Sample records for previous driving record

  1. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records. (United States)


    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges (See...

  2. Graduated driver licensing. [previously called: The graduated driving licence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Young novice drivers have a very high risk of being involved in a road crash. In the United States (US), Canada, Australia and New Zealand this problem has been tackled by first letting learner drivers gain driving experience under safe conditions before allowing them to take the driving test. The

  3. Recording and automated analysis of naturalistic bioptic driving. (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli


    People with moderate central vision loss are legally permitted to drive with a bioptic telescope in 39 US states and the Netherlands, but the safety of bioptic driving remains highly controversial. There is no scientific evidence about bioptic use and its impact on safety. We propose searching for evidence by recording naturalistic driving activities in patients' cars. In a pilot study we used an analogue video system to record two bioptic drivers' daily driving activities for 10 and 5 days, respectively. In this technical report, we also describe our novel digital system that collects vehicle manoeuvre information and enables recording over more extended periods, and discuss our approach to analyzing the vast amount of data. Our observations of telescope use by the pilot subjects were quite different from their reports in a previous survey. One subject used the telescope only seven times in nearly 6 h of driving. For the other subject, the average interval between telescope use was about 2 min, and Mobile (cell) phone use in one trip extended the interval to almost 5 min. We demonstrate that computerized analysis of lengthy recordings based on video, GPS, acceleration, and black box data can be used to select informative segments for efficient off-line review of naturalistic driving behaviours. The inconsistency between self reports and objective data as well as infrequent telescope use underscores the importance of recording bioptic driving behaviours in naturalistic conditions over extended periods. We argue that the new recording system is important for understanding bioptic use behaviours and bioptic driving safety. © 2011 The College of Optometrists.

  4. 32 CFR 634.47 - Disposition of driving records. (United States)


    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.47 Disposition of driving records. Procedures will be established to ensure prompt... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of driving records. 634.47 Section...

  5. Drive-based recording analyses at >800 Gfc/in2 using shingled recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William Cross, R.; Montemorra, Michael


    Since the introduction of perpendicular recording, conventional perpendicular scaling has enabled the hard disk drive industry to deliver products ranging from ∼130 to well over 500 Gb/in 2 in a little over 4 years. The incredible areal density growth spurt enabled by perpendicular recording is now endangered by an inability to effectively balance writeability with erasure effects at the system level. Shingled magnetic recording (SMR) offers an effective means to continue perpendicular areal density growth using conventional heads and tuned media designs. The use of specially designed edge-write head structures (also known as 'corner writers') should further increase the AD gain potential for shingled recording. In this paper, we will demonstrate the drive-based recording performance characteristics of a shingled recording system at areal densities in excess of 800 Gb/in 2 using a conventional head. Using a production drive base, developmental heads/media and a number of sophisticated analytical routines, we have studied the recording performance of a shingled magnetic recording subsystem. Our observations confirm excellent writeability in excess of 400 ktpi and a perpendicular system with acceptable noise balance, especially at extreme ID and OD skews where the benefits of SMR are quite pronounced. We believe that this demonstration illustrates that SMR is not only capable of productization, but is likely the path of least resistance toward production drive areal density closer to 1 Tb/in 2 and beyond. - Research highlights: → Drive-based recording demonstrations at 805 Gf/in 2 has been demonstrated using both 95 and 65 mm drive platforms at roughly 430 ktpi and 1.87 Mfci. → Limiting factors for shingled recording include side reading, which is dominated by the reader crosstrack skirt profile, MT10 being a representative metric. → Media jitter and associated DC media SNR further limit areal density, dominated by crosstrack transition curvature, downtrack

  6. Optimized 3D Street Scene Reconstruction from Driving Recorder Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Zhang


    Full Text Available The paper presents an automatic region detection based method to reconstruct street scenes from driving recorder images. The driving recorder in this paper is a dashboard camera that collects images while the motor vehicle is moving. An enormous number of moving vehicles are included in the collected data because the typical recorders are often mounted in the front of moving vehicles and face the forward direction, which can make matching points on vehicles and guardrails unreliable. Believing that utilizing these image data can reduce street scene reconstruction and updating costs because of their low price, wide use, and extensive shooting coverage, we therefore proposed a new method, which is called the Mask automatic detecting method, to improve the structure results from the motion reconstruction. Note that we define vehicle and guardrail regions as “mask” in this paper since the features on them should be masked out to avoid poor matches. After removing the feature points in our new method, the camera poses and sparse 3D points that are reconstructed with the remaining matches. Our contrast experiments with the typical pipeline of structure from motion (SfM reconstruction methods, such as Photosynth and VisualSFM, demonstrated that the Mask decreased the root-mean-square error (RMSE of the pairwise matching results, which led to more accurate recovering results from the camera-relative poses. Removing features from the Mask also increased the accuracy of point clouds by nearly 30%–40% and corrected the problems of the typical methods on repeatedly reconstructing several buildings when there was only one target building.

  7. Relationship between road traffic accidents and conflicts recorded by drive recorders. (United States)

    Lu, Guangquan; Cheng, Bo; Kuzumaki, Seigo; Mei, Bingsong


    Road traffic conflicts can be used to estimate the probability of accident occurrence, assess road safety, or evaluate road safety programs if the relationship between road traffic accidents and conflicts is known. To this end, we propose a model for the relationship between road traffic accidents and conflicts recorded by drive recorders (DRs). DRs were installed in 50 cars in Beijing to collect records of traffic conflicts. Data containing 1366 conflicts were collected in 193 days. The hourly distributions of conflicts and accidents were used to model the relationship between accidents and conflicts. To eliminate time series and base number effects, we defined and used 2 parameters: average annual number of accidents per 10,000 vehicles per hour and average number of conflicts per 10,000 vehicles per hour. A model was developed to describe the relationship between the two parameters. If A(i) = average annual number of accidents per 10,000 vehicles per hour at hour i, and E(i) = average number of conflicts per 10,000 vehicles per hour at hour i, the relationship can be expressed as [Formula in text] (α>0, β>0). The average number of traffic accidents increases as the number of conflicts rises, but the rate of increase decelerates as the number of conflicts increases further. The proposed model can describe the relationship between road traffic accidents and conflicts in a simple manner. According to our analysis, the model fits the present data.

  8. A previously unreported locality record for the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) (United States)

    Lovich, Jeff; Haxel, Gordon


    Although the Gila Monster (Heloderma suspectum) is widely distributed throughout the Sonoran and portions of the Mojave Deserts of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, details of its distribution in California are imperfectly known, due to the apparent rarity of the species in that state. In their review of Gila Monster records for California, Lovich and Beaman (2007) documented only 26 credible sightings during a period of 153 years. In May 2009 another sighting in California was documented by Ruppert (2010a, b) who photographed a specimen in the Providence Mountains, an area known for previous Gila Monster sightings (Lovich and Beaman 2007). In this paper we report the 28th credible record of a Gila Monster in California.

  9. New Record Five-Wheel Drive, Spirit's Sol 1856 (United States)


    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,856th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 23, 2009). The center of the view is toward the west-southwest. The rover had driven 25.82 meters (84.7 feet) west-northwestward earlier on Sol 1856. This is the longest drive on Mars so far by a rover using only five wheels. Spirit lost the use of its right-front wheel in March 2006. Before Sol 1856, the farthest Spirit had covered in a single sol's five-wheel drive was 24.83 meters (81.5 feet), on Sol 1363 (Nov. 3, 2007). The Sol 1856 drive made progress on a route planned for taking Spirit around the western side of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' A portion of the northwestern edge of Home Plate is prominent in the left quarter of this image, toward the south. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  10. New Record Five-Wheel Drive, Spirit's Sol 1856 (Stereo) (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11962 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11962 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,856th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 23, 2009). The center of the view is toward the west-southwest. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 25.82 meters (84.7 feet) west-northwestward earlier on Sol 1856. This is the longest drive on Mars so far by a rover using only five wheels. Spirit lost the use of its right-front wheel in March 2006. Before Sol 1856, the farthest Spirit had covered in a single sol's five-wheel drive was 24.83 meters (81.5 feet), on Sol 1363 (Nov. 3, 2007). The Sol 1856 drive made progress on a route planned for taking Spirit around the western side of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' A portion of the northwestern edge of Home Plate is prominent in the left quarter of this image, toward the south. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  11. Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: results from the recidivism of alcohol-impaired driving (ROAD) study. (United States)

    Maenhout, Thomas M; Poll, Anneleen; Vermassen, Tijl; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R


    In several European countries, drivers under the influence (DUI), suspected of chronic alcohol abuse are referred for medical and psychological examination. This study (the ROAD study, or Recidivism Of Alcohol-impaired Driving) investigated the usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting drunk-driving recidivism in previously convicted drunk-driving offenders. The ROAD study is a prospective study (2009-13) that was performed on 517 randomly selected drivers in Belgium. They were convicted for drunk-driving for which their licence was confiscated. The initial post-arrest blood samples were collected and analysed for percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT), transaminsase activities [alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The observation time for each driver was 3 years and dynamic. A logistic regression analysis revealed that ln(%CDT) (P drunk-driving. The ROAD index (which includes ln(%CDT), ln(γGT), -ln(ALT) and the sex of the driver) was calculated and had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.71) than the individual biomarkers for drunk-driving recidivism. Drivers with a high risk of recidivating (ROAD index ≥ 25%; third tertile) could be distinguished from drivers with an intermediate risk (16% ≤ ROAD index drunk-driving. The association with gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine amino transferase and the sex of the driver could have additional value for identifying drunk-drivers at intermediate risk of recidivism. Non-specific indirect alcohol markers, such as alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate amino transferase and red cell mean corpuscular volume have minimal added value to % carbohydrate-deficient transferrin for distinguishing drunk drivers with a low or high risk of recidivism. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Temporal and Fine-Grained Pedestrian Action Recognition on Driving Recorder Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokatsu Kataoka


    Full Text Available The paper presents an emerging issue of fine-grained pedestrian action recognition that induces an advanced pre-crush safety to estimate a pedestrian intention in advance. The fine-grained pedestrian actions include visually slight differences (e.g., walking straight and crossing, which are difficult to distinguish from each other. It is believed that the fine-grained action recognition induces a pedestrian intention estimation for a helpful advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS. The following difficulties have been studied to achieve a fine-grained and accurate pedestrian action recognition: (i In order to analyze the fine-grained motion of a pedestrian appearance in the vehicle-mounted drive recorder, a method to describe subtle change of motion characteristics occurring in a short time is necessary; (ii even when the background moves greatly due to the driving of the vehicle, it is necessary to detect changes in subtle motion of the pedestrian; (iii the collection of large-scale fine-grained actions is very difficult, and therefore a relatively small database should be focused. We find out how to learn an effective recognition model with only a small-scale database. Here, we have thoroughly evaluated several types of configurations to explore an effective approach in fine-grained pedestrian action recognition without a large-scale database. Moreover, two different datasets have been collected in order to raise the issue. Finally, our proposal attained 91.01% on National Traffic Science and Environment Laboratory database (NTSEL and 53.23% on the near-miss driving recorder database (NDRDB. The paper has improved +8.28% and +6.53% from baseline two-stream fusion convnets.

  13. Temporal and Fine-Grained Pedestrian Action Recognition on Driving Recorder Database. (United States)

    Kataoka, Hirokatsu; Satoh, Yutaka; Aoki, Yoshimitsu; Oikawa, Shoko; Matsui, Yasuhiro


    The paper presents an emerging issue of fine-grained pedestrian action recognition that induces an advanced pre-crush safety to estimate a pedestrian intention in advance. The fine-grained pedestrian actions include visually slight differences (e.g., walking straight and crossing), which are difficult to distinguish from each other. It is believed that the fine-grained action recognition induces a pedestrian intention estimation for a helpful advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS). The following difficulties have been studied to achieve a fine-grained and accurate pedestrian action recognition: (i) In order to analyze the fine-grained motion of a pedestrian appearance in the vehicle-mounted drive recorder, a method to describe subtle change of motion characteristics occurring in a short time is necessary; (ii) even when the background moves greatly due to the driving of the vehicle, it is necessary to detect changes in subtle motion of the pedestrian; (iii) the collection of large-scale fine-grained actions is very difficult, and therefore a relatively small database should be focused. We find out how to learn an effective recognition model with only a small-scale database. Here, we have thoroughly evaluated several types of configurations to explore an effective approach in fine-grained pedestrian action recognition without a large-scale database. Moreover, two different datasets have been collected in order to raise the issue. Finally, our proposal attained 91.01% on National Traffic Science and Environment Laboratory database (NTSEL) and 53.23% on the near-miss driving recorder database (NDRDB). The paper has improved +8.28% and +6.53% from baseline two-stream fusion convnets.

  14. OptoZIF Drive: a 3D printed implant and assembly tool package for neural recording and optical stimulation in freely moving mice (United States)

    Freedman, David S.; Schroeder, Joseph B.; Telian, Gregory I.; Zhang, Zhengyang; Sunil, Smrithi; Ritt, Jason T.


    Objective. Behavioral neuroscience studies in freely moving rodents require small, light-weight implants to facilitate neural recording and stimulation. Our goal was to develop an integrated package of 3D printed parts and assembly aids for labs to rapidly fabricate, with minimal training, an implant that combines individually positionable microelectrodes, an optical fiber, zero insertion force (ZIF-clip) headstage connection, and secondary recording electrodes, e.g. for electromyography (EMG). Approach. Starting from previous implant designs that position recording electrodes using a control screw, we developed an implant where the main drive body, protective shell, and non-metal components of the microdrives are 3D printed in parallel. We compared alternative shapes and orientations of circuit boards for electrode connection to the headstage, in terms of their size, weight, and ease of wire insertion. We iteratively refined assembly methods, and integrated additional assembly aids into the 3D printed casing. Main results. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the OptoZIF Drive by performing real time optogenetic feedback in behaving mice. A novel feature of the OptoZIF Drive is its vertical circuit board, which facilities direct ZIF-clip connection. This feature requires angled insertion of an optical fiber that still can exit the drive from the center of a ring of recording electrodes. We designed an innovative 2-part protective shell that can be installed during the implant surgery to facilitate making additional connections to the circuit board. We use this feature to show that facial EMG in mice can be used as a control signal to lock stimulation to the animal’s motion, with stable EMG signal over several months. To decrease assembly time, reduce assembly errors, and improve repeatability, we fabricate assembly aids including a drive holder, a drill guide, an implant fixture for microelectode ‘pinning’, and a gold plating fixture. Significance. The

  15. Using gamification to drive patient’s personal data validation in a Personal Health Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Giunti


    Full Text Available Gamification is a term used to describe using game elements in non-game environments to enhance user experience. It has been incorporated with commercial success into several platforms (Linkedin, Badgeville, Facebook this has made some researchers theorize that it could also be used in education as a tool to increase student engagement and to drive desirable learning behaviors on them. While in the past years some game elements have been incorporated to healthcare there is still little evidence on how effective they are. Game elements provide engagement consistent with various theories of motivation, positive psychology (e.g., flow, and also provide instant feedback. Feedback is more effective when it provides sufficient and specific information for goal achievement and is presented relatively close in time to the event being evaluated. Feedback can reference individual progress, can make social comparisons, or can refer to task criteria. Electronic personal health record systems (PHRs support patient centered healthcare by making medical records and other relevant information accessible to patients, thus assisting patients in health self-management. A particularly difficult data set that is often difficult to capture are those regarding social and cultural background information. This data set is not only useful to help better healthcare system management, it is also relevant as it is used for epidemiological and preventive purposes. We used gamified mechanics that involve instant feedback to test if they would increase patient’s personal data validation and completion in our PHR as well as overall PHR use. On our presentation we will describe our results and the story behind them.

  16. The Glacial-Interglacial summer monsoon recorded in southwest Sulawesi speleothems: Evidence for sea level thresholds driving tropical monsoon strength (United States)

    Kimbrough, A. K.; Gagan, M. K.; Dunbar, G. B.; Krause, C.; Di Nezio, P. N.; Hantoro, W. S.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Shen, C. C.; Sun, H.; Cai, B.; Rifai, H.


    Southwest Sulawesi lies within the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP), at the center of atmospheric convection for two of the largest circulation cells on the planet, the meridional Hadley Cell and zonal Indo-Pacific Walker Circulation. Due to the geographic coincidence of these circulation cells, southwest Sulawesi serves as a hotspot for changes in tropical Pacific climate variability and Australian-Indonesian summer monsoon (AISM) strength over glacial-interglacial (G-I) timescales. The work presented here spans 386 - 127 ky BP, including glacial terminations IV ( 340 ky BP) and both phases of TIII (TIII 248 ky BP and TIIIa 217 ky BP). This record, along with previous work from southwest Sulawesi spanning the last 40 kyr, reveals coherent climatic features over three complete G-I cycles. The multi-stalagmite Sulawesi speleothem δ18O record demonstrates that on G-I timescales, the strength of the AISM is most sensitive to changes in sea level and its impact on the regional distribution of land and shallow ocean. Stalagmite δ18O and trace element (Mg/Ca) data indicate a rapid increase in rainfall at glacial terminations and wet interglacials. TIV, TIII, TIIIa, and TI are each characterized by an abrupt 3‰ decrease in δ18O that coincides with sea level rise and flooding of the Sunda and Sahul shelves. Strong evidence for a sea level (flooding/exposure) threshold is found throughout the southwest Sulawesi record. This is most clearly demonstrated over the period 230 - 212 ky BP (MIS 7d-7c), when a sea level fall to only -80 to -60 m for 10 kyr results in a weakened AISM and glacial conditions, followed by a full termination. Taken together, both glaciations and glacial terminations imply a sea level threshold driving the AISM between two primary levels of intensity (`interglacial' & `glacial'). These massive, sea-level driven shifts in AISM strength are superimposed on precession-scale variability associated with boreal fall insolation at the equator, indicating

  17. Long Term Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition at NOAA - Driving Science with 60 Year-old Records (United States)

    Butler, J. H.


    NOAA's Global Monitoring Division and its precursor organizations have provided some of the longest real-time records of the trends and distributions of climatically relevant substances in the atmosphere, some going back for 60 years ( The focus of these measurements has been on obtaining reliable records of global trends and distributions of these substances, but the experimental design and use of measurements have advanced over time with evolving scientific questions. Today, and into this century, scientific questions continue to progress and the observing systems that address them will need to progress accordingly. Long-term, ground based observing systems in NOAA's Global Monitoring Division focus largely on three sets of questions, two of which align with WCRP grand challenges. These are Carbon Cycle System Feedbacks, Trends in Surface Radiation and Cloud Distributions, and Recovery of Stratospheric Ozone. The data collected and analyzed help us understand radiative forcing, climate sensitivity, air quality, climate modification, renewable energy options, and arctic processes, and they are useful for verifying model output and satellite retrievals. Regional information will become increasingly important for mitigating and adapting to climate change, and this information must be accurate, precise, and without bias. NOAA, with its long-standing networks and its role in providing calibrations for partnering organizations, is well positioned to provide the linkages necessary to assure that regional measurements are comparable. This presentation will identify major, climate-relevant findings that have come from NOAA's networks in the past and will address the long-term monitoring needs to support decision-making over coming decades as society begins to seriously address climate change.

  18. The 2009 Retirement Confidence Survey: economy drives confidence to record lows; many looking to work longer. (United States)

    Helman, Ruth; Copeland, Craig; VanDerhei, Jack


    RECORD LOW CONFIDENCE LEVELS: Workers who say they are very confident about having enough money for a comfortable retirement this year hit the lowest level in 2009 (13 percent) since the Retirement Confidence Survey started asking the question in 1993, continuing a two-year decline. Retirees also posted a new low in confidence about having a financially secure retirement, with only 20 percent now saying they are very confident (down from 41 percent in 2007). THE ECONOMY, INFLATION, COST OF LIVING ARE THE BIG CONCERNS: Not surprisingly, workers overall who have lost confidence over the past year about affording a comfortable retirement most often cite the recent economic uncertainty, inflation, and the cost of living as primary factors. In addition, certain negative experiences, such as job loss or a pay cut, loss of retirement savings, or an increase in debt, almost always contribute to loss of confidence among those who experience them. RETIREMENT EXPECTATIONS DELAYED: Workers apparently expect to work longer because of the economic downturn: 28 percent of workers in the 2009 RCS say the age at which they expect to retire has changed in the past year. Of those, the vast majority (89 percent) say that they have postponed retirement with the intention of increasing their financial security. Nevertheless, the median (mid-point) worker expects to retire at age 65, with 21 percent planning to push on into their 70s. The median retiree actually retired at age 62, and 47 percent of retirees say they retired sooner than planned. WORKING IN RETIREMENT: More workers are also planning to supplement their income in retirement by working for pay. The percentage of workers planning to work after they retire has increased to 72 percent in 2009 (up from 66 percent in 2007). This compares with 34 percent of retirees who report they actually worked for pay at some time during their retirement. GREATER WORRY ABOUT BASIC AND HEALTH EXPENSES: Workers who say they very confident in

  19. Examining rare and low-frequency genetic variants previously associated with lone or familial forms of atrial fibrillation in an electronic medical record system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, Peter; Denny, Joshua C; Basterache, Lisa


    of European or African ancestry with electronic medical records and exome chip data to compare the frequency of AF among carriers and noncarriers of these rare variants. METHODS AND RESULTS: The exome chip included 19 of 115 rare variants, in 9 genes, previously associated with lone or familial AF. Using......BACKGROUND: Studies in individuals or small kindreds have implicated rare variants in 25 different genes in lone and familial atrial fibrillation (AF) using linkage and segregation analysis, functional characterization, and rarity in public databases. Here, we used a cohort of 20 204 patients...... validated algorithms querying a combination of clinical notes, structured billing codes, ECG reports, and procedure codes, we identified 1056 AF cases (>18 years) and 19 148 non-AF controls (>50 years) with available genotype data on the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip v.1.0 in the Vanderbilt electronic...

  20. Integration of silicon-based neural probes and micro-drive arrays for chronic recording of large populations of neurons in behaving animals. (United States)

    Michon, Frédéric; Aarts, Arno; Holzhammer, Tobias; Ruther, Patrick; Borghs, Gustaaf; McNaughton, Bruce; Kloosterman, Fabian


    Understanding how neuronal assemblies underlie cognitive function is a fundamental question in system neuroscience. It poses the technical challenge to monitor the activity of populations of neurons, potentially widely separated, in relation to behaviour. In this paper, we present a new system which aims at simultaneously recording from a large population of neurons from multiple separated brain regions in freely behaving animals. The concept of the new device is to combine the benefits of two existing electrophysiological techniques, i.e. the flexibility and modularity of micro-drive arrays and the high sampling ability of electrode-dense silicon probes. Newly engineered long bendable silicon probes were integrated into a micro-drive array. The resulting device can carry up to 16 independently movable silicon probes, each carrying 16 recording sites. Populations of neurons were recorded simultaneously in multiple cortical and/or hippocampal sites in two freely behaving implanted rats. Current approaches to monitor neuronal activity either allow to flexibly record from multiple widely separated brain regions (micro-drive arrays) but with a limited sampling density or to provide denser sampling at the expense of a flexible placement in multiple brain regions (neural probes). By combining these two approaches and their benefits, we present an alternative solution for flexible and simultaneous recordings from widely distributed populations of neurons in freely behaving rats.

  1. New Record of Sillago sinica (Pisces: Sillaginidae in Korean Waters, and Re-identification of Sillago parvisquamis Previously Reported from Korea as S. sinica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Bae


    Full Text Available A single specimen of the genus Sillago, collected from Gwangyang, Korea, in May 2009, is characterized by XI first dorsal fin spines, 3 or 4 rows of melanophore pattern along the second dorsal fin membrane, and a darkish posterior margin of the caudal fin. Our specimen was identified as Sillago sinica reported as a new species; this identification is confirmed by mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequences, which show that our specimen corresponds to S. sinica (d=0.000 and differs from the congeneric species Sillago parvisquamis (d=0.170. Comparisons of Korean specimens previously reported as S. parvisquamis with specimens of S. sinica show that the S. parvisquamis specimens are actually S. sinica. We propose the new Korean name “buk-bang-jeom-bo-ri-myeol” for S. sinica.

  2. Driving things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard


    . pp.155 (( Nevile, M., Haddington, P., Heinemann, T., Rauniomaa, M. (Eds.) Interacting with objects: Language, materiality, and social activity. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Redshaw, S. (2008....... Interaction with objects reflects the car’s role beyond mere transport as a site of personal, social, and work life (Featherstone et al. 2005; Redshaw 2008). Studies of interaction examine this role as it is actually enacted, understood, and accomplished, in situ through participants’ practices (e.g. Laurier...... of in-car distractions, and how they impact driving activities (Nevile & Haddington 2010). Data are video recordings of ordinary journeys, capturing drivers and passengers in real-world real-time driving situations (27 hours, 90 journeys). For driving and road safety, research and experience has...

  3. Community Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke


    opportunity to break boundaries between research institutions and surrounding communities through the involvement of new types of actors, knowledge forms and institutions (OECD, 2011). This paper presents the project Community Drive a three year cross disciplinary community-driven game– and data-based project....... In the paper we present how the project Community Drive initiated in May 2018 is based on results from pilot projects conducted from 2014 – 2017. Overall these studies showed that it is a strong motivational factor for students to be given the task to change their living conditions through redesign...... of living in the area. The paper discusses potentials and pitfalls of designing community-driven science gaming environments and how results from previous studies can form the project Community Drive....

  4. Assessment of driving outcomes after epilepsy surgery. (United States)

    Dawkins, Ross L; Omar, Nidal B; Agee, Bonita S; Walters, Beverly C; Riley, Kristen O


    Driving is an important factor contributing to good quality of life in patients with epilepsy. Little work has been undertaken to explore the details of driving experience alone in this patient population. We assessed the driving status of our patients prior to and following surgery for epilepsy. We also sought to determine what associations exist between patient characteristics and postoperative driving status. The participants were selected from those adult patients with epilepsy who have required surgical treatment at our home institution between 2006 and 2010. Each participant received a questionnaire asking about driving and seizure status before and after surgery. The surveys were distributed using a modified Dillman approach. Perioperative patient data were obtained from the electronic medical record system in addition to a previously assembled epilepsy database from the Neurology Department at our institution. Independent variables were analyzed to look for significant associations with driving outcomes. One hundred forty eligible patients were included in the survey population; 78 patients returned a questionnaire for a response rate of 55.7%. Eighty percent of patients experienced driving as a regular part of life at some point prior to surgery. At the time of the questionnaire distribution, 68% of patients had returned to regular driving. Demographic characteristics did not play a significant role in whether or not the patient had a favorable driving outcome after surgery. However, patients who had a history of driving on a regular basis prior to surgery and those who had an Engel Class I outcome after surgery had significantly higher rates of good driving outcomes. Also, patients with an unfavorable preoperative driving status were more likely to have a favorable driving outcome after surgery if they had an Engel Class I outcome. Patients in whom intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) was utilized prior to resection had worse driving outcomes. A

  5. Dementia & Driving (United States)

    ... find the loss of driving privileges and the inherent loss of independence upsetting. Encourage the individual with ... to modify their driving. This can reduce the risk of an accident if the individual’s driving skills ...

  6. Drive Stands (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...

  7. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion


    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  9. In Patients With Cirrhosis, Driving Simulator Performance Is Associated With Real-life Driving. (United States)

    Lauridsen, Mette M; Thacker, Leroy R; White, Melanie B; Unser, Ariel; Sterling, Richard K; Stravitz, Richard T; Matherly, Scott; Puri, Puneet; Sanyal, Arun J; Gavis, Edith A; Luketic, Velimir; Siddiqui, Muhammad S; Heuman, Douglas M; Fuchs, Michael; Bajaj, Jasmohan S


    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) has been linked to higher real-life rates of automobile crashes and poor performance in driving simulation studies, but the link between driving simulator performance and real-life automobile crashes has not been clearly established. Furthermore, not all patients with MHE are unsafe drivers, but it is unclear how to distinguish them from unsafe drivers. We investigated the link between performance on driving simulators and real-life automobile accidents and traffic violations. We also aimed to identify features of unsafe drivers with cirrhosis and evaluated changes in simulated driving skills and MHE status after 1 year. We performed a study of outpatients with cirrhosis (n = 205; median 55 years old; median model for end-stage liver disease score, 9.5; none with overt hepatic encephalopathy or alcohol or illicit drug use within previous 6 months) seen at the Virginia Commonwealth University and McGuire Veterans Administration Medical Center, from November 2008 through April 2014. All participants were given paper-pencil tests to diagnose MHE (98 had MHE; 48%), and 163 patients completed a standardized driving simulation. Data were collected on traffic violations and automobile accidents from the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles and from participants' self-assessments when they entered the study, and from 73 participants 1 year later. Participants also completed a questionnaire about alcohol use and cessation patterns. The driving simulator measured crashes, run-time, road center and edge excursions, and illegal turns during navigation; before and after each driving simulation session, patients were asked to rate their overall driving skills. Drivers were classified as safe or unsafe based on crashes and violations reported on official driving records; simulation results were compared with real-life driving records. Multivariable regression analyses of real-life crashes and violations was performed using data on

  10. Incorporating 3D-printing technology in the design of head-caps and electrode drives for recording neurons in multiple brain regions. (United States)

    Headley, Drew B; DeLucca, Michael V; Haufler, Darrell; Paré, Denis


    Recent advances in recording and computing hardware have enabled laboratories to record the electrical activity of multiple brain regions simultaneously. Lagging behind these technical advances, however, are the methods needed to rapidly produce microdrives and head-caps that can flexibly accommodate different recording configurations. Indeed, most available designs target single or adjacent brain regions, and, if multiple sites are targeted, specially constructed head-caps are used. Here, we present a novel design style, for both microdrives and head-caps, which takes advantage of three-dimensional printing technology. This design facilitates targeting of multiple brain regions in various configurations. Moreover, the parts are easily fabricated in large quantities, with only minor hand-tooling and finishing required. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak


    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  12. Drowsy Driving (United States)

    ... at least 8 hours. 8-9 Develop good sleeping habits such as sticking to a sleep schedule. If ... K, Howard ME. Cognitive components of simulated driving performance: sleep loss effects and predictors. Accid Anal Prev. 2012; ...

  13. Distracted Driving (United States)

    ... Communities Toolkit Best Practices Guide Publications Motorcycle Safety Bicycle Safety Publications Global Road Safety Get Email Updates ... study. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety keeps track of distracted driving laws. 7 As of June ...

  14. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics. (United States)

    Wood, Joanne M; Black, Alex A; Mallon, Kerry; Thomas, Ravi; Owsley, Cynthia


    To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment. Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years) with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB) and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years). On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability. Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness.

  15. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk (United States)

    ... phone, or texting—raises the risk of a crash. NIH-funded researchers analyzed the driving habits of both novice teen and experienced drivers. Vehicles were equipped with 4 cameras that recorded video whenever the cars were moving. A suite of sensors recorded acceleration, ...

  16. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone


    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  17. Older drivers with cognitive impairment: Perceived changes in driving skills, driving-related discomfort and self-regulation of driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, A.; Siren, A.; Teasdale, Thomas William


    drivers may recognise cognitive problems, they tend not to recognise changes to their driving, which may reflect reluctance to acknowledge the impact of cognitive impairment on their driving. Furthermore, the results suggest that driving-related discomfort plays an important role in the self-regulation......The results of a previous study indicate that in general, older drivers who recognise cognitive problems show realistic self-assessment of changes in their driving skills and that driving-related discomfort may function as an indirect monitoring of driving ability, contributing to their safe...... of driving among cognitively impaired older drivers. However, it is less clear what triggers driving-related discomfort among cognitively impaired older drivers indicating that it may be a less reliable aspect of their self-monitoring of driving ability....

  18. Measurement of Driving Terms

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, F; Faus-Golfe, A


    In 2000 a series of MDs has been performed at the SPS to measure resonance driving terms. Theory predicts that these terms can be determined by harmonic analysis of BPM data recorded after applying single kicks at various amplitudes. Strong sextupoles were introduced to create a sizeable amount of nonlinearities. Experiments at injection energy (26 GeV) with single bunch as well as one experiment at 120 GeV with 84 bunches were carried out. The expected nonlinear content is compared to the experimenteal observation.

  19. Driving context influences drivers' decision to engage in visual-manual phone tasks: Evidence from a naturalistic driving study. (United States)

    Tivesten, Emma; Dozza, Marco


    Visual-manual (VM) phone tasks (i.e., texting, dialing, reading) are associated with an increased crash/near-crash risk. This study investigated how the driving context influences drivers' decisions to engage in VM phone tasks in naturalistic driving. Video-recordings of 1,432 car trips were viewed to identify VM phone tasks and passenger presence. Video, vehicle signals, and map data were used to classify driving context (i.e., curvature, other vehicles) before and during the VM phone tasks (N=374). Vehicle signals (i.e., speed, yaw rate, forward radar) were available for all driving. VM phone tasks were more likely to be initiated while standing still, and less likely while driving at high speeds, or when a passenger was present. Lead vehicle presence did not influence how likely it was that a VM phone task was initiated, but the drivers adjusted their task timing to situations when the lead vehicle was increasing speed, resulting in increasing time headway. The drivers adjusted task timing until after making sharp turns and lane change maneuvers. In contrast to previous driving simulator studies, there was no evidence of drivers reducing speed as a consequence of VM phone task engagement. The results show that experienced drivers use information about current and upcoming driving context to decide when to engage in VM phone tasks. However, drivers may fail to sufficiently increase safety margins to allow time to respond to possible unpredictable events (e.g., lead vehicle braking). Advanced driver assistance systems should facilitate and possibly boost drivers' self-regulating behavior. For instance, they might recognize when appropriate adaptive behavior is missing and advise or alert accordingly. The results from this study could also inspire training programs for novice drivers, or locally classify roads in terms of the risk associated with secondary task engagement while driving. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Factors driving the biogeochemical budget of the Amazon River and its statistical modelling Facteurs denext term contrôle du bilan biogéochimique previous termdenext term l'Amazone et modélisation statistique associée


    Bustillo , Vincent; Victoria , Reynaldo Luiz; Sousa De Moura , Jose Mauro; De Castro Victoria , Daniel; Toledo , Andrade; Collicchio , Erich


    International audience; The seasonal and interannual fluctuations of the biogeochemical budget (solutes, suspended matter, isotopes) of the Amazon River basin were analyzed, with a special focus on 44 physicochemical parameters monitored over the period 1982-1984 during the Carbon in the AMazon River Experiment (CAMREX) project. The relevant factors driving this variability were identified and sorted through the implementation of a statistical-regressive model coupled to variance analysis. Ba...

  1. Instruction or distraction in the driving school?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mike Kirk; Caglio, Agnese

    In this paper we report an ongoing study of driving school practice. We recorded several hours of driving lessons in different environments, which we analyze with the Interaction Analysis method. Our initial analysis suggests that looking at how teachers make use of different communicative resour...... resources to instruct students in driving, can provide insights for the development of technologies that support drivers in managing distractions....

  2. Simple gaze-contingent cues guide eye movements in a realistic driving simulator (United States)

    Pomarjanschi, Laura; Dorr, Michael; Bex, Peter J.; Barth, Erhardt


    Looking at the right place at the right time is a critical component of driving skill. Therefore, gaze guidance has the potential to become a valuable driving assistance system. In previous work, we have already shown that complex gaze-contingent stimuli can guide attention and reduce the number of accidents in a simple driving simulator. We here set out to investigate whether cues that are simple enough to be implemented in a real car can also capture gaze during a more realistic driving task in a high-fidelity driving simulator. We used a state-of-the-art, wide-field-of-view driving simulator with an integrated eye tracker. Gaze-contingent warnings were implemented using two arrays of light-emitting diodes horizontally fitted below and above the simulated windshield. Thirteen volunteering subjects drove along predetermined routes in a simulated environment popu­ lated with autonomous traffic. Warnings were triggered during the approach to half of the intersections, cueing either towards the right or to the left. The remaining intersections were not cued, and served as controls. The analysis of the recorded gaze data revealed that the gaze-contingent cues did indeed have a gaze guiding effect, triggering a significant shift in gaze position towards the highlighted direction. This gaze shift was not accompanied by changes in driving behaviour, suggesting that the cues do not interfere with the driving task itself.

  3. Older drivers' self-assessed driving skills, driving-related stress and self-regulation in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Meng, Annette


    Previous research on older drivers has indicated connections between self-rated driving ability, confidence in their own driving, driving-related stress, and self-regulatory behaviour. However, more systematic associations between older drivers' perceptions on their own driving and self-regulatio...

  4. Safe driving for teens (United States)

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... MAKE A COMMITTMENT TO SAFETY Teens also need to commit to being safe and responsible drivers in order to improve the odds in their favor. Reckless driving ...

  5. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests. (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P


    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  6. Driving Performance Under Alcohol in Simulated Representative Driving Tasks (United States)

    Kenntner-Mabiala, Ramona; Kaussner, Yvonne; Jagiellowicz-Kaufmann, Monika; Hoffmann, Sonja; Krüger, Hans-Peter


    Abstract Comparing drug-induced driving impairments with the effects of benchmark blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) is an approved approach to determine the clinical relevance of findings for traffic safety. The present study aimed to collect alcohol calibration data to validate findings of clinical trials that were derived from a representative test course in a dynamic driving simulator. The driving performance of 24 healthy volunteers under placebo and with 0.05% and 0.08% BACs was measured in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Trained investigators assessed the subjects’ driving performance and registered their driving errors. Various driving parameters that were recorded during the simulation were also analyzed. Generally, the participants performed worse on the test course (P the investigators’ assessment) under the influence of alcohol. Consistent with the relevant literature, lane-keeping performance parameters were sensitive to the investigated BACs. There were significant differences between the alcohol and placebo conditions in most of the parameters analyzed. However, the total number of errors was the only parameter discriminating significantly between all three BAC conditions. In conclusion, data show that the present experimental setup is suitable for future psychopharmacological research. Thereby, for each drug to be investigated, we recommend to assess a profile of various parameters that address different levels of driving. On the basis of this performance profile, the total number of driving errors is recommended as the primary endpoint. However, this overall endpoint should be completed by a specifically sensitive parameter that is chosen depending on the effect known to be induced by the tested drug. PMID:25689289

  7. Low Sex Drive in Women (United States)

    ... Low self-esteem History of physical or sexual abuse Previous negative sexual experiences Relationship issues For many women, emotional closeness is an essential prelude to sexual intimacy. So problems in your relationship can be a major factor in low sex drive. Decreased interest in sex is often a ...

  8. Effects of driving time on microsaccadic dynamics. (United States)

    Di Stasi, Leandro L; McCamy, Michael B; Pannasch, Sebastian; Renner, Rebekka; Catena, Andrés; Cañas, José J; Velichkovsky, Boris M; Martinez-Conde, Susana


    Driver fatigue is a common cause of car accidents. Thus, the objective detection of driver fatigue is a first step toward the effective management of fatigue-related traffic accidents. Here, we investigated the effects of driving time, a common inducer of driver fatigue, on the dynamics of fixational eye movements. Participants drove for 2 h in a virtual driving environment while we recorded their eye movements. Microsaccade velocities decreased with driving time, suggesting a potential effect of fatigue on microsaccades during driving.

  9. Perceived confidence relates to driving habits post-stroke. (United States)

    McNamara, Annabel; Walker, Ruth; Ratcliffe, Julie; George, Stacey


    Returning to driving post-stroke is a step towards independence. On return to driving following stroke, confidence is related to performance in on-road assessment and self-regulation of driving behaviours occurs. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between driver's confidence and driving habits post-stroke. Structured telephone surveys were completed with 40 stroke survivors (62% men), of mean age 65 years SD 12.17 who returned to driving post-stroke within the previous 3 years. The survey included: (1) socio-demographics, (2) Adelaide Driving Self Efficacy Scale (ADSES) and (3) Driving Habits Questionnaire (DHQ). Male stroke survivors were more likely to return to driving, drive further and more often. Stroke survivors under 65 years were likely to drive further. Driving confidence was significantly associated with kilometres driven (p = 0.006), distance driven (p = 0.027) and self-limiting driving (p = 0.00). Findings indicate a relationship between confidence and driving behaviours post-stroke. Early recognition of driving confidence will help professionals target specific strategies, encouraging stroke survivors to return to full driving potential, access activities and positively influence quality of life. Implications for Rehabilitation Findings indicate a relationship between confidence and driving behaviours post-stroke. Early recognition of driving confidence will help professionals target specific strategies, encouraging stroke survivors to return to full driving potential, access activities and positively influence quality of life.

  10. Psychological predictors of college students' cell phone use while driving. (United States)

    Schlehofer, Michèle M; Thompson, Suzanne C; Ting, Sarah; Ostermann, Sharon; Nierman, Angela; Skenderian, Jessica


    Despite the known risk, many people talk on a phone while driving. This study explored psychological predictors of cell phone use while driving. College students (final N=69) completed a survey and predicted their driving performance both with and without a simultaneous phone conversation. Their actual performance on a driving simulator was then assessed. Cell phone use reduced performance on the simulation task. Further, perceiving oneself as good at compensating for driving distractions, overestimating one's performance on the driving simulator, and high illusory control predicted more frequent cell phone use while driving in everyday life. Finally, those who talked more frequently on a phone while driving had poorer real-world driving records. These findings suggest illusory control and positive illusions partly explain driver's decisions of whether to use cell phones while driving. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of an onboard system to measure the on-road driving pattern for developing motorcycle driving cycle in Khon Kaen city, Thailand


    Seedam, Atthapol; Satiennam, Thaned; Radpukdee, Thana; Satiennam, Wichuda


    This study developed an onboard system to measure the on-road driving pattern for a motorcycle driving cycle in Khon Kaen city, Thailand. The developed system, validated with high accuracy results, could measure and record a driving pattern, i.e. a speed profile of a driving motorcycle. The selected motorcycle was driven along selected routes in Khon Kaen city under the existing traffic conditions to collect the on-road driving pattern. The Khon Kaen motorcycle driving cycle (KMDC) was develo...

  12. Dementia and driving (United States)

    ... this page: // Dementia and driving To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. If your loved one has dementia , deciding when they can no longer drive may ...

  13. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimano, Kunio; Nakamura, Akira; Mizuguchi, Koji; Sakai, Kazuhito; Mitsui, Hisayasu.


    The present invention concerns upper-built-in type control rod drives of a BWR type reactor. Namely, high temperature linear motor driving type control rod drives are disposed in an upper space of the reactor pressure vessel, which generates electromagnetic power. In usual driving of control rods, driving shafts connected with control rods by a high temperature linear motor driving system comprising a driving shaft having an iron core inserted therein and electromagnetic coils is vertically moved to insert/withdraw the control rods to and from the reactor core. Upon occurrence of reactor scram, electric power source is interrupted, and the control rods are rapidly inserted to the reactor core. According to the present invention, since the control rod drives are disposed in the space above the reactor pressure vessel, pipelines or equipments passing through the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel can be saved. As a result, operation for maintenance and inspection is facilitated. (I.S.)

  14. The Alabama VIP older driver study rationale and design: examining the relationship between vision impairment and driving using naturalistic driving techniques. (United States)

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald; Antin, Jonathan F; Wood, Joanne M; Elgin, Jennifer


    Older drivers aged ≥70 years old have among the highest rates of motor vehicle collisions (MVC) compared to other age groups. Driving is a highly visual task, and older adults have a high prevalence of vision impairment compared to other ages. Most studies addressing visual risk factors for MVCs by older drivers utilize vehicle accident reports as the primary outcome, an approach with several methodological limitations. Naturalistic driving research methods overcome these challenges and involve installing a high-tech, unobtrusive data acquisition system (DAS) in an older driver's own vehicle. The DAS continuously records multi-channel video of driver and roadway, sensor-based kinematics, GPS location, and presence of nearby objects in front of the vehicle, providing an objective measure of driving exposure. In this naturalistic driving study, the purpose is to examine the relationship between vision and crashes and near-crashes, lane-keeping, turning at intersections, driving performance during secondary tasks demands, and the role of front-seat passengers. An additional aim is to compare results of the on-road driving evaluation by a certified driving rehabilitation specialist to objective indicators of driving performance derived from the naturalistic data. Drivers ≥70 years old are recruited from ophthalmology clinics and a previous population-based study of older drivers, with the goal of recruiting persons with wide ranging visual function. Target samples size is 195 drivers. At a baseline visit, the DAS is installed in the participant's vehicle and a battery of health and functional assessments are administered to the driver including visual-sensory and visual-cognitive tests. The DAS remains installed in the vehicle for six months while the participant goes about his/her normal driving with no imposed study restrictions. After six months, the driver returns for DAS de-installation, repeat vision testing, and an on-road driving evaluation by a certified

  15. The identification of Malaysian driving styles using the multidimensional driving style inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karjanto Juffrizal


    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the driving styles within the geographical region of Malaysia. The first part of the study determined Malaysian drivers’ driving styles using the Multidimensional Driving Style Inventory approach. Respondents had various backgrounds in terms of age, gender and experience of driving. A statistical factor analysis was done for 338 respondents revealing four driving styles; careful, risky, anxious-dissociative and angry. In addition, a comparison with previous findings from Netherlands and Israel was also done in this study. The next part of the study focused on the associations of these driving styles with two personality traits (sensation seeking and desire for control, sociodemographic factors and experience of driving. The last part of the paper discusses the relevance of the study against the background of future automotive development.

  16. Gear bearing drive (United States)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)


    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  17. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads


    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  18. High performance AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Mukhtar


    This book presents a comprehensive view of high performance ac drives. It may be considered as both a text book for graduate students and as an up-to-date monograph. It may also be used by R & D professionals involved in the improvement of performance of drives in the industries. The book will also be beneficial to the researchers pursuing work on multiphase drives as well as sensorless and direct torque control of electric drives since up-to date references in these topics are provided. It will also provide few examples of modeling, analysis and control of electric drives using MATLAB/SIMULIN

  19. Expressing Anger Is More Dangerous than Feeling Angry when Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Qu

    Full Text Available Anger is an emotion that drivers often feel and express while driving, and it is believed by researchers to be an important cause of dangerous driving behavior. In this study, the relationships between driving trait anger, driving anger expression, and dangerous driving behaviors were analyzed. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS was used to measure driving trait anger, whereas the Driving Anger Expression (DAX Inventory was used to measure expressions of driving anger. A sample of 38 drivers completed the DAS, DAX, and a driving simulation session on a simulator where their driving behaviors were recorded. Correlation analysis showed that the higher scores on the DAS were associated with longer durations of speeding in the simulator. The more participants expressed their anger in verbal and physical ways, the more likely they were to crash the virtual vehicle during the simulation. Regression analyses illustrated the same pattern. The findings suggest that, although trait anger is related to speeding, the passive expression of anger is the real factor underling traffic accidents. This study extends findings about the predictive effects of self-report scales of driving behaviors to behaviors recorded on a simulator. Thus, if in traffic safety propaganda, guiding drivers to use positive ways to cope with driving anger is recommended by our findings.

  20. Expressing Anger Is More Dangerous than Feeling Angry when Driving (United States)

    Qu, Weina; Dai, Mengnuo; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan


    Anger is an emotion that drivers often feel and express while driving, and it is believed by researchers to be an important cause of dangerous driving behavior. In this study, the relationships between driving trait anger, driving anger expression, and dangerous driving behaviors were analyzed. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS) was used to measure driving trait anger, whereas the Driving Anger Expression (DAX) Inventory was used to measure expressions of driving anger. A sample of 38 drivers completed the DAS, DAX, and a driving simulation session on a simulator where their driving behaviors were recorded. Correlation analysis showed that the higher scores on the DAS were associated with longer durations of speeding in the simulator. The more participants expressed their anger in verbal and physical ways, the more likely they were to crash the virtual vehicle during the simulation. Regression analyses illustrated the same pattern. The findings suggest that, although trait anger is related to speeding, the passive expression of anger is the real factor underling traffic accidents. This study extends findings about the predictive effects of self-report scales of driving behaviors to behaviors recorded on a simulator. Thus, if in traffic safety propaganda, guiding drivers to use positive ways to cope with driving anger is recommended by our findings. PMID:27258144

  1. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section]. (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir


    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  2. Displacement effects of pile driving during offshore wind farm construction on harbour porpoises (Phocoena Phocoena)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Miriam; Diederichs, Ansgar; Wollheim, Laura; Betke, Klaus; Nehls, Georg


    Full text: Noise emissions from pile driving during offshore wind farm construction may injure marine mammals in the vicinity and cause large-scale disturbance and habitat displacement. So far little is known about the responses of marine mammals to such noise emissions making it difficult to predict possible impacts on their population and conservation status. We investigated spatial and temporal responses of harbour porpoises to pile driving during construction of 92 mono-pile foundations in the Danish North Sea in 2008 and of 6 tripod and 6 jacket foundations in the German North Sea in 2009. We used passive acoustic monitoring devices that record harbour porpoise echolocation clicks (T-PODs), which were deployed at different distances from the construction site. Noise levels during pile driving were measured at various distances. We found a clear impact of pile driving on the recordings of harbour porpoises, which stayed below average normal levels for up to 72 hours after pile driving in the near vicinity. A negative impact could be detected out to a distance of about 18 km, while at 22 km no negative effect was found. Here porpoise recordings temporarily increased. This shows that effects of wind farm construction reach over considerable distances and last much longer than previously assumed. We further found some differences between the effects of the different types of construction, possibly linked to the varying pile driving durations that were necessary. These results should be considered for future spatial and temporal planning of offshore wind farm constructions. Suitable mitigation measures should be adopted to reduce such far and long reaching effects on harbour porpoises and possibly other marine mammals. (Author)

  3. Universal Drive Train Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...

  4. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Koichi.


    In control rod drives, differential pressure sensors are disposed at the inlet and the exit of a driving water pressure control valve disposed in a driving water supply device and, when deviation of fluctuation of the differential pressure from a set value is detected, a pressure control valve for driving water is controlled so as to make the differential pressure constant. The differential pressure sensors detect the differential pressure between the pressure of the control rod drives at the inlet and the exit of the driving water pressure control valve and a pressure in a reactor dome. A judging circuit judges whether the differential pressure between both sides of the driving water pressure control valve is deviated from a set value or not and, if it deviates from the set value, outputs of judging signal to the control device. In the control device, the opening degree of the driving water pressure control valve is controlled, so that the differential pressure between both sides of the driving water pressure control value is constant and does not deviate from the set value. There are provided advantageous effects of preventing abnormal control rod withdrawing phenomenon to improve safety and reliability for the control of the reactor operation. (N.H.)

  5. Medications and impaired driving. (United States)

    Hetland, Amanda; Carr, David B


    To describe the association of specific medication classes with driving outcomes and provide clinical recommendations. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1973 to June 2013 on classes of medications associated with driving impairment. The search included outcome terms such as automobile driving, motor vehicle crash, driving simulator, and road tests. Only English-language articles that contained findings from observational or interventional designs with ≥ 10 participants were included in this review. Cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. Driving is an important task and activity for the majority of adults. Some commonly prescribed medications have been associated with driving impairment measured by road performance, driving simulation, and/or motor vehicle crashes. This review of 30 studies identified findings with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, antidepressants, opioid and nonsteroidal analgesics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antiparkinsonian agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, anticholinergic medications, and hypoglycemic agents. Additional studies of medication impact on sedation, sleep latency, and psychomotor function, as well as the role of alcohol, are also discussed. Psychotropic agents and those with central nervous system side effects were associated with measures of impaired driving performance. It is difficult to determine if such associations are actually a result of medication use or the medical diagnosis itself. Regardless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of impaired driving with specific classes of medications, educate their patients, and/or consider safer alternatives.

  6. Records Management (United States)

    Ray, Charles M.


    This discussion of evaluating a records management course includes comments on management orientation, creation of records, maintenance of records, selection and use of equipment, storage and destruction of records, micrographics, and a course outline. (TA)

  7. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette


    How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV......How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV...

  8. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    CERN Document Server

    Veltman, André; De Doncker, Rik W


    Provides a comprehensive introduction to various aspects of electrical drive systems. This volume provides a presentation of dynamic generic models that cover all major electrical machine types and modulation/control components of a drive as well as dynamic and steady state analysis of transformers and electrical machines.

  9. Piezoelectric drive circuit (United States)

    Treu, C.A. Jr.


    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  10. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  11. Self-driving carsickness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.


    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  12. Self-driving carsickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.


    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  13. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira.


    Purpose: To enable to monitor the coupling state between a control rod and a control rod drive. Constitution: After the completion of a control rod withdrawal, a coolant pressure is applied to a control rod drive being adjusted so as to raise only the control rod drive and, in a case where the coupling between the control rod drive and the control rod is detached, the former is elevated till it contacts the control rod and then stopped. The actual stopping position is detected by an actual position detection circuit and compared with a predetermined position stored in a predetermined position detection circuit. If both of the positions are not aligned with each other, it is judged by a judging circuit that the control rod and the control rod drives are not combined. (Sekiya, K.)

  14. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev


    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  15. Turbulent current drive mechanisms (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua


    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  16. Identifying Method of Drunk Driving Based on Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhao


    Full Text Available Drunk driving is one of the leading causes contributing to traffic crashes. There are numerous issues that need to be resolved with the current method of identifying drunk driving. Driving behavior, with the characteristic of real-time, was extensively researched to identify impaired driving behaviors. In this paper, the drives with BACs above 0.05% were defined as drunk driving state. A detailed comparison was made between normal driving and drunk driving. The experiment in driving simulator was designed to collect the driving performance data of the groups. According to the characteristics analysis for the effect of alcohol on driving performance, seven significant indicators were extracted and the drunk driving was identified by the Fisher Discriminant Method. The discriminant function demonstrated a high accuracy of classification. The optimal critical score to differentiate normal from drinking state was found to be 0. The evaluation result verifies the accuracy of classification method.

  17. StorageTek RedWood SD-3 tape drive

    CERN Multimedia


    A helical scan recording drive, with a high-speed rotating head sweeping across the tape every few micrometers. Based on a professional video recording system, modified to be suitable for digital data recording. These are commonly used with large computer systems, typically in conjunction with a robotic tape library.

  18. Linear step drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.


    A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs

  19. Drugs and driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, J. Michael; De Gier, Johan J.; Christopherson, Asbjørg S.; Verstraete, Alain G.

    The authors present a global overview on the issue of drugs and driving covering four major areas: (1) Epidemiology and Prevalence-which reviews epidemiological research, summarizes available information, discusses the methodological shortcomings of extant studies, and makes recommendations for

  20. Science of driving. (United States)


    The Science of Driving project focused on developing a collaborative relationship to develop curriculum units for middle school and high school students to engage them in exciting real-world scenarios. This effort involved faculty, staff, and student...

  1. Records Management (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — All Federal Agencies are required to prescribe an appropriate records maintenance program so that complete records are filed or otherwise preserved, records can be...

  2. CONTROL ROD DRIVE (United States)

    Chapellier, R.A.


    BS>A drive mechanism was invented for the control rod of a nuclear reactor. Power is provided by an electric motor and an outside source of fluid pressure is utilized in conjunction with the fluid pressure within the reactor to balance the loadings on the motor. The force exerted on the drive mechanism in the direction of scramming the rod is derived from the reactor fluid pressure so that failure of the outside pressure source will cause prompt scramming of the rod.

  3. Instant Google Drive starter

    CERN Document Server

    Procopio, Mike


    This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.

  4. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko


    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  5. Epilepsy and driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moetamedi M


    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a disease with high prevalence, which interferes driving and may lead to car accident; This case-control study has been done on 100 epileptic patients and 100 persons as control group, who had history of driving. We gathered our patients with face to face interview and registering their information in special forms which were prepared for this study. There were three times more accidents among epileptic cases comparing with control group and this difference was more considerable in men and in patients under 35 years old. The cause of accident were not seizure attack in more than 60% of the patients and these ordinary accidents were also more in case group. Epileptic patients with history of car accidents during driving had poor drug compliance comparing with the epileptics without history of an accident so drug compliance may be valuable in predicting accident in these patients. We have also found poor drug compliance in whom seizure attacks caused accident for them. 58% of the epileptics had not consulted their physician about driving. 43.3% of seizures during driving were of generalized type and none of the patients had inform police about their disease during getting driving license.

  6. Dementia and driving. (United States)

    O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K


    Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed.

  7. Self-driving carsickness. (United States)

    Diels, Cyriel; Bos, Jelte E


    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and productivity. However, we here show that the envisaged scenarios all lead to an increased risk of motion sickness. As such, the benefits this technology is assumed to bring may not be capitalised on, in particular by those already susceptible to motion sickness. This can negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and, in turn, limit the potential socioeconomic benefits that this emerging technology may provide. Following a discussion on the causes of motion sickness in the context of self-driving cars, we present guidelines to steer the design and development of automated vehicle technologies. The aim is to limit or avoid the impact of motion sickness and ultimately promote the uptake of self-driving cars. Attention is also given to less well known consequences of motion sickness, in particular negative aftereffects such as postural instability, and detrimental effects on task performance and how this may impact the use and design of self-driving cars. We conclude that basic perceptual mechanisms need to be considered in the design process whereby self-driving cars cannot simply be thought of as living rooms, offices, or entertainment venues on wheels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental investigation and model development for a harmonic drive transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preissner, C.; Shu, D.; Royston, T.J.


    Harmonic drive transmissions (HDTs) are compact, low-backlash, high-ratio, high-resolution rotary motion transmissions. One application to benefit from these attributes is the revolute joint robot. Engineers at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are investigating the use of this type of robot for the positioning of an x-ray detector; understanding the properties of the robot components is crucial to modeling positioner behavior. The robot bearing elements had been investigated previously, leaving the transmission as the missing component. While the benefits of HDTs are well known, the disadvantages, including fluctuating dissipation characteristics and nonlinear stiffness, are not understood as well. These characteristics can contribute uncontrolled dynamics to the overall robot performance. A dynamometer has been constructed at the APS to experimentally measure the HDT's response. Empirical torque and position data were recorded for multiple transmission load cases and input conditions. In turn, a computer model of the dynamometer HDT system was constructed to approximate the observed response.

  9. Can We Study Autonomous Driving Comfort in Moving-Base Driving Simulators? A Validation Study. (United States)

    Bellem, Hanna; Klüver, Malte; Schrauf, Michael; Schöner, Hans-Peter; Hecht, Heiko; Krems, Josef F


    To lay the basis of studying autonomous driving comfort using driving simulators, we assessed the behavioral validity of two moving-base simulator configurations by contrasting them with a test-track setting. With increasing level of automation, driving comfort becomes increasingly important. Simulators provide a safe environment to study perceived comfort in autonomous driving. To date, however, no studies were conducted in relation to comfort in autonomous driving to determine the extent to which results from simulator studies can be transferred to on-road driving conditions. Participants ( N = 72) experienced six differently parameterized lane-change and deceleration maneuvers and subsequently rated the comfort of each scenario. One group of participants experienced the maneuvers on a test-track setting, whereas two other groups experienced them in one of two moving-base simulator configurations. We could demonstrate relative and absolute validity for one of the two simulator configurations. Subsequent analyses revealed that the validity of the simulator highly depends on the parameterization of the motion system. Moving-base simulation can be a useful research tool to study driving comfort in autonomous vehicles. However, our results point at a preference for subunity scaling factors for both lateral and longitudinal motion cues, which might be explained by an underestimation of speed in virtual environments. In line with previous studies, we recommend lateral- and longitudinal-motion scaling factors of approximately 50% to 60% in order to obtain valid results for both active and passive driving tasks.

  10. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu.


    Purpose: To enable rapid control in a simple circuit by providing a motor control device having an electric capacity capable of simultaneously driving all of the control rods rapidly only in the inserting direction as well as a motor controlling device capable of fine control for the insertion and extraction at usual operation. Constitution: The control rod drives comprise a first motor control device capable of finely controlling the control rods both in inserting and extracting directions, a second motor control device capable of rapidly driving the control rods only in the inserting direction, and a first motor switching circuit and a second motor switching circuit switched by switches. Upon issue of a rapid insertion instruction for the control rods, the second motor switching circuit is closed by the switch and the second motor control circuit and driving motors are connected. Thus, each of the control rod driving motors is driven at a high speed in the inserting direction to rapidly insert all of the control rods. (Yoshino, Y.)

  11. An investigation of the effects of reading and writing text-based messages while driving. (United States)


    Previous research, using driving simulation, crash data, and naturalistic methods, has begun to shed light on the dangers of texting while driving. Perhaps because of the dangers, no published work has experimentally investigated the dangers of texti...

  12. Gears and gear drives

    CERN Document Server

    Jelaska, Damir T


    Understanding how gears are formed and how they interact or 'mesh' with each other is essential when designing equipment that uses gears or gear trains. The way in which gear teeth are formed and how they mesh is determined by their geometry and kinematics, which is the topic of this book.  Gears and Gear Drives provides the reader with comprehensive coverage of gears and gear drives. Spur, helical, bevel, worm and planetary gears are all covered, with consideration given to their classification, geometry, kinematics, accuracy control, load capacity and manufacturing. Cylindric

  13. Effective Biopotential Signal Acquisition: Comparison of Different Shielded Drive Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbing Jiang


    Full Text Available Biopotential signals are mainly characterized by low amplitude and thus often distorted by extraneous interferences, such as power line interference in the recording environment and movement artifacts during the acquisition process. With the presence of such large-amplitude interferences, subsequent processing and analysis of the acquired signals becomes quite a challenging task that has been reported by many previous studies. A number of software-based filtering techniques have been proposed, with most of them being able to minimize the interferences but at the expense of distorting the useful components of the target signal. Therefore, this study proposes a hardware-based method that utilizes a shielded drive circuit to eliminate extraneous interferences on biopotential signal recordings, while also preserving all useful components of the target signal. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated by comparing the results with conventional hardware and software filtering methods in three different biopotential signal recording experiments (electrocardiogram (ECG, electro-oculogram (EOG, and electromyography (EMG on an ADS1299EEG-FE platform. The results showed that the proposed method could effectively suppress power line interference as well as its harmonic components, and it could also significantly eliminate the influence of unwanted electrode lead jitter interference. Findings from this study suggest that the proposed method may provide potential insight into high quality acquisition of different biopotential signals to greatly ease subsequent processing in various biomedical applications.

  14. Comparing Expert and Novice Driving Behavior in a Driving Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiran B. Ekanayake


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study focused on comparing driving behavior of expert and novice drivers in a mid-range driving simulator with the intention of evaluating the validity of driving simulators for driver training. For the investigation, measurements of performance, psychophysiological measurements, and self-reported user experience under different conditions of driving tracks and driving sessions were analyzed. We calculated correlations between quantitative and qualitative measures to enhance the reliability of the findings. The experiment was conducted involving 14 experienced drivers and 17 novice drivers. The results indicate that driving behaviors of expert and novice drivers differ from each other in several ways but it heavily depends on the characteristics of the task. Moreover, our belief is that the analytical framework proposed in this paper can be used as a tool for selecting appropriate driving tasks as well as for evaluating driving performance in driving simulators.

  15. Gaze-controlled Driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tall, Martin; Alapetite, Alexandre; San Agustin, Javier


    We investigate if the gaze (point of regard) can control a remote vehicle driving on a racing track. Five different input devices (on-screen buttons, mouse-pointing low-cost webcam eye tracker and two commercial eye tracking systems) provide heading and speed control on the scene view transmitted...

  16. Drive-Through Training (United States)

    Carter, Margie


    In this article, the author discusses how the early childhood field's approach to staff training reflects the drive-through, fast-food culture. Year after year directors send their teachers to workshops to get some quick refresher techniques. The author suggests that rather than focusing professional development on topics, focus on observing…

  17. Driving While Intoxicated. (United States)

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  18. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  19. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  20. Learning headway estimation in driving. (United States)

    Taieb-Maimon, Meirav


    The main purpose of the present study was to examine to what extent the ability to attain a required headway of 1 or 2 s can be improved through practical driving instruction under real traffic conditions and whether the learning is sustained after a period during which there has been no controlled training. The failure of drivers to estimate headways correctly has been demonstrated in previous studies. Two methods of training were used: time based (in seconds) and distance based (in a combination of meters and car lengths). For each method, learning curves were examined for 18 participants at speeds of 50, 80, and 100 km/hr. The results indicated that drivers were weak in estimating headway prior to training using both methods. The learning process was rapid for both methods and similar for all speeds; thus, after one trial with feedback, there was already a significant improvement. The learning was retained over time, for at least the 1 month examined in this study. Both the time and distance training of headway improved drivers' ability to attain required headways, with the learning being maintained over a retention interval. The learning process was based on perceptual cues from the driving scene and feedback from the experimenter, regardless of the formal training method. The implications of these results are that all drivers should be trained in headway estimation using an objective distance measuring device, which can be installed on driver instruction vehicles.

  1. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section


    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir


    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  2. Improvements of Piezo-Actuated Stick–Slip Micro-Drives: Modeling and Driving Waveform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan-Ha Nguyen


    Full Text Available Modeling and waveform optimization are important research topics for piezo-actuated stick–slip micro-drives. In this paper, the dynamics of piezo-actuated stick–slip micro-drives (PASSMDs are theoretically investigated. We introduce an extended model taking the dynamics of the piezo actuators into account. The model combines the whole macroscopic movement of the drive’s runner and actuators and the microscopic behavior of the frictional contacts in a hybrid dynamic simulation. The macroscopic movements are described via Newtonian mechanics, while the microscopic behavior is computed using the method of dimensionality reduction. Two important characteristics of the drive, the critical actuation amplitude and the force generation, are systematically analyzed. The numerical simulation results show a fine agreement with experimental data of the previously published work. The critical actuation amplitude is found to depend on the behavior of the guiding contacts, the dynamics of the actuators and their interaction. Furthermore, a novel driving waveform, which allows us to increase the operational velocity for the drive, is proposed. The waveform is derived by exploiting micro-vibration and considering the dynamic contact status. Simulation results show that the average velocity of the drive is heightened by about 15 % . The performance of the drive is therefore improved.

  3. Rod drive and latching mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, L.; Sherwood, D.G.


    Hydraulic drive and latching mechanisms for driving reactivity control mechanisms in nuclear reactors are described. Preferably, the pressurized reactor coolant is utilized to raise the drive rod into contact with and to pivot the latching mechanism so as to allow the drive rod to pass the latching mechanism. The pressure in the housing may then be equalized which allows the drive rod to move downwardly into contact with the latching mechanism but to hold the shaft in a raised position with respect to the reactor core. Once again, the reactor coolant pressure may be utilized to raise the drive rod and thus pivot the latching mechanism so that the drive rod passes above the latching mechanism. Again, the mechanism pressure can be equalized which allows the drive rod to fall and pass by the latching mechanism so that the drive rod approaches the reactor core. (author)

  4. 1970-71 Washtenaw County High School Survey on Drinking and Driving. (United States)

    Wolfe, Arthur C.; Chapman, Marion M.

    The report summarizes the results of a questionnaire completed by 436 tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade students in six Washtenaw County high schools during the 1970-71 school year. Content areas of the survey include: driving experience, driving record, driver education, exposure to drinking and driving information in school and on the mass…

  5. Assessing Chinese coach drivers' fitness to drive: The development of a toolkit based on cognition measurements. (United States)

    Wang, Huarong; Mo, Xian; Wang, Ying; Liu, Ruixue; Qiu, Peiyu; Dai, Jiajun


    Road traffic accidents resulting in group deaths and injuries are often related to coach drivers' inappropriate operations and behaviors. Thus, the evaluation of coach drivers' fitness to drive is an important measure for improving the safety of public transportation. Previous related research focused on drivers' age and health condition. Comprehensive studies about commercial drivers' cognitive capacities are limited. This study developed a toolkit consisting of nine cognition measurements across driver perception/sensation, attention, and reaction. A total of 1413 licensed coach drivers in Jiangsu Province, China were investigated and tested. Results indicated that drivers with accident history within three years performed overwhelmingly worse (p<0.001) on dark adaptation, dynamic visual acuity, depth perception, attention concentration, attention span, and significantly worse (p<0.05) on reaction to complex tasks compared with drivers with clear accident records. These findings supported that in the assessment of fitness to drive, cognitive capacities are sensitive to the detection of drivers with accident proneness. We first developed a simple evaluation model based on the percentile distribution of all single measurements, which defined the normal range of "fit-to-drive" by eliminating a 5% tail of each measurement. A comprehensive evaluation model was later constructed based on the kernel principal component analysis, in which the eliminated 5% tail was calculated from on integrated index. Methods to categorizing qualified, good, and excellent coach drivers and criteria for evaluating and training Chinese coach drivers' fitness to drive were also proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance of Magnetic-Superconductor Non-Contact Harmonic Drive for Cryogenic Space Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Perez-Diaz


    Full Text Available Harmonic drives are profusely used in aerospace mainly because of their compactness and large reduction ratio. However, their use in cryogenic environments is still a challenge. Lubrication and fatigue are non-trivial issues under these conditions. The objective of the Magnetic-Superconductor Cryogenic Non-contact Harmonic Drive (MAGDRIVE project, funded by the EU Space FP7, is to design, build, and test a new concept of MAGDRIVE. Non-contact interactions among magnets, soft magnetic materials, and superconductors are efficiently used to provide a high reduction ratio gear that smoothly and naturally operates at cryogenic environments. The limiting elements of conventional harmonic drives (teeth, flexspline, and ball bearings are substituted by contactless mechanical components (magnetic gear and superconducting magnetic bearings. The absence of contact between moving parts prevents wear, lubricants are no longer required, and the operational lifetime is greatly increased. This is the first mechanical reducer in mechanical engineering history without any contact between moving parts. In this paper, the test results of a −1:20 inverse reduction ratio MAGDRIVE prototype are reported. In these tests, successful operation at 40 K and 10−3 Pa was demonstrated for more than 1.5 million input cycles. A maximum torque of 3 N·m and an efficiency of 80% were demonstrated. The maximum tested input speed was 3000 rpm, six times the previous existing record for harmonic drives at cryogenic temperatures.

  7. A rotary drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causer, R.


    A rotary drive for a manipulator or teleoperator comprises a ring member freely rotatable about an eccentric boss extending from an input driver shaft. The ring member has a tapered rim portion wedged between two resiliently biassed friction rings of larger diameter than the ring member and coaxial with the driver shaft, and the ring member is rotatably connected to an output driven shaft. The rotary drive provides a considerable velocity ratio, and also provides a safety feature in that friction between the rim portion and the friction rings only causes rotation of the driven shaft if the load on the driven shaft is less than a certain limiting value. This limiting value may be varied by adjusting the resilient bias on the friction rings. (author)

  8. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G


    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  9. Drive-by-Downloads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, Julia; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Seifert, Christian; Aval, Chiraag U.; Frincke, Deborah A.


    Abstract: Drive-by-downloads are malware that push, and then execute, malicious code on a client system without the user's consent. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a discussion of the usefulness of antivirus software for detecting the installation of such malware, providing groundwork for future studies. Client honeypots collected drive-by malware which was then evaluated using common antivirus products. Initial analysis showed that most of such antivirus products identified less than 70% of these highly polymorphic malware programs. Also, it was observed that the antivirus products tested, even when successfully detecting this malware, often failed to classify it, leading to the conclusion that further work could involve not only developing new behavioral detection technologies, but also empirical studies that improve general understanding of these threats. Toward that end, one example of malicious code was analyzed behaviorally to provide insight into next steps for the future direction of this research.

  10. Sex Chromosome Drive


    Helleu, Quentin; Gérard, Pierre R.; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine


    Sex chromosome drivers are selfish elements that subvert Mendel's first law of segregation and therefore are overrepresented among the products of meiosis. The sex-biased progeny produced then fuels an extended genetic conflict between the driver and the rest of the genome. Many examples of sex chromosome drive are known, but the occurrence of this phenomenon is probably largely underestimated because of the difficulty to detect it. Remarkably, nearly all sex chromosome drivers are found in t...

  11. Driving electrostatic transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.


    Electrostatic transducers represent a very interesting alternative to the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducers. In order to establish the full potential of these transducers, power amplifiers which fulfill the strict requirements imposed by such loads (high impedance, frequency...... depended, nonlinear and high bias voltage for linearization) must be developed. This paper analyzes power stages and bias configurations suitable for driving an electrostatic transducer. Measurement results of a 300 V prototype amplifier are shown. Measuring THD across a high impedance source is discussed...

  12. Design Drives: materials innovation


    Oliver, Raymond; Toomey, Anne


    Design Drives Materials Innovation‘ outlines the potential of a D:STEM (Design, Science, Technology, Engineering amd Mathematics) approach to combining traditionally different fields through design-led, needs driven and technology anchored future products using electro/photo/bio-active polymers in physical formats defined in ‚dots, lines, surfaces and structures‘.It also identifies Ambient Assisted Living as a key driver for future applications.

  13. [Automobile driving capacity in dementia]. (United States)

    Seeger, Rolf


    Dementia influences at an early stage the driving aptitude of motor vehicle steering persons. Every year in Switzerland, around 16'000 driving permit holders suffer newly from dementia; therefore the driving aptitude is questioned, especially because of possibly limited executive functions. Individuals with early-stage dementia often may show a dangerous driving stile. However, a mild dementia does not a priori exclude the driving aptitude, and less than half of these drivers can continue driving for another 1 - 3 years. In contrast, there is no further driving aptitude in presence of moderate dementia. In the assessment of driving aptitude, the underlying cause of dementia is always taken into account. Cognitive short tests such as the Mini-Mental Status Exam, Clock Drawing Test and Trail-Making Test are not suitable to make reliable statements about the aptitude to drive, but these tests are very important for the initial diagnosis of dementia in primary care practice and can lead the way for further examination concerning driving aptitude. The legally prescribed regular check-up for motorists aged over 70 years in Switzerland provides an ideal opportunity for early detection of incipient dementia. The practical procedure for the assessment of aptitude to drive in the primary care practice is presented. The physician-guided on-road driving test represents a meaningful, practical and relatively cost-effective tool for the evaluation of driving aptitude in cases of doubt.

  14. Parkinson's disease and driving ability. (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian; Hunter, John; Provan, Frances


    To explore the driving problems associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to ascertain whether any clinical features or tests predict driver safety. The driving ability of 154 individuals with PD referred to a driving assessment centre was determined by a combination of clinical tests, reaction times on a test rig and an in-car driving test. The majority of cases (104, 66%) were able to continue driving although 46 individuals required an automatic transmission and 10 others needed car modifications. Ability to drive was predicted by the severity of physical disease, age, presence of other associated medical conditions, particularly dementia, duration of disease, brake reaction, time on a test rig and score on a driving test (all pfeatures in distinguishing safety to drive were severe physical disease (Hoehn and Yahr stage 3), reaction time, moderate disease associated with another medical condition and high score on car testing. Most individuals with PD are safe to drive, although many benefit from car modifications or from using an automatic transmission. A combination of clinical tests and in-car driving assessment will establish safety to drive, and a number of clinical correlates can be shown to predict the likely outcome and may assist in the decision process. This is the largest series of consecutive patients seen at a driving assessment centre reported to date, and the first to devise a scoring system for on-road driving assessment.

  15. 77 FR 15086 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records (United States)


    ... Defense Intelligence Information System (DoDIIS) Customer Relationship Management System. The records will... instructions for submitting comments. * Mail: Federal Docket Management System Office, 4800 Mark Center Drive...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. [[Page 15087

  16. Driving and Multitasking: The Good, the Bad, and the Dangerous. (United States)

    Nijboer, Menno; Borst, Jelmer P; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels A


    Previous research has shown that multitasking can have a positive or a negative influence on driving performance. The aim of this study was to determine how the interaction between driving circumstances and cognitive requirements of secondary tasks affect a driver's ability to control a car. We created a driving simulator paradigm where participants had to perform one of two scenarios: one with no traffic in the driver's lane, and one with substantial traffic in both lanes, some of which had to be overtaken. Four different secondary task conditions were combined with these driving scenarios. In both driving scenarios, using a tablet resulted in the worst, most dangerous, performance, while passively listening to the radio or answering questions for a radio quiz led to the best driving performance. Interestingly, driving as a single task did not produce better performance than driving in combination with one of the radio tasks, and even tended to be slightly worse. These results suggest that drivers switch to internally focused secondary tasks when nothing else is available during monotonous or repetitive driving environments. This mind wandering potentially has a stronger interference effect with driving than non-visual secondary tasks.

  17. Driving and Multitasking: the Good, the Bad, and the Dangerous.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menno Nijboer


    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that multitasking can have a positive or a negative influence on driving performance. The aim of this study was to determine how the interaction between driving circumstances and cognitive requirements of secondary tasks affect a driver’s ability to control a car. We created a driving simulator paradigm where participants had to perform one of two scenarios: one with no traffic in the driver’s lane, and one with substantial traffic in both lanes, some of which had to be overtaken. Four different secondary task conditions were combined with these driving scenarios. In both driving scenarios, using a tablet resulted in the worst, most dangerous, performance, while passively listening to the radio or answering questions for a radio quiz led to the best driving performance. Interestingly, driving as a single task did not produce better performance than driving in combination with one of the radio tasks, and even tended to be slightly worse. These results suggest that drivers switch to internally focused secondary tasks when nothing else is available during monotonous or repetitive driving environments. This mind wandering potentially has a stronger interference effect with driving than non-visual secondary tasks.

  18. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takao; Arita, Setsuo; Mizuno, Katsuhiro.


    Purpose: To enable fine positioning by using an induction motor of a simple structure as a driving source and thereby improve the reliability of control rod drives. Constitution: A step actuator is directly coupled with an induction motor, in which the induction motor is connected by way of a pulse driving control circuit to an AC power source, while the step actuator is connected to a DC power source. When a thyristor is turned ON, the motor outputs a positive torque and rotates and starts to rotate in the forward direction. When the other thyristor is turned ON, the motor is applied with braking by a reverse excitation in a manner equivalent to the change for the exciting phase sequence. When the speed is lowered to a predetermined value, braking is actuated by the torque of the step actuator and the motor stops at a zero position or balanced position. In this way, braking is actuated from the decelerating step to the stopping with no abrasion and a highly accurate positioning is possible due to the characteristics of the step actuator. (Horiuchi, T.)

  19. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watando, Kosaku; Tanaka, Yuzo; Mizumura, Yasuhiro; Hosono, Kazuya.


    Object: To provide a simple and compact construction of an apparatus for driving a drive shaft inside with a magnetic force from the outside of the primary system water side. Structure: The weight of a plunger provided with an attraction plate is supported by a plunger lift spring means so as to provide a buffer action at the time of momentary movement while also permitting the load on lift coil to be constituted solely by the load on the drive shaft. In addition, by arranging the attraction plate and lift coil so that they face each other with a small gap there-between, it is made possible to reduce the size and permit efficient utilization of the attracting force. Because of the small size, cooling can be simply carried out. Further, since there is no mechanical penetration portion, there is no possibility of leakage of the primary system water. Furthermore, concentration of load on a latch pin is prevented by arranging so that with a structure the load of the control rod to be directly beared through the scrum latch. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Accuracy of young male drivers’ self-assessments of driving skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo


    Accurate self-assessment of skill is important because it creates an appropriate level of confidence and hence behaviour. Inaccurate self-assessment of driving ability has been linked to reckless driving and accidents. Inaccurate self-assessment of driving skills may be a contributing factor...... to the over-representation of young male drivers in accident statistics. Most previous research on self-assessment of driving skills did not compare self-reported skills to objectively measured driving skills, so the aims of this study were: (1) to test the accuracy of young male drivers’ self-assessments...... of specific driving skills by comparing them with performance in a driving simulator; (2) to test whether self-assessment accuracy varied with driving skill, driving experience and sensation-seeking propensity. We found that young male drivers’ self-assessments were inconsistent with their driving performance...

  1. Visualization of Solution Gas Drive in Viscous Oil, SUPRI TR-126

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, D.S.; Kovscek, A.R.


    Several experimental studies of solution gas drive are available in this report. Almost all of the studies have used light oil. Solution gas drive behavior, especially in heavy oil reservoirs, is poorly understood. Experiments were performed in which pore-scale solution gas drive phenomena were viewed in water/carbon dioxide and viscous oil/carbon dioxide systems. A new pressure vessel was designed and constructed to house silicon-wafer micromodels that previously operated at low (<3 atm) pressure. The new apparatus is used for the visual studies. Several interesting phenomena were viewed. The repeated nucleation of gas bubbles was observed at a gas-wet site occupied by dirt. Interestingly, the dissolution of a gas bubble into the liquid phase was previously recorded at the same nucleation site. Gas bubbles in both systems grew to span one ore more pore bodies before mobilization. Liquid viscosity affected the ease with which gas bubbles coalesced. More viscous solutions result in slower rates of coalescence. The transport of solid particles on gas-liquid interfaces was also observed.

  2. Effects of trait anger, driving anger, and driving experience on dangerous driving behavior: A moderated mediation analysis. (United States)

    Ge, Yan; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan; Qu, Weina


    To explore the effect of anger behind the wheel on driving behavior and accident involvement has been the subject of many studies. However, few studies have explored the interaction between anger and driving experience on dangerous driving behavior. This study is a moderated mediation analysis of the effect of trait anger, driving anger, and driving experience on driving behavior. A sample of 303 drivers was tested using the Trait Anger Scale (TAS), the Driving Anger Scale (DAS), and the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI). The results showed that trait anger and driving anger were positively correlated with dangerous driving behavior. Driving anger partially mediated the effect of trait anger on dangerous driving behavior. Driving experience moderated the relationship between trait anger and driving anger. It also moderated the effect of driving anger on dangerous driving behavior. These results suggest that drivers with more driving experience may be safer as they are not easily irritated during driving. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.


    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  4. Low Sex Drive in Women (United States)

    Low sex drive in women Overview Women's sexual desires naturally fluctuate over the years. Highs and lows commonly coincide ... used for mood disorders also can cause low sex drive in women. If your lack of interest ...

  5. Marijuana and actual driving performance (United States)


    This report concerns the effects of marijuana smoking on actual driving performance. It presents the results of one pilot and three actual driving studies. The pilot study's major purpose was to establish the THC dose current marijuana users smoke to...

  6. The impact of therapeutic opioid agonists on driving-related psychomotor skills assessed by a driving simulator or an on-road driving task: A systematic review. (United States)

    Ferreira, Diana H; Boland, Jason W; Phillips, Jane L; Lam, Lawrence; Currow, David C


    Driving cessation is associated with poor health-related outcomes. People with chronic diseases are often prescribed long-term opioid agonists that have the potential to impair driving. Studies evaluating the impact of opioids on driving-related psychomotor skills report contradictory results likely due to heterogeneous designs, assessment tools and study populations. A better understanding of the effects of regular therapeutic opioid agonists on driving can help to inform the balance between individual's independence and community safety. To identify the literature assessing the impact of regular therapeutic opioid agonists on driving-related psychomotor skills for people with chronic pain or chronic breathlessness. Systematic review reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis statement; PROSPERO Registration CRD42017055909. Six electronic databases and grey literature were systematically searched up to January, 2017. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) empirical studies reporting data on driving simulation, on-the-road driving tasks or driving outcomes; (2) people with chronic pain or chronic breathlessness; and (3) taking regular therapeutic opioid agonists. Critical appraisal used the National Institutes of Health's quality assessment tools. From 3809 records screened, three studies matched the inclusion criteria. All reported data on people with chronic non-malignant pain. No significant impact of regular therapeutic opioid agonists on people's driving-related psychomotor skills was reported. One study reported more intense pain significantly worsened driving performance. This systematic review does not identify impaired simulated driving performance when people take regular therapeutic opioid agonists for symptom control, although more prospective studies are needed.

  7. Automatic car driving detection using raw accelerometry data. (United States)

    Strączkiewicz, M; Urbanek, J K; Fadel, W F; Crainiceanu, C M; Harezlak, J


    Measuring physical activity using wearable devices has become increasingly popular. Raw data collected from such devices is usually summarized as 'activity counts', which combine information of human activity with environmental vibrations. Driving is a major sedentary activity that artificially increases the activity counts due to various car and body vibrations that are not connected to human movement. Thus, it has become increasingly important to identify periods of driving and quantify the bias induced by driving in activity counts. To address these problems, we propose a detection algorithm of driving via accelerometry (DADA), designed to detect time periods when an individual is driving a car. DADA is based on detection of vibrations generated by a moving vehicle and recorded by an accelerometer. The methodological approach is based on short-time Fourier transform (STFT) applied to the raw accelerometry data and identifies and focuses on frequency vibration ranges that are specific to car driving. We test the performance of DADA on data collected using wrist-worn ActiGraph devices in a controlled experiment conducted on 24 subjects. The median area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting driving periods was 0.94, indicating an excellent performance of the algorithm. We also quantify the size of the bias induced by driving and obtain that per unit of time the activity counts generated by driving are, on average, 16% of the average activity counts generated during walking.

  8. Nuclear refueling platform drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, F.R.; Faulstich, D.L.


    This patent describes a drive system. It comprises: a gantry including a bridge having longitudinal and transverse axes and supported by spaced first and second end frames joined to fist and second end frames joined to first and second drive trucks for moving the bridge along the transverse axis; first means for driving the first drive truck; second means for driving the second drive truck being independent from the first driving means; and means for controlling the first and second driving means for reducing differential transverse travel between the first and second drive trucks, due to a skewing torque acting on the bridge, to less than a predetermined maximum, the controlling means being in the form of an electrical central processing unit and including: a closed-loop first velocity control means for controlling velocity of the first drive truck by providing a first command signal to the first driver means; a close loop second velocity control means for controlling velocity of the second drive truck by providing a second command signal to the second driving means; and an auxiliary closed-loop travel control means

  9. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures. (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael


    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  10. Control Reconfigurability of Bilinear Hydraulic Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Tahavori, Maryamsadat


    The objective of the methods within the framework of the plug and play process control and particularly fault tolerant control is to establish control techniques which guarantee a certain performance through control reconfiguration at the occurrence of the faults or changes. These methods cannot ......-based analogous counterpart, which has been previously proposed for the linear processes. The control reconfigurability is calculated for the bilinear models of an electro-hydraulic drive to show its relevance to redundant actuating capabilities in the models....

  11. Offset Compound Gear Drive (United States)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.


    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  12. Electric drive design methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Jufer, Marcel


    An electric drive that is designed or adapted to a specific application must take into account all the elements of the chain of constituent elements in its use and deployment. In addition to the motor, the transmission, power electronics, control, sensors, and electrical protection systems must be taken into account. The motor and the transmission can be optimized and designed to obtain the best energy efficiency assessment, in particular for dynamic nodes. An inventory and a characterization of these various components is proposed as part of this book's examination and explanation

  13. Electrical machines and drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, John


    Recent years have brought substantial developments in electrical drive technology, with the appearance of highly rated, very-high-speed power-electronic switches, combined with microcomputer control systems.This popular textbook has been thoroughly revised and updated in the light of these changes. It retains its successful formula of teaching through worked examples, which are put in context with concise explanations of theory, revision of equations and discussion of the engineering implications. Numerous problems are also provided, with answers supplied.The third edition in

  14. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P


    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  15. Driving electrostatic transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.


    Electrostatic transducers represent a very interesting alternative to the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducers. In order to establish the full potential of these transducers, power amplifiers which fulfill the strict requirements imposed by such loads (high impedance, frequency...... depended, nonlinear and high bias voltage for linearization) must be developed. This paper analyzes power stages and bias configurations suitable for driving an electrostatic transducer. Measurement results of a 300 V prototype amplifier are shown. Measuring THD across a high impedance source is discussed......, and a high voltage attenuation interface for an audio analyzer is presented. THD below 0:1% is reported....

  16. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  17. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  18. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy. (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K


    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  19. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses. (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.


    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  20. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonuki, Koji.


    Purpose: To increase the driving speed of control rods at rapid insertion with an elongate control rod and an extension pipe while ensuring sufficient buffering performance in a short buffering distance, by providing a plurality of buffers to an extension pipe between a control rod drive source and a control rod in LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: First, second and third buffers are respectively provided to an acceleration piston, an extension pipe and a control rod respectively and the insertion positions for each of the buffers are displaced orderly from above to below. Upon disconnection of energizing current for an electromagnet, the acceleration piston, the extension pipe and the control rod are rapidly inserted in one body. The first, second and third buffers are respectively actuated at each of their falling strokes upon rapid insertion respectively, and the acceleration piston, the extension pipe and the control rod receive the deceleration effect in the order correspondingly. Although the compression force is applied to the control rod only near the stroke end, it does not cause deformation. (Kawakami, Y.)

  1. Polar drive on OMEGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha P.B.


    Full Text Available High-convergence polar-drive experiments are being conducted on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commum. 133, 495 (1997] using triple-picket laser pulses. The goal of OMEGA experiments is to validate modeling of oblique laser deposition, heat conduction in the presence of nonradial thermal gradients in the corona, and implosion energetics in the presence of laser–plasma interactions such as crossed-beam energy transfer. Simulated shock velocities near the equator, where the beams are obliquely incident, are within 5% of experimentally inferred values in warm plastic shells, well within the required accuracy for ignition. High, near-one-dimensional areal density is obtained in warm-plastic-shell implosions. Simulated backlit images of the compressing core are in good agreement with measured images. Outstanding questions that will be addressed in the future relate to the role of cross-beam transfer in polar drive irradiation and increasing the energy coupled into the target by decreasing beam obliquity.

  2. Driving in mild cognitive impairment: The role of depressive symptoms. (United States)

    Beratis, Ion N; Andronas, Nikos; Kontaxopoulou, Dionysia; Fragkiadaki, Stella; Pavlou, Dimosthenis; Papatriantafyllou, John; Economou, Alexandra; Yannis, George; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G


    Previous studies indicate a negative association between depression and driving fitness in the general population. Our goal was to cover a gap in the literature and to explore the link between depressive symptoms and driving behavior in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) through the use of a driving simulator experiment. Twenty-four individuals with MCI (mean age = 67.42, SD = 7.13) and 23 cognitively healthy individuals (mean age = 65.13, SD = 7.21) were introduced in the study. A valid driving license and regular car use served as main inclusion criteria. Data collection included a neurological/neuropsychological assessment and a driving simulator evaluation. Depressive symptomatology was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Significant interaction effects indicating a greater negative impact of depressive symptoms in drivers with MCI than in cognitively healthy drivers were observed in the case of various driving indexes, namely, average speed, accident risk, side bar hits, headway distance, headway distance variation, and lateral position variation. The associations between depressive symptoms and driving behavior remained significant after controlling for daytime sleepiness and cognition. Depressive symptoms could be a factor explaining why certain patients with MCI present altered driving skills. Therefore, interventions for treating the depressive symptoms of individuals with MCI could prove to be beneficial regarding their driving performance.

  3. Phenological Records (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phenology is the scientific study of periodic biological phenomena, such as flowering, breeding, and migration, in relation to climatic conditions. The few records...

  4. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context


    Ruf, Alexander


    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  5. Driving performance and EEG fluctuations during on-the-road driving following sleep deprivation. (United States)

    Perrier, J; Jongen, S; Vuurman, E; Bocca, M L; Ramaekers, J G; Vermeeren, A


    The present study mainly aimed to assess whether and how sleepiness due to sleep deprivation interacts with Time on Task (ToT) effects both on electroencephalography (EEG) measures and driving performance in real driving conditions. Healthy participants performed a one hour on-the-road monotonous highway driving task while EEG was recorded continuously after one night of normal sleep and after one night of total sleep deprivation. The main outcome parameter in the highway driving test was the Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP). SDLP and EEG indices (i.e alpha and theta power spectra) increased after sleep deprivation and varied with ToT. The latter was more pronounced after sleep deprivation. Beta power spectra did not differ between conditions but increased with ToT. Changes in SDLP and EEG did not correlate significantly. We conclude that driving performance as well as fatigue and sleepiness fluctuations with ToT were more evident after sleep deprivation as compared to normal sleep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Driving citations and aggressive behavior. (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Leung, Justin S; Wiederman, Michael W


    Anger and driving have been examined in a number of studies of aggressive drivers and in drivers with road rage using various psychological and environmental study variables. However, we are not aware of any study that has examined the number of driving citations (an indication of problematic driving) and various forms of anger not related to driving. Using a cross-sectional approach in a consecutive sample of 331 respondents (68% female), we surveyed participants about the number of past driving citations, not necessarily convictions, and 21 aggressive behaviors using the Aggressive Behavior Questionnaire. The number of driving citations demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with the number of aggressive behaviors in the 21-item Aggressive Behavior Questionnaire. There were no differences between men and women. As for specific aggressive behaviors, the number of driving citations was statistically significantly related to punching a wall when angry, causing and getting into a bar fight, getting into fistfights (not in a bar), causing someone to have an accident, and intentionally running someone off the road. The number of driving citations, an indication of problematic driving, appears to be related to generally aggressive behavior. Findings indicate that if aggression plays a role in problematic driving, it is likely not limited to the road.

  7. The need for drugged driving per se laws: a commentary. (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L; Voas, Robert B; Walsh, J Michael; Shea, Corinne; Talpins, Stephen K; Neil, Mark M


    Triggered by the new federal commitment announced by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONCDP) to encourage states to enact drugged driving per se laws, this article reviews the reasons to establish such laws and the issues that may arise when trying to enforce them. A review of the state of drunk driving per se laws and their implications for drugged driving is presented, with a review of impaired driving enforcement procedures and drug testing technology. Currently, enforcement of drugged driving laws is an adjunct to the enforcement of laws regarding alcohol impairment. Drivers are apprehended when showing signs of alcohol intoxication and only in the relatively few cases where the blood alcohol concentration of the arrested driver does not account for the observed behavior is the possibility of drug impairment pursued. In most states, the term impaired driving covers both alcohol and drug impairment; thus, driver conviction records may not distinguish between the two different sources of impairment. As a result, enforcement statistics do not reflect the prevalence of drugged driving. Based on the analysis presented, this article recommends a number of steps that can be taken to evaluate current drugged driving enforcement procedures and to move toward the enactment of drug per se laws.

  8. Development of Urban Driving Cycle with GPS Data Post Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lipar


    Full Text Available This paper presents GIS-based methodology for urban area driving cycle construction. The approach reaches beyond the frames of usual driving cycle development methods and takes into account another perspective of data collection. Rather than planning data collection, the approach is based on available in-vehicle measurement data post processing using Geographic Information Systems to manipulate the excessive database and extract only the representative and geographically limited individual trip data. With such data post processing the data was carefully adjusted to include only the data that describe representative driving in Ljubljana urban area. The selected method for the driving cycle development is based on searching for the best microtrips combination while minimizing the difference between two vectors; one based on generated cycle and the other on the database. Accounting for a large random sample of actual trip data, our approach enables more representative area-specific driving cycle development than the previously used techniques.

  9. Driving without a GPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    in the best way possible; and that the differences in their knowledge systems is acknowledged and used as an asset in these international programmes. With these factors in place, on the other hand, programmes with international faculty and diverse student audiences in which this diversity is exploited...... as students as well as the lecturers themselves represent a diverse range of first languages, cultures and knowledge systems; at the same time, the teaching and learning must reach at least the same high quality standards as in more traditional mono-lingual and mono-cultural settings. For a lecturer...... in an appropriate way, may have a considerable added value that positively impacts on the knowledge, skills and competences developed by their graduates. However, lecturers often feel at a loss because they are not sure how to do this and teaching becomes like driving in unknown territory without a GPS. Based...

  10. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Nobuaki.


    Purpose: To remove movable portion and improve the reliability by the direct control to coil. Constitution: Coils are disposed vertically at a predetermined interval to the outside of a control rod drive guide tube and each of the coils is adapted to be directly controlled. The coils are arranged at such an interval that a plunger laps over the vertically adjacent coils. In the case of moving the plunger upwardly, a coil just above the coil that attract the plunger is energized while the coil attracting the plunger so far is denergized. Then, the plunger is pulled up to an aimed position by repeating the procedures. In the case of moving the plunger downwardly, the procedures are conducted in the manner opposite to the above. (Kawakami, Y.)

  11. Do emotions drive psychosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João G. Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Introduction: How important is the emotional life of persons who manifest psychotic symptoms? Aims: The aim of this paper is to review evidence on a causal role for emotions in psychotic processes. Methods: Selective review of literature on affective symptoms in psychoses, on emotions in the production of psychotic symptoms and on dopaminergic models of psychosis. Results: Affective symptoms are relevant across psychoses. Persons with schizophrenia have high levels of emotional reactivity and the intensification of negative affects not only is associated with but also precedes the intensification of psychotic symptoms, which is evidence that negative emotions drive the course of psychotic symptoms. Negative self‑representations are central in psychotic processes and can be the link between negative emotions and psychosis. Evidence favours the notion that persecutory delusions are consistent with negative affects and self‑representations, while grandiose delusions are consistent with a defensive amplification of positive affects and self‑representations. Shame has been proposed as the core emotional experience of psychosis, one in which the self becomes vulnerable to the external world, which is consistent with persecutory experiences. Assaults on the self, under the form of hostility in the family environment and society, are strong predictors of relapse and development of schizophrenia. Assaults on the self which induce social defeat are also strong stimulants of mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways, whose hyperactivity is associated with acute psychotic episodes and the experience of “aberrant salience”, put forward as a dopaminergic model of psychosis. Conclusions: The “defeat of the self” emerges as a central link that binds the experience of negative emotions to the expression of psychotic symptoms and its psychological and neurobiological correlates. The hypothesis gains support that the emotions related to that defeat control

  12. CLIC Drive Beam Phase Stabilisation

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbershagen, Alexander; Schulte, Daniel

    The thesis presents phase stability studies for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and focuses in particular on CLIC Drive Beam longitudinal phase stabilisation. This topic constitutes one of the main feasibility challenges for CLIC construction and is an essential component of the current CLIC stabilisation campaign. The studies are divided into two large interrelated sections: the simulation studies for the CLIC Drive Beam stability, and measurements, data analysis and simulations of the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) Drive Beam phase errors. A dedicated software tool has been developed for a step-by-step analysis of the error propagation through the CLIC Drive Beam. It uses realistic RF potential and beam loading amplitude functions for the Drive and Main Beam accelerating structures, complete models of the recombination scheme and compressor chicane as well as of further CLIC Drive Beam modules. The tool has been tested extensively and its functionality has been verified. The phase error propagation at CLIC h...

  13. The Drive-Wise Project: Driving Simulator Training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianclaudio eCasutt


    Full Text Available Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training.Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62 – 87 years were randomly assigned to either (1 a driving simulator training group, (2 an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention, or (3 a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85% completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned comparisons.Results: The driving simulator training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers’ safety on the road.

  14. Motor Integrated Variable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Yash Veer

    A new trend in the variable speed drives (VSDs) is to develop fully integrated systems, which lead to low-cost products with shorter design cycles. Motor Integrated design of VSDs will reduce cable length to connect drive with machine windings and installation time for end user. The electric drives...... so it can fit inside the motor housing. Weight and volume of a filter inductor has to come down drastically to make it a suitable power converter for motor integrated variable speed drives. Introduction of active power electronic switches can ensure very high performance and small size...

  15. Noninductive current drive in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.


    Various current drive mechanisms may be grouped into four classes: (1) injection of energetic particle beams; (2) launching of rf waves; (3) hybrid schemes, which are combinations of various rf schemes (rf plus beams, rf and/or beam plus ohmic heating, etc.); and (4) other schemes, some of which are specific to reactor plasma conditions requiring the presence of alpha particle or intense synchrotron radiation. Particle injection schemes include current drive by neutral beams and relativistic electron beams. The rf schemes include current drive by the lower hybrid (LH) waves, the electron waves, the waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies, etc. Only a few of these approaches, however, have been tested experimentally, with the broadest data base available for LH waves. Included in this report are (1) efficiency criteria for current drive, (2) current drive by neutral beam injection, (3) LH current drive, (4) electron cyclotron current drive, (5) current drive by ion cyclotron waves - minority species heating, and (6) current drive by other schemes (such as hybrids and low frequency waves)

  16. Developing a driving simulator based functional object detection task. (United States)

    Goodenough, Richard R; Brooks, Johnell O; Crisler, Matthew C; Rosopa, Patrick J


    The purpose of this study was to validate a driving simulator-based tool for assessing functional visual scanning while driving (Goodenough, 2010) by replicating a previous study and assessing whether the results of the task are moderated by strategic decisions regarding task prioritization. Participants completed a functional object detection task that includes a peripheral target detection task and a central braking response task. Results indicated that the simulator task can identify differences in older and younger participants' abilities to functionally scan the driving environment and these differences appear unaffected by prioritizing either the scanning or braking task. Implications are discussed.

  17. A linear chromatic mechanism drives the pupillary response. (United States)

    Tsujimura, S; Wolffsohn, J S; Gilmartin, B


    Previous studies have shown that a chromatic mechanism can drive pupil responses. The aim of this research was to clarify whether a linear or nonlinear chromatic mechanism drives pupillary responses by using test stimuli of various colours that are defined in cone contrast space. The pupil and accommodation responses evoked by these test stimuli were continuously and simultaneously objectively measured by photorefraction. The results with isochromatic and isoluminant stimuli showed that the accommodative level remained approximately constant (linear chromatic mechanism, whereby a signal from the long wavelength cone is subtracted from that of the middle wavelength cone and vice versa, drives pupillary responses.

  18. Resumption of car driving after total hip replacement. (United States)

    Abbas, Ghulam; Waheed, Abdul


    To assess periods required for resuming car driving in 130 patients who had undergone total hip replacement (THR). 80 men and 50 women aged 39 to 80 years who had been driving automatic (n=49) or manual (n=81) cars in the previous 3 months and underwent unilateral primary THR of the right (n=85) or left (n=45) hip were recruited. Patients were advised to resume driving after 6 weeks if they felt comfortable to do so. 105 (81%) patients were able to resume driving at week 6 to 8; 67 (64%) had had a right THR and 65 (62%) were manual car drivers. 22 (17%) patients were able to do so at week 12. The remaining 3 (2%) patients were not confident to drive even at week 12. No patient reported deterioration in driving ability, whereas 48 (38%) felt a subjective improvement in their driving ability. The time to resume driving varies in different patients. The advice should be individualised, depending on the patient's recovery and confidence level.

  19. Chronotype-dependent circadian rhythmicity of driving safety. (United States)

    Del Rio-Bermudez, Carlos; Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Catena, Andrés; Buela-Casal, Gualberto; Di Stasi, Leandro Luigi


    Among the factors associated with driving safety, sleep-related variables constitute a leading cause of road accidents. Circadian fluctuations of driver's somnolence has been previously linked to road safety. However, the role of chronotype in this relationship has been poorly investigated. Thus, the aim of the present work was to address whether driving performance is influenced by circadian patterns, in turn modulated by the driver's chronotype and the time of day (i.e. synchrony effect). We assessed 47 healthy young adults with specific chronotypes in several simulated driving sessions, both in the morning and in the evening. We collected driving performance data, along with self-reported levels of activation prior to each driving session and other sleep-related variables. Participants drove less safely when testing times took place outside their optimal time of day, as determined by their chronotype and confirmed by self-reported levels of activation. These differences were more pronounced in the morning, when morning types shown a better driving performance. Our results suggest that chronotype plays an important role as a modulator of the relationship between the time of day and driving safety. Therefore, it is necessary to acknowledge this variable in theoretical models of driving behavior, and for the improvement of occupational accidents prevention programs.

  20. Ventilatory chemosensory drive is blunted in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Mosqueira

    Full Text Available Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD is caused by mutations in the DMD gene resulting in an absence of dystrophin in neurons and muscle. Respiratory failure is the most common cause of mortality and previous studies have largely concentrated on diaphragmatic muscle necrosis and respiratory failure component. Here, we investigated the integrity of respiratory control mechanisms in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Whole body plethysmograph in parallel with phrenic nerve activity recordings revealed a lower respiratory rate and minute ventilation during normoxia and a blunting of the hypoxic ventilatory reflex in response to mild levels of hypoxia together with a poor performance on a hypoxic stress test in mdx mice. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed low PaO2 and pH and high PaCO2 in mdx mice. To investigate chemosensory respiratory drive, we analyzed the carotid body by molecular and functional means. Dystrophin mRNA and protein was expressed in normal mice carotid bodies however, they are absent in mdx mice. Functional analysis revealed abnormalities in Dejours test and the early component of the hypercapnic ventilatory reflex in mdx mice. Together, these results demonstrate a malfunction in the peripheral chemosensory drive that would be predicted to contribute to the respiratory failure in mdx mice. These data suggest that investigating and monitoring peripheral chemosensory drive function may be useful for improving the management of DMD patients with respiratory failure.

  1. Books average previous decade of economic misery. (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios


    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. L. Gresik


    Full Text Available The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  3. In search for factors that drive hantavirus epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eHeyman


    Full Text Available In Europe, hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae are small mammal-associated zoonotic and emerging pathogens that can cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS. Puumala virus, the main etiological agent carried by the bank vole Myodes glareolus is responsible for a mild form of HFRS while Dobrava virus induces less frequent but more severe cases of HFRS.Since 2000 in Europe, more than 3000 cases of HFRS have been recorded, in average, each year, which is nearly double compared to the previous decade. In addition to this upside long-term trend, significant oscillations occur. Epidemic years appear, usually every 2-4 years, with an increased incidence, generally in localised hot spots. Moreover, the virus has been identified in new areas in the recent years.A great number of surveys have been carried out in order to assess the prevalence of the infection in the reservoir host and to identify links with different biotic and abiotic factors. The factors that drive the infections are related to the density and diversity of bank vole populations, prevalence of infection in the reservoir host, viral excretion in the environment, survival of the virus outside its host, and human behaviour, which affect the main transmission virus route through inhalation of infected rodent excreta..At the scale of a rodent population, the prevalence of the infection increases with the age of the individuals but also other parameters, such as sex and genetic variability, interfere. The contamination of the environment may be correlated to the number of newly infected rodents, which heavily excrete the virus. The interactions between these different parameters add to the complexity of the situation and explain the absence of reliable tools to predict epidemics. In this review, the factors that drive the epidemics of hantaviruses in Middle Europe are discussed through a panorama of the epidemiological situation in Belgium, France and Germany.

  4. Control rod driving mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maejima, Yoshinori.


    Purpose: To conduct reactor scram by an external signal and, also by a signal for the abnormal temperature from a temperature detector in the nuclear reactor. Constitution: Control rod driving mechanisms magnetically coupling the extension pipe with the elevating mechanism above the reactor core and the holding magnet, and retains a control rod to the lower portion of the extension pipe by way of a latch mechanism. The temperature detector is immersed in reactor coolants. If the temperature of the coolants rises abnormally, bimetal contacts of the temperature detector are opened to interrupt the current supply to the holding electromagnet. Then, the extension pipe released from the magnetic coupling is lowered and the control rod free from latch is rapidly dropped and inserted into the reactor core. Since this procedure is carried out for all of the control rods, the reactor scram can be attained. The feature of this invention resides in that the reactor scram can be attained also by the signal of the reactor core itself even if the signal system for the external signals should be failed. (Horiuchi, T.)

  5. Driving for shorter outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritch, S.


    Nuclear plant outages are necessary to complete activities that cannot be completed during the operating cycle, such as steam generator inspection and testing, refueling, installing modifications, and performing maintenance tests. The time devoted to performing outages is normally the largest contributor to plant unavailability. Similarly, outage costs are a sizable portion of the total plant budget. The scope and quality of work done during outages directly affects operating reliability and the number of unplanned outages. Improved management and planning of outages enhances the margin of safety during the outage and results in increased plant reliability. The detailed planning and in-depth preparation that has become a necessity for driving shorter outage durations has also produced safer outages and improved post-outage reliability. Short outages require both plant and vendor management to focus on all aspects of the outage. Short outage durations, such as 26 days at South Texas or 29 days at North Anna, require power plant inter-department and intra-department teamwork and communication and vendor participation. In this paper shorter and safer outage at the 3-loop plants in the United States are explained. (J.P.N.)

  6. ATLAS Recordings

    CERN Multimedia

    Steven Goldfarb; Mitch McLachlan; Homer A. Neal

    Web Archives of ATLAS Plenary Sessions, Workshops, Meetings, and Tutorials from 2005 until this past month are available via the University of Michigan portal here. Most recent additions include the Trigger-Aware Analysis Tutorial by Monika Wielers on March 23 and the ROOT Workshop held at CERN on March 26-27.Viewing requires a standard web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the web or downloaded locally.In addition, you will find access to a variety of general tutorials and events via the portal.Feedback WelcomeOur group is making arrangements now to record plenary sessions, tutorials, and other important ATLAS events for 2007. Your suggestions for potential recording, as well as your feedback on existing archives is always welcome. Please contact us at Thank you.Enjoy the Lectures!

  7. Performance of Magnetic-Superconductor Non-Contact Harmonic Drive for Cryogenic Space Applications: Speed, Torque and Efficiency Measurements (United States)

    Perez-Diaz, Jose Luis; Diez-Jimenez, Efren; Valiente-Blanco, Ignacio; Cristache, Cristian; Alvarez-Valenzuela, Marco-Antonio; Sanchez-Garcia-Casarrubios, Juan


    Harmonic Drives are widely used in space mainly because of their compactness, large reduction ratio ad zero backlash. However, their use in extreme environments like in cryogenic temperatures is still a challenge. Lubrication, lifetime and fatigue are still issues under these conditions.The MAGDRIVE project, funded by the EU Space FP7 was devoted to test a new concept of harmonic drive reducer. By using the magnetic distance force interactions of magnets and ferromagnetic materials, all the conventional mechanical elements of a Harmonic Drives (teeth, flexspline and ball bearings) are substituted by contactless mechanical components (magnetic gear and superconducting magnetic bearings). The absence of contact between any moving parts prevents wear, lubricants are no longer required and the operational life time is greatly increased. As the magnetic transmission is continuous there is no backlash in the reduction. MAG SOAR Company is already providing contactless mechanical components for space applications able to operate in a wide range of temperatures.In this paper the tests results of a -1:20 ratio MAGDRIVE prototype are reported. In these tests successful operation at 40 K and 10-3 Pa was demonstrated for more than 1.5 million input cycles. A maximum torque of 3 Nm and efficiency higher than 75% at 3000 rpm were demonstrated. The maximum tested input speed was 3000 rpm -six times the previous existing record for harmonic drives at cryogenic temperature.

  8. Driving-Related Neuropsychological Performance in Stable COPD Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foteini Karakontaki


    Full Text Available Background. Cognitive deterioration may impair COPD patient’s ability to perform tasks like driving vehicles. We investigated: (a whether subclinical neuropsychological deficits occur in stable COPD patients with mild hypoxemia (PaO2 > 55 mmHg, and (b whether these deficits affect their driving performance. Methods. We recruited 35 stable COPD patients and 10 normal subjects matched for age, IQ, and level of education. All subjects underwent an attention/alertness battery of tests for assessing driving performance based on the Vienna Test System. Pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gases, and dyspnea severity were also recorded. Results. COPD patients performed significantly worse than normal subjects on tests suitable for evaluating driving ability. Therefore, many (22/35 COPD patients were classified as having inadequate driving ability (failure at least in one of the tests, whereas most (8/10 healthy individuals were classified as safe drivers (P=0.029. PaO2 and FEV1 were correlated with almost all neuropsychological tests. Conclusions. COPD patients should be warned of the potential danger and risk they face when they drive any kind of vehicle, even when they do not exhibit overt symptoms related to driving inability. This is due to the fact that stable COPD patients may manifest impaired information processing operations.

  9. Electric vehicle drive systems (United States)

    Appleyard, M.


    New legislation in the State of California requires that 2% of vehicles sold there from 1998 will be 'zero-emitting'. This provides a unique market opportunity for developers of electric vehicles but substantial improvements in the technology are probably required if it is to be successfully exploited. There are around a dozen types of battery that are potentially relevant to road vehicles but, at the present, lead/acid and sodium—sulphur come closest to combining acceptable performance, life and cost. To develop an efficient, lightweight electric motor system requires up-to-date techniques of magnetics design, and the latest power-electronic and microprocessor control methods. Brushless machines, coupled with solid-state inverters, offer the most economical solution for mass production, even though their development costs are higher than for direct-current commutator machines. Fitted to a small car, even the highest energy-density batteries will only provide around 200 km average range before recharging. Therefore, some form of supplementary on-board power generation will probably be needed to secure widespread acceptance by the driving public. Engine-driven generators of quite low power can achieve useful increases in urban range but will fail to qualify as 'zero-emitting'. On the other hand, if the same function could be economically performed by a small fuel-cell using hydrogen derived from a methanol reformer, then most of the flexibility provided by conventional vehicles would be retained. The market prospects for electric cars would then be greatly enhanced and their dependence on very advanced battery technology would be reduced.

  10. Comparison between young male drivers' self-assessed and objectively measured driving skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo


    Self-assessment of skills is a self-generated feedback process that contributes to confidence in one's skills. The higher one's self-assessed skills, the more likely one is to feel competent a particular domain thereby influencing the related behaviors. Drivers' self-assessed driving skills...... are not always accurate, which may cause serious problems such as underestimation of risk, reckless driving and accidents. Most previous research on self-assessment of driving skills did not compare self-reported skills to objectively measured driving skills, so the aim of this study was to test the accuracy...... of young male drivers' self-assessments of driving skills using a driving simulator, and to examine whether self-assessment accuracy varied with driving skill, experience or sensation-seeking propensity. Results showed that the drivers' self-assessments were inconsistent with their driving performance...

  11. Analysing the Cenozoic depositional record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goledowski, Bartosz; Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.


    between the global climate record (oxygen isotopes) and lithology variations on the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the eastern North Sea. Due to the strongly limited time resolution of low temperature thermochronology, the Cenozoic sedimentary record potentially provides the most detailed history...... models. The matrix mass deposition history will be compared with the paleoclimate record (e.g. oxygen isotope curves) to see if the previously observed correlation in the eastern North Sea can be extended to other ages and locations.  ...

  12. Linear Back-Drive Differentials (United States)

    Waydo, Peter


    Linear back-drive differentials have been proposed as alternatives to conventional gear differentials for applications in which there is only limited rotational motion (e.g., oscillation). The finite nature of the rotation makes it possible to optimize a linear back-drive differential in ways that would not be possible for gear differentials or other differentials that are required to be capable of unlimited rotation. As a result, relative to gear differentials, linear back-drive differentials could be more compact and less massive, could contain fewer complex parts, and could be less sensitive to variations in the viscosities of lubricants. Linear back-drive differentials would operate according to established principles of power ball screws and linear-motion drives, but would utilize these principles in an innovative way. One major characteristic of such mechanisms that would be exploited in linear back-drive differentials is the possibility of designing them to drive or back-drive with similar efficiency and energy input: in other words, such a mechanism can be designed so that a rotating screw can drive a nut linearly or the linear motion of the nut can cause the screw to rotate. A linear back-drive differential (see figure) would include two collinear shafts connected to two parts that are intended to engage in limited opposing rotations. The linear back-drive differential would also include a nut that would be free to translate along its axis but not to rotate. The inner surface of the nut would be right-hand threaded at one end and left-hand threaded at the opposite end to engage corresponding right- and left-handed threads on the shafts. A rotation and torque introduced into the system via one shaft would drive the nut in linear motion. The nut, in turn, would back-drive the other shaft, creating a reaction torque. Balls would reduce friction, making it possible for the shaft/nut coupling on each side to operate with 90 percent efficiency.

  13. Record dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robe, Dominic M.; Boettcher, Stefan; Sibani, Paolo


    When quenched rapidly beyond their glass transition, colloidal suspensions fall out of equilibrium. The pace of their dynamics then slows down with the system age, i.e., with the time elapsed after the quench. This breaking of time translational invariance is associated with dynamical observables......-facto irreversible and become increasingly harder to achieve. Thus, a progression of record-sized dynamical barriers are traversed in the approach to equilibration. Accordingly, the statistics of the events is closely described by a log-Poisson process. Originally developed for relaxation in spin glasses...

  14. Automated driving safer and more efficient future driving

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, Martin


    The main topics of this book include advanced control, cognitive data processing, high performance computing, functional safety, and comprehensive validation. These topics are seen as technological bricks to drive forward automated driving. The current state of the art of automated vehicle research, development and innovation is given. The book also addresses industry-driven roadmaps for major new technology advances as well as collaborative European initiatives supporting the evolvement of automated driving. Various examples highlight the state of development of automated driving as well as the way forward. The book will be of interest to academics and researchers within engineering, graduate students, automotive engineers at OEMs and suppliers, ICT and software engineers, managers, and other decision-makers.

  15. Modulation of spontaneous locomotor and respiratory drives to hindlimb motoneurons temporally related to sympathetic drives as revealed by Mayer waves. (United States)

    Wienecke, Jacob; Enríquez Denton, Manuel; Stecina, Katinka; Kirkwood, Peter A; Hultborn, Hans


    In this study we investigated how the networks mediating respiratory and locomotor drives to lumbar motoneurons interact and how this interaction is modulated in relation to periodic variations in blood pressure (Mayer waves). Seven decerebrate cats, under neuromuscular blockade, were used to study central respiratory drive potentials (CRDPs, usually enhanced by added CO2) and spontaneously occurring locomotor drive potentials (LDPs) in hindlimb motoneurons, together with hindlimb and phrenic nerve discharges. In four of the cats both drives and their voltage-dependent amplification were absent or modest, but in the other three, one or other of these drives was common and the voltage-dependent amplification was frequently strong. Moreover, in these three cats the blood pressure showed marked periodic variation (Mayer waves), with a slow rate (periods 9-104 s, mean 39 ± 17 SD). Profound modulation, synchronized with the Mayer waves was seen in the occurrence and/or in the amplification of the CRDPs or LDPs. In one animal, where CRDPs were present in most cells and the amplification was strong, the CRDP consistently triggered sustained plateaux at one phase of the Mayer wave cycle. In the other two animals, LDPs were common, and the occurrence of the locomotor drive was gated by the Mayer wave cycle, sometimes in alternation with the respiratory drive. Other interactions between the two drives involved respiration providing leading events, including co-activation of flexors and extensors during post-inspiration or a locomotor drive gated or sometimes entrained by respiration. We conclude that the respiratory drive in hindlimb motoneurons is transmitted via elements of the locomotor central pattern generator. The rapid modulation related to Mayer waves suggests the existence of a more direct and specific descending modulatory control than has previously been demonstrated.

  16. ATLAS Recordings

    CERN Multimedia

    Jeremy Herr; Homer A. Neal; Mitch McLachlan

    The University of Michigan Web Archives for the 2006 ATLAS Week Plenary Sessions, as well as the first of 2007, are now online. In addition, there are a wide variety of Software and Physics Tutorial sessions, recorded over the past couple years, to chose from. All ATLAS-specific archives are accessible here.Viewing requires a standard web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the web or downloaded locally.In addition, you will find access to a variety of general tutorials and events via the portal. Shaping Collaboration 2006The Michigan group is happy to announce a complete set of recordings from the Shaping Collaboration conference held last December at the CICG in Geneva.The event hosted a mix of Collaborative Tool experts and LHC Users, and featured presentations by the CERN Deputy Director General, Prof. Jos Engelen, the President of Internet2, and chief developers from VRVS/EVO, WLAP, and other tools...

  17. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01 Nouveautés été 2011 Le club de location de CDs et de DVDs vient d’ajouter un grand nombre de disques pour l’été 2011. Parmi eux, Le Discours d’un Roi, oscar 2011 du meilleur film et Harry Potter les reliques de la mort (1re partie). Ce n’est pas moins de 48 DVDs et 10 CDs nouveaux qui vous sont proposés à la location. Il y en a pour tous les genres. Alors n’hésitez pas à consulter notre site, voir Disc Catalogue, Discs of the month pour avoir la liste complète. Le club est ouvert tous les Lundi, Mercredi, Vendredi de 12h30 à 13h dans le bâtiment du restaurent N°2 (Cf. URL: A très bientôt.  

  18. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01 June Selections We have put a significant number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club You will find the full lists at and select the «Discs of the Month» button on the left side on the left panel of the web page and then June 2011. New films include the latest Action, Suspense and Science Fiction film hits, general drama movies including the Oscar-winning The King’s Speech, comedies including both chapter of Bridget Jones’s Diary, seven films for children and a musical. Other highlights include the latest Harry Potter release and some movies from the past you may have missed including the first in the Terminator series. New CDs include the latest releases by Michel Sardou, Mylene Farmer, Jennifer Lopez, Zucchero and Britney Spears. There is also a hits collection from NRJ. Don’t forget that the Club is now open every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtimes from 12h30 to 13h00 in Restaurant 2, Building 504. (C...

  19. Record club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record club


      Bonjour a tous, Voici les 24 nouveaux DVD de Juillet disponibles depuis quelques jours, sans oublier les 5 CD Pop musique. Découvrez la saga du terroriste Carlos, la vie de Gainsbourg et les aventures de Lucky Luke; angoissez avec Paranormal Activity et évadez vous sur Pandora dans la peau d’Avatar. Toutes les nouveautés sont à découvrir directement au club. Pour en connaître la liste complète ainsi que le reste de la collection du Record Club, nous vous invitons sur notre site web: Toutes les dernières nouveautés sont dans la rubrique « Discs of the Month ». Rappel : le club est ouvert les Lundis, Mercredis, Vendredis de 12h30 à 13h00 au restaurant n°2, bâtiment 504. A bientôt chers Record Clubbers.  

  20. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01 November  Selections Just in time for the holiday season, we have added a number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club. You will find the full lists at; select the "Discs of the Month" button on the left side on the left panel of the web page and then Nov 2011. New films include the all 5 episodes of Fast and Furious, many of the most famous films starring Jean-Paul Belmondo and those of Louis de Funes and some more recent films such as The Lincoln Lawyer and, according to some critics, Woody Allen’s best film for years – Midnight in Paris. For the younger generation there is Cars 2 and Kung Fu Panda 2. New CDs include the latest releases by Adele, Coldplay and the Red Hot Chili Peppers. We have also added the new Duets II CD featuring Tony Bennett singing with some of today’s pop stars including Lady Gaga, Amy Winehouse and Willy Nelson. The Club is now open every Monday, Wednesday and Friday ...

  1. Phoning while driving II: a review of driving conditions influence. (United States)

    Collet, C; Guillot, A; Petit, C


    The first paper examined how the variables related to driving performance were impacted by the management of holding a phone conversation. However, the conditions under which this dual task is carried out are dependent upon a set of factors that may particularly influence the risk of crash. These conditions are defined by several independent variables, classified into five main categories: i) legislation; ii) phone type (hands-free or hand-held); iii) drivers' features regarding age, gender, personal individual profile and driving experience; iv) conversation content (casual or professional) and its context (held with passengers or with a cell (mobile) phone); v) driving conditions (actual or simulated driving, road type, traffic density and weather). These independent variables determine the general conditions. The way in which these factors are combined and interact one with another thus determines the risk that drivers undergo when a cell phone is used while driving. Finally, this review defined the general conditions of driving for which managing a phone conversation is likely to elicit a high risk of car crash or, conversely, may provide a situation of lower risk, with sufficient acceptance to ensure safety.

  2. Fleet analysis of headway distance for autonomous driving. (United States)

    Ivanco, Andrej


    Modern automobiles are going through a paradigm shift, where the driver may no longer be needed to drive the vehicle. As the self-driving vehicles are making their way to public roads the automakers have to ensure the naturalistic driving feel to gain drivers' confidence and accelerate adoption rates. This paper filters and analyzes a subset of radar data collected from SHRP2 with focus on characterizing the naturalistic headway distance with respect to the vehicle speed. The paper identifies naturalistic headway distance and compares it with the previous findings from the literature. A clear relation between time headway and speed was confirmed and quantified. A significant difference exists among individual drivers which supports a need to further refine the analysis. By understanding the relationship between human driving and their surroundings, the naturalistic driving behavior can be quantified and used to increase the adoption rates of autonomous driving. Dangerous and safety-compromising driving can be identified as well in order to avoid its replication in the control algorithms. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gender roles, sex and the expression of driving anger. (United States)

    Sullman, M J M; Paxion, J; Stephens, A N


    The present study investigated the validity of the 25-item Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) as well as the role of sex and gender-roles in relation to the expression of driving anger in a sample of 378 French drivers (males=38%, M=32.9years old). Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported the four-factor structure of the 25-item DAX (Adaptive/Constructive Expression; Use of the Vehicle to Express Anger; Verbal Aggressive Expression and Personal Physical Aggressive Expression) and two of the three aggressive factors were found to have significant positive relationships with driving anger, while adaptive/constructive expression was negatively related to driving anger. Use of the vehicle to express anger was not significantly related to crash involvement, but was significantly related to all other crash-related conditions (traffic tickets, loss of concentration, loss of control of the vehicle, near crash). The presence of feminine traits, but not sex, was predictive of adaptive/constructive behaviours, while masculine traits predicted more frequent verbal aggressive expression, use of the vehicle to express anger, personal physical aggressive expression and total aggressive expression. This finding may account for the inconsistent relationship found between driving anger and sex in previous research. This research also found that the 25-item DAX is a valid tool to measure the expression of driving anger and that the endorsement of masculine traits are related to more aggressive forms of driving anger expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Topographic aspects of photic driving in the electroencephalogram of children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarev V.V.


    Full Text Available The electroencephalogram amplitude spectra at 11 fixed frequencies of intermittent photic stimulation of 3 to 24 Hz were combined into driving "profiles" for 14 scalp points in 8 male and 7 female normal subjects aged 9 to 17 years. The driving response varied over frequency and was detected in 70 to 100% of cases in the occipital areas (maximum and in 27 to 77% of cases in the frontal areas (minimum using as a criterion peak amplitude 20% higher than those of the neighbors. Each subject responded, on average, to 9.7 ± 1.15 intermittent photic stimulation frequencies in the right occipital area and to 6.8 ± 1.97 frequencies in the right frontal area. Most of the driving responses (in relation to the previous background were significant according to the spectral F-test (a = 0.05, which also detected changes in some cases of low amplitude responses not revealed by the peak criterion. The profiles had two maxima in the alpha and theta bands in all leads. The latter was not present in the background spectra in the posterior areas and was less pronounced in the anterior ones. The weight of the profile theta maximum increased towards the frontal areas where the two maxima were similar, while the profile amplitudes decreased. The profiles repeated the shape of the background spectra, except for the theta band. The interhemispheric correlation between profiles was high. The theta driving detected in all areas recorded suggests a generalized influence of the theta generators in prepubertal and pubertal subjects.

  5. Efficient methodology of route selection for driving cycle development (United States)

    Mahayadin, A. R.; Shahriman, A. B.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Razlan, Z. M.; Faizi, M. K.; Harun, A.; Kamarrudin, N. S.; Ibrahim, I.; Saad, M. A. M.; Rani, M. F. H.; Zunaidi, I.; Sahari, M.; Sarip, M. S.; Razali, M. Q. H. A.


    Driving cycle is a series of data points representing the speed of vehicle versus time and used to determine the performance of vehicle in general. One of the critical portions of driving cycle development is route selection methodology. This paper describes the efficient methodology of route selection for driving cycle development. Previous data from JKR Road Traffic Volume Malaysia (RTVM) in 2015 is studied and analysed to propose the methodology in route selection. The selected routes are then analysed by using Google Maps. For each region, four (4) routes are selected for each urban and rural. For this paper, the selection of route is focused on northern region of Malaysia specifically in Penang. Penang is chosen for this study because it is one of the developed state in Malaysia that has many urban and rural routes. The methods of route selection constructed in this study could be used by other region to develop their own driving cycles.

  6. Quantum effects in warp drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finazzi Stefano


    Full Text Available Warp drives are interesting configurations that, at least theoretically, provide a way to travel at superluminal speed. Unfortunately, several issues seem to forbid their realization. First, a huge amount of exotic matter is required to build them. Second, the presence of quantum fields propagating in superluminal warp-drive geometries makes them semiclassically unstable. Indeed, a Hawking-like high-temperature flux of particles is generated inside the warp-drive bubble, which causes an exponential growth of the energy density measured at the front wall of the bubble by freely falling observers. Moreover, superluminal warp drives remain unstable even if the Lorentz symmetry is broken by the introduction of regulating higher order terms in the Lagrangian of the quantum field. If the dispersion relation of the quantum field is subluminal, a black-hole laser phenomenon yields an exponential amplification of the emitted flux. If it is superluminal, infrared effects cause a linear growth of this flux.

  7. Drowsy driving and automobile crashes (United States)


    Drowsy driving is a serious problem that leads to : thousands of automobile crashes each year. This : report, sponsored by the National Center on : Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) of the National : Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the : National ...

  8. Matrix Converter in Hybrid Drives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lettl, Jiří; Flígl, S.

    -, č. 3 (2004), s. 77-80 ISSN 0204-3599 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2057903 Keywords : matrix converter * hybrid drive * electric power splitting Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  9. Lunar Core Drive Tubes Summary (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains a brief summary and high resolution imagery from various lunar rock and core drive tubes collected from the Apollo and Luna missions to the moon.

  10. [Fitness to drive after stroke]. (United States)

    Marx, Peter


    In Germany, patient information and expert testimony on driving ability requires knowledge of the corresponding legislation and the Guideline for expertises on driver aptitude. The testimony should clearly identify handicaps with regard to driving, give estimates on the future risks of a sudden loss of control, and also consider personal attitudes such as inadequate behavior, lack of insight etc. Physical handicaps often can be compensated for by restrains or restrictions such as vehicle modifications, daylight driving only etc.Both, information and testimony must give estimates on the risks of a sudden loss of control while driving by stroke recurrence or epileptic seizures. In accordance with the Risk-of-Harm-Formula of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society methods are being discussed, by which an estimate of harmful traffic accidents due to stroke recurrence can be calculated. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Clinical Action against Drunk Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A Redelmeier


    Full Text Available In advance of a safety campaign on 17 March 2017, Donald Redelmeier and Allan Detsky call on physicians and clinical colleagues to reduce the chances that patients will drive drunk.


    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club


    DVD James Bond – Series Complete To all Record Club Members, to start the new year, we have taken advantage of a special offer to add copies of all the James Bond movies to date, from the very first - Dr. No - to the latest - Quantum of Solace. No matter which of the successive 007s you prefer (Sean Connery, George Lazenby, Roger Moore, Timothy Dalton, Pierce Brosnan or Daniel Craig), they are all there. Or perhaps you have a favourite Bond Girl, or even perhaps a favourite villain. Take your pick. You can find the full selection listed on the club web site; use the panel on the left of the page “Discs of the Month” and select Jan 2010. We remind you that we are open on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 12:30 to 13:00 in Restaurant 2 (Bldg 504).

  13. Record breakers

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    In the sixties, CERN’s Fellows were but a handful of about 50 young experimentalists present on site to complete their training. Today, their number has increased to a record-breaking 500. They come from many different fields and are spread across CERN’s different activity areas.   “Diversifying the Fellowship programme has been the key theme in recent years,” comments James Purvis, Head of the Recruitment, Programmes and Monitoring group in the HR Department. “In particular, the 2005 five-yearly review introduced the notion of ‘senior’ and ‘junior’ Fellowships, broadening the target audience to include those with Bachelor-level qualifications.” Diversification made CERN’s Fellowship programme attractive to a wider audience but the number of Fellows on site could not have increased so much without the support of EU-funded projects, which were instrumental in the growth of the programme. ...

  14. Mulholland Drive: An Intertextual Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Barzegar


    Full Text Available This article examines David Lynch’s Mulholland Drive from Kristeva’s concept of intertextuality. To achieve this aim, this study provides a close reading of the selected film so as to trace and illustrate the polyphonic network of references, citations, quotations and intertexts of Mulholland Drive to the significant already-made films such as Sunset Boulevard, The Wizard of Oz, and Persona.

  15. Driving experiences of disabled drivers. (United States)

    Prasad, R S; Hunter, J; Hanley, J


    To study the influence of non-standard controls on return to driving after disability, including prevalence of accidents/retraining difficulties. Postal questionnaires sent within two years of assessment to 972 disabled drivers seen over a three-year period. Scottish Driving Assessment Service. All patients considered capable of driving after assessment during the study period. Five hundred and eighty-nine people (61 %) replied who were representative of the total population (mean age 55 years, range 19-87); 73% were male and 70% were disabled for up to two years. Overall 79% respondents had returned to driving (highest reported success with standard manual car (86%) and lowest using left foot to accelerate and brake (66%) (chi2 = 16.6, P = 0.005)). A significantly higher proportion of the 30 patients (6.5%) admitting to accidents and 25 (5.4%) to problems with retraining were using non-standard driving techniques, especially the use of hand controls. Disabled drivers returning to drive using non-familiar controls had lower success and a higher proportion of accidents and/or problems with retraining than people using conventional controls. If confirmed in larger studies this may have implications for policy-makers as well as specialist practitioners.

  16. The use of drugs and medicines behind the wheel. [Previously called Driving under the influence of drugs and medicines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Research shows that about 4% of drivers in Europe participate in traffic after having taken drugs and/or medicines. With 3.4% this share was lower in the Netherlands; traces of drugs were found in approximately 2.8% of the car drivers and traces of drugs were found in 0.6%. Substance use is highest

  17. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen


    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  18. 78 FR 54729 - Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements (United States)


    .... NHTSA-2013-0086] Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... distracted while driving; and changes and trends in distracted driving behavior and attitudes. The increase... roadways. An essential part of this effort is to compare behavior and attitude trends to determine the...

  19. Records Control Schedules Repository (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The Records Control Schedules (RCS) repository provides access to scanned versions of records schedules, or Standard Form 115, Request for Records Disposition...

  20. High-power converters and AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Bin


    This new edition reflects the recent technological advancements in the MV drive industry, such as advanced multilevel converters and drive configurations. It includes three new chapters, Control of Synchronous Motor Drives, Transformerless MV Drives, and Matrix Converter Fed Drives. In addition, there are extensively revised chapters on Multilevel Voltage Source Inverters and Voltage Source Inverter-Fed Drives. This book includes a systematic analysis on a variety of high-power multilevel converters, illustrates important concepts with simulations and experiments, introduces various megawatt drives produced by world leading drive manufacturers, and addresses practical problems and their mitigations methods.

  1. Efficient Driving of Piezoelectric Transducers Using a Biaxial Driving Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Pichardo

    Full Text Available Efficient driving of piezoelectric materials is desirable when operating transducers for biomedical applications such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU or ultrasound imaging. More efficient operation reduces the electric power required to produce the desired bioeffect or contrast. Our preliminary work [Cole et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2014;26(13:135901.] suggested that driving transducers by applying orthogonal electric fields can significantly reduce the coercivity that opposes ferroelectric switching. We present here the experimental validation of this biaxial driving technique using piezoelectric ceramics typically used in HIFU. A set of narrow-band transducers was fabricated with two sets of electrodes placed in an orthogonal configuration (following the propagation and the lateral mode. The geometry of the ceramic was chosen to have a resonance frequency similar for the propagation and the lateral mode. The average (± s.d. resonance frequency of the samples was 465.1 (± 1.5 kHz. Experiments were conducted in which each pair of electrodes was driven independently and measurements of effective acoustic power were obtained using the radiation force method. The efficiency (acoustic/electric power of the biaxial driving method was compared to the results obtained when driving the ceramic using electrodes placed only in the pole direction. Our results indicate that the biaxial method increases efficiency from 50% to 125% relative to the using a single electric field.

  2. Driving and Dementia: Workshop Module on Communicating Cessation to Drive. (United States)

    Byszewski, Anna; Power, Barbara; Lee, Linda; Rhee, Glara Gaeun; Parson, Bob; Molnar, Frank


    For persons with dementia (PWD), driving becomes very dangerous. Physicians in Canada are legally responsible to report unfit drivers and then must disclose that decision to their patients. That difficult discussion is fraught with challenges: physicians want to maintain a healthy relationship; patients often lack insight into their cognitive loss and have very strong emotional reactions to the loss of their driving privileges. All of which may stifle the exchange of accurate information. The goal of this project was to develop a multimedia module that would provide strategies and support for health professionals having these difficult conversations. Literature search was conducted of Embase and OVID MedLine on available driving and dementia tools, and on websites of online tools for communication strategies on driving cessation. A workshop module was developed with background material, communication strategies, links to resources and two videos demonstrating the "bad" then the "good" ways of managing this emotionally charged discussion. When the module was tested with internal medicine trainees, results demonstrated that confidence increased significantly ( p communicate driving cessation to PWD.

  3. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels


    PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI...... 0.13-1.01) before injections. After an average of 4.7 injections (range 1-15), mean visual acuity remained stable at 0.54 logMAR (95% CI 0.13-0.95) with a mean improvement of 0.03 (p = 0. 45, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.06). In 12 eyes (36%), visual acuity improved 0.1 logMAR or more, in 12 eyes (36%), vision...

  4. Investigating Car Users’ Driving Behaviour through Speed Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Eboli


    Full Text Available Speed has been identified for a long time as a key risk factor in road traffic: inappropriate speeds contribute to a relevant part of traffic accidents. Many literature studies have focused on the relationship between speed and accident risk. Starting from this consideration this paper investigates traffic accident risk by analysing the travelling speeds recorded by real tests on the road. A survey was conducted to collect experimental speed values in a real context. A specific road segment, belonging to an Italian rural two-lane road, was repeatedly run by 27 drivers in order to collect the instantaneous speed values for each trajectory. Smartphone-equipped vehicles were used to record continuous speed data. The recorded data were used to calculate: the average speed, 50th and 85th percentile speed for each geometric element of the analysed road segment. The main result of the research is the classification of car users’ driving behaviour based on the speed values. By using the above mentioned ranges of speed, the classification provides three types of driving behaviour: safe, unsafe, and safe but potentially dangerous. It was found that only four drivers feature “safe” behaviour, driving in a safe manner on most of the road elements. However, the major part of drivers, even if they feature safe behaviour, could be dangerous for other drivers because they drive at very low speeds.

  5. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club


      March  Selections By the time this appears, we will have added a number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club. You will find the full lists at; select the "Discs of the Month" button on the left panel of the web page and then Mar 2012. New films include recent releases such as Johnny English 2, Bad Teacher, Cowboys vs Aliens, and Super 8. We are also starting to acquire some of the classic films we missed when we initiated the DVD section of the club, such as appeared in a recent Best 100 Films published by a leading UK magazine; this month we have added Spielberg’s Jaws and Scorsese’s Goodfellas. If you have your own ideas on what we are missing, let us know. For children we have no less than 8 Tin-Tin DVDs. And if you like fast moving pop music, try the Beyonce concert DVD. New CDs include the latest releases from Paul McCartney, Rihanna and Amy Winehouse. There is a best of Mylene Farmer, a compilation from the NRJ 201...

  6. Conjunctive input processing drives feature selectivity in hippocampal CA1 neurons. (United States)

    Bittner, Katie C; Grienberger, Christine; Vaidya, Sachin P; Milstein, Aaron D; Macklin, John J; Suh, Junghyup; Tonegawa, Susumu; Magee, Jeffrey C


    Feature-selective firing allows networks to produce representations of the external and internal environments. Despite its importance, the mechanisms generating neuronal feature selectivity are incompletely understood. In many cortical microcircuits the integration of two functionally distinct inputs occurs nonlinearly through generation of active dendritic signals that drive burst firing and robust plasticity. To examine the role of this processing in feature selectivity, we recorded CA1 pyramidal neuron membrane potential and local field potential in mice running on a linear treadmill. We found that dendritic plateau potentials were produced by an interaction between properly timed input from entorhinal cortex and hippocampal CA3. These conjunctive signals positively modulated the firing of previously established place fields and rapidly induced new place field formation to produce feature selectivity in CA1 that is a function of both entorhinal cortex and CA3 input. Such selectivity could allow mixed network level representations that support context-dependent spatial maps.

  7. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict


    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua


    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  8. Exploring Forensic Implications of the Fusion Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Gupta


    Full Text Available This paper explores the forensic implications of Apple's Fusion Drive. The Fusion Drive is an example of auto-tiered storage. It uses a combination of a flash drive and a magnetic drive. Data is moved between the drives automatically to maximize system performance. This is different from traditional caches because data is moved and not simply copied. The research included understanding the drive structure, populating the drive, and then accessing data in a controlled setting to observe data migration strategies. It was observed that all the data is first written to the flash drive with 4 GB of free space always maintained. If data on the magnetic drive is frequently accessed, it is promoted to the flash drive while demoting other information. Data is moved at a block-level and not a file-level. The Fusion Drive didn't alter the timestamps of files with data migration.

  9. Driving performance at lateral system limits during partially automated driving. (United States)

    Naujoks, Frederik; Purucker, Christian; Wiedemann, Katharina; Neukum, Alexandra; Wolter, Stefan; Steiger, Reid


    This study investigated driver performance during system limits of partially automated driving. Using a motion-based driving simulator, drivers encountered different situations in which a partially automated vehicle could no longer safely keep the lateral guidance. Drivers were distracted by a non-driving related task on a touch display or driving without an additional secondary task. While driving in partially automated mode drivers could either take their hands off the steering wheel for only a short period of time (10s, so-called 'Hands-on' variant) or for an extended period of time (120s, so-called 'Hands-off' variant). When the system limit was reached (e.g., when entering a work zone with temporary lines), the lateral vehicle control by the automation was suddenly discontinued and a take-over request was issued to the drivers. Regardless of the hands-off interval and the availability of a secondary task, all drivers managed the transition to manual driving safely. No lane exceedances were observed and the situations were rated as 'harmless' by the drivers. The lack of difference between the hands-off intervals can be partly attributed to the fact that most of the drivers kept contact to the steering wheel, even in the hands-off condition. Although all drivers were able to control the system limits, most of them could not explain why exactly the take-over request was issued. The average helpfulness of the take-over request was rated on an intermediate level. Consequently, providing drivers with information about the reason for a system limit can be recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Summary Record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Saint Jean, C.; Dupont, E.; ); Dyrda, J.; Hursin, M.; Pelloni, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Ivanov, E.; Ivanova, T.; Kim, D.H.; Lee, Y.O.; Kodeli, I.; Leal, L.; Leichtle, D.; Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.; Pronyaev, V.; Simakov, S.


    This document is the proceedings of the first formal SG39 Subgroup meeting about methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files. First part of the meeting was devoted to recent data adjustments performances and trends for 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 56 Fe and 23 Na. The second part of the meeting delt with the strategy for selection of devoted experiments for these radionuclides. In addition to the bulk of integral experiments already used the issue is to select and calculate additional integral parameters that would focus more specifically on the above radionuclides nuclear data. A list of integral experiments already mentioned during the previous discussions was made and a list of benchmarks for future experiments was discussed. A third part of the meeting concerned the methodology issues and the nuclear data parameters adjustment. This document brings together the presentations (slides) given during the first and third part of the meeting as well as the issues and actions to be discussed at the next meeting

  11. Driving After Hallux Valgus Surgery. (United States)

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Shakked, Rachel; Daniel, Joseph; Pedowitz, David I; Winters, Brian S; Reb, Christopher; Lynch, Mary-Katherine; Raikin, Steven M


    The purpose of the study was to determine when patients can safely return to driving after first metatarsal osteotomy for hallux valgus correction. After institutional review board approval, 60 patients undergoing right first metatarsal osteotomy for hallux valgus correction surgery were recruited prospectively. Patients' brake reaction time (BRT) was tested at 6 weeks and repeated until patients achieved a passing BRT. A control group of twenty healthy patients was used to establish as passing BRT. Patients were given a novel driver readiness survey to complete. At 6 weeks, 51 of the 60 patients (85%) had BRT less than 0.85 seconds and were considered safe to drive. At 6 weeks, the passing group average was 0.64 seconds. At the 8 weeks, 59 patients (100%) of those who completed the study achieved a passing BRT. Patients that failed at 6 weeks had statistically greater visual analog scale (VAS) pain score and diminished first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) range of motion (ROM). On the novel driver readiness survey, 8 of the 9 patients (89%) who did not pass disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement, "Based on what I think my braking reaction time is, I think that I am ready to drive." Most patients may be informed that they can safely return to driving 8 weeks after right metatarsal osteotomy for hallux valgus correction. Some patients may be eligible to return to driving sooner depending on their VAS, first MTP ROM, and driver readiness survey results. Level II, comparative study.

  12. Mobile phone use while driving: a hybrid modeling approach. (United States)

    Márquez, Luis; Cantillo, Víctor; Arellana, Julián


    The analysis of the effects that mobile phone use produces while driving is a topic of great interest for the scientific community. There is consensus that using a mobile phone while driving increases the risk of exposure to traffic accidents. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the drivers' behavior when they decide whether or not to use a mobile phone while driving. For that, a hybrid modeling approach that integrates a choice model with the latent variable "risk perception" was used. It was found that workers and individuals with the highest education level are more prone to use a mobile phone while driving than others. Also, "risk perception" is higher among individuals who have been previously fined and people who have been in an accident or almost been in an accident. It was also found that the tendency to use mobile phones while driving increases when the traffic speed reduces, but it decreases when the fine increases. Even though the urgency of the phone call is the most important explanatory variable in the choice model, the cost of the fine is an important attribute in order to control mobile phone use while driving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Market driving behaviour in organisations: Antecedents and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurie Van Vuuren


    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that the market driving behaviour of firms is linked to exceptional performance. However, the elements of market driving, its antecedents and outcomes, have so far not been empirically measured. The primary objectives of this study are to identify factors that describe market driving, develop a conceptual model, and then consider influencing factors and performance indicators drawn from the entrepreneurship and marketing literature. The model has been empirically tested using a sample of managers in the South African healthcare industry. A fully structured questionnaire was used to address the objective of this study. The realised sample of n=328 was used to analyse the conceptual model applying a partial least squares path modelling approach (PLS-PM. The results revealed that market driving is a firm behaviour and is distinguished by three distinct concepts: market sensing, influencing customer preferences and alliance formation. Three out of four antecedents: strategic orientation, entrepreneurial capital and entrepreneurial behaviour, influenced market driving ability positively. The study also demonstrated that market driving behaviour positively influences firm performance and relative competitive strength

  14. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex B Siegling

    Full Text Available This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1. Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP, a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2. The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures' convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3. Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment.

  15. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation. (United States)

    Siegling, Alex B; Petrides, K V


    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures' convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment.

  16. Vaccination Records for Kids (United States)

    ... teams, and summer camps or to travel. Recording Immunizations Good record- keeping begins with good record- taking. ... to each visit with his doctor. Finding Official Immunization Records CDC does not have immunization record information. ...

  17. Influence of roadside infrastructure on driving behavior: driving simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Ridder, S. de


    This paper describes the results of a driving simulator study that focused on the influence of roadside infrastructure on speed choice and lateral placement of car drivers. A review of the RISER detailed accident database revealed that lateral positioning and speed of the vehicle were two of the

  18. Digital control of electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Koziol, R; Szklarski, L


    The electromechanical systems employed in different branches of industry are utilized most often as drives of working machines which must be fed with electric energy in a continuous, periodic or even discrete way. Some of these machines operate at constant speed, others require wide and varying energy control. In many designs the synchronous cooperation of several electric drives is required in addition to the desired dynamic properties. For these reasons the control of the cooperation and dynamics of electromechanical systems requires the use of computers.This book adopts an unusual approach

  19. [Driving ability, mental illness and psychotropic medication in the elderly]. (United States)

    Serra, Anne-Laure; von Gunten, Armin; Mosimann, Urs; Favrat, Bernard


    Fitness to drive in elderly drivers is most commonly discussed with a focus on cognitive impairment. Therefore, this article is focussing on mental illness and the use of psychotropic drugs in elderly drivers, which can both interfere with fitness to drive. Based on a detailed literature review and on clinical judgement, we propose signposts and "red flags" to judge the individual risks. Health professionals dealing with elderly patients should in particular be aware of the dangers related to cumulative risks and need to inform the patients appropriately. For medico-legal reasons the information provided to patients must be written down in the medical record. Individual counselling is important as fitness to drive is a complex topic.

  20. Patients Taking Antihistamines and Their Effects on Driving. (United States)

    Kizu, Junko


    Sleepiness is known as one of the side effects of antihistamines, and impaired performance caused by these drugs has become problematic. Among the 13 second-generation antihistamines causing sleepiness to some extent, the package inserts of 8 drugs prohibit driving, 3 stress driving with care, and 2 give no driving-related warning. It was confirmed that the description did not necessarily reflect the results of the standard deviation of lateral position measurement study, which is considered the most effective study for evaluating the effects of drugs on automobile driving. Do these descriptions reflect actual patients' sleepiness? According to a questionnaire survey involving 2000 individuals taking second-generation antihistamines, 7.3% of respondents answered that they had always become sleepy after taking antihistamines (3.1-12.5% according to the type of antihistamine), 32.8% (27.8-45.8%) had become sleepy sometimes, 9.1% (3.1-15.8%) had previously become sleepy but not anymore, and 40.9% (27.1-49.1%) had never become sleepy. In addition, 10.3% (2.4-21.1%) reported intolerable sleepiness. Patients who had experience of receiving pharmaceutical education from pharmacists numbered 1296 (64.8%), and 80.2% of them had also received driving-related explanations, which included the prohibition of driving (32.8%), stressing the need to drive with care (54.7%), and the prohibition of medication before driving (12.0%). Concerning these explanations, the proportion who paid attention on a daily basis, paid slight attention, and paid no attention was 36.7, 31.2, and 32.1%, respectively. To provide effective and safe pharmacotherapy for the increasing number of patients taking antihistamines, pharmacists should ideally improve pharmaceutical education.

  1. Functional brain mapping of actual car-driving using [18F]FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, M.; Tashiro, Manabu; Singh, L.N.


    This study aims at identifying the brain activation during actual car-driving on the road, and at comparing the results to those of previous studies on simulated car-driving. Thirty normal volunteers, aged 20 to 56 years, were divided into three subgroups, active driving, passive driving and control groups, for examination by positron emission tomography (PET) and [ 18 F]2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG). The active driving subjects (n=10) drove for 30 minutes on quiet normal roads with a few traffic signals. The passive driving subjects (n=10) participated as passengers on the front seat. The control subjects (n=10) remained seated in a lit room with their eyes open. Voxel-based t-statistics were applied using SPM2 to search brain activation among the subgroups mentioned above. Significant brain activation was detected during active driving in the primary and secondary visual cortices, primary sensorimotor areas, premotor area, parietal association area, cingulate gyms, the parahippocampal gyrus as well as in thalamus and cerebellum. The passive driving manifested a similar-looking activation pattern, lacking activations in the premotor area, cingulate and parahippocampal gyri and thalamus. Direct comparison of the active and passive driving conditions revealed activation in the cerebellum. The result of actual driving looked similar to that of simulated driving, suggesting that visual perception and visuomotor coordination were the main brain functions while driving. In terms of attention and autonomic arousal, however, it seems there was a significant difference between simulated and actual driving possibly due to risk of accidents. Autonomic and emotional aspects of driving should be studied using an actual driving study-design. (author)

  2. Impact of gender, organized athletics, and video gaming on driving skills in novice drivers. (United States)

    Wayne, Nancy L; Miller, Gregory A


    Given that novice drivers tend to be young, and teenagers and young adult drivers are involved in the greatest number of accidents, it is important that we understand what factors impact the driving skills of this population of drivers. The primary aim of the present study was to understand the impact of gender, organized athletics, and video gaming on driving skills of novice drivers under real-world driving conditions. Novice driving students having less than five hours driving experience previous to a normal driving lesson were evaluated on their self-confidence (self-reported) prior to the lesson and driving skill evaluated by their instructor during the course of the lesson. Information was collected about gender, age, whether or not the students were involved in organized athletics, and the extent of their video game playing. There was no impact of gender or extent of video game playing on driving skills. Females were significantly less self-confident with driving than males, but this did not translate to gender differences in driving skills. Being involved in organized athletics-either currently or in the past-significantly enhanced driving skills in both females and males. Finally, novice drivers' age was negatively correlated with driving skills. That is, younger novice drivers (especially males) had better driving skills than older novice drivers. This is counter to popular belief that young drivers lack technical driving skills because they have less experience behind the wheel. Based on the results of the current study, we hypothesize that the relatively high accident rate of younger drivers (especially male drivers) is most likely due to inattention to safety considerations rather than lack of technical driving ability.

  3. Effective Sharing of Health Records, Maintaining Privacy: A Practical Schema


    Neame, Roderick


    A principal goal of computerisation of medical records is to join up care services for patients, so that their records can follow them wherever they go and thereby reduce delays, duplications, risks and errors, and costs. Healthcare records are increasingly being stored electronically, which has created the necessary conditions for them to be readily sharable. However simply driving the implementation of electronic medical records is not sufficient, as recent developments have demonstrated (1...

  4. Short Communication Noteworthy elasmobranch records from Oman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Records of 11 elasmobranch species previously unreported from, or uncommon in, Omani waters are presented. Records new to Oman include Carcharhinus altimus, C. leiodon, Centrophorus isodon, Ctenacis fehlmanni, Himantura fai, Mobula eregoodootenke and Sphyrna zygaena, whereas noteworthy records of ...

  5. The theory of planned behavior, materialism, and aggressive driving. (United States)

    Efrat, Kalanit; Shoham, Aviv


    Aggressive driving is a growing problem worldwide. Previous research has provided us with some insights into the characteristics of drivers prone to aggressiveness on the road and into the external conditions triggering such behavior. Little is known, however, about the personality traits of aggressive drivers. The present study proposes planned behavior and materialism as predictors of aggressive driving behavior. Data was gathered using a questionnaire-based survey of 220 individuals from twelve large industrial organizations in Israel. Our hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Our results indicate that while planned behavior is a good predictor of the intention to behave aggressively, it has no impact on the tendency to behave aggressively. Materialism, however, was found to be a significant indicator of aggressive driving behavior. Our study is based on a self-reported survey, therefore might suffer from several issues concerning the willingness to answer truthfully. Furthermore, the sampling group might be seen as somewhat biased due to the relatively high income/education levels of the respondents. While both issues, aggressive driving and the theory of planned behavior, have been studied previously, the linkage between the two as well as the ability of materialism to predict aggressive behavior received little attention previously. The present study encompasses these constructs providing new insights into the linkage between them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Driving intoxicated: is hospital admission protective against legal ramifications? (United States)

    Cheek, Susannah Mary; Murry, Jason Steven; Truitt, Michael Seth; Dunn, Ernest Lewis


    According to the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, in 2010, 10,228 people were killed in alcohol-impaired driving crashes. Daily, intoxicated drivers are seen in trauma centers across the country. At our trauma center, we sought to determine the number of drivers who had a documented elevation in their blood alcohol content (BAC) and compare this with county police records to evaluate how many charges for driving while intoxicated (DWI) were issued. A retrospective chart review was performed for trauma admissions during a 3-year period. Patients with a BAC of less than 0.08 g/dL were excluded. Only documented drivers were included. This group of intoxicated drivers was then compared against public records from the Dallas County for any record of a charge of DWI. During a 3-year period, from 2009 to 2011, 118 drivers had a confirmed BAC above the legal limit of 0.08 g/dL. Average BAC level was 0.218 g/dL. Injuries varied widely between patients with an average Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 11. Extremity fractures were seen in 27%, facial fractures were seen in 16%, and intracranial hemorrhage was seen in 7%. Forty-eight percent of the patients were admitted to the intensive care unit initially, with an average length of intensive care unit stay of 1.5 days (range, 0-25 days). Only 18% of our patients (21) received a charge of DWI. Four patients were charge with related offenses. A motor vehicle accident may be protective against the legal ramifications of drinking and driving. Less than 20% of patients who were driving under the influence incurred any legal repercussion. Deterrents that prevent law enforcement from being able to obtain evidence needed for prosecution should be eliminated. Health care providers and law enforcement agencies should work as a team to help mitigate the incidence of drunk driving and its burden on society. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  7. Error signals driving locomotor adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo


    anaesthesia (n = 5) instead of repetitive nerve stimulation. Foot anaesthesia reduced ankle adaptation to external force perturbations during walking. Our results suggest that cutaneous input plays a role in force perception, and may contribute to the 'error' signal involved in driving walking adaptation when...

  8. CLIC Drive Beam Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Wegner, Rolf


    Travelling structures for accelerating the high-current (4.2 A) CLIC Drive Beam to an energy of 2.37 GeV are presented. The structures are optimised for efficiency (full beam loading operation) and a desired filling time. Higher order modes are studied and are reduced by detuning along the structure and by damping with silicon carbide loads.

  9. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems (United States)

    Dudley, Michael R.


    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  10. Safe Driving After Propofol Sedation. (United States)

    Summerlin-Grady, Lee; Austin, Paul N; Gabaldon, Dion A


    Propofol is a short-acting medication with fast cognitive and psychomotor recovery. However, patients are usually instructed not to drive a motor vehicle for 24 hours after receiving propofol. The purpose of this article was to review the evidence examining when it is safe to drive after receiving propofol for sedation for diagnostic and surgical procedures. This is a systematic review of the literature. A search of the literature was conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for the time period 1990 to 2015. Two randomized controlled trials and two observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Using a simulator, investigators examined driving ability of subjects who received modest doses (about 100 mg) of propofol for endoscopic procedures and surveyed subjects who drove immediately after discharge. There were methodological concerns with the studies such as small sample sizes, modest doses of propofol, and three of the four studies were done in Japan by the same group of investigators limiting generalizability. This limited research suggests that it may be safe for patients to drive sooner than 24 hours after receiving propofol. However, large multicenter trials using heterogenous samples using a range of propofol doses are needed to support an evidence-based revision to the current discharge guidelines for patients receiving propofol. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Synergy in RF Current Drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, R.J.; Giruzzi, G.


    Auxiliary methods for efficient non-inductive current drive in tokamaks generally involve the interaction of externally driven waves with superthermal electrons. Among the possible schemes, Lower Hybrid (LH) and Electron Cyclotron (EC) current drive have been so far the most successful. An interesting aspect of their combined use is the fact that since they involve possibly overlapping domains in velocity and configuration spaces, a synergy between them is expected for appropriate parameters. The signature of this effect, significant improvement of the EC current drive efficiency, results from a favorable interplay of the quasilinear diffusions induced by both waves. Recently, improvements of the EC current drive efficiency in the range of 2-4 have been measured in fully non-inductive discharges in the Tore Supra tokamak, providing the first clear evidence of this effect in steady-state conditions. We present here the experimental aspects of these discharges. The associated kinetic modeling and current state of understanding of the LH-EC synergy phenomenon are also discussed. (authors)

  12. Synergy in RF Current Drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, R.J.; Giruzzi, G.


    Auxiliary methods for efficient non-inductive current drive in tokamaks generally involve the interaction of externally driven waves with superthermal electrons. Among the possible schemes, Lower Hybrid (LH) and Electron Cyclotron (EC) current drive have been so far the most successful. An interesting aspect of their combined use is the fact that since they involve possibly overlapping domains in velocity and configuration spaces, a synergy between them is expected for appropriate parameters. The signature of this effect, significant improvement of the EC current drive efficiency, results from a favorable interplay of the quasilinear diffusions induced by both waves. Recently, improvements of the EC current drive efficiency in the range of 2-4 have been measured in fully non-inductive discharges in the Tore Supra tokamak, providing the first clear evidence of this effect in steady-state conditions. We present here the experimental aspects of these discharges. The associated kinetic modeling and current state of understanding of the LH-EC synergy phenomenon are also discussed

  13. Factors driving aquaculture technology adoption (United States)

    Technology adoption has played a key role in the global development and increase in agricultural productivity. However, the decision to adopt a new technology on farms is complex. While the factors that drive the adoption of new technologies have been well studied in agriculture, less attention has ...

  14. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit


    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a...


    CERN Multimedia

    Relatiopns with the Host States Service


    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN SWITZERLAND 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D or E-type carte de légitimation For holders of B, C, D or E-type cartes de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (Département fédéral suisse des Affaires étrangères, hereinafter called DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. Should they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant roads authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation ; for Geneva call 022/343 02 00, website:, for Vaud call 021/316 82 10, website: in order to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence. However, exchanges are not permitted if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a stay there of less than six months' duration while the person concerned was officially...

  16. Current drive for rotamak plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Experiments which have been undertaken over a number of years have shown that a rotating magnetic field can drive a significant non-linear Hall current in a plasma. Successful experiments of this concept have been made with a device called rotamak. In its original configuration this device was a field reversed ...

  17. Current challenges in autonomous driving (United States)

    Barabás, I.; Todoruţ, A.; Cordoş, N.; Molea, A.


    Nowadays the automotive industry makes a quantum shift to a future, where the driver will have smaller and smaller role in driving his or her vehicle ending up being totally excluded. In this paper, we have investigated the different levels of driving automatization, the prospective effects of these new technologies on the environment and traffic safety, the importance of regulations and their current state, the moral aspects of introducing these technologies and the possible scenarios of deploying the autonomous vehicles. We have found that the self-driving technologies are facing many challenges: a) They must make decisions faster in very diverse conditions which can include many moral dilemmas as well; b) They have an important potential in reducing the environmental pollution by optimizing their routes, driving styles by communicating with other vehicles, infrastructures and their environment; c) There is a considerable gap between the self-drive technology level and the current regulations; fortunately, this gap shows a continuously decreasing trend; d) In case of many types of imminent accidents management there are many concerns about the ability of making the right decision. Considering that this field has an extraordinary speed of development, our study is up to date at the submission deadline. Self-driving technologies become increasingly sophisticated and technically accessible, and in some cases, they can be deployed for commercial vehicles as well. According to the current stage of research and development, it is still unclear how the self-driving technologies will be able to handle extreme and unexpected events including their moral aspects. Since most of the traffic accidents are caused by human error or omission, it is expected that the emergence of the autonomous technologies will reduce these accidents in their number and gravity, but the very few currently available test results have not been able to scientifically underpin this issue yet. The

  18. Low emissions system featured on compressor drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, T.


    A high speed power turbine is offered as an option with direct drive capability for pipeline compressors and other high-speed applications. As developed, it features ease of maintenance with rotor and nozzle assembly in a single cartridge to allow quick change-out or replacement of parts on site. The new compressor drive builds extensively on proven technology and is expected to provide lower installed and life-cycle costs per unit horsepower than previous units. During its development stages, M ampersand IE preformed cost and risk assessment of several design configurations and concluded that a derivative approach based on the standard unit was an optimal solution in the 39,000 shp range. A two-shaft gas turbine is expected to be applied in the industrial and commercial marine markets, including 50- and 60-Hertz power generation applications, pipeline compression, gas injection, and fast ferry commercial marine uses. Emissions controls for the system will include water or steam injection using a standard combustor or M and IE's DLE combustion system

  19. Gender differences in alcohol impairment of simulated driving performance and driving-related skills. (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A; Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T


    Considerable laboratory research indicates that moderate doses of alcohol impair a broad range of skilled activities related to driving performance in young adults. Although laboratory studies show that the intensity of impairment is generally dependent on the blood alcohol concentration, some reviews of this literature suggest that women might be more sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol than men. The present study tested this hypothesis. Drawing on data from previous experiments in our laboratory, we compared men and women in terms of the degree to which a challenge dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) impaired their simulated driving performance and measures of three separate behavioral and cognitive functions important to driving performance: motor coordination, speed of information processing and information-processing capacity. Alcohol significantly impaired all aspects of performance. Moreover, women displayed greater impairment than men on all behavioral tests and also reported higher levels of subjective intoxication compared with men. Both biological and social-cultural factors have been implicated in gender differences in the behavioral responses to alcohol. The current evidence of heightened sensitivity to alcohol in women highlights the need for better understanding the biological and environmental factors underlying this gender difference.

  20. Driver headway choice: a comparison between driving simulator and real-road driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risto, Malte; Martens, Marieke Hendrikje


    Driving simulators have become an established tool in driver behaviour research by offering a controllable, safe and cost-effective alternative to real world driving. A challenge for using driving simulators as a research tool has been to elicit driving behaviour that equals real world driving. With

  1. Driver headway choice : A comparison between driving simulator and real-road driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risto, M.; Martens, M.H.


    Driving simulators have become an established tool in driver behaviour research by offering a controllable, safe and cost-effective alternative to real world driving. A challenge for using driving simulators as a research tool has been to elicit driving behaviour that equals real world driving. With

  2. Driving simulator performance of veterans from the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. (United States)

    Amick, Melissa M; Kraft, Melissa; McGlinchey, Regina


    Driving simulator performance was examined in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) Veterans to objectively evaluate driving abilities among this cohort who self-report poorer driving safety postdeployment. OIF/OEF Veterans (n = 25) and age- and education-matched civilian controls (n = 25) participated in a 30 min driving simulator assessment that measured the frequency of minor, moderate, and severe driving errors. Frequency of errors in specific content domains (speed regulation, positioning, and signaling) was also calculated. All participants answered questions about number of lifetime traffic "warnings," moving violation tickets, and accidents. Veterans completed the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist-Military Version. On the driving simulator assessment, Veterans committed more minor, moderate, severe, and speeding errors and reported poorer lifetime driving records than the civilian control group. Exploratory analyses revealed an association between increasing errors on the driving simulator with increasing symptoms of PTSD, although statistically this correlation did not reach significance. These findings suggest that Veterans perform more poorly on an objective evaluation of driving safety and that the presence of PTSD could be associated with worse performance on this standardized driving simulator assessment.

  3. New Sensing Application to Diagnose Power Semiconductor Aging in Actuator Power Drive Systems (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a new sensing application to diagnose power semiconductor aging in power drive systems. It has been shown previously that device parasitic...

  4. The use of a driving simulator to determine how time pressures impact driver aggressiveness. (United States)


    Speeding greatly contributes to traffic safety with approximately a third of fatal crashes in the United States being speeding-related. Previous research has identified being late as a primary cause of speeding. In this driving simulator study, a vir...

  5. Control Reconfigurability of Bilinear Hydraulic Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Tahavori, Maryamsadat


    be effective if sufficient redundancy does not exist in the process. A measure for control reconfigurability which reveals the level of redundancy in connection with feedback control is proposed in this paper for bilinear systems. The proposed control reconfigurability measure is the extension of its gramian......The objective of the methods within the framework of the plug and play process control and particularly fault tolerant control is to establish control techniques which guarantee a certain performance through control reconfiguration at the occurrence of the faults or changes. These methods cannot......-based analogous counterpart, which has been previously proposed for the linear processes. The control reconfigurability is calculated for the bilinear models of an electro-hydraulic drive to show its relevance to redundant actuating capabilities in the models....

  6. Friction and Wear in Timing Belt Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stojanovic


    Full Text Available Timing belt tooth goes into contact with a drive pulley, stretched to the maximum, because of the previous tension. When the contact begins the peak of the belt tooth makes the contact with the outer surface of the pulley teeth. The process of the teeth entering into the contact zone is accompanied with the relative sliding of their side surfaces and appropriate friction force. The normal force value is changing with the parabolic function, which also leads to the changes of the friction force. The biggest value of the normal force and of the friction force is at the tooth root. Hollow between teeth and the tip of the pulley teeth are also in contact. Occasionally, the face surface of the belt and the flange are also in contact. The friction occurs in those tribomechanical systems, also. Values of these friction forces are lower compared with the friction force, which occurs at the teeth root.

  7. Speed Controlled Belt Conveyors: Drives and Mechanical Considerations


    BEBIC, M. Z.; RISTIC, L. B.


    The paper presents variable speed belt conveyor system where the reference speed is changed in order to achieve improved energy efficiency of operation. The recorded measurements show that belt tension varies within the same limits as under constant speed operation. These results introduce a new insight of the present state of the art in variable speed belt conveyor drives. The system is realized with remote control from the control center on an open pit mine. The structure of...

  8. Could driving safety be compromised by noise exposure at work and noise-induced hearing loss? (United States)

    Picard, Michel; Girard, Serge André; Courteau, Marilène; Leroux, Tony; Larocque, Richard; Turcotte, Fernand; Lavoie, Michel; Simard, Marc


    A study was conducted to verify if there is an association between occupational noise exposure, noise-induced hearing loss and driving safety expanding on previous findings by Picard, et al. (2008) that the two factors did increase accident risk in the workplace. This study was made possible when driving records of all Quebec drivers were made available by the Societe de l'assurance automobile du Quebec (SAAQ is the state monopoly responsible for the provision of motor vehicle insurance and the compensation of victims of traffic accidents). These records were linked with personal records maintained by the Quebec National Institute of Public Health as part of its mission to prevent noise induced hearing loss in the workplace. Individualized information on occupational noise exposure and hearing sensitivity was available for 46,030 male workers employed in noisy industries who also held a valid driver's permit. The observation period is of five years duration, starting with the most recent audiometric examination. The associations between occupational noise exposure levels, hearing status, and personal driving record were examined by log-binomial regression on data adjusted for age and duration of exposure. Daily noise exposures and bilateral average hearing threshold levels at 3, 4, and 6 kHz were used as independent variables while the dependent variables were 1) the number of motor vehicle accidents experienced by participants during the study period and 2) participants' records of registered traffic violations of the highway safety code. The findings are reported as prevalence ratios (PRs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Attributable numbers of events were computed with the relevant PRs, lesser-noise, exposed workers and those with normal hearing levels making the group of reference. Adjusting for age confirmed that experienced workers had fewer traffic accidents. The data show that occupational noise exposure and hearing loss have the same effect on

  9. New and previously known species of Oenonidae (Polychaeta: Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Zanol, Joana; Ruta, Christine


    The family Oenonidae consists of Eunicida species with prionognath jaws. Its Australian fauna had been reported to comprise six species belonging to Arabella, Drilonereis, and Oenone. This study provides descriptions for four new species, redescriptions for three species (two previously recorded and a new record, Drilonereis cf. logani) and diagnoses for the genera recorded from Australia. Currently, eleven species of oenonids, distributed in three genera, are known for the Australian coast. On Lizard Island, this family shows low abundance (19 specimens collected) and high richness (seven species). Our results suggest that despite the increasing accumulation of information, the biodiversity of the family is still poorly estimated.

  10. Among High School Seniors, Driving After Marijuana Use Surpasses Drunk Driving (United States)

    ... Drunk Driving Among High School Seniors, Driving After Marijuana Use Surpasses Drunk Driving Email Facebook Twitter July ... in a vehicle whose driver had been using marijuana or another illicit drug, or had drunk 5 ...

  11. Recording sensory and motor information from peripheral nerves with Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays. (United States)

    Clark, Gregory A; Ledbetter, Noah M; Warren, David J; Harrison, Reid R


    Recording and stimulation via high-count penetrating microelectrode arrays implanted in peripheral nerves may help restore precise motor and sensory function after nervous system damage or disease. Although previous work has demonstrated safety and relatively successful stimulation for long-term implants of 100-electrode Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (USEAs) in feline sciatic nerve [1], two major remaining challenges were 1) to maintain viable recordings of nerve action potentials long-term, and 2) to overcome contamination of unit recordings by myoelectric (EMG) activity in awake, moving animals. In conjunction with improvements to USEAs themselves, we have redesigned several aspects of our USEA containment and connector systems. Although further increases in unit yield and long-term stability remain desirable, here we report considerable progress toward meeting both of these goals: We have successfully recorded unit activity from USEAs implanted intrafascicularly in sciatic nerve for periods up to 4 months (the terminal experimental time point), and we have developed a containment system that effectively eliminates or substantially reduces EMG contamination of unit recordings in the moving animal. In addition, we used a 100-channel wireless recording integrated circuit attached to implanted USEAs to transmit broadband or spike-threshold data from nerve. Neural data thusly obtained during imposed limb movements were decoded blindly to drive a virtual prosthetic limb in real time. These results support the possibility of using USEAs in peripheral nerves to provide motor control and cutaneous or proprioceptive sensory feedback in individuals after limb loss or spinal cord injury.

  12. Granular gases under extreme driving (United States)

    Kang, W.; Machta, J.; Ben-Naim, E.


    We study inelastic gases in two dimensions using event-driven molecular-dynamics simulations. Our focus is the nature of the stationary state attained by rare injection of large amounts of energy to balance the dissipation due to collisions. We find that under such extreme driving, with the injection rate much smaller than the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a power-law high-energy tail. The numerically measured exponent characterizing this tail is in excellent agreement with predictions of kinetic theory over a wide range of system parameters. We conclude that driving by rare but powerful energy injection leads to a well-mixed gas and constitutes an alternative mechanism for agitating granular matter. In this distinct nonequilibrium steady state, energy cascades from large to small scales. Our simulations also show that when the injection rate is comparable with the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a stretched exponential tail.

  13. Inside Solid State Drives (SSDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Micheloni, Rino; Eshghi, Kam


    Solid State Drives (SSDs) are gaining momentum in enterprise and client applications, replacing Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) by offering higher performance and lower power. In the enterprise, developers of data center server and storage systems have seen CPU performance growing exponentially for the past two decades, while HDD performance has improved linearly for the same period. Additionally, multi-core CPU designs and virtualization have increased randomness of storage I/Os. These trends have shifted performance bottlenecks to enterprise storage systems. Business critical applications such as online transaction processing, financial data processing and database mining are increasingly limited by storage performance. In client applications, small mobile platforms are leaving little room for batteries while demanding long life out of them. Therefore, reducing both idle and active power consumption has become critical. Additionally, client storage systems are in need of significant performance improvement as well ...

  14. Auto warranty and driving patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasiadis, Simon; Anderson, Boyd; Chukova, Stefanka


    Automobile warranty coverage is typically limited by age as well as mileage. However, the age is known for all sold vehicles at all times, but mileage is only observed for a vehicle with a claim and only at the time of the claim. We study the relationship between the expected number/cost of warranty claims and the driving patterns. Within a nonparametric framework, we account for the rate of mileage accumulation and propose a measure for the variability of this rate over a vehicle's observable life. We illustrate the ideas with real warranty data and comment on the relationship between the expected number/cost of warranty claims and the driving patterns using results adjusted/unadjusted for withdrawals from the warranty coverage due to mileage accumulation

  15. Fatigue and voluntary utilization of automation in simulated driving. (United States)

    Neubauer, Catherine; Matthews, Gerald; Langheim, Lisa; Saxby, Dyani


    A driving simulator was used to assess the impact on fatigue, stress, and workload of full vehicle automation that was initiated by the driver. Previous studies have shown that mandatory use of full automation induces a state of "passive fatigue" associated with loss of alertness. By contrast, voluntary use of automation may enhance the driver's perceptions of control and ability to manage fatigue. Participants were assigned to one of two experimental conditions, automation optional (AO) and nonautomation (NA), and then performed a 35 min, monotonous simulated drive. In the last 5 min, automation was unavailable and drivers were required to respond to an emergency event. Subjective state and workload were evaluated before and after the drive. Making automation available to the driver failed to alleviate fatigue and stress states induced by driving in monotonous conditions. Drivers who were fatigued prior to the drive were more likely to choose to use automation, but automation use increased distress, especially in fatigue-prone drivers. Drivers in the AO condition were slower to initiate steering responses to the emergency event, suggesting optional automation may be distracting. Optional, driver-controlled automation appears to pose the same dangers to task engagement and alertness as externally initiated automation. Drivers of automated vehicles may be vulnerable to fatigue that persists when normal vehicle control is restored. It is important to evaluate automated systems' impact on driver fatigue, to seek design solutions to the issue of maintaining driver engagement, and to address the vulnerabilities of fatigue-prone drivers.

  16. Design of an immersive simulator for assisted power wheelchair driving. (United States)

    Devigne, Louise; Babel, Marie; Nouviale, Florian; Narayanan, Vishnu K; Pasteau, Francois; Gallien, Philippe


    Driving a power wheelchair is a difficult and complex visual-cognitive task. As a result, some people with visual and/or cognitive disabilities cannot access the benefits of a power wheelchair because their impairments prevent them from driving safely. In order to improve their access to mobility, we have previously designed a semi-autonomous assistive wheelchair system which progressively corrects the trajectory as the user manually drives the wheelchair and smoothly avoids obstacles. Developing and testing such systems for wheelchair driving assistance requires a significant amount of material resources and clinician time. With Virtual Reality technology, prototypes can be developed and tested in a risk-free and highly flexible Virtual Environment before equipping and testing a physical prototype. Additionally, users can "virtually" test and train more easily during the development process. In this paper, we introduce a power wheelchair driving simulator allowing the user to navigate with a standard wheelchair in an immersive 3D Virtual Environment. The simulation framework is designed to be flexible so that we can use different control inputs. In order to validate the framework, we first performed tests on the simulator with able-bodied participants during which the user's Quality of Experience (QoE) was assessed through a set of questionnaires. Results show that the simulator is a promising tool for future works as it generates a good sense of presence and requires rather low cognitive effort from users.

  17. 77 FR 58816 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records (United States)


    .... ADDRESSES: You may submit comments, identified by docket number and title, by any of the following methods.... * Mail: Federal Docket Management System Office, 4800 Mark Center Drive, East Tower, 2nd Floor, Suite... obsolete. The records are now covered by the Defense Finance and Accounting Service system of records...

  18. 76 FR 73604 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records (United States)


    ... system of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This proposed action will be effective without further notice on... Docket Management System Office, 4800 Mark Center Drive, East Tower, 2nd floor, Suite 02G09, Alexandria...

  19. 77 FR 4025 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records (United States)


    ...: The U.S. Central Command is amending a system of records notice in its existing inventory of record... be effective on February 27, 2012 unless comments are received which result in a contrary... submitting comments. * Mail: Federal Docket Management System Office, 4800 Mark Center Drive, East Tower, 2nd...

  20. 77 FR 22290 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records (United States)


    ... of Defense Intelligence Information System (DoDIIS) Customer Relationship Management.'' System.... * Mail: Federal Docket Management System Office, 4800 Mark Center Drive, East Tower, 2nd Floor, Suite...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to alter a system of records...

  1. 77 FR 9902 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records (United States)


    .... * Mail: Federal Docket Management System Office, 4800 Mark Center Drive, East Tower, 2nd Floor, Suite... patient transfer, and from the Military Health Information System.'' * * * * * [FR Doc. 2012-3814 Filed 2...; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Notice to alter a system of records...

  2. Unitary deformations of counterdiabatic driving (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazutaka


    We study a deformation of the counterdiabatic-driving Hamiltonian as a systematic strategy for an adiabatic control of quantum states. Using a unitary transformation, we design a convenient form of the driver Hamiltonian. We apply the method to a particle in a confining potential and discrete systems to find explicit forms of the Hamiltonian and discuss the general properties. The method is derived by using the quantum brachistochrone equation, which shows the existence of a nontrivial dynamical invariant in the deformed system.

  3. Drowsy driving and risk behaviors - 10 States and Puerto Rico, 2011-2012. (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G; Shults, Ruth A; Chapman, Daniel P; Ford, Earl S; Croft, Janet B


    Findings in published reports have suggested that drowsy driving is a factor each year in as many as 7,500 fatal motor vehicle crashes (approximately 25%) in the United States. CDC previously reported that, in 2009-2010, 4.2% of adult respondents in 19 states and the District of Columbia reported having fallen asleep while driving at least once during the previous 30 days. Adults who reported usually sleeping ≤6 hours per day, snoring, or unintentionally falling asleep during the day were more likely to report falling asleep while driving compared with adults who did not report these sleep patterns. However, limited information has been published on the association between drowsy driving and other risk behaviors that might contribute to crash injuries or fatalities. Therefore, CDC analyzed responses to survey questions regarding drowsy driving among 92,102 respondents in 10 states and Puerto Rico to the 2011-2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys. The results showed that 4.0% reported falling asleep while driving during the previous 30 days. In addition to known risk factors, drowsy driving was more prevalent among binge drinkers than non-binge drinkers or abstainers and also more prevalent among drivers who sometimes, seldom, or never wear seatbelts while driving or riding in a car, compared with those who always or almost always wear seatbelts. Drowsy driving did not vary significantly by self-reported smoking status. Interventions designed to reduce binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving, to increase enforcement of seatbelt use, and to encourage adequate sleep and seeking treatment for sleep disorders might contribute to reductions in drowsy driving crashes and related injuries.


    CERN Multimedia

    Service des relations avec les Pays Hôtes


    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE1.1 National driving licences from countries belonging to the EEAa) ValidityCurrent national driving licences issued by a country belonging to the European Economic Area (here inafter called EEA) are, in principle, valid in France. N.B. : The countries belonging to the EEA are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.b)\tRegistrationTo ensure that all the conditions of validity in France have been met, holders of driving licences issued by a country belonging to the EEA, who reside in France (i.e. hold a residence permit issued by a Préfecture, or a carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is equivalent to a residence permit), can have their licences registered with the Préfecture of the department where they live (for Ain, call 04 74 32 30 00, for Haute Savoie call 04 50 33 ...


    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit


    The following information is provided subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 474 32 30 65 for Ain and + 33 450 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PEOPLE RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a state belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it is recognised only up to one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France (date of the first special residence permit issu...

  6. Foreign driving licences in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    The following information is subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of the Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 4 74 32 30 65 for the Ain and + 33 4 50 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a State belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA and with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it will be recognised for a maximum of one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France ...

  7. Factors That Drive Youth Specialization. (United States)

    Padaki, Ajay S; Popkin, Charles A; Hodgins, Justin L; Kovacevic, David; Lynch, Thomas Sean; Ahmad, Christopher S

    Specialization in young athletes has been linked to overuse injuries, burnout, and decreased satisfaction. Despite continued opposition from the medical community, epidemiological studies suggest the frequency is increasing. Extrinsic pressures in addition to individual aspirations drive this national trend in sports specialization. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. A novel instrument assessing the driving factors behind youth specialization was generated by an interdisciplinary team of medical professionals. Surveys were administered to patients and athletes in the department's sports medicine clinic. The survey was completed by 235 athletes between 7 and 18 years of age, with a mean age of 13.8 ± 3.0 years. Athletes specialized at a mean age of 8.1 years, and 31% of athletes played a single sport while 58% played multiple sports but had a preferred sport. More than 70% of athletes had collegiate or professional ambitions, and 60% played their primary sport for 9 or more months per year, with players who had an injury history more likely to play year-round ( P sports, with specialized athletes reporting this significantly more often ( P = 0.04). Half of the athletes reported that sports interfered with their academic performance, with older players stating this more frequently ( P sport before starting high school. While intrinsic drive may identify healthy aspirations, extrinsic influences are prevalent in specialized athletes. Extrinsic factors contributing to youth specialization were identified and compounded the deleterious sequelae of youth athlete specialization.

  8. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Document Server


    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. (see the official news about the new "Carte de légitimation P") If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible...

  9. Hazard perception in traffic. [previously knows as: Hazard perception.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Hazard perception is an essential part of the driving task. There are clear indications that insufficient skills in perceiving hazards play an important role in the occurrence of crashes, especially those involving novice drivers. Proper hazard perception not only consists of scanning and perceiving

  10. Drama, drive and sensuous appeal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole


    Introduction to Bent Lorentzen and his music, with focus on the piano music. Booklet accomapnying a complete recording of the piano works by Erik Kaltoft......Introduction to Bent Lorentzen and his music, with focus on the piano music. Booklet accomapnying a complete recording of the piano works by Erik Kaltoft...

  11. The relative impact of work-related stress, life stress and driving environment stress on driving outcomes. (United States)

    Rowden, Peter; Matthews, Gerald; Watson, Barry; Biggs, Herbert


    Previous research has shown the association between stress and crash involvement. The impact of stress on road safety may also be mediated by behaviours including cognitive lapses, errors, and intentional traffic violations. This study aimed to provide a further understanding of the impact that stress from different sources may have upon driving behaviour and road safety. It is asserted that both stress extraneous to the driving environment and stress directly elicited by driving must be considered part of a dynamic system that may have a negative impact on driving behaviours. Two hundred and forty-seven public sector employees from Queensland, Australia, completed self-report measures examining demographics, subjective work-related stress, daily hassles, and aspects of general mental health. Additionally, the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Stress Inventory (DSI) were administered. All participants drove for work purposes regularly, however the study did not specifically focus on full-time professional drivers. Confirmatory factor analysis of the predictor variables revealed three factors: DSI negative affect; DSI risk taking; and extraneous influences (daily hassles, work-related stress, and general mental health). Moderate intercorrelations were found between each of these factors confirming the 'spillover' effect. That is, driver stress is reciprocally related to stress in other domains including work and domestic life. Structural equation modelling (SEM) showed that the DSI negative affect factor influenced both lapses and errors, whereas the DSI risk-taking factor was the strongest influence on violations. The SEMs also confirmed that daily hassles extraneous to the driving environment may influence DBQ lapses and violations independently. Accordingly, interventions may be developed to increase driver awareness of the dangers of excessive emotional responses to both driving events and daily hassles (e.g. driving fast to 'blow off steam

  12. Driving behaviour in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (United States)

    Groom, Madeleine J; van Loon, Editha; Daley, David; Chapman, Peter; Hollis, Chris


    Little is known about the impact of cognitive impairments on driving in adults with ADHD. The present study compared the performance of adults with and without ADHD in a driving simulator on two different routes: an urban route which we hypothesised would exacerbate weak impulse control in ADHD and a motorway route, to challenge deficits in sustained attention. Adults with (n = 22, 16 males) and without (n = 21, 18 males) ADHD completed a simulated driving session while eye movement data were recorded simultaneously. Participants also completed the Manchester Driving Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS). Measures of driving performance included average speed, proportion distance travelled over speed limit (speeding) and lane deviation. These variables and the eye movement measures (spread of fixations, mean fixation duration) were compared between groups and routes. Also, driving behaviours, including responses to programmed events, were categorised and the frequencies within categories were compared between groups. Finally, speech analysis was performed to compare emotional verbal expressions during driving between groups. ADHD participants reported significantly more Violations and Lapses on the DBQ than control participants and significantly more accidents. Average speed and speeding were also higher but did not interact with route type. ADHD participants showed poorer vehicle control, greater levels of frustration with other road users (including greater frequencies of negative comments) and a trend for less safe driving when changing lanes/overtaking on the motorway. These effects were predicted by hyperactive/impulsive CAARS scores. They were also more likely to cause a crash/near miss when an event occurred on the urban route. The results suggest that difficulty regulating and controlling impulsive behavior, reflected in speeding, frustration with other road users, less safety when changing lanes on the

  13. Advisory and autonomous cooperative driving systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.; Netten, B.D.


    In this paper, the traffic efficiency of an advisory cooperative driving system, Advisory Acceleration Control is examined and compared to the efficiency of an autonomous cooperative driving system, Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control. The algorithms and implementation thereof are explained. The

  14. Synthesizing Naturalistic Driving Data: a further review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, Karien


    Full Text Available The Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) methodology has in the past decade proven extremely valuable in providing rich contextual information about the driver, the vehicle and driving environment. Internationally the uptake of the methodology...

  15. Speciation through sensory drive in cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seehausen, Ole; Terai, Yohey; Magalhaes, Isabel S.; Carleton, Karen L.; Mrosso, Hillary D. J.; Miyagi, Ryutaro; van der Sluijs, Inke; Schneider, Maria V.; Maan, Martine E.; Tachida, Hidenori; Imai, Hiroo; Okada, Norihiro


    Theoretically, divergent selection on sensory systems can cause speciation through sensory drive. However, empirical evidence is rare and incomplete. Here we demonstrate sensory drive speciation within island populations of cichlid fish. We identify the ecological and molecular basis of divergent

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Drinking and Driving (United States)

    ... resulting in nearly 11,000 deaths in 2009. Driving drunk is never OK. Choose not to drink and ... interlocks prevent drivers who were convicted of alcohol-impaired driving from operating their vehicles if they have been ...

  17. Deceleration buffer for hydraulic linear motion drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamrus, K.J.


    Braking of the motion of a fluid-actuated drive is provided by a buffer arrangement which is normally sealed to prevent vaporization of the fluid in a buffer cylinder and which isolates the drive piston rings from braking pressures

  18. Self-monitoring of driving speed. (United States)

    Etzioni, Shelly; Erev, Ido; Ishaq, Robert; Elias, Wafa; Shiftan, Yoram


    In-vehicle data recorders (IVDR) have been found to facilitate safe driving and are highly valuable in accident analysis. Nevertheless, it is not easy to convince drivers to use them. Part of the difficulty is related to the "Big Brother" concern: installing IVDR impairs the drivers' privacy. The "Big Brother" concern can be mitigated by adding a turn-off switch to the IVDR. However, this addition comes at the expense of increasing speed variability between drivers, which is known to impair safety. The current experimental study examines the significance of this negative effect of a turn-off switch under two experimental settings representing different incentive structures: small and large fines for speeding. 199 students were asked to participate in a computerized speeding dilemma task, where they could control the speed of their "car" using "brake" and "speed" buttons, corresponding to automatic car foot pedals. The participants in two experimental conditions had IVDR installed in their "cars", and were told that they could turn it off at any time. Driving with active IVDR implied some probability of "fines" for speeding, and the two experimental groups differed with respect to the fine's magnitude, small or large. The results indicate that the option to use IVDR reduced speeding and speed variance. In addition, the results indicate that the reduction of speed variability was maximal in the small fine group. These results suggest that using IVDR with gentle fines and with a turn-off option maintains the positive effect of IVDR, addresses the "Big Brother" concern, and does not increase speed variance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High Field Side Lower Hybrid Current Drive Simulations for Off- axis Current Drive in DIII-D (United States)

    Wukitch, S. J.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G. M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Holcomb, C.; Pinsker, R. I.


    Efficient off-axis current drive scalable to reactors is a key enabling technology for developing economical, steady state tokamak. Previous studies have focussed on high field side (HFS) launch of lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) in double null configurations in reactor grade plasmas and found improved wave penetration and high current drive efficiency with driven current profile peaked near a normalized radius, ρ, of 0.6-0.8, consistent with advanced tokamak scenarios. Further, HFS launch potentially mitigates plasma material interaction and coupling issues. For this work, we sought credible HFS LHCD scenario for DIII-D advanced tokamak discharges through utilizing advanced ray tracing and Fokker Planck simulation tools (GENRAY+CQL3D) constrained by experimental considerations. For a model and existing discharge, HFS LHCD scenarios with excellent wave penetration and current drive were identified. The LHCD is peaked off axis, ρ˜0.6-0.8, with FWHM Δρ=0.2 and driven current up to 0.37 MA/MW coupled. For HFS near mid plane launch, wave penetration is excellent and have access to single pass absorption scenarios for variety of plasmas for n||=2.6-3.4. These DIII-D discharge simulations indicate that HFS LHCD has potential to demonstrate efficient off axis current drive and current profile control in DIII-D existing and model discharge.

  20. Modeling human learning involved in car driving


    Wewerinke, P.H.


    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based on a neural network approach. The aim of this research is to assess the relative merit of both approaches to describe human learning behavior in car driving specifically and in operating dynamic sys...

  1. Distance From Public Transportation and Physical Activity in Japanese Older Adults: The Moderating Role of Driving Status. (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Lee, Sangyoon; Lee, Sungchul; Bae, Seongryu; Anan, Yuya; Harada, Kenji; Shimada, Hiroyuki


    Although previous studies have shown that good access to public transportation is positively related with physical activity, the moderators of this relationship have not been explored sufficiently in older adults. It is possible that driving status could moderate this relationship. The present study examined whether the objectively measured distance between public transportation and the home was associated with physical activity levels, and whether this association was moderated by driving status among Japanese older adults. In this cross-sectional study, participants (n = 2,878) completed questionnaires and wore accelerometers for at least 7 days, to measure their average daily step counts and minutes spent engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Road network distances between the home and the nearest bus stop or train station were measured using geographic information systems. Driving status was assessed using questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses stratified by driving status revealed that, among nondrivers, living further away from public transportation was associated with higher step counts (β = 0.08, p transportation was significantly associated with higher moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels (β = -0.05, p = .042). Despite the small effect sizes, the direction of the association between distance from public transportation and physical activity was different for current drivers and nondrivers. These findings imply that good access to public transportation does not positively relate with greater engagement in physical activity among nondriving older adults. Shorter distances to public transportation might reduce opportunities for engaging in physical activity for them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Maternal serum screening marker levels in women with a previous aneuploidy pregnancy. (United States)

    Spencer, Kevin; Staboulidou, Ismini; De Jesus Cruz, Jader; Karagiannis, George; Nicolaides, Kypros H


    To re-evaluate in a larger cohort of patients if the maternal serum biochemical markers used in first trimester aneuploidy screening have the same marker distributions in pregnancies with a previous history of aneuploidy compared with those that have no previous history. Information related to previous pregnancy history is routinely recorded as part of first trimester screening in three centres King George, Kings College and Fetal Medicine Centre, London. From the database, records were extracted for women who had a previous pregnancy diagnosed with trisomies 13, 18 or 21. For each woman with a previous aneuploidy, five unaffected pregnancies in women of the same maternal age and with no previous aneuploidy pregnancy were selected as controls. A comparison was made between the marker distributions for pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chronic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) amongst the cases and controls using nonparametric statistical tests. A series of 8240 controls were compared against group of 1032 cases with a previous trisomy 21, 293 with a previous trisomy 18 and 158 with a previous trisomy 13. Cases with multiple previous trisomies were excluded. There were no significant differences in the level of free beta-hCG; however, in cases of trisomy 21 and trisomy 13 the levels of PAPP-A were increased by 5 and 16%, respectively. Risk calculation algorithms may need to take account of the increased PAPP-A levels in women with a previous trisomy 21 or trisomy 13. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.


    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based

  4. CAAD: Computer Architecture for Autonomous Driving


    Liu, Shaoshan; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Zhe; Gaudiot, Jean-Luc


    We describe the computing tasks involved in autonomous driving, examine existing autonomous driving computing platform implementations. To enable autonomous driving, the computing stack needs to simultaneously provide high performance, low power consumption, and low thermal dissipation, at low cost. We discuss possible approaches to design computing platforms that will meet these needs.

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Teen Drinking and Driving (United States)

    ... every trip, no matter how short. Obey speed limits. Never use a cell phone or text while driving. Parents can Understand that most teens ... teen passengers Never use a cell phone or text while driving Obey speed limits Get your copy of CDC's parent-teen driving ...

  6. Driving When You Have Parkinson's Disease (United States)

    Driving When You Have Parkinson’s Disease DRIVEWELL You have been a safe driver for years. For you, driving means freedom and control. As you get older, ... mental health can affect how safely you drive. Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the central nervous system ...

  7. Effects of vibration on occupant driving performance under simulated driving conditions. (United States)

    Azizan, Amzar; Fard, M; Azari, Michael F; Jazar, Reza


    Although much research has been devoted to the characterization of the effects of whole-body vibration on seated occupants' comfort, drowsiness induced by vibration has received less attention to date. There are also little validated measurement methods available to quantify whole body vibration-induced drowsiness. Here, the effects of vibration on drowsiness were investigated. Twenty male volunteers were recruited for this experiment. Drowsiness was measured in a driving simulator, before and after 30-min exposure to vibration. Gaussian random vibration, with 1-15 Hz frequency bandwidth was used for excitation. During the driving session, volunteers were required to obey the speed limit of 100 kph and maintain a steady position on the left-hand lane. A deviation in lane position, steering angle variability, and speed deviation were recorded and analysed. Alternatively, volunteers rated their subjective drowsiness by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) scores every 5-min. Following 30-min of exposure to vibration, a significant increase of lane deviation, steering angle variability, and KSS scores were observed in all volunteers suggesting the adverse effects of vibration on human alertness level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. What Drives Politicians’ Online Popularity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis; Vaccari, Cristian


    The number of website visits, Facebook friends, or Twitter followers that politicians attract varies greatly, but little is known about what drives politicians' online popularity. In this article, we use data from a systematic tracking of congressional candidates' popularity on four web platforms......-seat races tend to attract larger audiences online, as do candidates who are more visible on political blogs. Surprisingly, how intensely candidates are covered in news media, how popular they are in opinion polls, and how much money they spend during the campaign show no significant effect. These findings...... help us understand the dynamics of internet politics, and have wider implications for candidate competition and party politics....

  9. Efficient alternatives for electric drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comnes, G.A.; Barnes, R.W.


    This analysis of industrial electric motors describes the current motor stock, its energy use and operating characteristics, and innovations that could change current use patterns. It provides calculations characterizing the economic attractiveness of several existing and potential options. One attractive option given particular attention is the adjustable-speed drive which can replace throttles or valves for many pumping operations. A major conclusion is that, throughout industry, options that are both energy-saving and economically attractive appear to penetrate markets more slowly than would be socially optimal. The final section examines characteristics of industry that may contribute to slow market penetration. 29 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  10. Dynamics and control of electrical drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wach, Piotr [Politechnika Opolska, Opole (Poland). Inst. of Electromechanical Systems and Applied Informatics


    Dynamics is a science concerned with movement and changes. In the most general approach it relates to life processes as well as behavior in nature in rest. It governs small particles, technical objects, conversion of matter and materials but also concerns people, groups of people in their individual and, in particular, social dimension. In dynamics we always have to do with causes or stimuli for motion, the rules of reaction or behavior and its result in the form of trajectory of changes. This book is devoted to dynamics of a wide class of specific but very important objects such as electromechanical systems. This is a very rigorous discipline and has a long tradition, as its theoretical bases were formulated in the first half of the XIX century by d' Alembert, Lagrange, Hamilton, Maxwell and other prominent scientists, but their crucial results were based on previous pioneering research of others such as Copernicus, Galileo, Newton..This book in its theoretical foundations is based on the principle of least action which governs classical as well as relativistic mechanics and electromagnetism and leads to Lagrange's equations which are applied in the book as universal method to construct equations of motion of electromechanical systems. It gives common and coherent grounds to formulate mathematical models for all lumped parameters' electromechanical systems, which are vital in our contemporary industry and civilized everyday life. From these remarks it seems that the book is general and theoretical but in fact it is a very practical one concerning modern electrical drives in a broad sense, including electromechanical energy conversion, induction motor drives, brushless DC drives with a permanent magnet excitation and switched reluctance machines (SRM). And of course their control, which means shaping of their trajectories of motion using modern tools, their designed autonomy in keeping a track according to our programmed expectations. The problems

  11. Quality assurance records and records' system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, M.; Martinek, J.


    For nuclear power plants extensive proof of quality is required which has to be documented reliably by quality records. With respect to the paper volume it is the most comprehensive 'curriculum vitae' of the technique. Traditional methods of information and recording are unsatisfactory for meeting regulatory requirements for maintaining the QA-aspects of status reporting, completeness, traceability and retrieval. Therefore KWU has established a record (documentation) subsystem within the overall component qualification system. Examples of the general documentation requirements, the procedure and handling in accordance with this subsystem for mechanical equipment are to be described examplarily. Topics are: - National and international requirements - Definition of QA records - Modular and product orientated KWU-record subsystem - Criteria for developing records - Record control, distribution, collection, storage - New documentation techniques (microfilm, data processing) - Education and training of personnel. (orig./RW)

  12. Perceptual and Cognitive Impairments and Driving (United States)

    Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Coopersmith, Henry; Mayo, Nancy; Leblanc, Ginette; Kaizer, Franceen


    Perceptual and cognitive disorders that frequently accompany stroke and head injury influence an individual's ability to drive a motor vehicle. Canadian physicians are legally responsible for identifying patients who are potentially unsafe to drive and, if they fail to do so, may be held liable in a civil action suit. The authors review the guidelines for physicians evaluating a patient's fitness to drive after brain injury. They also examine the actions a physician should take when a patient with perceptual and cognitive problems wants to drive. Ultimately, by taking these actions, physicians will help to prevent driving accidents. PMID:21234047

  13. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  14. The Sweet Drive Test: Refining phenotypic characterization of anhedonic behavior in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António eMateus-Pinheiro


    Full Text Available Measuring anhedonic behavior in rodents is a challenging task as current methods display only moderate sensitivity to detect anhedonic phenotype and, consequently, results from different labs are frequently incongruent. Herein we present a newly-developed test, the Sweet Drive Test (SDT, which integrates food preference measurement in a non-aversive environment, with ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs recording. Animals were placed in a soundproofed black arena, under red light illumination, and allowed to choose between regular and sweet food pellets. During the test trials, 50 KHz ultrasonic vocalizations, previously described to be associated with positive experiences, were recorded. In a first experimental approach, we demonstrate the ability of SDT to accurately characterize anhedonic behavior in animals chronically exposed to stress. In a subsequent set of experiments, we show that this paradigm has high sensitivity to detect mood-improving effects of antidepressants. The combined analysis of both food preference and the number of 50 KHz vocalizations in the SDT provides also a valuable tool to discriminate animals that responded to treatment from non-responder animals.

  15. Smartphone Based Approach For Monitoring Inefficient And Unsafe Driving Behavior And Recognizing Drink And Drive Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Mane


    Full Text Available Many automobile drivers having knowledge of the driving behaviours and habits that can lead to inefficient and unsafe driving. However it is often the case that these same drivers unknowingly manifest these inefficient and unsafe driving behaviours in their everyday driving activity. The proposed system proposes a practical and economical way to capture measure and alert drives of inefficient and unsafe driving as well as highly efficient system aimed at early detection and alert of dangerous vehicle maneuvers typically related to drunk driving. The upcoming solution consists of a mobile application running on a modern smartphone device paired with a compatible OBDII On-board diagnostics II reader.

  16. The effect of cannabis compared with alcohol on driving. (United States)

    Sewell, R Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet


    The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of tolerance, differences in smoking technique, and different absorptions of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana. Detrimental effects of cannabis use vary in a dose-related fashion, and are more pronounced with highly automatic driving functions than with more complex tasks that require conscious control, whereas alcohol produces an opposite pattern of impairment. Because of both this and an increased awareness that they are impaired, marijuana smokers tend to compensate effectively while driving by utilizing a variety of behavioral strategies. Combining marijuana with alcohol eliminates the ability to use such strategies effectively, however, and results in impairment even at doses which would be insignificant were they of either drug alone. Epidemiological studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents; in contrast, unanimity exists that alcohol use increases crash risk. Furthermore, the risk from driving under the influence of both alcohol and cannabis is greater than the risk of driving under the influence of either alone. Future research should focus on resolving contradictions posed by previous studies, and patients who smoke cannabis should be counseled to wait several hours before driving, and avoid combining the two drugs.

  17. The use of navigation systems in naturalistic driving. (United States)

    Knapper, Allert; Van Nes, Nicole; Christoph, Michiel; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Brookhuis, Karel


    In this study, we assessed the use of portable navigation systems in everyday driving by applying in-vehicle naturalistic driving. Experienced users of navigation systems, 7 females and 14 males, were provided with a specially equipped vehicle for approximately 1 month. Their trips were recorded using 4 cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS) data, and other sensor data. The drivers' navigation system use data were coded from the video recordings, which showed how often and for how long the system was activated and how often and for how long a driver operated the system. The system was activated for 23% of trips, predominantly on longer and unique trips. Analyses of the percentage of time for which the speed limit was exceeded showed no evidence of differences between trips for which the navigation system was used or not used. On trips for which the navigation system was activated, participants spent about 5% of trip time interacting with the device. About 40% of interacting behavior took place in the first 10% of the trip time, and about 35% took place while the car was standing still or moving at a very low speed; that is, 0-10 km/h. These results shed light on how and when drivers use navigation systems. They suggest that although drivers regulate their use of such systems to some extent, they often perform risky tasks while driving.

  18. Pregnancy outcome after one previous caesarean section at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal blood pressure and pulse record, and foetal heart sound record are taken every 30 minutes in early first stage of labour and 15 minutes in second stage of ... Data analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 14.0 computer programme. Frequency distribution and measure of location were used to ...

  19. Visual Attention and Driving: How to Measure it and How to Train it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K Mackenzie


    Full Text Available We present two pieces of research in the area of visual behaviour and driving. Our first study investigated if there are differences in eye movement behaviour when viewing movies of driving passively, as if one were a passenger, and driving where one controls the action via steering. One group of participants was asked to complete a passive hazard perception task where they had to watch videos of driving situations and press a button when they spotted a hazard, and another group were asked to drive in a simulated environment and press a button when they spotted the hazard. Eye movements were recorded throughout. We found that individuals attended to more of the roadway both horizontal and vertically and were faster at fixating the hazards in the passive task than the active task. We suggest that these results may imply that standard passive tests have limited utility when developing visual models of driving behaviour. Our second study investigated whether we can use expert eye movement information to train more efficient looking patterns when driving. Two groups of inexperienced drivers undertook two simulated drives one week apart whilst eye movements were tracked. One group was asked to watch pre-recorded videos of eye movements of an expert driver before the second driving session. The other group (control was not shown the eye movement videos. We found that, after watching the videos, drivers exhibited increased horizontal visual scanning of the road and an increase of fixations towards the interior mirror and driver-side mirror. The control group showed no such improvement in visual behaviour. The results show that eye movement cueing can be used to train more efficient search strategies in a dynamic task such as driving and may highlight a possible training intervention method which can be introduced to educate early stage drivers.

  20. Development of an Optical Disc Recorder (United States)


    linear electric drive motor and a l in e a r velocity trans- ducer from Collins Corp. Recording tests with the new fixture are planned for the next...quarter. FOCUS MOTOR D I SC — - — — S L E D T U R NT A B L E F’ iq ~1 r - 2 : PC~c o rd 4 . 2 Focus Moto r An improved f o c u s moto r crm s

  1. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald


    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  2. Computer Security: drive-bye

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team


    Like a lion waiting to ambush gazelles at a waterhole, malware can catch you by surprise.    As some of you might have noticed, the Computer Security Team had to block the news site “” a while ago, as it was found to be distributing malware. This block comes after similar incidents at other Swiss organizations. Our blocking is protective in order to safeguard your computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones. Unfortunately, this is not the first time we have seen these so-called drive-by/waterhole attacks: once you have visited an affected website, embedded third-party malicious code is downloaded to your computer and subsequently infects it (if running Windows or Android as well as, less likely, Mac operating systems). Hence the name “drive-by”. As “” is a very frequented website among CERN staff members and users, it makes it a perfect source for attacks against CERN (or other Geneva-based organisations): inste...

  3. Parents' and peers' contribution to risky driving of male teen drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Ari, Orit Taubman; Kaplan, Sigal; Lotan, Tsippy


    recorders from actual driving of parents and their male teen driver with data collected from self-report questionnaires completed by the young drivers. The sample consists of 121 families, who participated in the study for 12 months, beginning with the licensure of the teen driver. The current examination...... to the control group. Finally, higher cohesion and adaptability mitigated parents' model for risky driving, and peers norms' of risky driving were associated with higher risk by the teen drivers. We conclude by claiming that there is an unequivocal need to look at a full and complex set of antecedents in parents...

  4. Drivers' social-work relationships as antecedents of unsafe driving: A social network perspective. (United States)

    Arizon Peretz, Renana; Luria, Gil


    In order to reduce road accidents rates, studies around the globe have attempted to shed light on the antecedents for unsafe road behaviors. The aim of the current research is to contribute to this literature by offering a new organizational antecedent of driver's unsafe behavior: The driver's relationships with his or her peers, as reflected in three types of social networks: negative relationships network, friendship networks and advice networks (safety consulting). We hypothesized that a driver's position in negative relationship networks, friendship networks, and advice networks will predict unsafe driving. Additionally, we hypothesized the existence of mutual influences among the driver's positions in these various networks, and suggested that the driver's positions interact to predict unsafe driving behaviors. The research included 83 professional drivers from four different organizations. Driving behavior data were gathered via the IVDR (In-Vehicle Data Recorder) system, installed in every truck to measure and record the driver's behavior. The findings indicated that the drivers' position in the team networks predicts safe driving behavior: Centrality in negative relationship networks is positively related to unsafe driving, and centrality in friendship networks is negatively related to unsafe driving, while centrality in advice networks is not related to unsafe driving. Furthermore, we found an interaction effect between negative network centrality and centrality in friendship networks. The relation between negative networks and unsafe behavior is weaker when high levels of friendship network centrality exist. The implications will be presented in the Discussion section. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A study on the effects of fatigue driving and drunk driving on drivers' physical characteristics. (United States)

    Zhang, Xingjian; Zhao, Xiaohua; Du, Hongji; Rong, Jian


    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of fatigue driving and drunk driving on drivers' physical characteristics; to analyze the differences in drivers' physical characteristics affected by different kinds of fatigue; and to compare the differences in the effects of the 2 driving states, fatigue driving and drunk driving. Twenty-five participants' physical characteristics were collected under 5 controlled situations: normal, tired driving, drowsy driving, drowsiness + tired driving, and drunk driving. In this article, fatigue driving refers to tiredness and drowsiness and includes 3 situations: tired driving, drowsy driving, and drowsiness + tired driving. The drivers' physical characteristics were measured in terms of 9 parameters: systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), eyesight, dynamic visual acuity (DVA), time for dark adaption (TDA), reaction time to sound (RTS), reaction time to light (RTL), deviation of depth perception (DDP), and time deviation of speed anticipation (TDSA). They were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Binary logistical regression analysis was used to explain the relationship between drivers' physical characteristics and the two driving states. Most of the drivers' physical characteristic parameters were found to be significantly different under the influence of different situations. Four indicators are significantly affected by fatigue driving during deep fatigue (in decreasing order of influence): HR, RTL, SBP and RTS. HR and RTL are significant in the logistical regression model of the drowsiness + tired driving situation and normal situations. Six indicators of the drivers' physical characteristics are significantly affected by drunk driving (in decreasing order of influence): SBP, RTL, DDP, eyesight, RTS, and TDSA. SBP and DDP have a significant effect in the logistical regression model of the drunk driving situation and the normal situation. Both fatigue driving and drunk driving

  6. CMS Records Schedule (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Records Schedule provides disposition authorizations approved by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) for CMS program-related records...

  7. Predictors of driving outcomes including both crash involvement and driving cessation in a prospective study of Japanese older drivers. (United States)

    Kosuge, Ritsu; Okamura, Kazuko; Kihira, Makoto; Nakano, Yukako; Fujita, Goro


    The first aim of this study was to investigate predictors of future traffic crash involvement, taking into account bias in the handling of data for former drivers. The second aim was to compare characteristics of former drivers and crash-involved drivers in order to gain an understanding of appropriate driving cessation among older drivers. In all, 154 drivers aged 70 years or older participated in the baseline interview and the follow-up survey conducted two years later. In the baseline interview, participants were asked to respond to a questionnaire, take the Useful Field of View test ® (UFOV), and complete the Mini-Mental State Examination. In the follow-up survey, participants were asked by mail or telephone whether they had stopped driving. Participants reporting that they still drove were invited to participate in a subsequent interview. Based on the information obtained in the follow-up survey, participants were classified as follows: driving cessation group (n=26); crash-involved group (n=18); and crash-free group (n=110). A multinomial logistic regression was then used to analyse the data. Contrary to the results of previous studies, we found older age to be associated with crash involvement but not with driving cessation. The cessation group had more decreased cognitive processing speed than the crash-involved and crash-free groups. Crash history was also predictive of crash involvement. Participants who were subject to license renewal between baseline and follow-up had a greater tendency to continue driving. Results suggested that age and crash history could potentially identify high-risk older drivers. The predictive power of cognitive processing speed is reduced under certain conditions. License-renewal procedures may induce Japanese older adults to continue driving. Future studies should use a large national sample to confirm the results of the present study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlation between driving-related skill and alcohol use in young-adults from six European countries: the TEN-D by Night Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedzia Marcin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only few studies with small experimental samples investigated the impact of psychoactive substances on driving performance. We conducted a multicenter international cross-sectional study to evaluate the correlation between alcohol use and driving-related skill as measured by brake reaction time (RT. Methods Before and after the entrance into randomly selected recreational sites from six European countries, all subjects aged 16-35 years, owning a driver license, were asked to compile a structured socio-demographic questionnaire and measure RT (SimuNomad3 driving simulator, breath alcohol concentration (BAC; Drager Alcoltest, and drug use (Oratect III saliva test, only at the exit. Mixed regression modeling was used to evaluate the independent association between RT and alcohol concentration or drug use. Results Before the entrance into the recreational site, 4534 subjects completed all assessments and composed the final sample. Their mean age was 23.1 ± 4.2y; 68.3% were males; 54.7% had BAC > 0 g/L (assumed alcoholics; 7.5% declared illegal drug assumption (mostly cannabis. After the exit, 3019 also completed the second assessment: 71.7% showed BAC > 0 g/L. Controlling for age, gender, educational level, occupation, driver license years, and drug use, BAC was positively associated with RT, achieving significance, however, only when BAC was higher than 0.49 g/L. Significant interaction terms were found between BAC and female gender or drug use, with highest RTs (> 1 sec. recorded among drug users with BAC > = 1 g/L. Conclusions This field study confirms previous experimental data on the negative impact of alcohol use on driving-related skill, supporting regulations and educational campaigns aimed at discouraging driving after consumption of psychoactive substances.

  9. Hunger neurons drive feeding through a sustained, positive reinforcement signal. (United States)

    Chen, Yiming; Lin, Yen-Chu; Zimmerman, Christopher A; Essner, Rachel A; Knight, Zachary A


    The neural mechanisms underlying hunger are poorly understood. AgRP neurons are activated by energy deficit and promote voracious food consumption, suggesting these cells may supply the fundamental hunger drive that motivates feeding. However recent in vivo recording experiments revealed that AgRP neurons are inhibited within seconds by the sensory detection of food, raising the question of how these cells can promote feeding at all. Here we resolve this paradox by showing that brief optogenetic stimulation of AgRP neurons before food availability promotes intense appetitive and consummatory behaviors that persist for tens of minutes in the absence of continued AgRP neuron activation. We show that these sustained behavioral responses are mediated by a long-lasting potentiation of the rewarding properties of food and that AgRP neuron activity is positively reinforcing. These findings reveal that hunger neurons drive feeding by transmitting a positive valence signal that triggers a stable transition between behavioral states.

  10. [Useful assessment for identifying unsafe driving]. (United States)

    Gonthier, Régis; Fabrigoule, Colette; Domont, Alain


    Ability to drive safely is the resultant of interactions between the individual (the driver), the vector (the car) and the environment (the state of the road). For some aged drivers, an important decline of visual, musculosquelettic and cognitive performances, may affect the ability to drive and increase the rate of crashes per vehicle-kilometer-driven, and the morbidity and mortality related to crash. Therefore, each holder of a driving licence should be medically suited to control his driving ability. In case of transitory or lasting driving incapacity, drivers must, of their own initiative, stop driving according to the Highway code and the contractual obligations appearing in their vehicle insurance contract. A medical examination for aptitude to driving requires a standardized, reliable, reproducible procedure based on consensual assessment tools to avoid arbitrary decisions for driving cessation. We propose a multidisciplinary approach to detect important decline of visuospatial and motor skills, paroxystic drops of attention and vigilance, and decreased cognitive capacity to anticipate and adapt driving at every moment. This assessment is based on a semi-directed interview and simple diagnostic tests. According to the present French law, only twelve medical conditions or functional deficits are inconsistent with the retain of the driving licence for a light vehicle.

  11. Investigating the effect of previous treatments on wheat biomass over multiple spatial frequencies (United States)

    Milne, A. E.; Castellanos, M. T.; Cartagena, M. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Lark, R. M.


    In this study we use the maximum overlap discrete packet transform (MODWPT) to investigate residual effects on wheat biomass of fertigation treatments applied to a previous crop. The wheat crop covered nine subplots from a previous experiment on melon response to fertigation. Each subplot had previously received a different level of applied nitrogen. Many factors affect wheat biomass, causing it to vary at different spatial frequencies. We hypothesize that these will include residual effects from fertilizer application (at relatively low spatial frequencies) and the local influence of individual plants from the previous melon crop (at high frequency). To test this hypothesis we use the MODWPT to identify the dominant spatial frequencies of wheat biomass variation, and analyse the relationship to both the previous fertilizer application and the location of individual melon plants in the previous crop. The MODWPT is particularly appropriate for this because it allows us first to identify the key spatial frequencies in the wheat biomass objectively and to analyse them, and their relationship to hypothesized driving factors without any assumptions of uniformity (stationarity) of wheat-biomass variation. The results showed that the applied nitrogen dominated the wheat biomass response, and that there was a noticeable component of wheat-biomass variation at the spatial frequency that corresponds to the melon cropping. We expected wheat biomass to be negatively correlated with the position of melons in the previous crop, due to uptake of the applied nitrogen. The MODWPT, which allows us to detect changes in correlation between variables at different frequencies, showed that such a relationship was found across part of the experiment but not uniformly.

  12. Fifteen Years of Operation at NASA's National Transonic Facility with the World's Largest Adjustable Speed Drive (United States)

    Sydnor, George H.; Bhatia, Ram; Krattiger, Hansueli; Mylius, Justus; Schafer, D.


    In September 1995, a project was initiated to replace the existing drive line at NASA's most unique transonic wind tunnel, the National Transonic Facility (NTF), with a single 101 MW synchronous motor driven by a Load Commutated Inverter (LCI). This Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) system also included a custom four-winding transformer, harmonic filter, exciter, switch gear, control system, and feeder cable. The complete system requirements and design details have previously been presented and published [1], as well as the commissioning and acceptance test results [2]. The NTF was returned to service in December 1997 with the new drive system powering the fan. Today, this installation still represents the world s largest horizontal single motor/drive combination. This paper describes some significant events that occurred with the drive system during the first 15 years of service. These noteworthy issues are analyzed and root causes presented. Improvements that have substantially increased the long term viability of the system are given.

  13. Advances in Modeling Direct-Drive Ignition at the National Ignition Facility (United States)

    Collins, T. J. B.; Marozas, J. A.


    Polar direct drive (PDD) makes it possible to perform direct-drive-ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) while the facility is configured for indirect drive. We present for the first time PDD ignition-relevant target designs with decreased laser intensities. These designs include the physical effects of cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) and nonlocal heat transport, both of which substantially affect the target drive. In the PDD configuration, a multiwavelength detuning strategy was found to be effective in mitigating the loss of coupling caused by CBET, allowing for implosion speeds comparable to those of previous designs. Target designs will be presented that span the region from alpha-particle heating to ignition. In addition, ignition-relevant designs will also be discussed for use in symmetric direct drive on the NIF. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  14. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the climate record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellsaesser, H.W.


    This paper is an attempt to provide a summary review of conclusions from previous studies on this subject. Subject headings include: conceptualization of the greenhouse effect, the climatic effect of doubled CO/sub 2/, interpretation of the climatic record, diagnosis of apparent and possible model deficiencies, and the palaeoclimatic record.

  15. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the climate record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellsaesser, H.W.


    This paper is an attempt to provide a summary review of conclusions from previous studies on this subject. Subject headings include: conceptualization of the greenhouse effect, the climatic effect of doubled CO 2 , interpretation of the climatic record, diagnosis of apparent and possible model deficiencies, and the palaeoclimatic record

  16. Factors Driving Business Intelligence Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimvydas Skyrius


    Full Text Available The field of business intelligence (BI, despite rapid technology advances, continues to feature inadequate levels of adoption. The attention of researchers is shifting towards hu-man factors of BI adoption. The wide set of human factors influencing BI adoption con-tains elements of what we call BI culture – an overarching concept covering key managerial issues that come up in BI implementation. Research sources provide different sets of features pertaining to BI culture or related concepts – decision-making culture, analytical culture and others. The goal of this paper is to perform the review of research and practical sources to examine driving forces of BI – data-driven approaches, BI agility, maturity and acceptance – to point out culture-related issues that support BI adoption and to suggest an emerging set of factors influencing BI culture.

  17. Technology as a driving force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvund, T. [Norsk Hydro A/S (Norway)


    The competitiveness of the Norwegian Continental shelf has been put firmly on the agenda in Norway since the report from a working group set up by the Ministry of Industry and Energy was released in February this year. If there is to be secured a long future for oil and gas activities, a reduction in the time and costs used in the projects of the order of 40-50%, without jeopardizing the high safety and environmental standards achieved in Norway. The paper addresses how technology can be a driving force in achieving these aims. But technology alone cannot do the job. Progress and changes in several other areas are also necessary, and the new scenario also calls for improved relations between all actors in the North Sea, authorities, oil companies, contractors and labour unions. 15 figs.

  18. Technology as a driving force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvund, T.


    The competitiveness of the Norwegian Continental shelf has been put firmly on the agenda in Norway since the report from a working group set up by the Ministry of Industry and Energy was released in February this year. If there is to be secured a long future for oil and gas activities, a reduction in the time and costs used in the projects of the order of 40-50%, without jeopardizing the high safety and environmental standards achieved in Norway. The paper addresses how technology can be a driving force in achieving these aims. But technology alone cannot do the job. Progress and changes in several other areas are also necessary, and the new scenario also calls for improved relations between all actors in the North Sea, authorities, oil companies, contractors and labour unions. 15 figs

  19. Alcohol consumption and cycling in contrast to driving. (United States)

    Hagemeister, Carmen; Kronmaier, Markus


    In Germany, the legal blood alcohol limit for cyclists is much higher (0.16 percent) than the limit for drivers (0.05 percent) - as long as no crash has occurred. The proportion of police-recorded crashes with personal damage under the influence is higher for cyclists than drivers, and the blood alcohol concentrations are higher for cyclists than drivers. 63 women and 204 men who drive a car and use a bike and drink alcohol participated in the online study. In the sample, cycling under the influence (CUI) was more frequent and was observed more frequently among friends than driving under the influence (DUI). Persons who use a particular vehicle type more often in general and when they visit friends also use it more often after alcohol consumption. Persons who drink alcohol more often cycle more often after alcohol consumption. In all aspects covered, drink cycling was seen as more acceptable and less dangerous than drink driving. Persons who cycle more often under the influence observe drink cycling more often among their friends. They think they are less of a danger to themselves and others when cycling after alcohol consumption, and they agree less with the statement that one should leave one's bike parked after alcohol consumption. The attitudes that drinking is unsafe for one's own driving and that one should leave one's car parked are important predictors of (non-)drink driving. For cycling, the most important predictors are bike use frequency and observing drink cycling among friends. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Drivers’ Age, Gender, Driving Experience, and Aggressiveness as Predictors of Aggressive Driving Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perepjolkina Viktorija


    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a growing interest in the problem of aggressive driving. In the presentstudy two demographic variables (gender and age, two non-psychological driving-experiencerelated variables (annual mileage and legal driving experience in years and aggressiveness asa personality trait (including behavioural and affective components as psychological variableof individual differences were examined as potential predictors of aggressive driving. The aimof the study was to find out the best predictors of aggressive driving behaviour. The study wasbased on an online survey, and 228 vehicle drivers in Latvia participated in it. The questionnaireincluded eight-item Aggressive Driving Scale (Bone & Mowen, 2006, short Latvian versionof the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ; Buss & Perry, 1992, and questions gainingdemographic and driving experience information. Gender, age and annual mileage predictedaggressive driving: being male, young and with higher annual driving exposure were associatedwith higher scores on aggressive driving. Dispositional aggressiveness due to anger componentwas a significant predictor of aggressive diving score. Physical aggression and hostility wereunrelated to aggressive driving. Altogether, the predictors explained a total of 28% of thevariance in aggressive driving behaviour. Findings show that dispositional aggressiveness,especially the anger component, as well as male gender, young age and higher annual mileagehas a predictive validity in relation to aggressive driving. There is a need to extend the scope ofpotential dispositional predictors pertinent to driving aggression.

  1. Electric vehicle drive train with contactor protection (United States)

    Konrad, Charles E.; Benson, Ralph A.


    A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor.

  2. Simulation and Analysis of Chain Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sine Leergaard

    The subject of this thesis is simulation and analysis of large roller chain drive systems, such as e.g. used in marine diesel engines. The aim of developing a chain drive simulation program is to analyse dynamic phenomena of chain drive systems and investigate different design changes...... to the systems, in order to remove unwanted phenomena. Such a computer program can, when properly validated, be used as an alternative to or in combination with physical experiments. Prior investigations in this area have been done with a focus on smaller chains in high speed chain drives. For large low speed...... systems other phenomena occur and therefore, a specific model of the marine engine chain drive is of interest. The research objective of the work presented in this thesis is to contribute with a novel theoretical basis for the analysis of chain drive systems, by posing and validating different...

  3. Electric vehicle drive train with contactor protection (United States)

    Konrad, C.E.; Benson, R.A.


    A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor. 3 figures.

  4. Surgical medical record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulow, S.


    A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15......A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15...

  5. Detection of Risky Driving Behaviors in the Naturalistic Environment in Healthy Older Adults and Mild Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Davis


    Full Text Available Analyzing naturalistic driving behavior recorded with in-car cameras is an ecologically valid method for measuring driving errors, but it is time intensive and not easily applied on a large scale. This study validated a semi-automated, computerized method using archival naturalistic driving data collected for drivers with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD; n = 44 and age-matched healthy controls (HC; n = 16. The computerized method flagged driving situations where safety concerns are most likely to occur (i.e., rapid stops, lane deviations, turns, and intersections. These driving epochs were manually reviewed and rated for error type and severity, if present. Ratings were made with a standardized scoring system adapted from DriveCam®. The top eight error types were applied as features to train a logistic model tree classifier to predict diagnostic group. The sensitivity and specificity were compared among the event-based method, on-road test, and composite ratings of two weeks of recorded driving. The logistic model derived from the event-based method had the best overall accuracy (91.7% and sensitivity (97.7% and high specificity (75.0% compared to the other methods. Review of driving situations where risk is highest appears to be a sensitive data reduction method for detecting cognitive impairment associated driving behaviors and may be a more cost-effective method for analyzing large volumes of naturalistic data.

  6. Engineering a bacterial tape recorder. (United States)

    Prokup, Alexander; Deiters, Alexander


    A method has been developed to produce and integrate single-stranded DNA into genomic locations in bacteria in response to exogenous signals. The system functions similarly to a cellular tape recorder by writing information into DNA and reading it at a later time. Much like other cellular memory platforms, its operation is based on DNA recombinase function. However, the scalability and recording capacity have been improved over previous designs. In addition, memory storage was reversible and could be recorded in response to analogue inputs, such as light exposure. This modular memory writing system is an important addition to the genomic editing toolbox available for synthetic biology. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Switched reluctance drives for electric vehicle applications


    Andrada Gascón, Pedro; Torrent Burgués, Marcel; Blanqué Molina, Balduino; Perat Benavides, Josep Ignasi


    Electric vehicles are the only alternative for a clean, efficient and environmentally friendly urban transport system. With the increasing interest in electric drives for electric vehicle propulsion. This paper first tries to explain why the switched reluctance drive is a strong candidate for electric vehicle applications. It then gives switched reluctance drive design guidelines for battery or fuel cell operated electric vehicles. Finally, it presents the design and simulation of a switched ...

  8. Optimal Sector Sampling for Drive Triage (United States)


    known files, which we call target data, that could help identify a drive holding evidence such as child pornography or malware. Triage is needed to sift...we call target data, that could help identify a drive holding evidence such as child pornography or malware. Triage is needed to sift through drives...situations where the user is looking for known data.1 One example is a law enforcement officer searching for evidence of child pornography from a large num

  9. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances. (United States)


    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...

  10. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance. (United States)


    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...

  11. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.

  12. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...




  14. Triple outlet right ventricle: a previously unknown cardiac malformation. (United States)

    Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A


    We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.

  15. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients. (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio


    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  16. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.


    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  17. Risky driving behaviors in Tehran, Iran. (United States)

    Shams, Mohsen; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa


    Iran has one of the highest fatality rates due to road traffic crashes (RTC) in the world. The disability adjusted life years (DALYs) for RTC in Iran is more than 1,300,000 years, which is more than that for any other disease such as cardiovascular or cancer. We evaluated risky driving behaviors in Tehran, the capital of Iran. A retrospective analysis was conducted based on the data obtained from the Tehran Police Safety Driving Department. Offenses and crashes were studied in different municipal districts in Tehran from March 2006 to March 2007. The inclusion criteria were risky driving behaviors fined by the police. Nonbehavioral offences were excluded. There were 3,821,798 offenses in Tehran. Not wearing a seat belt was the most common (59%) example of risky driving behavior, followed by tailgating, not wearing motorcycle helmets, talking on the cell phone while driving, overtaking from the wrong side, speeding, not driving between the lanes, weaving in and out of traffic, left deviation, and changing lanes without signals. The most common causes of RTC in Tehran are speeding, overtaking from the wrong side, and the rapid changing of driving lanes. The study factors effective in preventing risky driving behaviors in Tehran is recommended. The consideration of specific characteristics of the municipal districts is necessary to reduce risky driving behaviors.

  18. Configuring NIF for direct drive experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eimerl, D.; Rothenberg, J.; Key, M.


    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a proposed 1.8 MJ laser facility for carrying out experiments in inertial confinement fusion, currently designed for indirect drive experiments. The direct drive approach is being pursued at the 30 kJ Omega facility at the University of Rochester. In this paper we discuss the modifications to the NIF laser that would be required for both indirect and direct drive experiments. A primary concern is the additional cost of adding direct drive capability to the facility

  19. Warp Drive - From Imagination to Reality (United States)

    Gardiner, J.

    The realisation of warp drive is far beyond current science and technology; nevertheless, setting out a timetable for the realisation of warp drive is instructive as this will set expectations for the progress of future research. It is proposed that a time scale for the realisation of warp drive can be estimated by historical analogy with the development of manned space travel to the Moon, using conventional project estimation techniques. A timeline for space travel to the Moon begins with Cyrano de Bergerac's Voyage dans la Lune in 1657 and culminates with the Apollo 11 Moon landing in 1969, a little over 300 years later. A similar timeline for warp drive begins with John W. Campbell's novel Islands of Space in 1930. Fictional conjecture on the warp drive has given way to serious scientific speculation following publication of Alcubierre's seminal warp drive paper in 1994. It is concluded that the realisation of warp drive might be achieved around the year 2180. A projected timetable for the realisation of warp drive through phases of conjecture , speculation , science , technology and application suggests that the warp drive proposal should enter the science phase around the year 2030.

  20. Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives


    Abrahamsen, Flemming


    This thesis deals with energy optimal control of small and medium-size variable speed induction motor drives for especially Heating, Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) applications. Optimized efficiency is achieved by adapting the magnetization level in the motor to the load, and the basic purpose is demonstrate how this can be done for low-cost PWM-VSI drives without bringing the robustness of the drive below an acceptable level.Four drives are investigated with respect to energy optimal c...

  1. Risky driving and lifestyles in adolescence. (United States)

    Bina, Manuela; Graziano, Federica; Bonino, Silvia


    Several studies have shown that risky driving is especially prevalent among young drivers and recent research has pointed out that driving in adolescence should be investigated in the more general context of adolescent development. The first aim of this contribution was to analyze involvement in risky driving in a normative sample of 645 Italian adolescents, boys and girls, aged 14-17, through a self-report questionnaire. A second aim was to evaluate the association between risky driving and lifestyle, defined as involvement in other health risk behaviors and leisure activities. The main results showed that many adolescents drove cars and motorcycles without the required driving license and the most frequent offences were speeding and failure to maintain a safe braking distance. Gender and age differences were also investigated. Results concerning the association between risky driving and lifestyle showed that risky driving was not an isolated behavior. Boys who displayed risky driving practices were more likely to adopt a lifestyle characterized by high involvement in antisocial behaviors, tobacco smoking, comfort eating and time spent in non-organized activities with friends. Girls involved in risky driving were more likely to be involved in other risk-taking behaviors, antisocial behaviors and drug use.

  2. Mortality and pulmonary mechanics in relation to respiratory system and transpulmonary driving pressures in ARDS. (United States)

    Baedorf Kassis, Elias; Loring, Stephen H; Talmor, Daniel


    The driving pressure of the respiratory system has been shown to strongly correlate with mortality in a recent large retrospective ARDSnet study. Respiratory system driving pressure [plateau pressure-positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)] does not account for variable chest wall compliance. Esophageal manometry can be utilized to determine transpulmonary driving pressure. We have examined the relationships between respiratory system and transpulmonary driving pressure, pulmonary mechanics and 28-day mortality. Fifty-six patients from a previous study were analyzed to compare PEEP titration to maintain positive transpulmonary end-expiratory pressure to a control protocol. Respiratory system and transpulmonary driving pressures and pulmonary mechanics were examined at baseline, 5 min and 24 h. Analysis of variance and linear regression were used to compare 28 day survivors versus non-survivors and the intervention group versus the control group, respectively. At baseline and 5 min there was no difference in respiratory system or transpulmonary driving pressure. By 24 h, survivors had lower respiratory system and transpulmonary driving pressures. Similarly, by 24 h the intervention group had lower transpulmonary driving pressure. This decrease was explained by improved elastance and increased PEEP. The results suggest that utilizing PEEP titration to target positive transpulmonary pressure via esophageal manometry causes both improved elastance and driving pressures. Treatment strategies leading to decreased respiratory system and transpulmonary driving pressure at 24 h may be associated with improved 28 day mortality. Studies to clarify the role of respiratory system and transpulmonary driving pressures as a prognosticator and bedside ventilator target are warranted.

  3. The effects of driver identity on driving safety in a retrospective feedback system. (United States)

    Zhao, Guozhen; Wu, Changxu


    Retrospective feedback that provides detailed information on a driver's performance in critical driving situations at the end of a trip enhances his/her driving behaviors and safe driving habits. Although this has been demonstrated by a previous study, retrospective feedback can be further improved and applied to non-critical driving situations, which is needed for transportation safety. To propose a new retrospective feedback system that uses driver identity (i.e., a driver's name) and to experimentally study its effects on measures of driving performance and safety in a driving simulator. We conducted a behavioral experimental study with 30 participants. "Feedback type" was a between-subject variable with three conditions: no feedback (control group), feedback without driver identity, and feedback with driver identity. We measured multiple aspects of participants' driving behavior. To control for potential confounds, factors that were significantly correlated with driving behavior (e.g., age and driving experience) were all entered as covariates into a multivariate analysis of variance. To examine the effects of speeding on collision severity in driving simulation studies, we also developed a new index - momentum of potential collision - with a set of equations. Subjects who used a feedback system with driver identity had the fewest speeding violations and central-line crossings, spent the least amount of time speeding and crossing the central line, had the lowest speeding and central-line crossing magnitude, ran the fewest red lights, and had the smallest momentum of potential collision compared to the groups with feedback without driver identity and without feedback (control group). The new retrospective feedback system with driver identity has the potential to enhance a person's driving safety (e.g., speeding, central-line crossing, momentum of potential collision), which is an indication of the valence of one's name in a feedback system design. Copyright

  4. Improved Generalized Force Model considering the Comfortable Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Jie Xu


    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved generalized force model (IGFM that considers the driver’s comfortable driving behavior. Through theoretical analysis, we propose the calculation methods of comfortable driving distance and velocity. Then the stability condition of the model is obtained by the linear stability analysis. The problems of the unrealistic acceleration of the leading car existing in the previous models were solved. Furthermore, the simulation results show that IGFM can predict correct delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density, and it can exactly describe the driver’s behavior under an urgent case, where no collision occurs. The dynamic properties of IGFM also indicate that stability has improved compared to the generalized force model.

  5. Towards a national model for managing impaired driving offenders. (United States)

    Voas, Robert B; DuPont, Robert L; Talpins, Stephen K; Shea, Corinne L


    To describe a proposed national model for controlling the risk presented by offenders convicted of driving while impaired (DWI) and promoting behavioral change to reduce future recidivism. Traditional methods of controlling the risk they present to the driving public are not adequate, as indicated by the fact that approximately 1000 people are killed each year-in alcohol-related crashes involving drivers convicted of DWI in the previous three years. However, stimulated by the success of special drug courts for substance abusers and new technological methods for monitoring drug and alcohol use, new criminal justice programs for managing impaired driving offenders are emerging. A national model for a comprehensive system applicable to both drug and alcohol impaired drivers is proposed. The program focuses on monitoring offender drinking or the offender driving employing vehicle interlocks with swift, sure but moderate penalties for non-compliance in which the ultimate sanction is based on offender performance in meeting monitoring requirements. Several new court programs, such as the 24/7 Sobriety Project in South Dakota and North Dakota and the Hawaii's Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) Project, which feature alcohol/drug consumption monitoring, have produced evidence that indicates even dependent drinkers can conform to abstinence monitoring requirements and avoid the short-term jail consequence for failure. Based on the apparent success of emerging court monitoring systems, it appears that the cost of incarcerating driving-while-impaired offenders can be minimized by employing low-cost community correction programs paid for by the offender. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Dental health in workers previously exposed to mercury vapour at a chloralkali plant.


    Holland, R I; Ellingsen, D G; Olstad, M L; Kjuus, H


    OBJECTIVES--The dental health of 73 workers previously exposed to mercury vapour at a chloralkali plant was studied and compared with that of 51 non-exposed referents. METHODS--A record of oral, periodontal, gingival and mucosal conditions, including teeth, restorations, prostheses, and oral hygiene, was established during a 30 min examination. The participants' periodontal conditions were assessed according to the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN). The results with the C...

  7. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heathcote


    Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.

  8. Teens' distracted driving behavior: Prevalence and predictors. (United States)

    Gershon, Pnina; Zhu, Chunming; Klauer, Sheila G; Dingus, Tom; Simons-Morton, Bruce


    Teen drivers' over-involvement in crashes has been attributed to a variety of factors, including distracted driving. With the rapid development of in-vehicle systems and portable electronic devices, the burden associated with distracted driving is expected to increase. The current study identifies predictors of secondary task engagement among teenage drivers and provides basis for interventions to reduce distracted driving behavior. We described the prevalence of secondary tasks by type and driving conditions and evaluated the associations between the prevalence of secondary task engagement, driving conditions, and selected psychosocial factors. The private vehicles of 83 newly-licensed teenage drivers were equipped with Data Acquisition Systems (DAS), which documented driving performance measures, including secondary task engagement and driving environment characteristics. Surveys administered at licensure provided psychosocial measures. Overall, teens engaged in a potentially distracting secondary task in 58% of sampled road clips. The most prevalent types of secondary tasks were interaction with a passenger, talking/singing (no passenger), external distraction, and texting/dialing the cell phone. Secondary task engagement was more prevalent among those with primary vehicle access and when driving alone. Social norms, friends' risky driving behaviors, and parental limitations were significantly associated with secondary task prevalence. In contrast, environmental attributes, including lighting and road surface conditions, were not associated with teens' engagement in secondary tasks. Our findings indicated that teens engaged in secondary tasks frequently and poorly regulate their driving behavior relative to environmental conditions. Practical applications: Peer and parent influences on secondary task engagement provide valuable objectives for countermeasures to reduce distracted driving among teenage drivers. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and

  9. Driving automation forward : human factors for limited-ability autonomous driving systems. (United States)


    Over the past 100 years, there has been a : steady progression of innovations that : enhance the driving experience, in particular : the continuing trend toward automating more : driving tasks. Human Factors for Limited-Ability : Autonomous Drivin...

  10. The Virtual Driving Instructor: A Multi-agent Based System for Driving Instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weevers, I.; Kuipers, J.; Brugman, A.; Zwiers, Jakob; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Nijholt, Antinus

    Driving simulators need an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). Simulators provide ways to conduct objective measurements on students' driving behavior and opportunities for creating the best possible learning environment. The generated traffic situations can be influenced directly according to the

  11. Hurried driving: Relationship to distress tolerance, driver anger, aggressive and risky driving in college students. (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Daughters, Stacey B; Ali, Bina


    Being a hurried driver is associated with a variety of risky driving behaviors, yet the mechanisms underlying this behavior remain unknown. Distress tolerance, defined as an individual's capability to experience and endure negative emotional states, was examined as a predictor of hurried driving among 769 college students. Results indicate that after controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, the student's year in school, their grade point average, driving frequency, angry driving, aggressive driving as well as other forms of self-reported risky driving; hurried driving was significantly associated with lower levels of distress tolerance. Hurried drivers also reported greater levels of frustration and impatience with other drivers, suggesting that they have difficulty in withstanding or coping with negative psychological states when driving. Traditional traffic safety campaigns that emphasize enforcement may be less successful with these drivers. The need to develop campaigns that address the affective coping abilities that contribute to this behavioral pattern is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of previous abdominal surgery on outcomes following laparoscopic colorectal surgery. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Okuda, Junji; Tanaka, Keitaro; Kondo, Keisaku; Asai, Keiko; Kayano, Hajime; Masubuchi, Shinsuke; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa


    The impact of previous abdominal surgeries on the need for conversion to open surgery and on short-term outcomes during/after laparoscopic colectomy was retrospectively investigated. This retrospective cohort study was conducted from December 1996 through December 2009. This study was conducted at Osaka Medical College Hospital. A total of 1701 consecutive patients who had undergone laparoscopic resection of the colon and rectum were classified as not having previous abdominal surgery (n = 1121) or as having previous abdominal surgery (n = 580). Short-term outcomes were recorded, and risk factors for conversion to open surgery were analyzed. There were no significant differences in operative time, blood loss, number of lymph nodes removed, or conversion rate between the groups. The rate of inadvertent enterotomy was significantly higher in the previous abdominal surgery group than in the not having previous abdominal surgery group (0.9% versus 0.1%; p = 0.03), and the postoperative recovery time was significantly longer in the previous abdominal surgery group than in the not having previous abdominal surgery group. Ileus was more frequent in the previous abdominal surgery group than in the not having previous abdominal surgery group (3.8% versus 2.1%; p = 0.04). Significant risk factors for conversion to open surgery were T stage ≥3 (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.89-3.75), median incision (OR, 4.34; 95% CI, 1.23-9.41), upper median incision (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.29-5.42), lower median incision (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.09-3.12), and transverse colectomy (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.29-2.41). The incidence of successfully completed laparoscopic colectomy after previous abdominal surgery remains high, and the short-term outcomes are acceptable.

  13. Redundant arrays of IDE drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Sanders et al.


    The authors report tests of redundant arrays of IDE disk drives for use in offline high energy physics data analysis. Parts costs of total systems using commodity EIDE disks are now at the $4000 per Terabyte level. Disk storage prices have now decreased to the point where they equal the cost per Terabyte of Storage Technology tape silos. The disks, however, offer far better granularity; even small institutions can afford to deploy systems. The tests include reports on software RAID-5 systems running under Linux 2.4 using Promise Ultra 100{trademark} disk controllers. RAID-5 protects data in case of a single disk failure by providing parity bits. Tape backup is not required. Journaling file systems are used to allow rapid recovery from crashes. The data analysis strategy is to encapsulate data and CPU processing power. Analysis for a particular part of a data set takes place on the PC where the data resides. The network is only used to put results together. They explore three methods of moving data between sites; internet transfers, not pluggable IDE disks in FireWire cases, and DVD-R disks.

  14. The Queerness of the Drive. (United States)

    de Lauretis, Teresa


    The view of sexuality Freud first proposed in the Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality contains a discrepancy between the sexuality perverse and polymorphous described in the first two essays and the biologically directed, reproductive sexuality of the third essay. According to Jean Laplanche, the theorist of psychoanalysis who is Freud's closest reader and translator, the discrepancy is due to two contradictory opinions Freud apparently held at different moments of his writing: one, that sexuality is exogenous, an effect of seduction by adults; two, that sexuality is endogenous, innate in the human biological organism. This article focuses on Laplanche's elucidation of two aspects of sexuality present in each adult: an instinctual, hormonally based, and ultimately reproductive sexual impulse, which begins at puberty, and the drive-based sexual impulses first theorized by Freud as polymorphous-perverse infantile sexuality, which begin in infancy and continue to be active throughout the individual's life. Laplanche's rereading of Freud leads to a more complex understanding of sexuality as always deviant, in one way or another and to a greater or lesser degree, from the established social norms. So-called sexual deviance, therefore, is not a problem within the sexual but an issue within the social field.

  15. Control rod drive hydraulic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekawa, Toru.


    The device of the present invention can reliably prevent a possible erroneous withdrawal of control rod driving mechanism when the pressure of a coolant line is increased by isolation operation of hydraulic control units upon periodical inspection for a BWR type reactor. That is, a coolant line is connected to the downstream of a hydraulic supply device. The coolant line is connected to a hydraulic control unit. A coolant hydraulic detection device and a pressure setting device are disposed to the coolant line. A closing signal line and a returning signal line are disposed, which connect the hydraulic supply device and a flow rate control valve for the hydraulic setting device. In the device of the present invention, even if pressure of supplied coolants is elevated due to isolation of hydraulic control units, the elevation of the hydraulic pressure can be prevented. Accordingly, reliability upon periodical reactor inspection can be improved. Further, the facility is simplified and the installation to an existent facility is easy. (I.S.)

  16. Empathic concern drives costly altruism (United States)

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Dalgleish, Tim; Evans, Davy; Mobbs, Dean


    Why do we self-sacrifice to help others in distress? Two competing theories have emerged, one suggesting that prosocial behavior is primarily motivated by feelings of empathic other-oriented concern, the other that we help mainly because we are egoistically focused on reducing our own discomfort. Here we explore the relationship between costly altruism and these two sub-processes of empathy, specifically drawing on the caregiving model to test the theory that trait empathic concern (e.g. general tendency to have sympathy for another) and trait personal distress (e.g. predisposition to experiencing aversive arousal states) may differentially drive altruistic behavior. We find that trait empathic concern – and not trait personal distress – motivates costly altruism, and this relationship is supported by activity in the ventral tegmental area, caudate and subgenual anterior cingulate, key regions for promoting social attachment and caregiving. Together, this data helps identify the behavioral and neural mechanisms motivating costly altruism, while demonstrating that individual differences in empathic concern-related brain responses can predict real prosocial choice. PMID:25462694

  17. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  18. The Thermodynamics of Drunk Driving (United States)

    Thompson, Robert Q.


    Chemical and instrumental tests for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) measure the concentration of ethanol in the breath (BrAC), while state DUI laws are described in terms of blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Consequently, accurate and fair conversion from BrAC to BAC is crucial to the judicial process. Theoretical treatment of the water-air-ethanol equilibrium system and the related blood-breath-ethanol system, based on principles from general chemistry and biology, yields an equation relating the ratio of BAC to BrAC to the absolute temperature of the breath, the fraction of water in the blood, and the enthalpy and entropy of vaporization of ethanol from aqueous solution. The model equation predicts an average value for the ratio of 2350+100, not significantly different from reported experimental values. An exponential temperature dependence is predicted and has been confirmed experimentally as well. Biological, chemical, and instrumental variables are described along with their contributions to the overall uncertainty in the value of BrAC/BAC. While the forensic science community uses, and debates, a fixed ratio of 2100, the theoretical model suggests that a value of 1880 should be used to reduce the fraction of false positives to <1%.

  19. Recording nerve signals in canine sciatic nerves with a flexible penetrating microelectrode array (United States)

    Byun, Donghak; Cho, Sung-Joon; Lee, Byeong Han; Min, Joongkee; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Sohee


    Objective. Previously, we presented the fabrication and characterization of a flexible penetrating microelectrode array (FPMA) as a neural interface device. In the present study, we aim to prove the feasibility of the developed FPMA as a chronic intrafascicular recording tool for peripheral applications. Approach. For recording from the peripheral nerves of medium-sized animals, the FPMA was integrated with an interconnection cable and other parts that were designed to fit canine sciatic nerves. The uniformity of tip exposure and in vitro electrochemical properties of the electrodes were characterized. The capability of the device to acquire in vivo electrophysiological signals was evaluated by implanting the FPMA assembly in canine sciatic nerves acutely as well as chronically for 4 weeks. We also examined the histology of implanted tissues to evaluate the damage caused by the device. Main results. Throughout recording sessions, we observed successful multi-channel recordings (up to 73% of viable electrode channels) of evoked afferent and spontaneous nerve unit spikes with high signal quality (SNR  >  4.9). Also, minor influences of the device implantation on the morphology of nerve tissues were found. Significance. The presented results demonstrate the viability of the developed FPMA device in the peripheral nerves of medium-sized animals, thereby bringing us a step closer to human applications. Furthermore, the obtained data provide a driving force toward a further study for device improvements to be used as a bidirectional neural interface in humans.

  20. Influence of previous participation in physical activity on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda

  1. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  2. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling (United States)


    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  3. Delivery outcomes at term after one previous cesarean section. (United States)

    Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y


    To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.

  4. Predicting fitness-to-drive following stroke using the Occupational Therapy - Driver Off Road Assessment Battery. (United States)

    Unsworth, Carolyn A; Baker, Anne; Lannin, Natasha; Harries, Priscilla; Strahan, Janene; Browne, Matthew


    It is difficult to determine if, or when, individuals with stroke are ready to undergo on-road fitness-to-drive assessment. The Occupational Therapy - Driver Off Road Assessment Battery was developed to determine client suitability to resume driving. The predictive validity of the Battery needs to be verified for people with stroke. Examine the predictive validity of the Occupational Therapy - Driver Off Road Assessment Battery for on-road performance among people with stroke. Off-road data were collected from 148 people post stroke on the Battery and the outcome of their on-road assessment was recorded as: fit-to-drive or not fit-to-drive. The majority of participants (76%) were able to resume driving. A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis using four subtests (three cognitive and one physical) from the Battery demonstrated an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.8311. Using a threshold of 0.5, the model correctly predicted 98/112 fit-to-drive (87.5%) and 26/36 people not fit-to-drive (72.2%). The three cognitive subtests from the Occupational Therapy - Driver Off Road Assessment Battery and potentially one of the physical tests have good predictive validity for client fitness-to-drive. These tests can be used to screen client suitability for proceeding to an on-road test following stroke. Implications for Rehabilitation: Following stroke, drivers should be counseled (including consideration of local legislation) concerning return to driving. The Occupational Therapy - Driver Off Road Assessment Battery can be used in the clinic to screen people for suitability to undertake on road assessment. Scores on four of the Occupational Therapy - Driver Off Road Assessment Battery subtests are predictive of resumption of driving following stroke.

  5. [Influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation]. (United States)

    Jin, Haoran; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Yingfang; Wu, Beisheng; Peng, Chao


    To investigate the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation. A retrospective analysis of 3 283 cases of gynecological diseases by laparoscopic operation patients in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 January to 2012 December, among them, 719 (21.90%) patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery history (study Group), 2 564 (78.10%)patients have no history of abdominopelvic surgery (control group). Study group 719 patients, previous operation times: one time in 525 cases, 194 cases were multiple; previous operation: 185 cases of gynecological surgery, 305 cases of obstetric surgery, 108 cases of general surgery, and 121 complex surgery (include at least two kinds of surgery); previous operative approach: 650 cases laparotomy and 69 cases laparoscopy. Compared two groups of patients with abdominopelvic adhesion and the gynecologic laparoscopic operation situation, analyzed the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on abdominopelvic adhesion on and gynecological laparoscopic operation. The incidence of abdominopelvic adhesion in the patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery was 51.2% (368/719), which was significantly higher than that of 8.2% (211/2 564)in patients without previous abdominopelvic surgery (P surgery (23.1%, 166/719) was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.3% , 85/2 564;P laparotomy was 0.6% (4/719) significantly more than the control groups (0.1%, 2/2 564; P = 0.023). Compared with other groups, patients with gynecological or complex surgery or multiple operation history presented more severe abdominopelvic adhesion both in the score and degree (P laparotomy showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The laparoscopic operation could be carried out successfully and safely in patients with a history of various abdominopelvic operations, but the conversion rate increases, for patients with a history of multiple operation because of pelvic adhesion


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuo HORIKAWA


    Discussions: Of the 30 items monitored in the study, significant differences were evident in only a few. Because the evidence did not suggest a particular link to accident experience, it will be necessary to obtain objective data from other cognitive function tests and driving behavior for reassessment. various problems related to elderly driving in Japan were discussed.

  7. Dynamics and control of instrumented harmonic drives (United States)

    Kazerooni, H.; Ellis, S. R. (Principal Investigator)


    Since torque in harmonic drives is transmitted by a pure couple, harmonic drives do not generate radial forces and therefore can be instrumented with torque sensors without interference from radial forces. The installation of torque sensors on the stationary component of harmonic drives (the Flexipline cup in this research work) produce backdrivability needed for robotic and telerobotic compliant maneuvers. Backdrivability of a harmonic drive, when used as torque increaser, means that the output shaft can be rotated via finite amount of torque. A high ratio harmonic drive is non-backdrivable because its output shaft cannot be turned by applying a torque on it. This article first develops the dynamic behavior of a harmonic drive, in particular the non-backdrivability, in terms of a sensitivity transfer function. The instrumentation of the harmonic drive with torque sensor is then described. This leads to a description of the control architecture which allows modulation of the sensitivity transfer function within the limits established by the closed-loop stability. A set of experiments on an active hand controller, powered by a DC motor coupled to an instrumented harmonic drive, is given to exhibit this method's limitations.

  8. Use of the mobile phone while driving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Using a mobile phone while driving has negative effects on driving behaviour. This is the case for conducting a conversation, dialling a number, and sending text messages as well as for using the extra functions that smartphones offer, like accessing internet or social networking sites. An elaborate

  9. Testing device for control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Toshifumi.


    A testing device for control rod drives comprises a logic measuring means for measuring an output signal from a control rod drive logic generation circuit, a control means for judging the operation state of a control rod and a man machine interface means for outputting the result of the judgement. A driving instruction outputted from the control rod operation device is always monitored by the control means, and if the operation instruction is stopped, a testing signal is outputted to the control rod control device to simulate a control rod operation. In this case, the output signal of the control rod drive logic generation circuit is held in a control rod drive memory means and intaken into a logic analysis means for measurement and an abnormality is judged by the control means. The stopping of the control rod drive instruction is monitored and the operation abnormality of the control rod is judged, to mitigate the burden of an operator. Further, the operation of the control rod drive logic generation circuit can be confirmed even during a nuclear plant operation by holding the control rod drive instruction thereby enabling to improve maintenance efficiency. (N.H.)

  10. Driving with head-slaved camera system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oving, A.B.; Erp, J.B.F. van


    In a field experiment, we tested the effectiveness of a head-slaved camera system for driving an armoured vehicle under armour. This system consists of a helmet-mounted display (HMD), a headtracker, and a motion platform with two cameras. Subjects performed several driving tasks on paved and in

  11. Chemical driving force for rafting in superalloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN


    Full Text Available The author provides a brief overview of the chemical driving forces for rafting in superalloys. Until recently, all theories of the driving force for rafting have considered the compositions of the two phases to be fixed, although accepting...

  12. Adjustable Speed Drives and Power Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Yang, Yongheng; Zare, Firuz


    This paper provides an overview and proposes cost-effective and efficient opportunities in improving power quality in Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) systems. In particular, an Electronic Inductor (EI) technique has been used in single drives to overcome the existing challenges in conventional...

  13. Fitness to drive after traumatic brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, WH; Withaar, FK

    This paper deals with the issue of fitness to drive in patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Guidelines for assessment are proposed and three types of studies are reviewed: studies about impairments of attention and information processing, studies of driving competence, and driver

  14. Strategic advertising plans to deter drunk driving (United States)


    Primary objective for this study was to identify and profile subpopulations at highest risk for drinking and driving, and persons who may be in a position to intervene in their drinking and driving behavior. A related objective was to explore media m...

  15. Motion feedback in advanced driving manoeuvres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correia Grácio, B.; Wentink, M.; Feenstra, P.J; Mulder, M.; Paassen M.M. van; Bles, W.


    During advanced driving manoeuvres, drivers can be hypothesized to use all the available cues to optimize their performance. Fixed-base simulators are commonly used for training of these advanced driving manoeuvres, despite the fact that motion cues are not present. In this experiment we hypothesize

  16. Signed reward prediction errors drive declarative learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Loof, E.; Ergo, K.; Naert, L.; Janssens, C.; Talsma, D.; van Opstal, F.; Verguts, T.


    Reward prediction errors (RPEs) are thought to drive learning. This has been established in procedural learning (e.g., classical and operant conditioning). However, empirical evidence on whether RPEs drive declarative learning–a quintessentially human form of learning–remains surprisingly absent. We

  17. Simulation of linear Switched Reluctance Motor drives


    Garcia Amoros, Jordi; Blanqué Molina, Balduino; Andrada Gascón, Pedro


    This paper presents a simulation model of linear switched reluctance motor drives. A Matlab-Simulink environment coupled with finite element analysis is used to perform the simulations. Experimental and simulation results for a double sided linear switched motor drive prototype are reported and compared to verify the simulation model.

  18. Educational Biofeedback Driving Simulator as a Drink-Driving Prevention Strategy. (United States)

    Howat, Peter; And Others


    Used experimental driving simulator as basis for strategy to encourage a reduction in drunk driving prevalence using adult male subjects (n=36) who participated in a study group and controls (n=36). Results indicated study group subjects significantly decreased their drunk driving compared to the control group. (ABL)

  19. Age differences in the takeover of vehicle control and engagement in non-driving-related activities in simulated driving with conditional automation. (United States)

    Clark, Hallie; Feng, Jing


    High-level vehicle automation has been proposed as a valuable means to enhance the mobility of older drivers, as older drivers experience age-related declines in many cognitive functions that are vital for safe driving. Recent research attempted to examine age differences in how engagement in non-driving-related activities impact driving performance, by instructing drivers to engage in mandatory pre-designed activities. While the mandatory engagement method allows a precise control of the timing and mental workload of the non-driving-related activities, it is different from how a driver would naturally engage in these activities. This study allowed younger (age 18-35, mean age=19.9years) and older drivers (age 62-81, mean age=70.4years) to freely decide when and how to engage in voluntarily chosen non-driving-related activities during simulated driving with conditional automation. We coded video recordings of participants' engagement in non-driving-related activities. We examined the effect of age, level of activity-engagement and takeover notification interval on vehicle control performance during the takeover, by comparing between the high and low engagement groups in younger and older drivers, across two takeover notification interval conditions. We found that both younger and older drivers engaged in various non-driving-related activities during the automated driving portion, with distinct preferences on the type of activity for each age group (i.e., while younger drivers mostly used an electronic device, older drivers tended to converse). There were also significant differences between the two age groups and between the two notification intervals on various driving performance measures. Older drivers benefited more than younger drivers from the longer interval in terms of response time to notifications. Voluntary engagement in non-driving-related activities did not impair takeover performance in general, although there was a trend of older drivers who were

  20. Diagnostics of control element drives of WWER-440 power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, J.


    The process is described of the regulating assembly drop in the accident protection mode of a WWER-440 reactor. The assembly electric motor is disconnected from the power supply and is started as a generator to speed proportional to that of the assembly drop. The assembly drop speed is steadied at a constant value depending on the adjustment of the centrifugal brake of the equipment drive. The electric motor in the function of a generator is connected to an oscillograph recording the voltage signal during the assembly fall. The diagram obtained allows evaluating the quality of the regulator and the overall condition of the drive mechanism. The regulating assembly position is detected using a magnetic position sensor connected to the oscillograph. A new measuring system was designed for the diagnostics of drives featuring a position sensor connected to an electronic counter calculating the average drop speed from the measured drop time and the respective distance. The permissible steady-state speed of the regulating assembly drop is determined within the range 240 and 250 mm/s. (J.B.)

  1. Speed Controlled Belt Conveyors: Drives and Mechanical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEBIC, M. Z.


    Full Text Available The paper presents variable speed belt conveyor system where the reference speed is changed in order to achieve improved energy efficiency of operation. The recorded measurements show that belt tension varies within the same limits as under constant speed operation. These results introduce a new insight of the present state of the art in variable speed belt conveyor drives. The system is realized with remote control from the control center on an open pit mine. The structure of the multi-motor drive system of a single conveyor, as well as of the network-based control system distributed among belt conveyor stations and the control center are shown. Speed control of a belt conveyor system is organized to provide better utilization of the available material cross section on the belt and reduced electrical energy consumption of the drive. The experimental results obtained on the system prove that, under existing constraints, the applied algorithm has not introduced additional stress to the belt or mechanical assemblies during acceleration and deceleration processes, while providing higher energy efficiency of operation.

  2. Deep brain stimulation to reduce sexual drive. (United States)

    Fuss, Johannes; Auer, Matthias K; Biedermann, Sarah V; Briken, Peer; Hacke, Werner


    To date there are few treatment options to reduce high sexual drive or sexual urges in paraphilic patients with a risk for sexual offending. Pharmacological therapy aims to reduce sexual drive by lowering testosterone at the cost of severe side effects. We hypothesize that high sexual drive could also be reduced with deep brain stimulation (DBS) of circuits that generate sexual drive. This approach would help to avoid systemic side effects of antiandrogenic drug therapies. So far the best investigated target to reduce sexual drive is the ventromedial hypothalamus, which was lesioned unilaterally and bilaterally by stereotaxic interventions in paraphilic patients in the 1970s. Here, we discuss DBS as a treatment strategy in patients with severe paraphilic disorders with a serious risk of sexual offending. There are profound ethical and practical issues associated with DBS treatment of paraphilic patients that must be solved before considering such a treatment approach.

  3. Lower hybrid current drive in shaped tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.


    A time dependent lower hybrid current drive tokamak simulation code has been developed. This code combines the BALDUR tokamak simulation code and the Bonoli/Englade lower hybrid current drive code and permits the study of the interaction of lower hybrid current drive with neutral beam heating in shaped cross-section plasmas. The code is time dependent and includes the beam driven and bootstrap currents in addition to the current driven by the lower hybrid system. Examples of simulations are shown for the PBX-M experiment which include the effect of cross section shaping on current drive, ballooning mode stabilization by current profile control and sawtooth stabilization. A critical question in current drive calculations is the radial transport of the energetic electrons. The authors have developed a response function technique to calculate radial transport in the presence of an electric field. The consequences of the combined influences of radial diffusion and electric field acceleration are discussed

  4. Special Considerations in Distracted Driving with Teens (United States)

    Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne


    Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228

  5. [Drunk driving in professional drivers in the Vía Blanca highway in Cuba]. (United States)

    Guanche Garcell, Humberto; Suárez Enríquez, Tomás; Gutiérrez García, Francisco; Martínez Quesada, Carlos; Mendoza Pérez, Ramón


    To determine the frequency of drunk driving in professional drivers (Via Blanca, Havana City), we carried out a descriptive study of 832 drivers selected by multistage stratified sampling. A structured interview with each driver was carried out to record the variables under study, and a breath alcohol test was subsequently performed. The frequency of drunk driving was 8.18% (95% CI, 5.94%-10.42%), with a predominance of drivers with alcohol levelsDrunk driving was more frequent in "high risk" hours, in drivers aged between 40 and 49 years old (10.3%), and in those with 15 to 24 years of experience (11.02%). The frequency of drunk driving found in this study highlights the need to design traffic accident prevention strategies.

  6. Climate Record Books (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Climate Record Books contain daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual averages, extremes, or occurrences. Most data are sequential by period of record 1871-1910,...

  7. Electronic Health Records (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Electronic Health Records KidsHealth / For Teens / Electronic Health Records ...

  8. Daily Weather Records (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  9. Iraq Radiosonde Launch Records (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Iraqi upper air records loaned to NCDC from the Air Force 14th Weather Squadron. Scanned notebooks containing upper air radiosonde launch records and data. Launches...

  10. Risky driving and the perception of motorcycle accident causes among Chinese motorcyclists in Hong Kong. (United States)

    Cheng, Andy S K; Ng, Terry C K


    The primary purposes of this study were to explore the relationship between risk-taking acts while driving motorcycles and perceived causes of motorcycle accidents, as well as their contribution to active involvement in traffic accidents among Chinese motorcyclists in Hong Kong. Active involvement means the riders was likely at fault for the crash. A total of 774 motorcyclists were recruited, of whom 292 had been involved in active motorcycle accident in the previous 3 years. All were asked to fill in a questionnaire, which was developed to assess their risk-taking acts while driving a motorcycle and perception of motorcycle accident causes. The results of the study revealed 3 dimensions of accident causes, namely, driving-related, environment-related, and belief-related causes. These motorcycle accident causes were correlated with risk-taking acts while driving a motorcycle. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that risk-taking acts while driving motorcycles (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.036, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.020-1.052), perception of driving-related cause (adjusted OR: 0.941, 95% CI: 0.916-0.967), and belief-related cause (adjusted OR: 1.134, 95% CI: 1.088-1.182) were significant factors contributing to involvement in active traffic accidents by motorcycle riders after controlling for concurrent demographic variables. The study highlights that perceived causes of motorcycle accidents are multidimensional, including those areas related to driving, the environment, and beliefs. It substantiates previous studies that a higher degree of driving-related risk perception is related to a lower degree of risk-taking acts while driving. Further research is needed to understand why belief-related causes, sometimes called superstitions, lead riders to believe that it is beyond their ability to affect accident causation and prevention.

  11. Orchidopexy in late childhood often associated with previously normal testicular position. (United States)

    van der Plas, Evelyn; Zijp, Gerda; Froeling, Frank; de Wilde, Jeroen; van der Voort, Laszla; Hack, Wilfried


    The aim of this study was to determine retrospectively, the prevalence of acquired undescended testis (UDT) in boys who underwent late orchidopexies, that is, performed after the age of 2 years. We included all patients who were 2 years or older when they underwent orchidopexy (ORP) for UDT at the Juliana Children's Hospital during 1996 to 2009. Previous testis position from birth until the date of ORP was obtained from youth health care records. We identified 660 boys who underwent ORP after the age of 2 years for undescended testis. For 421 of these 660 boys, the previous testicular position could be retrieved from the health records. In 143 of these 421 boys (34%), the operated testis had never been scrotal (congenital UDT), whereas in the other 278 boys (66%), a previous scrotal position had been documented twice or more (acquired UDT). Our results show that two-thirds of the boys that underwent ORP after the age of 2 had previously normal descended testes. This finding may offer an additional explanation for the discrepancy between the incidence of congenital UDT and the high rate of ORP in mid and late childhood. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh


    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  13. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh


    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  14. Towards unpacking older drivers' visual-motor coordination: A gaze-based integrated driving assessment. (United States)

    Sun, Qian Chayn; Xia, Jianhong Cecilia; He, Jibo; Foster, Jonathan; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Lee, Hoe


    Visual information for a driver is predominant during driving. Linking drivers' visual search patterns with motor behaviour helps understand how drivers perceived spatial and hazardous information to regulate their physical movements. Visual-motor coordination performance can be a sensitive indicator for driver competency assessment. Due to age-related cognitive decline, older drivers are likely inefficient in visual-motor coordination. While poor visual-motor coordination can cause risky behaviour behind the wheel, it is yet challenging to examine it owing to the complexity of driving behaviour. By reviewing how vision guides driving, we proposed a gaze-based integrated driving assessment approach. The empirical data were from 38 older drivers aged 60 to 81 years, who completed an on-road driving assessment recorded by eye tracking and vehicle movement tracking. Their visual search attributes were extracted from eye tracking video frames and linked to vehicle positions. Driving data, drivers' cognitive condition and driving section were encapsulated into an integrated database, allowing interrogating multi-faceted driver-vehicle-environment interactions. Exploratory analysis results show that older drivers' performed different visual search patterns at roundabout and intersection manoeuvres. Older drivers with better executive function skills performed more frequent eye fixations on the curves and inside vehicle features. The investigation of visual-motor coordination performance demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of using the integrated approach in assessing older drivers' performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A


    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  16. A revised economic analysis of restrictions on the use of cell phones while driving. (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua T; Graham, John D


    Evidence that cell phone use while driving increases the risk of being involved in a motor vehicle crash has led policymakers to consider prohibitions on this practice. However, while restrictions would reduce property loss, injuries, and fatalities, consumers would lose the convenience of using these devices while driving. Quantifying the risks and benefits associated with cell phone use while driving is complicated by substantial uncertainty in the estimates of several important inputs, including the extent to which cell phone use increases a driver's risk of being involved in a crash, the amount of time drivers spend using cell phones (and hence their aggregate contribution to crashes, injuries, and fatalities), and the incremental value to users of being able to make calls while driving. Two prominent studies that have investigated cell phone use while driving have concluded that the practice should not be banned. One finds that the benefits of calls made while driving substantially exceed their costs while the other finds that other interventions could reduce motor vehicle injuries and fatalities (measured in terms of quality adjusted life years) at a lower cost. Another issue is that cell phone use imposes increased (involuntary) risks on other roadway users. This article revises the assumptions used in the two previous analyses to make them consistent and updates them using recent data. The result is a best estimate of zero for the net benefit of cell phone use while driving, a finding that differs substantially from the previous study. Our revised cost-effectiveness estimate for cell phone use while driving moves in the other direction, finding that the cost per quality adjusted life year increases modestly compared to the previous estimate. Both estimates are very uncertain.

  17. Previous prelabor or intrapartum cesarean delivery and risk of placenta previa. (United States)

    Downes, Katheryne L; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Albert, Paul S; Grantz, Katherine L


    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between previous cesarean delivery and subsequent placenta previa while distinguishing cesarean delivery before the onset of labor from intrapartum cesarean delivery. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of electronic medical records from 20 Utah hospitals (2002-2010) with restriction to the first 2 singleton deliveries of nulliparous women at study entry (n=26,987). First pregnancy delivery mode was classified as (1) vaginal (reference), (2) cesarean delivery before labor onset (prelabor), or (3) cesarean delivery after labor onset (intrapartum). Risk of second delivery previa was estimated by previous delivery mode with the use of logistic regression and was adjusted for maternal age, insurance, smoking, comorbidities, previous pregnancy loss, and history of previa. Most first deliveries were vaginal (82%; n=22,142), followed by intrapartum cesarean delivery (14.6%; n=3931), or prelabor cesarean delivery (3.4%; n=914). Incidence of second delivery previa was 0.29% (n=78) and differed by previous delivery mode: vaginal, 0.24%; prelabor cesarean delivery, 0.98%; intrapartum cesarean delivery, 0.38% (Pdelivery, previous prelabor cesarean delivery was associated with an increased risk of second delivery previa (adjusted odds ratio, 2.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-5.56). There was no significant association between previous intrapartum cesarean delivery and previa (adjusted odds ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-2.19). Previous prelabor cesarean delivery was associated with a >2-fold significantly increased risk of previa in the second delivery, although the approximately 20% increased risk of previa that was associated with previous intrapartum cesarean delivery was not significant. Although rare, the increased risk of placenta previa after previous prelabor cesarean delivery may be important when considering nonmedically indicated prelabor cesarean delivery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Driving environment in Iran increases blood pressure even in healthy taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Navadeh Khodadadi


    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Nowadays, driving is an unseparated part of our new modern lifestyle; and we are exposed to this environment all the days for several hours whether as drivers or as riders. Many reports indicated that Iran is on the top rank of automobile-related morbidity and mortality among developed and even many developing countries that can be due to dangerous driving habits in Iran. We designed this study to find out if environment of driving have clinically important effects on blood pressure (BP and how strong is the effect. We also examined if there were any predictors for the BP rises in driving time.
    • METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 31 healthy male taxi drivers were included through a multistage proportional sampling method in winter and spring 2007. They were referred to the clinic of hypertension in Shafa Hospital, Kerman. A trained nurse measured the BPs. She also did set up the Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor (ABPM on the drivers’ left arms for BP recording every 30 minutes during the day. Based on the diurnal recorded BPs, the subjects were allocated into normotensive and hypertensive (systolic BP > 135 or diastolic BP > 85mmHg groups. The difference among the clinic BPs and the driving BPs was examined by t-test in Stata version 8, followed by a multivariate analysis for exploring the main predictors for BP rises in driving time.
    • RESULTS: Both mean systolic and mean diastolic BPs were significantly increased from 116.85 (SE 2.28 and 74.44 (SE 2.22 mmHg in clinic to 138.64 (SE 2.77 and 95.70 (SE 2.55 mmHg during driving, respectively (P = 0.0001. Pulse pressure remained constant (P = 0.87. The difference between clinic's and driving time measurements was higher in hypertensive group. Those with higher systolic blood pressures in clinic had more frequent and higher BP rises in driving time (P = 0.02.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Driving

    • Records Management Manual. (United States)

      Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. State Archives and Records Management.

      This manual, prepared primarily for state government agencies, describes the organization and management of Alaska government records. Information is presented in nine topic areas: (1) Alaska's Archives and Records Management Program, which describes the program, its mission, services available, and employee responsibilities; (2) Records in…

    • Record Statistics and Dynamics

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Sibani, Paolo; Jensen, Henrik J.


      with independent random increments. The term record dynamics covers the rather new idea that records may, in special situations, have measurable dynamical consequences. The approach applies to the aging dynamics of glasses and other systems with multiple metastable states. The basic idea is that record sizes...

  1. Managing electronic records

    CERN Document Server

    McLeod, Julie


    For records management courses, this book covers the theory and practice of managing electronic records as business and information assets. It focuses on the strategies, systems and procedures necessary to ensure that electronic records are appropriately created, captured, organized and retained over time to meet business and legal requirements.

  2. Your Medical Records (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Medical Records KidsHealth / For Teens / Your Medical Records What's ... Print en español Tus historias clínicas What Are Medical Records? Each time you climb up on a ...

  3. Driving pleasure and perceptions of the transition from no automation to full self-driving automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas


    In this article, I offer a sociological user perspective on increased self-driving automation, which has evolved from a long history associated with automobility. This study explores complex, perceived a priori driving pleasures in different scenarios involving self-driving cars. The methods used...... consisted of 32 in-depth interviews with participants who were given eight video examples (two video examples within four different scenarios) to watch. A numerical rating scales formed parts of the interviews. The findings revealed that driving pleasure when using increasingly automated driving...

  4. Informed consent in field trials of gene-drive mosquitoes. (United States)

    Kolopack, Pamela A; Lavery, James V


    The US National Academies' (NAS) recent report 'Gene Drives on the Horizon: Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public Values' examines the requirements of responsible conduct in research involving gene drives in non-human organisms. Many of the complex ethical issues raised by the introduction of gene drive technologies for mosquito population control have been anticipated during the development and field-testing of earlier-generation genetic engineering approaches with mosquitoes. One issue-the requirement for informed consent in field trials-is not addressed explicitly in the NAS' report. Some commentators have presumed that informed consent should play a role as a protection for research participants in studies of genetically modified mosquitoes. Others have argued that there are no human subjects of field trials, so the informed consent requirement does not apply. It is both ethically and practically important that these presumptions are adequately scrutinized to ensure that any applications of informed consent in these trials are properly justified. We argue that informed consent from individual research participants in gene drive trials may be required: (1) when blood and other forms of clinical data are collected from them, as will likely be the case in some studies involving epidemiological endpoints, such as the incidence of new infections with dengue and malaria; (2) when they participate in social science and/or behavioral research involving the completion of surveys and questionnaires; or (3) when their home or property is accessed and the location recorded as a spatial variable for the release or collection of mosquitoes because the precise location of the household is important for entomological reasons and these data constitute identifiable private information at the household level. Importantly, most regulations and guidelines allow these requirements to be waived or modified, to various degrees, according to the

  5. Cardiac autonomic control during simulated driving with a concurrent verbal working memory task. (United States)

    Lenneman, John K; Backs, Richard W


    The objective of the study was to illustrate sensitivity and diagnosticity differences between cardiac measures and lane-keeping measures of driving performance. Previous research suggests that physiological measures can be sensitive to the effects of driving and side task performance and diagnostic of the source of the attentional demands. We hypothesized that increases in side task difficulty would elicit physiological change without reduction of driving task performance and that the side task demands would elicit patterns ofautonomic activity that map to specific attentional processing resources. Separately and concurrently, thirty-two participants performed a simulated driving task and verbal working memory task (with two levels of difficulty, 0 back and 3 back) separately and concurrently. Attentional demands were assessed through physiological and performance measures. Cardiac measures reflected changes in attentional demand from single- to dual-task driving with an n-back task, whereas lane-keeping measures did not. Furthermore, patterns of autonomic activity elicited by driving, n-back task, and dual-task driving with a 3-back task were consistent with our predictions about autonomic activity. Changes in cardiac measures without changes in lane-keeping measures provide evidence that cardiac measures can be sensitive to hidden costs in attention that do not manifest in coarse measures of driving performance. Furthermore, correct predictions regarding the patterns of autonomic activity elicited suggests that cardiac measures can serve as diagnostic tools for attention assessment. Because of the demonstrated differences in sensitivity and diagnosticity, researchers should consider the use of cardiac measures in addition to driving performance measures when studying attention in a driving simulator environment.

  6. Shapiro steps for skyrmion motion on a washboard potential with longitudinal and transverse ac drives (United States)

    Reichhardt, C.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson


    We numerically study the behavior of two-dimensional skyrmions in the presence of a quasi-one-dimensional sinusoidal substrate under the influence of externally applied dc and ac drives. In the overdamped limit, when both dc and ac drives are aligned in the longitudinal direction parallel to the direction of the substrate modulation, the velocity-force curves exhibit classic Shapiro step features when the frequency of the ac drive matches the washboard frequency that is dynamically generated by the motion of the skyrmions over the substrate, similar to previous observations in superconducting vortex systems. In the case of skyrmions, the additional contribution to the skyrmion motion from a nondissipative Magnus force shifts the location of the locking steps to higher dc drives, and we find that the skyrmions move at an angle with respect to the direction of the dc drive. For a longitudinal dc drive and a perpendicular or transverse ac drive, the overdamped system exhibits no Shapiro steps; however, when a finite Magnus force is present, we find pronounced transverse Shapiro steps along with complex two-dimensional periodic orbits of the skyrmions in the phase-locked regimes. Both the longitudinal and transverse ac drives produce locking steps whose widths oscillate with increasing ac drive amplitude. We examine the role of collective skyrmion interactions and find that additional fractional locking steps occur for both longitudinal and transverse ac drives. At higher skyrmion densities, the system undergoes a series of dynamical order-disorder transitions, with the skyrmions forming a moving solid on the phase locking steps and a fluctuating dynamical liquid in regimes between the steps.

  7. Technologies, Multitasking, and Driving: Attending to and Preparing for a Mobile Phone Conversation in a Car (United States)

    Haddington, Pentti; Rauniomaa, Mirka


    This article investigates mobile phone calls initiated or received by drivers and passengers in cars and focuses on the participants' actions before the telephone conversation proper. Drawing on video-recorded data of real driving situations, and building on conversation analysis and multimodal interaction analysis, this article discusses how…

  8. Blinking and driving: the influence of saccades and cognitive workload. (United States)

    Cardona, Genís; Quevedo, Noa


    The aim of this study was to investigate the joint influence of cognitive demands and large amplitude saccades on spontaneous blink rate. Twenty healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study and instructed to follow a 60-minute real-life driving circuit while a video camera recorded ocular movements and blinking. Five different complexity levels were predefined in terms of driving difficulty and traffic intensity, that is, cognitive workload. Five one-minute segments were selected for each complexity level in each driving trial, whereupon spontaneous blink rate and horizontal saccades were monitored. Saccades were classified according to their amplitude and blink-saccade pairs were recorded. Albeit showing a high inter-subject variability, spontaneous blink rate and saccades were consistent within the same complexity level. At different complexity levels, no statistically significant difference in spontaneous blink rate was encountered, with an average of 20.3 ± 1.6 blinks/minute (mean ± SD). The number of large amplitude gaze shifts increased with the level of complexity (F = 15.403; p < 0.001). An average of 87.5% of large amplitude saccades were accompanied by a blink, and this percentage was similar for all complexity levels, that is, the number of blink-saccade pairs increased at higher complexity levels (F = 20.597; p < 0.001). In a complex, dynamic visual setting, spontaneous blinking accompanying large amplitude saccades may help in counteracting the reduction in blink rate associated with high cognitive demands.

  9. Using music to change mood while driving. (United States)

    van der Zwaag, Marjolein D; Janssen, Joris H; Nass, Clifford; Westerink, Joyce H D M; Chowdhury, Shrestha; de Waard, Dick


    This study investigated whether gradual or abrupt music change towards more calming music is most effective in calming drivers during high-demand driving situations. Twenty-eight participants were subjected to two types of music change (gradual, abrupt) in a within-subject design. First, a relatively happy mood was induced with personally selected music during an eight-minute simulated high-demand drive. The drive then continued and the mood was changed either gradually or abruptly. Subjective results showed successful music mood induction irrespective of gradual or abrupt changes. The results further showed lower skin conductance (less arousal) and more facial corrugator muscle tension (more sadness) during the abrupt music change. Fewer accidents occurred during the abrupt music mood change. To conclude, the results support the abrupt way of changing music type to down-regulate one's mood: during high-demand driving, abrupt changes in music led to more physiological calmness and improved driving performance, and were thus safer and more effective. The current study shows that during high-demand drives, drivers are calmed more effectively using abrupt music changes compared to gradual music changes. This is illustrated by reductions in physiological arousal and improved driving behaviour. Hence, in-car music presentation can be used as a tool to improve driver's mood and behaviour.

  10. To continue, modify or relinquish driving: findings from a longitudinal study of healthy ageing. (United States)

    Unsworth, Carolyn A; Wells, Yvonne; Browning, Colette; Thomas, Shane A; Kendig, Hal


    The number and proportion of drivers among people entering later life continues to rise. More information on patterns of driving for older adults is required to improve service provision and traffic planning. To map the changes in driving status for a sample of drivers aged 65 years or older over the period 1994-2000, and to identify factors associated with older people continuing, modifying or relinquishing their status as drivers. The 752 participants were drawn from the Melbourne Longitudinal Studies on Healthy Ageing (MELSHA) program, a longitudinal study of people aged 65 years and older living in the community. Participants were interviewed or contacted for follow-up in 1994, 1996, 1998 and 2000 on a range of topics including their health, functional independence and driving status. Although the number of recent drivers was smaller as participants died or were admitted to nursing homes over the 6-year data collection period, relatively few participants relinquished driving while remaining in the community. Many drivers reported modifying their driving habits over time, including decisions to restrict their driving to their local area during daylight only. Relationships were explored between driving status and the key variables of age, gender, marital status, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) independence and self-rated measures of income, health, eyesight and hearing. Multivariate analyses indicated that drivers were more likely to modify their driving habits if they were older, dependent in IADL, and rated their eyesight as poor. Similar factors predicted relinquishing driving, but in addition, women were three times more likely to relinquish driving than men (even when health and disability were taken into account) and people who rated their incomes as 'comfortable' were more likely to relinquish driving than those with lower incomes. This study confirmed previous evidence that older drivers self-regulate by modifying their driving behavior as

  11. 77 FR 60400 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records (United States)


    ... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a(r)), as amended. DATES: This proposed action will be effective on November 5, 2012 unless comments are received which result in a... Management System Office, 4800 Mark Center Drive, East Tower, 2nd Floor, Suite 02G09, Alexandria, VA 22350...

  12. 40 CFR 86.440-78 - Maintenance of records. (United States)


    ...) Individual records. (i) A brief history of each motocycle used for certification under this subpart including... certification vehicle with respect to its engine, drive train, fuel system, emission control system components... components and/or vehicle construction processes, component inspection and selection techniques, and assembly...

  13. Smog and Your Automobile. [Teacher's Manual, Filmstrip, Record]. (United States)

    California State Dept. of Public Health, Berkeley.

    A filmstrip, 33 1/3 RPM record, and teacher's manual are combined in this set to be used in driver education classes at the senior high school level. Their main purpose is to inform future drivers how they can minimize pollution from their automobiles through proper car maintenance and good driving habits. Content of the manual is divided into…

  14. Mid-sized omnidirectional robot with hydraulic drive and steering (United States)

    Wood, Carl G.; Perry, Trent; Cook, Douglas; Maxfield, Russell; Davidson, Morgan E.


    Through funding from the US Army-Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command's (TACOM) Intelligent Mobility Program, Utah State University's (USU) Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) has developed the T-series of omni-directional robots based on the USU omni-directional vehicle (ODV) technology. The ODV provides independent computer control of steering and drive in a single wheel assembly. By putting multiple omni-directional (OD) wheels on a chassis, a vehicle is capable of uncoupled translational and rotational motion. Previous robots in the series, the T1, T2, T3, ODIS, ODIS-T, and ODIS-S have all used OD wheels based on electric motors. The T4 weighs approximately 1400 lbs and features a 4-wheel drive wheel configuration. Each wheel assembly consists of a hydraulic drive motor and a hydraulic steering motor. A gasoline engine is used to power both the hydraulic and electrical systems. The paper presents an overview of the mechanical design of the vehicle as well as potential uses of this technology in fielded systems.

  15. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance. (United States)


    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to...

  16. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  17. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  18. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  19. Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer. Abstract. The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor ...

  20. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  1. Suburethral sling procedures after previous surgery for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compare the outcome of suburethral sling procedures (tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), obturator tape (Ob-tape)) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with previous surgery for SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. A comparative, descriptive, retrospective study was done using information ...

  2. 5 CFR 532.405 - Use of highest previous rate. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405 Section 532.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... rate may be based upon a rate of pay received during a temporary promotion, so long as the temporary...

  3. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings. (United States)


    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  4. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate. (United States)


    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...

  5. Bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment in a previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, we present a case of an 11‑year‑old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment to highlight that hemoglobinopathy induced orbital infarction should be considered in African children with acute onset proptosis with or without ...

  6. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children. (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L


    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  7. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk. (United States)

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald


    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Control of feed intake as affected by previous treatment | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with eighteen rumen cannulated sheep fed on a chopped lucerne diet. Previous level of intake significantly influenced the level at which sheep initially established voluntary feed intake. This difference had disappeared after three weeks on an ad lib. intake. Perturbation analysis of the results ...

  9. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant? (United States)

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  10. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, ...

  11. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.


    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  12. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  13. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study on timing of antenatal care booking at public health facilities in ... Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to collect data from 630 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care service at 10 governmental ...

  14. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  15. Mondor's Disease of the Breast in a Nigerian Woman Previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 14, 2017 ... Case Report. How to cite this article: Olarinoye-Akorede SA, Silas BT. Mondor's disease of the breast in a Nigerian woman previously treated for invasive ductal carcinoma in the ... and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints .... malignancy. Financial support and sponsorship.

  16. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped. (United States)


    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities manifested...

  17. Robust Adaptive Speed Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, N.

    This thesis concerns speed control of current vector controlled induction motor drives (CVC drives). The CVC drive is an existing prototype drive developed by Danfoss A/S, Transmission Division. Practical tests have revealed that the open loop dynamical properties of the CVC drive are highly...

  18. Recommendations on future driving instructor standards in Portugal


    Robertsen, Rolf


    The recommendations on future driving instructor standards in Portugal are mainly based on experiences from the Norwegian model for driving instructor education; its organisational structure, topics and objectives, taking into consideration our knowledge and information on the existing Portuguese system for driving instructor education and training. Therefore introductorily a brief overview of the Norwegian Driving Instructor Education and driving licence system.

  19. Talking on a Wireless Cellular Device While Driving: Improving the Validity of Crash Odds Ratio Estimates in the SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Young


    Full Text Available Dingus and colleagues (Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2016, 113, 2636–2641 reported a crash odds ratio (OR estimate of 2.2 with a 95% confidence interval (CI from 1.6 to 3.1 for hand-held cell phone conversation (hereafter, “Talk” in the SHRP 2 naturalistic driving database. This estimate is substantially higher than the effect sizes near one in prior real-world and naturalistic driving studies of conversation on wireless cellular devices (whether hand-held, hands-free portable, or hands-free integrated. Two upward biases were discovered in the Dingus study. First, it selected many Talk-exposed drivers who simultaneously performed additional secondary tasks besides Talk but selected Talk-unexposed drivers with no secondary tasks. This “selection bias” was removed by: (1 filtering out records with additional tasks from the Talk-exposed group; or (2 adding records with other tasks to the Talk-unexposed group. Second, it included records with driver behavior errors, a confounding bias that was also removed by filtering out such records. After removing both biases, the Talk OR point estimates declined to below 1, now consistent with prior studies. Pooling the adjusted SHRP 2 Talk OR estimates with prior study effect size estimates to improve precision, the population effect size for wireless cellular conversation while driving is estimated as 0.72 (CI 0.60–0.88.

  20. Omni rotational driving and steering wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    and steering wheel part (108), where the omni rotational part (106) is provided for infinite rotation relative to the flange part (104) by both a drive motor (110) and a steering motor (114) being positionable on the flange part (104), and the driving and steering wheel part (108) is suspended from the upper...... omni rotational part (105) with a suspension (116) such that wheel part (108) can move relatively to the upper omni rotational part (105) in a suspension direction (118), and a reduction gear (120) for gearing the drive torque is provided in the wheel part (108) in order e.g. to assure traction...

  1. Adjustable Speed Drives - Future Challenges and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Thoegersen, Paul


    are specified. Further on power architectures and motor types are discussed in a short term and long-term view. Possible drivers of the future development are identified, and the concept of an ?Electronic Motor? is discussed. A number of applications are presented where variable speed is attractive.......The main trends within Adjustable Drives in industrial and appliance applications for the next decade are discussed based on the newest developments seen on the market and a few historical trends. Different drive configurations are presented and the general demands to adjustable speed drives...

  2. Drive mechanism nuclear reactor control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.G. Jr.; Maure, D.R.; Meijer, C.H.


    An improved method and apparatus for operating magnetic stepping-type mechanisms. The current flowing in the coils of magnetic stepping-type mechanisms of the kind, for instance, that are used in control-element drive mechanisms is sensed and used to monitor operation of the mechanism. Current waveforms that characterize the motion of the mechanism are used to trigger changes in drive voltage and to verify that the drive mechanism is operating properly. In addition, incipient failures are detected through the observation of differences between the observed waveform and waveforms that characterize proper operation

  3. Wind turbine ring/shroud drive system (United States)

    Blakemore, Ralph W.


    A wind turbine capable of driving multiple electric generators having a ring or shroud structure for reducing blade root bending moments, hub loads, blade fastener loads and pitch bearing loads. The shroud may further incorporate a ring gear for driving an electric generator. In one embodiment, the electric generator may be cantilevered from the nacelle such that the gear on the generator drive shaft is contacted by the ring gear of the shroud. The shroud also provides protection for the gearing and aids in preventing gear lubricant contamination.

  4. The driving force for magnetospheric convection (United States)

    Johnson, F. S.


    Viscously driven magnetospheric models, as well as a model involving interconnection between the geomagnetic field and the magnetic field in the solar wind, have been proposed to describe the driving force for magnetospheric convection. Lack of a satisfactory theory for the interconnection in the latter model and, in the case of the viscous interaction models, inadequacies in predicting the quantity of the driving force, make these two classes of models less than successful. Accordingly, a mechanically driven magnetospheric model is proposed: solar wind plasma enters the magnetosphere around the neutral points, covers the inner surface of the magnetopause and subsequently expands, driving convection as it escapes from the open tail.

  5. Snubber assembly for a control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, J.C.


    A snubber cartridge assembly is mounted to the nozzle of a control rod drive mechanism to insure that the snubber assembly will be located within the liquid filled section of a nuclear reactor vessel whenever the control rod drive is assembled thereto. The snubber assembly includes a piston mounted proximate to the control rod connecting end of the control rod drive leadscrew to allow the piston to travel within the liquid filled snubber cartridge and controllably exhaust liquid therefrom during a ''scram'' condition. The snubber cartridge provides three separate areas of increasing resistance to piston travel to insure a speedy but safe ''scram'' of the control rod into the reactor

  6. A Fuzzy Model to Interpret Data of Drive Performances from Patients with Sleep Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Sena


    Full Text Available The search for safe vehicles is increasing with both diffusion of high traffic density over the world and availability of new technologies providing sophisticated tools previously impossible to realize. Design and development of the necessary devices may be based on simulation tests that reduce cost allowing trials in many directions. A proper choice of the arrangement of the drive simulators, as much as of the parameters to be monitored, is of basic importance as they can address the design of devices somehow responsible for the drivers safety or, even their lives. This system setup, consisting of a free car simulator equipped with a monitoring system, collects in a nonintrusive way data of the car lateral position within the road lane and of its first derivative. Based on these measured parameters, the system is able to detect symptoms of drowsiness and sleepiness. The analysis is realized by a fuzzy inferential process that provides an immediate warning signal as soon as drowsiness is detected with a high level of certainty. Enhancement of reliability and minimisation of the false alarm rate are obtained by operating continuous comparison between learned driver typical modalities of operation on the control command of the vehicle the pattern recorded.

  7. A fuzzy model to interpret data of drive performances from patients with sleep deprivation. (United States)

    Sena, Pasquale; Attianese, Paolo; Carbone, Francesca; Pellegrino, Arcangelo; Pinto, Aldo; Villecco, Francesco


    The search for safe vehicles is increasing with both diffusion of high traffic density over the world and availability of new technologies providing sophisticated tools previously impossible to realize. Design and development of the necessary devices may be based on simulation tests that reduce cost allowing trials in many directions. A proper choice of the arrangement of the drive simulators, as much as of the parameters to be monitored, is of basic importance as they can address the design of devices somehow responsible for the drivers safety or, even their lives. This system setup, consisting of a free car simulator equipped with a monitoring system, collects in a nonintrusive way data of the car lateral position within the road lane and of its first derivative. Based on these measured parameters, the system is able to detect symptoms of drowsiness and sleepiness. The analysis is realized by a fuzzy inferential process that provides an immediate warning signal as soon as drowsiness is detected with a high level of certainty. Enhancement of reliability and minimisation of the false alarm rate are obtained by operating continuous comparison between learned driver typical modalities of operation on the control command of the vehicle the pattern recorded.

  8. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex drives hippocampal theta oscillations induced by mismatch computations. (United States)

    Garrido, Marta I; Barnes, Gareth R; Kumaran, Dharshan; Maguire, Eleanor A; Dolan, Raymond J


    Detecting environmental change is fundamental for adaptive behavior in an uncertain world. Previous work indicates the hippocampus supports the generation of novelty signals via implementation of a match-mismatch detector that signals when an incoming sensory input violates expectations based on past experience. While existing work has emphasized the particular contribution of the hippocampus, here we ask which other brain structures also contribute to match-mismatch detection. Furthermore, we leverage the fine-grained temporal resolution of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate whether mismatch computations are spectrally confined to the theta range, based on the prominence of this range of oscillations in models of hippocampal function. By recording MEG activity while human subjects perform a task that incorporates conditions of match-mismatch novelty we show that mismatch signals are confined to the theta band and are expressed in both the hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Effective connectivity analyses (dynamic causal modeling) show that the hippocampus and vmPFC work as a functional circuit during mismatch detection. Surprisingly, our results suggest that the vmPFC drives the hippocampus during the generation and processing of mismatch signals. Our findings provide new evidence that the hippocampal-vmPFC circuit is engaged during novelty processing, which has implications for emerging theories regarding the role of vmPFC in memory. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Avoiding the conflict: Metacognitive awareness drives the selection of low-demand contexts. (United States)

    Desender, Kobe; Buc Calderon, Cristian; Van Opstal, Filip; Van den Bussche, Eva


    Previous research attempted to explain how humans strategically adapt behavior in order to achieve successful task performance. Recently, it has been suggested that 1 potential strategy is to avoid tasks that are too demanding. Here, we report 3 experiments that investigate the empirically neglected role of metacognitive awareness in this process. In these experiments, participants could freely choose between performing a task in either a high-demand or a low-demand context. Using subliminal priming, we ensured that participants were not aware of the visual stimuli creating these different demand contexts. Our results showed that participants who noticed a difference in task difficulty (i.e., metacognitive aware participants) developed a clear preference for the low-demand context. In contrast, participants who experienced no difference in task difficulty (i.e., metacognitive unaware participants) based their choices on variables unrelated to cognitive demand (e.g., the color or location associated with a context), and did not develop a preference for the low-demand context. Crucially, this pattern was found despite identical task performance in both metacognitive awareness groups. A multiple regression approach confirmed that metacognitive awareness was the main factor driving the preference for low-demand contexts. These results argue for an important role of metacognitive awareness in the strategic avoidance of demanding tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy. (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R


    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  11. The association between personality and aggressive driving: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina E. Iancu


    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to synthesize previous results on the relationship between personality (from the perspective of the Big Five Model and Alternative Five model and aggressive driving. Secondly, we aimed at identifying the model of personality with the highest level of association to aggressive driving. The statistical analyses were conducted exclusively for those dimensions of personality that overlap (i.e., Neuroticism vs. Neuroticism-Anxiety, Extraversion vs. Sociability, Agreeableness vs. Aggression - Hostility. We searched for empirical studies with (1 cross-sectional design, (2 all the data needed for the meta-analytical computations, and (3 written in English. Database searches revealed a sample of 78 articles out of which 16 were eligible. The total sample of participants was of 6,721. Using a random effects framework, regarding the Big Five Model, we found a weak effect size for the relationship between Neuroticism and aggressive driving (r = .26, p < .001, a very weak relationship between Extraversion and aggressive driving (r = .07, p = .03, and a weak effect size for Agreeableness and aggressive driving (r = -.26, p < .001. Regarding the Alternative Five model, we identified a weak effect size for Neuroticism – Anxiety (r = .21, p = .05, marginally significant and weak effect for Sociability (r = .21, p = .06, and a moderate effect size for Aggression – Hostility and aggressive driving (r = .41, p = .00. The comparison between the two models of personality revealed that the AFM is more related to aggressive driving than BFM.

  12. Optical information for car following: the driving by visual angle (DVA) model. (United States)

    Andersen, George J; Sauer, Craig W


    The present study developed and tested a model of car following by human drivers. Previous models of car following are based on 3-D parameters such as lead vehicle speed and distance information, which are not directly available to a driver. In the present paper we present the driving by visual angle (DVA) model, which is based on the visual information (visual angle and rate of change of visual angle) available to the driver. Two experiments in a driving simulator examined car-following performance in response to speed variations of a lead vehicle defined by a sum of sine wave oscillations and ramp acceleration functions. In addition, the model was applied to six driving events using real world-driving data. The model provided a good fit to car-following performance in the driving simulation studies as well as in real-world driving performance. A comparison with the advanced interactive microscopic simulator for urban and nonurban networks (AIMSUN) model, which is based on 3-D parameters, suggests that the DVA was more predictive of driver behavior in matching lead vehicle speed and distance headway. Car-following behavior can be modeled using only visual information to the driver and can produce performance more predictive of driver performance than models based on 3-D (speed or distance) information. The DVA model has applications to several traffic safety issues, including automated driving systems and traffic flow models.

  13. Intention to Drive After Drinking Among Medical Students: Contributions of the Protection Motivation Theory. (United States)

    Amaral, Ricardo Abrantes; Malbergier, André; Lima, Danielle Ruiz; Santos, Verena Castellani Vitor; Gorenstein, Clarice; Andrade, Arthur Guerra de

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cognitive variables proposed by the protection motivation theory (PMT) were predictive of occasional and frequent intention to drive after drinking in medical students. One hundred fifty-five students attending preclinical years at a Medical School in São Paulo, Brazil, participated in the study. They were asked about their last month substance use, history of drinking and driving, including driving after binge drinking, and risk perceptions based on a self-report questionnaire with statements about protection motivation, threat, and coping appraisals from the PMT model. Fifty-two students (33%) had previous experience of driving after drinking during the last year, and 54 students (35%) reported intention to drive after drinking within the next year. Regression analysis showed that higher scores in perception of personal vulnerability to risks were associated with occasional and frequent intention to continue pursuing this particular behavior. Poorer evaluations about short-term consequences of alcohol consumption and cognitions regarding external rewards were significantly associated with reported intention to continue driving after drinking. Considering the social and health impact of alcohol-impaired behaviors, our findings suggest the need of interventional efforts focused in increasing students' awareness about the negative consequences of drinking and driving aiming to enhance their motivation towards more adaptive behaviors.

  14. Elasticity of population growth with respect to the intensity of biotic or abiotic driving factors. (United States)

    Lee, Charlotte T


    Demographic analysis can elucidate how driving factors, such as climate or species interactions, affect populations. One important question is how growth would respond to future changes in the mean intensity of a driving factor or in its variability, such as might be expected in a fluctuating and shifting climate. Here I develop an approach to computing new stochastic elasticities to address this question. The linchpin of this novel approach is the multidimensional demographic difference that expresses how a population responds to change in the driving factor between two discrete levels of intensity. I use this difference to design a perturbation matrix that links data from common empirical sampling schemes with rigorous theory for stochastic elasticities. Although the starting point is a difference, the products of this synthesis are true derivatives: they are elasticity with respect to the mean intensity of a driving factor, and elasticity with respect to variability in a driving factor. Applying the methods to published data, I demonstrate how these new elasticities can shed light on growth rate response within and at the boundary of the previously observed range of the driving factor, thus helpfully indicating nonlinearity in the observed and in the potential future response. The stochastic approach simplifies in a fixed environment, yielding a compact formula for deterministic elasticity to a driving factor. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Behavioral Impact of Graduated Driver Licensing on Teenage Driving Risk and Exposure1 (United States)

    Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Ridgeway, Greg


    Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) is a critical policy tool for potentially improving teenage driving while reducing teen accident exposure. While previous studies demonstrated that GDL reduces teenage involvement in fatal crashes, much remains unanswered. We explore the mechanisms through which GDL influences accident rates as well as its long term effectiveness on teen driving. In particular, we investigate; 1) whether GDL policies improve teenage driving behavior, or simply reduce teenage prevalence on the roads; 2) whether GDL exposed teens become better drivers in later years. We employ a unique data source, the State Data System, which contains all police reported accidents (fatal and non-fatal) during 1990–2005 for twelve states. We estimate a structural model that separately identifies GDL s effect on relative teenage prevalence and relative teenage riskiness. Identification of the model is driven by the relative numbers of crashes between two teenagers, two adults, or a teenager and an adult. We find that the GDL policies reduce the number of 15–17 year-old accidents by limiting the amount of teenage driving rather than by improving teenage driving. This prevalence reduction primarily occurs at night and stricter GDL policies, especially those with nighttime driving restrictions, are the most effective. Finally, we find that teen driving quality does not improve ex-post GDL exposure. PMID:19942310

  16. Young females at risk while driving with a small child. (United States)

    Maasalo, Ida; Lehtonen, Esko; Summala, Heikki


    Previous research suggests that young mothers with little driving experience are at risk when driving with a small child passenger. In this study we examined the prevalence, characteristics and risk of fatal motor vehicle crashes involving an infant passenger under the age of one among female drivers of different ages. We used crash data from the US Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 1994-2013. The prevalence of fatal crashes involving infants was examined by age of female drivers and compared to the number of births among mothers of a similar age. The essential characteristics of the crashes were described, and the odds of being at fault were determined for young (16-24-year-olds) and older female drivers (25-39-year-olds) with an infant passenger or with no passengers. The prevalence of fatal crashes involving infant passengers was higher among young female drivers in relation to the number of births among mothers of a similar age than among older females. Young female drivers with an infant passenger were more often at fault than older drivers (aOR=1.83, 95%, CI=1.52, 2.20). Their vehicles were older and smaller and they used proper safety seats for infants less often than the older drivers. In addition, young female drivers with an infant passenger but with no adult passenger in the vehicle were more often at fault than young female drivers with no passengers (aOR=1.27, 95% CI=1.06, 1.51). Both young and older female drivers' crashes involving an infant passenger typically occurred in ordinary driving conditions, but these drivers with infant passengers were more often reported as having fallen asleep or inattentive than those with no passengers. The presence of an adult passenger in addition to an infant passenger lowered female drivers' odds of being at fault, regardless of the driver's age. Young females driving with an infant passenger, probably most often mothers, are at an elevated risk of a fatal crash, especially when they drive alone with an infant

  17. Assessment of driving-related performance in chronic whiplash using an advanced driving simulator. (United States)

    Takasaki, Hiroshi; Treleaven, Julia; Johnston, Venerina; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Haines, Andrew; Jull, Gwendolen


    Driving is often nominated as problematic by individuals with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD), yet driving-related performance has not been evaluated objectively. The purpose of this study was to test driving-related performance in persons with chronic WAD against healthy controls of similar age, gender and driving experience to determine if driving-related performance in the WAD group was sufficiently impaired to recommend fitness to drive assessment. Driving-related performance was assessed using an advanced driving simulator during three driving scenarios; freeway, residential and a central business district (CBD). Total driving duration was approximately 15min. Five driving tasks which could cause a collision (critical events) were included in the scenarios. In addition, the effect of divided attention (identify red dots projected onto side or rear view mirrors) was assessed three times in each scenario. Driving performance was measured using the simulator performance index (SPI) which is calculated from 12 measures. z-Scores for all SPI measures were calculated for each WAD subject based on mean values of the control subjects. The z-scores were then averaged for the WAD group. A z-score of ≤-2 indicated a driving failing grade in the simulator. The number of collisions over the five critical events was compared between the WAD and control groups as was reaction time and missed response ratio in identifying the red dots. Seventeen WAD and 26 control subjects commenced the driving assessment. Demographic data were comparable between the groups. All subjects completed the freeway scenario but four withdrew during the residential and eight during the CBD scenario because of motion sickness. All scenarios were completed by 14 WAD and 17 control subjects. Mean z-scores for the SPI over the three scenarios was statistically lower in the WAD group (-0.3±0.3; P0.05). Assessment of driving in an advanced driving simulator for approximately 15min revealed

  18. The big five personality factors as predictors of driving status in older adults. (United States)

    Gadbois, Emily A; Dugan, Elizabeth


    Although factors including cognitive and health status have been associated with driving cessation in older adults, the role of psychosocial variables is not well studied. Previous research on young adult drivers has suggested that personality may be related to driving behavior, but this study is among the first to explore the relationship between driving status and the Big Five Model of personality for older adults. Data are from the Health and Retirement Study (2008 wave, n = 4,028). Descriptive, bivariate, and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Neuroticism (β = -0.4511, p Personality adds a unique contribution to the prediction of late-life driving status. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. The Facial Width-to-Height Ratio Predicts Sex Drive, Sociosexuality, and Intended Infidelity. (United States)

    Arnocky, Steven; Carré, Justin M; Bird, Brian M; Moreau, Benjamin J P; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Ortiz, Triana; Marley, Nicole


    Previous research has linked the facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR) to a host of psychological and behavioral characteristics, primarily in men. In two studies, we examined novel links between FWHR and sex drive. In Study 1, a sample of 145 undergraduate students revealed that FWHR positively predicted sex drive. There were no significant FWHR × sex interactions, suggesting that FWHR is linked to sexuality among both men and women. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings in a sample of 314 students collected from a different Canadian city, which again demonstrated links between the FWHR and sex drive (also in both men and women), as well as sociosexuality and intended infidelity (men only). Internal meta-analytic results confirm the link between FWHR and sex drive among both men and women. These results suggest that FWHR may be an important morphological index of human sexuality.

  20. Prediction Governors for Input-Affine Nonlinear Systems and Application to Automatic Driving Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Minami


    Full Text Available In recent years, automatic driving control has attracted attention. To achieve a satisfactory driving control performance, the prediction accuracy of the traveling route is important. If a highly accurate prediction method can be used, an accurate traveling route can be obtained. Despite the considerable efforts that have been invested in improving prediction methods, prediction errors do occur in general. Thus, a method to minimize the influence of prediction errors on automatic driving control systems is required. This need motivated us to focus on the design of a mechanism for shaping prediction signals, which is called a prediction governor. In this study, we first extended our previous study to the input-affine nonlinear system case. Then, we analytically derived a solution to an optimal design problem of prediction governors. Finally, we applied the solution to an automatic driving control system, and demonstrated its usefulness through a numerical example and an experiment using a radio controlled car.

  1. Effects of decades of physical driving on body movement and motion sickness during virtual driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Stoffregen

    Full Text Available We investigated relations between experience driving physical automobiles and motion sickness during the driving of virtual automobiles. Middle-aged individuals drove a virtual automobile in a driving video game. Drivers were individuals who had possessed a driver's license for approximately 30 years, and who drove regularly, while non-drivers were individuals who had never held a driver's license, or who had not driven for more than 15 years. During virtual driving, we monitored movement of the head and torso. During virtual driving, drivers became motion sick more rapidly than non-drivers, but the incidence and severity of motion sickness did not differ as a function of driving experience. Patterns of movement during virtual driving differed as a function of driving experience. Separately, movement differed between participants who later became motion sick and those who did not. Most importantly, physical driving experience influenced patterns of postural activity that preceded motion sickness during virtual driving. The results are consistent with the postural instability theory of motion sickness, and help to illuminate relations between the control of physical and virtual vehicles.

  2. DrivingSense: Dangerous Driving Behavior Identification Based on Smartphone Autocalibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Ma


    Full Text Available Since pervasive smartphones own advanced computing capability and are equipped with various sensors, they have been used for dangerous driving behaviors detection, such as drunk driving. However, sensory data gathered by smartphones are noisy, which results in inaccurate driving behaviors estimations. Some existing works try to filter noise from sensor readings, but usually only the outlier data are filtered. The noises caused by hardware of the smartphone cannot be removed from the sensor reading. In this paper, we propose DrivingSense, a reliable dangerous driving behavior identification scheme based on smartphone autocalibration. We first theoretically analyze the impact of the sensor error on the vehicle driving behavior estimation. Then, we propose a smartphone autocalibration algorithm based on sensor noise distribution determination when a vehicle is being driven. DrivingSense leverages the corrected sensor parameters to identify three kinds of dangerous behaviors: speeding, irregular driving direction change, and abnormal speed control. We evaluate the effectiveness of our scheme under realistic environments. The results show that DrivingSense, on average, is able to detect the driving direction change event and abnormal speed control event with 93.95% precision and 90.54% recall, respectively. In addition, the speed estimation error is less than 2.1 m/s, which is an acceptable range.

  3. Association between previous splenectomy and gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs: 453 cases (2004-2009). (United States)

    Sartor, Angela J; Bentley, Adrienne M; Brown, Dorothy C


    To evaluate the association between previous splenectomy and gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in dogs. Multi-institutional retrospective case-control study. Animals-151 dogs treated surgically for GDV and 302 control dogs with no history of GDV. Computerized records of dogs evaluated via exploratory laparotomy or abdominal ultrasonography were searched, and dogs with GDV and dogs without GDV (control dogs) were identified. Two control dogs were matched with respect to age, body weight, sex, neuter status, and breed to each dog with GDV. Data were collected on the presence or absence of the spleen for both dogs with GDV and control dogs. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of previous splenectomy with GDV. 6 (4%) dogs in the GDV group and 3 (1%) dogs in the control group had a history of previous splenectomy. The odds of GDV in dogs with a history of previous splenectomy in this population of dogs were 5.3 times those of dogs without a history of previous splenectomy (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 26.8). For the patients in the present study, there was an increased odds of GDV in dogs with a history of splenectomy. Prophylactic gastropexy may be considered in dogs undergoing a splenectomy, particularly if other risk factors for GDV are present.

  4. High Torque, Direct Drive Electric Motor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to advance the development of an innovative high torque, low speed, direct drive motor in order to meet NASA's requirements for such...

  5. Developing Castable Metal Harmonic Drives Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort utilizes the high elastic strain limit and net-shaped processing of metallic glasses to fabricate low-cost harmonic drives that outperform steel. ...

  6. Kinematics and Dynamics of Roller Chain Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglede, Niels

    There are two main subjects of this work: Kinematic and dynamic modeling and analysis of roller chain drives. In the kinematic analysis we contribute first with a complete treatment of the roller chain drive modeled as a four-bar mechanism. This includes a general, exact and approximate analysis...... which is useful for predicting the characteristic loading of the roller chain drive. As a completely novel contribution, a kinematic model and analysis is presented which includes both spans and sprockets in a simple chain drive system. A general procedure for determination of the total wrapping length...... is presented, which also allows for exact sprocket center positions for a chain with a given number of links. Results show that the total chain wrapping length varies periodically with the tooth frequency. These results are of practical importance to both the design, installation and operation of roller chain...

  7. Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Flemming

    This thesis deals with energy optimal control of small and medium-size variable speed induction motor drives for especially Heating, Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) applications. Optimized efficiency is achieved by adapting the magnetization level in the motor to the load, and the basic...... improvement by energy optimal control for any standard induction motor drive between 2.2 kW and 90 kW. A simple method to evaluate the robustness against load disturbances was developed and used to compare the robustness of different motor types and sizes. Calculation of the oscillatory behavior of a motor...... demonstrated that energy optimal control will sometimes improve and sometimes deteriorate the stability. Comparison of small and medium-size induction motor drives with permanent magnet motor drives indicated why, and in which applications, PM motors are especially good. Calculations of economical aspects...

  8. State Alcohol-Impaired-Driving Estimates (United States)

    ... 2012 Data DOT HS 812 017 May 2014 State Alcohol-Impaired-Driving Estimates This fact sheet contains ... alcohol involvement in fatal crashes for the United States and individually for the 50 States, the District ...

  9. Drowsy Driving: Asleep at the Wheel (United States)

    ... need at least 8 hours. 9 Develop good sleeping habits such as sticking to a sleep schedule. If ... K, Howard ME. Cognitive components of simulated driving performance: sleep loss effects and predictors. Accid Anal Prev. 2012; ...

  10. Some Sleep Drugs Can Impair Driving (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Some Sleep Drugs Can Impair Driving Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. Most Widely Used Sleep Drug Zolpidem—which has been on the market ...

  11. Universal power transistor base drive control unit (United States)

    Gale, Allan R.; Gritter, David J.


    A saturation condition regulator system for a power transistor which achieves the regulation objectives of a Baker clamp but without dumping excess base drive current into the transistor output circuit. The base drive current of the transistor is sensed and used through an active feedback circuit to produce an error signal which modulates the base drive current through a linearly operating FET. The collector base voltage of the power transistor is independently monitored to develop a second error signal which is also used to regulate base drive current. The current-sensitive circuit operates as a limiter. In addition, a fail-safe timing circuit is disclosed which automatically resets to a turn OFF condition in the event the transistor does not turn ON within a predetermined time after the input signal transition.

  12. 77 FR 51610 - Distracted Driving Grant Program (United States)


    ... employed as a commercial motor vehicle driver or a school bus driver who uses a personal wireless... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving Grant Program AGENCY: Department of Transportation (DOT), National Highway Traffic Safety Administration...

  13. Induction Motor Diagnosis in Variable Speed Drives


    Stefani, Andrea


    Several diagnostic techniques are presented for the detection of electrical fault in induction motor variable speed drives. These techinques are developed taking into account the impact of the control system on machine variables and non stationary operating conditions.

  14. Drinking and driving among high school students. (United States)

    Williams, A F; Lund, A K; Preusser, D F


    A questionnaire survey of high school students conducted in 1983 provided information on their self-reported drinking and driving practices. By age 15 the majority reported drinking alcoholic beverages. By age 17 half or more of the males and one-third of the females reported driving after drinking at least once in the past month. About one-quarter of the students estimated that six or more cans of beer would be required to make someone an unsafe driver. Reported frequency of driving after drinking was associated with less time spent on homework and poorer academic performance, working part time, greater participation in social activities, less perceived parental influence regarding their travel, owning a car, driving high mileage, speeding, and having crashes and violations.

  15. Marijuana, alcohol and actual driving performance (United States)


    The purpose of this study was to empirically determine the separate and combined effects of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol on actual driving performance. This was the first study ever in which the drugs' combined effects were measured...

  16. Control rod drive of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuchkov, I.I.; Gorjunov, V.S.; Zaitsev, B.I.


    This invention relates to nuclear reactors and, more particularly, to a drive of a control rod of a nuclear reactor and allows power control, excess reactivity compensation, and emergency shut-down of a reactor. (author)

  17. Driving under the influence of cannabis. (United States)


    As more states decriminalize and legalize medical and recreational use of cannabis (marijuana), traffic safety leaders and public health advocates have growing concerns about driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC). How do we understand the cu...

  18. Classical-driving-assisted entanglement dynamics control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying-Jie, E-mail: [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Han, Wei [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Xia, Yun-Jie, E-mail: [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Fan, Heng, E-mail: [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing, 100190 (China)


    We propose a scheme of controlling entanglement dynamics of a quantum system by applying the external classical driving field for two atoms separately located in a single-mode photon cavity. It is shown that, with a judicious choice of the classical-driving strength and the atom–photon detuning, the effective atom–photon interaction Hamiltonian can be switched from Jaynes–Cummings model to anti-Jaynes–Cummings model. By tuning the controllable atom–photon interaction induced by the classical field, we illustrate that the evolution trajectory of the Bell-like entanglement states can be manipulated from entanglement-sudden-death to no-entanglement-sudden-death, from no-entanglement-invariant to entanglement-invariant. Furthermore, the robustness of the initial Bell-like entanglement can be improved by the classical driving field in the leaky cavities. This classical-driving-assisted architecture can be easily extensible to multi-atom quantum system for scalability.

  19. Profiling drunk driving recidivists in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja; Prato, Carlo Giacomo


    Drunk drivers are a menace to themselves and to other road users, as drunk driving significantly increases the risk of involvement in road accidents and the probability of severe or fatal injuries. Although injuries and fatalities related to road accidents have decreased in recent decades......, the prevalence of drunk drivingamong drivers killed in road accidents has remained stable, at around 25% or more during the past 10 years. Understanding drunk driving, and in particular, recidivism, is essentialfor designing effective counter measures,and accordingly, the present study aims at identifying...... the differences between non-drunkdrivers, drunk driving non-recidivists and drunk driving recidivists with respect to their demographicand socio-economic characteristics, road accident involvement and other traffic and non-traffic-related law violations. This study is based on register-data from Statistics...

  20. Botany: a record-breaking pollen catapult. (United States)

    Edwards, Joan; Whitaker, Dwight; Klionsky, Sarah; Laskowski, Marta J


    The release of stored elastic energy often drives rapid movements in animal systems, and plant components employing this mechanism should be able to move with similar speed. Here we describe how the flower stamens of the bunchberry dogwood (Cornus canadensis) rely on this principle to catapult pollen into the air as the flower opens explosively. Our high-speed video observations show that the flower opens in less than 0.5 ms--to our knowledge, the fastest movement so far recorded in a plant.

  1. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2. (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda


    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  2. Dolce Napoli : approaches for performance - Recorders for the Neapolitan Baroque repertoire, 1695-1759

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Avena Braga, Inês


    This thesis examined two previously neglected topics, Baroque Italian recorders and the Neapolitan Baroque repertoire for the recorder, and then combined both aspects. First, information was collected on all Italian Baroque recorders currently known, including biographical

  3. Nicotine Elicits Methamphetamine-Seeking in Rats Previously Administered Nicotine


    Neugebauer, N. M.; Harrod, S. B.; Bardo, M. T.


    Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, ...

  4. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking


    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET


    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  5. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern


    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  6. Event Sequence Variability in Healthy Swallowing: Building on Previous Findings


    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M.


    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired-events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs, which always occurred in a stereotyped order as well as a most-common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigate overall event sequencing and the same four paired-events in a sample of swallows by healthy, young (under 45 years old) volunt...

  7. Prevalence and significance of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases in pregnancy. (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Beneventi, Fausta; Ramoni, Véronique; Caporali, Roberto; Locatelli, Elena; Simonetta, Margherita; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Alpini, Claudia; Albonico, Giulia; Prisco, Elena; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the rates of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy and their impact on the pregnancy outcome. Pregnant women in their first trimester were screened using a two-step approach using a self-administered 10-item questionnaire and subsequent testing for rheumatic autoantibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-extractable nuclear antigen, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and evaluation by a rheumatologist. Overall, the complications of pregnancy evaluated included fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, delivery at less than 34 weeks, neonatal resuscitation and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Out of the 2458 women screened, the authors identified 62 (2.5%) women with previously undiagnosed undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and 24 (0.98%) women with previously undiagnosed definite systemic rheumatic disease. The prevalences were seven (0.28%) for systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome, six (0.24%) for rheumatoid arthritis, three (0.12%) for antiphospholipid syndrome and one (0.04%) for systemic sclerosis. In multiple exact logistic regression, after adjustment for potential confounders, the OR of overall complications of pregnancy were 2.81 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.18) in women with UCTD and 4.57 (95% CI 1.57 to 13.57) in those with definite diseases, respectively, compared with asymptomatic controls. In our population approximately 2.5% and 1% of first trimester pregnant women had a previously undiagnosed UCTD and definite systemic rheumatic disease, respectively. These conditions were associated with significant negative effects on the outcome of pregnancy.

  8. Previously infertile couples and the newborn intensive care unit. (United States)

    Lind, R F; Pruitt, R L; Greenfeld, D


    Having a newborn child admitted to a newborn intensive care unit can be a traumatic experience for parents; however, parents who previously have been infertile face unique problems in coping with this situation. The authors discuss the difficulties parents must overcome in resolving their crises and in developing a good relationship with their child, or, in some cases, coming to terms with the child's death or ongoing disability. In addition, the authors offer suggestions for effective social work intervention.

  9. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby


    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla


    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  10. Rotating Drive for Electrical-Arc Machining (United States)

    Fransen, C. D.


    Rotating drive improves quality of holes made by electrical-arc machining. Mechanism (Uni-tek, rotary head, or equivalent) attached to electrical-arc system. Drive rotates electrode as though it were mechanical drill, while an arc disintegrates metal in workpiece, thereby creating hole. Rotating electrode method often used in electric-discharge machining. NASA innovation is application of technique to electrical-arc machining.

  11. How to Drive CARS in Reverse (United States)


    and ‘heats’ this plasma creating an electron avalanche , analogous to the electric discharge used in traditional nitrogen lasers. These schemes are all... pulse . This pulse is then used to drive a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering scheme, resulting in a strong chemically specific signal propagating...generation of a backward propagating stimulated Raman pulse . This pulse is then used to drive a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering scheme, resulting in a

  12. Implementing a Cloud Platform for Autonomous Driving


    Liu, Shaoshan; Tang, Jie; Wang, Chao; Wang, Quan; Gaudiot, Jean-Luc


    Autonomous driving clouds provide essential services to support autonomous vehicles. Today these services include but not limited to distributed simulation tests for new algorithm deployment, offline deep learning model training, and High-Definition (HD) map generation. These services require infrastructure support including distributed computing, distributed storage, as well as heterogeneous computing. In this paper, we present the details of how we implement a unified autonomous driving clo...

  13. Direct Drive Technology for Wind Turbine Applications


    Azar, Ziad


    Siemens Wind Power have developed direct-drive (DD) wind turbine technology over the past decade to meet the future demand for cost effective and reliable onshore and offshore wind power. The increasing power requirements from the industry resulting in higher torque requirements in the drive train, has made it necessary to reduce the complexity and improve reliability of wind turbines by going to DD generator technology.

  14. Providing driving rain data for hygrothermal calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Mikkel Kristian


    Due to a wish for driving rain data as input for hygrothermal calculations, this report deals with utilizing commonly applied empirical relations and standard meteorological data, in an attempt to provide realistic estimates rather than exact correlations.......Due to a wish for driving rain data as input for hygrothermal calculations, this report deals with utilizing commonly applied empirical relations and standard meteorological data, in an attempt to provide realistic estimates rather than exact correlations....

  15. Comments on theoretical foundation of "EM Drive" (United States)

    Wu, C.-W.


    The concept of EM Drive has attracted much attention and groups of work have been conducted to prove or verify it, of which the published experimental outcome is criticized in great details while the theoretical foundation has not been discussed. The present essay investigates on the theoretical derivations of the net thrust in the "EM drive" and reveals the self-contradiction arising at the very start, when the law of conservation of momentum was utilized and opposed simultaneously.

  16. Energetic Optimal Control Of Adjustable Drive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion BIVOL


    Full Text Available n the paper is developed a new control strategy for the adjustable speed drives. The strategy consists in the energetic optimal control of the dynamic regimes as starting, stopping and reversing. The main developed problems: formulation of energetic optimal problem, solution, experimental results via simulation and some considerations concerning the use of the control. The optimal developed solution can be applied for the both AC and DC drives, but only for linear systems.

  17. Event sequence variability in healthy swallowing: building on previous findings. (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M


    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard, and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs that always occurred in a stereotyped order and a most common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigated overall event sequencing and the same four paired events in a sample of swallows by healthy young (under 45 years old) volunteers. Data were collected during a 16-swallow lateral videofluoroscopy protocol, which included manipulations of bolus volume, barium density, bolus viscosity, and swallow cueing. Our results agreed with previous findings that variable event sequencing is found in healthy swallowing, and, in regard to obligatory sequencing of two paired events, movement of the arytenoids toward the base of the epiglottis begins prior to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening and maximum hyolaryngeal approximation occurs after UES opening. However, our data failed to replicate the previous findings that there is obligatory sequencing of maximum pharyngeal constriction after maximal UES distension and the UES opens before bolus arrival at the UES. The most common observed overall event sequence reported by Kendall et al. was observed in only 4/293 swallows in our dataset. Manipulations of bolus volume, bolus viscosity, barium concentration, swallow cueing, and swallow repetitions could not completely account for the differences observed between the two studies.

  18. Prevalence of Infraumbilical Adhesions in Women With Previous Laparoscopy (United States)

    Ku, Lowell; Wong, Herb; Liu, C. Y.; Phelps, John Y.


    Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of intraabdominal adhesions to the umbilicus following gynecologic laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all gynecologic laparoscopic procedures in a private practice setting to identify patients with a repeat laparoscopy who had a history of a previous laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Patients with a history of other surgeries were excluded. All repeat laparoscopies used a left upper quadrant entry technique where the abdominal cavity was surveyed for adhesions. We also reviewed adverse events attributable to the left upper quadrant entry approach. Results: We identified 151 patients who underwent a second laparoscopy and had a previous umbilical scar. Thirty-two of the 151 (21.2%) patients with a history of a laparoscopy had evidence of adhesions to the umbilical undersurface. No adverse events or injuries were attributed to the left upper quadrant entry technique. Conclusions: Adhesions to the umbilical undersurface occur in 21.2% of patients who have undergone a prior laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. For this reason, we recommend an alternate location for entry in patients with an umbilical scar from a previous laparoscopy. PMID:17651555

  19. Smile! Social reward drives attention. (United States)

    Hayward, Dana A; Pereira, Effie J; Otto, A Ross; Ristic, Jelena


    Human social behavior is fine-tuned by interactions between individuals and their environments. Here we show that social motivation plays an important role in this process. Using a novel manipulation of social reward that included elements of real-life social exchanges, we demonstrate the emergence of attentional orienting for coincidental spatial associations that received positive social reward. After an interaction with the experimenter, participants completed a computerized task in which they received positive, negative, or no social reward for their performance to spatially congruent, spatially incongruent, and neutral cue-target pairings, respectively. Even though cue-target spatial correspondences remained at chance, attentional benefits emerged and persisted a day later for targets that received positive social reward. Our data further revealed that participants' level of social competence, as measured by the Autism-Spectrum Quotient scale, was predictably related to the magnitude of their reward-driven attentional benefits. No attentional effects emerged when the social interaction and social reward manipulations were removed. These results show that motivational incentives available during social exchanges affect later individual cognitive functioning, providing one of the first insights into why seemingly ambiguous social signals produce reliable and persistent attentional effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Reduced Input Throw and High-speed Driving

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDowell, Kaleb; Paul, Victor; Alban, Jillyn


    .... In particular, drive-by-wire technology coupled with non-standard driving control devices have the potential to lead to improved driving performance, reduced Soldier training time, crash prevention...