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Sample records for previous efficacy studies

  1. Previous treatment influences fingolimod efficacy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: results from an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Eleonora; Guareschi, Angelica; Vitetta, Francesca; Senesi, Caterina; Curti, Erica; Montepietra, Sara; Simone, Anna Maria; Immovilli, Paolo; Caniatti, Luisa; Tola, Maria Rosaria; Pesci, Ilaria; Montanari, Enrico; Sola, Patrizia; Granella, Franco; Motti, Luisa; Ferraro, Diana

    2014-09-01

    Fingolimod (FTY) is licensed as a disease-modifying treatment in highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of FTY in a real-life setting and to explore the possible role of clinical and MRI parameters, including previous treatment type, in predicting its efficacy. Clinical and MRI data was collected on 127 patients assigned to treatment with FTY in six multiple sclerosis centers in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, between August 2011 and June 2013. During a mean follow-up period of 10 months (range 1-22), we observed a total of 47 relapses in 39 patients (30.7%); new T2 lesions or gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions were present at follow-up MRI in 32/71 patients (45%). Expanded disability status scale (EDSS) at the end of the follow-up period was not different when compared to the baseline EDSS. Serious adverse events occurred in three patients (2.4%). A higher proportion of patients previously treated with natalizumab showed clinical (41%) or MRI activity (54%). Previous treatment with natalizumab increased the risk of a relapse within 30 days (versus immunomodulatory drugs; OR: 4.3; p = 0.011) and at survival analysis (versus remaining patients; HR: 1.9; p = 0.046). Study limitations include a small population sample, a short observation period with variable timing of follow-up MRI and different baseline characteristics of patients previously treated with natalizumab compared to those treated with immunomodulatory drugs. This study confirms the efficacy of FTY in reducing relapse rate in patients previously treated with immunomodulatory drugs, while it seems to be less effective in patients discontinuing natalizumab. Due to the short duration of follow-up it is not possible to evaluate disability progression; however, no difference was observed between the groups.

  2. The Efficacy and Safety of Icotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated with Chemotherapy: A Single-Arm, Multi-Center, Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingsheng Hu

    Full Text Available Icotinib is a small molecule targeting epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, which shows non-inferior efficacy and better safety comparing to gefitinib in previous phase III trial. The present study was designed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.Patients with NSCLC progressing after one or two lines of chemotherapy were enrolled to receive oral icotinib (125 mg tablet, three times per day. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The secondary endpoints included overall survival, objective response rate, time to progression, quality of life and safety.From March 16, 2010 to October 9, 2011, 128 patients from 15 centers nationwide were enrolled, in which 124 patients were available for efficacy evaluation and 127 patients were evaluable for safety. The median progression-free survival and time to progression were 5.0 months (95%CI 2.9-6.6 m and 5.4 months (95%CI 3.1-7.9 m, respectively. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 25.8% and 67.7% respectively. Median overall survival exceeded 17.6 months (95%CI 14.2 m-NA according to censored data. Further follow-up of overall survival is ongoing. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were rash (26%, 33/127, diarrhea (12.6%, 16/127 and elevation of transaminase (15.7%, 20/127.In general, this study showed similar efficacy and numerically better safety when compared with that in ICOGEN trial, further confirming the efficacy and safety of icotinib in treating patients with advanced NSCLC previously treated with chemotherapy.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02486354.

  3. [Efficacy studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Botet, Juan; Flores-Le Roux, Juana A

    2014-07-01

    Pravafenix(®) is a fixed-dose combination of 40mg of pravastatin and 160 mg of fenofibrate. The rationale behind the use of Pravafenix(®) is based on the increased residual cardiovascular risk observed in high risk patients with hypertriglyceridemia and/or low HDL cholesterol levels despite treatment with statins in monotherapy. In this article, we review the available evidence on the clinical efficacy of Pravafenix(®), which shows complementary benefits in the overall lipid profile of high risk patients with mixed dyslipidemia not controlled with 40-mg pravastatin or 20-mg simvastatin. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis y Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary self-efficacy predicts AHEI diet quality in women with previous gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferranti, Erin Poe; Narayan, K M Venkat; Reilly, Carolyn M; Foster, Jennifer; McCullough, Marjorie; Ziegler, Thomas R; Guo, Ying; Dunbar, Sandra B

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of intrapersonal influences of diet quality as defined by the Health Belief Model constructs in women with recent histories of gestational diabetes. A descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional design was used to analyze relationships between diet quality and intrapersonal variables, including perceptions of threat of type 2 diabetes mellitus development, benefits and barriers of healthy eating, and dietary self-efficacy, in a convenience sample of 75 community-dwelling women (55% minority; mean age, 35.5 years; SD, 5.5 years) with previous gestational diabetes mellitus. Diet quality was defined by the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI). Multiple regression was used to identify predictors of AHEI diet quality. Women had moderate AHEI diet quality (mean score, 47.6; SD, 14.3). Only higher levels of education and self-efficacy significantly predicted better AHEI diet quality, controlling for other contributing variables. There is a significant opportunity to improve diet quality in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus. Improving self-efficacy may be an important component to include in nutrition interventions. In addition to identifying other important individual components, future studies of diet quality in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus are needed to investigate the scope of influence beyond the individual to potential family, social, and environmental factors. © 2014 The Author(s).

  5. Type I Thyroplasty in Previously Irradiated Patients: Assessing Safety and Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosow, David E; Al-Bar, Mohammad H

    2015-10-01

    (1) Review and report our experience performing medialization thyroplasty (MT) in previously irradiated patients and (2) compare complications and voice outcomes in 2 cohorts (irradiated vs nonradiated) to evaluate safety and efficacy. Case series with chart review. Academic medical center. All patients (44 total) who underwent MT from 2011 to 2015. Demographic data, complications, and acoustic and subjective voice outcome parameters were collected. The complication rates and voice outcome results were compared between 2 cohorts: patients with a history of radiation to the neck versus those with no radiation history. There were 7 previously irradiated patients and 37 nonradiated patients, with median follow-up of 314 and 538 days, respectively. One complication was noted in each group, and this complication rate was not significantly different (P = .26). Both cohorts demonstrated significant postoperative improvement in subjective voice assessment (P = .04, P < .0001) as well as maximum phonation time (P = .02, .001) when compared with preoperative data. Our study suggests that MT can be safely and effectively performed in irradiated patients. We found no statistically significant difference in the safety of performing MT in irradiated versus nonradiated patients, and there was significant improvement in subjective voice parameters and maximum phonation time in both groups. A larger prospective study is required to statistically determine whether the significant improvements in objective parameters seen in the nonradiated group are present in irradiated patients as well. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  6. Twelve-week efficacy and safety study of mometasone furoate/formoterol 200/10 microg and 400/10 microg combination treatments in patients with persistent asthma previously receiving high-dose inhaled corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinstein, Steven F; Corren, Jonathan; Murphy, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    improvement in lung function throughout 12 weeks. Both MF/F doses were superior to MF in improving asthma control and reducing nocturnal awakenings due to asthma requiring short-acting beta(2)-agonist use. All treatments were well tolerated. Asthma patients who were poorly controlled on high-dose ICS...... with asthma uncontrolled on high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). In a 12-week, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study, patients (>or=12 years of age) were randomized to MF/F 200/10 microg, MF/F 400/10 microg, or MF 400 microg, b.i.d. after a 2- to 3-week open-label run in with MF 400...... recorded. Seven hundred twenty-eight patients were randomized. Significant improvement from baseline to week 12 occurred for mean change in FEV(1) AUC(0-12h) with MF/F 400/10 microg (4.19 L x hour) versus MF 400 microg (2.04 L x hour; p

  7. How Are Previous Physical Activity and Self-Efficacy Related to Future Physical Activity and Self-Efficacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Prabu; Pennell, Michael L.; Foraker, Randi E.; Katz, Mira L.; Buckworth, Janet; Paskett, Electra D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-efficacy (SE) has been found to be a robust predictor of success in achieving physical activity (PA) goals. While much of the current research has focused on SE as a trait, SE as a state has received less attention. Using day-to-day measurements obtained over 84 days, we examined the relationship between state SE and PA. Postmenopausal women…

  8. Efficacy of peg-interferon based treatment in patients with hepatitis C refractory to previous conventional interferon-based treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, S.; Devrajani, B.R.; Kalhoro, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of peg-interferon-based therapy in patients refractory to previous conventional interferon-based treatment and factors predicting sustained viral response (SVR). Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical Unit IV, Liaquat University Hospital, Jamshoro, from July 2009 to June 2011. Methodology: This study included consecutive patients of hepatitis C who were previously treated with conventional interferon-based treatment for 6 months but were either non-responders, relapsed or had virologic breakthrough and stage = 2 with fibrosis on liver biopsy. All eligible patients were provided peg-interferon at the dosage of 180 mu g weekly with ribavirin thrice a day for 6 months. Sustained Viral Response (SVR) was defined as absence of HCV RNA at twenty four week after treatment. All data was processed on SPSS version 16. Results: Out of 450 patients enrolled in the study, 192 were excluded from the study on the basis of minimal fibrosis (stage 0 and 1). Two hundred and fifty eight patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and 247 completed the course of peg-interferon treatment. One hundred and sixty one (62.4%) were males and 97 (37.6%) were females. The mean age was 39.9 +- 6.1 years, haemoglobin was 11.49 +- 2.45 g/dl, platelet count was 127.2 +- 50.6 10/sup 3/ /mm/sup 3/, ALT was 99 +- 65 IU/L. SVR was achieved in 84 (32.6%). The strong association was found between SVR and the pattern of response (p = 0. 001), degree of fibrosis and early viral response (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Peg-interferon based treatment is an effective and safe treatment option for patients refractory to conventional interferon-based treatment. (author)

  9. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  10. Matched cohort study of external cephalic version in women with previous cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keepanasseril, Anish; Anand, Keerthana; Soundara Raghavan, Subrahmanian

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of external cephalic version (ECV) among women with previous cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted using data for women with previous cesarean delivery and breech presentation who underwent ECV at or after 36 weeks of pregnancy during 2011-2016. For every case, two multiparous women without previous cesarean delivery who underwent ECV and were matched for age and pregnancy duration were included. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups. ECV was successful for 32 (84.2%) of 38 women with previous cesarean delivery and 62 (81.6%) in the control group (P=0.728). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed that previous cesarean was not associated with ECV success (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 0.19-18.47; P=0.244). Successful vaginal delivery after successful ECV was reported for 19 (59.4%) women in the previous cesarean delivery group and 52 (83.9%) in the control group (Pcesarean delivery. To avoid a repeat cesarean delivery, ECV can be offered to women with breech presentation and previous cesarean delivery who are otherwise eligible for a trial of labor. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  11. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  12. Explaining infant feeding: The role of previous personal and vicarious experience on attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and breastfeeding outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartle, Naomi C; Harvey, Kate

    2017-11-01

    Breastfeeding confers important health benefits to both infants and their mothers, but rates are low in the United Kingdom and other developed countries despite widespread promotion. This study examined the relationships between personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding, self-efficacy, the theory of planned behaviour variables of attitudes and subjective norm, and the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks post-natally. A prospective questionnaire study of both first-time mothers (n = 77) and experienced breastfeeders (n = 72) recruited at an antenatal clinic in South East England. Participants completed a questionnaire at 32 weeks pregnant assessing personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding (breastfeeding, formula-feeding, and maternal grandmother's experience of breastfeeding), perceived control, self-efficacy, intentions, attitudes (to breastfeeding and formula-feeding), and subjective norm. Infant feeding behaviour was recorded at 6-8 weeks post-natally. Multiple linear regression modelled the influence of vicarious experience on attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy (but not perceived control) and modelled the influence of attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and past experience on intentions to breastfeed. Logistic regression modelled the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks. Previous experience (particularly personal experience of breastfeeding) explained a significant amount of variance in attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy. Intentions to breastfeed were predicted by subjective norm and attitude to formula-feeding and, in experienced mothers, self-efficacy. Breastfeeding at 6 weeks was predicted by intentions and vicarious experience of formula-feeding. Vicarious experience, particularly of formula-feeding, has been shown to influence the behaviour of first-time and experienced mothers both directly and indirectly via attitudes and subjective norm. Interventions that reduce exposure to formula

  13. Safety and efficacy of the addition of simvastatin to panitumumab in previously treated KRAS mutant metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Jara M; Krens, Lisanne L; Bos, Monique M; Portielje, Johanneke E A; Batman, Erdogan; van Wezel, Tom; Morreau, Hans; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Gelderblom, Hans

    2015-09-01

    Panitumumab has proven efficacy in patients with metastatic or locally advanced colorectal cancer patients, provided that they have no activating KRAS mutation in their tumour. Simvastatin blocks the mevalonate pathway and thereby interferes with the post-translational modification of KRAS. We hypothesize that the activity of the RAS-induced pathway in patients with a KRAS mutation might be inhibited by simvastatin. This would theoretically result in increased sensitivity to panitumumab, potentially comparable with tumours with wild-type KRAS. A Simon two-stage design single-arm, phase II study was designed to test the safety and efficacy of the addition of simvastatin to panitumumab in colorectal cancer patients with a KRAS mutation after failing fluoropyrimidine-based, oxaliplatin-based and irinotecan-based therapy. The primary endpoint of this study was the proportion of patients alive and free from progression 11 weeks after the first administration of panitumumab, aiming for at least 40%, which is comparable with, although slightly lower than, that in KRAS wild-type patients in this setting. If this 40% was reached, then the study would continue into the second step up to 46 patients. Explorative correlative analysis for mutations in the KRAS and related pathways was carried out. One of 14 patients was free from progression at the primary endpoint time. The median progression-free survival was 8.4 weeks and the median overall survival status was 19.6 weeks. We conclude that the concept of mutant KRAS phenotype expression modulation with simvastatin was not applicable in the clinic.

  14. Efficacy and Safety of IncobotulinumtoxinA in Subjects Previously Treated with Botulinum Toxin versus Toxin-Naïve Subjects with Cervical Dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Fernandez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine whether botulinum toxin treatment history affected the outcomes of a study comparing the safety and efficacy of incobotulinumtoxinA with placebo in subjects with cervical dystonia (CD.Methods: This was a prospective, double‐blind, randomized, placebo‐controlled, multicenter trial in botulinum toxin‐treated or toxin‐naïve CD subjects. Subjects received a fixed dose of either 120 U or 240 U of incobotulinumtoxinA or placebo. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline to Week 4 in the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS total score. Treatment‐emergent adverse events (TEAEs were also evaluated. This report represents a subgroup analysis of botulinum toxin‐treated or toxin‐naïve subjects.Results: Participants (N = 233; 38.6% toxin‐naïve had a mean age of 52.8 years. IncobotulinumtoxinA significantly improved TWSTRS total scores from baseline to Week 4 in both dose groups versus placebo, and the improvement persisted through the end of the study (≤20 weeks. Both the previously toxin‐treated and toxin‐naïve subjects demonstrated significant improvements in TWSTRS total scores at Week 4 compared to baseline. The most frequent TEAEs in the incobotulinumtoxinA groups were dysphagia, neck pain, and muscular weakness, which were generally mild. TEAEs were more common in the 240 U group and toxin‐naïve subjects. Discussion: Overall, incobotulinumtoxinA was safe and effective in CD, regardless of toxin therapy history. A lower starting dose may be better tolerated among toxin‐naïve subjects without sacrificing efficacy.

  15. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation of a previously submitted... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may... the citation is necessary. (b) Study previously submitted by another person. If the applicant is not...

  16. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOTLER, MOSHE; DILBAZ, NESRIN; ROSA, FERNANDA; PATERAKIS, PERIKLIS; MILANOVA, VIHRA; SMULEVICH, ANATOLY B.; LAHAYE, MARJOLEIN

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Methods: Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Results: Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0±12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8±5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Conclusion: Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine. PMID:26813484

  17. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Moshe; Dilbaz, Nesrin; Rosa, Fernanda; Paterakis, Periklis; Milanova, Vihra; Smulevich, Anatoly B; Lahaye, Marjolein; Schreiner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥ 20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤ 5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0 ± 12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥ 20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8 ± 5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥ 7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine.

  18. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  19. Efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with aspirin in patients who previously tried but failed treatment with vitamin K antagonists: results from the AVERROES trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Michiel; Synhorst, David; Eikelboom, John W; Yusuf, Salim; Shestakovska, Olga; Connolly, Stuart J

    2014-07-21

    The AVERROES double-blinded, randomized trial demonstrated that apixaban reduces the risk of stroke or systemic embolism (SSE) by 55% compared with aspirin without an increase in major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation either who previously tried but failed vitamin K antagonists (VKA) therapy or who were expected to be unsuitable for VKA therapy. In this pre-specified analysis, we explored the consistency of the results in the subgroup of patients who tried but failed VKA therapy. Of 5599 patients, 2216 (40%) had previously failed VKA treatment [main reasons: poor international normalized ratio (INR) control 42%, refusal 37%, bleeding on VKA 8%]. Compared with those expected to be unsuitable for VKA therapy, those who had previously failed were older, more often male, had higher body mass index, more likely to have moderate renal impairment and a history of stroke and less likely to have heart failure or to be medically undertreated. The effects of apixaban compared with aspirin were consistent in those who previously failed and those who were expected to be unsuitable, for both SSE (P interaction 0.13) and major bleeding (P interaction 0.74) and were also consistent among different subgroups of patients who had previously failed VKA therapy defined by reasons for unsuitability, age, sex, renal function, CHADS2 score, aspirin dose, duration, indication, and quality of INR control of prior VKA use. The efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with aspirin is consistent in subgroups of patients who have previously attempted but failed VKA therapy, irrespective of the reason for discontinuation. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Creative Self-Efficacy: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathisen, Gro Ellen; Bronnick, Kolbjorn S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of creativity training on creative self-efficacy. We developed a creativity course based on social cognitive theory. The course was conducted in two formats: a five-day course and a condensed one-day course. Samples consisted of students and municipality employees (five-day course), and special education teachers…

  1. Identification of multidrug resistance in previously treated tuberculosis patients: a mixed methods study in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, S; Khann, S; Yadav, RP; Mao, ET; Cattamanchi, A; Sam, S; Handley, MA

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Setting Previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients are a priority for drug susceptibility testing (DST) to identify cases with multidrug resistance (MDR). In Cambodia, a recent study found that only one-third of smear-positive previously treated patients had DST results. Objective To quantify the gaps in detecting MDR in previously treated TB patients in Cambodia, and describe health workers’ perspectives on barriers, facilitators and potential interventions. Design We analyzed case notifications in Cambodia (2004–2012) and conducted semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders Results The proportion of previously treated notifications varied significantly across provinces 2010–12, in the context of longer term trends of decreasing relapse and increasing “other” retreatment notifications. Correct classification of patients’ TB treatment history and ensuring specimens from previously-treated patients are collected and reach the laboratory could nearly double the number of detected MDR-TB cases. Identified barriers include patients’ reluctance to disclose and staff difficulty eliciting treatment history, partly due to availability of streptomycin only in hospitals. Facilitators include trained health workers, collection of sputum for DST even if previously treated patients are not taking streptomycin, streamlining sputum transportation and promptly reporting results. Conclusion Improved monitoring, supportive supervision, and correctly classifying previously treated patients are essential for improving detection of MDR-TB. PMID:25299861

  2. Developing Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Strategies: A Review of Previous Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channa, Mansoor Ahmed; Nordin, Zaimuariffudin Shukri; Siming, Insaf Ali; Chandio, Ali Asgher; Koondher, Mansoor Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the previous studies on metacognitive strategies based on planning, monitoring, and evaluating in order to develop reading comprehension. The main purpose of this review in metacognition, and reading domain is to help readers to enhance their capabilities and power reading through these strategies. The researchers reviewed…

  3. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de

    1961-01-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs

  4. Study of functional-performance deficits in athletes with previous ankle sprains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid Babaee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Despite the importance of functional-performance deficits in athletes with history of ankle sprain few, studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this research was to study relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in athletes. Materials and methods: The subjects were 40 professional athletes selected through random sampling among volunteer participants in soccer, basketball, volleyball and handball teams of Lorestan province. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: Injured group (athletes with previous ankle sprains and healthy group (athletes without previous ankle sprains. In this descriptive study we used Functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test to determine ankle deficits and limitations. They participated in figure 8 hop test including hopping in 8 shape course with the length of 5 meters and side hop test including 10 side hop repetitions in course with the length of 30 centimeters. Time were recorded via stopwatch. Results: After data gathering and assessing information distributions, Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships, and independent T test to assess differences between variables. Finally the results showed that there is a significant relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in the athletes. Conclusion: The athletes who had previous ankle sprains indicated functional-performance deficits more than healthy athletes in completion of mentioned functional-performance tests. The functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test are sensitive and suitable to assess and detect functional-performance deficits in athletes. Therefore we can use the figure 8 hop and side hop tests for goals such as prevention, assessment and rehabilitation of ankle sprains without spending too much money and time.

  5. Previous infection and the risk of ischaemic stroke in Italy: the IN2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, D; Vidale, S; Aguglia, U; Bassi, P; Cavallini, A; Galati, F; Guidetti, D; Marcello, N; Micieli, G; Pracucci, G; Rasura, M; Siniscalchi, A; Sterzi, R; Toni, D; Inzitari, D

    2015-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in new risk factors for ischaemic stroke. Acute and chronic infections could contribute to different aetiological mechanisms of atherosclerosis that lead to cerebrovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that previous infections and Chlamydia pneumoniae in particular increase the risk of ischaemic stroke in the population. This was a prospective case-control study involving 11 Italian stroke units. Controls were age- and sex-matched with cases, represented by patients admitted to hospital for acute ischaemic stroke. For each participant classical vascular risk factors and previous inflammatory and infectious events up to 1 month before were registered. Blood samples were collected to analyse inflammatory markers and titres of antibodies against C. pneumoniae. A total of 1002 participants were included (mean age 69 years) with 749 ischaemic stroke patients. Infections occurred within 1 month previously in 12% of the entire sample with a higher prevalence in the case group (14.4% vs. 3.9%). At multivariate analysis of the seropositivity of IgA antibodies against C. pneumoniae increased the risk of stroke significantly (relative risk 2.121; 95% confidence interval 1.255-3.584) and an early previous infection (up to 7 days before the event) contributed to a rise in probability of acute cerebral ischaemia (relative risk 3.692; 95% confidence interval 1.134-6.875). Early previous infections and persistent chronic infection of C. pneumoniae could contribute to increase the risk of ischaemic stroke significantly, in the elderly especially. © 2014 EAN.

  6. Influence of Previous Failed Antispasticity Therapy on the Efficacy and Tolerability of THC:CBD Oromucosal Spray for Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupts, Michael; Vila, Carlos; Jonas, Anna; Witte, Kerstin; Álvarez-Ossorio, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Sativex® (THC:CBD oromucosal spray) is indicated as add-on treatment for patients with moderate to severe multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity. We aimed to determine whether antispasticity treatment history influenced the efficacy and safety of add-on THC:CBD oromucosal spray in MS spasticity patients. Post hoc analysis of an enriched-design clinical trial of THC:CBD oromucosal spray versus placebo, using records of patients under previous and current ineffective antispasticity therapies. Subgroups were patients with at least 1 failed therapy attempt with either baclofen or tizanidine (Group 1) or at least 2 failed therapy attempts with both baclofen and tizanidine (Group 2). Of 241 patients in the intent-to-treat population, 162 and 57 patients met the criteria for Groups 1 and 2, respectively. In all groups, response on the spasticity 0-10 Numerical Rating Scale was significantly greater with THC:CBD oromucosal spray versus placebo, for minimal clinically important difference (MCID ≥18% improvement vs. baseline) and clinically important difference (CID, ≥30% improvement vs. baseline). THC:CBD oromucosal spray improved spasticity-related symptoms such as sleep quality and timed 10-meter walk independent of the number of prior failed therapy attempts. Tolerability was not influenced by pre-treatment history. THC:CBD oromucosal spray provided consistent relief with good tolerability in MS spasticity patients irrespective of their antispasticity pre-treatment history. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. HIV-related neuropsychological impairment in patients with previous substance use: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    García-Torres, Amalia; Vergara-Moragues, Esperanza (UNIR); Piñón-Blanco, Adolfo; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can result in cognitive disorders that significantly interfere with the daily activities of HIV patients. These disorders may be worse when there is a history of psychoactive substance use. Our objective is to assess the neuropsychological profile in a group of HIV patients with previous drug use compared to a group of HIV-negative patients with a history of drug use. The study included a total of 28 Spanish adult subjects, of which 14 were HIV-infected and ...

  8. Data from studies of previous radioactive waste disposal in Massachusetts Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, W.R.; Mardis, H.M.

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of studies conducted in Massachusetts Bay during 1981 and 1982. Included are data from: (1) a side scan sonar survey of disposal areas in the Bay that was carried out by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for EPA; (2) Collections of sediment and biota by NOAA for radiochemical analysis by EPA; (3) collections of marketplace seafood samples by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for radioanalysis by both FDA and EPA; and (4) a radiological monitoring survey of LLW disposal areas by EPA to determine whether there should be any concern for public health resulting from previous LLW disposals in the Bay

  9. Cystic echinococcosis in Jordan: A review of causative species, previous studies, serological and radiological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijjawi, Nawal S; Al-Radaideh, Ali M; Rababah, Eman M; Al-Qaoud, Khaled M; Bani-Hani, Kamal E

    2018-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE)/hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease which occur in human and herbivore animals as a result of infection with the larval stage of the taeniid cestode Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.). In human, CE is a serious public health concern in many parts of the world including Jordan. The present review will cover CE causative agent: E. granulosus species/genotypes; life cycle of E. granulosus parasite, all published previous studies on CE in Jordan (humans, intermediate hosts, definitive host) as well as its diagnostic methods in human. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Does the previous diagnosis of arterial hypertension affect one's daily life? Pro-Saude Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo Filho, Gilberto Senechal de; Lopes, Claudia de Souza; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    In addition to damaging several target organs, arterial hypertension may negatively impact patients' activities of daily living. Biological and behavioral mechanisms underlying such limitations have yet to be clarified. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether having been previously told of a hypertension diagnosis is associated with the frequency and duration of temporary limitations in activities of daily living, and whether these relationships differ by gender, age, or socioeconomic position. We analyzed sectional data from 2,666 participants (56% women; 55% with high school or lower schooling) at the baseline phase (1999 - 2001) of a longitudinal investigation of university employees in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Pró-Saúde Study), asking participants whether they had ever been diagnosed with hypertension by a health professional, if they had been unable to perform any activities of daily living due to a health problem in the previous 2 weeks, and for how many days that had occurred. Multinomial logistic regression models were fitted for the overall study population and for age, gender, educational level, and per capita household income strata. Associations between hypertension diagnosis and temporary limitations were not observed in the overall study population and in gender, education and income strata. However, there were higher odds of temporary limitations among participants aged 55 years old or more with hypertension diagnosis (adjusted OR = 9.5; 95%CI 1.5 - 58.6), regardless of blood pressure levels and use of antihypertensive medication. Elderly people may keep an attitude of higher vigilance regarding conditions or events potentially worsening their health status.

  11. A longitudinal study of plasma insulin and glucagon in women with previous gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Kühl, C; Hornnes, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether plasma insulin or glucagon predicts later development of diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The subjects studied were 91 women with diet-treated GDM and 33 healthy women. Plasma insulin and glucagon during a 50...... at follow-up (2 had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 13 had non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and 12 had impaired glucose tolerance). Compared with the control subjects, women with previous GDM had relatively impaired insulin secretion (decreased insulinogenic index and delayed peak insulin...... for subsequent development of overt diabetes (logistic regression analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Women who develop GDM have a relative insulin secretion deficiency, the severity of which is predictive for later development of diabetes. Furthermore, our data indicate that their relatively reduced beta-cell function may...

  12. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulí, Anna; Morillas, Juan D; Rigau, Joaquim; Latorre, Mercedes; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Peña, Elena; Riestra, Sabino; Payá, Artemio; Jover, Rodrigo; Xicola, Rosa M; Llor, Xavier; Fernández-Rozadilla, Ceres; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Villanueva, Cristina M; Moreno, Victor; Piqué, Josep M; Carracedo, Angel; Castells, Antoni; Andreu, Montserrat; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Alonso-Espinaco, Virginia; Muñoz, Jenifer; Gonzalo, Victoria; Bessa, Xavier; González, Dolors; Clofent, Joan; Cubiella, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1

  13. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Victor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive, rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive, rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant, and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive. In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1

  14. Teacher Efficacy: A Study of Construct Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Passaro, Perry

    The structure of a concept generally labeled "teacher efficacy" is examined. A sample of 342 prospective and experienced teachers was administered an efficacy questionnaire adapted from the research of S. Gibson and M. H. Dembo (1984). Factor analytic procedures with varimax rotation were used to generate a 2-factor solution that accounted for 32…

  15. A study about the interest and previous contact of high school students with Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, C. L.; Zanitti, M. H. R.; Felicidade, B. L.; Gomes, A. D. T.; Dias, E. W.; Coelho, F. O.

    2016-04-01

    The currently problems in Astronomy teaching in Brazilian Basic Education contrast with the space, and the popularity that astronomical themes have in various media in the country. In this work, we present the results of a study about the interest, and previous contact of high school students from a public school in the city of "São João del-Rei"/MG with topics related to Astronomy. The study and the pedagogical intervention were carried out by students of the PIBID/CAPES/UFSJ. The intervention was performed through an oral exposition with the students' participation, followed by the use of the Stellarium program. The results suggest the majority of students surveyed are interested in Astronomy, and have had some contact with the area. However, some inconsistencies in their responses were identified and examined. The implications for research and for Astronomy Education are discussed. We also make some considerations about relationship between the lack of specific knowledge and the misinformation as one possible reason for the little interest of students in various areas of Science.

  16. Explaining Research Utilization Among 4-H Faculty, Staff, and Volunteers: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Learning Goal Orientation, Training, and Previous Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Tillman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of factors that facilitate the utilization of research evidence among faculty, staff, and volunteers in the 4-H Youth Development Program is presented in this paper. Participants (N= 368; 86 4-H faculty, 153 staff, and 129 volunteers represented 35 states; structural equation modeling was utilized in the analyses. Results of the path analysis explained 56% of variance in research utilization and 28% in research utilization self-efficacy. Among the factors impacting research utilization, self-efficacy played the most important role. In turn, self-efficacy for research utilization was positively influenced by participants’ learning goal orientation, frequency of 4-H training during the last 12 months, education in research-related areas, and investigative career interests. In addition, 4-H staff who were exposed to research at higher levels reported higher research utilization self-efficacy. The findings reinforce the importance of fostering research utilization self-efficacy among 4-H faculty, staff, and volunteers. Among the suggestions presented are regular 4-H training opportunities and on-going exposure to program evaluation and program improvement experiences.

  17. Biosystematic studies on Dactylis L. l. Review of the previous studies. 1.2. Cytology, genetics, experimental studies, and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Mizianty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents a review of the previous studies on Dactylis L., dealing with cytology,genetics, experimental studies and evolution. Following cytotypes of Dactylis are distributed mostly in Central Europe: 16 diploids, 7 tetraploids and also 2 hexaploids in North Africa. Some aneuploids and accessory chromosomes were also found in this genus. Data dealing with karyotypes of some taxa, and geographical distribution of cytotypes are also listed. Selected problems concerning crossing within diploids as well as tetraploids and also between diploids and teraploids were presented. Some opinions regarding the evolution in the genus Dactylis were also demonstrated. In all these hypotheses the following diploids are considered to be the oldest: D. smithii Link subsp. smithii, D. g. subsp. aschersoniana (Greabn. Thell. and D. g. subsp. himalayensis Dom.

  18. Study of Doxicycline Efficacy in Broilers’ Colibacilosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Teodor Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is a therapeutic assessment of doxicycline’s hyclate efficacy, a wide spectrum antibiotic (efficient in majority of bacterial Gram-positive and Gram-negative infections and mycoplasmas, frequently isolated in poultry in a colisepticemia outbreak in a 3,000 chicken farm. Disease started at the broiler’s age of 20 days and mortality rate reached 32.5%. The behaviour to antibiotics of isolated bacterial strains was tested and antibiogram (Sanofi was used, doxicycline revealing a very good antibiotic activity. The treatments (with the dose of 10 mg x kg.b.w.-1 were done individually for five days, clinical evolution being observed until day ten of the experiment. Analyzing evolutions after treatments it was observed that the mortality diminished progressively from 14.2% in the first day, to 8.3% - 5.9% - 2.5% - 1.7% and respectively 0.8% in the sixth treatments day, in days seven, eight, nine, and ten of the study not being registered any mortality cases. In our opinion the favorable clinical evolution was recorded after the third treatment day, at the end of experiment from 120 remaining live 80 chickens (representing 66.7% proving the fact that doxicycline was efficient, confirmed also by the average daily weight gain for the remaining live chickens.

  19. Treatment satisfaction with paliperidone extended-release tablets: open-label study in schizophrenia patients dissatisfied with previous antipsychotic medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang FD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fu De Yang,1 Juan Li,1 Yun Long Tan,1 Wei Ye Liang,1 Rongzhen Zhang,1 Ning Wang,1 Wei Feng,1 Shangli Cai,2 Jian Min Zhuo,2 Li Li Zhang2 1Beijing Hui-Long-Guan Hospital, 2Department of Medical Affairs, Xian Janssen Pharmaceutical Ltd, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in treatment satisfaction after switching to paliperidone extended-release (ER in Chinese schizophrenia patients dissatisfied with their previous antipsychotic treatment.Methods: In this 8-week, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, prospective study, 1,693 patients dissatisfied with previous antipsychotic medication were enrolled and switched to paliperidone ER tablets (3–12 mg/d based on clinical judgment. The primary efficacy end point was change in Medication Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ score from baseline to week 8. The secondary end points included percentage of patients with MSQ score ≥4, as well as changes in Clinical Global Improvement-Severity (CGI-S and Personal and Social Performance (PSP scores.Results: MSQ scores increased significantly from baseline (mean [standard deviation {SD}]: 2.48 [0.55] to week 8 (5.47 [0.89], P<0.0001; primary end point, full analysis set. The percentage of patients with MSQ score ≥4 was 95.9% at week 8, indicating that most of the patients were satisfied with their treatment. Significant (P<0.0001 improvements from baseline to week 8 were noted in CGI-S score (2.37 [1.20] and PSP score (25.5 [15.0]. A total of 174 (10.28% patients experienced adverse events (AEs. The most common (>10 patients events were extrapyramidal disorder (n=84, 4.96%, poor quality sleep (n=18, 1.06% and akathisia (n=13, 0.77%. The majority of AEs were mild to moderate in severity. No deaths occurred.Conclusion: Treatment satisfaction improved after switching to paliperidone ER from the previous antipsychotic in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Keywords: atypical antipsychotics, open label

  20. Efficacy and safety of travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% fixed combination as transition therapy in patients previously on prostaglandin analog monotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa VP

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Vital Paulino Costa1, Hamilton Moreira2, Mauricio Della Paolera3, Maria Rosa Bet de Moraes Silva41Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP, São Paulo, 2Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, 3Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, São Paulo, 4Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, UNESP, BrazilPurpose: To assess the safety and efficacy of transitioning patients whose intraocular pressure (IOP had been insufficiently controlled on prostaglandin analog (PGA monotherapy to treatment with travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% fixed combination with benzalkonium chloride (TTFC.Methods: This prospective, multicenter, open-label, historical controlled, single-arm study transitioned patients who had primary open-angle glaucoma, pigment dispersion glaucoma, or ocular hypertension and who required further IOP reduction from PGA monotherapy to once-daily treatment with TTFC for 12 weeks. IOP and safety (adverse events, corrected distance visual acuity, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy were assessed at baseline, week 4, and week 12. A solicited ocular symptom survey was administered at baseline and at week 12. Patients and investigators reported their medication preference at week 12.Results: Of 65 patients enrolled, 43 had received prior travoprost therapy and 22 had received prior nontravoprost therapy (n = 18, bimatoprost; n = 4, latanoprost. In the total population, mean IOP was significantly reduced from baseline (P = 0.000009, showing a 16.8% reduction after 12 weeks of TTFC therapy. In the study subgroups, mean IOP was significantly reduced from baseline to week 12 (P = 0.0001 in the prior travoprost cohort (19.0% reduction and in the prior nontravoprost cohort (13.1% reduction. Seven mild, ocular, treatment-related adverse events were reported. Of the ten ocular symptom questions, eight had numerically lower percentages with TTFC compared with prior PGA monotherapy and two had numerically higher percentages with TTFC (dry eye symptoms and ocular

  1. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, C; Persson, U McCarthy; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D

    2016-04-01

    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Loss and gain cycles? A longitudinal study about burnout, engagement and self-efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Llorens-Gumbau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present longitudinal study (two waves, conducted on a population of 274 secondary-school teachers, expands on previous research on burnout and work engagement. Accordingly, the effect of organizational factors (obstacles, facilitators as well as personal resources (self-efficacy on burnout and engagement is tested longitudinally following the Social Cognitive Theory. More specifically, we test the loss and gain cycles, and reciprocal relationships concerning burnout, engagement, and self-efficacy over time. Four questions are addressed: (1 Are obstacles positively related to burnout and work self-efficacy over time? (2 Are facilitators positively related to engagement and self-efficacy over time? (3 Is work self-efficacy negatively related to burnout and obstacles over time? and (4 Is work self-efficacy positively related to engagement and facilitators over time? The results of a hard-copy survey carried out at two waves (8 months between the two times, which were computed on Structural Equation Modeling show that obstacles are positively related to burnout, which in turn is positively related to self-efficacy over time. Likewise, facilitators are positively related to engagement and self-efficacy, which in turn is positively related to facilitators over time. These findings suggest a positive gain cycle in which self-efficacy plays a central role.

  3. Rancidity inhibition study in frozen whole mackerel (scomber scombrus by a previous plant extract treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubourg, Santiago P.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum on rancidity development in frozen whole mackerel (Scomber scombrus was studied. For it, fresh mackerel were dipped in flaxseeds aqueous extract during 60 min, frozen at –80 ºC during 24 hours and kept frozen (–20 ºC up to 12 months. Sampling was carried out on the initial material and at months 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 of frozen storage at –20 ºC. A parallel experiment with non treated fish was carried out in the same conditions. Rancidity development was measured by several biochemical indices (free fatty acids, peroxides, conjugated dienes and trienes, secondary oxidation products and lipoxygenase activity and complemented by the sensory analysis (skin, flesh odour, consistency and flesh appearance. As a result of the previous antioxidant treatment, peroxides showed to breakdown faster (pSe ha estudiado el efecto del lino (Linum usitatissimum en el desarrollo de rancidez en caballa entera congelada (Scomber scombrus. Para ello, caballas frescas fueron sumergidas en extractos acuosos de semillas de lino durante 60 min, congeladas a -80 ºC durante 24 h y mantenidas congeladas ( -20 ºC durante 12 meses. Se tomaron muestras del material inicial y tras 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 y 12 meses de congelación a -20 ºC . Un experimento paralelo con pescado no tratado fue llevado acabo en las mismas condiciones. El desarrollo de la rancidez fue medido por varios índices bioquímicos (ácidos grasos libres, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados, productos secundarios de oxidación y actividad lipoxigenasa y completado con análisis sensorial (piel, olor de la carne, consistencia y apariencia de la carne. Como resultado del tratamiento antioxidante, los peróxidos se degradaron más rápidos (p < 0.05 después del mes 7, y por tanto, contenidos mayores (p < 0.05 de dienos y trienos conjugados pudieron ser detectados en el pescado tratado. El tratamiento antioxidante también condujo a un

  4. A gender study investigating physics self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawtelle, Vashti

    The underrepresentation of women in physics has been well documented and a source of concern for both policy makers and educators. My dissertation focuses on understanding the role self-efficacy plays in retaining students, particularly women, in introductory physics. I use an explanatory mixed methods approach to first investigate quantitatively the influence of self-efficacy in predicting success and then to qualitatively explore the development of self-efficacy. In the initial quantitative studies, I explore the utility of self-efficacy in predicting the success of introductory physics students, both women and men. Results indicate that self-efficacy is a significant predictor of success for all students. I then disaggregate the data to examine how self-efficacy develops differently for women and men in the introductory physics course. Results show women rely on different sources of self-efficacy than do men, and that a particular instructional environment, Modeling Instruction, has a positive impact on these sources of self-efficacy. In the qualitative phase of the project, this dissertation focuses on the development of self-efficacy. Using the qualitative tool of microanalysis, I introduce a methodology for understanding how self-efficacy develops moment-by-moment using the lens of self-efficacy opportunities. I then use the characterizations of self-efficacy opportunities to focus on a particular course environment and to identify and describe a mechanism by which Modeling Instruction impacts student self-efficacy. Results indicate that the emphasizing the development and deployment of models affords opportunities to impact self-efficacy. The findings of this dissertation indicate that introducing key elements into the classroom, such as cooperative group work, model development and deployment, and interaction with the instructor, create a mechanism by which instructors can impact the self-efficacy of their students. Results from this study indicate that

  5. Effect of Previous Irradiation on Vascular Thrombosis of Microsurgical Anastomosis: A Preclinical Study in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Calero, Irene; López-Fernández, Alba; Romagosa, Cleofe; Vergés, Ramona; Aguirre-Canyadell, Marius; Soldado, Francisco; Velez, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of the present investigation was to compare the effect of neoadjuvant irradiation on the microvascular anastomosis in cervical bundle using an experimental model in rats. Methods: One hundred forty male Sprague–Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups: group I, control, arterial microanastomosis; group II, control, venous microanastomosis; group III, arterial microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy); and group IV, venous microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy). Clinical parameters, technical values of anastomosis, patency, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Irradiated groups (III and IV) and vein anastomosis groups (II and IV) showed significantly increased technical difficulties. Group IV showed significantly reduced patency rates (7/35) when compared with the control group (0/35). Radiotherapy significantly decreased the patency rates of the vein (7/35) when compared with the artery (1/35). Groups III and IV showed significantly reduced number of endothelial cells and also showed the presence of intimal thickening and adventitial fibrosis as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant radiotherapy reduces the viability of the venous anastomosis in a preclinical rat model with a significant increase in the incidence of vein thrombosis. PMID:27975009

  6. Teacher Self-Efficacy with Teaching Students to Lead IEP Meetings: A Correlation Study on Administrator Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Laron A.

    2012-01-01

    Self-efficacy has been closely linked to teacher performance of instructional tasks. Previous studies on teacher self-efficacy focused on general activities and were less specific regarding special education teachers' perceived ability to perform a given task. The purpose of this quantitative correlation study was to evaluate high school special…

  7. Efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with aspirin in patients who previously tried but failed treatment with vitamin K antagonists: results from the AVERROES trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, Michiel; Synhorst, David; Eikelboom, John W.; Yusuf, Salim; Shestakovska, Olga; Connolly, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    The AVERROES double-blinded, randomized trial demonstrated that apixaban reduces the risk of stroke or systemic embolism (SSE) by 55% compared with aspirin without an increase in major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation either who previously tried but failed vitamin K antagonists (VKA)

  8. Late preterm birth and previous cesarean section: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasseen Iii, Abdool S; Bassil, Kate; Sprague, Ann; Urquia, Marcelo; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2018-02-21

    Late preterm birth (LPB) is increasingly common and associated with higher morbidity and mortality than term birth. Yet, little is known about the influence of previous cesarean section (PCS) and the occurrence of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. We aim to evaluate this association along with the potential mediation by cesarean sections in the current pregnancy. We use population-based birth registry data (2005-2012) to establish a cohort of live born singleton infants born between 34 and 41 gestational weeks to multiparous mothers. PCS was the primary exposure, LPB (34-36 weeks) was the primary outcome, and an unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was the potential mediator. Associations were quantified using propensity weighted multivariable Poisson regression, and mediating associations were explored using the Baron-Kenny approach. The cohort included 481,531 births, 21,893 (4.5%) were LPB, and 119,983 (24.9%) were predated by at least one PCS. Among mothers with at least one PCS, 6307 (5.26%) were LPB. There was increased risk of LPB among women with at least one PCS (adjusted Relative Risk (aRR): 1.20 (95%CI [1.16, 1.23]). Unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was identified as a strong mediator to this relationship (mediation ratio = 97%). PCS was associated with higher risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. This may be due to an increased risk of subsequent unplanned or emergency preterm cesarean sections. Efforts to minimize index cesarean sections may reduce the risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies.

  9. Radon diffusion coefficients for soils. Previous studies and their application to uranium-bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomozo; Gunji, Yasuyoshi; Iida, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Radon diffusion in soils has been studied over the years by many researchers. The application of such studies to the evaluation of radiation exposure caused by radon from uranium-bearing wastes disposed in a shallow land site is very important. The present paper surveyed closely relevant studies and elucidated the inherent nature of radon diffusion in terms of the definition of radon diffusion coefficients. Then, basic features of measurement methods for determining radon diffusion coefficients in soils were explained. Furthermore, theoretical aspects of radon diffusion in soils were discussed in terms of microscopic radon diffusion in soils and large-scale radon diffusion through cover soil defects for uranium mill tailings. Finally, in order to apply the radon diffusion studies to uranium-bearing waste disposal in shallow land sites, new challenges were presented: elucidation of radon diffusion in uranium-bearing wastes and cover-soil cracks, and demonstration of the validity of applying only radon diffusion in the evaluation of radiation exposure caused by radon, which would come through Japanese cover soils for uranium-bearing waste disposal. (author)

  10. A time marker instrument for kinematics movement studies: a development of previous versions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Laburú

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a time marker to study movements in kinematics. It contributes to elaborate a version of time marker which low cost and more efficient in comparison with the marker presented in another work as well as the earlier commercial version.

  11. Segmental hair analysis after a single dose of zolpidem: comparison with a previous study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaopei; Xiang, Ping; Zhang, Jingshuo; Shi, Yan; Shen, Baohua; Shen, Min

    2013-01-01

    Hair is a useful aid and sometimes even the only matrix in the analytical strategy in drug-facilitated crime (DFC) investigations. In this novel study, segmental hair analysis was performed after a single 10 mg dose of zolpidem was given to 20 Chinese volunteers. Hair was collected 1 month after administration and was analyzed using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Zolpidem concentrations were found to be in the range of 135.0-554.6 pg/mg in the proximal 0-2 cm segments. These results were markedly different from those reported by Villain et al., who used volunteers administered equal doses of zolpidem. The analytical method used, as well as the volunteers' hair color, inter-individual variations such as metabolic capacity, hair growth rate, drug incorporation rates, physical state of the hair, age, gender, body weight, etc. and diffusion from sweat or other secretions are all factors that should be considered when interpreting the DFC results.

  12. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlouf, Ali; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10 3 MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO 2 eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10 −6 t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10 −6 t SO 2 eq respectively

  13. Family Efficacy within Ethnically Diverse Families: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tsui-Sui A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2017-03-01

    Family efficacy, which refers to a family's belief in its ability to produce a desired outcome, has been shown to protect adolescents from risky health behaviors. Few studies have examined family efficacy within diverse populations, however, and understanding of how efficacy is framed and formed within the context of cultural and familial values is limited. This descriptive qualitative study examined sources of family efficacy within ethnically and socioeconomically diverse families, evaluating how such families develop and exercise family efficacy with the intent to protect adolescents from risky health behaviors (i.e., marijuana and alcohol use and early sexual activity). We collected qualitative data via two semi-structured interviews, 4-6 months apart, with 31 adolescents (ages 12-14) and their parent/s, for total of 148 one-on-one interviews. Thematic analysis identified three distinct domains of family efficacy: relational, pragmatic, and value-laden. Prior experiences and cultural background influenced the domain/s utilized by families. Significantly, families that consistently tapped into all three domains were able to effectively manage personal and family difficulties; these families also had family strategies in place to prevent adolescents from risky behaviors. Health professionals could utilize this concept of multidimensional family efficacy to promote health within culturally diverse families. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  14. Efficacy and safety of afatinib in Chinese patients with EGFR-mutated metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously responsive to first-generation tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKI) and chemotherapy: comparison with historical cohort using erlotinib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Victor H. F.; Leung, Dennis K. C.; Choy, Tim-Shing; Lam, Ka-On; Lam, Pui-Mei; Leung, To-Wai; Kwong, Dora L. W.

    2016-01-01

    Afaitnib has shown anti-tumor activity against metastatic EGFR-mutated NSCLC after prior failure to first generation EGFR-TKI and chemotherapy. We prospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of afatinib in Chinese patients who previously failed first-generation TKI and chemotherapy under a compassionate use program (CUP) and compared to the erlotinib cohort. Patients who suffered from metastatic EGFR-mutated NSCLC previously responsive to first-generation TKI and chemotherapy received afatinib until progression, loss of clinical benefits or intolerable toxicity. Treatment response, survival and safety were evaluated and compared to the erlotinib cohort. Twenty-five and 28 patients received afatinib and erlotinib respectively. More patients in the afatinib group had worse performance status (ECOG 2) than the erlotinib group (p = 0.008). After a median follow-up of 12.1 months, afatinib demonstrated comparable objective response rate (ORR) (20.0 % vs. 7.1 %, p = 0.17) but significantly higher disease control rate (DCR) (68.0 % vs. 39.3 %, p = 0.04) compared to erlotinib. Median progression-free survival (PFS) (4.1 months [95 % CI, 2.7–5.5 months] vs. 3.3 months [95 % CI, 2.2–4.3 months], p = 0.97) and overall survival (OS) were not different between the two groups (10.3 months [95 % CI, 7.5–13.0 months] vs. 10.8 months [95 % CI, 7.4–14.2 months], p = 0.51). Multivariate analyses revealed that age ≤70 years and time to progression (TTP) ≥18 months for the 1 st TKI therapy were prognostic of PFS (p = 0.006 and p = 0.008 respectively). Afatinib caused less rash (60.0 % vs. 67.9 %, p = 0.04) but more diarrhea (60.0 % vs. 10.7 %, p = 0.002) compared to erlotinib. Afatinib produced encouraging clinical efficacy as 2 nd TKI therapy with manageable safety profiles in our Chinese patients after failure to another TKI and systemic chemotherapy. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02625168) on 3 December 2015

  15. Effect of Acupressure, Acupuncture and Moxibustion in Women With Pregnancy-Related Anxiety and Previous Depression: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Shunji; Tobe, Chiharu

    2017-01-01

    Background In this preliminary study, we examined the effect of acupressure, acupuncture and moxibustion (oriental treatments) to prevent of the relapse/deterioration of perinatal depression in women with pregnancy-related anxiety and previous depression. Methods and results Between 2014 and 2016, there were 48 women with pregnancy-related anxiety and previous depression who had delivery at ? 22 weeks? gestation in our institute. Of these, oriental treatments were performed in eight and two w...

  16. Efficacy of zolpidem for dystonia: a study among different subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimichi eMiyazaki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although there are some newly-developed options to treat dystonia, its medical treatment is not always satisfactory. Zolpidem, an imidazopyridine agonist with a high affinity on benzodiazepine subtype receptor BZ1(ω1 , was found to improve clinical symptoms of dystonia in a limited number of case reports. To investigate what subtype of dystonia is responsive to the therapy, we conducted an open label study to assess the efficacy of zolpidem (5-20mg in 34 patients suffering from miscellaneous types of dystonia using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS. Patients were entered into the study if they had been refractory to other medications as evaluated by BFMDRS (no change in the previous 2 successive visits. After zolpidem therapy, the scores in the patients as a whole were decreased from 7.2±7.9 to 5.5±5.0 (P=0.042. Patients with generalized dystonia, Meige syndrome/blepharospasm, and hand dystonia improved in the scale by 27.8%, 17.8% and 31.0%, respectively, whereas no improvement was found in cervical dystonia patients. Overall response rate among patients were comparable to that of trihexyphenidyl. Zolpidem may be a therapeutic option for generalized dystonia, Meige syndrome and hand dystonia including musician’s. Drowsiness was the dose-limiting factor.

  17. Effect of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease previously untreated or treated with memantine or nootropic agents in Germany: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Tatjana; Ibach, Bernd; Schoenknecht, Peter; Kamleiter, Martin; Silver, Gabrielle; Schroeder, Johannes; Mielke, Ruediger

    2005-05-01

    This open-label, prospective, observational, Post-Marketing Surveillance (PMS) study assessed the efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients who had been switched from therapies currently used in Germany to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as memantine and nootropics, due to insufficient efficacy or poor tolerability. A treatment-naive population was included as a comparator. Patients with AD were treated with donepezil and observed for a period of approximately 3 months. A cognitive assessment was made using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Quality of life (QoL) was assessed by the investigators who answered the question 'How did therapy with donepezil influence the QoL of the patient and/or his family over the observation period?' and was graded using three ratings: improved/unchanged/worsened. Adverse events (AEs) were also monitored. A total of 913 patients entered the study (mean +/- SD MMSE score 18.03 +/- 5.34). Efficacy assessments were analyzed for three groups: an overall group of patients who had received any form of prior AD drug therapy (N+ group; n = 709); a subgroup of patients from the N+ group who had received prior memantine therapy only (M+ group; n = 111) and patients who were drug treatment naive (N- group; n = 204). In the evaluable population donepezil improved MMSE scores by 2.21 +/- 3.47 points on average, with similar improvements observed in all three groups. QoL was judged to be improved in at least 70% of patients, again with similar results obtained for all three groups. Donepezil was well tolerated, with 85 of 913 (9.3%) patients reporting AEs. The most common AEs were those typically seen with cholinergic therapies (i.e., diarrhoea, vomiting and nausea). In this observational PMS study, donepezil was shown to be efficacious and well tolerated in patients who were being insufficiently treated with memantine or nootropic therapy. The magnitude of response was similar to that observed in patients who were previously

  18. Estimating the effect of current, previous and never use of drugs in studies based on prescription registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Many studies which investigate the effect of drugs categorize the exposure variable into never, current, and previous use of the study drug. When prescription registries are used to make this categorization, the exposure variable possibly gets misclassified since the registries do not ca...

  19. Maternal and perinatal outcomes of delivery after a previous Cesarean section in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, George O; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Onah, Hyacinth E; Egwuatu, Vincent E; Ezugwu, Frank O

    2014-01-01

    Obstetricians in developing countries appear generally reluctant to conduct vaginal delivery in women with a previous Cesarean because of lack of adequate facilities for optimal fetomaternal monitoring. To describe delivery outcomes among women with one previous Cesarean section at a tertiary hospital in Southeast Nigeria. This was a prospective observational study to determine maternal and perinatal outcomes of attempted vaginal birth after Cesarean sections (VBAC) following one previous Cesarean section. Analysis was done with SPSS statistical software version 17.0 for Windows using descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% level of confidence. Two thousand six hundred and ten women delivered in the center during the study period, of whom 395 had one previous Cesarean section. A total of 370 women with one previous Cesarean section had nonrecurrent indications, of whom 355 consenting pregnant women with one previous Cesarean section were studied. A majority of the women (320/355, 90.1%) preferred to have vaginal delivery despite the one previous Cesarean section. However, only approximately 54% (190/355) were found suitable for trial of VBAC, out of whom 50% (95/190 had successful VBAC. Ninety-five women (50.0%) had failed attempt at VBAC and were delivered by emergency Cesarean section while 35 women (9.8%) had emergency Cesarean section for other obstetric indications (apart from failed VBAC). There was no case of uterine rupture or neonatal and maternal deaths recorded in any group. Apgar scores of less than 7 in the first minute were significantly more frequent amongst women who had vaginal delivery when compared to those who had elective repeat Cesarean section (P=0.03). Most women who had one previous Cesarean delivery chose to undergo trial of VBAC, although only about half were considered suitable for VBAC. The maternal and fetal outcomes of trial of VBAC in selected women with one previous Cesarean delivery for non-recurrent indications were good

  20. Survey to determine the efficacy and safety of guideline-based pharmacological therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients not previously receiving maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoguchi, Yasuhiro; Izumi, Shinyu; Nakamura, Hidenori; Hanada, Shigeo; Marumo, Kazuyoshi; Kurosaki, Atsuko; Akata, Shouichi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the potential beneficial effects of guideline-based pharmacological therapy on pulmonary function and quality of life (QOL) in Japanese chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients without prior treatment. Multicenter survey, open-label study of 49 Japanese COPD patients aged ≥ 40 years; outpatients with >10 pack years of smoking history; ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) patients. Significant changes over time were not observed for FEV1 and FVC, indicating lung function at initiation of treatment was maintained during the observation period. COPD assessment test scores showed statistical and clinical improvements. Cough, sputum, breathlessness, and shortness of breath were significantly improved. Lung function and QOL of untreated Japanese COPD patients improved and improvements were maintained by performing a therapeutic intervention that conformed to published guidelines.

  1. Treatment of osteochondral defects of the talus with a metal resurfacing inlay implant after failed previous surgery: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, C. J. A.; van Eekeren, I. C. M.; Reilingh, M. L.; Sierevelt, I. N.; van Dijk, C. N.

    2013-01-01

    We have evaluated the clinical effectiveness of a metal resurfacing inlay implant for osteochondral defects of the medial talar dome after failed previous surgical treatment. We prospectively studied 20 consecutive patients with a mean age of 38 years (20 to 60), for a mean of three years (2 to 5)

  2. An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie eLøberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

  3. Navigating non-positivity in neighbourhood studies: an analysis of collective efficacy and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Jennifer; Cerdá, Magdalena; Lippman, Sheri A; Tardiff, Kenneth J; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro

    2013-02-01

    In multilevel studies, strong correlations of neighbourhood exposures with individual and neighbourhood confounders may generate problems with non-positivity (ie, inferences that are 'off-support'). The authors used propensity restriction and matching to (1) assess the utility of propensity restriction to ensure analyses are 'on-support' and (2) examine the relation between collective efficacy and violence in a previously unstudied city. Associations between neighbourhood collective efficacy and violent victimisation were estimated in data from New York City in 2005 (n=4000) using marginal models and propensity matching. In marginal models adjusted for individual confounders and limited to observations 'on-support', under conditions of high collective efficacy, the estimated prevalence of violent victimisation was 3.5/100, while under conditions of low collective efficacy, it was 7.5/100, resulting in a difference of 4.0/100 (95% CI 2.6 to 5.8). In propensity-matched analysis, the comparable difference was 4.0/100 (95% CI 2.1 to 5.9). In analyses adjusted for individual and neighbourhood confounders and limited to observations 'on-support', the difference in violent victimisation associated with collective efficacy was 3.1/100 (95% CI 1.2 to 5.2) in marginal models and 2.4/100 (95% CI 0.2 to 4.5) in propensity-matched analysis. Analyses without support restrictions produced surprisingly similar results. Under conditions of high collective efficacy, there was about half the prevalence of violence compared with low collective efficacy. The results contribute to a growing body of evidence that suggests collective efficacy may shape violence, and illustrate how careful techniques can be used to disentangle exposures from highly correlated confounders without relying on model extrapolation.

  4. Post hoc analyses of the impact of previous medication on the efficacy of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghill DR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available David R Coghill,1 Tobias Banaschewski,2 Michel Lecendreux,3 César Soutullo,4 Alessandro Zuddas,5 Ben Adeyi,6 Shaw Sorooshian7 1Division of Neuroscience, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK; 2Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany; 3Paediatric Sleep Centre and National Reference Centre for Orphan Diseases: Narcolepsy, Idiopathic Hypersomnia and Kleine-Levin Syndrome, Robert-Debré University Hospital, Paris, France; 4Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit, Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, University of Navarra Clinic, Pamplona, Spain; 5Department of Biomedical Sciences, Section of Neuroscience and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy; 6Shire, Wayne, PA, USA; 7Shire, Eysins, Switzerland Background: Following the approval of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX in several European countries for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children and adolescents with an inadequate response to methylphenidate (MPH treatment, the aim of the present analysis was to establish the response to LDX in subgroups of patients with different ADHD medication histories. Methods: This was a post hoc subgroup analysis of data from a 7-week, European, double-blind, dose-optimized, Phase III study. Patients aged 6–17 years were randomized 1:1:1 to LDX, placebo, or osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH. OROS-MPH was included as a reference arm rather than as a direct comparator. Efficacy was assessed in patients categorized according to their ADHD medication history using the ADHD Rating Scale IV and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I scores. Results: The difference between active drug and placebo in least-squares mean change from baseline to endpoint in ADHD Rating Scale IV total score (95% confidence interval was similar between the overall study population (n

  5. A retrospective study evaluating the efficacy of identification and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full Title: A retrospective study evaluating the efficacy of identification and management of sepsis at a district-level hospital internal medicine department in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, in comparison with the guidelines stipulated in the 2012 Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Background. Currently there is little ...

  6. A pilot study of a metronomic chemotherapy regimen with weekly low-dose docetaxel for previously treated non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoi T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Takashi Yokoi, Takeshi Tamaki, Toshiki Shimizu, Shosaku NomuraFirst Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Moriguchi City, Osaka, JapanBackground: Low-dose metronomic (LDM chemotherapy is a novel approach that involves frequent administration of a low dose of chemotherapeutic agent without a long interval.Purpose: The aim of this clinical pilot study was to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of LDM chemotherapy with weekly low-dose docetaxel for previously treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.Patients and methods: The enrolled patients received 15 mg/m2 of docetaxel intravenously on a weekly basis without any interval.Results: Twenty-seven patients were enrolled in the study; 20 were men, and seven were women. The median age was 62 years (range: 32–75. Eleven patients were stage IIIB, and 16 were stage IV. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0 or 1. There was no severe hematological adverse effect; importantly, there was no neutropenia or thrombocytopenia. The objective response rate was 7.4% and the disease control rate was 51.9%. The median survival time was 16.4 months (95% CI: 5.7–36.4.Conclusion: Our preliminary results indicate that our metronomic regimen was well tolerated and active in patients with previously treated NSCLC. Thus, further investigation of this LDM regimen is warranted.Keywords: optimal biological dose, metronomic chemotherapy, docetaxel

  7. Changes in association between previous therapeutic abortion and preterm birth in Scotland, 1980 to 2008: a historical cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Oliver-Williams

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated that therapeutic termination of pregnancy (abortion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent preterm birth. However, the literature is inconsistent, and methods of abortion have changed dramatically over the last 30 years. We hypothesized that the association between previous abortion and the risk of preterm first birth changed in Scotland between 1 January 1980 and 31 December 2008.We studied linked Scottish national databases of births and perinatal deaths. We analysed the risk of preterm birth in relation to the number of previous abortions in 732,719 first births (≥24 wk, adjusting for maternal characteristics. The risk (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] of preterm birth was modelled using logistic regression, and associations were expressed for a one-unit increase in the number of previous abortions. Previous abortion was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (1.12 [1.09-1.16]. When analysed by year of delivery, the association was strongest in 1980-1983 (1.32 [1.21-1.43], progressively declined between 1984 and 1999, and was no longer apparent in 2000-2003 (0.98 [0.91-1.05] or 2004-2008 (1.02 [0.95-1.09]. A statistical test for interaction between previous abortion and year was highly statistically significant (p<0.001. Analysis of data for abortions among nulliparous women in Scotland 1992-2008 demonstrated that the proportion that were surgical without use of cervical pre-treatment decreased from 31% to 0.4%, and that the proportion of medical abortions increased from 18% to 68%.Previous abortion was a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth in Scotland in the 1980s and 1990s, but the association progressively weakened and disappeared altogether by 2000. These changes were paralleled by increasing use of medical abortion and cervical pre-treatment prior to surgical abortion. Although it is plausible that the two trends were related, we could not test this directly as the data on

  8. Previous early antenatal service utilization improves timely booking: cross-sectional study at university of Gondar hospital, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayneh, Tadesse; Adefris, Mulat; Andargie, Gashaw

    2014-01-01

    Early booking of antenatal care (ANC) is regarded as a cornerstone of maternal and neonatal health care. However, existing evidence from developing countries indicate that lots of pregnant woman begin ANC booking lately. Objective. It was aimed to assess timing of ANC booking and associated factors among pregnant women attending ANC clinic at University of Gondar Hospital, 2013. An institution based cross-sectional study design was used to collect data with a face-to-face interview technique. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was used to identify associated factors for early ANC visit using SPSS version 20. From total women (N = 369) interviewed, 47.4% were timely booked. Mothers with younger age (AOR = 3.83, 95% CI: 1.89, 10.53), formal education (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.03, -7.61), previous early ANC visit (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 2.23, 9.86), and perceived ANC visit per pregnancy of four and greater were significantly associated with early ANC visit. Although late booking is a problem in this study, previous early utilization of ANC visit favors current timely booking. This indicates that the importance of early booking was appropriately addressed from previous visits. Counseling of timely booking during ANC visit should be strengthened. Moreover, empowering through education is also recommended.

  9. Effect of Acupressure, Acupuncture and Moxibustion in Women With Pregnancy-Related Anxiety and Previous Depression: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunji; Tobe, Chiharu

    2017-06-01

    In this preliminary study, we examined the effect of acupressure, acupuncture and moxibustion (oriental treatments) to prevent of the relapse/deterioration of perinatal depression in women with pregnancy-related anxiety and previous depression. Between 2014 and 2016, there were 48 women with pregnancy-related anxiety and previous depression who had delivery at ≥ 22 weeks' gestation in our institute. Of these, oriental treatments were performed in eight and two women (totally 10, 21%) during pregnancy and postpartum, respectively. One of the 10 (10%) who received oriental treatments admitted depressive symptoms during pregnancy or postpartum, while 18 of the rest 38 who did not receive oriental treatments admitted depressive symptoms (47%, P = 0.065). The oriental treatments may be useful for pregnant women who need perinatal mental health care.

  10. [Cervical ripening after previous cesarean section with Foley catheter: A prospective study of 41 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamourdedieu, C; Gnisci, A; Marcelli, M; Heckenroth, H; Gamerre, M; Agostini, A

    2015-05-01

    Effectiveness of cervical ripening with Foley catheter for patients requiring labor induction with a previous cesarean section and unfavorable cervical conditions. Prospective unicentric study conducted between 1 April 2011 and 31 October 2013 on 41 patients with medical indication for labor induction with a Bishop's scorecesarean section. Outcomes evaluated were mode of delivery, Bishop's score variations and maternal or neonatal complications. Cervical ripening was performed in 39 patients and 17 (43.5%) were delivered vaginally. A total of 24/39 (61.5%) patients were put into work and 10/39 (25.6%) came into work immediately after removal of the Foley catheter. The average score improvement Bishop was 2.7±0.6 points. No maternal or fetal complication was reported. Foley catheter is an interesting procedure in patients with previous cesarean section and unfavorable cervical conditions requiring labor induction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. A prospective flexible-dose study of paliperidone palmitate in nonacute but symptomatic patients with schizophrenia previously unsuccessfully treated with oral antipsychotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Andreas; Bergmans, Paul; Cherubin, Pierre; Keim, Sofia; Rancans, Elmars; Bez, Yasin; Parellada, Eduard; Carpiniello, Bernardo; Vidailhet, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of flexible doses of once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP) in the subset of nonacute but symptomatic adult patients with schizophrenia previously unsuccessfully treated with oral antipsychotic agents in the PALMFlexS (Paliperidone Palmitate Flexible Dosing in Schizophrenia) study. This was an interventional, single-arm, international, multicenter, unblinded, 6-month study performed in patients with schizophrenia. Patients were categorized according to reasons for switching. In patients switching because of lack of efficacy or for other reasons, primary efficacy outcomes were the proportion achieving treatment response (defined as ≥20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] total score from baseline to last-observation-carried-forward end point) and maintained efficacy (defined as noninferiority in the change in PANSS total score at end point versus baseline [Schuirmann's test]), respectively. A total of 593 patients (intention-to-treat population) were enrolled: 63.1% were male; their mean (SD) age was 38.4 (11.8) years; and 78.6% had paranoid schizophrenia. The main reasons for transition to PP were patient's wish (n = 259 [43.7%]), lack of efficacy (n = 144 [24.3%]), lack of compliance (n = 138 [23.3%]), and lack of tolerability (n = 52 [8.8%]) with the previous oral antipsychotic medication. The recommended PP initiation regimen (150 milligram equivalents [mg eq] day 1 and 100 mg eq day 8) was administered in 93.9% of patients. Mean PANSS total score decreased from 71.5 (14.6) at baseline to 59.7 (18.1) at end point (mean change, -11.7 [15.9]; 95% CI, -13.0 to -10.5; P < 0.0001). Sixty-four percent of patients showed an improvement of ≥20% in PANSS total score, and the percentage of patients rated mildly ill or less in Clinical Global Impression-Severity increased from 31.8% to 63.2%. Mean personal and social performance total score (SD) increased

  12. Efficacy and Tolerability of Fixed-Combination Brinzolamide/Timolol in Latin American Patients with Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension Previously on Brimonidine/Timolol Fixed Combination

    OpenAIRE

    Alezzandrini, Arturo; Hubatsch, Douglas; Alfaro, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Fixed-combination glaucoma medications are commonly used to achieve target intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction in patients uncontrolled with monotherapy; however, ocular discomfort associated with eye drops can decrease adherence. This study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of twice-daily fixed-combination brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% (BRINZ/TIM-FC) in Latin American patients transitioned from fixed-combination brimonidine 0.2%/timolol 0.5% (BRIM/TIM-FC) because of insuffi...

  13. Safety and efficacy of venom immunotherapy: a real life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołaczek, Agnieszka; Skorupa, Dawid; Antczak-Marczak, Monika; Kuna, Piotr; Kupczyk, Maciej

    2017-04-01

    Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is recommended as the first-line treatment for patients allergic to Hymenoptera venom. To analyze the safety and efficacy of VIT in a real life setting. One hundred and eighty patients undergoing VIT were studied to evaluate the safety, efficacy, incidence and nature of symptoms after field stings and adverse reactions to VIT. Significantly more patients were allergic to wasp than bee venom (146 vs. 34, p bees, and were not associated with angiotensin convertase inhibitors (ACEi) or β-adrenergic antagonists use. Systemic reactions were observed in 4 individuals on wasp VIT (2.7%) and in 6 patients allergic to bees (17.65%). The VIT was efficacious as most patients reported no reactions (50%) or reported only mild local reactions (43.75%) to field stings. The decrease in sIgE at completion of VIT correlated with the dose of vaccine received ( r = 0.53, p = 0.004). Beekeeping (RR = 29.54, p venom allergy. Venom immunotherapy is highly efficacious and safe as most of the adverse events during the induction and maintenance phase are mild and local. Side effects of VIT are more common in subjects on bee VIT. Beekeeping and female sex are associated with a higher risk of allergy to Hymenoptera venom.

  14. Venlafaxine extended release versus conventional antidepressants in the remission of depressive disorders after previous antidepressant failure: ARGOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldomero, E Baca; Ubago, J Giner; Cercós, C Leal; Ruiloba, J Vallejo; Calvo, C García; López, R Prieto

    2005-01-01

    Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may be used as an alternative treatment for depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant. This randomized, open-label, multicenter study compared the effectiveness of the SNRI venlafaxine extended release (VXR) with that of conventional antidepressants (CA) in patients who were referred to an outpatient psychiatric specialty care setting for treatment after failure to tolerate or respond to at least 4 weeks of treatment with a CA in a primary care setting. Patients with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) score > or =17 were randomly assigned to treatment with an alternative CA or VXR. Remission was defined as a score < or =7 on the HAM-D17. Efficacy analyses were carried out on 3,097 patients from the intent-to-treat (ITT) population (1,632 VXR; 1,465 CA). The antidepressants prescribed most frequently in the CA group were paroxetine (21.3%), citalopram (20.1%), sertraline (19.1%), fluoxetine (17.0%), and mirtazapine (7.9%). After 24 weeks of treatment, the VXR group demonstrated a significantly higher remission rate than did the CA group (59.3% VXR; 51.5% CA; P<.0001; odds ratio: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.19-1.58; P<.01). Despite the limitations of the open design, the results of this study suggest that venlafaxine extended release may be more effective than the conventional antidepressants used in this study when treating depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant.

  15. Previous experiences and emotional baggage as barriers to lifestyle change - a qualitative study of Norwegian Healthy Life Centre participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Følling, Ingrid S; Solbjør, Marit; Helvik, Anne-S

    2015-06-23

    Changing lifestyle is challenging and difficult. The Norwegian Directorate of Health recommends that all municipalities establish Healthy Life Centres targeted to people with lifestyle issues. Little is known about the background, experiences and reflections of participants. More information is needed about participants to shape effective lifestyle interventions with lasting effect. This study explores how participants in a lifestyle intervention programme describe previous life experiences in relation to changing lifestyle. Semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews were performed with 23 participants (16 women and 7 men) aged 18 - 70 years. The data were analysed using systematic text condensation searching for issues describing participants' responses, and looking for the essence, aiming to share the basis of life-world experiences as valid knowledge. Participants identified two main themes: being stuck in old habits, and being burdened with emotional baggage from their previous negative experiences. Participants expressed a wish to change their lifestyles, but were unable to act in accordance with the health knowledge they possessed. Previous experiences with lifestyle change kept them from initiating attempts without professional assistance. Participants also described being burdened by an emotional baggage with problems from childhood and/or with family, work and social life issues. Respondents said that they felt that emotional baggage was an important explanation for why they were stuck in old habits and that conversely, being stuck in old habits added load to their already emotional baggage and made it heavier. Behavioural change can be hard to perform as psychological distress from life baggage can influence the ability to change. The study participants' experience of being stuck in old habits and having substantial emotional baggage raises questions as to whether or not Healthy Life Centres are able to help participants who need to make a lifestyle

  16. Study of Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Social Studies Teacher Candidates on Educational Internet Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Özkan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at examining the self-efficacy perceptions of social studies teacher candidates with respect to educational internet use. This research was conducted on a sample of 174 social studies teacher candidates enrolled in Gaziantep University Nizip Faculty of Education. The "Educational Internet Self-Efficacy Scale," developed…

  17. Outcomes of induction of labour in women with previous caesarean delivery: a retrospective cohort study using a population database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Stock

    Full Text Available There is evidence that induction of labour (IOL around term reduces perinatal mortality and caesarean delivery rates when compared to expectant management of pregnancy (allowing the pregnancy to continue to await spontaneous labour or definitive indication for delivery. However, it is not clear whether IOL in women with a previous caesarean section confers the same benefits. The aim of this study was to describe outcomes of IOL at 39-41 weeks in women with one previous caesarean delivery and to compare outcomes of IOL or planned caesarean delivery to those of expectant management.We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of singleton births greater than 39 weeks gestation, in women with one previous caesarean delivery, in Scotland, UK 1981-2007 (n = 46,176. Outcomes included mode of delivery, perinatal mortality, neonatal unit admission, postpartum hemorrhage and uterine rupture. 40.1% (2,969/7,401 of women who underwent IOL 39-41 weeks were ultimately delivered by caesarean. When compared to expectant management IOL was associated with lower odds of caesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] after IOL at 39 weeks of 0.81 [95% CI 0.71-0.91]. There was no significant effect on the odds of perinatal mortality but greater odds of neonatal unit admission (AOR after IOL at 39 weeks of 1.29 [95% CI 1.08-1.55]. In contrast, when compared with expectant management, elective repeat caesarean delivery was associated with lower perinatal mortality (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.23 [95% CI 0.07-0.75] and, depending on gestation, the same or lower neonatal unit admission (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.98 [0.90-1.07] at 40 weeks of 1.08 [0.94-1.23] and at 41 weeks of 0.77 [0.60-1.00].A more liberal policy of IOL in women with previous caesarean delivery may reduce repeat caesarean delivery, but increases the risks of neonatal complications.

  18. Birth outcome in women with previously treated breast cancer--a population-based cohort study from Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Dalberg

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on birth outcome and offspring health after the appearance of breast cancer are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of adverse birth outcomes in women previously treated for invasive breast cancer compared with the general population of mothers.Of all 2,870,932 singleton births registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry during 1973-2002, 331 first births following breast cancer surgery--with a mean time to pregnancy of 37 mo (range 7-163--were identified using linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry. Logistic regression analysis was used. The estimates were adjusted for maternal age, parity, and year of delivery. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to estimate infant health and mortality, delivery complications, the risk of preterm birth, and the rates of instrumental delivery and cesarean section. The large majority of births from women previously treated for breast cancer had no adverse events. However, births by women exposed to breast cancer were associated with an increased risk of delivery complications (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9, cesarean section (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.7, very preterm birth (<32 wk (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.7-6.0, and low birth weight (<1500 g (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.8. A tendency towards an increased risk of malformations among the infants was seen especially in the later time period (1988-2002 (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7.It is reassuring that births overall were without adverse events, but our findings indicate that pregnancies in previously treated breast cancer patients should possibly be regarded as higher risk pregnancies, with consequences for their surveillance and management.

  19. School Collective Efficacy and Bullying Behaviour: A Multilevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Olsson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people’s lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students (n = 6067 and teachers (n = 1251 in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying.

  20. School Collective Efficacy and Bullying Behaviour: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Gabriella; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Modin, Bitte

    2017-01-01

    As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people’s lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration). A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students (n = 6067) and teachers (n = 1251) in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying. PMID:29261114

  1. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS ORAL APPLICATION OF DIPHTHERIA ANTIGENIC PREPARATIONS ON RABBIT ALLERGIC REACTION FORMING AFTER SKIN TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babych YeM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It’s studied an influence of previous oral application of diphtheria antigenic preparations on allergic inflammation forming after skin test. It’s used destroyed by ultrasonic microbe cells C.diphtheriae var. gravis tox+ massachusets, free from destroyed cells by the use of centrifugation supernatant and refined concentrated diphteria toxoid. Experimental rabbits are fed to 3,5 ml of one of antigenic preparations (the total protein dose is 33,6 mg, control ones are fed to saline. In a week all animals were injected intracutaneously 0,2 ml each of corresponding antigenic preparation. The findings testify to decreasing manifestation tendency of rabbit skin reactions on antigenic preparations.

  2. Studies on the immune response of previously infected lambs to vaccination with the radiation attenuated Dictyocaulus filaria vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, D.N.; Sharma, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    The immune response of lambs infected with the lungworm, Dictyocaulus filaria to vaccination with the radiation attenuated D.filaria vaccine was studied under experimental conditions. Healthy, un-infected lambs, 4-6 months of age were randomly distributed into three groups. Group one lambs were previously exposed to single or trickle infections of D.filaria before being vaccinated, group two lambs were vaccinated only whereas the group three lambs received neither infection nor were vaccinated. All the lambs were subsequently challanged with normal infective D.filaria larvae. The results of the experiment indicate that the vaccine confers very little or practically no immunity in lambs already exposed to the infection. The significance of these findings in the use of the vaccine for the control of lungworm disease in sheep under field conditions is discussed. (author)

  3. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico, Calle 30 no. 502, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: roman.padilla@infomed.sld.cu; Espen, P. van [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Torres, P.P. Godo [Centro de Antropologia, Havana (Cuba)

    2006-02-03

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a {sup 241}Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery.

  4. Evaluation of questionnaire-based information on previous physical work loads. Stockholm MUSIC 1 Study Group. Musculoskeletal Intervention Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgén, M; Winkel, J; Alfredsson, L; Kilbom, A

    1999-06-01

    The principal aim of the present study was to evaluate questionnaire-based information on past physical work loads (6-year recall). Effects of memory difficulties on reproducibility were evaluated for 82 subjects by comparing previously reported results on current work loads (test-retest procedure) with the same items recalled 6 years later. Validity was assessed by comparing self-reports in 1995, regarding work loads in 1989, with worksite measurements performed in 1989. Six-year reproducibility, calculated as weighted kappa coefficients (k(w)), varied between 0.36 and 0.86, with the highest values for proportion of the workday spent sitting and for perceived general exertion and the lowest values for trunk and neck flexion. The six-year reproducibility results were similar to previously reported test-retest results for these items; this finding indicates that memory difficulties was a minor problem. The validity of the questionnaire responses, expressed as rank correlations (r(s)) between the questionnaire responses and workplace measurements, varied between -0.16 and 0.78. The highest values were obtained for the items sitting and repetitive work, and the lowest and "unacceptable" values were for head rotation and neck flexion. Misclassification of exposure did not appear to be differential with regard to musculoskeletal symptom status, as judged by the calculated risk estimates. The validity of some of these self-administered questionnaire items appears sufficient for a crude assessment of physical work loads in the past in epidemiologic studies of the general population with predominantly low levels of exposure.

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Vorapaxar With and Without a Thienopyridine for Secondary Prevention in Patients With Previous Myocardial Infarction and No History of Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack: Results from TRA 2°P-TIMI 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohula, Erin A; Aylward, Philip E; Bonaca, Marc P; Corbalan, Ramon L; Kiss, Robert G; Murphy, Sabina A; Scirica, Benjamin M; White, Harvey; Braunwald, Eugene; Morrow, David A

    2015-11-17

    Vorapaxar antagonizes protease-activated receptor 1, the primary receptor for thrombin on human platelets, and reduces recurrent thrombotic events in stable patients with a previous myocardial infarction (MI). We wished to determine whether the efficacy and safety of antiplatelet therapy with vorapaxar was modified by concurrent thienopyridine use. The Thrombin Receptor Antagonist in Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Ischemic Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 50 (TRA 2°P-TIMI 50) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vorapaxar in 26,449 patients with previous atherothrombosis. This prespecified analysis included 16,897 patients who qualified with a MI in the preceding 2 weeks to 12 months and was restricted to patients without a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack given its contraindication in that population. Randomization was stratified on the basis of planned thienopyridine use. Thienopyridine was planned at randomization in 12,410 (73%). Vorapaxar significantly reduced the composite of cardiovascular death, MI, and stroke in comparison with placebo regardless of planned thienopyridine therapy (planned thienopyridine, hazard ratio, 0.80, 0.70-0.91, PGlobal Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) moderate or severe bleeding risk was increased with vorapaxar and was not significantly altered by planned thienopyridine (planned, hazard ratio, 1.50; 1.18-1.89, Phistory of previous MI, whether treated concomitantly with a thienopyridine or not. The relative risk of moderate or severe bleeding was similarly increased irrespective of thienopyridine use. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00526474. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. A comprehensive study of oculocutaneous albinism type 1 reveals three previously unidentified alleles on the TYR gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ying; Wei, Ai-Hua; He, Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Lian, Shi; Zhu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a congenital genetic disorder characterized by defects in melanin production. OCA type 1 (OCA1) is the most serious and common type of OCA. This study characterized mutations associated with OCA1 in a series of Chinese patients. We recruited 41 unrelated patients with OCA and 100 healthy subjects from the Chinese Han population. Genomic DNA was extracted from their blood samples. Mutational analysis of tyrosinase (TYR) genes was conducted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing, specifically to test the 100 control subjects and exclude the possibility of polymorphism. Mutational analysis and bioinformatics study were performed in TYR mutations. Among the 24 (58.5%) patients with OCA1, 21 different TYR mutations were identified, including three previously unidentified alleles (PUAs): one frameshift mutation (c.216delA) and two missense mutations (A241T and N364K). The proband mutation A241T carries three possible mutations in complex OCA. The findings of this study expand current knowledge and data of mutations associated with OCA1 in China and allow us to estimate or explore the mutation spectrum and relative frequencies of the TYR gene in the Chinese population.

  7. Barriers to postpartum screening for type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study of women with previous gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Forough; Rahimparvar, Seyedeh Fatemeh Vasegh; Mehrdad, Neda; Keramat, Afsaneh

    2017-01-01

    Risk of developing type 2 diabetes is increased in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Postpartum glycemic screening is recommended in women with recent GDM. But this screening rate is low and the reasons are unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of Iranian women with recent GDM on barriers of postpartum screening for diabetes. This qualitative study was conducted in Tehran, Iran in 2016. Semi-structured interview was used for data collection. 22 women with recent GDM were interviewed. These women gave birth in Tehran hospitals at a minimum of 6 months before interview. The missed screening defined as not attending to laboratory for Fasting Blood Sugar and/or Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, 6 week to 6 month after their child birthing. The data was analyzed by content analysis method. Themes and sub-themes that illustrated the barriers to postpartum diabetes screening were: inadequate education (about developing diabetes in the future, implementation of the screening, and glucometer validity in diagnosis of diabetes), perceiving the screening as difficult (feeling comfortable with the glucometer, poor laboratory conditions, issues related to the baby/babies, and financial problems), improper attitudes toward the screening (unwilling to get diagnosed, not giving priority to oneself, having false beliefs) and procrastination (gap to intention and action, self-deception and self-regulation failure). Women with recent GDM reported several barriers for postpartum diabetes screening. This study help to develop the evidence-based interventions for improving this screening rate.

  8. Value and reliability of findings from previous epidemiologic studies in the assessment of radiation-related cancer risks. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasch, G.; Martignoni, K.

    1990-01-01

    The theories put forward here are predominantly based on pooled data from previous studies in a number of cohorts made up by mostly non-average individuals. These studies were carried out by various researchers and differed in procedures and aims. Factors of major importance to the validity and reliability of the conclusions drawn from this study are pointed out. In one chapter some light is thrown on factors known to bear a relation to the incidence of radiation-induced cancer of the breast, even though at present this can only very vaguely be described on a quantitative basis. These factors include fractionated dose regimens, pregnancies and parturitions, menarche, menopause, synergisms as well as secondary cancer of the breast. The available body of evidence suggests that exposure of each of 1 million women to a dose of 10 mGy (rad) can be linked with approx. 3 additional cases of mammary cancer reported on an average per year after the latency period. The fact that there is some statistical scatter around this value is chiefly attributable to age-related causes at the beginning of exposure. Differences in ethnic and cultural characteristics between the populations investigated appeared to be less important here. (orig./MG) [de

  9. A Study on Emotional Healing Efficacy of Fiction for Undergraduate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Su-May Sheih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern society, undergraduates may encounter multiple pressures and thus feel the sense of alienation, anxiety, disturbance and depression. For undergraduates, reading can be independently conducted without the intervention of an instructor; therefore, undergraduates who feel reluctant to expose private emotions to counselors can help themselves through the reading of emotional healing books. This is the application of bibliotherapy. Among various resources, fiction can serve as an appropriate emotional reading material. The researcher deployed semi-structured in-depth interview, and interviewed 21 undergraduates in Taipei City and Taipei County. This study is aimed to understand the kinds of fictions undergraduates read when they are upset and to analyze the emotional healing process of identification, catharsis, and insight so that the emotional healing efficacy can be evaluated. The findings showed that romance, realistic fiction, fantasy, martial arts novel, inspirational fiction, historical fiction, and science fiction can provide full process of emotional healing efficacy. However, detective fiction, online novel, psychological fiction, and horror fiction can only provide parts of the healing process. Besides, the healing efficacy of a specific fiction is different from reader to reader.

  10. Premarket safety and efficacy studies for ADHD medications in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence T Bourgeois

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic condition and pharmacotherapy is the mainstay of treatment, with a variety of ADHD medications available to patients. However, it is unclear to what extent the long-term safety and efficacy of ADHD drugs have been evaluated prior to their market authorization. We aimed to quantify the number of participants studied and their length of exposure in ADHD drug trials prior to marketing.We identified all ADHD medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA and extracted data on clinical trials performed by the sponsor and used by the FDA to evaluate the drug's clinical efficacy and safety. For each ADHD medication, we measured the total number of participants studied and the length of participant exposure and identified any FDA requests for post-marketing trials.A total of 32 clinical trials were conducted for the approval of 20 ADHD drugs. The median number of participants studied per drug was 75 (IQR 0, 419. Eleven drugs (55% were approved after <100 participants were studied and 14 (70% after <300 participants. The median trial length prior to approval was 4 weeks (IQR 2, 9, with 5 (38% drugs approved after participants were studied <4 weeks and 10 (77% after <6 months. Six drugs were approved with requests for specific additional post-marketing trials, of which 2 were performed.Clinical trials conducted for the approval of many ADHD drugs have not been designed to assess rare adverse events or long-term safety and efficacy. While post-marketing studies can fill in some of the gaps, better assurance is needed that the proper trials are conducted either before or after a new medication is approved.

  11. Outcomes of usual chiropractic, harm & efficacy, the ouch study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Bruce F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated that adverse events occur during chiropractic treatment. However, because of these studies design we do not know the frequency and extent of these events when compared to sham treatment. The principal aims of this study are to establish the frequency and severity of adverse effects from short term usual chiropractic treatment of the spine when compared to a sham treatment group. The secondary aim of this study is to establish the efficacy of usual short term chiropractic care for spinal pain when compared to a sham intervention. Methods One hundred and eighty participants will be randomly allocated to either usual chiropractic care or a sham intervention group. To be considered for inclusion the participants must have experienced non-specific spinal pain for at least one week. The study will be conducted at the clinics of registered chiropractors in Western Australia. Participants in each group will receive two treatments at intervals no less than one week. For the usual chiropractic care group, the selection of therapeutic techniques will be left to the chiropractors' discretion. For the sham intervention group, de-tuned ultrasound and de-tuned activator treatment will be applied by the chiropractors to the regions where spinal pain is experienced. Adverse events will be assessed two days after each appointment using a questionnaire developed for this study. The efficacy of short term chiropractic care for spinal pain will be examined at two week follow-up by assessing pain, physical function, minimum acceptable outcome, and satisfaction with care, with the use of the following outcome measures: Numerical Rating Scale, Functional Rating Index, Neck Disability Index, Minimum Acceptable Outcome Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index, and a global measure of treatment satisfaction. The statistician, outcome assessor, and participants will be blinded to treatment allocation. Trial

  12. Outcomes of usual chiropractic, harm & efficacy, the ouch study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Bruce F; Losco, Barrett; Clarke, Brenton R; Hebert, Jeff; French, Simon; Stomski, Norman J

    2011-10-31

    Previous studies have demonstrated that adverse events occur during chiropractic treatment. However, because of these studies design we do not know the frequency and extent of these events when compared to sham treatment. The principal aims of this study are to establish the frequency and severity of adverse effects from short term usual chiropractic treatment of the spine when compared to a sham treatment group. The secondary aim of this study is to establish the efficacy of usual short term chiropractic care for spinal pain when compared to a sham intervention. One hundred and eighty participants will be randomly allocated to either usual chiropractic care or a sham intervention group. To be considered for inclusion the participants must have experienced non-specific spinal pain for at least one week. The study will be conducted at the clinics of registered chiropractors in Western Australia. Participants in each group will receive two treatments at intervals no less than one week. For the usual chiropractic care group, the selection of therapeutic techniques will be left to the chiropractors' discretion. For the sham intervention group, de-tuned ultrasound and de-tuned activator treatment will be applied by the chiropractors to the regions where spinal pain is experienced. Adverse events will be assessed two days after each appointment using a questionnaire developed for this study. The efficacy of short term chiropractic care for spinal pain will be examined at two week follow-up by assessing pain, physical function, minimum acceptable outcome, and satisfaction with care, with the use of the following outcome measures: Numerical Rating Scale, Functional Rating Index, Neck Disability Index, Minimum Acceptable Outcome Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index, and a global measure of treatment satisfaction. The statistician, outcome assessor, and participants will be blinded to treatment allocation. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR

  13. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthoenis Marthoenis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community.

  14. Pilot Study of an Individualised Early Postpartum Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold David McIntyre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal strategies to prevent progression towards overt diabetes in women with recent gestational diabetes remain ill defined. We report a pilot study of a convenient, home based exercise program with telephone support, suited to the early post-partum period. Twenty eight women with recent gestational diabetes were enrolled at six weeks post-partum into a 12 week randomised controlled trial of Usual Care (n=13 versus Supported Care (individualised exercise program with regular telephone support; n=15. Baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD were: Age  33±4  years; Weight 80 ± 20 kg and Body Mass Index (BMI 30.0±9.7 kg/m2. The primary outcome, planned physical activity {Median (Range}, increased by 60 (0–540 mins/week in the SC group versus 0 (0–580 mins/week in the UC group (P=0.234. Walking was the predominant physical activity. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fasting glucose and insulin did not change significantly over time in either group. This intervention designed to increase physical activity in post-partum women with previous gestational diabetes proved feasible. However, no measurable improvement in metabolic or biometric parameters was observed over a three month period.

  15. Using a pregnancy decision support program for women choosing birth after a previous caesarean in Japan: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torigoe, Ikuyo; Shorten, Allison

    2018-02-01

    Opportunities for women and providers to use decision aids and share decisions about birth after caesarean in practice are currently limited in Japan. This is despite known benefits of decision aids to support value-sensitive healthcare decisions. To explore Japanese women's decision making experiences using a decision aid program for birth choices after caesarean. A mixed methods study was conducted among 33 consenting pregnant women with previous caesarean in five obstetrics institutions located in the western part of Japan. Outcome measures included change in level of decisional conflict, change in knowledge, and preference for birth method. Semi-structured interviews examined women's decision making experiences, and qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The participants in the program experienced a statistically significant improvement in knowledge and reduction in decisional conflict about birth after caesarean. Four themes were identified in the qualitative data related to decision making: change in women's knowledge about birth choices, clarifying women's birth preference, feelings about shared decision making, and contrasting feelings after receiving information. This study confirmed potential benefits of using the decision aid program. However, uncertainty about mode of birth continued for some women immediately prior to the birth. This finding emphasized the need to identify additional ways to support women emotionally throughout the process of decision making about birth after caesarean. It was feasible to adapt the decision aid for use in clinical practice. Future research is necessary to examine its effectiveness when implemented in Japanese clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Discovery of previously undetected intellectual disability by psychological assessment: a study of consecutively referred child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, David L; Stokes, John; Buccolo, Martin L; Pappalardo, Stephen; Harvey, Philip D

    2014-07-01

    Intellectual disability is associated with an increased risk of behavioral disturbances and also complicates their treatment. Despite increases in the sophistication of medical detection of early risk for intellectual disability, there is remarkably little data about the detection of intellectual disability in cases referred for psychiatric treatment. In this study, we used a 10-year sample of 23,629 consecutive child and adolescent admissions (ages between 6 and 17) to inpatient psychiatric treatment. Eleven percent (n=2621) of these cases were referred for psychological assessment and were examined with a general measure of intellectual functioning (i.e., WISC-IV). Of these cases, 16% had Full Scale IQs below 70. Of the cases whose therapists then referred them for formal assessment of their adaptive functioning (i.e., ABAS-II) 81% were found to have composite scores below 70 as well. Only one of the cases whose Full Scale IQ was less than 70 had a referral diagnosis of intellectual disability. Cases with previously undetected intellectual disability were found to be significantly more likely to have a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder and less likely to have a diagnosis of mood disorder than cases with IQs over 70. Disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses did not differ as a function of intellectual performance. These data suggest a high rate of undetected intellectual disability in cases with a psychiatric condition serious enough to require hospitalization and this raises the possibility that many such cases may be misdiagnosed, the basis of their problems may be misconceptualized, and they may be receiving treatments that do not take into account their intellectual level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiple comparisons in drug efficacy studies: scientific or marketing principles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    When researchers design an experiment to compare a given medication to another medication, a behavioral therapy, or a placebo, the experiment often involves numerous comparisons. For instance, there may be several different evaluation methods, raters, and time points. Although scientifically justified, such comparisons can be abused in the interests of drug marketing. This article provides two recent examples of such questionable practices. The first involves the case of the arthritis drug celecoxib (Celebrex), where the study lasted 12 months but the authors only presented 6 months of data. The second case involves the NIMH Multimodal Treatment Study (MTA) study evaluating the efficacy of stimulant medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder where ratings made by several groups are reported in contradictory fashion. The MTA authors have not clarified the confusion, at least in print, suggesting that the actual findings of the study may have played little role in the authors' reported conclusions.

  18. Associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic diseases in Chinese adults: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Biao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Meina; Wang, Yongchen

    2017-01-01

    To assess the associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic disorders in Chinese adults. 4,629 adults aged 18 years or older were recruited in Harbin, China. Among them, 1,114 were previously diagnosed atopic cases, 1,298 were newly diagnosed cases, and 2,217 non-atopic controls. Obesity and overweight are defined according to the criteria established by the Working Group on Obesity in China. The associations of obesity with known and newly diagnosed atopic disorder...

  19. Phase I study of cetuximab, irinotecan, and vandetanib (ZD6474 as therapy for patients with previously treated metastastic colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Meyerhardt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD and safety, and explore efficacy and biomarkers of vandetanib with cetuximab and irinotecan in second-line metastatic colorectal cancer. METHODS: Vandetanib (an orally bioavailable VEGFR-2 and EGFR tyrosine kinases inhibitor was combined at 100 mg, 200 mg, or 300 mg daily with standard dosed cetuximab and irinotecan (3+3 dose-escalation design. Ten patients were treated at the MTD and plasma angiogenesis biomarkers (VEGF, PlGF, bFGF, sVEGFR1, sVEGFR2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, SDF1α were measured before and after treatment. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients were enrolled at 4 dose levels and the MTD. Two dose-limiting toxicities (grade 3 QTc prolongation and diarrhea were detected at 300 mg of vandetanib with cetuximab and irinotecan resulting in 200 mg being the MTD. Seven percent of patients had a partial response, 59% stable disease and 34% progressed. Median progression-free survival was 3.6 months (95% CI, 3.2-5.6 and median overall survival was 10.5 months (95% CI, 5.1-20.7. Toxicities were fairly manageable with grade 3 or 4 diarrhea being most prominent (30%. Vandetanib and cetuximab treatment induced a sustained increase in plasma PlGF and a transient decrease in plasma sVEGFR1, but no changes in plasma VEGF and sVEGFR2. CONCLUSIONS: Vandetanib can be safely combined with cetuximab and irinotecan for metastatic colorectal cancer. Exploratory biomarker analyses suggest differential effects on certain plasma biomarkers for VEGFR inhibition when combined with EGFR blockade and a potential correlation between baseline sVEGFR1 and response. However, while the primary endpoint was safety, the observed efficacy raises concern for moving forward with this combination. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00436072.

  20. A real life study of Helicobacter pylori eradication with bismuth quadruple therapy in naïve and previously treated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blas José Gómez-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a quadruple regimen (BMTO of the "3-in-1 capsule" (containing bismuth subcitrate potassium, metronidazole and tetracycline plus omeprazole in naïve and previously treated patients diagnosed with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection in the clinical setting in Seville (Spain. Methods: This is a prospective study carried out on consecutive patients with a confirmed H. pylori infection and upper gastrointestinal symptoms. After providing their informed consent, the patients were treated for ten days with a 3-in-1 capsule containing bismuth subcitrate potassium (140 mg, metronidazole (125 mg and tetracycline (125 mg: Pylera®, three capsules four times daily, plus omeprazole (20 or 40 mg twice daily. Eradication of infection was determined by a negative urea breath test at least 28 days after the end of treatment. Results: A total of 58 consecutive patients were enrolled into this study, two of whom withdrew early due to vomiting on days three and five, respectively. In this cohort, 17 patients (29.3% had a prior history of medication to treat H. pylori. In the intent-to-treat population, eradication was achieved in 97.6% (40/41 and 82.4% (14/17 of cases in patients treated with BMTO as a first-line or rescue therapy, respectively. At least one adverse event was reported by 28 (48% patients, mostly mild effects (86%. Conclusion: A ten day treatment with BMTO is an effective and safe strategy to combat confirmed H. pylori infection in patients.

  1. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  2. Safety and Palliative Efficacy of Single-Dose 8-Gy Reirradiation for Painful Local Failure in Patients With Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated With Radical Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topkan, Erkan, E-mail: docdretopkan@gmail.com [Baskent Department of Radiation Oncology, University Adana Medical Faculty, Adana (Turkey); Yildirim, Berna Akkus; Guler, Ozan Cem; Parlak, Cem [Baskent Department of Radiation Oncology, University Adana Medical Faculty, Adana (Turkey); Pehlivan, Berrin [Koc University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Istanbul, and American Hospital, University of Texas MD Anderson Radiation Treatment Center, Istanbul (Turkey); Selek, Ugur [Medstar Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Antalya (Turkey)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of single-dose 8-Gy palliative chest reirradiation (CRI) in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (M-NSCLC) patients with painful thoracic failures (TF) within the previous radiation portal. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 78 M-NSCLC patients who received single-dose 8-Gy CRI for painful TF after concurrent chemoradiation therapy to a total radiation dose of 52 to 66 Gy between 2007 and 2012. Primary endpoints included significant pain relief (SPR) defined as a ≥2 point decrement in the Visual Analogue Scale for Pain inventory (VAS-P), time to pain relief, and duration of pain control. Secondary objectives were survival and prognostic factors. Results: Treatment was well tolerated, with only 5.1% grade 3 pneumonitis and 1.3% grade 2 esophagitis. Pre-CRI median and post-CRI minimum VAS-P were 7 and 3 (P<.001), respectively. SPR was noted in 67 (85.9%) patients, and only 3 (3.9%) scored progressive pain. Median time to lowest VAS-P and duration of pain control were 27 days and 6.1 months, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) was 7.7 months, and the 1-year OS rate was 26.5%. On multivariate analyses, lower Eastern Cooperative Oncology group score (1-2; P<.001), absence of anemia (P=.001), and fewer metastatic sites (1-2; P<.001) were found to be associated with longer OS. Conclusions: Single-dose 8-Gy CRI provides safe, effective, and durable pain palliation for TF in radically irradiated M-NSCLC patients. Because of its convenience, lower cost, and higher comfort, the present protocol can be considered an appropriate option for patients with limited life spans.

  3. The efficacy of acupuncture on menopausal symptoms (ACOM study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Kamma Sundgaard; Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Around 75% of menopausal women experience hot flushes (HF) and 10-20% of all postmenopausal women find this very distressing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture on moderate-to-severe menopausal symptoms in general and HF in particular. METHODS: An un...... acupuncturists will be medical doctors educated in acupuncture. The primary outcome is change in HF from baseline to week 6 measured by the HF scale from the MenoScores Questionnaire (MSQ). Secondary outcomes are change in other menopausal symptoms, in particular day and night sweats and menopausal......: In the ACOM study, we explore the potential benefits of acupuncture on moderate-to-severe meno-pausal symptoms. The cross-over design offers the possi-bility of examining the legacy effect of acupuncture. FUNDING: The Idella Foundation, the University of Copenhagen and the Research Foundation of General...

  4. Associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic diseases in Chinese adults: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Biao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Meina; Wang, Yongchen

    2017-03-02

    To assess the associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic disorders in Chinese adults. 4,629 adults aged 18 years or older were recruited in Harbin, China. Among them, 1,114 were previously diagnosed atopic cases, 1,298 were newly diagnosed cases, and 2,217 non-atopic controls. Obesity and overweight are defined according to the criteria established by the Working Group on Obesity in China. The associations of obesity with known and newly diagnosed atopic disorders were assessed using logistic regressions. Obesity was significantly associated with known atopic disorders (adjusted OR = 2.41 (95% CI: 1.81, 3.22)). The association of obesity with newly diagnosed atopic cases was not as strong as that with known cases, and was not statistically significant (adjusted OR = 1.27 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.72)). The similar pattern was observed in different allergic diseases, gender and age stratifications. The association between overweight and atopic diseases were not significant. Obesity is strongly associated with previously diagnosed atopic cases but not so with newly diagnosed atopic cases in Chinese adults. It is likely that people with atopic disorders have a higher risk of developing obesity. Our findings are important for the management of atopic disorders and chronic disease prevention among atopic disease patients.

  5. Phase I/II study of gefitinib (Iressa(®)) and vorinostat (IVORI) in previously treated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji-Youn; Lee, Soo Hyun; Lee, Geon Kook; Yun, Tak; Lee, Young Joo; Hwang, Kum Hui; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Heung Tae

    2015-03-01

    Vorinostat has been shown to overcome resistance to gefitinib. We performed a phase I/II study combining gefitinib with vorinostat in previously treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A 3 + 3 dose-escalation design was used to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Three dose levels were tested: 250 mg/day gefitinib on days 1-28 and 200, 300 or 400 mg/day vorinostat on days 1-7, and 15-21 out of every 28 days. The primary endpoint was median progression-free survival (PFS). Fifty-two patients were enrolled and treated (43 in phase II). The median age was 59 years, 28 patients were male, 44 had adenocarcinoma, 29 had never smoked, and 36 had undergone one prior treatment. Twenty-two patients exhibited sensitive EGFR mutations. Planned dose escalation was completed without reaching the MTD. The RP2D was 250 mg gefitinib and 400 mg vorinostat. In 43 assessable patients in phase II, the median PFS was 3.2 months; the overall survival (OS) was 19.0 months. There were 16 partial responses and six cases of stable disease. In EGFR-mutant NSCLC, response rate was 77 %, median PFS was 9.1 months, and median OS was 24.1 months. The most common adverse events were anorexia and diarrhea. Treatment with 250 mg gefitinib daily with biweekly 400 mg/day vorinostat was feasible and well tolerated. In an unselected patient population, this combination dose did not improve PFS. However, this combination showed a potential for improving efficacy of gefitinib in EGFR-mutant NSCLC (NCT01027676).

  6. Radioimmunotherapy with Y-90-epratuzumab in patients with previously treated B-cell lymphoma. A fractionated dose-escalation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, O.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Tennvall, J.; Hindorf, C.; Olsson, T.; Strand, S.E.; Stenberg, L.; Wingardh, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Fractionated RIT may improve outcome by decreasing heterogeneity in absorbed dose and by increasing therapeutic window. The humanised anti-CD22 antibody, Epratuzumab, (Immunomedics, Inc., Morris Plains, NJ) can be given repeatedly with minimal risk of neutralising Ab (HAHA), making fractionated treatment with 90 Y-labelled epratuzumab possible. Materials and Methods: Patients with previously treated B-cell lymphoma received increasing number (2-4) of weekly infusions of 90 Y-epratuzumab. Patients received either 185 MBq/m 2 per infusion (group A), or, if they had a history of high-dose chemotherapy with stem-cell rescue, 92.5 MBq/m 2 per infusion (group B). The first infusion included 150 MBq of 111 Indium for scintigraphic verification of tumour targeting and dosimetry. 1.5 mg/kg epratuzumab was administered with each infusion. The treatment could be repeated once after 3 m. Results: Of 23 patients, 16 in group A and 6 in group B were evaluable for response. The RR in group A was 62% objective response (OR) and 25% CR/CRu. One patient in group B showed OR. OR was seen in aggressive and indolent lymphoma. Response was also long-lasting and event-free survival of patients showing CR/CRu was 14 to 25+ months. In group A all seven patient, receiving three infusions, showed less than grade 3 platelet and neutrophil toxicity, except for two patients suffering grade 3 neutropenia. Of five patients with 4 weekly infusions there were two patients with dose-limiting haematological toxicity (DLT), both recently treated with high dose cytosar before RIT. With criteria used the maximal tolerated dose was three infusions 185 MBq/m 2 . In group B no patient suffered DLT and one patient exhibited OR. Seven patients were retreated after 3 months with minor toxicity, but improvement in OR in two cases. No patient has developed HAHA. CD22 expression on tumour cells, as assessed by flow cytometry, is available in 18 of 22 patients. In group A, seven of eight patients with

  7. Correlational Study between Teacher Perceived High School Principal Leadership Style and Teacher Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative correlational study addressed the concept that teacher-perceived high school principal leadership style correlated with teacher self-efficacy. A relationship existed between teacher self-efficacy and student outcomes and research indicated a relationship between leadership style and teacher self-efficacy. Also, the effect of…

  8. The efficacy of acupuncture on menopausal symptoms (ACOM study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Kamma Sundgaard; Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Around 75% of menopausal women experience hot flushes (HF) and 10-20% of all postmenopausal women find this very distressing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture on moderate-to-severe menopausal symptoms in general and HF in particular. METHODS: An un......-blinded randomised trial (cross-over) with 1:1 allocation to early (intervention) versus late (control) acupuncture. The included women suffer from moderate-to-severe HF and will receive a weekly treatment during five consecutive weeks in the following predefined acupuncture points: CV-3, CV-4, LR-8, SP-6, SP-9. All...... acupuncturists will be medical doctors educated in acupuncture. The primary outcome is change in HF from baseline to week 6 measured by the HF scale from the MenoScores Questionnaire (MSQ). Secondary outcomes are change in other menopausal symptoms, in particular day and night sweats and menopausal...

  9. Intracameral lidocaine in trabeculectomy. A preliminary safety and efficacy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Jimmy

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the safety and efficacy of intracameral lidocaine as anaesthesia in trabeculectomy for primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: Trabeculectomy under intracameral anaesthesia using 1% preservative-free lidocaine was performed in 10 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Intraoperative pain score, postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP and endothelial cell count at 3 months were recorded. Results: The mean pain score was 1.70 ± 1.34. The mean IOP was lowered from 24.60 ± 8.28 mmHg preoperatively to 14.1 ± 3.11 mm Hg postoperatively. There was no significant decrease in the mean endothelial cell count 3 months after the surgery (P = 0.375. Conclusion: Intracameral lidocaine may be a safe and effective alternative anaesthesia method in trabeculectomy for uncomplicated primary open-angle glaucoma.

  10. Catheter ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients with previous amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylov, Evgeny N; Orshanskaya, Viktorya S; Lebedev, Alexander D; Szili-Torok, Tamas; Lebedev, Dmitry S

    2013-08-01

    Many patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) receive amiodarone. Amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism (AIH) may develop as a complication. We hypothesized that pulmonary vein (PV) isolation in patients with paroxysmal AF and history of AIH may yield a lower success rate. Among 704 patients who underwent AF ablation in our center between 2007 and 2010, we identified 20 patients (mean age 58.3 ± 5.0 years; 11 males) with paroxysmal AF and overt AIH in the past. The control group consisted of 40 patients with amiodarone-refractory AF and no thyroid dysfunction. All patients underwent circumferential PV isolation. During redo procedures all tachycardias were targeted for ablation. During a 12-month follow-up, in the AIH group 6 (30%) patients were arrhythmia free after a single procedure, in comparison to 25 (62.5%) controls (P = 0.01). Atrial tachycardia (AT) was registered in 7 (35%) AIH patients and in 1 (2.5%) control patient (P = 0.001). AF recurred in 10 (50%) AIH versus 15 (37.5%) control patients (P = 0.2). Redo ablation was performed in 7 (35%) AIH patients and in 3 (7.5%) non-AIH patients (P = 0.01). During a redo procedure a PV-unrelated tachycardia was diagnosed in 5 (25%) AIH patients (vs 0 in the controls, P = 0.003). After the last performed ablation, 12 (60%) AIH patients and 28 (70%) controls had no recurrence, P = 0.56. AIH was an independent predictor of ATs. PV isolation alone has a lower efficacy for preventing recurrence in paroxysmal AF in AIH patients. After repeat ablations, overall freedom from tachyarrhythmias is similar to patients with no history of thyroid dysfunction. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Efficacy and tolerability of a single-pill combination of telmisartan 80 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg according to age, gender, race, hypertension severity, and previous antihypertensive use: planned analyses of a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu D

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dingliang Zhu,1 Harold Bays,2 Pingjin Gao,1 Michaela Mattheus,3 Birgit Voelker,3 Luis M Ruilope4 1Shanghai Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Louisville Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center Inc, Louisville, KY, USA; 3Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Ingelheim, Germany; 4Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain Background: The purpose of this work was to describe the efficacy and safety of a telmisartan 80 mg + hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg (T80/H25 single-pill combination therapy in patients with moderate-severe hypertension (mean seated trough cuff systolic blood pressure [BP] ≥ 160 mmHg and diastolic BP ≥ 100 mmHg in specific patient subpopulations. Methods: This was a planned analysis of a double-blind, multicenter, parallel-group trial that demonstrated the superiority of a single-pill combination of T80/H25 versus T80 monotherapy in terms of systolic BP change from baseline to week 7. Subpopulations included older (aged ≥ 65 years versus younger, gender, race, hypertension severity, and prior antihypertensive therapy. Endpoints were change from baseline in mean seated trough cuff systolic and diastolic BP, proportion of patients achieving their BP goal (systolic/diastolic BP 30 mmHg and >40 mmHg. Results: Across all subgroups, the T80/H25 single-pill combination provided consistently greater systolic and diastolic BP reductions than T80 and more patients had systolic BP reductions of >30 mmHg. In the T80 and T80/H25 groups, BP control was achieved in 34.1% and 48.8% of men, 35.5% and 62.7% of women, 34.5% and 56.6% of Asians, 22.6% and 38.6% of blacks, 36.7% and 57.8% of whites, 36.9% and 57.5% of patients < 65 years, 29.3% and 49.3% ≥65 years, 44.2% and 66.2% of those with grade 2 hypertension, 20.4% and 39.4% of those with grade 3 hypertension, 38.9% and 53.2% of previously untreated patients, 38.1% and 62.5% of patients previously treated with one antihypertensive, and 29.7% and 48.9% of patients

  12. Computer User Self-Efficacy Scale – CUSE: A preliminary study to portuguese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pocinho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 177 976 USAL 8 2 1151 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The instrument Computer User Self-Efficacy Scale (CUSE; Cassidy & Eachus, 2002 was developed in order to measure and analyze the self-efficacy of the adult population in the context of computer use. Arises in a context where many authors were interested in the study of self-efficacy and who considered that this had a strong influence on the performance of tasks that were required the use of computers. The present preliminary study aims to adapt and to validate the instrument Computer User Self-Efficacy Scale (CUSE; Cassidy & Eachus, 2002 for the portuguese population, specifically in the retired population who uses the computer. The results indicate that this scale has a high internal consistency and acceptable standards featuring reliability and validity. It was also found that self-efficacy is positively correlated with moderate and statistically previous experience with using computers. The results indicate that the instrument Computer User Self-Efficacy Scale (CUSE; Cassidy & Eachus, 2002 is valid for the study and analysis of the effectiveness of self-use of computers in portuguese people who are retired and who use computer.

  13. [Efficacy and tolerance of propafenone after correction of atrial fibrillation: PEPS pharmaco-epidemiologic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, T; Mary-Krause, M; Funck-Brentano, C; Davy, J M; Weingrod, M; Jaillon, P

    2002-06-01

    The PEPS study had the objective of documenting the acceptability and efficacy of propafenone in 1366 treated patients, after correction of chronic or paroxysmal AF, and followed up over one year. All the cases were validated by quality controls performed by the 196 participating cardiologists. All the events during follow up were validated by a committee of independent experts. The patients, aged 67 +/- 11 years, were in sinus rhythm on inclusion. Propafenone was prescribed at the initial dose of 600 mg/day in 65% of patients. The proportion of patients without relapse of AF was 64 +/- 1% at 12 months. After adjustment, the significant predictors of AF relapse were male sex, previous history of chronic AF and prescription of associated drugs. Neither patient age nor propafenone dose significantly influenced AF relapse. Seven deaths (0.5%) occurred during the study of which 3 were of unknown cause. A pro-arrhythmic effect was observed in 8 patients (0.59%) of which 6 had underlying heart disease. The overall frequency of pro-arrhythmic effects, including the 3 deaths of unknown cause, was therefore 0.81%. Tolerance of treatment with propafenone after correction of AF is therefore satisfactory and the frequency of pro-arrhythmic effects is less than 1%. The efficacy of the treatment for the maintenance of sinus rhythm is in accordance with previously published results.

  14. Efficacy and tolerability of fixed-combination brinzolamide/timolol in Latin American patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension previously on brimonidine/timolol fixed combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alezzandrini, Arturo; Hubatsch, Douglas; Alfaro, Rene

    2014-09-01

    Fixed-combination glaucoma medications are commonly used to achieve target intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction in patients uncontrolled with monotherapy; however, ocular discomfort associated with eye drops can decrease adherence. This study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of twice-daily fixed-combination brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% (BRINZ/TIM-FC) in Latin American patients transitioned from fixed-combination brimonidine 0.2%/timolol 0.5% (BRIM/TIM-FC) because of insufficient IOP control or treatment intolerance. This 8-week, open-label, prospective study was conducted at six sites in Argentina, Chile, and Mexico. Enrolled patients were aged ≥18 years with open-angle glaucoma (including primary, exfoliative, or pigment-dispersion glaucoma) or ocular hypertension with IOP of 19-35 mmHg in ≥1 eye at baseline (on BRIM/TIM-FC). Patients self-administered BRINZ/TIM-FC to both eyes at 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. daily for 8 weeks. The primary and secondary efficacy endpoints were mean IOP change from baseline at week 8 and percentage of patients achieving target IOP (≤18 mmHg) at week 8, respectively. Exploratory endpoints included patient and investigator preference for treatment at week 8. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed as the safety endpoint. Fifty patients (mean ± SD age, 66.7 ± 11.5 years) received BRINZ/TIM-FC, and 49 were included in the intent-to-treat population. Mean ± SD IOP was significantly reduced from baseline after 8 weeks of treatment with BRINZ/TIM-FC (-3.6 ± 3.0 mmHg; P < 0.0001, Wilcoxon signed-rank test; 17.1% reduction). Overall, 55.3% of patients achieved IOP ≤18 mmHg at week 8. Significantly more patients (89.4%) and investigators (95.7%) preferred BRINZ/TIM-FC to BRIM/TIM-FC (both P < 0.0001, exact binomial test). Of the 13 AEs observed, 8 were related to BRINZ/TIM-FC; the most common treatment-related AEs were eye irritation (n = 4) and abnormal sensation in the eye (n = 2). BRINZ/TIM-FC provides an

  15. Plaque removal efficacy of Colgate 360 toothbrush: A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Nageshwar; Chandna, Shalu; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Damle, Dhanashree; Loomba, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this clinical study was to confirm the plaque removal efficacy of the Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush. This was a single-center, monadic, case-controlled study with the 7 days duration. A total of eighty participants (56 male and 24 female) aged between 18 and 45 years with a minimum of 20 permanent teeth (excluding the third molars) without any prosthetic crowns and an initial plaque score of minimum 1.5 as determined by Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (1970) participated in the study. There were two dropouts during the study duration, one male and one female. The participants were instructed to brush for 1 min, after which plaque index was recorded again. They were then instructed to brush their teeth twice a day for 1 min with the assigned toothbrush (Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush) and a commercially available fluoride toothpaste for the next 7 days. On the 7(th) day, all the participants were recalled for follow-up and plaque examination. The plaque index scores (pre- and post-brushing) were recorded, tabulated, and analyzed statistically. The mean plaque indices reduced after brushing both on day 1 and day 7. There was also a reduction in mean plaque indices from day 1 to day 7. All these reductions were statistically significant (P Toothbrush throughout the study period. Continued use resulted in a further significant reduction in plaque scores irrespective of the gender of participants.

  16. Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy of University Students: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Basol

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the entrepreneurial self-efficacy perceptions among university students across two countries, i.e., Poland and Turkey. Data were obtained through questionnaires designed to assess the perceptions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. In all, 365 Polish and 278 Turkish students completed the questionnaires. Results indicated that Polish and Turkish students did not differ significantly in regard to the overall measure of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Our study contributed to the entrepreneurship literature by performing a cross-cultural comparison of the perceptions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Thus, it provided recommendations for fostering entrepreneurial self efficacy among university students.

  17. The relationship between self-efficacy and reading proficiency of first-year students: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi A.N.Y. Boakye

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-efficacy, which is the belief about one’s ability to perform a task successfully, has been widely acknowledged as important in learning. This affective factor, though not explicitly evident, has been said to play an important role in academic performance. However, its role in reading development has not been widely investigated. To determine the relationship between self-efficacy and reading proficiency, a study was conducted with first-year students in a South African tertiary institution. Students’ self-efficacy levels were elicited through a questionnaire and their reading proficiency was obtained through the Test of Academic Literacy levels (TALL, which essentially assesses reading proficiency. An analysis of variance showed a robust relationship between reading self-efficacy and reading proficiency for this cohort of students. Regression analysis conducted with other affective factors showed self-efficacy as the best predictor of students’ reading proficiency. Results are discussed as they relate to previous research and recommendations are made to include the development of self-efficacy in reading instruction.

  18. Antimicrobial efficacy of commercially available mouthrinses: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopavathi Kallahalli Mruthyuenjaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral cavity ecosystem represents a dynamic pattern. An effective plaque control measure should target plaque formation before the mature plaque is formed. Various types of chemotherapeutic agents are coming up with different antimicrobial agents in them. Hence, this study has been undertaken to know whether these antimicrobial agents are effective on common microorganisms of oral cavity which directly and indirectly contributes to plaque formation Aim: The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial efficacy of different mouthrinses against the oral pathogens in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total of seven mouthrinses were tested for their antimicrobial activity against three oral pathogens, namely, Streptococcus mutans (MTCC 890, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 by well agar diffusion assay. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal–Wallis test. The level of significance used was P< 0.05. Results: Mouthrinse with chlorhexidine (CHX gluconate, triclosan as main ingredients showed maximum zone of inhibition (P = 0.003 against streptococcal mutans and E. coli at 1:16 dilution and mouthrinse with CHX gluconate and zinc chloride showed maximum zone of inhibition at 1:16 dilution against Candida among seven mouthrinses used in the present study. It was also observed that zone of inhibition of all the mouthrinses decreased with the increase in dilution. Conclusion: Among mouthrinses formulations, CHX combined with other active ingredients was found to be more effective.

  19. Sibutramine in weight control: a dose-ranging, efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, M; Rubio, A; Golik, A; Byrne, L; Scheinbaum, M L

    1991-09-01

    We tested the safety and efficacy of sibutramine, 5 and 20 mg, and placebo on weight loss. Medication was added to caloric restriction, behavior modification, and exercise in a parallel-group, double-blind clinical trial. Participants were 130% to 180% of ideal body weight and in good health. The study lasted 12 weeks over Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Year's Day. Weight loss during 8 weeks of study medication was: placebo, 1.4 +/- 2.1 kg (n = 19); 5 mg sibutramine, 2.9 +/- 2.3 kg (n = 18); and 20 mg sibutramine, 5.0 +/- 2.7 kg (n = 18) (p less than 0.05 sibutramine, 5 and 20 mg, versus placebo; p less than 0.05 sibutramine, 20 mg versus 5 mg). There is a significant dose-effect relationship. Five participants left the study before completion, all because of adverse events; placebo (one patient), 5 mg sibutramine (one patient), and 20 mg sibutramine (three patients). Sleep difficulties were noted by eight participants (20 mg sibutramine, seven patients; 5 mg, one patient; and placebo, no patients). Six of 21 participants receiving 20 mg complained of irritability, unusual impatience, or "excitation." Sibutramine, 5 and 20 mg, added to a multimodal program assisted participants in losing weight.

  20. Evaluation of a rapid dipstick (Crystal VC for the diagnosis of cholera in Zanzibar and a comparison with previous studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Ley

    Full Text Available The gold standard for the diagnosis of cholera is stool culture, but this requires laboratory facilities and takes at least 24 hours. A rapid diagnostic test (RDT that can be used by minimally trained staff at treatment centers could potentially improve the reporting and management of cholera outbreaks.We evaluated the Crystal VC™ RDT under field conditions in Zanzibar in 2009. Patients presenting to treatment centers with watery diarrhea provided a stool sample for rapid diagnostic testing. Results were compared to stool culture performed in a reference laboratory. We assessed the overall performance of the RDT and evaluated whether previous intake of antibiotics, intravenous fluids, location of testing, and skill level of the technician affected the RDT results.We included stool samples from 624 patients. Compared to culture, the overall sensitivity of the RDT was 93.1% (95%CI: 88.7 to 96.2%, specificity was 49.2% (95%CI: 44.3 to 54.1%, the positive predictive value was 47.0% (95%CI: 42.1 to 52.0% and the negative predictive value was 93.6% (95%CI: 89.6 to 96.5%. The overall false positivity rate was 50.8% (213/419; fieldworkers frequently misread very faint test lines as positive.The observed sensitivity of the Crystal VC RDT evaluated was similar compared to earlier versions, while specificity was poorer. The current version of the RDT could potentially be used as a screening tool in the field. Because of the high proportion of false positive results when field workers test stool specimens, positive results will need to be confirmed with stool culture.

  1. Plaque removal efficacy of Colgate 360 toothbrush: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageshwar Iyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to confirm the plaque removal efficacy of the Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush. Study Design: This was a single-center, monadic, case-controlled study with the 7 days duration. Materials and Methods: A total of eighty participants (56 male and 24 female aged between 18 and 45 years with a minimum of 20 permanent teeth (excluding the third molars without any prosthetic crowns and an initial plaque score of minimum 1.5 as determined by Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (1970 participated in the study. There were two dropouts during the study duration, one male and one female. The participants were instructed to brush for 1 min, after which plaque index was recorded again. They were then instructed to brush their teeth twice a day for 1 min with the assigned toothbrush (Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush and a commercially available fluoride toothpaste for the next 7 days. On the 7 th day, all the participants were recalled for follow-up and plaque examination. The plaque index scores (pre- and post-brushing were recorded, tabulated, and analyzed statistically. Results: The mean plaque indices reduced after brushing both on day 1 and day 7. There was also a reduction in mean plaque indices from day 1 to day 7. All these reductions were statistically significant (P < 0.001. The reduction in plaque scores was independent of the gender of the participants however female participants showed lower scores as compared to male participants (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a significant reduction in plaque scores with the use of Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Soft Toothbrush throughout the study period. Continued use resulted in a further significant reduction in plaque scores irrespective of the gender of participants.

  2. A pilot study of the combination of cyclosporin A and interferon alfacon-1 for the treatment of hepatitis C in previous nonresponder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, Scott J; Morrissey, Mary J; Wiley, Thelma E; Layden, Thomas J; Jensen, Donald M

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the combination of interferon and cyclosporine for the treatment of hepatitis C in previous nonresponder patients. Preliminary data indicated that adding the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A to interferon might improve response rates in patients with hepatitis C. Ten previous virologic nonresponders with genotype 1 infection were included. Treatment consisted of interferon alfacon-1, 15 microg/d, and cyclosporine, 100 mg twice daily, for 4 weeks. The dose of interferon alfacon-1 was then decreased to 15 microg three times weekly, and cyclosporine was reduced to 50 mg twice daily. Therapy was continued for 48 weeks unless viremia persisted at week 24. Three of 10 subjects had an on-treatment virologic response, although one had a breakthrough with recurrent viremia during treatment and two relapsed after therapy was completed. On treatment responders had significantly higher trough cyclosporine levels at week 4 compared with nonresponders (P = 0.025). Serum creatinine levels remained stable, and no patient developed diabetes. Triglyceride levels increased during treatment. Cyclosporine was dose reduced in two patients for hypertension. Selected patients with hepatitis C tolerated therapy, including cyclosporine without severe or irreversible toxicity. Despite an association between higher cyclosporine levels and on-treatment response, the combination of cyclosporine and interferon was ineffective in producing a sustained response in previous nonresponder patients.

  3. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  4. Clinical evaluation of recombinant factor VIII preparation (Kogenate) in previously treated patients with hemophilia A: descriptive meta-analysis of post-marketing study data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, A; Fukutake, K; Takamatsu, J; Shirahata, A

    2006-08-01

    The safety and efficacy of Kogenate, a recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) preparation for the treatment of bleeding episodes, were studied in a 123-patient meta-analysis population of previously treated patients (PTPs), including 15 enrolled in the registration Phase III trial (PTP-I group), 93 from the post-marketing special investigation (PTP-II group), and 15 from short-term special investigations in surgery or tooth extraction (SI group). These patients (82 severe, 31 moderate, 9 mild, and 1 unknown), aged 11 months to 72 years, were enrolled in 28 centers in Japan. Blood samples taken at the baseline and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after the introduction of Kogenate were evaluated for FVIII inhibitor antibodies, antibodies formed against trace proteins derived from the rFVIII production process, and for general changes in laboratory test results. Mean exposure to Kogenate was 1103 days in PTP-I, 86 days in PTP-II, 27 days in patients in surgery, and 2 days in patients with tooth extraction. Assessment of FVIII inhibitor activity was conducted in 115 of the 123 patients by means of the Bethesda assay. Twelve patients were found to have a low titer of FVIII inhibitor (0.5-3.0 BU/mL) prior to any administration of Kogenate, and 103 were inhibitor-negative at the baseline. Among this latter group, 3 patients (2.9%) tested inhibitor-positive, with titers ranging from 1.2 to 2.1 BU/mL, with 4 patients below 1.0 BU/mL. One patient in the 11 PTPs investigated (PTP-I) developed antibodies against baby hamster kidney protein and mouse immunoglobulin G, but these findings were transient and asymptomatic. Hemostasis was achieved (markedly effective or effective) in 3666 of the 3855 bleeding episodes (95.1%) observed in 108 patients. Only 1 infusion was necessary in 3790 (98.3%) of these episodes. These data indicate that Kogenate is safe and very effective for the treatment of bleeding in PTPs with hemophilia A.

  5. Studies in iodine metabolism: 33 year summary, 1948-1979 (as previously submitted) with appendix, 1979-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middlesworth, L.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results of research into iodine metabolism from 1948 to 1982 are summarized. Study areas included the monitoring of iodine 131 from fallout in the thyroid glands of cattle and humans, the biological functions and metabolism of thyroid hormones, and methods to reduce the retention of radioiodine in the thyroid

  6. Fever-Induced Brugada Syndrome Is More Common Than Previously Suspected: A Cross-Sectional Study from an Endemic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanawong, Pattara; Vutthikraivit, Wasawat; Charoensri, Attawit; Jongraksak, Tanawat; Prombandankul, Awapa; Kanjanahattakij, Napatt; Rungaramsin, Sakda; Wisaratapong, Treechada; Ngarmukos, Tachapong

    2016-03-01

    Brugada syndrome (BrS) is defined as presenting of type-1 Brugada pattern (BrP). BrS can also be induced by fever. This study demonstrated a highest prevalence of fever-induced BrS ever reported. During May 2014, febrile (oral temperature ≥ 38 °C) and nonfebrile patients underwent standard and high leads (V1 and V2 at 2nd intercostal space) electrocardiogram. Risk factor and cardiac symptoms were recorded. Patients with a persistent of type-1 BrP after fever had subsided were excluded. The prevalence of BrS, type-2 BrP and early repolarization pattern (ERP) were demonstrated. A total of 401 patients, 152 febrile, and 249 nonfebrile, were evaluated. BrS was identified in six febrile patients (five males and one female) and two males in nonfebrile patients. The study demonstrated higher prevalence of BrS in febrile group compared to nonfebrile group (4.0% vs 0.8%, respectively, P = 0.037). Among fever-induced BrS patients, three patients (50.0%) experienced cardiac symptoms before and at the time of presentation and two patients (33.3%) had history of first-degree relative sudden death. No ventricular arrhythmia was observed. All of type-1 BrP disappeared after fever had subsided. We found no difference in prevalence of type-2 BrP in febrile and nonfebrile group (2.0% vs 2.8%, respectively, P > 0.05) as well as ERP (3.3% vs 6.4%, respectively, P > 0.05). Our study showed a highest prevalence of fever induced BrS ever reported. A larger study of prevalence, risk stratification, genetic test and management of fever-induced BrS should be done, especially in an endemic area. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. CHRONOVAC VOYAGEUR: A study of the immune response to yellow fever vaccine among infants previously immunized against measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujon, Catherine; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Tondeur, Laura; Poirier, Béatrice; Seffer, Valérie; Desprès, Philippe; Consigny, Paul-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2017-10-27

    For administration of multiple live attenuated vaccines, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends either simultaneous immunization or period of at least 28days between vaccines, due to a possible reduction in the immune response to either vaccine. The main objective of this study was to compare the immune response to measles (alone or combined with mumps and rubella) and yellow fever vaccines among infants aged 6-24months living in a yellow fever non-endemic country who had receivedmeasles and yellow fever vaccines before travelling to a yellow fever endemic area. A retrospective, multicenter case-control study was carried out in 7 travel clinics in the Paris area from February 1st 2011 to march 31, 2015. Cases were defined as infants immunized with the yellow fever vaccine and with the measles vaccine, either alone or in combination with mumps and rubella vaccine, with a period of 1-27days between each immunization. For each case, two controls were matched based on sex and age: a first control group (control 1) was defined as infants having received the measles vaccine and the yellow fever vaccine simultaneously; a second control group (control 2) was defined as infants who had a period of more than 27days between receiving the measles vaccine and yellow fever vaccine. The primary endpoint of the study was the percentage of infants with protective immunity against yellow fever, measured by the titer of neutralizing antibodies in a venous blood sample. One hundred and thirty-one infants were included in the study (62 cases, 50 infants in control 1 and 19 infants in control 2). Of these, 127 (96%) were shown to have a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies. All 4 infants without a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies were part of control group 1. The measles vaccine, alone or combined with mumps and rubella vaccines, appears to have no influence on humoral immune response to the yellow fever vaccine when administered between 1 and 27

  8. Self-shielding effects in burnup of Gd used as burnable absorber. Previous studies on its experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, Maximo J.; Sbaffoni, Maria M.

    2003-01-01

    Continuing with the domestic 'Burnable Absorbers Research Plan' studies were done to estimate self-shielding effects during Gd 2 O 3 burnup as burnable absorber included in fuel pins of a CAREM geometry. In this way, its burnup was calculated without and with self-shielding. For the second case, were obtained values depending on internal pin radius and the effective one for the homogenized pin. For Gd 157, the burnup corresponding to the first case resulted 52.6 % and of 1.23 % for the effective one. That shows the magnitude of the effects under study. Considering that is necessary to perform one experimental verification, also are presented calculational results for the case to irradiate a pellet containing UO 2 (natural) and 8 wt % of Gd 2 O 3 , as a function of cooling time, that include: measurable isotopes concentrations, expected activities, and photon spectra for conditions able to be compared with bidimensional calculations with self-shielding. The irradiation time was supposed 30 dpp using RA-3 reactor at 10 MW. (author)

  9. A genome-wide association study confirms previously reported loci for type 2 diabetes in Han Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Cui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association study (GWAS has identified more than 30 loci associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D in Caucasians. However, genomic understanding of T2D in Asians, especially Han Chinese, is still limited. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A two-stage GWAS was performed in Han Chinese from Mainland China. The discovery stage included 793 T2D cases and 806 healthy controls genotyped using Illumina Human 660- and 610-Quad BeadChips; and the replication stage included two independent case-control populations (a total of 4445 T2D cases and 4458 controls genotyped using TaqMan assay. We validated the associations of KCNQ1 (rs163182, p = 2.085×10(-17, OR 1.28 and C2CD4A/B (rs1370176, p = 3.677×10(-4, OR 1.124; rs1436953, p = 7.753×10(-6, OR 1.141; rs7172432, p = 4.001×10(-5, OR 1.134 in Han Chinese. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our study represents the first GWAS of T2D with both discovery and replication sample sets recruited from Han Chinese men and women residing in Mainland China. We confirmed the associations of KCNQ1 and C2CD4A/B with T2D, with the latter for the first time being examined in Han Chinese. Arguably, eight more independent loci were replicated in our GWAS.

  10. General self-efficacy and posttraumatic stress after a natural disaster: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Nygaard, Egil; Hussain, Ajmal; Siqveland, Johan; Heir, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-efficacy may be an important factor in individuals’ recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions after a natural disaster. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated whether self-efficacy predicts the course of posttraumatic recovery beyond lower initial levels of distress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether general self-efficacy is related to recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions from a longitudinal perspective. ...

  11. Comparative study of a novel application of automated HR HPV assay and stability in a previously untested Preservative media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Mike E; McBride, Simon E; Gomez, Maria P

    2017-12-01

    The suitability and stability of cervical cells in Novaprep media (NHQ) for certain HPV assays is unknown. We evaluated the accuracy of an automated HPV assay (Abbott RealTime HR HPV) for cervical cells prepared in NHQ and NHQ with a pre-treatment to mimic a worst case clinical use, compared to the assay manufacturers media; repeatability and reproducibility of HPV results and the stability of detectable HPV in NHQ over time compared to CE marked liquid based cytology preservatives. Cell lines were used to simulate patient samples. Cells stored in NHQ produced accurate, repeatable and reproducible results. Stability in NHQ was comparable to the best performing LBC, with at least 7 months' stability at 18-25°C, 2-8°C, -20°C and -80°C; and at least 3 months' stability at 40°C. Similar results were obtained for pre-treated NHQ except only 3.5 months' stability at 18-25°C. Cell line samples in all media and concentrations tested were detected appropriately by the assay. Based on this first stage validation analytical study, cervical cells stored in NHQ are suitable for the Realtime HPV assay. There should be no reservations for inclusion of NHQ in any further validation and clinical performance evaluation of this assay. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY AND TOLERABILITY OF TRAMADOL AND ACECLOFENAC IN TREATMENT OF OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a leading cause of musculoskeletal disability in elderly patients. It is a slow evolving disorder causing degeneration of articular cartilage associated with symptoms of joint tenderness, stiffness and limitation of movement. These symptoms get more worsened with weight bearing and movement. Non-steroidal anti- inflammatory (NSAIDS drugs and often Opioid analgesics offers a symptomatic relief in the management of osteoarthritis. So, the present study is conducted to compare the efficacy and tolerability of Tramadol and Aceclofenac in patients of osteoarthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study is a randomized, single centered, prospective clinical study and was conducted on 140 patients. INCLUSION CRITERIA Patients of sex, aged 40-60 years, suffering with symptoms of OA of knee who are radiologically diagnosed. EXCLUSION CRITERIA  Patients 60 years of age.  Patients with a history of peptic ulcers and hypersensitivity to NSAIDs/Opioids.  Patients with history of bleeding tendencies, cirrhosis and oesophageal varices.  Patients who have previously received Tramadol or Aceclofenac for treatment of osteoarthritis. After initial clinical assessment and baseline investigations, Aceclofenac tablet was given to 70 patients and Tramadol tablet was given orally to another 70 patients for 8 weeks. At the follow up, the results were analysed and compared statistically by paired t- test, unpaired t-test, Fischer’s exact test. RESULTS Aceclofenac has shown significant change than Tramadol in efficacy parameters like Western Ontario Mac Master (WOMAC scores (p<0.0001, joint tenderness (p<0.0001, investigator assessment for disease status (p=0.01 and response to therapy (p=0.038. Incidence of adverse effects is significant with Tramadol (p=0.02. DISCUSSION Aceclofenac was found superior than Tramadol in improving the patient’s clinical condition. Aceclofenac was found to be well tolerated than Tramadol in terms of

  13. Knowledge of stroke risk factors among primary care patients with previous stroke or TIA: a questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strender Lars-Erik

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivers of stroke or transient ischaemic attacks (TIA are at risk of new vascular events. Our objective was to study primary health care patients with stroke/TIA regarding their knowledge about risk factors for having a new event of stroke/TIA, possible associations between patient characteristics and patients' knowledge about risk factors, and patients' knowledge about their preventive treatment for stroke/TIA. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to 240 patients with stroke/TIA diagnoses, and 182 patients (76% responded. We asked 13 questions about diseases/conditions and lifestyle factors known to be risk factors and four questions regarding other diseases/conditions ("distractors". The patients were also asked whether they considered each disease/condition to be one of their own. Additional questions concerned the patients' social and functional status and their drug use. The t-test was used for continuous variables, chi-square test for categorical variables, and a regression model with variables influencing patient knowledge was created. Results Hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking were identified as risk factors by nearly 90% of patients, and atrial fibrillation and diabetes by less than 50%. Few patients considered the distractors as stroke/TIA risk factors (3-6%. Patients with a family history of cardiovascular disease, and patients diagnosed with carotid stenosis, atrial fibrillation or diabetes, knew these were stroke/TIA risk factors to a greater extent than patients without these conditions. Atrial fibrillation or a family history of cardiovascular disease was associated with better knowledge about risk factors, and higher age, cerebral haemorrhage and living alone with poorer knowledge. Only 56% of those taking anticoagulant drugs considered this as intended for prevention, while 48% of those taking platelet aggregation inhibitors thought this was for prevention. Conclusions Knowledge about hypertension

  14. Career interest, self-efficacy, and perception in undecided and nursing undergraduate students: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillman, Valentina M

    2015-01-01

    Career choice variables of career interest, self-efficacy, and perception were chosen based upon Social Cognitive Career Theory concepts for study between nursing and undecided undergraduate student groups. Components of the Career Search Questionnaire and Perceptions of Professional Nursing instruments were combined and adapted to form the Career Choice Survey for use in this research. This web-based survey totaling 40 questions was sent to 577 undergraduate students with a 12% response rate (N=68). Due to the need to increase nursing recruitment and retention, hypotheses were developed that distinguish if any relationship existed between groups. Findings of this quantitative study resulted in statistically significant results on two of the three variable hypotheses (p=.006 for career interest, p=.002 for self-efficacy, p=.395 for perception), aligning with previous research and provide insight into the change in nursing perception. Overall, scores for each subscale were encouraging to current nurses and expected from undecided students. Implications for practice include increases in accurate nursing portrayal in the media and early career counseling to younger populations. Nurse educators can further research in career choice with focus on continuing education for current nurses and recruitment of young nursing hopefuls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. THE STUDY THE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Bagaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Effective treatment of patients with infectious and inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes often involves the use of antimicrobial agents.The purpose of the study was an in vitro estimation of cytotoxicity and the efficiency of national resources for local use: gel with bacteriophages («Otofag», «Fagogin», «Fagoderm», «Fagodent» and antiseptic — «Сhlorhexidine» and «Miramistin».Materials and Methods. To study the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents they used to provide crop strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes as one of the most common representatives of pathogens. The study of cell viability and cytotoxicity antimicrobials performed on cell lines KB — epidermoid carcinoma of the oral cavity of a human. For this purpose we use mikrotetrazoly test, which is widely used in the assessment of the effects on the cells of toxins, pharmaceuticals, adverse environmental factors, allowing to evaluate the toxicity of investigational drugs in vitro.The results showed that the efficacy against pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, has even a 10‑fold dilution of «Сhlorhexidine» 0.05% and gels with bacteriophages. Antiseptic «Miramistin» is effective only on the initial concentration. The study of cytotoxicity showed that the processing of epidermoid carcinoma cells with «Chlorhexidine» and «Мiramistin» invokes the irreversible reactions, while the composition processing of gels based on bacteriophages not further affect cell viability.Conclusions The results of the experiment confirmed the significant toxicity of tools such as «Сhlorhexidine» and «Miramistin» in proposed concentrations in the pharmacy network. Despite the high efficiency of these vehicles with regard to the studied pathogens, their long-term use in treatment of inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes can cause a slowing of repair processes. Gel means with bacteriophages

  16. Study of the efficacy of carboxytherapy in alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doghaim, Noha Nabil; El-Tatawy, Rania Ahmed; Neinaa, Yomna Mazid El-Hamd; Abd El-Samd, Marwa Mohsen

    2018-02-20

    Management of alopecia areata (AA) and androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is often challenging. The use of carboxytherapy may be a novel therapeutic option for such cases. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of carboxytherapy in alopecia areata and androgenetic alopecia. This study was conducted on 80 patients with alopecia divided into two groups; Group I included 40 AA patients (Group IA received carboxytherapy and Group IB control received placebo), and Group II included 40 AGA patients (Group IIA received carboxytherapy and Group IIB control received placebo), and followed up monthly for 3 months. They were evaluated clinically (by assessment of Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) score in group I, and Sinclair scale and Norwood-Hamilton scale in group II), by dermoscopy and digital dermoscopy at each visit. Group IA patients showed significant clinical improvement in SALT score and dermoscopic improvement after carboxytherapy and at the end of follow-up period with significant reduction in dystrophic hair, black dots, yellow dots, and tapered hair coinciding with significant emergence of regrowing hair. Group IIA patients showed significant clinical and dermoscopic improvement after carboxytherapy with significant increase in hair density measured by digital dermoscopy. However, regression of these results was observed during the follow-up period but was still significantly better than before treatment. There were statistically significant improvements in clinical score, global assessments, dermoscopic, and digital dermoscopic findings in both group IA and group IIA received carboxytherapy in comparison with group IB and group IIB received placebo injections, respectively. Carboxytherapy seems to be a promising therapeutic option for patchy AA and could be helpful as an adjuvant therapy of AGA but more than 6 sessions are required and adjuvants are recommended for maintenance of the results. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Studies on bactericidal efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Zawane Kamarudin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: T o explore the in vitro antibacterial potential of the peel of Cucurbita moschata D uchesne ( tropical pumpkin ( C. moschata against human pathogenic bacteria. Methods: I n the present study, dichloromethane ( DCM , methanol ( MEOH and aqueous extracts of C. moschata peel were examined for in vitro antibacterial potency against eight bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus cereus, Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus using K irby- B auer disk diffusion susceptibility and broth micro-dilution methods. Results: DCM extract of pumpkin peel exhibited the maximum zone of inhibition against Staphyloccocus aureus ( 21 mm whereas aqueous extract of pumpkin peel revealed the least zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli ( 8 mm . MEOH extract gave maximum zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aerugenosa ( 19 mm . B roth micro-dilution method showed minimum inhibitory concentration for the DCM extract against Burkholderia cepacia at 6 . 25 mg/m L . T he minimum bactericidal concentrations were also determined to know the nature of all extracts. DCM and MEOH extracts exhibited bactericidal nature to all bacterial strains except for the Vibrio alginolyticus. T he minimum bactericidal concentrations values exhibited bactericidal nature ranging from 3 . 12 mg/m L to 100 . 00 mg/m L . T he screening of antimicrobial properties of different extracts of C. moschata peel revealed that the DCM extract possessed good antimicrobial efficacy compared to MEOH and aqueous extracts. Conclusions: P eel of C. moschata possesses antibacterial compounds and could be potential source for a new class of antibiotics.

  18. Preliminary study of the efficacy of the combination of tamsulosin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.S. Abdelaziz

    2016-12-13

    Dec 13, 2016 ... Abstract. Objectives: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of tamsulosin (0.4 mg, once/day) and combinations of it with trospium (20 mg, twice/day) in the treatment of single small lower ureteral stones. Patients and methods: A total of 126 patients presenting to urology outpatient clinics from July 2012 to ...

  19. Preliminary studies on the phytochemistry and efficacy of extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemistry of Spondias mombin bark, a known anti –tumour plant used traditionally, revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phenolic compound and eugenol. The efficacy of the plant material tested on induced cancer in rats showed significant recovery using water extract treatment when compared with ...

  20. Teacher Perceptions of the Impact of Self-Efficacy on Classroom Management Style: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Patty Jo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to develop an understanding of how current and former middle school teachers in a suburban school district in northeast Georgia perceive low self-efficacy impacts their classroom management style. The theory guiding this study was Bandura's (1977) self-efficacy theory as it supported the idea that…

  1. Use of Learning and Study Skills among Students Differing in Self-Regulated Learning Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janice E.

    The specific cognitive and affective learning and study strategies that best distinguished students reporting high and low self-regulated learning efficacy were determined. Participants (N=75) came from 12 rural public high schools. All students were administered the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) and Bandura's Efficacy for…

  2. 21 CFR 201.200 - Disclosure of drug efficacy study evaluations in labeling and advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... labeling and advertising. 201.200 Section 201.200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Efficacy Study § 201.200 Disclosure of drug efficacy study evaluations in labeling and advertising. (a)(1... this fact causes such labeling to be misleading. (c) Therefore, after publication in the Federal...

  3. Clinical Self-Efficacy in Senior Nursing Students: A Mixed- Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdal, Marzieh; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clinical education has a basic role in nursing education, and effective clinical training establishes a sense of clinical self-efficacy in senior nursing students. Self-efficacy is a key component for acting independently in the nursing profession. Objectives: This study was designed to outline senior nursing students’ views about clinical self-efficacy and to determine its level in nursing students. Patients and Methods: A mixed-methods approach, including a quantitative cross-sectional study and qualitative content analysis,was used in this study. Participants were senior nursing students who were in their two last semesters. During the initial quantitative stage, all students in the 7th and 8th semesters of the nursing major were invited to participate. They were asked to complete the Nursing Clinical Self-Efficacy Scale (NCSES) and, during the subsequent qualitative stage, the 14 students in the 7th and 8th semesters were asked to participate in semi-structured interviews. Results: In the quantitative part, 58 students completed the self-efficacy questionnaire; the mean score was 219.28 ± 35.8, which showed moderate self-efficacy in students. Self-efficacy was different across skills. In the qualitative part, the 355 open codes that were extracted from the interviews were clustered to 12 categories and 3 themes. The main themes included the factors related to self-efficacy, outcomes of self-efficacy, and ways to improve self-efficacy. Conclusions: Students had moderate self-efficacy. Several factors such as environment, nursing colleagues, and clinical educators could influence the creation of clinical self-efficacy in nursing students. PMID:26576443

  4. Carbohydrate intake and training efficacy - a randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudouin, Florian; Joerg, Frederic; Hilpert, Anette; Meyer, Tim; Hecksteden, Anne

    2018-04-01

    Carbohydrate (CHO) availability during endurance exercise seems to attenuate exercise-induced perturbations of cellular homeostasis and might consequently diminish the stimulus for training adaptation. Therefore, a negative effect of CHO intake on endurance training efficacy seems plausible. This study aimed to test the influence of carbohydrate intake on the efficacy of an endurance training program on previously untrained healthy adults. A randomized cross-over trial (8-week wash-out period) was conducted in 23 men and women with two 8-week training periods (with vs. without intake of 50g glucose before each training bout). Training intervention consisted of 4x45 min running/walking sessions/week at 70% of heart rate reserve. Exhaustive, ramp-shaped exercise tests with gas exchange measurements were conducted before and after each training period. Outcome measures were maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2max ) and ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VT). VO 2max and VT increased after training regardless of CHO intake (VO 2max : Non-CHO 2.6 ± 3.0 ml*min -1 *kg -1 p = 0.004; CHO 1.4 ± 2.5 ml*min -1 *kg -1 p = 0.049; VT: Non-CHO 4.2 ± 4.2 ml*min -1 *kg -1 p training program.

  5. Treatment rationale and study design for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II study evaluating onartuzumab (MetMAb) in combination with bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX-6 in patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, Johanna C; Ervin, Thomas J; Gallinson, David; Singh, Jaswinder; Wallace, James A; Saleh, Mansoor N; Vallone, Marcy; Phan, See-Chun; Hack, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    Dysregulation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/MET pathway is associated with poor prognosis, more aggressive biological characteristics of the tumor, and shortened survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Onartuzumab (MetMAb) is a recombinant humanized monovalent monoclonal antibody directed against MET. We present the treatment rationale and protocol for an ongoing randomized multicenter placebo-controlled phase II study designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MetMAb combined with bevacizumab and mFOLFOX-6 (5-fluoruracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin). Eligible patients with previously untreated mCRC are randomized 1:1 to either mFOLFOX-6 combined with bevacizumab and placebo followed by 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin plus bevacizumab and placebo or mFOLFOX6, bevacizumab plus MetMAb followed by 5 FU/LV, bevacizumab, and MetMAb. The primary end point of this study is progression-free survival (PFS) in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Secondary end points include overall survival (OS), objective response rate, and safety. Subanalyses will be performed to evaluate the effect of MET receptor expression on study primary and secondary end points. Correlative studies will be performed on tissue- and blood-derived biomarkers related to both HGF/MET signaling and other associated pathway markers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The efficacy of the 'mind map' study technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, Paul; Hussain, Fearzana; Hennessy, Enid

    2002-05-01

    To examine the effectiveness of using the 'mind map' study technique to improve factual recall from written information. To obtain baseline data, subjects completed a short test based on a 600-word passage of text prior to being randomly allocated to form two groups: 'self-selected study technique' and 'mind map'. After a 30-minute interval the self-selected study technique group were exposed to the same passage of text previously seen and told to apply existing study techniques. Subjects in the mind map group were trained in the mind map technique and told to apply it to the passage of text. Recall was measured after an interfering task and a week later. Measures of motivation were taken. Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London. 50 second- and third-year medical students. Recall of factual material improved for both the mind map and self-selected study technique groups at immediate test compared with baseline. However this improvement was only robust after a week for those in the mind map group. At 1 week, the factual knowledge in the mind map group was greater by 10% (adjusting for baseline) (95% CI -1% to 22%). However motivation for the technique used was lower in the mind map group; if motivation could have been made equal in the groups, the improvement with mind mapping would have been 15% (95% CI 3% to 27%). Mind maps provide an effective study technique when applied to written material. However before mind maps are generally adopted as a study technique, consideration has to be given towards ways of improving motivation amongst users.

  7. The efficacy of CP7_E2alf: an animal study involving piglets from C–strain vaccinated sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangelova, Desislava Yordanova; Nielsen, Jens; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    previously vaccinated with C-strain interferes with the efficacy of CP7_E2alf vaccination. To study the interaction with maternal antibodies, the efficacy of CP7_E2alf in piglets from C-strain vaccinated sows was examined. At 5 or at 8 weeks of age, piglets were vaccinated with CP7_E2alf. The vaccinated....... Interestingly, the antibodies in the mock-vaccinated control piglets partly neutralized the challenge virus. In earlier studies CSFV Koslov has resulted in 100% mortality in naïve piglets, in this study mortality was reduced to 30% in the piglets infected at 7 weeks of age and to 50% in the piglets infected...... at 10 weeks of age. In the present study optimal time point for vaccination of piglets with passive immunity was found to be 5 weeks of age....

  8. Observational study of safety and efficacy of varenicline for smoking cessation among Filipino smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Peter W; Casiano, Errol M; Escoto, Laarni; Claveria, Angelica M

    2011-10-01

    Varenicline, an α4β2 receptor nicotinic receptor partial agonist, is known to be an effective aid for smoking cessation. To date, few observational studies of varenicline have been conducted. This prospective, non-interventional, post-marketing surveillance study (NCT00794365) was designed to monitor the efficacy and safety of varenicline for 12 weeks in Filipino smokers who were motivated to quit. This study was conducted between July 2, 2008, and November 23, 2009, in 70 centers throughout the Philippines. Participants were adult smokers who were prescribed varenicline (0.5 mg orally once daily, days 1 to 3; 0.5 mg twice daily, days 4 to 7; 1 mg twice daily for the remainder of a 12-week treatment period) for the first time. Participants made five clinic visits (weeks 0, 1, 4, 8, and 12). Adverse events (AEs) were recorded at each clinic visit and up to 28 days after administration of the last study treatment. Seven-day point prevalence of smoking cessation was measured at weeks 4, 8, and 12. A total of 330 participants were enrolled into the study, of whom 251 (76.1%) completed the study. At the end of week 12, 57.6% (95% confidence interval, 52.0, 63.0) of participants had been abstinent for the previous 7 days. The most frequently reported AEs were headache (5.5%), dizziness (3.9%), and nausea (3.6%). Ten participants (3.0%) permanently discontinued varenicline treatment due to AEs, and 13 (3.9%) reduced their varenicline dose or discontinued treatment temporarily due to AEs. There were no reports of any serious AEs, deaths, suicidal ideation, or behavior. The results of this study in adult Filipino smokers prescribed varenicline for the first time during routine clinical practice demonstrate that varenicline was well tolerated and efficacious as an aid for smoking cessation.

  9. Predictors of breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Gao, Ling-Ling; Ip, Wan-Yim; Sally Chan, Wai Chi

    2016-10-01

    to examine breast feeding self-efficacy and identify its predictors among mainland Chinese mothers in the early postpartum period. a cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire survey was conducted in a regional teaching hospital with childbirth rate over 3000 per year at Guangzhou, China from April 1 to July 14, 2014. a total of 571 Chinese mothers who were within 72-96hours post partum were recruited consecutively to the study. data were collected by the Chinese version of the Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF), the Network Support for Breastfeeding Scale (NSBS) and a socio-demographic data sheet. a total of 640 eligible women was approached and 571 mothers completed the study with the response rate of 89%. Mothers reported moderate level of breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period. The best-fit regression analysis revealed six variables that explained 43.9% of the variance in breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period. They were intention of breast feeding, support from husband, support from nurses/midwives, attending antenatal breast feeding classes, time from childbirth to initiate breast feeding and previous breast feeding experience. this study found six predictors of breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period. In order to increase maternal breast feeding self-efficacy level, a more women-centred approach is recommended. Mothers and fathers should be facilitated to attend antenatal classes on breast feeding. New mother' husband could be encouraged in supporting breast feeding. Nurses and midwives could encourage new mothers to initiate breast feeding as soon as possible. Further work to promote early mother-infant contact post birth, such as via skin to skin contact should also be facilitated where possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Academic Oral Presentation Self-Efficacy: A Cross-Sectional Interdisciplinary Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirian, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Tavakoli, Elaheh

    2016-01-01

    Despite the significant role of oral presentation in the academic context, many university students evade opportunities for participation due to low self-efficacy. The present study has been conducted to compare oral presentation self-efficacy of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners with undergraduates and postgraduates of Non-EFL majors,…

  11. Organizational Structure, Collegial Trust, and College Faculty Teaching Efficacy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpogba, Desmond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method study was to explore the relationship between faculty self-efficacy, organizational structure, and collegial trust. The concepts of teacher self-efficacy, organizational structure, and collegial trust were used to investigate any possible empirical relationships existing between these variables in a private,…

  12. A Longitudinal Study on Mathematics Teaching Efficacy: Which Factors (Un)Support the Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiksal-Bostan, Mine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine prospective teachers' mathematics teaching efficacy belief during their enrollment in teacher education program and at the end of their first year of teaching. In addition, the factors that enhance or inhibit participants' efficacy belief and how these factors affect their mathematics teaching…

  13. Mindfulness predicts student nurses' communication self-efficacy: A cross-national comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundling, Vibeke; Sundler, Annelie J; Holmström, Inger K; Kristensen, Dorte Vesterager; Eide, Hilde

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare student nurses' communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness across two countries, and to analyse the relationship between these qualities. The study had a cross-sectional design. Data was collected from final year student nurses in Norway and Sweden. Communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness were reported by questionnaires; Clear-cut communication with patients, Jefferson Scale of Empathy, and Langer 14 items mindfulness scale. The study included 156 student nurses, 94 (60%) were Swedish. The mean communication self-efficacy score was 119 (95% CI 116-122), empathy score 115 (95% CI 113-117) and mindfulness score 79 (95% CI 78-81). A Mann-Whitney test showed that Swedish students scored significantly higher on communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness than Norwegian students did. When adjusted for age, gender, and country in a multiple linear regression, mindfulness was the only independent predictor of communication self-efficacy. The Swedish student nurses in this study scored higher on communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness than Norwegian students did. Student nurses scoring high on mindfulness rated their communication self-efficacy higher. A mindful learning approach may improve communication self-efficacy and possibly the effect of communication skills training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Self Efficacy, Coping Stress dan Prestasi Akademik Mahasiswa Program Studi Psikologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Lambung Mangkurat

    OpenAIRE

    Rachmah, Dwi Nur

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran dan hubungan self efficacy, coping stress dan prestasi akademik mahasiswa semester awal Program Studi Psikologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Lambung Mangkurat. Subjek penelitian berjumlah 60 orang. Tekhnik pengambilan data dengan cara purposive sampling. Alat pengumpul data yang digunakan adalah skala self efficacy dan skala coping stress. Untuk prestasi akademik data dikumpulkan dengan melihat indeks prestasi akademik (IPK) semester perta...

  15. A Survey Study of Chinese In-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy about Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mian; Zan, Fei; Liu, Jiaqiu; Liu, Chunling; Sharma, Umesh

    2012-01-01

    A survey study was conducted to a total of 323 in-service teachers (110 special education teachers and 213 general education teachers) in Shanghai regarding their self-efficacy and concerns about inclusive education. Multivariate analysis results reveal that special teachers have significantly higher self-efficacy about inclusive education than…

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Victoria; Piorkowski, Julie; Turyk, Mary; Freels, Sally; Chatterton, Robert; Dimos, John; Bradlow, H Leon; Chary, Lin Kaatz; Burse, Virlyn; Unterman, Terry; Sepkovic, Daniel W; McCann, Kenneth

    2012-08-29

    Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones.

  17. Preliminary studies of adaptation of Self- efficacy Scale for Sources of Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Flores, Celia María

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the field of educational psychologically the construct of self-efficacy has received special attention. It has been shown that those students who trust in their own abilities get better academic performance. However, few studies analyze the sources of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy believes are developed according to how people interpret information coming from four different sources: experience skills, vicarious learning, social persuasion, and physiological states. Recently, Usher & Pajares (2009 developed an instrument to assess sources of self-efficacy in Math. The goal of the present work was to evaluate psychometric properties of this scale in a local sample of adolescents from 13 to 15 years old. Preliminary results supported the use of this measure as an adequate alternative to assess self-efficacy in Math. However, more studies are needed in order to obtain a measure more contextualized to the educational system of local students.

  18. Gender fairness in self-efficacy? A Rasch-based validity study of the General Academic Self-efficacy scale (GASE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tine; Vang, Maria Louison; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Studies have reported gender differences in academic self-efficacy. However, how and if academic self-efficacy questionnaires are gender-biased has not been psychometrically investigated. The psychometric properties of a general version of The Physics Self-Efficacy Questionnaire – the General...... Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (GASE) – were analyzed using Rasch measurement models, with data from 1018 Danish university students (psychology and technical), focusing on gender invariance and the sufficiency of the score. The short 4-item GASE scale was found to be essentially objective and construct...... valid and satisfactorily reliable, though differential item functioning was found relative to gender and academic discipline, and can be used to assess students’ general academic self-efficacy. Research on gender and self-efficacy needs to take gender into account and equate scores appropriately...

  19. Postmarketing study of efficacy and safety of losartan during the treatment of patients with mild and moderate hypertension: Lothar study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Zorana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Losartan, the angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB exercises its main antihypertensive effect by vasodilatation of peripheral arteries. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihypertensive effect and safety of losartan in patients with mild and moderate arterial hypertension (AH. Methods. This was an open post-marketing study with losartan as monotherapy in previously treated or untreated patients with AH. Primary efficacy parameter was the percentage of patients that achieved target blood pressure after 8-week treatment with a single daily dose of losartan of 50-100 mg. Safety parameters were assessed according to the percentage of adverse events and metabolic effects of therapy. Results. The study included 550 patients with AH (59% female and 41% male, mean age 56.8±11.4 years, BMI=27±4 kg/m2. Losartan was applied in 31% of untreated and 69% of previously treatment-resistant patients After 8 weeks target blood pressure was achieved in 67.8% (SBP and in 81.1% (DBP of patients, respectively. The mean decrease was 21.8% for SBP and 21.1% for DBP (p<0.001. Out of all, 65% of patients achieved both target SBP and DBP values. Hydrochlorothiazide was added to the therapy in 11.6% of patients. There were no significant differences in drug efficacy between the entire group and subgroups of patients with diabetes mellitus and impaired renal function (p=ns. Adverse events were rare and metabolic effect was favorable. Conclusion. Monotherapy with losartan in a dosage of 50-100 mg applied during 8 weeks resulted in achieving target values of blood pressure in 65% of patient with mild and moderate hypertension, also including the patients with diabetes mellitus and impaired renal function. Losartan is a safe and metabolically neutral medication.

  20. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment; Estudio de algunos aspectos fisicos previos al diseno de una experiencia exponencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de

    1961-07-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs.

  1. Quantifying the influence of previously burned areas on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure: A case study of the Las Conchas Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Patrick Freeborn; Jon D. Rieck; Dave Calkin; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Mark A. Cochrane; Michael S. Hand

    2016-01-01

    We present a case study of the Las Conchas Fire (2011) to explore the role of previously burned areas (wildfires and prescribed fires) on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure. Methodological innovations include characterisation of the joint dynamics of fire growth and suppression activities, development of a fire line effectiveness framework, and...

  2. Perturbation of lipids and glucose metabolism associated with previous 2,4-D exposure: a cross-sectional study of NHANES III data, 1988-1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Results from previous population studies showed that mortality rates from acute myocardial infarction and type-2 diabetes during the 1980s and 1990s in rural, agricultural counties of Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, were higher in counties with a higher le...

  3. Leading by Example: A Case Study of the Influence of Principal Self-Efficacy on Collective Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versland, Tena M.; Erickson, Joanne L.

    2017-01-01

    Self-efficacy is a perceived judgment that one has the ability to execute a course of action that brings about a desired result. Principal self-efficacy describes a set of beliefs that enable a principal to enact policies and procedures that promote the effectiveness of a school. Principal self-efficacy beliefs are also important because they…

  4. Prior Self-Efficacy Interacts with Experiential Valence to Influence Self-Efficacy among Engineering Students: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yevvon Yi-Chi; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Self-efficacy toward science learning has been shown to play a crucial role in determining students' motivation and achievements. Social cognitive theory proposes that positive and negative task outcomes affect mastery experiences from which self-efficacy develops. The current research examined whether prior level of self-efficacy would serve as a…

  5. [Study on methodology for evaluating clinical efficacy of traditional Tibetan medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hui; Zhong, Ge-Jia

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation on clinical efficacy of traditional Tibetan medicine (TTM) is an important scientific subject during the development of TTM. Firstly, the authors introduced the current situations and problems in evaluation on clinical efficacy of traditional Tibetan medicine both at home and abroad in this study. Secondly, they compared the similarities and differences between TTM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in evaluation on clinical efficacy, define their differences in details but not in nature, and proposed that TTM could selectively learn TCM's experiences in clinical research and build a specific methodology system for evaluation on clinical efficacy according to its own characteristics. Thirdly, they discussed the methodological challenges in evaluation on clinical efficacy of TTM, including the pending clinical research guidelines and disease diagnosis standards according to its own characteristics. Finally, they propound some suggestions for promoting the evaluation on clinical efficacy of TTM, including the comprehensive application of multiple research methods, overall research-based evaluation on efficacy of TTM complex intervention and selection of accepted and objective outcome indexes for efficacy evaluation.

  6. Well-being and self-efficacy in a sample of undergraduate nurse students: A small survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priesack, Anneken; Alcock, John

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports findings from a survey which aimed to explore well-being and self-efficacy and test measures of those constructs with a sample of nurse students in a University setting in the United Kingdom. Evidence indicates that undergraduate nurse programmes combine academic work and clinical placement experience in a mix that can potentially lead to stress and impact on health and well-being. Self-efficacy is known to be a resource that contributes to well-being, resilience and academic achievement and therefore relevant for investigation. A cross-sectional survey approach was used to obtain data using a paper questionnaire including the BBC Well-being Scale and Generalised Self-efficacy Scale. A total of n=108 undergraduate preregistration nurse students participated in this small study from a potential population of 450. The majority of participants (86%) were female, and the majority (75%) were aged 17-35years old. Mean and subscale scores were calculated for both instruments and inferential analyses were carried out using non-parametric techniques. Exploratory factor analyses of the BBC Well-being Scale indicated a three factor structure consistent with validation study findings. Cronbach's alpha was α=.92 for the BBC Well-being Scale and α=.85 for the GSE suggesting that the instruments are valid and reliable measures for nurse education research. Nurse students indicated higher scores on the BBC Well-being Scale and the GSE compared with previously studied populations and a small but significant positive correlation was found between psychological well-being and self-efficacy. Cluster analysis indicated discrete student communities in this sample that varied in their Well-being and GSE scale and subscale scores. Self-efficacy and general well-being in nurse students are worthy of further study and relevant to contemporary nurse education given current interest in interventions to promote student retention and resilience post-registration. Copyright

  7. The interplay between knowledge, perceived efficacy, and concern about global warming and climate change: a one-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milfont, Taciano L

    2012-06-01

    If the long-term goal of limiting warming to less than 2°C is to be achieved, rapid and sustained reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are required. These reductions will demand political leadership and widespread public support for action on global warming and climate change. Public knowledge, level of concern, and perceived personal efficacy, in positively affecting these issues are key variables in understanding public support for mitigation action. Previous research has documented some contradictory associations between knowledge, personal efficacy, and concern about global warming and climate change, but these cross-sectional findings limit inferences about temporal stability and direction of influence. This study examines the relationships between these three variables over a one-year period and three waves with national data from New Zealand. Results showed a positive association between the variables, and the pattern of findings was stable and consistent across the three data points. More importantly, results indicate that concern mediates the influence of knowledge on personal efficacy. Knowing more about global warming and climate change increases overall concern about the risks of these issues, and this increased concern leads to greater perceived efficacy and responsibility to help solving them. Implications for risk communication are discussed. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Shared Relationship Efficacy of Dyad Can Increase Life Satisfaction in Close Relationships: Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kenichi; Yoshida, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of relationship itself play an important role in determining well-being of individuals who participate in the relationship. We used efficacy expectations mutually shared between close friends or romantic partners as a characteristic of relationship and investigated its impact on their life satisfaction. In Study 1, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 137 pairs of close same-sex friends to test whether the efficacy expectations shared between friends are associated with levels of life satisfaction. In Study 2, we conducted a longitudinal study among 114 heterosexual romantic couples to test predictive validity of the efficacy expectations shared between couples predict levels of life satisfaction 2 month later. In both studies we found a consistent result that as degrees of the efficacy expectations shared between individuals in a relationship increased, the degree of their life satisfaction also increased. Underlying mechanisms that explain how characteristics of relationship itself increase life satisfaction are discussed. PMID:27437946

  9. A cross-sectional study of tuberculosis drug resistance among previously treated patients in a tertiary hospital in Accra, Ghana: public health implications of standardized regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forson, Audrey; Kwara, Awewura; Kudzawu, Samuel; Omari, Michael; Otu, Jacob; Gehre, Florian; de Jong, Bouke; Antonio, Martin

    2018-04-02

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance is a major challenge to the use of standardized regimens for tuberculosis (TB) therapy, especially among previously treated patients. We aimed to investigate the frequency and pattern of drug resistance among previously treated patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Chest Clinic, Accra. This was a cross-sectional survey of mycobacterial isolates from previously treated patients referred to the Chest Clinic Laboratory between October 2010 and October 2013. The Bactec MGIT 960 system for mycobactrerial culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) was used for sputum culture of AFB smear-positive patients with relapse, treatment failure, failure of smear conversion, or default. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patient characteristics, and frequency and patterns of drug resistance. A total of 112 isolates were studied out of 155 from previously treated patients. Twenty contaminated (12.9%) and 23 non-viable isolates (14.8%) were excluded. Of the 112 studied isolates, 53 (47.3%) were pan-sensitive to all first-line drugs tested Any resistance (mono and poly resistance) to isoniazid was found in 44 isolates (39.3%) and any resistance to streptomycin in 43 (38.4%). Thirty-one (27.7%) were MDR-TB. Eleven (35.5%) out of 31 MDR-TB isolates were pre-XDR. MDR-TB isolates were more likely than non-MDR isolates to have streptomycin and ethambutol resistance. The main findings of this study were the high prevalence of MDR-TB and streptomycin resistance among previously treated TB patients, as well as a high prevalence of pre-XDR-TB among the MDR-TB patients, which suggest that first-line and second-line DST is essential to aid the design of effective regimens for these groups of patients in Ghana.

  10. University students' Internet attitudes and Internet self-efficacy: a study at three universities in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2006-08-01

    This study was conducted to explore university students' attitudes and self-efficacy toward the Internet. Moreover, the relationships between their attitudes and self-efficacy toward the Internet were also investigated. The sample of this study included 1,313 students, coming from three universities in Taiwan. It was found that male students expressed significantly more positive attitudes than females on their "perceived control" of the Internet. The male students also revealed better Internet self-efficacy than their female counterparts. Moreover, students having more on-line hours per week, in general, displayed more positive Internet attitudes and Internet self-efficacy. In addition, students' grade level also played an important role in their Internet attitudes; graduate students tended to possess more positive Internet attitudes. More importantly, students' Internet attitudes were highly correlated with their Internet self-efficacy. The results in this study seemed to reveal that students' attitudes toward the Internet could be viewed as one of the important indicators for predicting their Internet self-efficacy. It is also suggested that some training programs or courses may be helpful in improving university students' attitudes and self-efficacy toward the Internet.

  11. A study of self-efficacy in job-related context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Frlec

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The article stems from an attempt to transfer the Bandura's social cognitive theory into organisational praxis. Beliefs of self-efficacy, which is defined as people's judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances, are constructed from 4 principal sources of information: enactive mastery experiences; vicarious experiences that alter efficacy beliefs through transmission of competencies and comparison with the attainment of others; verbal persuasion and allied types of social influences that one possesses certain capabilities; and physiological and affective states from which people partly judge their capableness, strength, and vulnerability to dysfunction. The study of self-efficacy in job-related context involved 295 employees from 3companies belonging to the same business group. Self-efficacy was assed using Schwarzer's scale, while rating scales were used for assessing the 4 principal sources of influence upon it. First, differences between companies regarding demographic characteristics of the employees, job characteristics and self-efficacy were analyzed. Dependence of employee's self-efficacy on his/her age, gender, education, work experience, employment status, job type and the four principal influence sources was tested using a regression model. Finally, we identified typical employee profiles with respect to the studied factors. We hope that our study will help human-resources specialists design appropriate interventions for developing a resilient sense of self-efficacy in the employees.

  12. General self-efficacy and posttraumatic stress after a natural disaster: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Egil; Hussain, Ajmal; Siqveland, Johan; Heir, Trond

    2016-04-06

    Self-efficacy may be an important factor in individuals' recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions after a natural disaster. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated whether self-efficacy predicts the course of posttraumatic recovery beyond lower initial levels of distress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether general self-efficacy is related to recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions from a longitudinal perspective. A total of 617 Norwegians exposed to the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami completed self-report questionnaires measuring their level of disaster exposure and general self-efficacy at 6 months and posttraumatic stress reactions 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. Predictors of changes in posttraumatic stress reactions were analyzed with multivariate mixed effects models. Self-efficacy at 6 months post-disaster was unrelated to trauma exposure and inversely related to posttraumatic stress reactions at 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. However, self-efficacy was not related to recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions between 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. In conclusion, general self-efficacy is related to lower levels of posttraumatic stress reactions in the first months after a disaster but does not appear to be related to improved recovery rates over the longer term.

  13. A multilevel study on the relationships between work characteristics, self-efficacy, collective efficacy, and organizational citizenship behavior: the case of Taiwanese police duty-executing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Hsi Vivian; Kao, Rui-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    Public security, traffic management, and service for the people are the 3 major functions of policing in Taiwan. This definition encompasses not only the traditional job characteristics, but also the level of contextual characteristics and social characteristics because of police work's characteristics and its frequent interaction with the public. Thus, the present study conducted a multilevel model analysis by taking self-efficacy and collective efficacy as the mediating variables. The purpose was to investigate the influences of motivational work characteristics (knowledge-oriented) and social work characteristics (socially and contextually oriented) of work-design model on the police officers' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), by using first-line police officers in Taiwan as the research objects. The study showed not only that knowledge characteristics will influence the self-efficacy of a police officer and that self-efficacy can in turn influence individual police officers' OCB, but also the contextual effect of social characteristics, contextual characteristics, and collective efficacy on self-efficacy and individuals' OCB. Additionally, there was a crosslevel moderating effect from contextual characteristics on the relationship between knowledge characteristics and self-efficacy and the relationship between self-efficacy and the individuals' OCB. The authors conclude the article with research implications.

  14. The impact of smoking and previous periodontal disease on peri-implant microbiota and health: a retrospective study up to 7-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Alessandro; Assenza, Bartolomeo; D'Isidoro, Orlando; Profili, Fabia; Polimeni, Antonella; Vozza, Iole

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of smoking and previous periodontal disease on peri-implant microbiota and health in medium to long-term maintained patients. A retrospective evaluation of partial edentulous patients restored with dental implants and enrolled in a regular supportive therapy was performed. Inclusion criteria were: medium to long-term periodontal and implant maintenance (at least 5 years), a minimum of 2 implants placed in each patient, absence of systemic diseases that may affect osseointegration. 30 implants in 15 patients were included in the study. Subjects were divided in smokers or non-smokers and between patients previously affected by periodontal disease and periodontally healthy. Peri-implant and periodontal parameters were assessed (PD,BoP, mPI). Microbiological samples were collected around implant and an adjacent tooth. Real- Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed. In all the three groups no differences in bacterial counts between dental and implant sites were observed. Non smoker, healthy patients: healthy clinical parameters, significant counts of spirochetes in isolated patients. Non smokers with previous periodontal disease: occasional positive BoP values, significant high counts of pathogenic bacteria. Smokers with previous periodontal disease: clinical signs of inflammation including deep pockets and slight bone resorption, significant counts of pathogenic bacteria. Over a follow-up of 5 to 7 years, it is possible to state that the absence of smoking habit and previous periodontal disease positively influences the peri-implant microbiological and clinical conditions in partial edentulous patients restored with dental implants and enrolled in a strict regular supportive therapy.

  15. Coach training can improve the self-efficacy of neonatal nurses. A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammentorp, Jette; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2009-01-01

    in an intervention study evaluating the nurses' self-efficacy before and after the course. RESULTS: A total of 39/44 (89%) and 31/40 (78%) neonatal nurses answered the questionnaire before and after the course. The self-efficacy scores increased up to 14.8% and for all but 1 question, the increase was statistically...... significant. CONCLUSION: Coaching can improve nurses' self-efficacy in relation to meet the needs of the mothers and fathers. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Coaching could be a method that can maximize the personal and professional potential of the staff, and prepare them for the mindful being-in-relation approach...

  16. Tirapazamine plus cisplatin versus cisplatin in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: A report of the international CATAPULT I study group. Cisplatin and Tirapazamine in Subjects with Advanced Previously Untreated Non-Small-Cell Lung Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Pawel, J; von Roemeling, R; Gatzemeier, U; Boyer, M; Elisson, L O; Clark, P; Talbot, D; Rey, A; Butler, T W; Hirsh, V; Olver, I; Bergman, B; Ayoub, J; Richardson, G; Dunlop, D; Arcenas, A; Vescio, R; Viallet, J; Treat, J

    2000-03-01

    A phase III trial, Cisplatin and Tirapazamine in Subjects with Advanced Previously Untreated Non-Small-Cell Lung Tumors (CATAPULT I), was designed to determine the efficacy and safety of tirapazamine plus cisplatin for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with previously untreated NSCLC were randomized to receive either tirapazamine (390 mg/m(2) infused over 2 hours) followed 1 hour later by cisplatin (75 mg/m(2) over 1 hour) or 75 mg/m(2) of cisplatin alone, every 3 weeks for a maximum of eight cycles. A total of 446 patients with NSCLC (17% with stage IIIB disease and pleural effusions; 83% with stage IV disease) were entered onto the study. Karnofsky performance status (KPS) was >/= 60 for all patients (for 10%, KPS = 60; for 90%, KPS = 70 to 100). Sixty patients (14%) had clinically stable brain metastases. The median survival was significantly longer (34.6 v 27. 7 weeks; P =.0078) and the response rate was significantly greater (27.5% v 13.7%; P CATAPULT I study shows that tirapazamine enhances the activity of cisplatin in patients with advanced NSCLC and confirms that hypoxia is an exploitable therapeutic target in human malignancies.

  17. An Exploratory Study into the Efficacy of Learning Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Farha, Ph.D.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning objects have quickly become a widely accepted approach to instructional technology, particularly in on-line and computer-based learning environments. While there is a substantial body of literature concerning learning objects, very little of it verifies their efficacy. This research investigated the effectiveness of learning objects by comparing learning outcomes using a learning object with outcomes using a traditional textbook-based method of instruction. Participants were 327 undergraduate college students at a traditional public four-year coed institution, a private four-year women’s college, a private four-year engineering institution, and a public two-year community college. Through a series of independent samples t-tests and Analyses of Variance, results revealed mean scores for the learning object group that were nearly three times higher than the mean scores for the textbook-taught group. Gaming experience, age, gender, and learner preference were evaluated for their potential influence on the results; no statistically significant differences were found, implying that the learning object itself was central to the outcomes achieved. The future of learning objects is bright, and more empirical research is called for in the area of learning object effectiveness.

  18. From efficacy to effectiveness: case studies in unemployment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Vanessa; Harris, Elizabeth

    2004-09-01

    There have been few attempts to implement and disseminate programmes to address the psychological health impact of unemployment despite the burden of this problem upon public health and health services. One approach that has demonstrated efficacy in promoting both psychological health and employment for this group is based upon the principles of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). We have been involved in three interventions based upon CBT to improve the psychological health of people who are unemployed, delivered through existing service structures in Australia: employment support agencies, general practice and mental health services. In this paper, we examine our experiences in conducting research within these service organizations using a framework for collaboration between researchers and services based upon intersectoral action. While effective collaboration can facilitate the implementation of research within systems, poor collaboration can impact upon the integrity of research designs. In our experience, it was the capacity of service organizations to address the psychological health impact of unemployment in particular that had a significant effect upon adoption of the intervention. Service organizations did not have structures to support the rigorous evaluation of interventions nor did they have funding arrangements that facilitated effective collaboration on research to address psychological issues. The dissemination of evidence-based interventions like CBT to populations of people who are unemployed in Australia is hindered by the absence of an accessible and appropriate system through which to address the psychological health impact of unemployment.

  19. Self-efficacy, mathematics' anxiety and perceived importance: an empirical study with Portuguese engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Manuela; Rodrigues, Cristina S.; Rocha, Ana Maria A. C.; Coutinho, Clara

    2016-01-01

    The accomplishment in mathematics has gained attention from educators and arises as an emerging field of study, including in engineering education. However, in Portugal, there is still incipient research in the area; so it is high time to explore factors that might enlighten the gap in the study of the relationship between Portuguese engineering students and the learning of mathematics. The main purpose of this study is to explore three factors identified in the literature as influencing the learning of mathematical concepts - self-efficacy, anxiety towards mathematics and perceived importance of mathematics - and search for differences by gender and by type of engineering course, a dimension not much reported in the literature but which was revealed as important in the team's previous research. Based on a sample of 140 undergraduate students of different engineering courses from University of Minho, results only identify differences in the type of course and not in gender. These results constitute a contribution and open new paths for future research in the engineering education.

  20. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. Methods/design The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government’s Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. Discussion It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new

  1. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carracedo, David; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Fauquet, Jordi; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Pàmias, Montserrat; Puntí, Joaquim; Querol, Mireia; Trepat, Esther

    2013-10-12

    The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government's Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new contributions in this transition from efficacy

  2. Mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with different insulin secretagogues compared with metformin in type 2 diabetes, with or without a previous myocardial infarction: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Tina Ken; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Vaag, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Aims The impact of insulin secretagogues (ISs) on long-term major clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We examined mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with all available ISs compared with metformin in a nationwide study. Methods and results All Danish residents >20 years......, initiating single-agent ISs or metformin between 1997 and 2006 were followed for up to 9 years (median 3.3 years) by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and the composite of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cardiovascular mortality...... associated with individual ISs were investigated in patients with or without previous MI by multivariable Cox proportional-hazard analyses including propensity analyses. A total of 107 806 subjects were included, of whom 9607 had previous MI. Compared with metformin, glimepiride (hazard ratios and 95...

  3. Developing Self-Efficacy through a Massive Open Online Course on Study Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-efficacy is a strong predictor of academic performance, and an area of interest for higher education institutions. This paper reports on a massive open online course (MOOC on study skills, aimed at increasing self-efficacy. Participants (n=32 were from Mexico and Colombia, with ages ranging from 21 to 45 years. At the beginning and the end of the MOOC, learners answered a survey that included the General Self-Efficacy Scale, items on specific study skills, and space for optional comments. Findings show statistically significant increases in general self-efficacy after completing the MOOC, as well as in the perceived self-efficacy related to five out of six study skills. Comments suggest that participants are aware of and value their own improvement. For students, MOOCs can represent low-risk, formative opportunities to widen their knowledge and increase their self-efficacy. For academic institutions, well-designed MOOCs on study skills provide a means to support students.

  4. Teaching efficacy of nurses in clinical practice education: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Kyeung; Shin, Sujin

    2017-07-01

    Clinical nurses play a vital role in clinical practice education; thus, it is necessary to help clinical nurses have teaching efficacy through the development and application of systematic education programs. To identify nurses' teaching efficacy for clinical education and analyze the influencing factors of teaching efficacy. The study used a cross-sectional design. We used a convenience sample of 263 nurses from two hospitals. Teaching efficacy, general characteristics, and perception of clinical practice education were collected via self-reported questionnaires. Teaching efficacy was measured using Hwang's (2006) questionnaire, while perception of clinical practice education was measured using the Clinical Nurse Teacher Survey developed by Nishioka et al. (2014). Participants completed the questionnaire directly. The collected data were then analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, ANOVAs, and multiple regression analysis with PASW Statistics 18.0. The mean total score of teaching efficacy was 72.5 (range 21-105). The leadership for students subscale had the highest score (3.56±0.59). The factors influencing teaching efficacy were length of clinical career (β=0.26, pteaching efficacy in nurses. Based on these results, nursing educators might need to develop greater confidence in their knowledge and enhance control of their teaching strategies. Nursing schools and hospitals might need to provide greater support and educational opportunities to nurse clinical practice instructors. Furthermore, constructing a system of cooperation between these colleges and educational hospitals, developing programs to enhance teaching efficacy, and identifying the clinical instructor's role are all necessary to promote clinical practice education. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Self-Efficacy After Life Skills Training: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezayat, Fatemeh; Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nursing students’ self-efficacy is a predictor for their educational progress. Students, who believe that they can be successful in their studies, are more confident. Therefore, many universities have focused on life skills training programs to improve the mental health of their students. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate and compare self-efficacy in two groups of nursing students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). One group of students was trained on life skill programs, and the second group was not trained on the issue. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was conducted on two groups of nursing students in TUMS in the late 2012. The case group (n = 112) had passed life skills training course, and the control group (n = 139) was not trained on the issue. Data was collected using a questionnaire containing 12 questions about demographic features, and the Sherer’s general self-efficacy questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using independent sample t-test, Chi-square, odds ratio, and Fisher’s exact test. Results: In the untrained and trained groups, 23% and 8% of the students had very high self-efficacy, respectively. The overall mean scores of self-efficacy were 41.99 ± 9.31 and 38.99 ± 10.48 in the trained and untrained groups, respectively (P = 0.015), and the higher mean score indicates lower level of self-efficacy. A significant difference was also found between the self-efficacy and family income (P = 0.029). Conclusions: The present study showed that life skills training program did not affect self-efficacy of nursing students. Perhaps, the methods used in education were influencing and then, more effective techniques such as role-play and group discussion should be substituted in life skills training. PMID:25414884

  6. Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy of University Students: A Cross-Cultural Study

    OpenAIRE

    Oguz Basol; Isil Karatuna

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the entrepreneurial self-efficacy perceptions among university students across two countries, i.e., Poland and Turkey. Data were obtained through questionnaires designed to assess the perceptions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. In all, 365 Polish and 278 Turkish students completed the questionnaires. Results indicated that Polish and Turkish students did not differ significantly in regard to the overall measure of entrepreneurial self-effi...

  7. Efficacy of Epidural Perineural Injection of Autologous Conditioned Serum in Unilateral Cervical Radiculopathy: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, Vijay G; Singh Jhala, Sampat; Gopinathan, Nirmal Raj; Behera, Prateek; Batra, Y K; R H H, Arjun; Guled, Uday; Vardhan, Harsha

    2015-08-15

    Prospective randomized pilot study. Evaluation of the efficacy of epidural perineural injection of autologous conditioned serum (ACS) versus methylprednisone (MPS) in unilateral cervical radiculopathy patients. Cervical radiculopathy is often treated by nonoperative and operative means. Guided injections of steroids have been used previously. We used ACS, an orthobiologic derived from patients' own blood in patients of unilateral cervical radiculopathy. Forty patients were equally allocated into ACS and MPS groups and were injected with 2.5 to 3 mL of ACS or MPS, respectively, under image guidance into the perineural area of the affected nerve root. They were followed up for 6 months with visual analogue scale for pain, neck pain disability scale in Hindi language, neck disability index, and Short Form of Health Survey-12 (SF-12). Patients who had received injections of ACS and MPS both had improvements in the scores of the evaluation tools. The improvement in the ACS patients was gradual and sustained during the entire study period whereas that in the MPS group had some deterioration over time. No major complications were noted among the 2 groups. Minor complications were noted in both the groups. ACS can be considered an equally good or better modality of nonoperative management in patients of unilateral cervical radiculopathy as MPS. The safety profile is good and the improvement seen is sustained over time. Thus, it may be offered to affected patients before offering them surgery. 2.

  8. Preclinical Studies Evaluating Subacute Toxicity and Therapeutic Efficacy of LQB-118 in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Júnior, Edézio Ferreira; Martins, Thiago Martino; Canto-Cavalheiro, Marilene Marcuzzo; Marques, Paulo Roberto; Portari, Elyzabeth Avvad; Coelho, Marsen Garcia Pinto; Netto, Chaquip Daher; Costa, Paulo Roberto Ribeiro; Sabino, Katia Costa de Carvalho; Torres-Santos, Eduardo Caio

    2016-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and is the second major cause of death by parasites, after malaria. The arsenal of drugs against leishmaniasis is small, and each has a disadvantage in terms of toxicity, efficacy, price, or treatment regimen. Our group has focused on studying new drug candidates as alternatives to current treatments. The pterocarpanquinone LQB-118 was designed and synthesized based on molecular hybridization, and it exhibited antiprotozoal and anti-leukemic cell line activities. Our previous work demonstrated that LQB-118 was an effective treatment for experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this study, we observed that treatment with 10 mg/kg of body weight/day LQB-118 orally inhibited the development of hepatosplenomegaly with a 99% reduction in parasite load. An in vivo toxicological analysis showed no change in the clinical, biochemical, or hematological parameters. Histologically, all of the analyzed organs were normal, with the exception of the liver, where focal points of necrosis with leukocytic infiltration were observed at treatment doses 5 times higher than the therapeutic dose; however, these changes were not accompanied by an increase in transaminases. Our findings indicate that LQB-118 is effective at treating different clinical forms of leishmaniasis and presents no relevant signs of toxicity at therapeutic doses; thus, this framework is demonstrated suitable for developing promising drug candidates for the oral treatment of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Risk for high depressive symptoms in diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes: 5-year follow-up results of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Icks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the risk for the development of high depressive symptoms in study participants with diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes mellitus compared to those without diabetes in a prospective population-based cohort study in Germany. METHODS: We estimated the 5-year cumulative incidence of high depressive symptoms in participants without high depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 3,633, 51.4% men, mean age (SD 59.1 (7.6 years, 7.0% diagnosed diabetes, 5.3% previously undetected diabetes from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Diabetes was assessed by self-report, medication, and blood glucose. High depressive symptoms were assessed using CES-D. We calculated odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence interval, using multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULT: Cumulative 5-year incidences (95% CI of high depressive symptoms in participants with diagnosed, undetected, and without diabetes were 7.1 (4.2-10.9, 4.1 (1.8-8.0, and 6.5 (5.6-7.4, respectively. The age-sex-adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms was 1.22 (0.74-2.03 in participants with diagnosed compared to those without diabetes, and 1.00 (0.59-1.68 after adjustment for BMI, physical activity, education, stroke, and myocardial infarction. The age-sex adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms in participants with previously undetected diabetes compared to those without diabetes was 0.72; 0.35-1.48; and fully adjusted 0.62; 0.30-1.30. CONCLUSION: We found no significant associations, maybe due to low power. However, our results are in line with a recent meta-analysis suggesting that risk of developing high depressive symptoms in patients with diagnosed diabetes may be moderately higher than in those without diabetes, and that comorbidity may explain in part this association. In participants with previously undetected diabetes, this first longitudinal study indicates that the risk is not

  10. Comparison of time until elective intestinal resection regarding previous anti-tumor necrosis factor exposure: a Brazilian study on patients with Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gustavo Kotze

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The use of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF agents seems to reduce surgical rates and delay surgical procedures in prospective trials and population-based studies in the management of Crohn's disease (CD. This study aimed to identify whether preoperative anti-TNF agents influence the time from diagnosis to surgery. Methods: An observational retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients with CD submitted to intestinal resections due to complications or medical therapy failure in a period of 7 years. The patients were allocated into 2 groups according to their previous exposure to anti-TNF agents in the preoperative period. Epidemiological aspects regarding age at diagnosis, smoking, perianal disease, and preoperative conventional therapy were considered. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to outline possible differences between the groups regarding the time to surgery. Results: A total of 123 patients were included (71 and 52 with and without previous exposure to biologics, respectively. The overall time to surgery was 108±6.9 months (maximum, 276 months. The survival estimation revealed no difference in the mean time to intestinal resection between the groups (99.78±10.62 months in the patients without and 114.01±9.07 months in those with previous anti-TNF use (log-rank P=0.35. There was no significant difference in the time to surgery regarding perianal CD (P=0.49, smoking (P=0.63, preoperative azathioprine (P=0.073 and steroid use (P=0.58. Conclusions: The time from diagnosis to surgery was not influenced by the preoperative use of anti-TNF therapy in this cohort of patients.

  11. 21 CFR 330.12 - Status of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs previously reviewed under the Drug Efficacy Study (DESI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-nitrofurazone (DESI 6898), for which an order revoking provision for certification was published March 14, 1972... Register of February 2, 1973 (38 FR 3208). (xiv) Those parts of the publication entitled “Certain Mouthwash and Gargle Preparations” (DESI 2855) pertaining to Tyrolaris Mouthwash, containing tyrothricin...

  12. Toward making the invisible visible: Studying science teaching self-efficacy beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Catherine J.

    This dissertation consists of two articles to be submitted for publication. The first, a literature review, makes visible common influences on science teaching self-efficacy beliefs and also points to potentially invisible validation concerns regarding the instrument used. The second investigates the participants' invisible science teaching self-efficacy beliefs and, through the use of a more focused interview, makes those beliefs visible. Science teaching self-efficacy beliefs are science teachers' perceptions of their abilities to teach science effectively. The construct "teaching self-efficacy" originated in social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1977). The first article reviews the mixed results from teaching self-efficacy research in science contexts. The review focuses upon factors that facilitate or inhibit the development of self-efficacy beliefs among science teachers across stages of their careers. Although many studies of science teaching self-efficacy beliefs have utilized the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument - STEBI (Enochs & Riggs, 1990; Riggs & Enochs, 1990), this review also includes non-STEBI studies in order to represent diverse lines of research methodology. The review's findings indicate that antecedent factors such as science activities in and out of school, teacher preparation, science teaching experiences and supportive job contexts are significant influences on the development of science teaching self-efficacy beliefs. The review also indicates that the majority of these studies are short term and rely on a single STEBI administration with the collection of antecedent/demographic and/or interview data. The second article documents a study that responded to the above literature review findings. This study utilized multiple STEBI administrations during the preservice and beginning year of teaching for two science teachers. Rather than general questions, these participants were asked item specific, yet open-ended, questions to determine

  13. Open label study to evaluate the efficacy of re-treatment with etanercept in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuchar, Adriana; Vitiello, Magalys; Ricotti, Carlos; Grant, Annika; Dehesa, Luis; Kerdel, Francisco

    2012-08-01

    Etanercept has been used to treat chronic plaque psoriasis. Previously reported data demonstrated that some patients experienced secondary failure and frequently rotational-switch therapy is used. The re-treatment with etanercept as part of the rotational therapy could be considered as another safe and efficient therapeutic approach. To evaluate the efficacy of the re-treatment with etanercept in patients with a history of etanercept use with good response and secondary loss of efficacy. This is an open label prospective study involving 20 patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis, who had been initially treated with etanercept and were re-treated after a variable interval with 50 mg BIW for 12 weeks. At week 12 of etanercept re-treatment, 13 of 20 patients (65%) achieved a PGA score of 2 or less and 40% (8 of 20), achieved a PGA score of 0 to 1. Etanercept was well tolerated and no serious adverse events were reported. Our study involved a small number of patients. Failure of etanercept was establish by patient's history. However we were able to correlate such failure from our medical records in 17 patients. Re-treatment with etanercept, after secondary loss of efficacy should be considered in patients with psoriasis if satisfactory therapy cannot be achieved with other therapeutic regimens.

  14. Effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Childbirth Education pilot study on maternal self-efficacy and fear of childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jean; Hauck, Yvonne; Fisher, Colleen; Bayes, Sara; Schutze, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study tested the feasibility and effectiveness of using Mindfulness-Based Childbirth Education (MBCE), a novel integration of mindfulness meditation and skills-based childbirth education, for mental health promotion with pregnant women. The MBCE protocol aimed to reduce fear of birth, anxiety, and stress and improve maternal self-efficacy. This pilot study also aimed to determine the acceptability and feasibility of the MBCE protocol. A single-arm pilot study of the MBCE intervention using a repeated-measures design was used to analyze data before and after the MBCE intervention to determine change trends with key outcome variables: mindfulness; depression, anxiety, and stress; childbirth self-efficacy; and fear of childbirth. Pregnant women (18-28 weeks' gestation) and their support companions attended weekly MBCE group sessions over 8 weeks in an Australian community setting. Of the 18 women who began and completed the intervention, missing data allowed for complete data from 12 participants to be analyzed. Statistically significant improvements and large effect sizes were observed for childbirth self-efficacy and fear of childbirth. Improvements in depression, mindfulness, and birth outcome expectations were underpowered. At postnatal follow-up significant improvements were found in anxiety, whereas improvements in mindfulness, stress, and fear of birth were significant at a less conservative alpha level. This pilot study demonstrated that a blended mindfulness and skills-based childbirth education intervention was acceptable to women and was associated with improvements in women's sense of control and confidence in giving birth. Previous findings that low self-efficacy and high childbirth fear are linked to greater labor pain, stress reactivity, and trauma suggest the observed improvements in these variables have important implications for improving maternal mental health and associated child health outcomes. Ways in which these outcomes can be

  15. Food intake during the previous 24 h as a percentage of usual intake: a marker of hypoxia in infants with bronchiolitis: an observational, prospective, multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrard François

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia associated with bronchiolitis is not always easy to assess on clinical grounds alone. The aim of this study was to determine the value of food intake during the previous 24 hours (bottle and spoon feeding, as a percentage of usual intake (24h FI, as a marker of hypoxia, and to compare its diagnostic value with that of usual clinical signs. Methods In this observational, prospective, multicenter study, 18 community pediatricians, enrolled 171 infants, aged from 0 to 6 months, with bronchiolitis (rhinorrhea + dyspnea + cough + expiratory sounds. Infants with risk factors (history of prematurity, chronic heart or lung disorders, breast-fed infants, and infants having previously been treated for bronchial disorders were excluded. The 24h FI, subcostal, intercostal, supracostal retractions, nasal flaring, respiratory rate, pauses, cyanosis, rectal temperature and respiratory syncytial virus test results were noted. The highest stable value of transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2 was recorded. Hypoxia was noted if SpO2 was below 95% and verified. Results 24h FI ≥ 50% was associated with a 96% likelihood of SpO2 ≥ 95% [95% CI, 91–99]. In univariate analysis, 24h FI  Conclusion In practice, the measure of 24 h FI may be useful in identifying hypoxia and deserves further study.

  16. A multicenter phase I/II study of obatoclax mesylate administered as a 3- or 24-hour infusion in older patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D Schimmer

    Full Text Available An open-label phase I/II study of single-agent obatoclax determined a maximum tolerated dose (MTD and schedule, safety, and efficacy in older patients (≥ 70 yr with untreated acute myeloid leukemia (AML.Phase I evaluated the safety of obatoclax infused for 3 hours on 3 consecutive days (3 h × 3 d in 2-week cycles. Initial obatoclax dose was 30 mg/day (3 h × 3 d; n = 3. Obatoclax was increased to 45 mg/day (3 h × 3 d if ≤ 1 patient had a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT and decreased to 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d if DLT occurred in ≥ 2 patients. In the phase II study, 12 patients were randomized to receive obatoclax at the dose identified during phase I (3 h × 3 d or 60 mg/day administered by continuous infusion over 24 hours for 3 days (24 h × 3 d to determine the morphologic complete response rate.In phase I, two of three patients receiving obatoclax 30 mg/day (3 h × 3 d experienced grade 3 neurologic DLTs (confusion, ataxia, and somnolence. Obatoclax was decreased to 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d. In phase II, no clinically relevant safety differences were observed between the 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d; n = 7 and 60 mg/day (24 h × 3 d; n = 5 arms. Neurologic and psychiatric adverse events were most common and were generally transient and reversible. Complete response was not achieved in any patient.Obatoclax 20 mg/day was the MTD (3 h × 3 d in older patients with AML. In the schedules tested, single-agent obatoclax was not associated with an objective response. Evaluation in additional subgroups or in combination with other chemotherapy modalities may be considered for future study.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00684918.

  17. A multicenter phase I/II study of obatoclax mesylate administered as a 3- or 24-hour infusion in older patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, Aaron D; Raza, Azra; Carter, Thomas H; Claxton, David; Erba, Harry; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Tallman, Martin S; Goard, Carolyn; Borthakur, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    An open-label phase I/II study of single-agent obatoclax determined a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and schedule, safety, and efficacy in older patients (≥ 70 yr) with untreated acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Phase I evaluated the safety of obatoclax infused for 3 hours on 3 consecutive days (3 h × 3 d) in 2-week cycles. Initial obatoclax dose was 30 mg/day (3 h × 3 d; n = 3). Obatoclax was increased to 45 mg/day (3 h × 3 d) if ≤ 1 patient had a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and decreased to 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d) if DLT occurred in ≥ 2 patients. In the phase II study, 12 patients were randomized to receive obatoclax at the dose identified during phase I (3 h × 3 d) or 60 mg/day administered by continuous infusion over 24 hours for 3 days (24 h × 3 d) to determine the morphologic complete response rate. In phase I, two of three patients receiving obatoclax 30 mg/day (3 h × 3 d) experienced grade 3 neurologic DLTs (confusion, ataxia, and somnolence). Obatoclax was decreased to 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d). In phase II, no clinically relevant safety differences were observed between the 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d; n = 7) and 60 mg/day (24 h × 3 d; n = 5) arms. Neurologic and psychiatric adverse events were most common and were generally transient and reversible. Complete response was not achieved in any patient. Obatoclax 20 mg/day was the MTD (3 h × 3 d) in older patients with AML. In the schedules tested, single-agent obatoclax was not associated with an objective response. Evaluation in additional subgroups or in combination with other chemotherapy modalities may be considered for future study. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00684918.

  18. Effect of benzalkonium chloride-free travoprost on intraocular pressure and ocular surface symptoms in patients with glaucoma previously on latanoprost: an open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Joao F; Hubatsch, Douglas A; Amaris, Patricia

    2015-11-12

    Prostaglandin analogs reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension; however, these medications may affect the ocular surface and elicit ocular discomfort when preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK). This was an open-label, single-arm study conducted in Latin America from February 2012 to May 2013. Patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost 0.005 % were transitioned to receive once-daily BAK-free travoprost 0.004 % containing polyquaternium-1 (Travatan® preserved with POLYQUAD® [PQ], Alcon Laboratories, Inc; Fort Worth, TX) for 12 weeks. Mean change in IOP from baseline (primary efficacy endpoint) and the percentage of patients who achieved a target IOP of ≤18 mmHg were evaluated at all on-therapy visits. Ocular hyperemia, patient preference, and self-projected adherence were assessed at week 12. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the study. All enrolled patients were included in the analysis (n = 191); the majority of patients (90.6 %, n = 173/191) completed the study. Mean (SD) patient age was 67.5 (11.3) years, and mean baseline IOP was 14.8 mmHg. Mean IOP was reduced by 0.94 mmHg at week 6 and by 1.09 mmHg at week 12 (P glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost. BAK-free travoprost 0.004 % is a viable alternative for patients who require switching their IOP-lowering medications because of tolerability issues. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01510145.

  19. Efficacy of a communication and stress management training on medical residents' self-efficacy, stress to communicate and burnout: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragard, Isabelle; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Merckaert, Isabelle; Libert, Yves; Razavi, Darius

    2010-10-01

    This is a longitudinal randomized controlled study investigating the efficacy of a communication and stress management skills training programme on medical residents' self-efficacy to communicate and to manage stress in interviews, stress to communicate in interviews, and burnout. Ninety-six medical residents participated. Results showed a statistically significant increase in self-efficacy and decrease in stress to communicate. No changes were noted in burnout. Results of this training may encourage its compulsory organization in the medical curriculum. Further research is required to examine whether a programme associating person-directed and organization-directed interventions could have an impact on residents' burnout.

  20. Accuracy of preoperative real-time dynamic transvaginal ultrasound sliding sign in prediction of pelvic adhesions in women with previous abdominopelvic surgery: prospective, multicenter, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayachi, A; Bouchahda, R; Derouich, S; Mkaouer, L; Kehila, M; Abouda, H; Channoufi, B; Bouyahia, M; Braham, M; Zhioua, F; Bouchahda, H; Mourali, M

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the role of the transvaginal sonographic (TVS) sliding sign in predicting pelvic adhesions in women with previous abdominopelvic surgery. This was a multicenter, prospective, interventional, double-blind study of patients with a history of abdominopelvic surgery who were undergoing laparoscopy or laparotomy during the 6-month period from March to August 2016 in one of three academic obstetrics and gynecology departments. Prior to surgery, patients were examined by TVS to assess the vesicouterine pouch, uterus, ovaries and pouch of Douglas, using the TVS pelvic sliding sign. Ultrasound findings and medical and surgical data were recorded. We assessed the accuracy of the preoperative TVS sliding sign in the prediction of pelvic adhesions overall and in each compartment separately. During the study period, complete TVS sliding sign and laparoscopic or laparotomic data were available for 107 women. Their mean age was 44.0 (95% CI, 41.6-46.4; range, 20-79) years. Their mean parity was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.7-2.3; range, 0-9) and the mean number of previous abdominal surgical procedures per patient was 1.3 (95% CI, 1.2-1.5; range, 1-4). Adhesions were noted in 27/107 (25.2%) patients. The TVS sliding sign had a sensitivity of 96.3% and specificity of 92.6% in predicting pelvic adhesions. There was a significant relationship between adhesions in each compartment and the TVS sliding sign (P sign is an effective means to detect preoperatively pelvic adhesions in patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery. Use of such a non-invasive and well-tolerated technique could help in the planning of laparoscopy or laparotomy and counseling of these patients. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A Comparative Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Teaching Efficacy Beliefs before and after Work-Integrated Learning: Part Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, K. E.; Matoti, S. N.

    2013-01-01

    The study, which is grounded in Bandura's concept of self-efficacy, assessed the teaching efficacy beliefs of student teachers before and after completing six months of work-integrated learning. This was necessitated by research which shows that self-efficacy is an important aspect which influences a teacher's ability to teach as well as the…

  2. The contribution of previous lameness events and body condition score to the occurrence of lameness in dairy herds: A study of 2 herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, L V; Green, M J; Green, L E; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C; Archer, S C; Huxley, J N

    2018-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that low body condition and previous occurrence of lameness increase the risk of future lameness in dairy cows. To date the population attributable fraction (PAF), which provides an estimate of the contribution that a risk factor makes toward the total number of disease events in a population, has not been explored for lameness using longitudinal data with repeated measures. Estimation of PAF helps to identify control measures that could lead to the largest improvements on-farm. The aim of this study was to use longitudinal data to evaluate the proportion of lameness that could be avoided in 2 separate herds (2 populations) through (1) reduced recurrence of previous lameness events, (2) and moving body condition score (BCS) into more optimal ranges. Data were obtained from 2 UK dairy herds: herd A, a 200-cow herd with 8 yr of data from a total of 724 cows where lameness events were based on weekly locomotion scores (LS; 1 to 5 scale), and herd B, a 600-cow herd with data recorded over 44 mo from a total of 1,040 cows where treatment of clinical cases was used to identify lameness events. The PAF for categories of BCS were estimated using a closed equation appropriate for multiple exposure categories. Simulation models were used to explore theoretical scenarios to reflect changes in BCS and recurrence of previous lameness events in each herd. For herd A, 21.5% of the total risk periods (cow-weeks) contained a lameness event (LS 3, 4, or 5), 96% of which were repeat events and 19% were recorded with BCS events were based on 2 consecutive weeks of LS 4 or 5, 4% of risk periods were recorded as lame, of which 89.5% were repeat events. For herd B, 16.3% of the total risk periods (consecutive 30 d) contained a lameness event (72.6% were repeat events) and 20% were recorded with BCS ≤2 (0 to 120 d previously). The median PAF for all previous lameness was between 79 and 83% in the 2 herds. Between 9 and 21% of lameness events could be attributed

  3. Social Work Professionals’ Emotional Intelligence, Locus Of Control And Role Efficacy: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K. Singh

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of the study was to study social work professionals psychologically. This study was conducted on a sample of 178 participants. The findings depict role efficacy to be associated positively with emotional intelligence and internal locus of control, but negatively with external locus of control. Similarly, emotional intelligence was found to be associated positively with internality, but negatively related to externality. The findings also indicated that emotional intelligence alone accounts for 43% of the variance on role efficacy of social work professionals. The findings of the study have major implications for non-governmental organizations and are discussed.

  4. Outcome of secondary high-grade glioma in children previously treated for a malignant condition: A study of the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carret, Anne-Sophie; Tabori, Uri; Crooks, Bruce; Hukin, Juliette; Odame, Isaac; Johnston, Donna L.; Keene, Daniel L.; Freeman, Carolyn; Bouffet, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Reports of secondary high-grade glioma (HGG) in survivors of childhood cancer are scarce. The aim of this study was to review the pattern of diagnosis, the treatment, and outcome of secondary pediatric HGG. Patients and methods: We performed a multi-center retrospective study among the 17 paediatric institutions participating in the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium (CPBTC). Results: We report on 18 patients (14 males, 4 females) treated in childhood for a primary cancer, who subsequently developed a HGG as a second malignancy. All patients had previously received radiation therapy +/- chemotherapy for either acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (n = 9) or solid tumour (n = 9). All HGG occurred within the previous radiation fields. At the last follow-up, 17 patients have died and the median survival time is 9.75 months. Conclusion: Although aggressive treatment seems to provide sustained remissions in some patients, the optimal management is still to be defined. Further documentation of such cases is necessary in order to better understand the pathogenesis, the natural history and the prevention of these tumours

  5. EFFICACY OF IBUPROFEN IN TREATMENT OF PAIN IN CHILDREN: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. Saygitov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of systematic review of data on prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen. Data search was performed by PubMed database and Google search. 27 publications for analysis were available. Prophylactic efficacy of ibuprofen was studied in 14 studies. Summarizing of the results showed that ibuprofen prevents pain and decreases its following intensity after different surgical or dental operations. There is no significant difference in prophylactic efficacy of single dose ibuprofen and acetaminophen. Therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen was described in 13 studies. Administration of the drug for pain stopping in children is reasonable. The analgesic effect of ibuprofen compared to placebo was shown in all studies of patients with migraine and diseases of ENT-organs. 5 studies performed in last 5 years showed efficacy of ibuprofen in trauma patients, including children with non-complicated fractures of extremities.Key words: children, pain, ibuprofen, prophylaxis, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(6:52-62

  6. Self-efficacy and quality of life after low-intensity neuropsychological rehabilitation: A pre-post intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Ingrid; Custers, Maud; van Heugten, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Being highly self-efficacious is a key factor in successful chronic disease self-management. It is unknown whether neuropsychological rehabilitation improves self-efficacy in managing the consequences of brain injury. To investigate whether levels of general and brain injury specific self-efficacy and quality of life (QoL) increased after neuropsychological rehabilitation and whether cognitive performance was associated with self-efficacy. We conducted a retrospective clinical cohort study of 62 patients with acquired brain injury and cognitive complaints with measurements before start and after completion of treatment. QoL was measured with the visual analogue scale (EQ VAS) of the EuroQol (EQ-5D); self-efficacy with the TBI Self-efficacy Questionnaire (SEsx) and the General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES). Cognitive performance was measured as a compound score of tests for memory, attention and information processing speed. Self-efficacy for managing brain injury-specific symptoms and QoL increased significantly after neuropsychological rehabilitation. Both general and brain injury-specific self-efficacy were positively associated with QoL after completion of the programme. Cognitive performance was not associated with self-efficacy for managing brain injury-specific symptoms nor with general self-efficacy. Self-efficacy and QoL improve after treatment. Further research is needed to identify the specific ingredients responsible for improvement of self-efficacy in patients with cognitive complaints.

  7. Does using testicular sperm retrieval rather than ejaculated spermatozoa improve reproductive outcomes in couples with previous ART failure and poor ovarian response? A case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, A R; Younes, G; Tannus, S; Son, W Y; Chan, P; Buckett, W

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether testicular-retrieved spermatozoa improve reproductive outcomes compared to fresh ejaculate in women with poor ovarian response and a history of previous ART failure. The study was performed as a retrospective case-control study at a university-based reproductive center in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Eighteen poor-responder patients were matched 3 : 1 with 54 controls. Poor responders were defined as those with ≤3 oocytes retrieved at oocyte pickup. Cases were identified as poor responders, and only those with previous IVF failure(s) as an indication for testicular-retrieved spermatozoa were included. Controls were age and cycle attempt number matched. All patients were included only once. From January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2015, all patients and controls underwent an IVF cycle using ICSI with either testicular spermatozoa or ejaculated spermatozoa, respectively. Outcomes included live birth rate, pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate, oocyte number, and embryo transfer (ET) day. The results showed live birth rates, pregnancy rates, and miscarriage rates were similar. There were fewer day 2 ETs (8.5% vs. 48.6%, p = 0.01) and more day 5 blastocyst transfers (25.0% vs. 5.4%, p = 0.05) in the testicular sperm retrieval group compared to controls and thus an overall suggestion of better embryo quality in the testicular sperm group. Overall, however, the use of testicular sperm retrieval appears to add little. Women with poor ovarian response typically have a poor prognosis with respect to live birth rates, and this is further supported in this study. The suggestion of better embryo quality in the testicular-retrieved sperm group would need to be further assessed in a larger multicentered study. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  8. A practice based study of a children's power toothbrush: efficacy and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Arthur J; Skotowski, M Catherine; Cugini, MaryAnn; Warren, Paul R

    2002-03-01

    Power toothbrushes can offer significant advantages over a manual toothbrush both with respect to plaque removal and compliance. Most studies have, however, been carried out with adult toothbrushes in adult populations. Less is known about the efficacy of children's power toothbrushes, although it is likely that similar advantages will be demonstrated. This practice based study used the Debris Index (DI) component of the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index to compare baseline oral hygiene with results after 2 months of using the Braun Oral-B Kids' Power Toothbrush (D10). The study involved 13 dental offices and a total of 154 children aged 4 to 9 years. For all sites (facial and lingual), using the D10 for 2 months resulted in an approximately 40% reduction in the DI. Questionnaires completed by the parents or guardians, the children, and the dentists indicated a very favorable response to the power toothbrush. Both parents and children preferred the D10 to a manual toothbrush and most said they would continue to use it. The fact that children found the D10 fun to use may well aid compliance. Dentists thought that the D10 was effective and, at the end of the study, most said that they would now recommend a power toothbrush. It is concluded from the results of this practice based study that the D10 can help to reduce plaque levels in a population of children who previously relied on a manual toothbrush. The fact that the D10 is appealing to children and fun to use should aid compliance with long-term oral hygiene.

  9. ICT Competence and Lecturers' Job Efficacy: A Study of Two Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Charles P.

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to establish the influence of ICT competence on lecturers' job efficacy in two universities in Nigeria. The sample of the study consisted of 500 university teachers randomly sampled from a population of 1,795 teachers. The results of the study revealed that male and female lecturers did not differ significantly in their level of…

  10. Astronomy Teaching Self-Efficacy Belief Scale: The Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Filiz; Ozyurek, Cengiz

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable and safe scale for determining the self-efficacy levels of science teachers in the teaching of astronomy subjects. The study used a survey approach, which is a qualitative research method. The study was conducted with a total of 106 science teachers working in the secondary schools of Ordu city…

  11. Prophylactic efficacy of lithium administered every second day: a WHO multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plenge, P; Amin, M; Agarwal, A K

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the prophylactic efficacy of lithium administered every second day to patients with bipolar disorder or recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. METHODS: The study was carried out as a WHO multicentre study in five different psychiatric clinics: Russia (Moscow), Canada (Montre...

  12. A Study on Physical Education Teachers: The Correlation between Self-Efficacy and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between self-efficacy and job satisfaction among the physical education teachers. The study was carried out in correlational survey model and the study sample was made up by 306 physical education teachers who worked in different geographical regions of Turkey. The data were assessed using SPSS…

  13. A Cross-Sectional Study of Engineering Students' Self-Efficacy by Gender, Ethnicity, Year, and Transfer Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, James P.; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2009-04-01

    This is a cross-sectional study of 519 undergraduate engineering majors' self-efficacy beliefs at a large, research extensive, Midwestern university. Engineering self-efficacy is an individual's belief in his or her ability to successfully negotiate the academic hurdles of the engineering program. Engineering self-efficacy was obtained from four variables: self-efficacy 1, self-efficacy 2, engineering career outcome expectations, and coping self-efficacy. The four variables were analyzed using a repeated analysis of variance among levels of gender, ethnicity, years students had been enrolled in their engineering program, and transfer status. No significant differences in mean engineering self-efficacy scores were found by gender, ethnicity, and transfer status. However, significant interactions between gender and the subscales, ethnicity and the subscales, and transfer status and the subscales were found. Significant differences in mean engineering self-efficacy scores were found among years students had been enrolled in the program.

  14. Clinical efficacies of topical agents for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyoseung; Kwon, Oh Sang; Won, Chong Hyun; Kim, Beom Joon; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong; Eun, Hee Chul

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that topical steroid and shampoo containing zinc pyrithione provide clinical benefits for treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis. But the clinical efficacy of topical tacrolimus, a newly developed calcineurin inhibitor on seborrheic dermatitis, is not well investigated yet. We wanted to compare the clinical efficacy of topical tacrolimus with that of conventional treatment (zinc pyrithione shampoo and topical betamethasone) for treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp. Patients with seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp were randomly allocated to receive topical betamethasone, topical tacrolimus or zinc pyrithione shampoo. Some patients were instructed to continue the treatments for 8 weeks and the others to discontinue the treatments at week 4. We evaluated the efficacy using a clinical severity score, dandruff score and sebum secretion at baseline, week 4 and week 8. All treatment groups showed significant improvements in clinical assessment after 4 weeks. While the patients treated by zinc pyrithione improved continuously even after cessation of the treatment, the patients treated by betamethasone lotion or tacrolimus ointment were aggravated clinically. Topical tacrolimus was as effective as topical betamethasone, and showed more prolonged remission than topical betamethasone. To treat seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp, we think that the combination therapy of topical steroid or topical tacrolimus, and zinc pyrithione is recommended.

  15. Lesson study: Professional development and its impact on science teacher self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan Rae

    This study focuses on an analysis of a professional development program known as lesson study via data obtained during an in-service professional development program for secondary school science teachers. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy beliefs of one group of science teachers related to their experiences in a lesson study. Another purpose for this research, aligned with the first, included a theoretical analysis of the lesson study construct to see if its design promoted positive self-efficacy beliefs of its participants. The research is framed within the context of social constructivism and self-efficacy and is qualitative in nature and utilized descriptive analysis as a means of research. Case studies were conducted detailing two of the six participants. Data sources included researcher field notes and transcriptions of all planning and debriefing sessions; individual interviews with each participant and the schools' principal; a participant questionnaire, and the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument. Themes that emerged included the positive perceptions of lesson study as a collaborative and teacher-centered experience; the understanding that lesson study can instill a sense of professionalism to those who participate in the process; the sense that discussing student learning using objective observations from classroom is a powerful way to assess learning and uncover personal teacher beliefs; and the insight that the time commitment that lesson study requires can inhibit teachers and schools from sustaining it as a form of on-going professional development. Although these themes are consistent with the research on lesson study in Japan and elsewhere in the United States, they also extend the research on self-efficacy and science teacher professional development. In the end, this study supported some of the conclusions of the self-efficacy research as it relates to professional development while also adding that interpersonal

  16. Vitamin D deficiency in medical patients at a central hospital in Malawi: a comparison with TB patients from a previous study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamikani Mastala

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD in adult medical, non-tuberculous (non-TB patients. To investigate associations with VDD. To compare the results with a similar study in TB patients at the same hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional sample. SETTING: Central hospital in Malawi. PARTICIPANTS: Adult non-TB patients (n = 157, inpatients and outpatients. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the prevalence of VDD. Potentially causal associations sought included nutritional status, in/outpatient status, HIV status, anti-retroviral therapy (ART and, by comparison with a previous study, a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D (≤75 nmol/L occurred in 47.8% (75/157 of patients, 16.6% (26/157 of whom had VDD (≤50 nmol/L. None had severe VDD (≤25 nmol/L. VDD was found in 22.8% (23/101 of in-patients and 5.4% (3/56 of out-patients. In univariable analysis in-patient status, ART use and low dietary vitamin D were significant predictors of VDD. VDD was less prevalent than in previously studied TB patients in the same hospital (68/161 = 42%. In multivariate analysis of the combined data set from both studies, having TB (OR 3.61, 95%CI 2.02-6.43 and being an in-patient (OR 2.70, 95%CI 1.46-5.01 were significant independent predictors of VDD. CONCLUSIONS: About half of adult medical patients without TB have suboptimal vitamin D status, which is more common in in-patients. VDD is much more common in TB patients than non-TB patients, even when other variables are controlled for, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency is associated with TB.

  17. Reduced live-birth rates after IVF/ICSI in women with previous unilateral oophorectomy: results of a multicentre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Tekla; Holte, Jan; Olofsson, Jan I; Hadziosmanovic, Nermin; Gudmundsson, Johannes; Nedstrand, Elizabeth; Lood, Mikael; Berglund, Lars; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny

    2018-02-01

    Is there a reduced live-birth rate (LBR) after IVF/ICSI treatment in women with a previous unilateral oophorectomy (UO)? A significantly reduced LBR after IVF/ICSI was found in women with previous UO when compared with women with intact ovaries in this large multicentre cohort, both crudely and after adjustment for age, BMI, fertility centre and calendar period and regardless of whether the analysis was based on transfer of embryos in the fresh cycle only or on cumulative results including transfers using frozen-thawed embryos. Similar pregnancy rates after IVF/ICSI have been previously reported in case-control studies and small cohort studies of women with previous UO versus women without ovarian surgery. In all previous studies multiple embryos were transferred. No study has previously evaluated LBR in a large cohort of women with a history of UO. This research was a multicentre cohort study, including five reproductive medicine centres in Sweden: Carl von Linné Clinic (A), Karolinska University Hospital (B), Uppsala University Hospital (C), Linköping University Hospital (D) and Örebro University Hospital (E). The women underwent IVF/ICSI between January 1999 and November 2015. Single embryo transfer (SET) was performed in approximately 70% of all treatments, without any significant difference between UO exposed women versus controls (68% versus 71%), respectively (P = 0.32), and a maximum of two embryos were transferred in the remaining cases. The dataset included all consecutive treatments and fresh and frozen-thawed cycles. The exposed cohort included 154 women with UO who underwent 301 IVF/ICSI cycles and the unexposed control cohort consisted of 22 693 women who underwent 41 545 IVF/ICSI cycles. Overall, at the five centres (A-E), the exposed cohort underwent 151, 34, 35, 41 and 40 treatments, respectively, and they were compared with controls of the same centre (18 484, 8371, 5575, 4670 and 4445, respectively). The primary outcome was LBR, which was

  18. Everolimus Plus Exemestane in Advanced Breast Cancer: Safety Results of the BALLET Study on Patients Previously Treated Without and with Chemotherapy in the Metastatic Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generali, Daniele; Montemurro, Filippo; Bordonaro, Roberto; Mafodda, Antonino; Romito, Sante; Michelotti, Andrea; Piovano, Pierluigi; Ionta, Maria Teresa; Bighin, Claudia; Sartori, Donata; Frassoldati, Antonio; Cazzaniga, Marina Elena; Riccardi, Ferdinando; Testore, Franco; Vici, Patrizia; Barone, Carlo Antonio; Schirone, Alessio; Piacentini, Federico; Nolè, Franco; Molino, Annamaria; Latini, Luciano; Simoncini, Edda Lucia; Roila, Fausto; Cognetti, Francesco; Nuzzo, Francesco; Foglietta, Jennifer; Minisini, Alessandro Marco; Goffredo, Francesca; Portera, Giuseppe; Ascione, Gilda; Mariani, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    The BALLET study was an open-label, multicenter, expanded access study designed to allow treatment with everolimus plus exemestane in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer progressed following prior endocrine therapy. A post hoc analysis to evaluate if previous chemotherapy in the metastatic setting affects the safety profile of the combination regimen of everolimus and exemestane was conducted on the Italian subset, as it represented the major part of the patients enrolled (54%). One thousand one hundred and fifty-one Italian patients were included in the present post hoc analysis, which focused on two sets of patients: patients who never received chemotherapy in the metastatic setting (36.1%) and patients who received at least one chemotherapy treatment in the metastatic setting (63.9%). One thousand one hundred and sixteen patients (97.0%) prematurely discontinued the study drug, and the main reasons reported were disease progression (39.1%), local reimbursement of everolimus (31.1%), and adverse events (AEs) (16.1%). The median duration of study treatment exposure was 139.5 days for exemestane and 135.0 days for everolimus. At least one AE was experienced by 92.5% of patients. The incidence of everolimus-related AEs was higher (83.9%) when compared with those that occurred with exemestane (29.1%), and the most commonly reported everolimus-related AE was stomatitis (51.3%). However, no significant difference in terms of safety related to the combination occurred between patients without and with chemotherapy in the metastatic setting. Real-life data of the Italian patients BALLET-related cohort were an adequate setting to state that previous chemotherapy did not affect the safety profile of the combination regimen of everolimus and exemestane. With the advent of new targeted agents for advanced or metastatic breast cancer, multiple lines of therapy may be possible, and components of the combined regimens can overlap from

  19. Higher frequency of hamstring injuries in elite track and field athletes who had a previous injury to the ankle - a 17 years observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Bikos, Georgios; Meke, Maria; Vasileios, Korakakis; Valle, Xavier; Lohrer, Heinz; Maffulli, Nicola; Padhiar, Nat

    2018-01-01

    Inversion injury to the ankle and hamstring injuries are common problems in most sports. It is not known whether these injuries constitute a predisposing factor or a precursor of injury or re-injury of these anatomical locations. Therefore, we wished to test the hypothesis that a previous inversion ankle injury exerted a significant effect on the chance of an athlete suffering from a subsequent ipsilateral hamstring injury and vice versa. In an observational cohort study over 17 years (1998-2015), 367 elite track and field athletes, were grouped according to their first traumatic isolated ankle or hamstring injury. Fifty athletes experienced both injuries. The Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests ( p  < 0.05) were performed to test possible associations of ankle and hamstring injury with age, gender, athletics discipline, grade, and type of antecedent injury. Athletes with a preceding ankle injury had a statistically significantly higher chance of experiencing a subsequent hamstring injury compared with athletes who had experienced a hamstring injury as their first traumatic event (x 2  = 4.245, p  = 0.039). The proportion of both ankle and hamstring injury events was not statistically different between female (18%) and male (11%) athletes. Age and grade of injury did not influence the proportion of ankle and/or hamstring injury events. There is a statistically significantly higher frequency of hamstring injuries in elite track and field athletes having experienced a previous ankle ligament injury.

  20. A longitudinal study of relationships between previous academic achievement, emotional intelligence and personality traits with psychological health of medical students during stressful periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri; Esa, Ab Rahman; Mat Pa, Mohamad Najib; Mey, See Ching; Aziz, Rosniza Abdul; Abdul Rahim, Ahmad Fuad

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that emotional intelligence, previous academic achievement (i.e. cumulative grade point average (GPA)) and personality are associated with success in various occupational settings. This study evaluated the relationships of these variables with psychological health of first year medical students during stressful periods. A 1-year prospective study was done with students accepted into the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Information on emotional intelligence, GPA and personality traits were obtained prior to admission. The validated Universiti Sains Malaysia Emotional Quotient Inventory and Universiti Sains Malaysia Personality Inventory were used to measure emotional intelligence and personality traits, respectively. Stress, anxiety and depression were measured by the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale during the end-of-course (time 1) and final (time 2) examinations. At the less stressful period (time 1), stress level was associated with agreeableness and the final GPA, anxiety level was associated with emotional control and emotional conscientiousness and depression level was associated with the final GPA and extraversion. At the more stressful period (time 2), neuroticism associated with stress level, anxiety level was associated with neuroticism and emotional expression, and depression level was associated with neuroticism. This study found that neuroticism was the strongest associated factor of psychological health of medical students during their most stressful testing period. Various personality traits, emotional intelligence and previous academic performance were associated factors of psychological health during a less stressful period. These data suggest that early identification of medical students who are vulnerable to the stressful environment of medical schools might help them maintain psychological well-being during medical training.

  1. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PERINATAL OUTCOME IN WOMEN WITH RECURRENT PREECLAMPSIA TO WOMEN WITH PRE-ECLAMPSIA WHO WERE NORMOTENSIVE DURING THEIR PREVIOUS PREGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Guhan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Pre-eclampsia is a systemic syndrome that occurs in 3-5% of the pregnant women and is the leading cause of maternal/neonatal morbidity and mortality. We designed a study to compare perinatal outcome in women with recurrent preeclampsia to women with women with pre-eclampsia who were normotensive during their previous pregnancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted in Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Maternal and Child Health, Government Medical College, Kozhikode for a period of 1 year from March 2013 to February 2014. We conducted this study in multiparous women who developed pre-eclampsia in index pregnancy (n=110. Among these, women who had pre-eclampsia in previous pregnancies (n=55 were compared to those who remained normotensive during their prior pregnancies (n=55. Maternal and foetal variables were compared. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed to examine the impact of pre-eclampsia on foetal outcome, preterm delivery, IUGR, still births adjusted for confounding variables. RESULTS No statistical significant difference was observed between the 2 groups in terms of age, gravida, parity. Women who experienced recurrent pre-eclampsia were at elevated risk for early onset of pre-eclampsia, deranged laboratory investigations (Hepatic and Renal parameters, Coagulation Profile, higher chances of maternal complications, foetal mortality and morbidity (Statistically significant P <0.05. Foetal loss was higher in women with recurrent pre-eclampsia (14.5% than in women with pre-eclampsia who had normotensive pregnancy history (1.8%. CONCLUSION Women with recurrent pre-eclampsia had a higher rate of perinatal loss compared to women with pre-eclampsia who were normotensive in their prior pregnancies.

  2. Legislature agrees to fund study of marijuana efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    California could be the first State to conduct a research study on medical uses for marijuana under the "Medical Research Act of 1999". S.B. 847 would authorize a three-year program, administered by the University of California, to study which methods of ingesting marijuana are most effective in treating pain and side effects of treatments for AIDS, cancer, glaucoma and seizures. The sponsor of the bill, Sen. John Vasconcellos, initially wanted $1 million in annual funding, but the program will be funded through the normal appropriations process.

  3. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus and cervical intraepithelial neoplasias in a previously unscreened population--a pooled analysis from three studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Partha; Mittal, Srabani; Bhaumik, Suchismita; Mandal, Shyam Sunder; Samaddar, Anusree; Ray, Chinmayi; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Biswas, Jaydip; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2013-04-01

    Population prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) is an important indicator to judge the disease burden in the community, to monitor the performance of cervical cancer screening program and to assess the impact of HPV vaccination program. India being a country without any cervical cancer screening program has no published data on the population prevalence of CIN and only a few large community-based studies to report the high-risk HPV prevalence. The objective of our study was to study HPV and CIN prevalence in a previously unscreened population. We pooled together the results of three research studies originally designed to assess the performance of visual inspection after acetic acid application and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC 2). Nearly 60% of the screened women had colposcopy irrespective of their screening test results. The diagnosis and grading of cervical neoplasias were based on histology. The age standardized prevalence of HPV by HC 2 test was 6.0%. Age-adjusted prevalence of CIN1 and CIN2 was 2.3% and 0.5%, respectively. The age-adjusted prevalence of CIN3 was 0.4% and that of invasive cancer was 0.2%. The prevalence of high-risk HPV was relatively low in the population we studied, which is reflected in the low prevalence of high-grade CIN. The prevalence of CIN3 remained constant across age groups due to absence of screening. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  4. School Bullying and Collective Efficacy: A Study of Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Tonya Nichelle

    2014-01-01

    Recently, widely publicized incidents of school violence have prompted questions about the abilities of school leaders to educate students in safe and socially productive environments. In many cases, incidents of school violence are linked directly to bullying episodes. The primary objective of this study is to examine the relationship between…

  5. Efficacy of Economic Sanctions: North Korea and Iran Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    by one or more international actors against another, ostensibly with a view to influencing that entity‟s foreign and/or security behavior.”2 Risa ...2 Brendan Taylor, Sanctions as Grand Strategy (London: The International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2010), 12. 3 Risa A. Brooks, “Sanctions

  6. Preliminary study on the dye removal efficacy of immobilized marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and freshwater microalga (Chlorella sp.) in removing dye from textile wastewater (TW). The present study incorporated the use of 2% sodium alginate matrixes for decoloration. Among the algal species tested, the highest colour removal was noticed in Isochrysis galbana (55%) followed by freshwater Chlorella sp. (43%).

  7. Preliminary studies on the efficacy of aloe vera ( Aloe barbadensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of Aloe vera were administered to experimentally infected mice with the Nigeria strain of Trypanosoma brucei brucei. The thirty-two (32) mice involved in the study were split into eight (8) groups of 4 mice each and treated intraperitoneally with the aqueous and ethanolic Aloe vera extracts of 40, 80, 20 mg/Kg body ...

  8. Phase II study of a 3-day schedule with topotecan and cisplatin in patients with previously untreated small cell lung cancer and extensive disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M.; Lassen, Ulrik Niels; Jensen, Peter Buhl

    2008-01-01

    and cisplatin are needed. The aim of this phase II study was to establish the response rate and response duration in chemo-naive patients with SCLC receiving a 3-day topotecan and cisplatin schedule. METHODS: Simons optimal two-stage design was used. Patients with previously untreated extensive disease SCLC......INTRODUCTION: Treatment with a topoisomerase I inhibitor in combination with a platinum results in superior or equal survival compared with etoposide-based treatment in extensive disease small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Five-day topotecan is inconvenient and therefore shorter schedules of topotecan......, adequate organ functions and performance status less than 3 were eligible. Topotecan (2.0 mg/m, intravenously) was administered on days 1 to 3 with cisplatin (50 mg/m, intravenously) on day 3 every 3 weeks for a total of six cycles. RESULTS: Forty-three patients received 219 cycles of chemotherapy. Median...

  9. EXPERIMENTAL CHALLENGE STUDY OF FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTION IN PREVIOUSLY FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTED EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) TO ASSESS INFECTION AND SURVIVAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity.

  10. Community education for stroke awareness: An efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, E B; Berman, M; Thomas, J J; Klassen, A C

    1999-04-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a slide/audio community education program aimed at increasing knowledge of stroke risk factors, stroke warning signs, and action needed when stroke warning signs occur. The program targets audiences at higher risk for stroke, especially individuals who are black or >50 years of age. Subjects were 657 adults living in the community or in senior independent-living settings. The study examined the effectiveness of the program when presented alone and when accompanied by discussion (facilitation) led by a trained individual. Knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs was assessed using parallel pretests and posttests developed and validated specifically for the study. ANCOVA indicated that neither pretesting nor facilitation had a significant effect on posttest measures of knowledge. Paired t tests of groups receiving both the pretest and posttest demonstrated significant increase in knowledge (mean increase, 10.87%; Peducational level. No significant differences could be ascribed to facilitation. The data indicate that the slide/audio program is effective in increasing knowledge of stroke risk factors, warning signs, and necessary action in subjects of varying ages, races, and education. Pretesting and facilitation did not significantly affect the short-term acquisition of information. The slide/audio program appears to offer a short, easily used educational experience for diverse communities, whether as a stand-alone program or with facilitated discussion.

  11. Polymer micelle formulation for the proteasome inhibitor drug carfilzomib: Anticancer efficacy and pharmacokinetic studies in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Park

    Full Text Available Carfilzomib (CFZ is a peptide epoxyketone proteasome inhibitor approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM. Despite the remarkable efficacy of CFZ against MM, the clinical trials in patients with solid cancers yielded rather disappointing results with minimal clinical benefits. Rapid degradation of CFZ in vivo and its poor penetration to tumor sites are considered to be major factors limiting its efficacy against solid cancers. We previously reported that polymer micelles (PMs composed of biodegradable block copolymers poly(ethylene glycol (PEG and poly(caprolactone (PCL can improve the metabolic stability of CFZ in vitro. Here, we prepared the CFZ-loaded PM, PEG-PCL-deoxycholic acid (CFZ-PM and assessed its in vivo anticancer efficacy and pharmacokinetic profiles. Despite in vitro metabolic protection of CFZ, CFZ-PM did not display in vivo anticancer efficacy in mice bearing human lung cancer xenograft (H460 superior to that of the clinically used cyclodextrin-based CFZ (CFZ-CD formulation. The plasma pharmacokinetic profiles of CFZ-PM were also comparable to those of CFZ-CD and the residual tumors that persisted in xenograft mice receiving CFZ-PM displayed an incomplete proteasome inhibition. In summary, our results showed that despite its favorable in vitro performances, the current CFZ-PM formulation did not improve in vivo anticancer efficacy and accessibility of active CFZ to solid cancer tissues over CFZ-CD. Careful consideration of the current results and potential confounding factors may provide valuable insights into the future efforts to validate the potential of CFZ-based therapy for solid cancer and to develop effective CFZ delivery strategies that can be used to treat solid cancers.

  12. Comparison of the efficacy of olopatadine and fexofenadine in chronic idiopathic urticaria patients: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Nakamizo, Satoshi; Otsuka, Atsushi; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Kabashima, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Olopatadine is one of the second-generation H1 antihistamines that were used for treating allergic disorders initially in Asia, and now also in Western countries. Whereas several trials compared the efficacy on chronic urticaria among second-generation H1 antihistamines, no study has directly compared the clinical efficacy between olopatadine and other H1 antihistamines in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). In this study, we address this issue for the first time and conclude that olopatadine is a good candidate for the treatment of CIU. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Characteristics of caring self-efficacy in pediatric nurses: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Azam; Bahrami, Masoud; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Yousefy, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to clarify pediatric nurses' characteristics of caring self-efficacy. This study was conducted using a qualitative content analysis approach. The participants included 27 pediatric nurses and clinical instructors, selected purposively. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and were analyzed using the content analysis method. Data analysis generated four main themes as attributes of a self-efficient pediatric nurse including: (a) professional communications; (b) management of care; (c) altruism; and (d) proficiency. Nursing managers and instructors can use these results to help develop nurses' empowerment and self-efficacy, especially in pediatric care. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Flowing together : a longitudinal study of collective efficacy and collective flow among workgroups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salanova, Marisa; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Alma M.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Cifre, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to extend the Channel Model of Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, 1990) at the collective level (workgroups) by including collective efficacy beliefs as a predictor of collective flow based on the Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1997, 2001). A two-wave longitudinal lab study

  15. Textbook-Bundled Metacognitive Tools: A Study of LearnSmart's Efficacy in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thadani, Vandana; Bouvier-Brown, Nicole C.

    2016-01-01

    College textbook publishers increasingly bundle sophisticated technology-based study tools with their texts. These tools appear promising, but empirical work on their efficacy is needed. We examined whether LearnSmart, a study tool bundled with McGraw-Hill's textbook "Chemistry" (Chang & Goldsby, 2013), improved learning in an…

  16. Teacher Self-Efficacy in Writing and Instructional Choices: A Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Beth Anne

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative study focused on examining the relationship between teacher self-efficacy and their use of writing practices in teaching writing. Participants included elementary kindergarten through fifth grade teachers in a large school district in northeastern United States. The following research questions guided this study: Is there a…

  17. Efficacy of Urine Samples in Biioavailability Study of Ranitidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Sadray

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Urinary excretion of ranitidine is known to be almost 70% of the intact drug , therefore this drug would be a good candidate for bioavailability studies using urine samples. In this study the bioequivalency of two marketed formulations using both urine and plasma samples were investigated. 'Ranitidine' 150 mg tablets (generic and 'Zantac' 150 mg tablets were compared in a double blind crossover study using eight healthy male volunteers. A simple and rapid HPLC method was also developed to analyze the drug concentration in both urine and plasma. Double peak phenomenon, observed in plasma samples, was omitted when the urine samples were used. Bioavailability of the two formulations calculated from urinary data were not significantly different, whereas the plasma data were considerably different (based on Cmax & Tmax but not AUC. Pharmacokinetic parameters resulted from urine regarding the rate of the absorption (Tmax-ud, (dDu/dtmax, Ka-ud did not correlate well with their respective plasma parameters (Tmax, Cmax, Ka, whereas those of absorption extent and elimination rates (plasma AUC, K and urinary Du  were well correlated. It is concluded that the urine sampling which has advantages of easy sample collection and extraction could be used for determination of the extent of absorption and rate of the elimination of ranitidine, since similar parameters can be obtained with easier sample collection and extraction, whereas for determination of absorption rate, Cmax & Tmax plasma data are preferred. Key words: Ranitidine, Bioavailability, HPLC, Plasma, Urine.

  18. Efficacy study of multimedia rheumatoid arthritis patient education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unk, Julie A; Brasington, Richard

    2014-07-01

    The research goal of improving patient adherence was assessed in this randomized controlled trial of the outcomes of a 15-min multimedia educational program when compared to educational literature for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. One hundred eight RA patients from a Midwestern rheumatology outpatient clinic completed the self-reported Medication Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ), the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ), and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) at baseline and 1 month after education. A paired samples t-test was use for data analyses to determine if there was a significant difference in the change between the groups at preintervention and 1-month postintervention. There were no significant differences in the scores between the two groups from pretest to posttest. Results from this study showed that medication adherence, illness perception, and disability were not improved by use of multimedia or the literature within 1 month. Findings from this research study showed that a short multimedia educational program is as effective as printed materials to educate patients with RA about their disease and treatment. However, neither multimedia nor literature affects medication adherence, illness perception, or disability as self-reported by patients with RA. ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  19. Mentoring to develop research selfefficacy, with particular reference to previously disadvantaged individuals

    OpenAIRE

    S. Schulze

    2010-01-01

    The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET) – an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT). Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basi...

  20. Women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous caesarean section in Taiwan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Wen; Hutchinson, Alison M; Nagle, Cate; Bucknall, Tracey K

    2018-01-17

    Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) is an alternative option for women who have had a previous caesarean section (CS); however, uptake is limited because of concern about the risks of uterine rupture. The aim of this study was to explore women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous CS. A qualitative approach was used. The research comprised three stages. Stage I consisted of naturalistic observation at 33-34 weeks' gestation. Stage II involved interviews with pregnant women at 35-37 weeks' gestation. Stage III consisted of interviews with the same women who were interviewed postnatally, 1 month after birth. The research was conducted in a private medical centre in northern Taiwan. Using a purposive sampling, 21 women and 9 obstetricians were recruited. Data collection involved in-depth interviews, observation and field notes. Constant comparative analysis was employed for data analysis. Ensuring the safety of mother and baby was the focus of women's decisions. Women's decisions-making influences included previous birth experience, concern about the risks of vaginal birth, evaluation of mode of birth, current pregnancy situation, information resources and health insurance. In communicating with obstetricians, some women complied with obstetricians' recommendations for repeat caesarean section (RCS) without being informed of alternatives. Others used four step decision-making processes that included searching for information, listening to obstetricians' professional judgement, evaluating alternatives, and making a decision regarding mode of birth. After birth, women reflected on their decisions in three aspects: reflection on birth choices; reflection on factors influencing decisions; and reflection on outcomes of decisions. The health and wellbeing of mother and baby were the major concerns for women. In response to the decision-making influences, women's interactions with obstetricians regarding birth choices

  1. Effect of treatment of a previous ectopic pregnancy on in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Yan, Lei; Liu, Wen; Xu, Xinxin; Li, Miao; Ding, Lingling; Ma, Jinlong; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of previous ectopic pregnancies (EP) and different EP treatment methods on in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. University-based reproductive medicine center. Women undergoing 51,268 fresh cycles of IVF-ICSI. In women who had had an EP before the IVF treatment and women who were diagnosed with fallopian disease without an EP (control group), division into three treatment subgroups: subgroup 1, conservative treatment; subgroup 2, salpingostomy; and subgroup 3 salpingectomy. Estimates of IVF-ICSI outcome and ovarian function based on number of antral follicles and rates of implantation, EP, clinical pregnancy, and delivery. For the experimental group and the control group, there were no statistically significant differences in the rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy, or delivery. However, the risk of recurrent EP was statistically significantly higher in the experimental group compared with the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in IVF-ICSI outcomes between the three treatment subgroups in terms of the basic antral follicle number or the dominant antral follicle numbers (>1.0 cm) after surgical treatment of EP. Our results suggest that women with a prior history of EP have a higher recurrence risk of EP after IVF in comparison with women with no history of EP. Previous EP has no effect on the main IVF-ICSI outcomes. For the treatment of EP, salpingostomy and salpingectomy do not statistically significantly affect ovarian function. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of Arthroscopic Teaching Methods: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Luke; Spanyer, Jonathon; Yenna, Zachary; Burchell, Patrick; Garber, Andrew; Riehl, John

    Arthroscopic education research recently has been focused on the use of skills labs to facilitate resident education and objective measure development to gauge technical skill. This study evaluates the effectiveness of three different teaching methods. Medical students were randomized into three groups. The first group received only classroom-based lecture. The second group received the same lecture and 28 minutes of lab-based hands-off arthroscopy instruction using a cadaver and arthroscopy setup. The final group received the same lecture and 7 minutes of hands-on arthroscopy instruction in the lab on a cadaver knee. The arthroscopic knee exam that followed simulated a diagnostic knee exam and subjects were measured on task completion and by the number of look downs. The number of look downs and the number of tasks completed did not achieve statistical significance between groups. Posttest survey results revealed that the hands-on group placed significantly more value on their educational experience as compared with the other two groups. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances.

  3. Return to work program efficacy with Self-Regulation Therapy (SRT®): Case study with complex trauma and concurrent disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tara

    2017-06-16

    Background This study shows the efficacy of treating complex cases neurobiologically using Self-Regulation Therapy (SRT®) within the context of return to work goals. Case presentation This is a single case study of a 32-year-old white female. This case study follows a client with concurrent diagnoses of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), bipolar disorder I and substance abuse over the course of 2 years of treatment with SRT®. Using SRT® as primary modality and Likert Scale self-report on the Zettl Scale of Dysregulation, psychiatric medication monitoring and pharmaceutical tracking, this study shows session summaries and progress. Results After six sessions the client was cleared by her psychiatrist for return to work. Her medications were reduced and her post-traumatic symptoms abated. She no longer met diagnostic criteria for PTSD or substance abuse after nine sessions. She returned to work successfully and maintained sobriety and continued symptom reduction. Follow up over a 2-year time period showed consistency and continued improvements in both her professional and her personal life. Conclusions Clients with complex traumatic history with concurrent diagnosis are typically difficult to treat in traditional psychotherapy with limited long-term success. This creates challenges in therapy because the traumas occur during key developmental periods of life. This study shows the efficacy of treating complex cases neurobiologically using SRT®. Using SRT®, clinicians are able to address both developmental and complex trauma to reduce sympathetic arousal in the nervous system providing symptom reduction and even resolution of previous clinical diagnoses.

  4. Two consecutive phase II studies of oxaliplatin (L-OHP) for treatment of patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma who were resistant to previous treatment with fluoropyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machover, D; Diaz-Rubio, E; de Gramont, A; Schilf, A; Gastiaburu, J J; Brienza, S; Itzhaki, M; Metzger, G; N'Daw, D; Vignoud, J; Abad, A; Francois, E; Gamelin, E; Marty, M; Sastre, J; Seitz, J F; Ychou, M

    1996-01-01

    Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) is a platinum complex that possesses activity against human and murine cells in vitro and in vivo, including colorectal carcinoma-derived cell lines, and cells that have been selected for resistance to cisplatin. We report two consecutive phase II trials of L-OHP for treatment of patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. Fifty-eight patients were entered in study I, and 51 patients in study II. All of the patients had tumor progression when they were treated, prior to their enrollment, with a fluoropyrimidine-containing regimen. In both trials treatment consisted of L-OHP, 130 mg/m2, by i.v. infusion for two hours; the treatment was repeated every 21 days. Response to therapy: Study I: Fifty-five patients were assessed for response. The response rate was 11% (95% CI, 0.03-0.19). Study II: All 51 patients were assessed for response. The response rate was 10% (95% CI, 0.017-0.18). The overall response rate for the 106 evaluated patients was 10% (95% CI, 0.046-0.16). Times to disease progression in responders were 4, 4, 4.5+, 5, 5, 6, 6, 6, 6+, 9, and 13 months. The dose-limiting toxic effect was sensory peripheral neuropathy. The incidence of severe peripheral neuropathy grades was: Study I: grade 3, 23% of patients, and grade 4, 8% of patients. Severe neuropathy had a favorable course in all of the patients who had long-term neurologic follow-up. Diarrhea and myeloid impairment were minor. L-OHP produced modest, but definite antitumor activity in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma who were previously resistant to chemotherapy including fluoropyrimidines. Toxicity is within acceptable limits of tolerance at the dose and schedule of oxaliplatin used in this trial.

  5. The relationship between maternal-fetal attachment and maternal self-efficacy in Iranian women: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavari, Mina; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Mirghafurvand, Mojgan

    2018-03-21

    This prospective study was conducted to determine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment and maternal self-efficacy. Maternal self-efficacy contributes significantly to the mental health of the mother and infant. Maternal-fetal attachment facilitates maternal role attainment and might improve maternal self-efficacy. This study was conducted on 242 women. The data collection tools used included a socio-demographic and obstetric questionnaire, Cranley's Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Maternal Self-Efficacy Scale. A multivariate linear regression was used to estimate the extent to which maternal-fetal attachment affects maternal self-efficacy. Pearson's correlation test showed a moderate but significant positive correlation between maternal-fetal attachment and self-efficacy (r = 0.48, P < 0.001). The highest correlation with self-efficacy was observed in the domain of 'differentiation of self from fetus' (r = 0.43) and the lowest in the domain of 'giving of self' (r = 0.25). According to the multivariate linear regression, the domain of 'Interaction with fetus' had a significant relationship with maternal self-efficacy (P = 0.009). Maternal-fetal attachment would appear to be a factor related to postpartum maternal self-efficacy which suggests identifying and supporting women with low self-efficacy may increase maternal-fetal attachment and thereby maternal self-efficacy.

  6. Study of the comparative efficacy of toltrazuril and diclazuril against ovine coccidiosis in housed lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Hans-Christian; Dittmar, Katja; Daugschies, Arwid; Grzonka, Elmar; Bangoura, Berit

    2009-08-01

    A blinded, controlled and randomised field study was conducted on a sheep farm with a known history of coccidiosis and a high prevalence mainly of the pathogenic coccidium Eimeria ovinoidalis. The efficacy of treatment with toltrazuril (Baycox 5% suspension) against natural infections with Eimeria crandallis and/or Eimeria ovinoidalis in housed lambs was investigated in comparison with diclazuril and untreated controls. Both drugs were administered either metaphylactically (i.e., in the prepatency of Eimeria spp.) or therapeutically (after onset of oocyst excretion). A total of 145 animals aged 1 to 5 days at the start of the study were included. Examination of faecal samples was performed every second day between days 13 and 49 of the study. The assessment of treatment efficacy was based mainly on total oocyst excretion and the number of E. crandallis and E. ovinoidalis oocysts (OPG) shed throughout the study. Oocyst excretion was reduced significantly in both groups treated with toltrazuril compared with the untreated control group and with both diclazuril-treated groups. The most prevalent and most severe diarrhoea was observed in the untreated control group. In this study, toltrazuril proved to be highly effective in controlling ovine coccidiosis both metaphylactically and therapeutically. The efficacy of toltrazuril was significantly higher than the efficacy of the control substance with regard to the duration and amount of oocyst excretion, both for the comparison of metaphylactic as well as therapeutic treatment.

  7. Study Of Academic Self Efficacy, Social Support And Learning Self-regulatory Of Student Guidance And Counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Laila, Siti Nur

    2016-01-01

    This study is correlation research, which aims to find the relationship between academic self-efficacy, social support and self-regulation in learning. Study participants are students of Guidance and Counseling. Measuring instrument used is the scale of academic self-efficacy, social support scale and the scale of self-regulation. Methods of data analysis using product moment correlation. The results of the study (1) the image of self-efficacy of students' academic middle category, social sup...

  8. Graduating nurses' self-efficacy in palliative care practice: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Amanda; Rowe, Jennifer; Watson, Karen; Hitchen-Holmes, Deborah

    2016-04-01

    Educational institutions and the health care industry agree that graduates from professional programs need to be "work ready" and capable of delivering competent and confident nursing care. One measure of program success is the student's self-efficacy in meeting expected graduate capabilities. In this study student's self-efficacy is related to palliative care graduate capabilities. To explore graduating Bachelor of Nursing Science (BNSc) students' self-efficacy in caring for palliative care patients. A qualitative design using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. A regional Australian university. A purposive sample of 10 students in their final semester of study in a Bachelor of Nursing Science degree program. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted. Interview questions were informed by published palliative care graduate capabilities. Interview data were transcribed verbatim and coded by capability. The coded data were then analysed to determine evidence of self-efficacy in caring for palliative care patients. All participants had experiences in caring for palliative care patients. However, the responses did not consistently reflect high degrees of self-efficacy in four documented palliative care graduate capabilities required to care for persons with a life-limiting illness. The findings support others that have identified gaps between curriculum and health care industry requirements in terms of students' beliefs about their empowerment to deliver nursing care as graduates. Education interventions and approaches to program evaluation require further development to better support students' growth of self-efficacy in undertaking their graduate roles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The priming effect of previous natural pandemic H1N1 infection on the immunogenicity to subsequent 2010-2011 influenza vaccination in children: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun Kyeong; Eun, Byung Wook; Kim, Nam Hee; Lim, Jung Sub; Lee, Jun Ah; Kim, Dong Ho

    2016-08-22

    The effect of previous natural pandemic H1N1 (H1N1 pdm09) influenza infection on the immunogenicity to subsequent inactivated influenza vaccination in children has not been well studied. We aimed to evaluate the effect of H1N1 pdm09 natural infection and vaccination on the immunogenicity to subsequent 2010-2011 seasonal inactivated influenza vaccination in children. From October 2010 to May 2011, we conducted an open-label, multi-center study in children aged 6 months -18 years in Korea. We measured antibody titers with a hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months after vaccination with trivalent split or subunit vaccines containing H1N1 pdm, A/H3N2, and B. The subjects were classified into 4 groups depending on the presence of laboratory-confirmed H1N1 pdm09 infection and/or vaccination in the 2009-2010 season; Group I: vaccination (-)/infection(-), Group II: vaccination (-)/infection(+), Group III: vaccination (+)/infection(-), Group IV: vaccination (+)/infection(+). Among the subjects in group I, 47 subjects who had a baseline titer >1:10 were considered to have an asymptomatic infection. They were included into the final group II (n = 80). We defined the new group II as the infection-primed (IP) group and group III as the vaccine-primed (VP) group. Seroconversion rate (57.5 % vs 35.9 %, p = 0.001), seroprotection rate at 6 months after vaccination (70.8 % vs 61.8 %, p = 0.032), and GMT at 1 month after vaccination (129.9 vs 66.5, p = 0.002) were significantly higher in the IP group than in the VP group. In the 9-18 year-old group, seroconversion rate and immunogenicity at 1 and 6 months were significantly higher in the IP group than in the VP group. However in the 1-7 year-old age group, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Previous H1N1 pdm09 infection appears to have positive effects on immunogenicity of subsequent inactivated influenza vaccines against H1N1 pdm09 in older

  10. A comparative study of self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and retention of beginning urban science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Nina

    The purpose of the multi-tiered study presented is to compare the effect of credentialing route on the self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and retention of beginning urban science teachers serving students in a large urban school district in Southern California. Candidates from one traditional, university-based teacher education program and from two alternative programs, the Teach for America and District Intern Programs, were surveyed and interviewed during the second semester of their first year of teaching. To determine the potential of a difference in self-efficacy and outcome expectancy, the study gave teachers a modified version of the Science Teachers' Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI), developed and validated by Riggs and Enochs (1989). Two representative candidates from each program were then interviewed in order to probe for deeper understanding of possible sources of their efficacy and outcome expectancy. The final part of the study is an evaluation of retention data from the three programs, each to triangulate this information with data collected from the surveys, and comparing these retention rates with published data. The study provides data on unresearched questions about traditionally and alternatively credentialed science teachers in urban settings in California.

  11. Traditional-Aged College Juniors' Career Planning Self-Efficacy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Dawn C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to explore and describe traditional-age college juniors' reports of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997) regarding Career Planning (Barker & Kellen, 1998). More specifically, the career planning confidence levels of college juniors enrolled in a required career development course at a private business…

  12. Role of self-efficacy beliefs in goal commitment: a case study of the 20

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the role of self-efficacy beliefs in goal commitment among 118 Nigerian University students who represented universities that qualified from a preliminary zonal arrangement in the chess event of the 20th Nigerian University Games. Hierarchical regression analysis results revealed that, in the second ...

  13. A Quantitative Study Examining Teacher Stress, Burnout, and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Timar D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to examine the relationships between stress, burnout, and self-efficacy in public school teachers in the Turks and Caicos Islands. The Teacher Stress Inventory was used to collect data on teacher stress, the Maslach Burnout Inventory Educators Survey was used to obtain data on teacher…

  14. Math and Science Pursuits: A Self-Efficacy Intervention Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Elizabeth D.; Porter, Sarah H.; Israel, Tania; Brown, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared two interventions to increase math self-efficacy among undergraduate students. Ninety-nine first-year undergraduate students participated in an intervention involving performance accomplishment or an intervention combining performance accomplishment and belief-perseverance techniques in which participants constructed a…

  15. Study of the Validity and Reliability of a Self-Efficacy Scale of Teaching Material Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Ozgen

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a scale in order to detect the level of pre-service teachers' utilization from teaching materials based on their perception of self-efficacy. The sample group is composed of 439 students for the first application and 215 students for the second. In order to detect the validity of the scale, exploratory…

  16. The Efficacy of Drama in Field Experience: A Qualitative Study Using MAXQDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaldi, Senel; Yerliyurt, Nazli Sila

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to evaluate the views of senior preservice preschool teachers on the efficacy of drama activities in their field experience in terms of the effect of students' learning, socialization, individual or group work skills and school connectedness and also disclosed the suggestions of senior preservice preschool teachers for faculty…

  17. Exercise Self-Efficacy and Perceived Wellness among College Students in a Basic Studies Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Cara L.; D'Abundo, Michelle Lee; Hritz, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    University basic studies courses provide a valuable opportunity for facilitating the knowledge, skills, and beliefs that develop healthy behaviors to last a lifetime. Belief in one's ability to participate in physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, is a psychological construct that has had a documented impact on physical activity. Although…

  18. Collaborative Curriculum Design to Increase Science Teaching Self-Efficacy: A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, C.H.; Fisser, Petra; Pieters, Julius Marie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether participation in a teacher design team (TDT) is an effective way to increase the science teaching self-efficacy of primary school teachers who vary in their levels of experience and interest in science. A TDT is a group of at least 2 teachers from

  19. Dating violence and condom use self-efficacy: A study of school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At present the most effective means of preventing HIV beside abstinence is the use of condoms during sexual intercourse. One of the major determinants of condom use during sexual intercourse is condom use self-efficacy. This study examines the association between adolescent dating violence and condom use ...

  20. Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Two Regimens of Single-Shot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... mother by increasing self esteem and improving bonding with the baby. Objective: To assess and compare the satisfaction and efficacy of two regimens of single-shot spinal blocks for the relief of labor pain in women who present in active phase of labour. Design: A prospective randomised single-blind observational study

  1. Emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity during the Mars 520 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solcová, Iva; Gushin, Vadim; Vinokhodova, Alla; Lukavský, Jirí

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the present research was to study the dynamics of changes in emotional energy, work self-efficacy and perceived similarity in the crew of the Mars 520 experimental study. The study comprised six volunteers, all men, between 27-38 yr of age (M = 32.16; SD = 4.99). The Mars 520 experimental study simulated all the elements of the proposed Mars mission that could be ground simulated, i.e., traveling to Mars, orbiting it, landing, and returning to Earth. During the simulation, measures of emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity were repeated every month. The data were analyzed using linear mixed effect models. Emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity gradually increased in the course of the simulation. There was no evidence for a so-called third quarter phenomenon (the most strenuous period of group isolation, psychologically, emotionally, and socially) in our data. On the contrary, work self-efficacy, emotional energy, and group cohesion (indexed here by the subject's perceived similarity to others) increased significantly in the course of the simulation, with the latter two variables showing positive growth in the group functioning.

  2. A Cross-Cultural Study of CKCM Efficacy in an Undergraduate Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalik, Muammer; Cobern, William W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to cross-culturally investigate the instructional efficacy of the Common Knowledge Construction Model (CKCM) with college students learning about "factors affecting solubility" focusing on students' conceptual understanding, attitudes and scientific habits of mind. Even though the CKCM is a decade old, there has…

  3. Bullying Behaviors and Self Efficacy among Nursing Students at Clinical Settings: Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Awatef Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nursing students who experienced bullying behaviors feel anger and missing their concentration, their capability to achieve a desired outcome. Also self-efficacy, often referred to as self-confidence, is essential to nursing students' ability and performance in the clinical setting. Aim: Study aimed to examine relation between bullying…

  4. L2 Motivational Self-System and Self-Efficacy: A Quantitative Survey-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshandel, Javad; Ghonsooly, Behzad; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh

    2018-01-01

    The present study explored English as a foreign language (EFL) students' motivation and self-efficacy. This is accomplished by incorporating the ten subfactors of L2 motivational self-system namely; criterion measures, ideal L2 self, ought-to L2 self, family influence, instrumentality promotion, instrumentality prevention, attitudes towards…

  5. Researching Learner Self-Efficacy and Online Participation through Speech Functions: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Castro, Olga; Strambi, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the potential contribution of Eggins and Slade's (2004) Speech Functions as tools for describing learners' participation patterns in Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (SCMC). Our analysis focuses on the relationship between learners' self-efficacy (i.e. personal judgments of second language performance capabilities)…

  6. Investigating the Efficacy of Practical Skill Teaching: A Pilot-Study Comparing Three Educational Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Paynter, Sophie; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a…

  7. A Correlational Study of iPad Efficacy and 21st Century Teaching among Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Christopher F.

    2017-01-01

    This study was a longitudinal correlational study that applied the quantitative methodology of bi-variate correlation as well as a paired-samples "t"-test to the data. The purpose was to study the nature of the relationship between iPad efficacy, 21st century teaching, teacher efficacy, and teacher characteristics. The study also…

  8. Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Ranibizumab Versus Dexamethasone for Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (COMRADE C): A European Label Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerauf, Hans; Feltgen, Nicolas; Weiss, Claudia; Paulus, Eva-Maria; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Pielen, Amelie; Puri, Pankaj; Berk, Hüsnü; Eter, Nicole; Wiedemann, Peter; Lang, Gabriele E; Rehak, Matus; Wolf, Armin; Bertelmann, Thomas; Hattenbach, Lars-Olof

    2016-09-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of the European labels of ranibizumab 0.5 mg vs dexamethasone 0.7 mg in patients with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Phase IIIb, multicenter, double-masked, randomized clinical trial. Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive either monthly ranibizumab followed by pro re nata (PRN) treatment (n = 124) or 1 sustained-release dexamethasone implant followed by PRN sham injections (n = 119). Main outcomes were mean average change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) from baseline to month 1 through month 6, mean change in BCVA, and adverse events (AEs). Of 243 patients, 185 (76.1%) completed the study. No difference was observed in BCVA between ranibizumab and dexamethasone at months 1 and 2. From month 3 to month 6, there was significant difference in BCVA gains in favor of ranibizumab. At month 6, mean average BCVA gain was significantly higher with ranibizumab than with dexamethasone (12.86 vs 2.96 letters; difference 9.91 letters, 95% confidence interval [6.51-13.30]; P < .0001). Mean injection number of ranibizumab was 4.52. Ocular AEs were reported in more patients in the dexamethasone than in the ranibizumab group (86.6% vs 55.6%). Using the European labels, similar efficacy was observed for ranibizumab and dexamethasone at months 1 and 2. However, ranibizumab maintained its efficacy throughout the study, whereas dexamethasone declined from month 3 onward. The main limitation of the study was that dexamethasone patients received only a single treatment during the 6-month study. In clinical practice, dexamethasone retreatment may be required earlier than 6 months. Safety findings were similar to those previously reported. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety and tolerability of frovatriptan in the acute treatment of migraine and prevention of menstrual migraine: Results of a new analysis of data from five previously published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, E Anne; Pawsey, Stephen P; Campbell, John C; Hu, Xiaojun

    2010-04-01

    Triptans are a recommended first-line treatment for moderate to severe migraine. Using clinical trial data, we evaluated the safety and tolerability of frovatriptan as acute treatment (AT) and as short-term preventive (STP) therapy for menstrual migraine (MM). Data from 2 Phase III AT trials (AT1: randomized, placebo controlled, 1 attack; AT2: 12-months, noncomparative, open label) and 3 Phase IIIb STP trials in MM (MMP1 and MMP2: randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, 3 perimenstrual periods; MMP3: open label, noncomparative, 12 perimenstrual periods) were analyzed. In AT1, patients treated each attack with frovatriptan 2.5 mg, sumatriptan 100 mg, or placebo. In AT2, they used frovatriptan 2.5 mg. In MMP1 and MMP2, women administered frovatriptan 2.5 mg for 6 days during the perimenstrual period, taking a loading dose of 2 or 4 tablets on day 1, followed by once-daily or BID frovatriptan 2.5 mg, respectively; in MMP3, they used BID frovatriptan 2.5 mg. In AT1, which was previously published in part, group differences in adverse events (AEs) were analyzed using the Fisher exact test, and response rates were compared using logistic regression. Post hoc analyses of sustained pain-free status with no AEs (SNAE) and sustained pain response with no AEs (SPRNAE) were performed using a 2-sample test for equality of proportions without continuity correction. For AT2 and the STP studies, data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results of individual safety analyses for the STP studies were previously reported; the present report includes new results from a pooled analysis of MMP1 and MMP2 and a new analysis of MMP3 in which AEs were coded using Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities version 8.0. AT1 included 1206 patients in the safety group; AT2 included 496. In the STP studies, safety data were collected for 1487 women. In AT1 and AT2, 85.6% and 88.3%, respectively, of enrolled patients were women. Overall, AEs were generally mild to moderate (AT

  10. Relative efficacy and tolerability of vortioxetine versus selected antidepressants by indirect comparisons of similar clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Lançon, Christophe; Brignone, Mélanie; Rive, Benoît; Salah, Samir; Ereshefsky, Larry; Francois, Clément

    2014-12-01

    Vortioxetine is an antidepressant with multimodal activity which has shown efficacy in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in six of ten short-term, randomized, placebo-controlled trials (completed end 2012). We performed meta-regression analyses to indirectly compare vortioxetine to seven marketed antidepressants with different mechanisms of action. To ensure study comparability, only experimental drug and placebo arms from placebo-controlled registration studies were included in primary analyses. The main outcomes were efficacy (standardized mean difference in change from baseline to 2 months on primary endpoint [MADRS/HAM-D]), and tolerability (withdrawal rate due to adverse events). For efficacy, estimates of treatment effect (negative estimates favor vortioxetine) for vortioxetine versus comparators were: agomelatine, -0.16 (p = 0.11); desvenlafaxine, 0.03 (p = 0.80); duloxetine, 0.09 (p = 0.42); escitalopram, -0.05 (p = 0.70); sertraline, -0.04 (p = 0.83); venlafaxine IR/XR, 0.12 (p = 0.33); and vilazodone, -0.25 (p = 0.11). For tolerability, all but one combination was numerically in favor of vortioxetine (odds ratio antidepressant effect estimates or relative ranking. These meta-regression data show that vortioxetine offers a comparable or favorable combination of efficacy (measured by MADRS/HAM-D) and tolerability (measured by withdrawal rate due to adverse events) versus other antidepressants in registration studies in MDD. Alternative methods like mixed-treatment comparison and inclusion of all randomized studies and active reference arms may provide complementary information to this analysis (more evidence but also more heterogeneity). Key messages: Indirect comparisons based on registration studies allow a useful comparison between a recently approved antidepressant and an approved drug. Vortioxetine offers a comparable or favorable combination of efficacy (measured by MADRS/HAM-D assessments) and tolerability (measured by withdrawal rate due to

  11. Passive and oxymetazoline-enhanced delivery with a lens device: pharmacokinetics and efficacy studies with rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David J; Li, S Kevin; Tuitupou, Anthony L; Kochambilli, Rajan P; Papangkorn, Kongnara; Mix, Donald C; Higuchi, William I; Higuchi, John W

    2008-08-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the trans-scleral delivery of dexamethasone phosphate (DexP) with a prototype lens device and a formulation comprising a vasoconstrictor and to determine the efficacy of this delivery system in treating experimentally induced uveitis in a rabbit model. Passive trans-scleral delivery was performed on New Zealand white rabbits in vivo, using the lens device and a formulation of 0.034 M oxymetazoline (OMZ, the vasoconstrictor) and 0.5 M of dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DexNaP). Trans-scleral delivery of DexP without OMZ was the control. The amounts of DexP delivered into the eye and its distributions in the eye were determined by dissection of the eye and high-performance liquid chromatography assay in the pharmacokinetics study. The efficacy of the DexP delivery system in treating lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis was also evaluated in the rabbit model in vivo. The effect of OMZ upon DexP delivery and its treatment efficacy was studied by comparing the DexP results with and without OMZ. In the pharmacokinetics study, the amounts of DexP delivered into the eye using the lens system with OMZ were significantly higher than those without OMZ. The results in the efficacy study showed a better treatment outcome with OMZ to relieve the symptoms of endotoxin-induced uveitis in rabbits. The potential of vasoconstrictors to enhance eye disease treatments in passive trans-scleral drug delivery was demonstrated. The higher DexP level in the eye and the improvement of the outcome in the efficacy study in the presence of the vasoconstrictor are consistent with the hypothesis that the vasoconstrictor enhances drug delivery by decreasing clearance.

  12. An experimental Toxoplasma gondii dose response challenge model to study therapeutic or vaccine efficacy in cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan B W J Cornelissen

    Full Text Available High numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the environment are a risk factor to humans. The environmental contamination might be reduced by vaccinating the definitive host, cats. An experimental challenge model is necessary to quantitatively assess the efficacy of a vaccine or drug treatment. Previous studies have indicated that bradyzoites are highly infectious for cats. To infect cats, tissue cysts were isolated from the brains of mice infected with oocysts of T. gondii M4 strain, and bradyzoites were released by pepsin digestion. Free bradyzoites were counted and graded doses (1000, 100, 50, 10, and 250 intact tissue cysts were inoculated orally into three cats each. Oocysts shed by these five groups of cats were collected from faeces by flotation techniques, counted microscopically and estimated by real time PCR. Additionally, the number of T. gondii in heart, tongue and brains were estimated, and serology for anti T. gondii antibodies was performed. A Beta-Poisson dose-response model was used to estimate the infectivity of single bradyzoites and linear regression was used to determine the relation between inoculated dose and numbers of oocyst shed. We found that real time PCR was more sensitive than microscopic detection of oocysts, and oocysts were detected by PCR in faeces of cats fed 10 bradyzoites but by microscopic examination. Real time PCR may only detect fragments of T. gondii DNA without the presence of oocysts in low doses. Prevalence of tissue cysts of T. gondii in tongue, heart and brains, and anti T. gondii antibody concentrations were all found to depend on the inoculated bradyzoite dose. The combination of the experimental challenge model and the dose response analysis provides a suitable reference for quantifying the potential reduction in human health risk due to a treatment of domestic cats by vaccination or by therapeutic drug application.

  13. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-01-01

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  14. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-12-15

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  15. An open-label extension study of the safety and efficacy of risperidone in children and adolescents with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Justine M; Hough, David; Singh, Jaskaran; Karcher, Keith; Pandina, Gahan

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of risperidone in treating irritability and related behaviors in children and adolescents with autistic disorders. In this 6 month (26 week) open-label extension (OLE) study, patients (5-17 years of age, who completed the previous fixed-dose, 6 week, double-blind [DB] phase) were flexibly dosed with risperidone based on body weight. The maximum allowed dose was 1.25 mg/day for those weighing 20 to sleep visual analog scale (24.6). All groups showed additional improvement in efficacy scale scores during the OLE. During this OLE, safety findings with risperidone treatment (maximum weight-based dose of 1.25 mg/day or 1.75 mg/day) were consistent with those observed in the DB phase, and with the current safety information for risperidone in autistic, psychiatric, and behavioral disorders. Patients experienced some additional improvement in irritability and related behaviors. This phase-4 study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00576732).

  16. An Open-Label Extension Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Risperidone in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, David; Singh, Jaskaran; Karcher, Keith; Pandina, Gahan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of risperidone in treating irritability and related behaviors in children and adolescents with autistic disorders. Methods: In this 6 month (26 week) open-label extension (OLE) study, patients (5–17 years of age, who completed the previous fixed-dose, 6 week, double-blind [DB] phase) were flexibly dosed with risperidone based on body weight. The maximum allowed dose was 1.25 mg/day for those weighing 20 to risperidone's safety; efficacy was assessed as a secondary end-point. Results: Fifty-six (71%) out of 79 enrolled patients completed the OLE; the most common discontinuations were for insufficient response (7 [9%]) or adverse events (AE) (5 [6%]). The most common (≥5% frequency in the total group) AEs were increased appetite (11% [n=9]); increased weight and vomiting (9% [n=7] each); sedation, pyrexia, and upper respiratory tract infection (8% [n=6] each); nasopharyngitis (6% [n=5]); and somnolence and fatigue (5% [n=4] each). Extrapyramidal AEs were reported in 6 (8%) patients. Increase in mean weight (11–15%) and body mass index (5–10%) occurred; one patient discontinued because of weight increase. One potentially prolactin-related AE (irregular menstruation) was reported. The risperidone high-dose group had the greatest mean improvement in sleep visual analog scale (24.6). All groups showed additional improvement in efficacy scale scores during the OLE. Conclusions: During this OLE, safety findings with risperidone treatment (maximum weight-based dose of 1.25 mg/day or 1.75 mg/day) were consistent with those observed in the DB phase, and with the current safety information for risperidone in autistic, psychiatric, and behavioral disorders. Patients experienced some additional improvement in irritability and related behaviors. Clinical Trials Registry: This phase-4 study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00576732). PMID:24350813

  17. A randomized, comparative, open-label study of efficacy and tolerability of alfuzosin, tamsulosin and silodosin in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, R; Pundarikaksha, H P; Madhusudhana, H R; Amarkumar, J; Hanumantharaju, B K

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common and progressive disease affecting elderly males, often associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). α1-blockers are the mainstay in symptomatic therapy of BPH. Because of their greater uroselectivity and minimal hemodynamic effects, alfuzosin, tamsulosin, and silodosin are generally preferred. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of alfuzosin, tamsulosin, and silodosin in patients with BPH and LUTS. Ninety subjects with BPH and LUTS were randomized into three groups of thirty in each, to receive alfuzosin sustained release (SR) 10 mg, tamsulosin 0.4 mg, or silodosin 8 mg for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was a change in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and the secondary outcome measures were changes in individual subjective symptom scores, quality of life score (QLS), and peak flow rate (Qmax) from baseline. The treatment response was monitored at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. IPSS improved by 88.18%, 72.12%, and 82.23% in alfuzosin SR, tamsulosin and silodosin groups (P 75% in all the three groups (P tamsulosin (P = 0.025 and P tamsulosin (three subjects). Alfuzosin, tamsulosin, and silodosin showed similar efficacy in improvement of LUTS secondary to BPH, with good tolerability, acceptability, and minimum hemodynamic adverse effects. Alfuzosin, tamsulosin, and silodosin are comparable in efficacy in symptomatic management of BPH. The occurrence of QTc prolongation in three subjects with tamsulosin in the present study is an unexpected adverse event as there are no reports of QTc prolongation with tamsulosin in any of the previous studies.

  18. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-07

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A phase II study of VP-16-ifosfamide-cisplatin combination chemotherapy plus early concurrent thoracic irradiation for previously untreated limited small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, In Sook; Park, Young Suk; Kwon, Sung Hee [Hallym Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine] [and others

    2000-12-01

    At present the addition of thoracic irradiation to combination chemotherapy is a standard treatment for limited staged small cell ling cancer. However, there is still controversy about the optimum timing of chest irradiation. We conducted a phase II study of etoposide (VP-16)-ifosfamide-cisplatin (VIP) combination chemotherapy plus early concurrent thoracic irradiation for the patients with previously untreated limited small cell lung cancer in order to assess if the treatment modality could improve the response rate and the toxicity. Forty-four patients with limited small cell lung cancer were treated with etoposide-ifosfamide-cisplatin and concurrent thoracic irradiation. Combination chemotherapy consisted of etoposide 100 mg/m{sup 2} (on day 1-3), ifosfamide 1000 mg/m{sup 2} (on days 1 and 2) and cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} (on day 1). Concurrent thoracic irradiation consisted of a total of 4000 cGy over 4 weeks starting on the first day of the first chemotherapy. All patients who showed a complete response were given prophylactic cranial irradiation for 2.5 weeks. Forty-four of the 49 patients who entered the study from May 1994 to August 1998 were evaluable. The median age was 59 years and 40 patients had a performance status of 0 or 1. The median survival time was 22.5 months. Twenty-eight patients (62%) showed a complete response and 16 (38%) a partial response. Twenty-four patients (54%) developed grade 3 or 4 neutropenia; there was a 9% RTOG score 3 or 4 esophagitis. VIP combination chemotherapy and early concurrent thoracic irradiation for patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer revealed excellent antitumor response with tolerable toxicity. (author)

  20. Does self-efficacy causally influence initial smoking cessation? An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, William G; Martino, Steven C; Setodji, Claude; Cervone, Daniel; Witkiewitz, Katie

    2017-10-01

    Self-efficacy has been associated with smoking cessation outcomes in many correlational research studies, but strong causal inferences are lacking. This study tested whether self-efficacy affects initial smoking cessation in a laboratory experiment, which will allow for stronger causal inferences in this domain of inquiry. Participants (n=103 motivated adult smokers) were provided with brief cessation treatment over three days in preparation for quitting on a target quit day (TQD). In addition, participants were randomized to one of two standard self-efficacy manipulations in the form of bogus feedback about their chances of quitting smoking. Participants in the Average Chances of Quitting (ACQ) condition took a computerized test and were told (falsely) that the test showed that they had the same chances of quitting as everyone else in the study. Participants in the High Chances of Quitting (HCQ) condition took the same computerized test and were told (falsely) that the test showed that they had a greater chance of quitting compared to everyone else in the study. The main outcome was whether participants were able to quit for 24h on the TQD. Results revealed that HCQ participants had a significantly greater chance of quitting smoking compared to ACQ participants. However, these effects were not attributable to changes in self-efficacy brought about by the manipulation. An exploration of other potential mediators showed that the manipulation actually influenced smoking outcome expectancies, and changes in these outcome expectancies influenced initial smoking cessation. The results highlight the conceptual and empirical challenges with manipulating self-efficacy in the smoking literature. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. A Phase II Study of the c-Met Inhibitor Tivantinib in Combination with FOLFOX for the Treatment of Patients with Previously Untreated Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of the Distal Esophagus, Gastroesophageal Junction, or Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Shubham; Patel, Manish; Kurkjian, Carla; Hemphill, Brian; Flores, Maria; Thompson, Dana; Bendell, Johanna

    2017-08-09

    This phase I/II study was designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose of tivantinib in combination with standard dose FOLFOX for the treatment of patients with advanced solid tumors and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this combination for patients with previously untreated metastatic adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus, gastroesophageal (GE) junction, or stomach. Patients with advanced solid tumors for which FOLFOX would be appropriate chemotherapy received escalating doses of tivantinib BID (days 1-14) in a standard 3 + 3 design in phase I. In phase II, patients with advanced GE cancer received standard FOLFOX day 1 and tivantinib (360 mg PO BID) days 1-14 of each 2-week cycle. Restaging occurred every four cycles. The primary phase II endpoint was response rate (RR). Forty-nine patients were enrolled (15 on phase I and 34 on phase II). The expansion dose was established as tivantinib 360 mg BID in combination with FOLFOX. Thirty-two phase II patients were treated for a median of eight cycles (range, 1-38), with an overall RR of 38%. Treatment-related toxicities included neutropenia, fatigue, diarrhea, nausea, and peripheral neuropathy. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 6.1 hmonths with a median time to progression of 7.0 months. Median overall survival was 9.6 months. Two patients remain on study at the time of this analysis. The combination treatment of tivantinib plus FOLFOX in patients with advanced GE cancer showed a response and PFS in the range of historical controls for first-line FOLFOX therapy. However, two patients had extended time on study treatment (36 and 45 cycles) at the time of data cutoff.

  2. The effect of a self-efficacy-based educational programme on maternal breast feeding self-efficacy, breast feeding duration and exclusive breast feeding rates: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Man Yi; Ip, Wan Yim; Choi, Kai Chow

    2016-05-01

    breast feeding has a number of well-documented benefits. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate an effective approach to increase the breast feeding rate, duration and exclusive breast feeding rate, in which maternal breast feeding self-efficacy was determined as one of the major contributors. Although numerous breast feeding educational programmes have been developed to enhance maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy, results on the effectiveness of these programmes remain inconclusive. this study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a self-efficacy-based breast feeding educational programme (SEBEP) in enhancing breast feeding self-efficacy, breast feeding duration and exclusive breast feeding rates among mothers in Hong Kong. eligible pregnant women were randomized to attend a 2.5-hour breast feeding workshop at 28-38 weeks of gestation and receive 30-60minutes of telephone counselling at two weeks post partum, whereas both intervention and control groups received usual care. At two weeks postpartum, the Breast feeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF) and a self-developed post partum questionnaire were completed via telephone interviews. The breast feeding duration, pattern of breast feeding and exclusive breast feeding rates were recorded at two weeks, four weeks, eight weeks and six months post partum. results of analyses based on an intention-to-treat (ITT) assumption showed a significant difference (p<0.01) in the change in BSES-SF mean scores between the mothers who received SEBEP and those who did not receive SEBEP at two weeks post partum. The exclusive breast feeding rate was 11.4% for the intervention group and 5.6% for the control group at six months post partum. the findings of this study highlight the feasibility of a major trial to implement breast feeding education targeted at increasing breast feeding self-efficacy and exclusive breast feeding rates in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An explorative study to assess the efficacy of toltrazuril-sulfone (ponazuril) in calves experimentally infected with Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzner, Sandra; Sager, Heinz; Blum, Jürg; Krebber, Ralph; Greif, Gisela; Gottstein, Bruno

    2002-10-18

    Neospora caninum is an important cause of infectious abortion and stillbirth in cattle world-wide. Infection is common and may frequently be passed from mother to calf (vertical transmission) with no signs of disease. Based on our previous observation that N. caninum-infection can be efficiently controlled with toltrazuril-sulfone (ponazuril) in experimentally infected mice, we addressed the question if efficacy could also be obtained in experimentally infected calves. The study included 19 calves and represents an initial explorative approach to document a basic effectiveness at first. Fifteen animals received each 2 x 10(8) N. caninum trophozoites, half of the dose being injected intravenously and the other half subcutaneously. Efficacy of treatment was assessed using molecular detection of parasite DNA with PCR and pathological alterations by immunohistochemistry in different organs of the animals. Assessment included also clinical, serological and pathophysiological parameters. In those calves medicated with ponazuril (one, or six consecutive days, respectively, starting one day after infection), a complete abrogation of the parasite detectability was obtained in the brain and other organs, while 50% of non-treated calves became PCR-positive in brain and muscles. Clinically, ponazuril chemotherapy of infected calves--in comparison to non-treated infected animals--reduced symptoms (fever), but no differences were observed between treated and non-treated animals with regard to serum enzymes and metabolites. Efficacy of a six-day treatment was also reflected by significantly lower anti-Neospora antibody concentrations developed after infection, when compared to non-treated animals. Based on our findings in this initially explorative approach that indicate a basic effectiveness of ponazuril against experimental N. caninum infection in calves, we plan to follow our chemotherapeutical intervention strategy to control bovine neosporosis with a subsequent more

  4. An explorative study to assess the efficacy of Toltrazuril-sulfone (Ponazuril in calves experimentally infected with Neospora caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greif Gisela

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neospora caninum is an important cause of infectious abortion and stillbirth in cattle world-wide. Infection is common and may frequently be passed from mother to calf (vertical transmission with no signs of disease. Based on our previous observation that N. caninum-infection can be efficiently controlled with Toltrazuril-sulfone (Ponazuril in experimentally infected mice, we addressed the question if efficacy could also be obtained in experimentally infected calves. Material and Methods The study included 19 calves and represents an initial explorative approach to document a basic effectiveness at first. Fifteen animals received each 2 x 108N. caninum trophozoites, half of the dose being injected intravenously and the other half subcutaneously. Efficacy of treatment was assessed using molecular detection of parasite DNA with PCR and pathological alterations by immunohistochemistry in different organs of the animals. Assessment included also clinical, serological and pathophysiological parameters. Results In those calves medicated with ponazuril (one, or six consecutive days, respectively, starting one day after infection, a complete abrogation of the parasite detectability was obtained in the brain and other organs, while 50% of non-treated calves became PCR-positive in brain and muscles. Clinically, ponazuril chemotherapy of infected calves – in comparison to non-treated infected animals – reduced symptoms (fever, but no differences were observed between treated and non-treated animals with regard to serum enzymes and metabolites. Efficacy of a six-day treament was also reflected by significantly lower anti-Neospora antibody concentrations developed after infection, when compared to non-treated animals. Conclusion Based on our findings in this initially explorative approach that indicate a basic effectiveness of ponazuril against experimental N. caninum infection in calves, we plan to follow our chemotherapeutical

  5. Persian version of the Moorong Self-Efficacy Scale: psychometric study among subjects with physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajati, Fatemeh; Ghanbari, Masoud; Hasandokht, Tolou; Hosseini, Seyed Younes; Akbarzadeh, Rasool; Ashtarian, Hossein

    2017-11-01

    Self-efficacy plays a key role in varying areas of human conditions which can be measured by different scales. The present study was aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of Moorong Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES) in Iranian Subjects with Physical Disability (SWPD). Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and self-report surveys from 214 subjects. The face and content validity, and reliability were evaluated. Discriminates were evaluated between the sub-groups of disability levels, physical activity, and health condition levels. The concurrent, convergent, divergent, and construct validity were assessed by short form health survey scale (SF-36), general self-efficacy scale (GSES), hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), respectively. Replaceable exploratory factor analysis was evaluated. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. There were acceptable face and content validity, and reliability. Furthermore, significant correlation was found between PSES and SF-36 (p disability levels (p = 0.02), physical activity levels (p disability problems. Implications for rehabilitation Psychometric properties of the Persian version of self-Efficacy scale (PSES) appear to be similar to original, English version. The PSES has been shown to have validity and reliability in Persian physical disables and can be used for patients with more different types of physical disability than individuals suffering from only Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). The PSES can be used in clinical practice and research work to evaluate the patients' confidence in performing daily activities.

  6. 1:1 iPad Implementation: A Study on Efficacy and Achievement in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orman, John Paul

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine 1:1 iPad implementation's impact on students' reading achievement from 2013-2017 and student efficacy in using the technology to learn at one independent middle school in Grades 5-8. To determine the impact of the 1:1 iPad initiative on reading achievement, this mixed methods study examined five years of…

  7. Efficacy and safety of maraviroc versus efavirenz, both with zidovudine/lamivudine: 96-week results from the MERIT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Madero, Juan; Di Perri, Giovanni; Wood, Robin; Saag, Michael; Frank, Ian; Craig, Charles; Burnside, Robert; McCracken, Jennifer; Pontani, Dennis; Goodrich, James; Heera, Jayvant; Mayer, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The MERIT study evaluated maraviroc versus efavirenz, both with zidovudine/lamivudine, in treatment-naïve patients with CCR5-tropic (R5) HIV-1. Post hoc analyses previously assessed week 48 outcomes in patients rescreened with R5 virus by a more sensitive tropism assay. Week 96 efficacy (post hoc, n = 614) and safety (n = 721) were assessed. Proportions of subjects <50 copies/mL (58.8% maraviroc, 62.7% efavirenz) and time to loss of virologic response (TLOVR) responders (<50 copies/mL: 60.5% vs 60.7%) were similar. Maraviroc recipients had greater CD4 increases (+ 212 vs + 171 cells/mm(3)) and fewer adverse event discontinuations (6.1% vs 15.5%), malignancies, and category C events. Week 96 data confirm week 48 observations in MERIT.

  8. Phase I study of cisplatin, hyperthermia, and lapatinib in patients with recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix in a previously irradiated area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.V. Meerten (Esther Van); M. Franckena (Martine); E.A.C. Wiemer (Erik); L.V. Doorn (Lena Van); J. Kraan (Jaco); A.M. Westermann (Anneke); S. Sleijfer (Stefan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Patients with recurrent cervical cancer in a previously irradiated area might benefit from cisplatin combined with hyperthermia. Lapatinib inhibits the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2. Overexpression of EGFR and

  9. Phase I study of cisplatin, hyperthermia, and lapatinib in patients with recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix in a previously irradiated area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerten, Esther; Franckena, Martine; Wiemer, Erik; van Doorn, Lena; Kraan, Jaco; Westermann, Anneke; Sleijfer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Patients with recurrent cervical cancer in a previously irradiated area might benefit from cisplatin combined with hyperthermia. Lapatinib inhibits the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2. Overexpression of EGFR and HER2 is frequently seen in

  10. Quantitative Study on Computer Self-Efficacy and Computer Anxiety Differences in Academic Major and Residential Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, Zachary Wayne McClellan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates computer self-efficacy and computer anxiety within 61 students across two academic majors, Aviation and Sports and Exercise Science, while investigating the impact residential status, age, and gender has on those two psychological constructs. The purpose of the study is to find if computer self-efficacy and computer anxiety…

  11. An international multi-centre prospective study on the efficacy of an intraarticular polyacrylamide hydrogel in horses with osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tnibar, Aziz; Schougaard, Hans; Camitz, Linus

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) was evaluated recently to treat osteoarthritis (OA) in horses with highly encouraging results; however no long term field-study was done to explore its clinical efficacy and lasting effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of PAAG...

  12. Empowering the Middle: A High School Study Skills Program and Its Impact on Academic Achievement and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Stephanie Yvette

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a self-regulatory skills course on the academic achievement and self-efficacy of 11th-grade students. The researcher compared intervention and control groups participants' pre- and posttest scores on the General Self-Efficacy Scale and the Learning and Study Skills Assessment Inventory-High School version. Scores…

  13. Accuracy and bias of ICT self-efficacy: an empirical study into students' over- and underestimation of their ICT competences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aesaert, K.; Voogt, J.; Kuiper, E.; van Braak, J.

    2017-01-01

    Most studies on the assessment of ICT competences use measures of ICT self-efficacy. These studies are often accused that they suffer from self-reported bias, i.e. students can over- and/or underestimate their ICT competences. As such, taking bias and accuracy of ICT self-efficacy into account,

  14. PRP Treatment Efficacy for Tendinopathy: A Review of Basic Science Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqin Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP has been widely used in orthopaedic surgery and sport medicine to treat tendon injuries. However, the efficacy of PRP treatment for tendinopathy is controversial. This paper focuses on reviewing the basic science studies on PRP performed under well-controlled conditions. Both in vitro and in vivo studies describe PRP’s anabolic and anti-inflammatory effects on tendons. While some clinical trials support these findings, others refute them. In this review, we discuss the effectiveness of PRP to treat tendon injuries with evidence presented in basic science studies and the potential reasons for the controversial results in clinical trials. Finally, we comment on the approaches that may be required to improve the efficacy of PRP treatment for tendinopathy.

  15. Efficacy of Short-Term Spinal Cord Stimulation in Acute/Subacute Zoster-Related Pain: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dao-Song; Yu, Xue; Wan, Cheng-Fu; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Lin; Xi, Qi; Cui, Wen-Yao; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Song, Tao

    2017-07-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a refractory condition that impairs the patient's quality of life (QoL), it develops secondary to herpes zoster infection. Therefore, it's important to prevent the transition of acute/subacute zoster-related pain to PHN. Despite of numerous studies, the optimal intervention that reduces PHN incidence is still unknown. We evaluate the efficacy of short-term spinal cord stimulation (stSCS) in patients with refractory acute/subacute zoster-related pain. Retrospective study. Tertiary referral center/teaching hospital. A total of 46 patients who presented with acute/subacute zoster-related pain, and had previously failed conventional therapies, underwent stSCS treatment. Visual analog scale (VAS), Short Form Health Survey 12 items (SF-12), and analgesic consumptions were recorded before stSCS, post-stSCS, 2 weeks, and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after stimulation. The VAS scores at post-stSCS, 2 weeks, and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after stSCS treatment were significantly decreased compared with the baseline score (P < 0.001). Thirty-two patients (69.6%, 32/46) achieved the minimal clinically important difference (MCID), including 18 patients (39.1%, 18/46) who achieved complete pain relief (VASless than orequal to2). During the follow-up period, the efficacy of stSCS didn't decrease and VAS scores were declining. Similarly, SF-12 scores and analgesic consumptions improved after stSCS treatment. The efficacy of stSCS did not differ significantly among patients with different durations of acute/subacute zoster-related pain starting from the onset of rash. No serious adverse effects were observed in the entire follow-up period. This study was not a randomized prospective controlled study. We did not compare the outcomes with patients presenting with mild or moderate pain, and did not compare the efficacy of stSCS treatment with conventional therapies. stSCS is a safe, effective, and less invasive analgesic method for patients with refractory

  16. Therapeutic efficacy of cyclic home elemental enteral alimentation in Crohn's disease: Japanese cooperative Crohn's disease study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, K; Shoda, R; Takazoe, M; Hiwatashi, N; Bamba, T; Kobayashi, K; Saito, T; Terano, A; Yao, T

    1995-11-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) often flares up and requires frequent hospitalization and/or surgery. Cyclic home elemental enteral alimentation (C-HEEA) was developed to prevent flare-up of CD and to minimize patient hospitalization. However, its therapeutic efficacy has not been studied in a large patient population. Therefore, questionnaires were sent to members of the Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Research Group of Japan to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of C-HEEA and to define the factors that may affect the efficacy of the treatment. Data for 410 patients (C-HEEA-treated n = 322; drug-treated n = 88) were collected from 29 institutions and analysis showed the following results. The cumulative remission and non-hospitalization rates of the C-HEEA treated group were significantly higher than the rates of the drug-treated group in all patients and in those with ileitis and ileo-colitis (P < 0.0001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.01, respectively), but no significant difference was noted in patients with colitis. Cumulative remission and non-hospitalization rates were also influenced by the daily calorie content of the elemental diet (ED); more than 1200 kcal of the ED per day was found to be more effective than lower amounts to maintain remission and to prevent hospitalization. The therapeutic efficacy of C-HEEA was shown to be superior to that of drug treatment in patients with CD with ileal involvement, and it is suggested that more than 1200kcal per day should be supplied by the ED to enhance its therapeutic efficacy.

  17. The relationship between self-efficacy and transition to work or studies in young adults with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersén, Åsa; Larsson, Kjerstin; Pingel, Ronnie; Kristiansson, Per; Anderzén, Ingrid

    2018-03-01

    To investigate perceived self-efficacy in unemployed young adults with disabilities, and the association between self-efficacy and transition to work or studies. This prospective cohort study collected data through self-report questionnaires and registry data from a vocational rehabilitation project with young adults, aged 19-29 years. The Swedish Social Insurance Agency, the Swedish Public Employment Service and the participating municipalities identified potential participants for the study. A total of 531 participants were included in the study, of which 249 (47%) were available for analysis. Multinomial logistic regression models were carried out to estimate the associations between self-efficacy, demographic (age, country of birth, education level), health and employment status. The latter was coded as: 'no transition to work or studies', 'transition to studies', and 'transition to work'. A higher level of self-efficacy was associated with increased odds for 'transition to work' (OR = 2.37, p self-efficacy was low, and participants with lower self-efficacy reported worse self-rated health ( p self-efficacy. The results from this study suggest that self-efficacy should be addressed in the vocational rehabilitation of young adults with disabilities in order to support their transition and integration into the labour market.

  18. [Comparative Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Caffeine and Aminophylline for the Treatment of Apnea in Preterm Infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasato, Akane; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Kamimura, Hidetoshi

    2018-01-01

     Methylxanthine is widely administered for the treatment of apnea of prematurity in many countries, and previous reports have clearly established that caffeine is effective for the treatment of apnea of prematurity. In Japan, caffeine has been available since December 2014. Thus, we compared the efficacy and safety of caffeine with that of aminophylline in our hospital. There was no significant difference between the caffeine group and aminophylline group regarding the characteristics of the study patients. The mean efficacy rate from day 1 to day 10 was 89.5% in the caffeine group, and 81.9% in the aminophylline group, although the rate of improvement in apnea episodes each day from day 1 to day 10 was not significantly different between the two groups. On the other hand, the adverse event rates in the caffeine group and the aminophylline group were 70.6% and 75.0%, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the adverse event rates between the two groups. Moreover, suspected abdominal distension due to the drug administration was more frequently observed with the aminophylline group. Our findings indicate that caffeine is as effective as aminophylline, while it is superior to aminophylline regarding its overall safety.

  19. The efficacy and safety of natalizumab for the treatment of multiple sclerosis in Portugal: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, L; de Sa, J; Sa, M J; Cerqueira, J J; Martins-Silva, A

    2014-11-01

    Studies have shown that natalizumab is an effective treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). To date, no data are available in Portuguese patients. To determine the efficacy and safety of natalizumab in patients with RRMS in routine clinical practice in Portugal. Clinical data for adult patients with RRMS treated with natalizumab at specialist neurology centres in Portugal were entered retrospectively into a database for analysis between October 2010 and February 2012. Changes in annualized relapse rates (ARR), Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores and disability status were analysed. A total of 383 patients from 20 centres were included. Prior to starting natalizumab, the baseline median EDSS score was 4 and the mean ARR was 1.64. Most patients had previously received multiple sclerosis treatment (93.0%). Median natalizumab treatment duration was 12 months. Natalizumab treatment was associated with significant (p = 12 months (n = 288) and for >= 24 months (n = 160). Natalizumab was more effective in patients with less disability (EDSS Portugal. Its efficacy persists with continued treatment, and it may be particularly effective in patients with less disability and without prior disease modifying therapy.

  20. Efficacy of topical 4% Quassia amara gel in facial seborrheic dermatitis:a randomized, double-blind, comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Christian; Ferrari, Alicia

    2013-03-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic mild skin disorder with high prevalence. Various treatment options are available, including topical antifungals and anti-inflammatories. Antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties of Quassia amara have been reported. To check the efficacy and safety of a topical gel with 4% Quassia amara extract and compare it with topical 2% ketoconazole and 1% topical ciclopiroxolamine in the treatment of facial SD. A group of 60 patients displaying facial SD were randomly distributed in 3 groups and given either a topical gel with 4% Quassia amara extract, a topical gel with 2% ketoconazole, or a topical gel with 1% ciclopirox olamine for 4 weeks. Disease severity was assessed at the start and weekly along treatment, as well as 4 weeks after the end of treatment. In each selected area, severity of erythema, scaling, pruritus, and papules were scored from 0 to 3, the sum of these values representing the score of SD on the face. This evaluation was conducted at each visit. The decrease in SD score with all 3 products was compared at each visit. At each stage, overall improvement, safety, and tolerability were also assessed. Of the 60 patients, 54 (90%) completed the study. The 3 therapeutic options resulted to be very effective, with a significant advantage in efficacy for 4% Quassia extract. For the other 2 drugs, the results were in line with those previously published in the literature. Topical gel with 4% Quassia extract represents a new, safe, and effective treatment for facial SD.

  1. Maternal parental self-efficacy in newborn care and social support needs in Singapore: a correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Shefaly; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Chong, Yap Seng; He, Hong-Gu

    2014-08-01

    To examine the correlation between maternal parental self-efficacy and social support as well as predictors of self-efficacy in the early postpartum period. Maternal parental self-efficacy is important for mothers' adaptation to motherhood. Lack of support could result in decreased maternal parental self-efficacy in newborn care. Limited studies have focused on maternal parental self-efficacy in the postpartum period in Asia and none in Singapore. A correlational study design was adopted. Data were collected from both primiparas and multiparas during the first to third days postpartum in a public hospital, using the Perceived Maternal Parental Self-efficacy and Perinatal Infant Care Social Support Scales. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Maternal parental self-efficacy in newborn care and the level of social support that mothers received were moderate. In terms of the social support subscales, informational and instrumental support was lower than emotional and appraisal support. Informal support from husbands, parents and parents-in-law was the main source of support. A significant correlation was found between maternal parental self-efficacy and total social support in addition to the informational, instrumental and appraisal subscales of functional support. The predictors of maternal parental self-efficacy were parity, social support and maternal age. The findings highlight the predictors and correlates of maternal parental self-efficacy in newborn care and the social support needs of mothers in the early postpartum period. Healthcare professionals could provide more information and instrumental support and involve family members to enhance maternal parental self-efficacy. Because maternal parental self-efficacy and social support in the early postpartum period are interrelated components, they could be assessed to identify at-risk mothers. There is a need to develop perinatal educational programmes to provide culturally

  2. Effects of epilepsy and selected antiepileptic drugs on risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death in patients with or without previous stroke: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J. B.; Abildstrom, S. Z.; Erdal, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Patients with epilepsy have increased morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and death associated with epilepsy and examined if this risk was modified by treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Methods A cohort consisting of the Danish...... population was followed from January 1997 to December 2006. The risk of MI, stroke, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death associated with epilepsy was estimated by multivariable Cox proportional hazard models stratified for occurrence of previous stroke. AED use was determined at baseline, and risks...... associated with exposure to individual AEDs were examined in patients with epilepsy. Results In patients without previous stroke, AED-treated epilepsy was associated with an increased risk of MI (hazard ratio [HR], 1.09; 95%CI, 1.00-1.19), stroke (HR, 2.22; 95%CI, 2.09-2.36), cardiovascular death (HR, 1...

  3. Associations between self-esteem, general self-efficacy and approaches to studying in occupational therapy students: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsaksen, Tore; Sadeghi, Talieh; Thørrisen, Mikkel Magnus

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore associations between self-esteem, general self-efficacy, and the deep, strategic, and surface approaches to studying. Norwegian occupational therapy students (n = 125) completed questionnaires measuring study approaches, self-esteem, and general self-efficacy. Regression analyses were used to explore the direct relationships between self-esteem, general self-efficacy and the approaches to studying, after controlling for age, gender, prior higher education,...

  4. Safety, Efficacy, and Mechanistic Studies Regarding Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and p‐Synephrine

    OpenAIRE

    Stohs, Sidney J.

    2017-01-01

    Citrus aurantium L. (bitter orange) extracts that contain p‐synephrine as the primary protoalkaloid are widely used for weight loss/weight management, sports performance, appetite control, energy, and mental focus and cognition. Questions have been raised about the safety of p‐synephrine because it has some structural similarity to ephedrine. This review focuses on current human, animal, in vitro, and mechanistic studies that address the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of action of bitter or...

  5. Efficacy of transcutaneous functional electrical stimulation on urinary incontinence in myelomeningocele: results of a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Sharifi-Rad, Lida; Dianat, Seyedsaeid

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of transcutaneous functional electrical stimulation (FES) on voiding symptoms in children with myelomeningocele (MMC) suffering from neuropathic urinary incontinence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six girls and 6 boys with moderate to severe urinary incontinence secondary to MMC were included. Median age of children was 5.04 (range: 3-11) years. They underwent a urodynamic study (UDS) before and 3 months after FES with special attention to detrusor leak point pre...

  6. Moral disengagement, self-efficacy and bullying: the framework of coexistence studies

    OpenAIRE

    Luciene Tognetta; José María Avilés; Pedro Rosário; Natividad Alonso

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between bullying and moral disengagements. In a research study conducted with 2,600 adolescents, between 14 and 16 years old, an attempt to verify their involvement in bullying, their self-efficacy beliefs regarding their academic performance and their possible moral disengagements was undertaken. A correlation between being bullying by others and the "dehumanization of the victim" was found. The participation in the bullying situation as authors, victi...

  7. Predicting the safety and efficacy of buffer therapy to raise tumour pHe: an integrative modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N K; Robey, I F; Gaffney, E A; Gillies, R J; Gatenby, R A; Maini, P K

    2012-01-01

    Background: Clinical positron emission tomography imaging has demonstrated the vast majority of human cancers exhibit significantly increased glucose metabolism when compared with adjacent normal tissue, resulting in an acidic tumour microenvironment. Recent studies demonstrated reducing this acidity through systemic buffers significantly inhibits development and growth of metastases in mouse xenografts. Methods: We apply and extend a previously developed mathematical model of blood and tumour buffering to examine the impact of oral administration of bicarbonate buffer in mice, and the potential impact in humans. We recapitulate the experimentally observed tumour pHe effect of buffer therapy, testing a model prediction in vivo in mice. We parameterise the model to humans to determine the translational safety and efficacy, and predict patient subgroups who could have enhanced treatment response, and the most promising combination or alternative buffer therapies. Results: The model predicts a previously unseen potentially dangerous elevation in blood pHe resulting from bicarbonate therapy in mice, which is confirmed by our in vivo experiments. Simulations predict limited efficacy of bicarbonate, especially in humans with more aggressive cancers. We predict buffer therapy would be most effectual: in elderly patients or individuals with renal impairments; in combination with proton production inhibitors (such as dichloroacetate), renal glomular filtration rate inhibitors (such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors), or with an alternative buffer reagent possessing an optimal pK of 7.1–7.2. Conclusion: Our mathematical model confirms bicarbonate acts as an effective agent to raise tumour pHe, but potentially induces metabolic alkalosis at the high doses necessary for tumour pHe normalisation. We predict use in elderly patients or in combination with proton production inhibitors or buffers with a pK of 7.1–7.2 is most

  8. Predicting the safety and efficacy of buffer therapy to raise tumour pHe: an integrative modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N K; Robey, I F; Gaffney, E A; Gillies, R J; Gatenby, R A; Maini, P K

    2012-03-27

    Clinical positron emission tomography imaging has demonstrated the vast majority of human cancers exhibit significantly increased glucose metabolism when compared with adjacent normal tissue, resulting in an acidic tumour microenvironment. Recent studies demonstrated reducing this acidity through systemic buffers significantly inhibits development and growth of metastases in mouse xenografts. We apply and extend a previously developed mathematical model of blood and tumour buffering to examine the impact of oral administration of bicarbonate buffer in mice, and the potential impact in humans. We recapitulate the experimentally observed tumour pHe effect of buffer therapy, testing a model prediction in vivo in mice. We parameterise the model to humans to determine the translational safety and efficacy, and predict patient subgroups who could have enhanced treatment response, and the most promising combination or alternative buffer therapies. The model predicts a previously unseen potentially dangerous elevation in blood pHe resulting from bicarbonate therapy in mice, which is confirmed by our in vivo experiments. Simulations predict limited efficacy of bicarbonate, especially in humans with more aggressive cancers. We predict buffer therapy would be most effectual: in elderly patients or individuals with renal impairments; in combination with proton production inhibitors (such as dichloroacetate), renal glomular filtration rate inhibitors (such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors), or with an alternative buffer reagent possessing an optimal pK of 7.1-7.2. Our mathematical model confirms bicarbonate acts as an effective agent to raise tumour pHe, but potentially induces metabolic alkalosis at the high doses necessary for tumour pHe normalisation. We predict use in elderly patients or in combination with proton production inhibitors or buffers with a pK of 7.1-7.2 is most promising.

  9. Efficacy and safety of dose escalation of infliximab therapy in Japanese patients with psoriasis: Results of the SPREAD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Hideshi; Nakano, Masayuki; Yano, Toshiro; Kondo, Kazuoki; Nakagawa, Hidemi

    2017-05-01

    Although infliximab is approved for psoriasis, its efficacy is reduced over time in some patients. The aim of this phase III trial is to evaluate efficacy and safety of infliximab dose escalation in Japanese psoriasis patients with loss of efficacy to standard-dose therapy. Patients with plaque psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, pustular psoriasis or psoriatic erythroderma who showed loss of efficacy to standard-dose therapy received infliximab dose escalation (10 mg/kg every 8 weeks) from weeks 0 to 32. Loss of efficacy was defined as not maintaining 50% reduction in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI 50) after achieving PASI 75. Efficacy and safety were evaluated up to week 40. Fifty-one patients received dose escalation and 43 completed the study. PASI 75 and median improvement rate of PASI score at week 40 were 44% and 70.0%, respectively, showing efficacy in skin symptoms. Efficacies in quality of life, nail psoriasis and joint pain were also obtained. Median serum infliximab level increased from less than 0.1 to 1.1 μg/mL from weeks 0 to 40, showing positive correlation between efficacy and serum infliximab level at week 40. Favorable efficacy was observed in patients with detectable serum infliximab levels (≥0.1 μg/mL) at baseline. Incidences of adverse events, serious adverse events, serious infections and serious infusion reactions were 92%, 10%, 4% and 0%, respectively. No marked difference was observed in both efficacy and safety among psoriasis types. No new safety concerns were observed. Infliximab dose escalation was effective and well-tolerated in psoriasis patients with loss of efficacy to standard-dose therapy, suggesting that dose escalation may be a useful therapeutic option for these patients. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Dermatological Association.

  10. Adult Attachment, Social Self-Efficacy, Self-Disclosure, Loneliness, and Subsequent Depression for Freshman College Students: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Russel, Daniel W.; Zakalik, Robyn A.

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether social self-efficacy and self-disclosure serve as mediators between attachment and feelings of loneliness and subsequent depression. Participants were 308 freshmen at a large Midwestern university. Results indicated that social self-efficacy mediated the association between attachment anxiety and feelings…

  11. Effects of Social Persuasion from Parents and Teachers on Chinese Students' Self-Efficacy: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yuen Yi; Chan, Joanne Chung Yan

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of social persuasion from parents and teachers on students' self-efficacy in reading comprehension in English as a foreign language. Ninety-nine Grade 8 Chinese students in a secondary school in Hong Kong completed a questionnaire with six scenarios which tapped their self-efficacy after receiving positive and…

  12. Day-to-day mastery and self-efficacy changes during a smoking quit attempt: Two studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Lisa M; Stadler, Gertraud; Lüscher, Janina; Knoll, Nina; Ochsner, Sibylle; Hornung, Rainer; Scholz, Urte

    2018-01-15

    In social-cognitive theory, it is hypothesized that mastery experiences (successfully implementing behaviour change) are a source of self-efficacy, and self-efficacy increases the opportunity for experiencing mastery. Vicarious experiences (seeing others succeed) are suggested as another source of self-efficacy. However, the hypothesis of this reciprocal relationship has not been tested using a day-to-day design. This article reports findings from two intensive longitudinal studies, testing the reciprocal relationship of self-efficacy and its two main sources within the naturally occurring process of quitting smoking (without intervention). Smokers (Study 1: N = 100 smokers in smoker-non-smoker couples (1,787 observations); Study 2; N = 81 female (1,401 observations) and N = 79 male smokers (1,328 observations) in dual-smoker couples) reported their mastery experiences (not smoking the entire day; in Study 2, mastery experience of partner served as vicarious experience) and smoking-specific self-efficacy for 21 days after a self-set quit date. Time-lagged multilevel analyses were conducted using change-predicting-change models. Increases in mastery experiences predicted changes in self-efficacy, and increases in self-efficacy predicted changes in mastery experiences in Study 1. Study 2 replicated these results and showed contagion effects (partners' mastery on individuals' mastery and partners' self-efficacy on individuals' self-efficacy), but found no evidence for a link between vicarious experiences (partners' mastery experiences) and individuals' self-efficacy. This article demonstrates that mastery experiences and self-efficacy show a reciprocal relationship within smokers during a quit attempt in a day-to-day design, as well as contagion effects in couples when both partners try to quit simultaneously. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? Self-efficacy is one of the strongest correlates of quitting smoking. Despite the

  13. An experimental study of an educational intervention to promote maternal self-efficacy in breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Cláudia Melo Dodt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: to build, validate and assess an educational intervention using the flip chart titled "I Can Breastfeed My Child."Method: an experimental study using a pretest, intervention and posttest, as well as a control group. A total of 201 women, who had been hospitalized immediately, for at least 6 hours, postpartum. The mothers were allocated to the intervention (100 women or control groups (101 women according to the length of their hospital stay. The effectiveness of the flip chart was assessed by applying the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale - Short-Form at admission, discharge and by telephone in the second month postpartum. The intervention and control groups were similar in their socio-demographic, obstetric and gynecological variables.Results: the intervention was beneficial because mothers in the intervention group had higher self-efficacy scores, more mothers continued breastfeeding and mothers had a longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding, both at the time of hospital discharge and at the second month postpartum, with statistically significant associations.Conclusions: this experimental study assessed the educational strategy mediated via the flip chart titled "I Can Breastfeed My Child" as being effective both in increasing self-efficacy and increasing the duration of breastfeeding.

  14. Older Adult Self-Efficacy Study of Mobile Phone Diabetes Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Bilal; Weed, Kelly; Barr, Erik; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate participant self-efficacy and use of a mobile phone diabetes health intervention for older adults during a 4-week period. Participants included seven adults (mean age, 70.3 years) with type 2 diabetes cared for by community-based primary care physicians. Participants entered blood glucose data into a mobile phone and personalized patient Internet Web portal. Based on blood glucose values, participants received automatic messages and educational information to self-manage their diabetes. Study measures included prior mobile phone/Internet use, the Stanford Self-Efficacy for Diabetes Scale, the Stanford Energy/Fatigue Scale, the Short Form-36, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (depression), the Patient Reported Diabetes Symptom Scale, the Diabetes Stages of Change measure, and a summary of mobile system use. Participants had high self-efficacy and high readiness and confidence in their ability to monitor changes to control their diabetes. Participants demonstrated ability to use the mobile intervention and communicate with diabetes educators. PMID:25692373

  15. Older Adult Self-Efficacy Study of Mobile Phone Diabetes Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Charlene C; Khokhar, Bilal; Weed, Kelly; Barr, Erik; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate participant self-efficacy and use of a mobile phone diabetes health intervention for older adults during a 4-week period. Participants included seven adults (mean age, 70.3 years) with type 2 diabetes cared for by community-based primary care physicians. Participants entered blood glucose data into a mobile phone and personalized patient Internet Web portal. Based on blood glucose values, participants received automatic messages and educational information to self-manage their diabetes. Study measures included prior mobile phone/Internet use, the Stanford Self-Efficacy for Diabetes Scale, the Stanford Energy/Fatigue Scale, the Short Form-36, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (depression), the Patient Reported Diabetes Symptom Scale, the Diabetes Stages of Change measure, and a summary of mobile system use. Participants had high self-efficacy and high readiness and confidence in their ability to monitor changes to control their diabetes. Participants demonstrated ability to use the mobile intervention and communicate with diabetes educators.

  16. Study of the efficacy of mizoribine in lupus nephritis in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; Xing, Chang Ying; Liu, Jia

    2013-11-01

    We conducted a clinical study in China on the efficacy and safety of mizoribine (MZR) in lupus nephritis. Eleven subjects with proteinuria (≥2 g/day) who had undergone renal biopsy confirming a diagnosis of lupus nephritis (class III: 1 subject; class IV: 6 subjects; class V: 4 subjects) were enrolled. Nine of the subjects were treatment- naive patients who received remission induction therapy, and the other two were switched from cyclophosphamide (CTX) or mycophenolate mofetil due to lack of efficacy. MZR 150 mg was administered once a day. After 6 months, the remission rate was 72.7% (2 subjects achieved complete remission, and 9 partial remission). After 3 and 6 months, significant reductions (p proteinuria (g/day). In the subjects switched to MZR due to lack of efficacy with CTX, the dose was increased from MZR 150-200 mg due to inadequate improvement in proteinuria, and this dose escalation resulted in complete remission after 6 months. It is believed that this kind of dose escalation is one possible treatment option for lupus nephritis. In this study, no adverse events occurred in any of the subjects. We therefore concluded that this first use in China as remission induction therapy in lupus nephritis patients of MZR, which is recognized as an effective maintenance therapy in Japan, was effective. The results also suggest that MZR could be effective in patients for whom other drugs have been insufficiently effective.

  17. Efficacy of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors versus nootropics in Alzheimer's disease: a retrospective, longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolaki, M; Pantazi, T; Kazis, A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of nootropics (piracetam, aniracetam, nimodopine and dihydroergicristine) versus acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChE-Is) (tacrine and donepezil) in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This is a retrospective study of 510 patients with Alzheimer's disease. To determine clinical efficacy of treatment, we used the mean change over time in scores for the following tests: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); the Cambridge Cognitive Examination for the Elderly; and the Functional Rating Scale for Symptoms of Dementia. In all patients and in patients with severe Alzheimer's disease (baseline MMSE nootropics (-4.38 for AChE-Is group versus 1.48 for nootropics group). For patients with mild dementia (baseline MMSE score between 21 and 26), there was a significantly greater deterioration on the MMSE scale for each time-point in the nootropics group compared with the AChE-Is group. In conclusion, we did not find any strong evidence that a difference in efficacy exists between AChE-Is and nootropics in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Efficacy of afoxolaner in a clinical field study in dogs naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frédéric; de Vos, Christa; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lénaïg; Larsen, Diane; Fourie, Josephus

    2016-01-01

    The acaricidal efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard(®), Merial) was evaluated against Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis in a field efficacy study, when administered orally at a minimum dose of 2.5 mg/kg to dogs naturally infested with the mites. Twenty mixed-breed dogs of either sex (6 males and 14 females), aged over 6 months and weighing 4-18 kg, were studied in this randomised controlled field efficacy trial. Dogs, naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis confirmed by skin scrapings collected prior to allocation, were randomly divided into two equal groups. Dogs in Group 1 were not treated. Dogs in Group 2 were treated on Days 0 and 28. On Days 0 (pre-treatment), 28 (pre-treatment) and 56, five skin scrapings of similar size were taken from different sites with lesions suggestive of sarcoptic mange. The extent of lesions was also recorded on Days 0, 28 and 56, and photographs were taken. Dogs treated orally with afoxolaner had significantly (p < 0.001) lower mite counts than untreated control animals at Days 28 and 56 with no mites recovered from treated dogs at these times (100% efficacy based on mite counts). In addition, dogs treated with NexGard had significantly (p < 0.05) better lesion resolution at Day 56 than Day 0; no treated dog showed pruritus compared to 7/10 dogs in the control group, 1/9 treated dogs had crusts compared to 5/10 controls and 8/9 dogs recovered 90% of hairs on lesions compared to 0/10 control dogs. © F. Beugnet et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  19. Efficacy of afoxolaner in a clinical field study in dogs naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beugnet Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The acaricidal efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®, Merial was evaluated against Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis in a field efficacy study, when administered orally at a minimum dose of 2.5 mg/kg to dogs naturally infested with the mites. Twenty mixed-breed dogs of either sex (6 males and 14 females, aged over 6 months and weighing 4–18 kg, were studied in this randomised controlled field efficacy trial. Dogs, naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis confirmed by skin scrapings collected prior to allocation, were randomly divided into two equal groups. Dogs in Group 1 were not treated. Dogs in Group 2 were treated on Days 0 and 28. On Days 0 (pre-treatment, 28 (pre-treatment and 56, five skin scrapings of similar size were taken from different sites with lesions suggestive of sarcoptic mange. The extent of lesions was also recorded on Days 0, 28 and 56, and photographs were taken. Dogs treated orally with afoxolaner had significantly (p < 0.001 lower mite counts than untreated control animals at Days 28 and 56 with no mites recovered from treated dogs at these times (100% efficacy based on mite counts. In addition, dogs treated with NexGard had significantly (p < 0.05 better lesion resolution at Day 56 than Day 0; no treated dog showed pruritus compared to 7/10 dogs in the control group, 1/9 treated dogs had crusts compared to 5/10 controls and 8/9 dogs recovered 90% of hairs on lesions compared to 0/10 control dogs.

  20. Ayahuasca's entwined efficacy: An ethnographic study of ritual healing from 'addiction'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talin, Piera; Sanabria, Emilia

    2017-06-01

    A range of studies has demonstrated the efficacy of the psychoactive Amazonian brew ayahuasca in addressing substance addiction. These have revealed that physiological and psychological mechanisms are deeply enmeshed. This article focuses on how interactive ritual contexts support the healing effort. The study of psychedelic-assisted treatments for addiction has much to gain from ethnographic analyses of healing experiences within the particular ecologies of use and care, where these interventions are rendered efficacious. This is an ethnographically grounded, qualitative analysis of addiction-recovery experiences within ayahuasca rituals. It draws on long-term fieldwork and participant observation in ayahuasca communities, and in-depth, semi-structured interviews of participants with histories of substance misuse. Ayahuasca's efficacy in the treatment of addiction blends somatic, symbolic and collective dimensions. The layering of these effects, and the direction given to them through ritual, circumscribes the experience and provides tools to render it meaningful. Prevailing modes of evaluation are ill suited to account for the particular material and semiotic efficacy of complex interventions such as ayahuasca healing for addiction. The article argues that practices of care characteristic of the ritual spaces in which ayahuasca is collectively consumed, play a key therapeutic role. The ritual use of ayahuasca stands in strong contrast to hegemonic understandings of addiction, paving new ground between the overstated difference between community and pharmacological interventions. The article concludes that fluid, adaptable forms of caregiving play a key role in the success of addiction recovery and that feeling part of a community has an important therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of the dedicated education unit on nursing student self-efficacy: A quasi-experimental research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Lynn E; Locasto, Lisa W; Pyo, Katrina A; W Cline, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Although the Dedicated Education Unit (DEU) has shown initial promise related to satisfaction with the teaching/learning environment, few studies have examined student outcomes related to the use of the DEU as a clinical education model beyond student satisfaction. The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to compare student outcomes from the traditional clinical education (TCE) model with those from the DEU model. Participants were students enrolled in a four-year baccalaureate program in nursing (n = 193) who had clinical education activities in one of three clinical agencies. Participants were assigned to either the DEU or a TCE model. Pre-clinical and post-clinical self-efficacy scores were measured for each group using an adapted Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (Schwarzer and Jerusalem, 1995). Both groups experienced a significant increase in self-efficacy scores post clinical education. The increase in self-efficacy for the DEU students was significantly greater than the increase in self-efficacy for the traditional students. Self-efficacy is considered an important outcome of nursing education because high self-efficacy has been linked to making an easier transition from student to nursing professional. This study supports the quality of the DEU as a clinical education model by examining student self-efficacy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. How Teachers' Self-Efficacy Is Related to Instructional Quality: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzberger, Doris; Philipp, Anja; Kunter, Mareike

    2013-01-01

    This study extends previous research on teachers' self-efficacy by exploring reciprocal effects of teachers' self-efficacy and instructional quality in a longitudinal panel study. The study design combined a self-report measure of teacher self-efficacy with teacher and student ratings of instructional quality (assessing cognitive activation,…

  3. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Saura Pedro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC. Methods Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Results Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination, 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction, and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. Conclusion The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052.

  4. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anasagasti-Angulo, Lorenzo; Garcia-Vega, Yanelda; Barcelona-Perez, Silvia; Lopez-Saura, Pedro; Bello-Rivero, Iraldo

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions) are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN) may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC) or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC). Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old) patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination), 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction), and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052

  5. A Qualitative Study on the Emotional Healing Efficacy of Movies for Undergraduates Suffering Breakups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Su-may Sheih

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Breakups with significant others are among the main reasons for emotional disturbance problems in Taiwanese undergraduates. Most undergraduates lack emotional regulation; therefore, their negative emotions can easily accumulate, influencing their mental health. Exacerbating these effects, the accumulation of negative emotions can lead to social problems. Therefore, helping undergraduates appropriately cope with negative emotions generated by breakups is a topic worth exploring. Movie therapy involves watching appropriate movies for soothing negative emotions. To investigate the emotional healing efficacy of movies, this study employed content analysis to select movies about breakups and recruited 14 undergraduates suffering from breakups. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted after the subjects viewed one of the movies, and the emotional healing efficacy of movies was analyzed based on whether the subjects experienced the processes of identification, catharsis, and insight. The findings indicated that 14 movies had emotional healing efficacy. The subjects experienced emotional healing from movies that contained three critical elements: similarity of backgrounds between the viewer and the movie characters, the extroversive expression of the movie characters’ emotions, and the characters’ demonstration of concrete solutions to the problems. [Article content in Chinese

  6. Comparative Studies on the Efficacy of Different Vaccination Methods in the Treatment of Bovine Papillomatosis

    OpenAIRE

    ÇİMTAY, İbrahim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of autogenous, species-specific and herd-specific vaccination in the treatment of bovine papillomatosis. This study was performed on 24 female Holstein cattle aged between 8 and 17 months in the same herd. The animals were divided into three vaccination groups (eight cattle in each group) as autogenous, species-specific and herd-specific. A dose of 10 ml per animal was inoculated subcutaneously every 10 days, for a total of three times. The r...

  7. Comparative efficacy of sorafenib versus best supportive care in recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposito, Carlo; Mariani, Luigi; Germini, Alessandro; Flores Reyes, Maria; Bongini, Marco; Grossi, Glenda; Bhoori, Sherrie; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo

    2013-07-01

    The efficacy of sorafenib in the post-liver transplantation (LT) setting has been scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of sorafenib, compared to best supportive care (BSC), in two cohorts of patients which presented with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence after LT. Data from patients who developed presentation or progression of HCC recurrence after LT not amenable to surgical/locoregional treatments (untreatable presentation/progression, UP) were retrieved. The cohort of patients receiving sorafenib starting from 2007 was compared to that of patients receiving BSC in the previous era. Disease outcome was investigated in terms of survival from recurrence or from UP by means of univariate and multivariate Cox regression models with event times left-truncated at the date of UP. Of a total of 39 patients, 24 received BSC and 15 sorafenib. The two groups were well matched at baseline, with time-related imbalances regarding mTOR-based immunosuppression and median time from LT to recurrence, significantly higher in the sorafenib group. Patients' outcome in the sorafenib group was significantly improved (median survival from recurrence 21.3 vs.11.8 months, HR=5.2, p=0.0009; median survival from UP 10.6 vs. 2.2 months, HR=21.1, p<0.0001). The only factor associated with survival after HCC recurrence in multivariate analysis was treatment with sorafenib (HR=4.0; p=0.0325). No severe adverse event was registered in this post-LT setting. Although the use of historical controls weakens final interpretation, sorafenib seems to be associated with an acceptable safety profile and benefit in survival in HCC patients suffering recurrence after LT. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Timing of dose relative to sexual intercourse attempt in previous sildenafil citrate users treated with tadalafil: a geographical comparison from a single arm, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Aurioles, Eusebio; Glina, Sidney; Abdo, Carmita H N; Hernandez-Serrano, Ruben; Rampazzo, Claudia; Sotomayor, Mariano; West, Teena M; Gallagher, Gabrielle L; Lenero, Enrique

    2009-10-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that sildenafil citrate users alter dosing-sexual attempt behavior when switched to tadalafil. The impact of geography and culture on sexual behavior with phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor treatment has not been fully investigated. To describe and compare the changes in dosing-sexual attempt behavior with sildenafil citrate vs. tadalafil treatment across four distinct geographies: Asia, Australia/New Zealand (ANZ), Central Eastern Europe/Middle East (CEE/ME), and Latin America (LA). Data from a single-arm, open-label clinical trial conducted in 21 countries from November 2002 to May 2004 were used in this analysis. Men with erectile dysfunction and a history of > or =6-week prior sildenafil citrate use continued sildenafil citrate treatment for 4 weeks then switched to tadalafil for 8 weeks. Dosing instructions were provided. Timing of dose and sexual intercourse was assessed through patient diaries for the final 4 weeks of each treatment period. A total of 2,760 men were enrolled: Asia 15.8%; ANZ 29.4%; CEE/ME 19.7%; LA 35.1%. The median time from dosing to intercourse was significantly increased during tadalafil treatment across all geographical regions; however, the magnitude of increase differed significantly by geography (P geography. However, the extent to which sexual behavior alters is not uniform across geographical regions, suggesting that dosing instructions and duration of drug effectiveness, in combination with personal and cultural preferences, may determine sexual behavior with PDE5 inhibitor use.

  9. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage.

  10. Are Prospective Elementary School Teachers' Social Studies Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Related to Their Learning Approaches in a Social Studies Teaching Methods Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dündar, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to contribute to the growing literature on learning approaches and teacher self-efficacy beliefs by examining associations between prospective elementary school teachers' learning approaches in a social studies teaching methods course and their social studies teaching efficacy beliefs. One hundred ninety-two prospective elementary…

  11. Recommendations for Conducting Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Analyses for Students with Disabilities Based on Previous DIF Studies. Research Report. ETS RR-11-34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzick, Heather; Stone, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to help ensure that strategies for differential item functioning (DIF) detection for students with disabilities are appropriate and lead to meaningful results. We surveyed existing DIF studies for students with disabilities and describe them in terms of study design, statistical approach, sample characteristics, and…

  12. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI...... 0.13-1.01) before injections. After an average of 4.7 injections (range 1-15), mean visual acuity remained stable at 0.54 logMAR (95% CI 0.13-0.95) with a mean improvement of 0.03 (p = 0. 45, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.06). In 12 eyes (36%), visual acuity improved 0.1 logMAR or more, in 12 eyes (36%), vision...

  13. The mediating role of spirituality on professional values and self-efficacy: a study of senior nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Won Hee; Lee, Gyungjoo

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the significance of spirituality in enhancing self-efficacy related to professional values in senior nursing students. Self-efficacy can predict job satisfaction and performance as professional nurses in clinical settings. Senior nursing students should have the level of self-efficacy that enables them to perform professional roles based on professional values, because they will enter clinical settings immediately after graduation. Spirituality may help senior nursing students during the transition to professional life to reflect on their skills, knowledge and situations to enhance self-efficacy based on professional values. An exploratory, cross-sectional design was used in this study. A total of 194 senior nursing students in South Korea were recruited in 2014. They completed self-reported questionnaires consisting of demographic questions, Spiritual Assessment Scale, Self-Efficacy Scale and Nursing Professional Values inventory. A Sobel test was done to determine the mediating effect of spirituality on the relationship between nursing professional values and self-efficacy. The findings showed a positive correlation between professional values, spirituality and self-efficacy in nursing students. According to the Sobel test, spirituality had a mediating effect on the relationship between professional values and self-efficacy in senior nursing students. Spirituality can be a foundation that provides senior nursing students with higher self-efficacy so that they are able to perform their professional roles based on their professional values. The findings can guide nursing educators to include spiritual development of nursing students to enhance the self-efficacy of senior nursing students, the future of the nursing profession. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patrícia A.; Dias, João M. D.; Silva, Silvia L. A.; Dias, Rosângela C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. Objectives: (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. Method: A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. Results: There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa=0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa=0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35±1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Conclusion: Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning. PMID:26083603

  15. Long-term clinical and economic outcomes in previously untreated paediatric patients with severe haemophilia A: A nationwide real-world study with 700 person-years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepsäläinen, K; Riikonen, P; Lassila, R; Arola, M; Huttunen, P; Lähteenmäki, P; Möttönen, M; Selander, T; Martikainen, J

    2018-03-01

    For previously untreated patients (PUPs) with severe haemophilia A in Finland for the past 2 decades, the standard practice has been to start early primary prophylaxis. We evaluated the long-term clinical outcomes and costs of treatment with high-dose prophylaxis in PUPs from birth to adolescence, including immune tolerance induction (ITI). From the medical records of all PUPs born between June 1994 and May 2013 in Finland, we retrospectively extracted data on clinical outcomes and healthcare use. Using linear mixed models, we analysed longitudinal clinical outcome data. To analyse skewed cost data, including zero costs, we applied hurdle regression. All 62 patients received early regular prophylaxis; totally, they have had treatment for nearly 700 patient-years. The median age of starting home treatment was 1.1 years. The mean (SD) annual treatment costs (€ per kg) were 4391€ (3852). For ages 1-3, ITI comprised over half of the costs; in other groups, prophylactic FVIII treatment dominated. With these high costs, however, clinical outcomes were desirable; median (IQR) ABR was low at 0.19 (0.07-0.46) and so was AJBR at 0.06 (0-0.24). Thirteen (21%) patients developed a clinically significant inhibitor, 10 (16%) with a high titre. All ITIs were successful. The mean costs for ITI were 383 448€ (259 085). The expected ITI payback period was 1.81 (95% CI 0.62-12.12) years. Early high-dose prophylaxis leads to excellent long-term clinical outcomes, and early childhood ITI therapy seems to turn cost-neutral generally already in 2 years. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  17. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Efficacy Study of Nefiracetam to Treat Poststroke Apathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkstein, Sergio E; Brockman, Simone; Hatch, Katherine K; Bruce, David G; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Davis, Wendy A; Robinson, Robert G

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of treatment with nefiracetam compared to placebo in poststroke apathy. A parallel group, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind two-center trial in patients with recent stroke and apathy was conducted in 2 tertiary teaching hospitals in Perth, Western Australia, between March 2010 and October 2014. Consenting patients hospitalized with stroke were screened for participation at the time of hospitalization and, if diagnosed with apathy 8-36 weeks later, they were randomized to 12 weeks of 900 mg/day nefiracetam or placebo. The primary efficacy parameter was change in apathy at 12 weeks defined by the 14-item Apathy Scale (AS). Of 2514 patients screened, only 377 (15%) were eligible for the study after the first screening, 233 declined further participation, and 144 were assessed for apathy at 8-36 weeks post stroke to confirm eligibility. Twenty patients out of 106 with a complete psychiatric assessment had apathy (19%). Of this sample, 13 patients were randomized. Overall, the AS score decreased by a mean of 7.0 points (95% CI = -14.6 to .6), but there was no significant between-group difference at week 12 (mean paired t-tests, P > .14). Treatment with nefiracetam did not prove to be more efficacious than placebo in ameliorating apathy in stroke. The main limitation was the very small sample randomized, highlighting the limitations of conducting drug trials for behavioral problems among stroke patients. Pharmacological studies of apathy in stroke will require a large multicenter study and a massive sample of patients. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Study protocol of a phase II clinical trial (KSCC1501A) examining oxaliplatin + S-1 for treatment of HER2-negative advanced/recurrent gastric cancer previously untreated with chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Hiroshi; Emi, Yasunori; Oki, Eiji; Tokunaga, Shoji; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Akagi, Yoshito; Baba, Hideo; Baba, Eishi; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2018-01-08

    Oxaliplatin + S-1 is a recognized treatment regimen in Japan, but there are no Japanese clinical data on an oxaliplatin dose of 130 mg/m 2 . The current research involves a single-arm, prospective, phase II clinical trial to examine the efficacy and safety of oxaliplatin + S-1 with an oxaliplatin dose of 130 mg/m 2 to treat HER2-negative advanced/recurrent gastric cancer previously untreated with chemotherapy in Japan. The primary endpoint of this trial will be the response rate, and the secondary endpoints will be the safety profile of oxaliplatin + S-1, progression-free survival, the response rate in subjects under the age of 75, overall survival, time to treatment failure, duration of treatment, time to failure of strategy, and dose intensity. The threshold response rate is 45% and the expected response rate is 60%. Assuming that a one-tailed score test will be performed with an α of 0.05, 68 patients are needed to ensure a statistical power of 80%. Planned enrollment is 70 subjects and the total duration of this trial is expected to be 3 years. Since replacing cisplatin with oxaliplatin should provide the same level of therapeutic efficacy while limiting adverse events and simplifying treatment, oxaliplatin + S-1 may be increasingly used to treat gastric cancer in Japan. Verifying the efficacy and safety of oxaliplatin + S-1 with an oxaliplatin dose of 130 mg is an important task that the current trial has set out to achieve. The protocol was registered at the website of the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN), Japan (protocol ID UMIN000017550) on May 29, 2015. The details are available at the following web address: http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ .

  19. Nursing Student Self-efficacy in Psychomotor Skills: Findings From a Validation, Longitudinal, and Correlational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulfone, Giampiera; Fida, Roberta; Ghezzi, Valerio; Macale, Loreana; Sili, Alessandro; Alvaro, Rosaria; Palese, Alvisa

    Student perceptions of self-efficacy (SE) prevent stress and burnout and improve engagement in nursing education, thus increasing learning outcomes. The study aims were to (1) validate a scale measuring nursing SE in psychomotor skills (NSE-PS), (2) describe changes in NSE-PS over time, and (3) explore NSE-PS correlations with burnout and engagement. A total of 1117 nursing students participated. A significant increase in the NSE-PS scores over the years has emerged; in addition, all NSE-PS dimensions were correlated negatively with burnout and positively with engagement.

  20. Efficacy of a probiotic and chlorhexidine mouth rinses: A short-term clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Probiotic technology represents a breakthrough approach to maintaining oral health by utilizing natural beneficial bacteria commonly found in healthy mouths to provide a natural defense against those bacteria thought to be harmful to teeth and gums. However, data are still sparse on the probiotic action in the oral cavity. The review article on probiotics in children published by Twetman and Stecksen- Blicks in 2008 showed only one study of dental interest on probiotics in children. Aim and Objectives: The present study evaluated clinically the efficacy of a probiotic and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingival accumulation in children. The trial design is a double-blind parallel group, 14 days comparative study between a probiotic mouth rinse and a chlorhexidine mouth rinse, which included 45 healthy children in the age group of 6-8 years. Results: The Probiotic and Chlorhexidine groups had less plaque accumulations compared with the Control group at the end of 14 years (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively. But, unlike the plaque score, there was a significant difference in the Gingival Index between the Probiotic and the Chlorhexidine groups (P = 0.009, Probiotic group being better than the Chlorhexidine group (mean = 0.2300 and 0.6805, respectively. Conclusion: The Probiotic mouth rinse was found effective in reducing plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation. Therefore, probiotic mouth rinse obviously has a potential therapeutic value and further long-term study is recommended to determine its efficacy.

  1. A Comparative Study of the Previously Graduated Dentists' Knowledge versus those Recently Graduated as to Proper Prescription of Interaoral Radiography and Panoramic Views

    OpenAIRE

    Bardal R.; Rahimi R.; Ahmadi Motamayel F.

    2011-01-01

    Statement of Problems: The first step to decrease the patients' exposure to unnecessary radiography radiation is the proper prescription of radiography. . Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of general dental practitioners as to proper prescription of intraoral radiography and panoramic views. Materials and Method: In this study, a questionnaire on the dentists' knowledge about the proper prescription of dental radiography was used. A total of eighty one general d...

  2. The change in motivating factors influencing commencement, adherence and retention to a supervised resistance training programme in previously sedentary post-menopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Janet Erica; Christie, Candice Jo-Anne

    2015-03-12

    Understanding motivators for exercise participation in post-menopausal women may impact retention to exercise programmes and inform intervention trial designs. The purpose of this investigation was to assess self-reported motivational factors influencing adherence and retention to a 24-week progressive resistance training programme. Post-menopausal females (n = 34) were passively recruited to undertake a 24-week progressive resistance training protocol, in small-group sessions, on three non-consecutive days of the week. Attendance was recorded by the researcher. Qualitative reports were sourced from the sample for four phases of the study: pre-study (prior to week 1), recruitment (week 1), during study (weeks 2 - 24), and post-intervention (beyond week 24). Responses were categorised according to ten descriptors: specific health index improvement, education, flexibility of time, social contact, conscience (loyalty to the researcher), wellness, weight management, organisation parameters (pertaining to the study programme) and enjoyment of the exercises. Of the initial sample, 76.5% (n = 26) met the specified ≥80% attendance criterion. The primary findings were that motivation to volunteer for the study was driven by a perceived need for a structured exercise programme (50% of respondents). A commitment to the researcher was the primary motivator for continued adherence to the study for 50% of participants. Social contact with other participants was cited by 60% of the sample as the primary reason for adherence for the full duration of 24 weeks. A desire to maintain the "wellness" derived from the programme was cited by 60% as a reason for continuing an exercise routine post-study. This study identified that routine and supervision initially attract women to exercise programmes, while social cohesion of the group setting contributes to retention over time. Understanding the changing nature of motivating factors may contribute to better overall adherence

  3. Developing a Measurement Tool for Assessing Physiotherapy Students' Self-Efficacy: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anne; Sheppard, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine if self-efficacy can be correlated with prior academic achievement and whether self-efficacy can be an outcome measure of education. A self-efficacy instrument was developed and administered to physiotherapy students following completion of their pre-clinical theory experience. The questionnaire results…

  4. Examining the Efficacy of Adjunctive Aripiprazole in Major Depressive Disorder: A Pooled Analysis of 2 Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thase, Michael E.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Nelson, J. Craig; Fava, Maurizio; Swanink, Rene; Tran, Quynh-Van; Pikalov, Andrei; Yang, Huyuan; Carlson, Berit X.; Marcus, Ronald N.; Berman, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who fail to achieve complete remission with antidepressant therapy may benefit from augmentation therapy with an atypical antipsychotic. Method: A pooled analysis was performed on 2 identical 14-week studies (8-week prospective antidepressant therapy treatment phase followed by 6-week randomized double-blind phase) evaluating the efficacy of adjunctive aripiprazole (2–20 mg/day) in DSM-IV-TR–defined MDD patients with an inadequate response to antidepressant therapy. Primary efficacy endpoint was the mean change in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score from end of the prospective phase (week 8) to end of randomized phase (week 14, last observation carried forward). Subgroup analyses were performed. The key secondary endpoint was mean change in Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) mean score. Results: At endpoint, mean change in MADRS total score was significantly greater with adjunctive aripiprazole (–8.7) than with adjunctive placebo (–5.7; p < .001). Except for a differential treatment-by-sex interaction, change in MADRS total scores were consistently greater with adjunctive aripiprazole than with adjunctive placebo, regardless of race, age, episode duration, prior antidepressant therapy response, number of historical treatment failures, severity of depressive symptoms, and antidepressant. At endpoint, MADRS remission rates were significantly greater with adjunctive aripiprazole than with placebo (25.7% vs. 15.4%; p < .001). Adjunctive aripiprazole also demonstrated significantly greater improvements in mean change from baseline in SDS total score than adjunctive placebo (–1.2 vs. –0.6; p = .001). Conclusion: Augmentation of antidepressant therapy with the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole resulted in significant efficacy benefits across a range of subgroups of patients with MDD. Further study of a treatment-by-sex interaction is needed. Trial Registration: www

  5. The possibility of previous epidemiological data to serve as baseline for future national oral health surveys--a study in Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van; Truin, G.J.; Can, N.; Khanh, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent epidemiological data (1985-2000) on dental caries and periodontal diseases in Vietnam in an attempt to obtain a 'baseline' for future national oral health surveys. METHODS: Studies on periodontal diseases and caries were included when CPITN

  6. Does hyperbaric oxygen treatment have the potential to increase salivary flow rate and reduce xerostomia in previously irradiated head and neck cancer patients? A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forner, Lone; Hansen, Ole Hyldegaard; von Brockdorff, Annet Schack

    2011-01-01

    Irradiated head and neck cancer survivors treated in the Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, spontaneously reported improvement of radiation-induced dry mouth feeling. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate salivary flow rate and xerostomia before and after HBO...

  7. Efficacy of Dapsone in the Treatment of Pemphigus Vulgaris: A Single-Center Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sharon; Debby, Assaf; Gilboa, Sarit; Trau, Henri; Barzilai, Aviv

    2016-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a chronic autoimmune blistering disease. Most patients require long-term therapy with systemic steroids, and a steroid-sparing agent is usually also utilized. Dapsone is a chemotherapeutic agent with anti-inflammatory properties that is used as a steroid-sparing agent in PV. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of dapsone as an adjuvant therapy in patients with PV. A retrospective analysis of patients' files was performed. All 26 patients included in the study group were treated with dapsone as an adjuvant to systemic steroids for at least 3 consecutive months and were followed up during their dapsone treatment period. After 3 months of treatment with dapsone, 13 patients were in the consolidation phase, 4 patients demonstrated partial remission on minimal therapy, 7 patients demonstrated complete remission on minimal therapy, and 2 patients were defined as treatment failures. The trend of clinical improvement continued after 6 months of treatment and at the study end point. This retrospective case series, one of the largest reported, indicates that dapsone is efficacious and safe for patients with PV in whom it is well tolerated soon after the initiation of treatment. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peedikayil, Faizal C; Remy, Vimal; John, Seena; Chandru, T P; Sreenivasan, Prathima; Bijapur, Gufran Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the most common organism causing dental caries. Various chemotherapeutic agents are available that help in treating the bacteria, with each having their own merits and demerits. Recent research has shown that coconut oil has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial action. Therefore, the present was conducted to determine the antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and to compare it with chlorhexidine. A total of fifty female children aged 8-12 years were included in the study. Twenty five children were randomly distributed to each group, i.e., the study group (coconut oil) and the control group (chlorhexidine). The participants were asked to routinely perform oil swishing with coconut oil and chlorhexidine and rinse every day in the morning after brushing for 2-3 minutes. S. mutans in saliva and plaque were determined using a chairside method, i.e., the Dentocult SM Strip Mutans test. Patients were instructed to continue oil swishing for 30 days. S. mutans . counts in plaque and saliva on day 1, day 15, and day 30 were recorded and the results were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test. The results showed that there is a statistically significant decrease in S. mutans . count from coconut oil as well as chlorhexidine group from baseline to 30 days. The study also showed that in comparison of coconut oil and chlorhexidine there is no statistically significant change regarding the antibacterial efficacy. Coconut oil is as effective as chlorhexidine in the reduction of S. mutans .

  9. Does massage postapplication improve moisturizer's efficacy? A 2-week regression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Saja H; Assakir, Intesar; Almalty, Abdul-Majeed; Bweir, Salameh

    2012-09-01

    Combining massage with moisturizer application is a popular technique in beauty spa sessions. The subjective positive psychological effects of massage with moisturizer application in hand and face beauty treatment are documented by many people attending spa sessions. The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate the effect of local effleurage massage as an external intervention on moisturizer efficacy. In a regression-type study of 2-week, twice-daily application followed by 1 week of regression, 13 female subjects applied "off the shelf" moisturizer twice daily on both forearms followed by 1 min superficial massage for one forearm randomized among subjects. The influence of massage after moisturizer application on skin barrier properties was evaluated by noninvasive measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin capacitance, and skin elasticity at baseline, day 7, and day 14 during the treatment phase, and day 21 following a 1-week regression period, in which no moisturizer and no massage were performed on forearms. The tested "off the shelf" moisturizer in both "massage" and "no-massage" application protocols caused a comparable progressive improvement in skin hydration level and barrier permeability over the 2-week treatment period, which was maintained during the 1-week regression (no moisturizer) period. In addition, skin elasticity was similarly improved by both application protocols. In this long-term study, the daily performance of massage after moisturizer application was not an effective external intervention for enhancing moisturizer efficacy. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Efficacy and Stability studies of microbial folate fortified fruit juices prepared using probiotic microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep, S; Ojha, S; Kundu, S

    2017-07-31

    Folate, natural form of water soluble vitamin folic acid, is significant for humans as involved in most important metabolic reactions i.e. nucleotide synthesis and amino acid inter conversions. Thus its deficiency causes neural tube defects in newborns and cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. Humans cannot synthesize folate de novo so consumption through diet is essential. Natural food sources, supplements and fortified food products are the choices available to complete the Daily recommended intake. However microbial fortification using probiotics recently gained wide attention due to dual advantage of natural food matrix with enhanced folate content along with the probiotics benefits. Current study was focused on the microbial fortification of fruit juices and their efficacy and stability studies. Freshly filtered orange and tomato juice was prepared and inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus NCIM 2904. Incubation was done at 40°C and samples were collected at different time interval. Folate extraction was done using human plasma and content was measured by microbiological assay using Lactobacillus casei NCIM No. 2364. Efficacy and stability studies were carried out to ensure the quality of juices to be consumed in terms of folate content, viable cell count and pH after 4 weeks of storage at low temperature. Positive results were observed as folate content was quite stable whereas viable cell count was also found to be significant till some time without adding any preservatives. The results indicated that fortified fruit juices could be used as probiotic beverages with enhanced folate content.

  11. A study to evaluate the field efficacy of ivermectin, fenbendazole and pyrantel pamoate, with preliminary observations on the efficacy of doramectin, as anthelmintics in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Davies

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of ivermectin, fenbendazole, pyrantel pamoate and doramectin was evaluated under field conditions at 2 sites in the Free State Province of South Africa. The study involved 25 horses at each site, divided into 5 groups of equal size. Ivermectin, fenbendazole and pyrantel pamoate were administered orally at doses of 0.2, 10 and 19 mg/kg respectively. Doramectin was administered by intramuscular injection at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg. Treatment efficacy was based on the mean faecal egg count reduction 14 days post treatment. At site A a faecal egg count reduction of 100 % was found after treatment with ivermectin, fenbendazole and doramectin. A 96.1 % reduction was found after treatment with pyrantel pamoate. At site B ivermectin and doramectin produced a 100 %reduction in faecal egg counts, fenbendazole produced an 80.8 % reduction and pyrantel pamoate a 94.1 %reduction. Doramectin produced a 100 %reduction in faecal egg counts at both sites, despite not being registered for use in horses. In addition, the results indicated reduced efficacy of fenbendazole at site B, which suggested benzimidazole resistance. Larval cultures showed that cyathostomes accounted for between 86 and 96 %of pre-treatment parasite burdens at both sites. Other helminths identified in the faecal samples were Strongylus spp. and Trichostrongylus axei.

  12. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is tolerant to higher levels of salinity than previous guidelines indicated: Implications of field and greenhouse studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Daniel H.; Benes, Sharon; Galdi, Giuliano; Hutmacher, Bob; Grattan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most widely grown leguminous forage crop in North America and is valued for high productivity, quality, economic value, and for dairy productivity. Alfalfa has historically been classified as moderately sensitive to saline conditions, with yield declines predicted at >2 dS/m in the saturated soil paste extract. However, greenhouse, sand tank, and field studies over the past five years have confirmed that alfalfa can be grown with limited negative effects at much higher salinity levels. A broad collection of alfalfa varieties has exhibited a range of resistance at irrigation water salinities >5 dS/m ECw in greenhouse trials, with significant variation due to variety. USDA-ARS sand tank studies indicated similar or greater tolerances closer to 8 dS/m in the soil water, in addition to confirmation of significant varietal differences. A three-year field study on clay loam soil with applications of 5-7 dS/m ECw irrigation water indicated normal yields and excellent stand survivability. A second field study in the same soil type with levels from 8-10 dS/m ECw showed yield reductions of 10-15% but economic yields were still achieved at those levels. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with mixed salt saline sodic waters typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Field evaluation of variety performance was subject to greater variation due to secondary salinity-soil interactions including water infiltration and crusting problems, not only salinity per-se. Thus, adequate irrigation water availability to the crop may be as important as salinity in impacting yields under field conditions. Once established, the deep-rooted characteristics of alfalfa enable utilization of deeper subsurface moisture, even at moderate to high salinity levels, as documented by USDA lysimeter studies. Significant advantages to salinity-tolerant varieties have been observed. It will be important to consider specific management factors which may enable

  13. Effect of benzalkonium chloride?free travoprost on intraocular pressure and ocular surface symptoms in patients with glaucoma previously on latanoprost: an open-label study

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Joao F.; Hubatsch, Douglas A.; Amaris, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostaglandin analogs reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension; however, these medications may affect the ocular surface and elicit ocular discomfort when preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK). Methods This was an open-label, single-arm study conducted in Latin America from February 2012 to May 2013. Patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost 0.005?% were transitioned to recei...

  14. Field study on the safety and efficacy of intradermal versus intramuscular vaccination against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beffort, Lisa; Weiß, Christine; Fiebig, Kerstin; Jolie, Rika; Ritzmann, Mathias; Eddicks, Matthias

    2017-09-30

    The present study compares the safety and efficacy of a needle-free, intradermal Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine to an intramuscular one. 420 piglets (21+3 days of age) were randomly assigned to two vaccination groups (intradermal vaccination V1 (n=138), intramuscular vaccination V2 (n=144)) and one unvaccinated control group (CG, n=138). As safety parameters clinical observations, local injection site reactions (ISR) and rectal temperatures were assessed. Average daily weight gain (ADWG) and pneumonic lung lesions (LL) were measured as efficacy parameters. ISRs were minor in V1. After both vaccinations, no adverse impact on appetite was observed and mean rectal temperatures remained within physiological range. ADWG during the fattening period was significantly higher in vaccinated groups (V1: 913.4 g, V2: 924.5 g) compared with CG (875.6 g). No differences in ADWG were observed between V1 and V2. Vaccinated pigs had a significantly reduced mean extent of LL compared with CG. V1 was superior in reducing the extent and prevalence of LL compared with V2. These results reveal that a needle-free intradermal vaccination is safe and efficacious in reducing both the prevalence and extent of lung lesions, as well as in improving performance parameters, in a farrow-to-finish farm with a late onset of M hyopneumonia e infection. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Efficacy of working memory training in children and adolescents with learning disabilities: A review study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peijnenborgh, Janneke C A W; Hurks, Petra M; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Vles, Johan S H; Hendriksen, Jos G M

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness of working memory (WM) training programmes is still a subject of debate. Previous reviews were heterogeneous with regard to participant characteristics of the studies included. To examine whether these programmes are of added value for children with learning disabilities (LDs), a systematic meta-analytic review was undertaken focusing specifically on LDs. Thirteen randomised controlled studies were included, with a total of 307 participants (age range = 5.5-17, Mean age across studies = 10.61, SD = 1.77). Potential moderator variables were examined, i.e., age, type of LD, training programme, training dose, design type, and type of control group. The meta-analysis indicated reliable short-term improvements in verbal WM, visuo-spatial WM, and word decoding in children with LDs after training (effect sizes ranged between 0.36 and 0.63), when compared to the untrained control group. These improvements sustained over time for up to eight months. Furthermore, children > 10 years seemed to benefit more in terms of verbal WM than younger children, both immediately after training as well as in the long-term. Other moderator variables did not have an effect on treatment efficacy.

  16. Tendon Length, Calf Muscle Atrophy, and Strength Deficit After Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture: Long-Term Follow-up of Patients in a Previous Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Juuso; Lantto, Iikka; Piilonen, Juuso; Flinkkilä, Tapio; Ohtonen, Pasi; Siira, Pertti; Laine, Vesa; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Pajala, Ari; Leppilahti, Juhana

    2017-09-20

    In this prospective study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess long-term Achilles tendon length, calf muscle volume, and muscle fatty degeneration after surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture. From 1998 to 2001, 60 patients at our center underwent surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture followed by early functional postoperative rehabilitation. Fifty-five patients were reexamined after a minimum duration of follow-up of 13 years (mean, 14 years), and 52 of them were included in the present study. Outcome measures included Achilles tendon length, calf muscle volume, and fatty degeneration measured with MRI of both the affected and the uninjured leg. The isokinetic plantar flexion strength of both calves was measured and was correlated with the structural findings. The Achilles tendon was, on average, 12 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.6 to 15.6 mm; p muscles were 63 cm (13%; p muscle atrophy. Increased Achilles tendon length is associated with smaller calf muscle volumes and persistent plantar flexion strength deficits after surgical repair of Achilles tendon rupture. Strength deficits and muscle volume deficits are partly compensated for by FHL hypertrophy, but 11% to 13% deficits in soleus and gastrocnemius muscle volumes and 12% to 18% deficits in plantar flexion strength persist even after long-term follow-up. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  17. Outcomes following detection of low level plasma HIV RNA in HIV-infected patients previously virologically suppressed on antiretroviral therapy: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Annabelle M; Cheng, Allen C; Watson, Kerrie; Lewin, Sharon R; Hoy, Jennifer F

    2017-06-01

    Progressively sensitive assays for plasma HIV RNA have led to increased detection of plasma HIV RNA between 20 and 200 copies/ml, known as low level viremia (LLV) when recurrent or persistent, in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The aim of this study was to determine outcomes following initial detection of LLV in an Australian cohort. A retrospective study using the HIV Service Database (Alfred Hospital) included all patients on ART who recorded plasma HIV RNA 20-200 copies/mL following prior virological suppression (viral load (VL) HIV RNA 200 copies/mL. Factors associated with LLV included co-morbid type 2 diabetes, shorter prior virological suppression and lower nadir CD4 cell count. Clinician management of VL 20-200 copies/mL was generally conservative, with infrequent requests for genotypic analysis (3.3% cases) or change in ART (<1% cases). LLV following virological suppression is common, and occurred as an isolated viral blip in half the patients. Those patients with persistent or recurrent LLV had higher rates of type 2 diabetes, shorter prior virological suppression and lower nadir CD4 cell count.

  18. Practicing Dentists' Self-Efficacy and Associated Factors in Managing the Treatment of Adults with Mental and Physical Disabilities: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQahtani, Sakher; Murshid, Ebtissam Zakaria; Fadel, Hani Talal; Kassim, Saba

    2017-12-11

    Background: Provision of oral healthcare to adults with mental and physical disabilities (AMPD) remains a challenging area across various healthcare systems. The present study aimed to assess self-reported efficacy and investigate factors associated with self-efficacy in the management of AMPD among practicing dentists in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A pilot-tested, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of 1000 dentists. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed on the collected responses. Results: Among the respondents (54%), 43% were males. Only 14% described their self-efficacy in managing AMPD as "High". Multivariable regression analyses revealed significant associations between "High" self-efficacy and male gender (Odd ratio (OR) = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.16-4.89), experience practicing dentistry for 11 years or more (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.04-4.47), specialization in pediatric dentistry (OR = 3.98, 95% CI = 1.31-12.07), previous experience in managing AMPD (OR = 4.23, 95% CI = 1.59-11.22), and awareness of regulations for managing AMPD (OR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.42-4.38). The interaction of gender x age was significantly associated ( p = 0.028) with "High" self-efficacy. Gender-stratified analyses revealed a significant association between age and "High" self-efficacy among male dentists only. Conclusions: The findings of the present study highlight that a large percentage of dentists reported "Low/Moderate" self-efficacy in managing AMPD, particularly among female dentists. However, further studies are required to verify the factors associated with self-efficacy in the present study, and to identify other factors that may influence self-efficacy in managing AMPD.

  19. Responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccines in participants previously vaccinated with seasonal influenza vaccine: a randomized, observer-blind, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Van der Most, Robbert; Li, Ping; Vaughn, David W

    2014-11-01

    Prior receipt of a trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) can affect hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody responses to pandemic influenza vaccines. We investigated the effect of TIV priming on humoral responses to AS03-adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines, the role of AS03 on cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses, and vaccine safety. Healthy adults (aged 19-40 years) were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive TIV or saline followed 4 months later by 2 doses, 3 weeks apart, of adjuvanted or nonadjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine and followed up to study end (day 507). Pre- and postvaccination responses of HI and neutralizing antibody, CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells, memory B cells, and plasmablasts were assessed. Ninety-nine of the 133 participants enrolled completed the study. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were recorded. In TIV-primed participants, A(H1N1)pdm09-specific antibody and CD4(+) T-cell and memory B-cell responses to the pandemic vaccine tended to be diminished. Vaccine adjuvantation led to increased responses of vaccine-homologous and -heterologous HI and neutralizing antibodies and CD4(+) T cells, homologous memory B cells, and plasmablasts. In healthy adults, prior TIV administration decreased humoral and CMI responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. Adjuvantation of A(H1N1)pdm09 antigen helped to overcome immune interference between the influenza vaccines. No safety concerns were observed. Clinical Trials.gov identifier NCT00707967. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  20. Responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza Vaccines in Participants Previously Vaccinated With Seasonal Influenza Vaccine: A Randomized, Observer-Blind, Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Van der Most, Robbert; Li, Ping; Vaughn, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Prior receipt of a trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) can affect hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody responses to pandemic influenza vaccines. We investigated the effect of TIV priming on humoral responses to AS03-adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines, the role of AS03 on cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses, and vaccine safety. Methods. Healthy adults (aged 19–40 years) were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive TIV or saline followed 4 months later by 2 doses, 3 weeks apart, of adjuvanted or nonadjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine and followed up to study end (day 507). Pre- and postvaccination responses of HI and neutralizing antibody, CD4+/CD8+ T cells, memory B cells, and plasmablasts were assessed. Results. Ninety-nine of the 133 participants enrolled completed the study. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were recorded. In TIV-primed participants, A(H1N1)pdm09-specific antibody and CD4+ T-cell and memory B-cell responses to the pandemic vaccine tended to be diminished. Vaccine adjuvantation led to increased responses of vaccine-homologous and -heterologous HI and neutralizing antibodies and CD4+ T cells, homologous memory B cells, and plasmablasts. Conclusions. In healthy adults, prior TIV administration decreased humoral and CMI responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. Adjuvantation of A(H1N1)pdm09 antigen helped to overcome immune interference between the influenza vaccines. No safety concerns were observed. Registration. Clinical Trials.gov identifier NCT00707967. PMID:24864125

  1. Development, Usability, and Efficacy of a Serious Game to Help Patients Learn About Pain Management After Surgery: An Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingadottir, Brynja; Blondal, Katrin; Thue, David; Zoega, Sigridur; Thylen, Ingela; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2017-05-10

    Postoperative pain is a persistent problem after surgery and can delay recovery and develop into chronic pain. Better patient education has been proposed to improve pain management of patients. Serious games have not been previously developed to help patients to learn how to manage their postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to describe the development of a computer-based game for surgical patients to learn about postoperative pain management and to evaluate the usability, user experience, and efficacy of the game. A computer game was developed by an interdisciplinary team following a structured approach. The usability, user experience, and efficacy of the game were evaluated using self-reported questionnaires (AttrakDiff2, Postoperative Pain Management Game Survey, Patient Knowledge About Postoperative Pain Management questionnaire), semi-structured interviews, and direct observation in one session with 20 participants recruited from the general public via Facebook (mean age 48 [SD 14]; 11 women). Adjusted Barriers Questionnaire II and 3 questions on health literacy were used to collect background information. Theories of self-care and adult learning, evidence for the educational needs of patients about pain management, and principles of gamification were used to develop the computer game. Ease of use and usefulness received a median score between 2.00 (IQR 1.00) and 5.00 (IQR 2.00) (possible scores 0-5; IQR, interquartile range), and ease of use was further confirmed by observation. Participants expressed satisfaction with this novel method of learning, despite some technological challenges. The attributes of the game, measured with AttrakDiff2, received a median score above 0 in all dimensions; highest for attraction (median 1.43, IQR 0.93) followed by pragmatic quality (median 1.31, IQR 1.04), hedonic quality interaction (median 1.00, IQR 1.04), and hedonic quality stimulation (median 0.57, IQR 0.68). Knowledge of pain medication and pain management

  2. Observational study on the efficacy of adalimumab for the treatment of ulcerative colitis and predictors of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bosch, Orlando; Gisbert, Javier P; Cañas-Ventura, Alex; Merino, Olga; Cabriada, José L; García-Sánchez, Valle; Gutiérrez, Ana; Nos, Pilar; Peñalva, Mireia; Hinojosa, Joaquin; García-Planella, Esther; Muñoz, Fernando; Calvet, Xavier; Panés, Julián

    2013-10-01

    Information on efficacy and predictors of response to adalimumab in ulcerative colitis (UC) clinical practice is limited. Assessment of response to adalimumab and its predictors in an observational cohort study. Retrospective cohort study based on data obtained from ENEIDA registry. All patients diagnosed with UC treated with adalimumab were included. Response to adalimumab was evaluated at weeks 12, 28, and 54 according to the partial Mayo score, and requirement of colectomy until end of follow-up. 48 patients with UC treated with adalimumab were included; 39 (81.3%) had previously received infliximab. Response rates at weeks 12, 28 and 54 were 70.8%, 43.2% and 35% respectively. Response to prior treatment with infliximab was the only predictive factor of response to adalimumab at week 12, which was obtained in 90% of infliximab remitters, 53.8% of responders and 33.3% of primary non-responders (p=0.01). Colectomy was required in 11 patients (22.9%), after a mean time of 205 days. The only clinical independent predictor of colectomy was non-response to adalimumab at week 12: colectomy rates were 5/34 (14.7%) in responders and 6/14 (42.9%) in non-responders (p=0.035), time free of colectomy was significantly reduced in non-responders (p=0.01). Adalimumab withdrawal due to adverse events occurred in 4.2% of patients. This study shows that adalimumab is an effective treatment in patients with UC. If used as a second anti-TNF, previous achievement of remission with the first anti-TNF predicts response, and failure to achieve response at week 12 predicts colectomy. Copyright © 2012 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Coming-out, support from family of origin and relationship adjustment of lesbian mothers whose children were born in a previous heterosexual relationship: an exploratory study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyncke, Johanna D; Julien, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Lesbian couples differ from heterosexual couples in that they must develop their relationship within an environment that is generally unsympathetic to homosexuality, a fact that could accentuate the importance of family support. Furthermore, the disclosure of their sexual orientation by lesbian couples could also affect the support given by family members. The present study examines the effect of coming-out and family support on the relationship adjustment of lesbian mothers whose children were born within a heterosexual context. It was expected that family support would mediate the relationship between coming-out and relationship adjustment. Fifty-five lesbian mothers currently in a relationship answered questions about their perception of family support, on their coming-out behaviour and their relationship adjustment. Results revealed a positive relationship between coming-out and family support, and between family support and relationship adjustment, however no association was found between coming-out and relationship adjustment. The mediation model was therefore not confirmed. Finally, the authors discuss the implications of these results.

  4. Efficacy of Epley’s Maneuver in Treating BPPV Patients: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Gaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertigo and balance disorders are among the most common symptoms encountered in patients who visit ENT outpatient department. This is associated with risk of falling and is compounded in elderly persons with other neurologic deficits and chronic medical problems. BPPV is the most common cause of peripheral vertigo. BPPV is a common vestibular disorder leading to significant morbidity, psychosocial impact, and medical costs. The objective of Epley’s maneuver, which is noninvasive, inexpensive, and easily administered, is to move the canaliths out of the canal to the utricle where they no longer affect the canal dynamics. Our study aims to analyze the response to Epley’s maneuver in a series of patients with posterior canal BPPV and compares the results with those treated exclusively by medical management alone. Even though many studies have been conducted to prove the efficacy of this maneuver, this study reinforces the validity of Epley’s maneuver by comparison with the medical management.

  5. RapidArc, intensity modulated photon and proton techniques for recurrent prostate cancer in previously irradiated patients: a treatment planning comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Damien C; Miralbell, Raymond; Wang, Hui; Cozzi, Luca; Dipasquale, Giovanna; Khan, Haleem G; Ratib, Osman; Rouzaud, Michel; Vees, Hansjoerg; Zaidi, Habib

    2009-01-01

    A study was performed comparing volumetric modulated arcs (RA) and intensity modulation (with photons, IMRT, or protons, IMPT) radiation therapy (RT) for patients with recurrent prostate cancer after RT. Plans for RA, IMRT and IMPT were optimized for 7 patients. Prescribed dose was 56 Gy in 14 fractions. The recurrent gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined on 18 F-fluorocholine PET/CT scans. Plans aimed to cover at least 95% of the planning target volume with a dose > 50.4 Gy. A maximum dose (D Max ) of 61.6 Gy was allowed to 5% of the GTV. For the urethra, D Max was constrained to 37 Gy. Rectal D Median was < 17 Gy. Results were analyzed using Dose-Volume Histogram and conformity index (CI 90 ) parameters. Tumor coverage (GTV and PTV) was improved with RA (V 95% 92.6 ± 7.9 and 83.7 ± 3.3%), when compared to IMRT (V 95% 88.6 ± 10.8 and 77.2 ± 2.2%). The corresponding values for IMPT were intermediate for the GTV (V 95% 88.9 ± 10.5%) and better for the PTV (V 95% 85.6 ± 5.0%). The percentages of rectal and urethral volumes receiving intermediate doses (35 Gy) were significantly decreased with RA (5.1 ± 3.0 and 38.0 ± 25.3%) and IMPT (3.9 ± 2.7 and 25.1 ± 21.1%), when compared to IMRT (9.8 ± 5.3 and 60.7 ± 41.7%). CI 90 was 1.3 ± 0.1 for photons and 1.6 ± 0.2 for protons. Integral Dose was 1.1 ± 0.5 Gy*cm 3 *10 5 for IMPT and about a factor three higher for all photon's techniques. RA and IMPT showed improvements in conformal avoidance relative to fixed beam IMRT for 7 patients with recurrent prostate cancer. IMPT showed further sparing of organs at risk

  6. Feasibility, Safety, and Efficacy of the Combination of -Serine and Computerized Cognitive Retraining in Schizophrenia: An International Collaborative Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    D'Souza, Deepak C; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Perry, Edward; Bhakta, Savita; Singh, Nagendra M; Yadav, Richa; Abi-Saab, Danielle; Pittman, Brian; Chaturvedi, Santosh K; Sharma, Mahendra P; Bell, Morris; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2012-01-01

    The combination of pharmacotherapy and cognitive retraining (CRT) for the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia may be more efficacious than either approach alone, but this has not yet been tested. This study evaluated the feasibility, safety, tolerability, and efficacy of 12 weeks of -serine, combined with CRT in the treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia at two academic sites in parallel, in India and the United States. In a randomized, partial double-blind, placebo-controlled, par...

  7. Comparative assessment of antibacterial efficacy of aqueous extract of commercially available black, green, and lemon tea: an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Arun, S. Dodamani; Minal, M. Kshirsagar; Karibasappa, G. N.; Prashanth, V. K.; Girija, A. Dodamani; Harish, C. Jadhav

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine and compare antibacterial efficacy of aqueous extracts of black, green, and lemon tea of a commercially available brand. Materials and Methods: The well-diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of commercially available black tea, green tea, and lemon tea at three different concentrations (1.5 g, 5 g, and 7.5 g) against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. After incubation in appropriate culture med...

  8. Perception of pain self-efficacy and fatigue in Greek patients with multiple sclerosis: a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Paraskevi Theofilou; Vaitsa Giannouli; Stergios Kolias; Magda Tsolaki

    2015-01-01

    The examination of the perception of pain and fatigue in patients with various health problems has received increased research attention in recent years. The aim of the present study protocol is to examine levels of pain self-efficacy and fatigue in a sample of Greek patients suffering from multiple sclerosis. The association of years and severity of diagnosis with the perception of pain self-efficacy and fatigue will be also investigated. Forty patients from the 3nd Neurological Department, ...

  9. Efficacy of insurance for organisational disaster recovery: case study of the 2010 and 2011 Canterbury earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charlotte; Seville, Erica; Vargo, John

    2017-04-01

    Insurance is widely acknowledged to be an important component of an organisation's disaster preparedness and resilience. Yet, little analysis exists of how well current commercial insurance policies and practices support organisational recovery in the wake of a major disaster. This exploratory qualitative research, supported by some quantitative survey data, evaluated the efficacy of commercial insurance following the sequence of earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010 and 2011. The study found that, generally, the commercial insurance sector performed adequately, given the complexity of the events. However, there are a number of ways in which insurers could improve their operations to increase the efficacy of commercial insurance cover and to assist organisational recovery following a disaster. The most notable of these are: (i) better wording of policies; (ii) the availability of sector-specific policies; (iii) the enhancement of claims assessment systems; and (iv) risk-based policy pricing to incentivise risk reduction measures. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  10. Daily frustration, cognitive coping and coping efficacy in adolescent headache: a daily diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Emma K; Garnefski, Nadia; Gebhardt, Winifred A; van der Leeden, Rien

    2009-09-01

    To investigate both concurrent and prospective relationships between daily frustration, cognitive coping and coping efficacy on the one hand and daily headache occurrence on the other. Eighty-nine adolescents aged 13-21 completed an online daily diary for 3 weeks. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Daily frustration of goal pursuits was significantly related to both same day and next day headache occurrence. Coping efficacy beliefs were significantly related to lower next day headache occurrence (no same day relationship was found). None of the cognitive coping strategies used in response to daily frustration were related to headache occurrence on the same or next day. Daily frustration to goal pursuit is suggested to be an important stressor contributing to concurrent and prospective headache occurrence. Furthermore, the extent to which adolescents believe in their ability to cope also appears to influence experience of subsequent headache. Further prospective studies are necessary to confirm these findings and to further unravel the possibly reciprocal relations between these factors. These findings offer useful insights into the dynamic interplay between daily stressful experiences and headache in youths.

  11. Paliperidone ER in the Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study of Efficacy and Tolerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Bellino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antipsychotics are recommended for the treatment of impulsive dyscontrol and cognitive perceptual symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD. Three reports supported the efficacy of oral risperidone on BPD psychopathology. Paliperidone ER is the metabolite of risperidone with a similar mechanism of action, and its osmotic release reduces plasmatic fluctuations and antidopaminergic effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy and safety of paliperidone ER in BPD patients. 18 outpatients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of BPD were treated for 12 weeks with paliperidone ER (3–6 mg/day. They were assessed at baseline, week 4, and week 12, using the CGI-Severity item, the BPRS, the HDRS, the HARS, the SOFAS, the BPD Severity Index (BPDSI, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11. Adverse events were evaluated with the DOTES. Paliperidone ER was shown to be effective and well tolerated in reducing severity of global symptomatology and specific BPD symptoms, such as impulsive dyscontrol, anger, and cognitive-perceptual disturbances. Results need to be replicated in controlled trials.

  12. Comparative anti-microbial efficacy of Azadirachta indica irrigant with standard endodontic irrigants: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Arindam; Kundabala, Mala

    2014-03-01

    The anti-microbial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (SHC) and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were compared with an experimental irrigant formulated from the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. A sample of 36 single rooted anterior teeth with periapical radiolucency and absence of response to vitality tests that required root canal treatment were selected for this study. The test irrigants and their combinations were assigned to five different groups and saline served as the control. Access cavities were prepared using an aseptic technique and samples collected for both anaerobic culture and Gram stained smears, followed by irrigation and sample collection again. The number of organisms were expressed in colony forming units/ml after 72 h of incubation; the smears were analyzed for their microbial loads and tissue clearance and assessed as per defined criteria. Our results found the maximum reduction in microbial loads, when analyzed by culture method, with a combination of SHC and the experimental neem irrigant. Maximum tissue clearance on the Gram Stained smears was also found with the same combination. Neem irrigant has anti-microbial efficacy and can be considered for endodontic use.

  13. Randomized crossover study comparing the phosphate-binding efficacy of calcium ketoglutarate versus calcium carbonate in patients on chronic hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Rasmussen, R A; Handberg, J

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the phosphate-binding efficacy, side effects, and cost of therapy of calcium ketoglutarate granulate as compared with calcium carbonate tablets in patients on chronic hemodialysis. The study design used was a randomized, crossover open trial, and the main...... calcium concentration of 1.25 mmol/L and a fixed alfacalcidol dose for at least 2 months. All had previously tolerated therapy with calcium carbonate. Of the 19 patients included, 10 completed both treatment arms. After 12 weeks of therapy, the mean (+/-SEM) plasma ionized calcium level was significantly...... lower in the ketoglutarate arm compared with the calcium carbonate arm (4.8+/-0.1 mg/dL v 5.2+/-0.1 mg/dL; P = 0.004), whereas the mean plasma phosphate (4.5+/-0.3 mg/dL v 5.1+/-0.1 mg/dL) and PTH levels (266+/-125 pg/mL v 301+/-148 pg/mL) did not differ significantly between the two treatment arms...

  14. Post-Reteplase Evaluation of Clinical Safety & Efficacy in Indian Patients (Precise-In Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R K; Trailokya, A; Naik, M M

    2015-04-01

    ST elevated myocardial infarction is a serious and life-threatening condition. In patients suitable for thrombolytic treatment, time is critical and reperfusion should be initiated as soon as possible. Reteplase is commonly used in the management of ST elevated myocardial infarction. To assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous Retelex (Reteplase) injection in management of patients with ST elevated myocardial infarction in clinical practice. An open label, non-comparative, multicentric, post-marketing observational study was conducted in > 18 years of patients with ST elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) receiving Retelex. All patients received 20 units Retelex within 6 hours after the onset of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) symptoms. The dose was given as two 10 unit Intravenous injections each over two minutes 30 minutes apart. Evaluation criteria: Patients were followed on day 1, 3, 5/7 and 30. The primary evaluation criteria was total number of patients showing clinically successful thrombolysis based on 50% resolution of ST-elevation in the maximum affected (adjacent) leads within 90-120 minutes of initiation of Reteplase and resolution of chest pain. Secondary evaluation criteria included percentage of patient requiring rescue percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), percentage of patient underwent angioplasty or CABG after thrombolysis. Door to needle time was also recorded in patients receiving the study drug. Global assessment of efficacy and safety was done by patient as well as investigator. All adverse events were recorded for safety assessment. Statistical analysis: Mean and percentage were calculated for primary efficacy parameters i.e. 50% resolution of ST elevation and resolution of chest pain. Chi square test was used for comparing the difference between diabetes versus non-diabetes patients for primary efficacy variables as well as for comparing the number of patients requiring rescue PCI, angioplasty and CABG between these two groups

  15. Efficacy of Salvage Interferential Electrical Stimulation Therapy in Patients With Medication-Refractory Enuresis: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hahn-Ey

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In pediatric patients with enuresis, the protocol for salvage therapy in patients in whom first-line therapy was not successful has not yet been established. Interferential electrical stimulation (IF-ES) therapy is advantageous because it is noninvasive and shows high compliance. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IF-ES therapy on pediatric enuresis in a pilot study. Methods We investigated 10 patients who underwent IF-ES therapy between August 2012 and March 2013 at our clinic. Patients with a history of previous treatment with desmopressin and anticholinergic agents for at least 3 months and those in whom alarm treatment previously failed or was refused by parents were eligible. Electrical current was given starting at approximately 20 mA and was increased until the patient complained of discomfort. Treatment was performed once a week, 20 minutes per treatment, 6 times per cycle. After each cycle, an interview was performed and voiding diaries were filled. The physician in charge evaluated improvement according to the International Children's Continence Society criteria. Results A final analysis was performed in 10 patients (5 male and 5 female patients) in whom therapy for nocturnal enuresis had failed. Eight patients had nonmonosymptomatic enuresis and 2 had monosymptomatic enuresis. The mean age of the patients was 8.5±2.4 years, and the mean number of treatments was 10.6±3.6 times. A full response was observed in 1 patient (10%); a good response, in 1 patient (10%); a partial response, in 7 patients (70%); and no response, in 1 patient (10%). Conclusions Our study demonstrated that IF-ES therapy can be a promising treatment for the future, is safe, and can benefit from appropriate clinical trials in carefully selected groups. IF-ES therapy is expected to be a safe and effective treatment modality for children with enuresis. PMID:24143293

  16. Efficacy of salvage interferential electrical stimulation therapy in patients with medication-refractory enuresis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hahn-Ey; Park, Kwanjin

    2013-09-01

    In pediatric patients with enuresis, the protocol for salvage therapy in patients in whom first-line therapy was not successful has not yet been established. Interferential electrical stimulation (IF-ES) therapy is advantageous because it is noninvasive and shows high compliance. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IF-ES therapy on pediatric enuresis in a pilot study. We investigated 10 patients who underwent IF-ES therapy between August 2012 and March 2013 at our clinic. Patients with a history of previous treatment with desmopressin and anticholinergic agents for at least 3 months and those in whom alarm treatment previously failed or was refused by parents were eligible. Electrical current was given starting at approximately 20 mA and was increased until the patient complained of discomfort. Treatment was performed once a week, 20 minutes per treatment, 6 times per cycle. After each cycle, an interview was performed and voiding diaries were filled. The physician in charge evaluated improvement according to the International Children's Continence Society criteria. A final analysis was performed in 10 patients (5 male and 5 female patients) in whom therapy for nocturnal enuresis had failed. Eight patients had nonmonosymptomatic enuresis and 2 had monosymptomatic enuresis. The mean age of the patients was 8.5±2.4 years, and the mean number of treatments was 10.6±3.6 times. A full response was observed in 1 patient (10%); a good response, in 1 patient (10%); a partial response, in 7 patients (70%); and no response, in 1 patient (10%). Our study demonstrated that IF-ES therapy can be a promising treatment for the future, is safe, and can benefit from appropriate clinical trials in carefully selected groups. IF-ES therapy is expected to be a safe and effective treatment modality for children with enuresis.

  17. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Greenland: a national study of prevalence and testing efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lynge Pedersen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the last 20 years, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has been reported to be increasing worldwide in correlation with ethnic and geographic variations. The actual prevalence of GDM throughout all of Greenland remains unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of GDM among Greenlanders and non-Greenlanders living in Greenland and to estimate the efficacy of testing for GDM. Design: This study was performed as an observational, cross-sectional study including all women with permanent address in Greenland who had given birth to a singleton during 2014. The prevalence of GDM was calculated as the proportion of all pregnant women tested with a 75-g 2-h glucose tolerance test who had a 2-h capillary whole-blood glucose value of 8.5 mmol/l or above. Testing efficacy was calculated as the proportion of women who fulfilled the testing criteria who were actually tested in Greenland in 2014. Results: A total of 794 women (727 Greenlanders and 67 non-Greenlanders were included in the study. The prevalence of GDM among tested women was 3.3% (confidence interval, CI: 0.9–5.6 among Greenlanders and 12.5% (CI: 0–25.7 among non-Greenlanders, corresponding, respectively, to 1.0% (CI: 0.3–1.3 and 4.5% (CI: 0–9.4 of all singleton pregnancies in Greenland in 2014. The overall testing efficacy was 69.0% among all eligible residents of Greenland and 85.1% among eligible residents in the capital city, Nuuk. Conclusion: In conclusion, the prevalence of GDM seems quite low in Greenland. Although diagnostic testing activity has improved within the last 6 years, still around one-third of all pregnant women in all Greenland fulfilling the testing criteria were not tested. Universal testing for GDM may be needed to improve testing of GDM in Greenland.

  18. Efficacy of fentanyl transdermal patch in pain control after lower third molar surgery: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, V-S; Vasovic, M; Andric, M; Todorovic, L; Kokovic, V

    2016-09-01

    Surgical removal of impacted lower third molars is a common oral surgical procedure, generally followed by moderate to severe postoperative pain. Transdermal drug delivery as a concept offers interesting possibilities for postoperative pain control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transdermal system with fentanyl in relieving pain following impacted lower third molar surgery. Seventeen patients with bilateral impacted lower third molars were included in this preliminary study. For postoperative pain control, patients randomly received a fentanyl patch plus placebo tablet after the first operation and regular (placebo) patch and an analgesic, after the second operation. Analgesia was evaluated during first 24 hours postoperatively according to patients' reports about time of first pain appearance and additional analgesic consumption. Pain severity was rated using a 10 cm long visual analogue scale (VAS). Intensity of postoperative pain and postoperative analgesic consumption were significantly lower after the Fentanyl Transdermal System (FTS) was applied (pthird molar surgery.

  19. Moral disengagement, self-efficacy and bullying: the framework of coexistence studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Tognetta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the relationship between bullying and moral disengagements. In a research study conducted with 2,600 adolescents, between 14 and 16 years old, an attempt to verify their involvement in bullying, their self-efficacy beliefs regarding their academic performance and their possible moral disengagements was undertaken. A correlation between being bullying by others and the "dehumanization of the victim" was found. The participation in the bullying situation as authors, victims and spectators was also associated with "victim-blaming", showing the fragile profile of bullying victims and their diminished value. The results of this study allows for the understanding of the psychological mechanisms present in bullying, so that the school may re-think interventions and preventative measures that can be taken such that life is valued.

  20. A Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Prednisolone and Promethazine in the Treatment of Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Mardanian

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe nausea and vomiting during pregnancy is one of the most frequent and difficult to treat obstetric problems. Different drugs and techniques have been suggested for its treatment with variable success rates. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of prednisolone with promethazine for treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. Methods: Fifty six pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum were randomly divided into two groups to receive either prednisolone or promethazine orally. Severity of nausea and vomiting, severity of malaise, body weight and serum electrolytes were measured and compared before and after treatment. Results: The severity of nausea and vomiting decreased significantly in both groups, but the decrease was significantly higher in the prednisolone group. Conclusion: The result of this study shows that oral prednisolone is a better choice for the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. Keywords: Hyperemesis Gravidarum, Pregnancy, Obstetric Complication, Nausea and Vomiting

  1. Review of previous geophysical and geological studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Levchenko, O.V.; Neprochnov, Y.P.; Rao, D.G.; Subrahmanyam, C.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  2. A Comparative Study of Efficacy and Safety of Agomelatine and Escitalopram in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaram, Ravi Babu; Nukala, Srikrishna; Palla, Jayasree; Nambaru, Lakshmana Rao; Kasturi, Satyanarayana Murthy

    2015-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mental disorder characterized by episodes of depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure, feeling of guilt or low self-esteem, loss of energy, altered sleep patterns and difficulty in concentration. This study was carried out to compare the efficacy and safety of Agomelatine with Escitalopram in the treatment of major depressive disorder. This is a prospective study conducted at Outpatient Department of Psychiatry, GSL Medical College & General hospital, Rajahmundry, India. Patients with newly diagnosed major depressive disorder (DSM-IV-TR) with minimum score of 20 in Hamilton depression rating scale were randomly assigned Agomelatine (25-50 mg/day) or Escitalopram (10-20 mg/day) for a period of 8 weeks. The main efficacy outcome considered was the mean change of HAM-D17 score from baseline to end of therapy. Secondary outcome measures were Clinical Global Impressions-improvement (CGI) and severity (CGI-S) rating scales. Student t-test was used for comparing the groups and chi-square test was used for assessing the qualitative variables. For all statistical analysis pdepressive symptoms at all the time points. The percentage of responders at 8weeks (last post baseline value) was 65.38% with Agomelatine and 57.40% with Escitalopram. The difference between the drugs was statistically not significant in all evaluations (p>0.05). The mean CGI-S and CGI-I scores were decreased in both the groups (p<0.05) and there was no statistically significant difference between the groups at any assessment during the study period. Both the treatment groups showed favourable safety profile. The study results supported that Agomelatine is therapeutically similar to Escitalopram in terms of antidepressant effect.

  3. A study of the relationships between daily life stress, self-efficacy and university student life adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Whee; Lee, Young Ja

    2005-06-01

    This correlation study was undertaken to examine the relationships between daily life stress, self-efficacy and university student life adjustment and to analyze the self-efficacy affecting that university student life adjustment. 265 university students were recruited from several participating required undergraduate classes. They were surveyed as the subject of this study. Data collection was conducted through the use of questionnaires. The university life adjustment level showed a maximum score of 9 with the mean score 5.22. A negative correlation was found between daily life stress and university life adjustment. Also, there was positively correlation between self-efficacy and university life adjustment. Self-efficacy and daily life stress accounted for 23% of the variance in university student life adjustment. According to the results, self-efficacy is a useful concept in helping overall university life adjustment. Therefore, university student consultation office or nurse should consider the program based on self efficacy in order to help university students to better adapt to university life.

  4. A survey study comparing young adults with MS and healthy controls on self-esteem, self-efficacy, mood and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer Uccelli, Michele; Traversa, Silvia; Ponzio, Michela

    2016-09-15

    Studies have shown that people with multiple sclerosis (MS) report low levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem, high levels of anxiety and depression and reduced quality of life. The study aims to assess self-esteem, self-efficacy, mood and quality of life in young adults with MS and to compare them to a healthy control group. The age range for inclusion in the study was between 18 and 35years of age for both groups. Subjects with MS were recruited through the Italian MS Society. Healthy controls were recruited through social media and from a university undergraduate program. Subjects completed an anonymous online questionnaire combining various scales. Group differences on demographic data were assessed using parametric and non-parametric tests. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were performed to evaluate differences between the two groups on scales of self-perception, mood and quality of life, adjusting for potentially confounding factors. Eighty-nine subjects with MS and 109 HC were included in the analysis. ANCOVA failed to demonstrate statistically significant differences between groups on self-esteem (F=0.11, p=0.743), self-efficacy (F=2.22, p=0.138), mood (anxiety F=0.03, p=0.855; depression F=0.06, p=0.812) and quality of life (F=0.08, p=0.772). This study demonstrated that young adults with MS and healthy controls have similar levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy and that they do not differ significantly on measures of mood and quality of life, as previously reported. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Study of the efficacy of antimalarial drugs delivered inside targeted immunoliposomal nanovectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbán, Patricia; Estelrich, Joan; Adeva, Alberto; Cortés, Alfred; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier

    2011-12-01

    Paul Ehrlich's dream of a 'magic bullet' that would specifically destroy invading microbes is now a major aspect of clinical medicine. However, a century later, the implementation of this medical holy grail continues being a challenge in three main fronts: identifying the right molecular or cellular targets for a particular disease, having a drug that is effective against it, and finding a strategy for the efficient delivery of sufficient amounts of the drug in an active state exclusively to the selected targets. In a previous work, we engineered an immunoliposomal nanovector for the targeted delivery of its contents exclusively to Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells [pRBCs]. In preliminary assays, the antimalarial drug chloroquine showed improved efficacy when delivered inside immunoliposomes targeted with the pRBC-specific monoclonal antibody BM1234. Because difficulties in determining the exact concentration of the drug due to its low amounts prevented an accurate estimation of the nanovector performance, here, we have developed an HPLC-based method for the precise determination of the concentrations in the liposomal preparations of chloroquine and of a second antimalarial drug, fosmidomycin. The results obtained indicate that immunoliposome encapsulation of chloroquine and fosmidomycin improves by tenfold the efficacy of antimalarial drugs. The targeting antibody used binds preferentially to pRBCs containing late maturation stages of the parasite. In accordance with this observation, the best performing immunoliposomes are those added to Plasmodium cultures having a larger number of late form-containing pRBCs. An average of five antibody molecules per liposome significantly improves in cell cultures the performance of immunoliposomes over non-functionalized liposomes as drug delivery vessels. Increasing the number of antibodies on the liposome surface correspondingly increases performance, with a reduction of 50% parasitemia achieved with

  6. From Exhaustion to Disengagement via Self-Efficacy Change: Findings from Two Longitudinal Studies among Human Services Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogala, Anna; Shoji, Kotaro; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Kuna, Anna; Yeager, Carolyn; Benight, Charles C; Cieslak, Roman

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal research examined the relationship direction between burnout components (exhaustion and disengagement) within the context of personal resources measured by self-efficacy and social support. In line with the conservation of resources theory we hypothesized that exhaustion may trigger a spiral loss of personal resources where self-efficacy declines and subsequently, social support also declines and in turn predict disengagement. Participants in Study 1 were mental healthcare providers (N = 135) working with U.S. military personnel suffering from trauma. Participants in Study 2 were healthcare providers, social workers, and other human services professionals (N = 193) providing various types of services for civilian trauma survivors in Poland. Baseline and 6-month follow-up measurements included burnout components, burnout self-efficacy and perceived social support. The path analysis showed consistent results for both longitudinal studies; exhaustion measured at Time 1 led to disengagement at Time 2, after controlling for baseline disengagement levels. Across Study 1 and Study 2 these associations were mediated by self-efficacy change: Higher exhaustion led to greater decline in self-efficacy which in turn explained higher disengagement at the follow-up. Social support, however, did not mediate between self-efficacy and disengagement. These mediating effects were invariant across Studies 1 and 2, although the mean levels of burnout and personal resources differed significantly. The results contribute to a discussion on the internal structure of job burnout and a broader understanding of the associations between exhaustion and disengagement that may be explained by the underlying mechanism of change in self-efficacy.

  7. From exhaustion to disengagement via self-efficacy change: Findings from two longitudinal studies among human services workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eRogala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal research examined the relationship direction between burnout components (exhaustion and disengagement within the context of personal resources measured by self-efficacy and social support. In line with the conservation of resources theory we hypothesized that exhaustion may trigger a spiral loss of personal resources where self-efficacy declines and subsequently, social support also declines and in turn predict disengagement. Participants in Study 1 were mental healthcare providers (N = 135 working with U.S. military personnel suffering from trauma. Participants in Study 2 were healthcare providers, social workers, and other human services professions (N = 194 providing various types of services for civilian trauma survivors in Poland. Baseline and 6-month follow-up measurements included burnout components, burnout self-efficacy and perceived social support. The path analysis showed consistent results for both longitudinal studies; exhaustion measured at Time 1 led to disengagement at Time 2, after controlling for baseline disengagement levels. Across Study 1 and Study 2 these associations were mediated by self-efficacy change: Higher exhaustion led to greater decline in self-efficacy which in turn explained higher disengagement at the follow-up. Social support, however, did not mediate between self-efficacy and disengagement. These mediating effects were invariant across Studies 1 and 2, although the mean levels of burnout and personal resources differed significantly. The results contribute to a discussion on the internal structure of job burnout and a broader understanding of the associations between exhaustion and disengagement that may be explained by the underlying mechanism of change in self-efficacy.

  8. Self-efficacy in Activities of daily living and symptom management in people with dizziness: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridberg, Helena; Gustavsson, Catharina

    2017-11-24

    Self-efficacy is associated with health status, health behaviour and health behaviour change in various chronic health conditions. To describe self-efficacy in relation to Activities of daily living and symptom management in people with dizziness. Thirteen women and three men, aged 45-82 years, with persistent dizziness (duration 4 months to 30 years) were recruited from an outpatient physiotherapy unit. A qualitative study was conducted using four focus groups and one individual interview and was then analysed with qualitative content analysis. The participants conveyed, in-depth information concerning two predefined main categories. Self-efficacy in Activities of daily living was related to challenging body positions and motions, environments, social activities, work tasks, and complex cognitive behaviours. Self-efficacy in symptom management was related to distress and aggravated symptoms, unfamiliar environment, and unknown people. People with dizziness describe how self-efficacy for specific activities varies according to the perceived difficulty of the task, the context of the activity, and day-to-day variations in general wellbeing. The results underscore the importance of targeting self-efficacy in the rehabilitation of people with dizziness. Our findings can guide the rehabilitation process by providing a deeper understanding of self-efficacy judgements in relation to Activities of daily living and symptom management in people with dizziness. Implication for rehabilitation This study adds important in-depth knowledge to the rehabilitation area on self-efficacy beliefs in relation to Activities of daily living and symptom management in people with dizziness. Self-efficacy for specific activities varies according to the perceived difficulty of the task, the context in which the activity takes place and day-to-day variations in perceived general well-being. The results can be used as a topic list to guide rehabilitation efforts in exploring and

  9. Efficacy and safety of vigabatrin in Japanese patients with infantile spasms: Primary short-term study and extension study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Yoko

    2018-01-01

    Vigabatrin was approved for the treatment of infantile spasms by the US Food and Drug Administration, but not in Japan at the time of initiating this clinical study because of concerns about irreversible peripheral visual field defects (VFDs). This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of vigabatrin for Japanese patients with infantile spasms. Of 15 patients (aged ≥4weeks and spasms that were treatment refractory; these patients were concurrently treated with at least one other antiepileptic drug. One patient received vigabatrin monotherapy. Eight of the 13 patients (61.5% [95% CI: 31.6-86.1%]) had a ≥50% reduction during the dose-adjustment phase compared with baseline in the frequency of spasms, with efficacy maintained through a 2-week maintenance phase. Spasms disappeared in six out of nine patients (66.7% [95% CI: 29.9-92.5%]) who transitioned to the maintenance phase and hypsarrhythmia on electroencephalography also resolved in four patients. Hypsarrhythmia was improved in another two patients. Six out of seven patients who continued treatment through Week 32 of an extension study reported ongoing efficacy for vigabatrin. The most common adverse events (AEs) were psychiatric disorders and nervous system disorders (n=8; 61.5%) that were generally mild in severity. No treatment-related peripheral VFDs were observed. No severe AEs or AEs resulting in discontinuation of vigabatrin therapy were reported. An abnormality in magnetic resonance images was observed in one patient during the extension period. Vigabatrin was deemed to be clinically effective and well tolerated in Japanese patients with infantile spasms. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Publication bias in reports of animal stroke studies leads to major overstatement of efficacy.

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    Emily S Sena

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation of scientific knowledge proceeds through the interpretation and then distillation of data presented in research reports, first in review articles and then in textbooks and undergraduate courses, until truths become accepted as such both amongst "experts" and in the public understanding. Where data are collected but remain unpublished, they cannot contribute to this distillation of knowledge. If these unpublished data differ substantially from published work, conclusions may not reflect adequately the underlying biological effects being described. The existence and any impact of such "publication bias" in the laboratory sciences have not been described. Using the CAMARADES (Collaborative Approach to Meta-analysis and Review of Animal Data in Experimental Studies database we identified 16 systematic reviews of interventions tested in animal studies of acute ischaemic stroke involving 525 unique publications. Only ten publications (2% reported no significant effects on infarct volume and only six (1.2% did not report at least one significant finding. Egger regression and trim-and-fill analysis suggested that publication bias was highly prevalent (present in the literature for 16 and ten interventions, respectively in animal studies modelling stroke. Trim-and-fill analysis suggested that publication bias might account for around one-third of the efficacy reported in systematic reviews, with reported efficacy falling from 31.3% to 23.8% after adjustment for publication bias. We estimate that a further 214 experiments (in addition to the 1,359 identified through rigorous systematic review; non publication rate 14% have been conducted but not reported. It is probable that publication bias has an important impact in other animal disease models, and more broadly in the life sciences.

  11. Replacing Relative Reinforcing Efficacy with Behavioral Economic Demand Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W.; Bickel, Warren K.

    2006-01-01

    Relative reinforcing efficacy refers to the behavior-strengthening or maintaining property of a reinforcer when compared to that of another reinforcer. Traditional measures of relative reinforcing efficacy sometimes have led to discordant results across and within studies. By contrast, previous investigations have found traditional measures to be…

  12. Safety and efficacy of (90) yttrium-ibritumomab-tiuxetan for untreated follicular lymphoma patients. An Italian cooperative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibatici, Adalberto; Pica, Gian Matteo; Nati, Sandro; Vitolo, Umberto; Botto, Barbara; Ciochetto, Chiara; Petrini, Mario; Galimberti, Sara; Ciabatti, Elena; Orciuolo, Enrico; Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Cascavilla, Nicola; Guolo, Fabio; Fraternali Orcioni, Giulio; Carella, Angelo M

    2014-03-01

    (90) Yttrium ((90) Y)-Ibritumomab-Tiuxetan combines the targeting advantage of a monoclonal antibody with the radiosensitivity of Follicular Lymphoma (FL). Previous studies showed that 90Y-IT is safe and effective in relapsed/refractory indolent FL, irrespective of prior treatment with rituximab. This multicentre trial aimed to evaluate the safety and the efficacy of "upfront" single-agent ((90) Y)-Ibritumomab-Tiuxetan in advanced-stage FL. The primary objective was the incidence of responses in terms of complete (CR) and partial remission (PR). Fifty patients with stage II "bulky", III or IV FL received a single treatment course with ((90) Y)-Ibritumomab-Tiuxetan as initial therapy. The median age was 60 years. Bone marrow involvement (90%, respectively. Grade 3/4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia occurred in 30% and 26% of patients respectively; none experienced grade 3/4 non-haematological toxicity. No cases of secondary haematological malignancies were observed. ((90) Y)-Ibritumomab-Tiuxetan was demonstrated to be highly effective and safe as first-line treatment for advanced-stage FL. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A study to determine the efficacy of combination LED light therapy (633 nm and 830 nm) in facial skin rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, B A; Kellett, N; Reilly, L R

    2005-12-01

    The use of visible or near infrared spectral light alone for the purpose of skin rejuvenation has been previously reported. A method of light emitting diode (LED) photo rejuvenation incorporating a combination of these wavelengths and thus compounding their distinct stimulation of cellular components is proposed.Objective. To assess the efficacy and local tolerability of combination light therapy in photo rejuvenation of facial skin. Thirty-one subjects with facial rhytids received nine light therapy treatments using the Omnilux LED system. The treatments combined wavelengths of 633 nm and 830 nm with fluences of 126 J/cm(2) and 66 J/cm(2) respectively. Improvements to the skin surface were evaluated at weeks 9 and 12 by profilometry performed on periorbital casts. Additional outcome measures included assessments of clinical photography and patient satisfaction scores. Key profilometry results Sq, Sa, Sp and St showed significant differences at week 12 follow-up; 52% of subjects showed a 25%-50% improvement in photoaging scores by week 12; 81% of subjects reported a significant improvement in periorbital wrinkles on completion of follow-up. Omnilux combination red and near infrared LED therapy represents an effective and acceptable method of photo rejuvenation. Further study to optimize the parameters of treatment is required.

  14. Beauty in Baobab: a pilot study of the safety and efficacy of Adansonia digitata seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baatile M. Komane

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recently there has been a renewed impetus in the search for novel ingredients to be used in the cosmetic industry and Baobab (Adansonia digitata L., Malvaceae seed oil has received high interest. In this study, a commercial Baobab seed oil sample was characterised (fatty acid content using GCxGC-ToF-MS and a pilot study on the safety and efficacy of the seed oil was performed. The safety and efficacy of Baobab seed oil after topical application was determined using healthy adult female caucasian participants (n = 20. A 2× magnifying lamp was used for visual analysis, while for monitoring and evaluation of the irritancy level, transepidermal water loss (TEWL and hydration level of the skin, Chromameter®, Aquaflux® and Corneometer® instruments, respectively, were used. In addition, Aquaflux® and Corneometer® instruments were used to assess occlusive effects. Thirteen methyl esters were identified using GCxGC-ToF-MS. The major fatty acids included 36.0% linoleic acid, 25.1% oleic acid and 28.8% palmitic acid with 10.1% constituting trace fatty acids. The irritancy of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS in the patch test differed significantly compared to both de-ionised water (p < 0.001 and Baobab seed oil (p < 0.001 but the difference between the irritancy of Baobab seed oil and de-ionised water was not significant (p = 0.850. The moisture efficacy test indicated a reduced TEWL (p = 0.048 and an improved capacitance moisture retention (p < 0.001 for all the test products (Baobab oil, liquid paraffin, Vaseline® intensive care lotion and Vaseline®. The occlusivity wipe-off test indicated an increased moisture hydration (p < 0.001 and decreased TEWL particularly when Baobab oil was applied. Baobab possesses hydrating, moisturising and occlusive properties when topically applied to the skin. Baobab seed oil could be a valuable functional ingredient for cosmeceutical applications.

  15. The English and Spanish Self-Efficacy to Manage Chronic Disease Scale measures were validated using multiple studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Philip L; Lorig, Kate

    2014-11-01

    Self-efficacy theory, as developed by Bandura, suggests that self-efficacy is an important predictor of future behavior. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program was designed to enhance self-efficacy as one approach to improving health behaviors and outcomes for people with varying chronic diseases. The six-item Self-Efficacy to Manage Chronic Disease Scale (SEMCD) and the four-item Spanish-language version (SEMCD-S) were developed to measure changes in self-efficacy in program participants and have been used in a numerous evaluations of chronic disease self-management programs. This study describes the development of the scales and their psychometric properties. Secondary analyses of questionnaire data from 2,866 participants in six studies are used to quantify and evaluate the SEMCD. Data from 868 participants in two studies are used for the SEMCD-S. Subjects consisted of individuals with various chronic conditions, who enrolled in chronic disease self-management programs (either small group or Internet based). Subjects came from United States, England, Canada, Mexico, and Australia. Descriptive statistics are summarized, reliability tested (Cronbach alpha), and principal component analyses applied to items. Baseline and change scores are correlated with baseline and change scores for five medical outcome variables that have been shown to be associated with self-efficacy measures in past studies. Principal component analyses confirmed the one-dimensional structure of the scales. The SEMCD had means ranging from 4.9 to 6.1 and the SEMCD-S 6.1 and 6.2. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach alpha, 0.88-0.95). The scales were sensitive to change and significantly correlated with health outcomes. The SEMCD and SEMCD-S are reliable and appear to be valid instruments for assessing self-efficacy for managing chronic disease. There was remarkable consistency across a range of studies from varying countries using two languages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All

  16. Efficacy of Indigenous, Unconventional Biosorbents in Defluoridation of Standard Water − An In Vitro Study

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    Priyanka Sontakke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several adsorbents have been tried in the past to find a proficient and cost-effective defluoridating agent. Many of the methods have some precincts because of the low adsorption capacity, poor integrity and need for pre-treatment. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of three natural, low-cost, household-level products to remove fluoride from standard water. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, a standard solution of fluoride and a known weight of tulsi leaves, drumstick leaves and tamarind seed powder was prepared and analysed for changes in fluoride level and pH level on treatment at baseline, after 6 h and after 24 h. Results: Amongst the three plants, Tamarindus indica was found to be more effective in defluoridation showing a reduction up to 0.18 parts per million. Conclusion: Amongst the aforementioned three plants, tamarind seed powder was the domestic material with the best defluoridation property.

  17. Studies on the efficacy of Bridelia ferruginea Benth bark extract for domestic wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Kolawole

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of Bridelia ferruginea Benth bark extract in wastewater treatment was investigated. Chemical analysis found the bark to contain potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, iron and copper. Phytochemical tests revealed the bark to contain tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, alkaloids, and steroids. Comparative studies using varying concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 % w/v with alum and ferric chloride showed that the bark extract was effective in the clarification and sedimentation of total solids in the waste water sample. The optimum dose achieved was 2.5 % w/v with a minimum of 24 hours contact time. The total bacteria counts were reduced by 46 % after 24 hours when the extract was used whereas ferric chloride achieved 50 % reduction and alum achieved 55 % reduction under similar conditions. The feasibility of using the bark extract as an additional coagulant is therefore discussed.

  18. Efficacy of microwaves and chlorhexidine for disinfection of pacifiers and toothbrushes: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamele, Jay; Bhat, Chetan; Saraf, Tanvi; Jadhav, Abhijeet; Beg, Aumir; Jagtap, Chetana; Ubeja, Ritu; Patil, Padmeshwari

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the contamination of toothbrushes and pacifiers by Streptococcus mutans, and the efficacy of microwave and chlorhexidine for their disinfection. Sixty pacifiers and 60 toothbrushes were contaminated with S. mutans and then divided into groups according to the disinfection protocol: Group 1-chlorhexidine solution; group 2-microwave sterilization; and group 3-sterile tap water. The devices were evaluated microbiologically after disinfection for the survival of S. mutans colonies and were examined. The results were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Turkey test. The results of both types of evaluation showed a large number of S. mutans colonies after spraying with sterile tap water, and chlorhexidine spraying and microwaving were effective in eliminating colonies. Groups 1 and 2 were statistically similar to each other (p > 0.05) and differed significantly from group 3 (p pacifiers and toothbrushes.

  19. Hypocholesterolemic Efficacy of Quercetin Rich Onion Juice in Healthy Mild Hypercholesterolemic Adults: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsong-Ming; Chiu, Hui-Fang; Shen, You-Cheng; Chung, Chia-Chun; Venkatakrishnan, Kamesh; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2015-12-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely employed as a food ingredient as well as traditional remedy to treat fever, burns, and scurvy. The present study focused on the modulator efficacy of the quercetin rich onion juice on lipid profile and antioxidant status in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. Twenty-four healthy subjects with mild hypercholesterolemia (≧ 200 mg/dL) were recruited and divided into two groups, and they consumed 100 mL of onion juice or placebo every day for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected at initial, 2nd, 6th, 8th, 10th week for estimating various biochemical assays, as well as anthropometric indices. After 8 weeks of intervention, onion juice greatly decreased (p onion juice could markedly suppress cholesterol level and elevate total antioxidation capacity. Hence, onion juice was probably recommended for combating various cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Efficacy of microwaves and chlorhexidine on the disinfection of pacifiers and toothbrushes: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Filho, Paulo; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra; Ds Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; da Silva, Luciana Lima; Ferreira, Paula Dariana Fernandes; Ito, Izabel Yoko

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the contamination of toothbrushes and pacifiers by Streptococcus mutans, and the efficacy of microwave and chlorhexidine for their disinfection. Sixty pacifiers and 60 toothbrushes were contaminated with S mutans and then divided into groups according to the disinfection protocol: Group 1-chlorhexidine solution; Group 2-microwave sterilization; and Group 3-sterile tap water. The devices were evaluated microbiologically as to the formation of S mutans colonies/biofilms and were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The results were submitted for statistical analysis by Friedman's test at a 5% significance level. The results of both types of evaluation showed a large number of S mutans colonies/biofilms after spraying with sterile tap water, and chlorhexidine spraying and microwaving were effective in eliminate colonies/biofilms. Groups 1 and 2 were statistically similar to each other (P>.05) and differed significantly from Group 3 (Ppacifiers and toothbrushes.

  1. Oral hygiene-related self-efficacy as a predictor of oral hygiene behaviour: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelber, Johan P; Bienas, Helena; Fabry, Goetz; Silbernagel, Waltraud; Giesler, Marianne; Tennert, Christian; Stampf, Susanne; Ratka-Krüger, Petra; Hellwig, Elmar

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether oral hygiene-related self-efficacy is correlated with current oral hygiene and might influence the outcome of oral hygiene instruction. Hundred and twenty-six patients filled out questionnaires about oral hygiene-related self-efficacy, general self-efficacy, oral hygiene-related knowledge and demographic variables. Plaque and gingival inflammation were measured and an individual oral hygiene plan was conducted. After 6 months, oral hygiene indices were assessed again. Women had significantly higher scores in oral hygiene-related self-efficacy than men (women mean 60.40 ± 9.41; men mean 56.04 ± 11.55; p = 0.039) and oral hygiene-related self-efficacy was significantly correlated with general self-efficacy independent from the age of the patients (r = 0.3114, p = 0.0004). Higher scores in oral hygiene-related self-efficacy were significantly correlated with lower scores of gingival bleeding for non-smoking patients (r = -0.301, p = 0.0066), usage of a professional tooth cleaning within these 6 months (p = 0.0406), reappearance to the follow-up appointment (p = 0.0303), and higher goals in inter-dental cleaning plans (p = 0.0189). Oral hygiene-related self-efficacy is an influencing factor in the oral hygiene behaviour and has the potential to predict patients' oral hygiene outcomes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The Role of Perceived Stress and Self-Efficacy in Young People's Life Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kaspar; Samuel, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Life satisfaction is an important indicator of successful development. However, adolescents' life satisfaction tends to be relatively unsteady, and environmental influences play a critical role in shaping life satisfaction among adolescents in the transition to young adulthood. Given the paramount importance that education plays in adolescents' lives, adolescents' life satisfaction may vary as a function of school-related stress experience. At the same time, coping resources may help reduce adverse effects of stress on life satisfaction. With this in mind, we examined whether, and to what extent, perceived stress in education and general self-efficacy (a resource that facilitates coping) affect the life satisfaction of adolescents in transition to young adulthood. We distinguished between baseline levels of stress and self-efficacy and within-person change in stress and self-efficacy to determine whether life satisfaction is sensitive to fluctuations in stress and self-efficacy when person-specific levels of stress and self-efficacy are taken into account. Estimating growth curve models on data from a panel study on the life trajectories of compulsory-school leavers (n = 5126, 55.3 % female), we found that baseline levels of stress and self-efficacy, as well as within-person change in stress and self-efficacy, affected adolescents' life satisfaction. Moreover, our results showed that baseline self-efficacy mitigated the negative effect of baseline stress on life satisfaction. These findings improve our understanding of two major psychological determinants of adolescents' life satisfaction and extend our knowledge of life satisfaction trajectories during the transition to young adulthood.

  3. Impact of multidimensional poverty on the self-efficacy of older people: Results from an Australian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J

    2017-02-01

    Self-efficacy has numerous benefits for active and healthy aging, including giving the people the ability to make positive changes to their living standards and lifestyles. The present study aims to determine whether falling into multidimensional poverty lowers self-efficacy. Longitudinal analysis of waves 7-11 (2007-2011) of the nationally representative Household, Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia survey using linear regression models. The analysis focused on the Australian population aged 65 years and older. The Freedom Poverty Measure was used to identify those in multidimensional poverty. Those who fell into multidimensional poverty for 3 or 4 years between 2007 and 2011 had their self-efficacy scores decline by an average of 27 points (SD 21.2). Those who fell into poverty had significantly lower self-efficacy scores in 2011 - up to 57% lower (-66.6%, -45.7% P poverty for 3 or 4 years between 2007 and 2011 than those who were never in poverty. Falling into multidimensional poverty lowers the self-efficacy scores of older people. In order to improve the chances of older people making long-term changes to improve their living standards, feelings of self-efficacy should first be assessed and improved. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 308-314. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Impact of biofeedback on self-efficacy and stress reduction in obesity: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Martin; Stephan, Kerstin; Kowalski, Axel; Käsberger, Saskia; Enck, Paul; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E

    2013-09-01

    Biofeedback application is an evidence-based technique to induce relaxation. A primary mechanism of action is the improvement of self-efficacy, which is needed to facilitate the translation of health behavioral intentions into action. Obesity is often associated with low self-efficacy and dysfunctional eating patterns, including comfort eating as an inexpedient relaxation technique. This is the first study investigating the effects of biofeedback on self-efficacy and relaxation in obesity. In the present experiment, 31 women, mean body mass index 35.5 kg/m², were randomized to a food-specific biofeedback paradigm, a non-specific relaxation biofeedback paradigm, or a waiting list control. Eight sessions of biofeedback of the electrodermal activity were performed while presenting either a challenging food stimulus or a non-specific landscape stimulus. Self-efficacy, stress, ability to relax, eating behavior, and electrodermal activity were assessed before, directly after, and 3 months after the intervention. The food-specific biofeedback predominantly showed effects on food-related self-efficacy and perceived stress. The non-specific relaxation biofeedback showed effects on the ability to relax. Self-reported improvements were confirmed by corresponding decrease in the electrodermal reaction to food stimuli. Biofeedback treatment is effective in improving self-efficacy in individuals with obesity and might therefore be a valuable additional intervention in obesity treatment.

  5. Association of learning styles with research self-efficacy: study of short-term research training program for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbauld, Jill; Black, Michelle; Depp, Colin A; Daly, Rebecca; Curran, Maureen A; Winegarden, Babbi; Jeste, Dilip V

    2014-12-01

    With a growing need for developing future physician scientists, identifying characteristics of medical students who are likely to benefit from research training programs is important. This study assessed if specific learning styles of medical students, participating in federally funded short-term research training programs, were associated with research self-efficacy, a potential predictor of research career success. Seventy-five first-year medical students from 28 medical schools, selected to participate in two competitive NIH-supported summer programs for research training in aging, completed rating scales to evaluate learning styles at baseline, and research self-efficacy before and after training. We examined associations of individual learning styles (visual-verbal, sequential-global, sensing-intuitive, and active-reflective) with students' gender, ranking of medical school, and research self-efficacy. Research self-efficacy improved significantly following the training programs. Students with a verbal learning style reported significantly greater research self-efficacy at baseline, while visual, sequential, and intuitive learners demonstrated significantly greater increases in research self-efficacy from baseline to posttraining. No significant relationships were found between learning styles and students' gender or ranking of their medical school. Assessments of learning styles may provide useful information to guide future training endeavors aimed at developing the next generation of physician-scientists. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Nonindustry-sponsored preclinical studies on statins yield greater efficacy estimates than industry-sponsored studies: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauth, David; Anglemyer, Andrew; Philipps, Rose; Bero, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Industry-sponsored clinical drug studies are associated with publication of outcomes that favor the sponsor, even when controlling for potential bias in the methods used. However, the influence of sponsorship bias has not been examined in preclinical animal studies. We performed a meta-analysis of preclinical statin studies to determine whether industry sponsorship is associated with either increased effect sizes of efficacy outcomes and/or risks of bias in a cohort of published preclinical statin studies. We searched Medline (January 1966-April 2012) and identified 63 studies evaluating the effects of statins on atherosclerosis outcomes in animals. Two coders independently extracted study design criteria aimed at reducing bias, results for all relevant outcomes, sponsorship source, and investigator financial ties. The I(2) statistic was used to examine heterogeneity. We calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) for each outcome and pooled data across studies to estimate the pooled average SMD using random effects models. In a priori subgroup analyses, we assessed statin efficacy by outcome measured, sponsorship source, presence or absence of financial conflict information, use of an optimal time window for outcome assessment, accounting for all animals, inclusion criteria, blinding, and randomization. The effect of statins was significantly larger for studies sponsored by nonindustry sources (-1.99; 95% CI -2.68, -1.31) versus studies sponsored by industry (-0.73; 95% CI -1.00, -0.47) (p valuefinancial conflict information, use of an optimal time window for outcome assessment, accounting for all animals, inclusion criteria, blinding, and randomization. Possible reasons for the differences between nonindustry- and industry-sponsored studies, such as selective reporting of outcomes, require further study.

  7. Efficacy of Different Treatment Alternatives for Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome. Pickwick Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masa, Juan F; Corral, Jaime; Alonso, Maria L; Ordax, Estrella; Troncoso, Maria F; Gonzalez, Monica; Lopez-Martínez, Soledad; Marin, Jose M; Marti, Sergi; Díaz-Cambriles, Trinidad; Chiner, Eusebi; Aizpuru, Felipe; Egea, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) may be increasing in parallel with the present obesity epidemic. Despite extensive noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) use in patients with OHS, information regarding efficacy is limited. We performed a large, multicenter randomized controlled study to determine the comparative efficacy of NIV, CPAP, and lifestyle modification (control group) using daytime PaCO2 as the main outcome measure. Sequentially screened patients with OHS with severe sleep apnea were randomized into the above-mentioned groups for a 2-month follow up. Arterial blood gas parameters, clinical symptoms, health-related quality-of-life assessments, polysomnography, spirometry, 6-minute-walk distance, dropouts, compliance, and side effects were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using intention-to-treat analysis, although adjustments for CPAP and NIV compliance were also analyzed. In total, 351 patients were selected, and 221 were randomized. NIV yielded the greatest improvement in PaCO2 and bicarbonate, with significant differences relative to the control group but not relative to the CPAP group. In the CPAP group, PaCO2 improvement was significantly different than in the control group only after CPAP compliance adjustment. Additionally, clinical symptoms and polysomnographic parameters improved similarly with NIV and CPAP relative to the control. However, some health-related quality-of-life assessments, the spirometry, and 6-minute-walk distance results improved more with NIV than with CPAP. Dropouts were similar between groups, and compliance and secondary effects were similar between NIV and CPAP. NIV and CPAP were more effective than lifestyle modification in improving clinical symptoms and polysomnographic parameters, although NIV yielded better respiratory functional improvements than did CPAP. Long-term studies must demonstrate whether this functional improvement has relevant

  8. Study of Sex Differences in Duloxetine Efficacy for Depression in Transgenic Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Clinical evidences show sex differences in risk of developing depressive disorders as well as effect of antidepressants in depression treatment. However, whether such a sex-dependent risk of depression and efficacy of antidepressants is dependent on endogenous estrogen level remain elusive. The aim of this study is to explore the molecular mechanisms of sex differences in antidepressant duloxetine. In the present study, we used genetic knockout or overexpression estrogen-synthesizing enzyme aromatase (Ar gene as models for endogenous estrogen deficiency and elevation endogenous estrogen, respectively, to examine the anti-depressive efficacy of duloxetine in males and females by force swimming test (FST. We also measured the sex-specific effect of duloxetine on dopamine and serotonin (5-HT metabolisms in frontal cortex and hippocampus (HPC. Elevation of brain endogenous estrogen in male and female mice showed a reduction of immobility time in FST compared to control mice. Estrogen deficiency in females showed poor response to duloxetine treatment compared to sex-matched wildtype (WT or aromatase transgenic mice. In contrast, male mice with estrogen deficiency showed same anti-depressive response to duloxetine treatments as aromatase transgenic mice. Our data showed that the sex different effect of endogenous estrogen on duloxetine-induced anti-depressive behavioral change is associated with brain region-specific changes of dopamine (DA and 5-HT system. Endogenous estrogen exerts antidepressant effects in both males and females. Lacking of endogenous estrogen reduced antidepressive effect of duloxetine in females only. The endogenous estrogen level alters 5-HT system in female mainly, while both DA and 5-HT metabolisms were regulated by endogenous estrogen levels after duloxetine administration.

  9. Antimicrobial efficacy of different toothpastes and mouthrinses: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manupati Prasanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anti-microbial agents have been used as a chemotherapeutic agent to improve oral health. This in vitro study was carried out to determine antimicrobial efficacy of different toothpastes and mouthrinses against the oral pathogens. Methods : A total of five toothpastes and five mouthrinses were tested for their antimicrobial activity against three oral pathogens namely, Streptococcus mutans (MTCC 890, Escherichia coli (MTCC 579 and Candida albicans (MTCC 854 by well agar diffusion assay. Statistical Analysis was performed using a statistical package, SPSS windows version 15, by applying mean values using analysis of variance (ANOVA with post-hoc least square differences (LSD method(α = 0.05. Results: Toothpaste formulation A showed maximum zones of inhibition against the test organism, Escherichia coli (P<0.001 compared to all other toothpastes formulations. Against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans, the zones of inhibition were less in comparison to E.coli but were significantly different at higher dilutions (1:8, 1:16 P<0.05 for toothpaste formulation A. Mouthrinses formulation H showed maximum efficacy against the test organism, Escherichia coli (P<0.001 compared to all other mouthrinse formulations. Against Streptococcus mutans, mouthrinses formulations F, G and J showed significant antimicrobial activity (P<0.05 compared to formulation H and I. Conclusion: In the present study, it has been demonstrated that triclosan containing toothpastes formulations are more effective in control of oral microflora compared to non-triclosan containing synthetic toothpastes. Among mouthrinses formulations, chlorhexidine was found to be more effective than or as effective as triclosan against the organisms tested.

  10. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  11. Plasma Decontamination: A Case Study on Kill Efficacy of Geobacillus stearothermophilus Spores on Different Carrier Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmler, Egmont; Novak, Wenzel; Allinson, Wilf; Wallis, Darren; Wood, Nigel; Awakowicz, Peter; Wunderlich, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    A new technology to the pharmaceutical field is presented: surface decontamination by plasmas The technology is comparable to established barrier systems like e-beam, volatile hydrogen peroxide, or radiation inactivation of microbiological contaminations. This plasma technology is part of a fully automated and validated syringe filling line at a major pharmaceutical company and is in production operation. Incoming pre-sterilized syringe containers ("tubs") are processed by plasma, solely on the outside, and passed into the aseptic filling isolator upon successful decontamination. The objective of this article is to present the operating principles and develop and establish a validation routine on the basis of standard commercial biological indicators. Their decontamination efficacies are determined and correlated to the actual inactivation efficacy on the pharmaceutical packaging material.The reference setup is explained in detail and a short presentation of the cycle development and the relevant plasma control parameters is given, with a special focus on the in-process monitor determining the cycle validity. Different microbial inactivation mechanisms are also discussed and evaluated for their contribution and interaction to enhance plasma decontamination. A material-dependent inactivation behavior was observed. In order to be able to correlate the tub surface inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus endospores to metallic biological indicators, a comparative study was performed. Through consistently demonstrating the linear inactivation behavior between the different materials, it becomes possible to develop an effective and time-saving validation scheme. The challenge in new decontamination systems lies in a thorough validation of the inactivation efficacy under different operating regimes. With plasma, as an ionized gas, a new barrier concept is introduced into pharmaceutical aseptic processing of syringes. The presented system operates in vacuum and only

  12. Allopregnanolone preclinical acute pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies to predict tolerability and efficacy for Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W Irwin

    /kg. The predicted MTD in human female is 0.37mg/kg. In male rats the NOAEL and MTD were less than those determined for female. Outcomes of these PK/PD studies predict a safe and efficacious dose range for initial clinical trials of allopregnanolone for Alzheimer's disease. These findings have translational relevance to multiple neurodegenerative conditions.

  13. Empirical Study on Learners' Self-Efficacy in ESL/EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    With the popularity of learner-oriented approach in language teaching, research on learners is gaining more and more importance. This paper attempts to review the empirical researches on self-efficacy in the ESL/EFL settings during the past 10 years with the purpose of depicting the extent to which the self-efficacy research in ESL/EFL has…

  14. The Study, Evaluation, and Improvement of University Student Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartimote-Aufflick, Kathryn; Bridgeman, Adam; Walker, Richard; Sharma, Manjula; Smith, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    In this review of 64 articles published since the year 2000, a strong association between self-efficacy and student learning outcomes was apparent. Self-efficacy is also related to other factors such as value, self-regulation and metacognition, locus of control, intrinsic motivation, and strategy learning use. The review revealed that university…

  15. Measuring third year undergraduate nursing students' reflective thinking skills and critical reflection self-efficacy following high fidelity simulation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutticci, Naomi; Lewis, Peter A; Coyer, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Critical reflection underpins critical thinking, a highly desirable generic nursing graduate capability. To improve the likelihood of critical thinking transferring to clinical practice, reflective thinking needs to be measured within the learning space of simulation. This study was divided into two phases to address the reliability and validity measures of previously untested surveys. Phase One data was collected from individuals (n = 6) using a 'think aloud' approach and an expert panel to review content validity, and verbatim comment analysis was undertaken. The Reflective Thinking Instrument and Critical Reflection Self-Efficacy Visual Analogue Scale items were contextualised to simulation. The expert review confirmed these instruments exhibited content validity. Phase Two data was collected through an online survey (n = 58). Cronbach's alpha measured internal consistency and was demonstrated by all subscales and the Instrument as a whole (.849). There was a small to medium positive correlation between critical reflection self-efficacy and general self-efficacy (r = .324, n = 56, p = .048). Participant responses were positive regarding the simulation experience. The research findings demonstrated that the Reflective Thinking and Simulation Satisfaction survey is reliable. Further development of this survey to establish validity is recommended to make it viable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives (Emblica officinalis, Psidium guajava), MTAD, and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives (Emblica officinalis, Psidium guajava), BioPure MTAD, and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis. The testing of the antimicrobial efficacy of selected medicaments against E. faecalis was done by the agar disk-diffusion method. Whatman paper discs of 6 mm diameter were prepared and soaked with the test solution. These discs were then placed onto the previously seeded agar Petri plates. Later, these plates were incubated for 48 h at 37 °C under the appropriate gaseous conditions in a CO2 incubator. A zone of inhibition was recorded in millimeter for each plate and the results were analyzed statistically. MTAD was found to be superior in its antibacterial abilities against E. faecalis compared with the other irrigants used. All the other tested irrigants showed significant zone of inhibition. BioPure MTAD offers better antibacterial efficacy than NaOCl. E. officinalis and P. guajava are effective antibacterial agents against E. faecalis and can be used to reduce root canal microflora and root canal failures.

  17. Golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who have previous experience with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: results of a long-term extension of the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled GO-AFTER study through week 160

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolen, Josef S.; Kay, Jonathan; Landewé, Robert B. M.; Matteson, Eric L.; Gaylis, Norman; Wollenhaupt, Jurgen; Murphy, Frederick T.; Zhou, Yiying; Hsia, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Mittie K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess long-term golimumab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who discontinued previous tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor(s) for any reason. Results through week 24 of this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of

  18. A multicenter, open-label, randomized phase II controlled study of rh-endostatin (Endostar) in combination with chemotherapy in previously untreated extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shun; Li, Lu; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Li; Wu, Gang; Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Cheng; Guo, Shuliang; Zhang, Yiping; Song, Xiangqun; Yu, Yongfeng; Zhou, Caicun; Li, Wei; Liao, Meilin; Li, Baolan; Xu, Liyan; Chen, Ping; Hu, Chunhong; Hu, Chengping

    2015-01-01

    Based on promising efficacy in a single-arm study, a randomized phase II trial was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of adding rh-endostatin (Endostar) to first-line standard etoposide and carboplatin (EC) chemotherapy for treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer. One hundred forty Chinese patients with pathologically confirmed, extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer were randomly assigned to EC alone or rh-endostatin + EC for 4-6 cycles, followed by single-agent rh-endostatin until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints included overall survival, Objective response rate (ORR), and quality of life. Median PFS was 6.4 months with rh-endostatin + EC (n = 69) and 5.9 months with EC (n = 69) (hazard ratio 0.8 [95% confidence interval 0.6-1.1]). PFS was significantly higher with rh-endostatin + EC than with EC (hazard ratio 0.4 [0.2-0.9; p = 0.020]) in female. Median overall survival was similar in both groups (12.1 versus 12.4 months, respectively [p = 0.82]). ORR was higher in the rh-endostatin + EC group (75.4%) than in the EC group (66.7%) (p = 0.348). The efficacy of rh-endostatin + EC relative to that of EC was reflected by greater improvements in patient-assessed quality of life scores after 4 and 6 weeks of treatment. There was no difference between each regimen in the incidence of nonhematological or Grade III-IV hematological toxicities. Addition of rh-endostatin to EC for the treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer had an acceptable toxicity profile, but did not improve overall survival, PFS, and ORR.

  19. [Study on dosage rules of Aconitum herbs in oral prescriptions based on efficacy-toxicity relation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Lin, Zhi-Jian; Li, Fan; Zhang, Bing; Guo, Xiao-Xin; Yang, Le

    2018-01-01

    Based on the relation of efficacy and toxicity, this study mined the dosage rules and characteristics of Aconitum herbs in oral prescriptions from 48 traditional ancient books from Eastern Han dynasty to Qing dynasty, to provide the basis for strengthening the clinical risk pharmacovigilance. In the 48 traditional ancient books, 4 521 prescriptions with clear daily oral dosage were included to establish a database. SPSS 20.0 software was used for statistics and analysis of the daily dosage characteristics with different kinds of herbs, indications, dose forms, processing, use in special population, and other aspects. The results showed that 67% prescriptions contained Aconitum carmichaeli(Fuzi), and 90% of them was less than 14.87 g·d⁻¹; The dosage of A. carmichaeli(Chuanwu) and A. kusnezoffii(Caowu) were less than 3.14 g·d⁻¹. In the prescriptions for treating typhoid, epidemic, edema and phlegm, the dosage of Aconitum was larger. There dosage in the decoction and vinum was significantly higher than that in the pill and powder. With the dynastic evolution, the dosage of Aconitum herbal medicines prescriptions and the application percentage of superposition drug also had decreased. For the special populations that with different metabolism process, such as old people, children, pregnant and lactating women, the application of Aconitum was not only with relatively small ratio, but also with lower dose. Therefore, based on the data-mining of ancient books, the dosage of Aconitum should not exceed the limit prescribed by the current China Pharmacopoeia, and also should be strictly controlled by considering various factors, which will ensure the balance of efficacy and toxicity. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Efficacy of agomelatine in generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Ahokas, Antti A; de Bodinat, Christian

    2008-10-01

    Agomelatine is a novel agent that acts on melatonergic (MT(1), MT(2)) receptors and serotonergic (5-HT(2C)) receptors. Preclinical data and data from clinical trials in major depression suggest that agomelatine may have anxiolytic properties. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was designed to assess the efficacy of agomelatine in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). One hundred twenty-one patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition GAD and no comorbid disorders were randomized to agomelatine (25-50 mg/d) or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, whereas secondary outcome measures included the Clinical Global Impression scales, the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire, and the Sheehan Disability Scale. Safety measures included assessment of spontaneously reported adverse events, laboratory monitoring, and the Discontinuation Emergent Signs and Symptoms Scale to evaluate discontinuation symptoms. Analysis of covariance of change in the last Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale total score from baseline demonstrated significant superiority of agomelatine 25 to 50 mg as compared with placebo (E [SE] = -3.28 [1.58]; 95% confidence interval = -6.41 to -0.15; P = 0.040). Data on secondary outcome measures, including clinical response, symptoms of insomnia, and improvement in associated disability, were consistent with the efficacy of agomelatine. Safety analysis indicated that agomelatine was tolerated as well as placebo and was devoid of discontinuation emergent symptoms. This study suggests that agomelatine is effective in the treatment of GAD and is well tolerated. Additional trials, using an active comparator and extending over a longer period, are needed to delineate the place of agomelatine in the contemporary pharmacotherapy for anxiety disorders.

  1. Efficacy and tolerability of gamma knife radiosurgery in acromegaly: a 10-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Cristina L; Attanasio, Roberto; Verrua, Elisa; Cozzi, Renato; Ferrante, Emanuele; Loli, Paola; Montefusco, Laura; Motti, Enrico; Ferrari, Daniela I; Giugni, Enrico; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Arosio, Maura

    2009-12-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of stereotactic radiosurgery by gamma knife (GK) still remain unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term efficacy and tolerability of GK in acromegalic patients. Retrospective analysis for a median follow-up of 10 years. Thirty-five acromegalic patients from two referral centres in Milan submitted to GK (median margin dose: 20 Gy, median % isodose: 50) between 1995 and 2004. GH/IGF-I secretion, anterior pituitary function, radiological imaging and ophthalmological data. Cure rate improved over time (up to 46% at 10 years), as did the proportion of patients achieving control on somatostatin analogues (from 12.5% at baseline to 50% at 10 years). Normal IGF-I values were observed in 82% of patients at their last visit. No visual impairment, disease recurrence, tumour growth or secondary cerebral tumour occurred. Half of the patients developed one or more new deficiencies, while two patients normalized their prior failures. In particular, new onset of clinical or subclinical hypoadrenalism occurred in 12/30 patients (40%), hypothyroidism in 3/28 (11%), hypogonadism in 2/15 (13%) and GH deficiency in 2/35 (6%). GH value at the time of GK was the best negative predictor of cure and margin dose was the best positive predictor of new hypopituitarism. Over a 10-year period after GK radiosurgery, an increasing percentage of patients achieve cure, or adequate control of the disease on pharmacological therapy, at the expense of increasing novel pituitary deficiencies. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Population pharmacokinetic study of benznidazole in pediatric Chagas disease suggests efficacy despite lower plasma concentrations than in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Altcheh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, can lead to long term cardiac morbidity. Treatment of children with benznidazole is effective, but no pediatric pharmacokinetics data are available and clinical pharmacology information on the drug is scarce.Prospective population pharmacokinetic (PK cohort study in children 2-12 years old with Chagas disease treated with oral benznidazole 5-8 mg/kg/day BID for 60 days. (clinicaltrials.gov #NCT00699387.Forty children were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 7.3 years. A total of 117 samples were obtained from 38 patients for PK analysis. A one compartment model best fit the data. Weight-corrected clearance rate (CL/F showed a good correlation with age, with younger patients having a significantly higher CL/F than older children and adults. Simulated median steady-state benznidazole concentrations, based on model parameters, were lower for children in our study than for adults and lowest for children under 7 years of age. Treatment was efficacious in the 37 patients who completed the treatment course, and well tolerated, with few, and mild, adverse drug reactions (ADRs.Observed benznidazole plasma concentrations in children were markedly lower than those previously reported in adults (treated with comparable mg/kg doses, possibly due to a higher CL/F in smaller children. These lower blood concentrations were nevertheless associated to a high therapeutic response in our cohort. Unlike adults, children have few adverse reactions to the drug, suggesting that there may be a direct correlation between drug concentrations and incidence of ADRs. Our results suggest that studies with lower doses in adults may be warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00699387.

  3. The Quest for Comparability: Studying the Invariance of the Teachers’ Sense of Self-Efficacy (TSES) Measure across Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Ronny; Jansen, Malte; Nilsen, Trude; Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers’ self-efficacy is an important motivational construct that is positively related to a variety of outcomes for both the teachers and their students. This study addresses challenges associated with the commonly used ‘Teachers’ Sense of Self-Efficacy (TSES)’ measure across countries and provides a synergism between substantive research on teachers’ self-efficacy and the novel methodological approach of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). These challenges include adequately representing the conceptual overlap between the facets of self-efficacy in a measurement model (cross-loadings) and comparing means and factor structures across countries (measurement invariance). On the basis of the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) 2013 data set comprising 32 countries (N = 164,687), we investigate the effects of cross-loadings in the TSES measurement model on the results of measurement invariance testing and the estimation of relations to external constructs (i.e., working experience, job satisfaction). To further test the robustness of our results, we replicate the 32-countries analyses for three selected sub-groups of countries (i.e., Nordic, East and South-East Asian, and Anglo-Saxon country clusters). For each of the TALIS 2013 participating countries, we found that the factor structure of the self-efficacy measure is better represented by ESEM than by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models that do not allow for cross-loadings. For both ESEM and CFA, only metric invariance could be achieved. Nevertheless, invariance levels beyond metric invariance are better achieved with ESEM within selected country clusters. Moreover, the existence of cross-loadings did not affect the relations between the dimensions of teachers’ self-efficacy and external constructs. Overall, this study shows that a conceptual overlap between the facets of self-efficacy exists and can be well-represented by ESEM. We further argue for the cross

  4. Life satisfaction and self-efficacy in patients affected by a first stroke living in Kuwait: a two-phase study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omu, Onutobor; Reynolds, Frances

    2013-08-01

    Life satisfaction and self-efficacy are important aspects of stroke rehabilitation. Previous research focuses on Western stroke survivors, neglecting the stroke experience in the Middle East. This research was conducted in Kuwait and entailed both quantitative and qualitative phases to obtain a more comprehensive, clinically relevant understanding of self-efficacy and life satisfaction during stroke rehabilitation in this culture. The aims were to: 1) investigate the relationships between self-efficacy and life satisfaction in female patients affected by stroke (Phase 1); and 2) explore health professionals' views regarding the importance of self-efficacy and possible strategies for enhancing self-efficacy during rehabilitation, through semi-structured interviews (Phase 2). Significant correlations were found between patients' general self-efficacy, and psychosocial adaptation self-efficacy following stroke. Self-efficacy (both general and psychosocial adaptation) showed significant correlations with life satisfaction post-stroke. Health professionals (more than half of whom were physiotherapists) recognised the importance of self-efficacy within stroke rehabilitation and identified five main ways to increase self-efficacy during stroke rehabilitation. These were to: 1) motivate and encourage patients; 2) provide more education about stroke and rehabilitation; 3) identify change; 4) offer a high-quality environment and therapy; and 5) set goals. In conclusion, psychosocial self-efficacy was identified as having a stronger relationship to life satisfaction compared with general self-efficacy within this sample of Kuwaiti female patients. Health professionals suggested various strategies for enhancing self-efficacy and thereby life satisfaction post-stroke during the rehabilitation process in Kuwait. Despite the collectivist culture of Kuwait, the findings indicate that the patient's own confidence and sense of responsibility for progress may be relevant to

  5. Conflicts of Interest in GM Bt Crop Efficacy and Durability Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Guillemaud

    Full Text Available Public confidence in genetically modified (GM crop studies is tenuous at best in many countries, including those of the European Union in particular. A lack of information about the effects of ties between academic research and industry might stretch this confidence to the breaking point. We therefore performed an analysis on a large set of research articles (n = 672 focusing on the efficacy or durability of GM Bt crops and ties between the researchers carrying out these studies and the GM crop industry. We found that ties between researchers and the GM crop industry were common, with 40% of the articles considered displaying conflicts of interest (COI. In particular, we found that, compared to the absence of COI, the presence of a COI was associated with a 50% higher frequency of outcomes favorable to the interests of the GM crop company. Using our large dataset, we were able to propose possible direct and indirect mechanisms behind this statistical association. They might notably include changes of authorship or funding statements after the results of a study have been obtained and a choice in the topics studied driven by industrial priorities.

  6. Safety, Efficacy, and Mechanistic Studies Regarding Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and p-Synephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J

    2017-10-01

    Citrus aurantium L. (bitter orange) extracts that contain p-synephrine as the primary protoalkaloid are widely used for weight loss/weight management, sports performance, appetite control, energy, and mental focus and cognition. Questions have been raised about the safety of p-synephrine because it has some structural similarity to ephedrine. This review focuses on current human, animal, in vitro, and mechanistic studies that address the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of action of bitter orange extracts and p-synephrine. Numerous studies have been conducted with respect to p-synephrine and bitter orange extract because ephedra and ephedrine were banned from use in dietary supplements in 2004. Approximately 30 human studies indicate that p-synephrine and bitter orange extracts do not result in cardiovascular effects and do not act as stimulants at commonly used doses. Mechanistic studies suggest that p-synephrine exerts its effects through multiple actions, which are discussed. Because p-synephrine exhibits greater adrenergic receptor binding in rodents than humans, data from animals cannot be directly extrapolated to humans. This review, as well as several other assessments published in recent years, has concluded that bitter orange extract and p-synephrine are safe for use in dietary supplements and foods at the commonly used doses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Safety, Efficacy, and Mechanistic Studies Regarding Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and p‐Synephrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Citrus aurantium L. (bitter orange) extracts that contain p‐synephrine as the primary protoalkaloid are widely used for weight loss/weight management, sports performance, appetite control, energy, and mental focus and cognition. Questions have been raised about the safety of p‐synephrine because it has some structural similarity to ephedrine. This review focuses on current human, animal, in vitro, and mechanistic studies that address the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of action of bitter orange extracts and p‐synephrine. Numerous studies have been conducted with respect to p‐synephrine and bitter orange extract because ephedra and ephedrine were banned from use in dietary supplements in 2004. Approximately 30 human studies indicate that p‐synephrine and bitter orange extracts do not result in cardiovascular effects and do not act as stimulants at commonly used doses. Mechanistic studies suggest that p‐synephrine exerts its effects through multiple actions, which are discussed. Because p‐synephrine exhibits greater adrenergic receptor binding in rodents than humans, data from animals cannot be directly extrapolated to humans. This review, as well as several other assessments published in recent years, has concluded that bitter orange extract and p‐synephrine are safe for use in dietary supplements and foods at the commonly used doses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28752649

  8. Self-Efficacy and Music Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Gary E.; McCormick, John

    2006-01-01

    This study is the second in a series of investigations attempting to clarify relationships between variables that impact on a young musician's ability to perform music (as assessed on a graded music examination). Consistent with studies on school academic subjects, our previous investigation demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy in…

  9. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in elderly patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer: single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocvirk Janja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC is mainly a disease of elderly, however, geriatric population is underrepresented in clinical trials. Patient registries represent a tool to assess and follow treatment outcomes in this patient population. The aim of the study was with the help of the patients’ register to determine the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in elderly patients who had previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer.

  10. Efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy for partial-onset seizures: Experience from a multicenter, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, Rafael; Jovel, Camilo Espinosa; Jiménez-Huete, Adolfo; Bayarri, Pau Giner; Campos, Dulce; Gomariz, Elena López; Giráldez, Beatriz González; García-Morales, Irene; Falip, Mercé; Agredano, Paula Martínez; Palao, Susana; Prior, María José Aguilar Amat; Pascual, María Rosa Querol; Navacerrada, Francisco José; González, Francisco Javier López; Ojeda, Joaquín; Sáez, Aránzazu Alfaro; Bermejo, Pedro Emilio; Gil-Nagel, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL, Aptiom™) is a once-daily anticonvulsant, approved as adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures (POS). Historical-controlled trials investigating the use of ESL as monotherapy have demonstrated a favorable efficacy and tolerability profile in patients with POS. This prospective, non-interventional study recruited POS patients in 17 hospitals in Spain. After a 3-month baseline period, ESL therapy was initiated as 400mg QD and up-titrated to an optimal maintenance dose based on clinical response and tolerance. The incidence of seizures was assessed via seizure calendars and the nature and severity of adverse events (AEs) were also recorded. A total of 117 patients (aged 9-87years) enrolled in the study and were treated with ESL at either 400mg/day (3.4% patients), 800mg/day (61% patients), 1200mg/day (27.1% patients) or 1600mg/day (8.5% patients). At 3months, 82.0% (n=72) of patients achieved a ≥50% reduction in seizure frequency, compared to 79.7% (n=67) of patients at 6months and 83.0% (n=49) at 12months. Patients who suffered secondary generalized tonic-clonic (SGTC) seizures had seizure-free rates of 71% (n=27), 69.6% (n=29), and 72.7% (n=16) at 3, 6, and 12months, respectively. Overall, 18 patients (15.3%) reported AEs of instability and dizziness (n=9), somnolence (n=3), mild hyponatremia (n=3), headache (n=1), hypertriglyceridemia (n=1), and allergic reaction (n=1), which caused ESL discontinuation of ESL treatment. ESL is effective and well tolerated as monotherapy for patients with POS, which supports previous findings. Early use is supported by its frequent use as monotherapy in this study and lack of severe side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of self-efficacy on physical activity maintenance in patients with hip osteoarthritis - a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Nanna Maria; Bieler, Theresa; Beyer, Nina; Midtgaard, Julie

    2016-08-01

    Understanding motivational factors related to physical activity (PA) maintenance is essential in promoting long-term exercise benefits. This study explored the impact of self-efficacy (SE) on post-intervention PA maintenance in patients with hip osteoarthritis. An SE-theory based mixed-methods sub-study of a trial investigating the effects of 4 months supervised exercise in patients with hip osteoarthritis. Questionnaire data (n = 52; baseline and 12 months) on PA and SE (Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale, ASES, score-range 10-100) were analysed (Mann-Whitney test) for differences in characteristics of maintainers and non-maintainers. Semi-structured individual interviews (n = 15; at 12-months follow-up) were analysed using directed content analysis. Compared to non-maintainers (n = 9; 17%) maintainers (n = 31; 60%) had improved (p self-efficacy for physical activity contributes to the understanding of post-intervention physical activity maintenance in patients with hip osteoarthritis. Practitioners may benefit from incorporating the self-efficacy theory in the planning and execution of exercise interventions to promote post-intervention physical activity maintenance and long term health benefits. Post-intervention physical activity maintenance may be increased by focussing on the patients' exercise self-efficacy through verbal persuasion and support, disease-specific information and information on normal physiological responses to exercise combined with an individualised training progression to support experiences of success and achievement of desired outcomes.

  12. Factors Affecting Burnout and School Engagement among High School Students: Study Habits, Self- Efficacy Beliefs, and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Filiz; Tuzgol Dost, Meliha; Cetin, Bayram

    2014-01-01

    This study examines high school students' levels of burnout and school engagement with respect to academic success, study habits, and self-efficacy beliefs. The data were gathered during the 2011-2012 school year from 633 students attending six high schools located in Ankara, Turkey. The analyses were conducted on responses from 605 students. The…

  13. A Comparative Study of Instructional Efficacy between First and Second-Career Teachers in Secondary School Math and Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Royal Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use Dr. James Stronge's taxonomy of the qualities of effective teachers to determine whether there are significant differences in the instructional efficacy between first- and second-career teachers who teach math and science. Methodology: A causal-comparative study examined the effects of variables that…

  14. Service Learning and Its Influenced to Pre-Service Teachers: Social Responsibility and Self-Efficacy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasertsang, Parichart; Nuangchalerm, Prasart; Pumipuntu, Chaloey

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to study pre-service teachers on social responsibility and self-efficacy through service learning. The mixed methodology included two major procedures (i) the actual use of a developed service learning instructional model by means of action research principles and qualitative research and (ii) the study into the…

  15. Perception of pain self-efficacy and fatigue in Greek patients with multiple sclerosis: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Theofilou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The examination of the perception of pain and fatigue in patients with various health problems has received increased research attention in recent years. The aim of the present study protocol is to examine levels of pain self-efficacy and fatigue in a sample of Greek patients suffering from multiple sclerosis. The association of years and severity of diagnosis with the perception of pain self-efficacy and fatigue will be also investigated. Forty patients from the 3nd Neurological Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece will participate in this study. The measurement tools include i the Fatigue Assessment Scale, ii the Pain Self Efficacy Questionnaire and iii the Expanded Disability Status Scale. Test-retest reliability of the first two questionnaires will be assessed with the same patients rating their situation in a 10 days interval from the first examination in order to examine consistency over time.

  16. Learning new words from storybooks: an efficacy study with at-risk kindergartners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M; Meier, Joanne; Walpole, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    The extant literature suggests that exposure to novel vocabulary words through repeated readings of storybooks influences children's word learning, and that adult elaboration of words in context can accelerate vocabulary growth. This study examined the influence of small-group storybook reading sessions on the acquisition of vocabulary words for at-risk kindergartners, and the impact of word elaboration on learning. An additional goal was to study differential responses to treatment for children with high versus low vocabulary skill. Using a pretest-posttest comparison group research design, 57 kindergartners were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 29) or comparison (n = 28) group. Children were also differentiated into high (n = 31) versus low (n = 26) vocabulary skill groups using scores on a standardized receptive vocabulary test. Children in the treatment group completed 20 small-group storybook reading sessions during which they were exposed to 60 novel words randomly assigned to non-elaborated and elaborated conditions. Pre- and posttest examined the quality of children's definitions for the 60 novel words. Overall, word-learning gains were modest. Children in the treatment group made significantly greater gains in elaborated words relative to children in the comparison group; no influence of storybook reading exposure was seen for non-elaborated words. Children with low vocabulary scores made the greatest gains on elaborated words. Suggestions are offered for using storybooks as a clinical tool for fostering vocabulary development. As an efficacy study, results should inform future applied research on word learning for at-risk children.

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY OF FERROUS SULPHATE AND CARBONYL IRON IN ANEMIA OF ANTENATAL WOMEN

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    Radhika

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is the most common and important public health problem all over the world in the risk group of antenatal women. Research is going on to improve the iron status of the pregnant women with different forms of iron available. In this regard, Carbonyl Iron is showing promising results in improving the red cell mass with better compliance. 120 antenatal women were recruited in this study. The study comprised of 6weeks for each patient. They were given Carbonyl Iron 100 mg/day and FeS04 100gm/day . Before and after treatment all the baseline and specific investigations were one. Results were tabulated, comparison and significance were tested by unpaired student ’s’ test and their 'p' value was calculated. Results were shown graphically also. Carbonyl Iron showed improvement in hemoglobin, PCV and better than ferrous Sulphate (P <0.001. Incidence of side effects were less with Carbonyl Iron than Ferrous Sulphate, better compliance was seen with Carbonyl Iron. In conclusion, the present study s howed that Carbonyl Iron had better efficacy and safety in the management of Iron deficiency anemia in antenatal women than ferrous Sulphate

  18. EFFICACY OF KINESIO-TAPING VERSUS PHONOPHORESIS ON KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

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    Magda Gaid Sedhom

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common type of joint disease. Pain is the most common symptom of knee osteoarthritis. Also it characterized by sign, symptoms of inflammation, pain, stiffness and loss of mobility. This study was conducted to explore the efficacy of kinesio taping (KT versus Aescin, Diethylamine Salicylate gel phonophoresis (PH on pain level, range of motion (ROM, and proprioceptive accuracy on mild to moderate knee OA patients. Methods: Forty females with knee OA from Outpatient Clinic of Physical Therapy Faculty participated in the study with mean age (49±5.82 years. They were randomly assigned into 2 equal groups. Group I: received Aescin, Diethylamine Salicylate gel PH with pulsed ultrasound therapy and group II received KT. All patients received hot packs and selected exercise program for four weeks; three sessions per week. Visual analogue scale was used in assessment of pain level. Electronic digital goniometer was used in assessment of knee flexion ROM. Iso-kinetic daynamometer was used in assessment of knee proprioceptive accuracy. Results: There was a significant relieving of pain perception, increasing of knee flexion ROM and improving proprioceptive accuracy in knee joint post-study in both groups. But application of Aescin, Diethylamine Salicylate gel PH had significant relieve of knee pain than KT. Conclusion: Using of Aescin, Diethylamine Salicylate gel PH is more effective than KT application in reliving knee pain in knee osteoarthritic patients.

  19. Impact of a person-centred dementia care training programme on hospital staff attitudes, role efficacy and perceptions of caring for people with dementia: A repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surr, C A; Smith, S J; Crossland, J; Robins, J

    2016-01-01

    People with dementia occupy up to one quarter of acute hospital beds. However, the quality of care delivered to this patient group is of national concern. Staff working in acute hospitals report lack of knowledge, skills and confidence in caring for people with dementia. There is limited evidence about the most effective approaches to supporting acute hospital staff to deliver more person-centred care. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a specialist training programme for acute hospital staff regarding improving attitudes, satisfaction and feelings of caring efficacy, in provision of care to people with dementia. A repeated measures design, with measures completed immediately prior to commencing training (T1), after completion of Foundation level training (T2: 4-6 weeks post-baseline), and following Intermediate level training (T3: 3-4 months post-baseline). One NHS Trust in the North of England, UK. 40 acute hospital staff working in clinical roles, the majority of whom (90%) were nurses. All participants received the 3.5 day Person-centred Care Training for Acute Hospitals (PCTAH) programme, comprised of two levels, Foundation (0.5 day) and Intermediate (3 days), delivered over a 3-4 months period. Staff demographics and previous exposure to dementia training were collected via a questionnaire. Staff attitudes were measured using the Approaches to Dementia Questionnaire (ADQ), satisfaction in caring for people with dementia was captured using the Staff Experiences of Working with Demented Residents questionnaire (SEWDR) and perceived caring efficacy was measured using the Caring Efficacy Scale (CES). The training programme was effective in producing a significant positive change on all three outcome measures following intermediate training compared to baseline. A significant positive effect was found on the ADQ between baseline and after completion of Foundation level training, but not for either of the other measures. Training acute hospital staff in

  20. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  1. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  2. The predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on low back pain among newly qualified health care workers with and without previous low back pain: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Albertsen, Karen; Borg, Vilhelm

    2009-01-01

    and maintenance of LBP. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to examine (1) the association between physical work load and LBP, (2) the predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the development of LBP, and (3) the moderating effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the association between physical...... work load and LBP among cases with and without previous LBP....

  3. The impact of poverty on self-efficacy: an Australian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, E J; Schofield, D J

    2016-06-01

    People with strong feelings of 'self-efficacy', i.e. how much a person feels they have control over their life, perform better in the workplace. However, little is known about negative influences on feelings of self-efficacy. In view of the increasing number of people whose income places them below the poverty line despite being in employment, poverty may negatively influence feelings of self-efficacy and hence workplace productivity. To assess whether falling into poverty lowers self-efficacy. Longitudinal analysis of waves 7 to 11 of the nationally representative Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, using linear regression models. Those who fell into multidimensional poverty (income poverty plus poor health or insufficient level of education attainment) had significantly lower self-efficacy scores (up to 18% lower (95% CI -31% to -1%, P accounting for initial self-efficacy score and other confounding factors. Income uniquely accounted for 3% of the variance in self-efficacy scores, physical health for 10%, mental health for 78% and education for 1%. Given the known links between self-efficacy and workplace productivity, workers who are below the poverty line may be at risk of poor productivity due to the experience of poverty. In addition to the poor outcomes from the employer's perceptive, this may also lead to a negative spiral for the employee. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The knowledge, efficacy, and practices instrument for oral health providers: a validity study with dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Garvan, Cyndi W; Moore, Thomas E; Catalanotto, Frank A

    2013-08-01

    Valid and reliable instruments to measure and assess cultural competence for oral health care providers are scarce in the literature, and most published scales have been contested due to a lack of item analysis and internal estimates of reliability. The purposes of this study were, first, to develop a standardized instrument to measure dental students' knowledge of diversity, skills in culturally competent patient-centered communication, and use of culture-centered practices in patient care and, second, to provide preliminary validity support for this instrument. The initial instrument used in this study was a thirty-six-item Likert-scale survey entitled the Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument for Oral Health Providers (KEPI-OHP). This instrument is an adaption of an initially thirty-three-item version of the Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills Scale-Counselor Edition (MAKSS-CE), a scale that assesses factors related to social justice, cultural differences among clients, and cross-cultural client management. After the authors conducted cognitive and expert interviews, focus groups, pilot testing, and item analysis, their initial instrument was reduced to twenty-eight items. The KEPI-OHP was then distributed to 916 dental students (response rate=48.6 percent) across the United States to measure its reliability and assess its validity. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the scale's validity. The modification of the survey into a sensible instrument with a relatively clear factor structure using factor analysis resulted in twenty items. A scree test suggested three expressive factors, which were retained for rotation. Bentler's comparative fit and Bentler and Bonnett's non-normed indices were 0.95 and 0.92, respectively. A three-factor solution, including efficacy of assessment, knowledge of diversity, and culture-centered practice subscales, comprised of twenty-items was identified. The KEPI-OHP was found to

  5. Efficacy of transcutaneous functional electrical stimulation on urinary incontinence in myelomeningocele: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Sharifi-Rad, Lida; Dianat, SeyedSaeid

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of transcutaneous functional electrical stimulation (FES) on voiding symptoms in children with myelomeningocele (MMC) suffering from neuropathic urinary incontinence. Six girls and 6 boys with moderate to severe urinary incontinence secondary to MMC were included. Median age of children was 5.04 (range: 3-11) years. They underwent a urodynamic study (UDS) before and 3 months after FES with special attention to detrusor leak point pressure (DLPP) and maximal bladder capacity (MBC). Daily incontinence score, frequency of pad changing, and enuresis were also assessed before and three months after treatment. Fifteen courses of FES for 15 minutes 3 times per week were performed with low frequency (40 Hz) electrical current, duration of 250μs, with hold and rest time of 2 seconds. Nine children had improvement on urinary incontinence score, while three children had no improvement. Median DLPP was significantly increased from 38.5 (range: 12-50) cm H2O to 59.5 (range: 18-83) cm H2O (P = 0.003). MBC was significantly increased from median value of 155 (range: 60-250) mL to 200 (range: 110-300) mL (P = 0.007). This is a pilot study showing that FES therapy might have positive effects on improvement of voiding symptoms of MMC children with neurogenic urinary incontinence in terms of daily incontinence score and UDS parameters.

  6. Efficacy of transcutaneous functional electrical stimulation on urinary incontinence in myelomeningocele: results of a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of transcutaneous functional electrical stimulation (FES on voiding symptoms in children with myelomeningocele (MMC suffering from neuropathic urinary incontinence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six girls and 6 boys with moderate to severe urinary incontinence secondary to MMC were included. Median age of children was 5.04 (range: 3-11 years. They underwent a urodynamic study (UDS before and 3 months after FES with special attention to detrusor leak point pressure (DLPP and maximal bladder capacity (MBC. Daily incontinence score, frequency of pad changing, and enuresis were also assessed before and three months after treatment. Fifteen courses of FES for 15 minutes 3 times per week were performed with low frequency (40 Hz electrical current, duration of 250µs, with hold and rest time of 2 seconds. RESULTS: Nine children had improvement on urinary incontinence score, while three children had no improvement. Median DLPP was significantly increased from 38.5 (range: 12-50 cm H2O to 59.5 (range: 18-83 cm H2O (P = 0.003. MBC was significantly increased from median value of 155 (range: 60-250 mL to 200 (range: 110-300 mL (P = 0.007. CONCLUSIONS: This is a pilot study showing that FES therapy might have positive effects on improvement of voiding symptoms of MMC children with neurogenic urinary incontinence in terms of daily incontinence score and UDS parameters.

  7. Study of the anesthetic efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block using articaine in irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zeeshan H; Ravikumar, H; Karale, Rupali; Preethanath, R S; Sukumaran, Anil

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) using 4% articaine and 2% lidocaine supplemented with buccal infiltration. Forty five patients, diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth were included in the study. The first group of 15 patients received 2% lidocaine with 1:200000 epinephrine, the second group 2% lidocaine with 1: 80,000 epinephrine and the third group of 15 subjects received 4% articaine with 1:100000 epinephrine. During the access cavity preparation those patients who complained of pain received an additional buccal infiltration. The percentage of subjects who got profound anesthesia and failure to achieve anesthesia were calculated and tabulated using a visual analog scale. The results revealed that 87% of subjects who received 4% Articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine got satisfactory anesthesia with inferior alveolar nerve block alone. Only 2 (13%) subjects received an additional buccal infiltration and none of the patients failed to obtain complete anesthesia with articaine. In comparison only 40% of subjects got complete anesthesia with 2% lidocaine with 1:200000 and 60% with 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000. It can be concluded that 4% articaine can be used effectively for obtaining profound anesthesia for endodontic procedures in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

  8. Efficacy of Honey Dressing Versus Mechanical Debridement in Healing of Ulcers with Biofilms: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryaprakash A

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic and delayed healing wounds are the significant health problems globally. Microbial bio burden in the form of biofilms contribute significantly for chronicity and delayed healing. Management of biofilm is complex task. Effective management of biofilms significantly reduces healing time. Raw unprocessed honey has several antibacterial properties and factors stimulating wound healing. Aim and Objectives: Acomparative study was taken to compare the efficacy of local application of raw unprocessed honey versus mechanical debridement and antiseptic application in terms of biofilm eradication and enhanced wound healing. Method and Materials: Ninety patients with non healing wounds having biofilms were included and divided equally (forty five each for local application of honey and mechanical debridement respectively. They were managed similarly and assessed for presence or eradication of biofilms, healing process and final outcome regularly. Results: Data analysed showed presence of biofilms in chronic wounds was 60% and 68% in study and control groups respectively. Time for appearance of healthy granulation tissue was significantly less (P=0.022 Mean duration for eradication of biofilms was less with (P=0.025 Mean hospital stay was also reduced (P=0.004. Conclusion: Raw unprocessed honey is a good, simple and effective solution for eradication of biofilms and enhances healing in non healing ulcers.

  9. A Pilot Study: The Efficacy of Virgin Coconut Oil as Ocular Rewetting Agent on Rabbit Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haliza Abdul Mutalib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. An open-label pilot study of virgin coconut oil (VCO was conducted to determine the safety of the agent as ocular rewetting eye drops on rabbits. Methods. Efficacy of the VCO was assessed by measuring NIBUT, anterior eye assessment, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value before instillation and at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks after instillation. Friedman test was used to analyse any changes in all the measurable variables over the period of time. Results. Only conjunctival redness with instillation of saline agent showed significant difference over the period of time (P0.05. There were no changes in the NIBUT, limbal redness, palpebral conjunctiva redness, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value over the period of time for each agent (P>0.05. Conclusion. VCO acts as safe rewetting eye drops as it has shown no significant difference in the measurable parameter compared to commercial brand eye drops and saline. These study data suggest that VCO is safe to be used as ocular rewetting agent on human being.

  10. Efficacy of rituximab therapy in children with refractory nephrotic syndrome: a prospective observational study in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Xu, Hong; Shen, Qian; Cao, Qi; Rao, Jia; Liu, Hai-Mei; Fang, Xiao-Yan; Zhou, Li-Jun

    2014-02-01

    Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is the most common glomerular disease in children. This study was undertaken to observe the efficacy and side-effects of rituximab (RTX) in treating children with different types of refractory primary nephrotic syndrome. Twelve patients with steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS), frequently relapsing nephritic syndrome (FRNS), and steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) were enrolled in our study. There were obvious drug side-effects, and proteinuria remained difficult to control. RTX was administered at a dose of 375 mg/m(2) body surface area, once or twice weekly. The male to female ratio was 3:1, and the onset age was 1.6-8.9 years. There were 9 patients with steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SDNS or FRNS), and 3 patients with SRNS. There were 7 patients with minimal change disease (MCD), 3 patients with focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS), 1 with focal proliferative glomerulonephritis, and 1 without renal biopsy. The total effective treatment rate of RTX was 91.67%, and for 77.78% of the patients, steroid dosage could be reduced. Six months before and after RTX infusion, the mean steroid dosage was significantly decreased (P=0.014) and the recurrence number was significantly reduced (Psyndrome, and it could significantly reduce the use of steroid and immunosuppressants.

  11. Comparative study of the efficacy of different treatment options in patients with chronic blepharitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrúa, M; Samudio, M; Fariña, N; Cibils, D; Laspina, F; Sanabria, R; Carpinelli, L; Mino de Kaspar, H

    2015-03-01

    To compare the efficacy of 3 treatment options in patients with chronic blepharitis. An experimental, randomized, controlled study was conducted on 45 patients (female 67%; Mean age: 40.5 years) diagnosed with chronic blepharitis, in order to compare the effectiveness of three treatment options. Group 1: eyelid hygiene with neutral shampoo three times/day; group 2: neutral shampoo eyelid hygiene plus topical metronidazole gel 0.75% twice/day; group 3: neutral eyelid hygiene with shampoo plus neomycin 3.5% and polymyxin 10% antibiotic ointment with 0.5% dexamethasone 3 times/day. The symptoms and signs were assessed by assigning scores from 0: no symptoms and/or signs; 1: mild symptoms and/or signs, 2: moderate symptoms and/or signs; and 3: severe symptoms and/or signs. A significant improvement was observed in the signs and symptoms in all 3 treatment groups. While groups 1 and 2 had more improvement in all variables studied (P<.05), Group 3 showed no clinical improvement for itching (P=.16), dry eye (P=.29), eyelashes falling (P=.16), and erythema at the eyelid margin (P=.29). Shampoo eyelid hygiene neutral and neutral shampoo combined with the use of metronidazole gel reported better hygiene results than neutral shampoo lid with antibiotic ointment and neomycin and polymyxin dexamethasone. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuroprotective efficacy of methylene blue in ischemic stroke: an MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Shen

    Full Text Available Methylene blue (MB has unique energy-enhancing and antioxidant properties and is FDA-approved drug to treat methemoglobinemia and cyanide poisoning. This study evaluated the efficacy of MB to treat ischemic stroke in rats using longitudinal MRI and behavioral measures. Rats were subjected to 60-minute middle-cerebral-artery occlusion. In a randomized double-blinded design, vehicle or MB was administered after reperfusion. The initial lesion volumes at 30 minutes post-ischemia were not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.92. The final infarct volumes two days after stroke increased in the vehicle group but decreased in the MB group, yielding a 30% difference in infarct volume (P = 0.03. Tracking tissue fate on a pixel-by-pixel basis showed that MB salvaged more initial core pixels compared to controls (22±3% versus 11±3%, P = 0.03, and more mismatch pixels compared to controls (83±3% versus 61±8%, P = 0.02. This study demonstrates MB treatment minimizes ischemic brain injury and improves functional outcomes.

  13. Efficacy of sumatriptan nasal spray in recurrent migrainous headache: an open prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpay, J A; Linssen, W H J P; Koehler, P J J; Arends, L R; Tiedink, H G M

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of sumatriptan 20 mg via nasal spray and 100-mg tablets in treating migrainous headache in patients without a concomitant migraine diagnosis. We prospectively investigated the efficacy of sumatriptan 20 mg via nasal spray and 100-mg tablets in patients with a history of at least 5 moderate to severe headache attacks lasting 2 to 72 hours that consistently did not meet the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria for migraine or episodic tension-type headache. Nineteen headache attacks classifiable as migrainous disorder without aura (IHS 1.7) were evaluated in 13 patients using 20-mg sumatriptan nasal spray within a 10-week period. A 2-point decrease in headache severity on a four-point scale was achieved in 74% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50% to 89%) of the attacks within 2 hours. The pain-free incidence (a reduction in headache severity from moderate or severe to none) was 37% (95% CI, 17% to 63%) after 2 hours. Ten patients completed the second part of the study, taking oral sumatriptan for 14 migrainous attacks: a 2-point decrease in headache severity was achieved in 38% (95% CI, 13% to 71%) of the attacks within 2 hours and in 77% (95% CI, 48% to 92%) within 4 hours. This is the first prospective study to show that intranasal or oral sumatriptan may be effective in patients experiencing moderate to severe headache attacks which consistently do not fulfill the IHS criteria for migraine or episodic tension-type headache.

  14. Sex Partnership and Self-Efficacy Influence Depression in Chinese Transgender Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Lie; Hao, Chun; Gu, Yuan; Song, Wei; Wang, Jian; Chang, Margaret M; Zhao, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Transgender women often suffer from transition-related discrimination and loss of social support due to their gender transition, which may pose considerable psychological challenges and may lead to a high prevalence of depression in this population. Increased self-efficacy may combat the adverse effects of gender transition on depression. However, few available studies have investigated the protective effect of self-efficacy on depression among transgender women, and there is a scarcity of research describing the mental health of Chinese transgender women. This study aims to describe the prevalence of depression among Chinese transgender women and to explore the associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shenyang, Liaoning Province of China by convenience sampling from January 2014 to July 2014. Two hundred and nine Chinese transgender women were interviewed face-to-face with questionnaires that covered topics including the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), demographic characteristics, transition status, sex partnership, perceived transgender-related discrimination, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the adapted General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the factors associated with SDS scores. The prevalence of depression among transgender women was 45.35%. Transgender women with regular partners or casual partners exhibited higher SDS scores than those without regular partners or casual partners. Regression analyses showed that sex partnership explained most (16.6%) of the total variance in depression scores. Self-efficacy was negatively associated with depression. Chinese transgender women experienced high levels of depression. Depression was best predicted by whether transgender women had a regular partner or a casual partner rather than transgender-related discrimination and transition status. Moreover, self-efficacy had positive effects on

  15. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  16. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  17. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  18. Efficacy and safety of a new microneedle patch for skin brightening: A Randomized, split-face, single-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kui Young; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Lee, Changjin; Kim, Daegun; Yoon, Jun Jin; Kim, Myeong Nam; Kim, Beom Joon

    2017-09-01

    Although microneedles are one of the best transdermal drug delivery systems for active compounds, few clinical trials have examined the safety and efficacy of brightening microneedle patches. To determine the efficacy and safety of a newly developed whitening microneedle patch. A split-face study was designed for efficacy assessment with 34 Korean women applying the tested product (a whitening microneedle patch) on one cheek and a control whitening essence on the other. We objectively measured changes in melanin index values and skin brightness by mexameter and chromameter. Each participant also used global assessment to determine skin whitening. In addition, 55 participants were selected for primary skin irritation tests and repeated insult patch tests for safety assessments. Mean skin brightness and melanin indexes improved (Pmicroneedle patch was effective and safe for skin brightening and would be a promising functional cosmetic product. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Self-Efficacy and Nutrition Education: A Study of the Effect of an Intervention with Faith Community Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotwals, Beth

    2018-02-01

    The faith community provides an important access point for practice focused on population health at a time when health issues such as obesity and overweight are affecting large number of Americans. The purpose of this study was to examine faith community nurses' self-efficacy perceptions following a nutrition educational intervention. A convenience sample of 92 faith community nurses were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The t-distribution analysis revealed significant differences between the nutrition knowledge self-efficacy (p = .016) and nutrition counseling self-efficacy (p = .010) post-test scores for the experimental and control groups. This type of educational intervention provides a model to be used with faith community nurses as they integrate faith and health in this setting.

  20. Cone beam computed tomography and periapical lesions: a systematic review analysing studies on diagnostic efficacy by a hierarchical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, C; Spin-Neto, R; Wenzel, A; Kirkevang, L-L

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate using a systematic review approach the diagnostic efficacy of CBCT for periapical lesions, focusing on the evidence level of the included studies using a six-tiered hierarchical model. The MEDLINE bibliographic database was searched from 2000 to July 2013 for studies evaluating the potential of CBCT imaging in the diagnosis and planning of treatment for periapical lesions. The search strategy was limited to English language publications using the following combined terms in the search strategy: apical pathology or endodontic pathology or periapical or lesion or healing and CBCT or cone beam CT. The diagnostic efficacy level of the studies was assessed independently by four reviewers. The search identified 25 publications that qualitatively or quantitatively assessed the use of CBCT for the diagnosis of periapical lesions, in which the methodology/results comprised at least one of the following parameters: the methods, the imaging protocols or qualitative/quantitative information on how CBCT influenced the diagnosis and/or treatment plan. From the assessed studies, it can be concluded that although there is a tendency for a higher accuracy for periapical lesion detection using CBCT compared to two-dimensional imaging methods, no studies have been conducted that justify the standard use of CBCT in diagnosing periapical lesions. In addition, it should be considered that, at the present time, the efficacy of CBCT as the diagnostic imaging method for periapical lesions has been assessed merely at low diagnostic efficacy levels. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Comparative studies on the efficacy of sulphachlorpyrazine and toltrazuril for the treatment of caecal coccidiosis in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczay, P; Vörös, G; Semjén, G

    1995-06-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of sulphachlorpyrazine and toltrazuril against experimentally induced Eimeria tenella infection was compared in battery and floor pen raised broiler chickens. In the battery studies, both drugs prevented coccidiosis-related mortality and decrease of weight gain to a similar degree, but toltrazuril was more effective in reducing intestinal lesions and faecal scores, when treatments were initiated 24 h postinfection. When medication was delayed until 72 h after inoculation, the sulphonamide proved to be more effective in preventing reduction of weight gain and intestinal lesions caused by the parasites. Under simulated use conditions both drugs showed an appropriate anticoccidial efficacy without major differences between them.

  2. Pilot study of use, distribution and efficacy of time-outs in Asobal Handball League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Valle Blanco

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Time-outs (T-O is tool that allows the coach interact in a direct way during the competition. Nowadays, T-O rule has been modified. Because of that, the objective is to develop a pilot study to describe and characterize ASOBAL T-O coach’s request, season 2011/12. 15 T-O from different matches were analyzed, registering five previous (n=69 and after (n=62 possessions when requesting T-O. Variables are T-O number, period of the game when is ordered, minute, score in that moment, final score, number of previous and after possessions, previous and after partial as well as last action before T-O and the first one after. An observational descriptive analysis was developed. Results show that coaches do not take advantage of T-O they have, being looser teams the ones that more use them, specially the second and the third T-O. Most of this interruption takes place in last moments of both periods, usually preceded by a negative action. In relation to its efficiency, score differences are maintained or improved Key words: mach analyses, handball, time-outs, coaches, performance.

  3. Study of efficacy and safety of pharmacological stress tests in nuclear cardiology

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    Baškot Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Treadmill test combined with myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS is a commonly used technique in the assessment of coronary artery disease. Many patients who cannot adequately perform exercise stress testing may nevertheless undergo pharmacological tests, most commonly with the vasodilator agents (adenosine and dipyridamole, as well as the positive inotropic agent dobutamine. Patients undergoing vasodilators stress testing with either dipyridamole or adenosine also perform simultaneous low-intensity exercise. The aim of this study was to compare various pharmacological stress tests alone or in combination with low intensity exercise as preparation for MPS in reagard to incidence of adverse effects, quality of diagnostic image and the acquisition initial time. Methods. A total of 2 205 patients underwent pharmacological stress tests. Pharmacological stress test with adenosine was applied in 493 patients. In 405 of them we performed concomitant low level exercise (50 W by bicycle ergometar (AdenoEX. In 88 of them we performed adenosine abbreviated protocol (AdenoSCAN. In 1 526 patients we performed pharmacological stress test with dipyridamole. In 871 of them we performed concomitant low level exercise (50 W by bicycle ergometar (DipyEX, and in 775 we used only dipyridamole protocol (DipySCAN. In 186 patients we used pharmacological stress test with dobutamine. We followed side effects of adenosine, dipyiridamole and dobutamine, compared results between protocols with concomitant low level exercise and vasodilatators only. We also compared image quality, and suggested time of acquisition after stress test. Results. We found numerous side effects especially with adenosine, but these effects were short-lived and not required active interventions. Benefit with concomitant exercise in booth AdenoEX and DipyEX included decreased side effects (AdenoEX vs AdenoSCAN 62% vs 87%, respectively, and DipyEX vs DipySCAN 37% vs 59

  4. WALKING CAPACITY AND FALLS-EFFICACY CORRELATES WITH PARTICIPATION RESTRICTION IN INDIVIDUALS WITH CHRONIC STROKE: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Neelam Nayak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mobility impairments seen after Stroke impact walking speed, endurance and balance. Almost all the individuals with Stroke have fear of fall. The physical impairments in balance and gait along with individual’s perception about his/her own abilities to maintain balance might have an impact on level of activity and participation in the community. The association of these variables with recovery of Stroke has been well studied. However, it is currently unknown which of these variables are most associated with activity and participation in the community. This study aimed to identify the correlation of walking capacity and perception of fall with activity & participation. Methods: 30 Subjects were assessed for - walking capacity (6 minute walk test & Self-efficacy for falls (Modified Falls Efficacy scale. Level of Activity Limitation (AL & Participation Restriction (PR was graded on validated ICF Measure of Participation and Activities. (IMPACT-S Results: Data was analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient & regression model. Walking distance and Falls-efficacy is significantly correlated (r=-0.751 and -0.683, respectively with Participation restriction. Walking distance correlated with Activity Limitation (r=-0.714 significantly. Falls efficacy has a correlation coefficient of -0.642 with Activity Limitation. When put into Regression models, Walking Capacity & Gait Velocity was found to be independently associated with AL &PR. Conclusion: There is significant relationship between falls self-efficacy, walking capacity and Post-stroke activity & participation. Participation can be impacted by factors such as self-motivation and confidence about one's balance abilities. This is reflected by the correlation between falls efficacy and participation. Physical parameters such as the distance walked can contribute to participating in the community, and can predict variation in AL-PR

  5. Efficacy and Tolerance of Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor α Agents in Cutaneous Sarcoidosis: A French Study of 46 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberger, Valentine; Ingen-Housz-Oro, Saskia; Marquet, Alicia; Mahevas, Matthieu; Bessis, Didier; Bouillet, Laurence; Caux, Frédéric; Chapelon-Abric, Catherine; Debarbieux, Sébastien; Delaporte, Emmanuel; Duval-Modeste, Anne-Bénédicte; Fain, Olivier; Joly, Pascal; Marchand-Adam, Sylvain; Monfort, Jean-Benoît; Noël, Nicolas; Passeron, Thierry; Ruivard, Marc; Sarrot-Reynauld, Françoise; Verrot, Denis; Bouvry, Diane; Fardet, Laurence; Chosidow, Olivier; Sève, Pascal; Valeyre, Dominique

    2017-07-01

    Evidence for the long-term efficacy and safety of anti-tumor necrosis factor α agents (anti-TNF) in treating cutaneous sarcoidosis is lacking. To determine the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF in treating cutaneous sarcoidosis in a large observational study. STAT (Sarcoidosis Treated with Anti-TNF) is a French retrospective and prospective multicenter observational database that receives data from teaching hospitals and referral centers, as well as several pneumology, dermatology, and internal medicine departments. Included patients had histologically proven sarcoidosis and received anti-TNF between January 2004 and January 2016. We extracted data for patients with skin involvement at anti-TNF initiation. Response to treatment was evaluated for skin and visceral involvement using the ePOST (extra-pulmonary Physician Organ Severity Tool) severity score (from 0 [not affected] to 6 [very severe involvement]). Epidemiological and cutaneous features at baseline, efficacy, steroid-sparing, safety, and relapses were recorded. The overall cutaneous response rate (OCRR) was defined as complete (final cutaneous ePOST score of 0 or 1) or partial response (ePOST drop ≥2 points from baseline but >1 at last follow-up). Among 140 patients in the STAT database, 46 had skin involvement. The most frequent lesions were lupus pernio (n = 21 [46%]) and nodules (n = 20 [43%]). The median cutaneous severity score was 5 and/or 6 at baseline. Twenty-one patients were treated for skin involvement and 25 patients for visceral involvement. Reasons for initiating anti-TNF were failure or adverse effects of previous therapy in 42 patients (93%). Most patients received infliximab (n = 40 [87%]), with systemic steroids in 28 cases (61%) and immunosuppressants in 32 cases (69.5%). The median (range) follow-up was 45 (3-103) months. Of the 46 patients with sarcoidosis and skin involvement who were treated with anti-TNF were included, median (range) age was 50 (14-78) years, and 33

  6. Efficacy of dienogest in the treatment of symptomatic adenomyosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tetsuya; Izumi, Gentaro; Takamura, Masashi; Saito, Ako; Nakazawa, Akari; Harada, Miyuki; Hirota, Yasushi; Koga, Kaori; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

    2014-10-01

    Adenomyosis is a common disorder in premenopausal women that causes dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain and menorrhagia. Considering that adenomyosis is an estrogen-dependent disease, the medical treatment is based on this hormone. Effective and well-tolerated medical treatments for symptomatic adenomyosis are needed. Dienogest, an oral progestin, has been extensively investigated in the treatment of endometriosis. In this report, we present the results on the efficacy and safety of dienogest in the treatment of symptomatic adenomyosis. Seventeen patients with symptomatic adenomyosis were included in this study, of which 15 continued dienogest for up to 24 weeks. Dienogest significantly reduced adenomyosis-associated pelvic pain as well as serum CA-125 and CA19-9 levels. It also demonstrated a modest suppression of estradiol (>50 pg/ mL), which is consistent with the findings of other reports. During treatment, five patients experienced worsening anemia because of metrorrhagia, which is the most frequent adverse effect associated with dienogest. This report suggests that dienogest is an effective and well-tolerated therapy for symptomatic adenomyosis.

  7. Metacognitive and social cognition training (MSCT) in schizophrenia: a preliminary efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Nuno B F; Queirós, Cristina

    2013-10-01

    Psychosocial interventions have proven to be effective in treating social cognition in people with psychotic disorders. The current study aimed to determine the effects of a metacognitive and social cognition training (MSCT) program, designed to both remediate deficits and correct biases in social cognition. Thirty-five clinically stable outpatients were recruited and assigned to the MSCT program (n=19) for 10 weeks (18 sessions) or to the TAU group (n=16), and they all completed pre- and post-treatment assessments of social cognition, cognitive biases, functioning and symptoms. The MSCT group demonstrated a significant improvement in theory of mind, social perception, emotion recognition and social functioning. Additionally, the tendency to jump to conclusions was significantly reduced among the MSCT group after training. There were no differential benefits regarding clinical symptoms except for one trend group effect for general psychopathology. The results support the efficacy of the MSCT format, but further development of the training program is required to increase the benefits related to attributional style. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy of Preoperative Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma: A Comparative Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Guosheng; Ma, Zhenjiang [The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Interventional Radiology (China); Long, Weiqing [The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Clinical Laboratory (China); Liu, Liangshuai [The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Interventional Radiology (China); Zhang, Bing [The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Nuclear Medicine (China); Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianyong; Li, Heping, E-mail: jxgdhp@163.com [The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Interventional Radiology (China)

    2017-06-15

    ObjectiveThis study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of preoperative transcatheter arterial embolization (pTAE) for treating nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (NPAF).MethodsSeventy-four NPAF patients were hospitalized for elective surgical treatment with pTAE (pTAE group, n = 32) or surgical treatment alone (non-pTAE group, n = 42) between January 1990 and December 2013. The following outcome measures were retrospectively analyzed and compared: intraoperative bleeding volume, surgery time (ST), duration of postoperative hospital stay (PHS), and disease recurrence.ResultsAmong Radkowski stage I patients, those in pTAE group had a slightly higher but not significant bleeding volume than patients in non-pTAE group (344 ± 407 vs. 248 ± 219 mL, P = 0.899); among stage II/III patients, however, patients in pTAE group showed a significantly lower bleeding volume than patients in non-pTAE group (stage II, 829 ± 519 vs. 1339 ± 767 mL, P = 0.035; stage III, 1267 ± 592 vs. 2125  ± 479 mL, P = 0.024). The two groups presented comparable OTs, PHSs, and rates of frontal recurrence (all P>0.05).ConclusionspTAE significantly reduces intraoperative bleeding in NPAF patients with Radkowski stage II/III disease, but offers no additional benefits regarding ST, PHS, or recurrence.

  9. Efficacy Study of Broken Rice Maltodextrin in In Vitro Wound Healing Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahiah Mohamed Amin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maltodextrins that contain both simple sugars and polymers of saccharides have been widely used as ingredients in food products and pharmaceutical delivery systems. To date, no much work has been reported on the applications of maltodextrin from broken rice (RB sources. Therefore, the objective of this work was to investigate the in vitro wound healing efficacy of RB maltodextrin at different conditions. Wounds treated with lower dextrose equivalent (DE range (DE 10–14 of maltodextrins at a concentration of 10% obtained from RB were found to be able to heal the wounds significantly faster (p<0.01 than maltodextrin with higher DE ranges (DE 15–19 and DE 20–24 and concentrations of 5% and 20%. The findings from both BrdU and MTT assay further confirmed its wound healing properties as the NIH 3T3 fibroblast wounded cells were able to proliferate without causing cytotoxic effect when wounded cell was treated with maltodextrin. All these findings indicated that the RB maltodextrin could perform better than the commercial maltodextrin at the same DE range. This study showed that RB maltodextrins had better functionality properties than other maltodextrin sources and played a beneficial role in wound healing application.

  10. Efficacy of strength training on tension-type headache: A randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Bjarne K; Søgaard, Karen; Andersen, Lars L; Tornøe, Birte; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2017-01-01

    Background Strength training has shown effects in reducing neck pain. As neck pain is highly prevalent in tension-type headache (TTH), it is relevant to examine the effect of strength training of the shoulder muscles on TTH patients. Aim To examine the effect of strength training of the shoulder/neck muscles on TTH frequency and duration. Methods Sixty patients with TTH were randomised into strength training or a control group. The strength training group trained ten weeks with elastic resistance bands. The control group performed ergonomic and posture correction. Efficacy was evaluated at follow-up after 19-22 weeks. Results Twenty-three patients completed strength training and 21 completed ergonomic and posture correction (per-protocol). No between-group effect was detected, but within groups numerical reductions were noted in both groups from baseline to follow-up. Frequency of TTH in the strength training group decreased by 11% ( P = 0.041) and duration decreased by10% ( P = 0.036), while the ergonomic and posture correction group showed a significant reduction in frequency of 24% ( P = 0.0033) and a decrease in duration of 27% ( P = 0.041). Conclusion No significant difference between the groups was found and the within-group effects did not reach clinical significance. Combining all the elements into a multifaceted intervention could prove more useful and should be further explored in future studies. Clinical trials registration number NCT02984826.

  11. Study of service in young volleyball players, taking into account efficacy and role play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *Alexander Gil Arias, *M. Perla Moreno Arroyo, *Alberto Moreno Domínguez, **Luís García González, *Fernando Del Villar Álvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the volleyball serve formative stages based on the function punch game player and receiver, and its effectiveness, and also establishing partnerships between these variables and gender. To this end, we analyzed a total of 1827 shares belonging to pull Spain Championship regional selections cadet class of 2005. The results show that both boys and girls guide to serve the ball to other players who are neither attackers-front, or underwriters, or releasing. However, the variable effectiveness, predominate in children serves to permit the construction of multiple attacks, while girls performed serves to limit the options of building the attack. In the inferential analysis, the gender variable is significantly associated with the three variables considered in the investigation, where the completion of the service by receptor-bombers and effectively services 1 and 0 are associated significantly and positively with male gender while carrying out the services from the opposite and the central and efficacy 3 and 4 are associated significantly and positively with the female gender.

  12. A comparative study on the efficacy of dexmedetomidine and tramadol on post-spinal anesthesia shivering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundra, Tanveer Singh; Kuthiala, Gaurav; Shrivastava, Anupam; Kaur, Parminder

    2017-01-01

    Shivering is a common postanesthesia adverse event with multiple etiologies. At present tramadol is a widely used drug for the control of shivering. However, tramadol may cause a lot of nausea and vomiting. Hence, the need to find a better drug with less of side effects. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of dexmedetomidine and tramadol in the treatment of post-spinal anesthesia (SA) shivering as well as to compare their side-effect profile. This prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 100 patients having shivering after SA were enrolled, out of which fifty received dexmedetomidine (Group A) and 50 received tramadol (Group B). The response rate, time to cessation of shivering and side effects (if any) was noted. All the results were analyzed using Student's t -test and Chi-square test. All patients who received dexmedetomidine as well as tramadol had cessation of shivering. The time to cessation of shivering was significantly less with dexmedetomidine (174.12 ± 14.366 s) than with tramadol (277.06 ± 23.374 s) ( P shivering with dexmedetomidine was less (6%) as compared to tramadol (16%). Nausea and vomiting was found to be higher in the case of tramadol. On the other hand, dexmedetomidine caused moderate sedation (modified Ramsay sedation score = 3-4) from which the patient could be easily awoken up. Dexmedetomidine offers better results than tramadol with fewer side effects.

  13. Prospective study of vaginal dilator use adherence and efficacy following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Ethel; Kelvin, Joanne F.; Thom, Bridgette; Riedel, Elyn; Tom, Ashlyn; Carter, Jeanne; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Goodman, Karyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Vaginal stenosis (VS) after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) can impair long-term quality of life. We prospectively assessed adherence and efficacy of vaginal dilator (VD) use in women after pelvic RT. Material and methods: Women with gastrointestinal (n = 63) and gynecologic (n = 46) cancers self-reported use and VD size in monthly diaries for 12 months after radiotherapy. Adherence was measured as actual VD use out of recommended times over 12 months (3×/week × 52 weeks = 156). Results: Among 109 participants, aged 28–81 years (median, 58 years), mean percent adherence over 12 months was 42% (95% confidence interval [CI], 36–48%). Adherence was highest in the first quarter (56%), but fell to 25% by the fourth. Disease type, treatment sequence, and chemotherapy were predictors of adherence (all P < .05). Eighty-two percent maintained pre-RT VD size at 12 months; of 49% with a decrease in VD size at 1 month post-RT, 71% returned to pre-RT VD size at 12 months. Disease type, younger age, and increased adherence at 6 months were associated with maintaining or returning to pre-RT size at 12 months (all P ⩽ .05). Conclusion: VD use is effective in minimizing VS, but adherence at 12 months was poor. Studies evaluating methods of improving adherence and determining the optimal frequency and duration of use are needed

  14. Multigram Synthesis and in Vivo Efficacy Studies of a Novel Multitarget Anti-Alzheimer’s Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Sola

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the multigram synthesis and in vivo efficacy studies of a donepezil‒huprine hybrid that has been found to display a promising in vitro multitarget profile of interest for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Its synthesis features as the key step a novel multigram preparative chromatographic resolution of intermediate racemic huprine Y by chiral HPLC. Administration of this compound to transgenic CL4176 and CL2006 Caenorhabditis elegans strains expressing human Aβ42, here used as simplified animal models of AD, led to a significant protection from the toxicity induced by Aβ42. However, this protective effect was not accompanied, in CL2006 worms, by a reduction of amyloid deposits. Oral administration for 3 months to transgenic APPSL mice, a well-established animal model of AD, improved short-term memory, but did not alter brain levels of Aβ peptides nor cortical and hippocampal amyloid plaque load. Despite the clear protective and cognitive effects of AVCRI104P4, the lack of Aβ lowering effect in vivo might be related to its lower in vitro potency toward Aβ aggregation and formation as compared with its higher anticholinesterase activities. Further lead optimization in this series should thus focus on improving the anti-amyloid/anticholinesterase activity ratio.

  15. Preliminary study of efficacy of hyaluronic acid on caustic esophageal burns in an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Muazez; Demir, Tuncer; Karadag, Cetin Ali; Ketani, Muzaffer Aydin; Celik, Hakim; Kaplan, Davut Sinan; Boleken, Mehmet Emin

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of hyaluronic acid on the prevention of esophageal damage and stricture formation after experimental caustic (alkaline) esophageal injury in rats. Twenty-one Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups. A caustic esophageal burn was created following the Gehanno model: Group l (n=7) underwent operation, but no injury; Group 2 (n=7) was injured and left untreated; and Group 3 (n=7) was injured and treated with hyaluronic acid, first topically and then orally by gavage (2×0.3mL; 12.5mg/mL for 7days). The caustic esophageal burn was created by instilling 25% NaOH into the distal esophagus. All rats were euthanized on day 22 for evaluation. The efficacy of hyaluronic acid treatment was assessed histopathologically and biochemically via blood determination of the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and sulfhydryl group (SH) and lipid hydroperoxidase (LOOH) levels. Statistical analyses were performed. Weight gain was significantly lower in Group 2 than in the other two groups (POSI, and SH and LOOH levels were higher in Group 2 than in the other two groups. The mean stenosis index, inflammation, TAS, SH and OSI in Group 2 were significantly different than those in the other two groups (P<0.05). Hyaluronic acid treatment is effective in treating damage and preventing strictures after caustic esophageal burn in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 'In vitro' study of the efficacy of diode laser and LED irradiation during dental bleaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, Marcia Cristina da Silva

    2003-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy of LED and laser diode irradiation during the dental bleaching procedure, using two bleaching agents (Opalescence X-tra and HP Whiteness). The diode laser and the LED were operated in the continuous mode, with wavelength of 808 nm and 470 nm, respectively. The results of the irradiations were characterized with the CIELAB system calculating the L * a * b * values for the darkened and the bleached teeth (60 bovine incisors). This is to our knowledge the first time that light sources laser and LED are compared with respect to their whitening capability when applied to different agents. Significant differences in the chroma value are obtained for the two whitening age