managers in 6 Canadian hospitals. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted to determine if the indicator variables accurately reflect their respective concepts. The proposed indicator variables collectively measured the nurse staffing concept. Three indicators were retained to construct nursing human capital: clinical expertise and experience concept. The nursing structural capital and employer support for nursing continuing professional development concepts were not validated empirically. The nurse staffing and the nursing human capital: clinical expertise and experience concepts will be brought forward for further model testing. Refinement for some of the indicator variables of the concepts is indicated. Additional research is required with different sources of data to confirm the findings. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Plant water potential improves prediction of empirical stomatal models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R L Anderegg

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to lead to increases in drought frequency and severity, with deleterious effects on many ecosystems. Stomatal responses to changing environmental conditions form the backbone of all ecosystem models, but are based on empirical relationships and are not well-tested during drought conditions. Here, we use a dataset of 34 woody plant species spanning global forest biomes to examine the effect of leaf water potential on stomatal conductance and test the predictive accuracy of three major stomatal models and a recently proposed model. We find that current leaf-level empirical models have consistent biases of over-prediction of stomatal conductance during dry conditions, particularly at low soil water potentials. Furthermore, the recently proposed stomatal conductance model yields increases in predictive capability compared to current models, and with particular improvement during drought conditions. Our results reveal that including stomatal sensitivity to declining water potential and consequent impairment of plant water transport will improve predictions during drought conditions and show that many biomes contain a diversity of plant stomatal strategies that range from risky to conservative stomatal regulation during water stress. Such improvements in stomatal simulation are greatly needed to help unravel and predict the response of ecosystems to future climate extremes.

  13. Lessons from empirical studies in product and service variety management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C.L. Lyons

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For many years, a trend for businesses has been to increase market segmentation and extend product and service-variety offerings in order to provid more choice for customers and gain a competitive advantags. However, there have been relatively few variety-related, empirical studies that have been undertaken. In this research, two empirical studies are presented that address the impact of product and service variety on business and business function performance. In the first (service-variety study, the focus concerns the relationship between service provision offered by UK-based, third-party logistics (3PL providers and the operational and financial performance of those providers. Here, the results of a large survey identify the  most important services offered by 3PLs and the most important aspects of 3PL operational performance. Also, the research suggests that the range of service variety offered by 3PLs does not directly influence the 3PLs’ financial performance. The second (product-variety study presents the findings from an analysis of data from 163 manufacturing plants where the impact of product variety on the performance of five business functions is examined. An increase in product variety was found to influence business functions differently depending on the combination of customisation and variety offered to customers

  14. Rabies, encephalomyelitis: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peloso, Raul; Gonzalez, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    The authors present a 14 year old patient who started with walking and swallowing difficulty; followed by fever, abdominal and lower back pain. Mechanical breathing difficulties required a respiratory mechanic assistance. The diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome was thought at first. Since the patient have had previous contact with a bat two months before the symptoms began, this suggested rabies as the main diagnosis, which was later confirmed by hair-bulb, cornea, oral mucosa and salival immunofluorescence. The brain and spinal cord MRI showed focal lesions in T2 and FLAIR sequences, compatible with encephalomyelitis. (author)

  15. Empirical research in medical ethics: How conceptual accounts on normative-empirical collaboration may improve research practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The methodology of medical ethics during the last few decades has shifted from a predominant use of normative-philosophical analyses to an increasing involvement of empirical methods. The articles which have been published in the course of this so-called 'empirical turn' can be divided into conceptual accounts of empirical-normative collaboration and studies which use socio-empirical methods to investigate ethically relevant issues in concrete social contexts. Discussion A considered reference to normative research questions can be expected from good quality empirical research in medical ethics. However, a significant proportion of empirical studies currently published in medical ethics lacks such linkage between the empirical research and the normative analysis. In the first part of this paper, we will outline two typical shortcomings of empirical studies in medical ethics with regard to a link between normative questions and empirical data: (1) The complete lack of normative analysis, and (2) cryptonormativity and a missing account with regard to the relationship between 'is' and 'ought' statements. Subsequently, two selected concepts of empirical-normative collaboration will be presented and how these concepts may contribute to improve the linkage between normative and empirical aspects of empirical research in medical ethics will be demonstrated. Based on our analysis, as well as our own practical experience with empirical research in medical ethics, we conclude with a sketch of concrete suggestions for the conduct of empirical research in medical ethics. Summary High quality empirical research in medical ethics is in need of a considered reference to normative analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate how conceptual approaches of empirical-normative collaboration can enhance empirical research in medical ethics with regard to the link between empirical research and normative analysis. PMID:22500496

  16. Effective Bug Finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivas, Iago Abal

    Lightweight bug finders (also known as code scanners) are becoming popular, they scale well and can find simple yet common programming errors. It is now considered a good practice to integrate these tools as part of your development process. The Linux project, for instance, has an automated testing...... service, known as the Kbuild robot, that runs a few of these code scanners. In this project, I have carefully studied tens of historical Linux bugs, and I have found that many of these bugs, despite being conceptually simple, were not caught by any code scanning tool. The reason is that, by design, code...... by matching temporal bug-patterns against the control-flow graph of this program abstraction. I have implemented a proof-of-concept bug finder based on this technique, EBA, and confirmed that it is both scalable and effective at finding bugs. On a benchmark of historical Linux double-lock bugs, EBA was able...

  17. Gallstone ileus: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delabrousse, E.; Bartholomot, B.; Sohm, O.; Kastler, B. [Dept. of Radiology A, CHU Jean Minjoz, University of Besancon (France); Wallerand, H. [Dept. of Surgery, CHU Jean Minjoz, University of Besancon (France)

    2000-06-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare complication of recurrent gallstone cholecystitis. The classic radiographic triad of small bowel obstruction, pneumobilia and ectopic gallstone on abdominal plain radiograph is described with CT imaging. Because of the better resolution of CT compared with abdominal radiography and its recent accession to emergency use, radiologists should be aware of CT findings of gallstone ileus. We report a case in which gallstone ileus was initially diagnosed by CT. (orig.)

  18. Heterotopic pregnancy: Sonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Tae Hee [CHA General Hospital of Seoul, Pochon CHA University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of the heterotopic pregnancy which is increasing recently. Thirty-nine cases of heterotopic pregnancy after ovulation induction and IVF-ET (In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer) during the recent 3 years were analyzed. They were diagnosed by ultrasonography and proved surgically afterwards. Sonographic findings were analyzed focusing on gestational week of intrauterine pregnancy and location of ectopic pregnancy. In particular, adnexal mass was evaluated with regard to size and the characteristic findings such as ectopic gestational sac (echogenic ring). Also, overian cyst and fluid collection in cul-de-sac space were reviewed carefully. Heterotopic pregnancy was proved surgically by salpingectomy in 33 cases and by resection of cornus in six cases. Sonographic diagnosis using transvaginal ultrasound was made from five weeks to nine weeks two days (six weeks and four days in average) from last menstral period in all 39 cases. Ectopic pregnancy was identified in ampullary part in 29 cases, in the isthmic portion of tube in four cases and in the cornus of uterus in six cases. The intrauterine pregnancy was diagnosed by identifying the intrauterine gestational saccontaining a yolk sac in seven cases and the embryo with fetal heart beat in the remaining 32 cases. Adnexal masses of heterotopic pregnancy were less than 3 cm in diameter in 2 cases (57%), 3-4 cm in 11 cases (28%) and more than 4 cm in 6 cases (15%). A characteristic finding of ectopic mass was echogenic ring which was visible in 33 (84.6%) cases by transvaginal ultrasound. Six cases had pelvic hematosalpinx and two had pelvic hematoma. Of 10 cases (26%) which were identified to have ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, eight (21%) had large amount of fluid collection in cul-de-sac and abdomen. Ultrasonographic identification of the intrauterine pregnancy and the ectopic chorion ring is effective for the early diagnosis of the heterotopic pregnancy.

  19. Heterotopic pregnancy: Sonographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Tae Hee

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of the heterotopic pregnancy which is increasing recently. Thirty-nine cases of heterotopic pregnancy after ovulation induction and IVF-ET (In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer) during the recent 3 years were analyzed. They were diagnosed by ultrasonography and proved surgically afterwards. Sonographic findings were analyzed focusing on gestational week of intrauterine pregnancy and location of ectopic pregnancy. In particular, adnexal mass was evaluated with regard to size and the characteristic findings such as ectopic gestational sac (echogenic ring). Also, overian cyst and fluid collection in cul-de-sac space were reviewed carefully. Heterotopic pregnancy was proved surgically by salpingectomy in 33 cases and by resection of cornus in six cases. Sonographic diagnosis using transvaginal ultrasound was made from five weeks to nine weeks two days (six weeks and four days in average) from last menstral period in all 39 cases. Ectopic pregnancy was identified in ampullary part in 29 cases, in the isthmic portion of tube in four cases and in the cornus of uterus in six cases. The intrauterine pregnancy was diagnosed by identifying the intrauterine gestational saccontaining a yolk sac in seven cases and the embryo with fetal heart beat in the remaining 32 cases. Adnexal masses of heterotopic pregnancy were less than 3 cm in diameter in 2 cases (57%), 3-4 cm in 11 cases (28%) and more than 4 cm in 6 cases (15%). A characteristic finding of ectopic mass was echogenic ring which was visible in 33 (84.6%) cases by transvaginal ultrasound. Six cases had pelvic hematosalpinx and two had pelvic hematoma. Of 10 cases (26%) which were identified to have ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, eight (21%) had large amount of fluid collection in cul-de-sac and abdomen. Ultrasonographic identification of the intrauterine pregnancy and the ectopic chorion ring is effective for the early diagnosis of the heterotopic pregnancy.

  20. Finding your next CEO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrall, Terese Hudson

    2008-12-01

    Hospital CEOs spend an average of just six years at one organization, and the cost of turnover is high. Finding executives to fill that top spot is more complicated thanks to a jittery economy, job candidates' worries about selling their homes and other issues. That's prompting hospitals to be more flexible in their recruitment efforts: considering older candidates, reviving succession planning, and even buying and selling CEOs' houses.