WorldWideScience

Sample records for previous detection methods

  1. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  2. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  3. New Strategies for Cultivation and Detection of Previously Uncultured Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Bradley S.; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Wertz, John T.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Breznak, John A.

    2004-01-01

    An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divisions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection of cells from exogenous peroxides; and inclusion of humic acids or a humic acid analogue (anthraquinone disulfonate) and quorum-signaling compounds (acyl homoserine lactones) in growth media. The bacteria were incubated in the presence of air and in hypoxic (1 to 2% O2 [vol/vol]) and anoxic atmospheres. Some bacteria were incubated with elevated concentrations of CO2 (5% [vol/vol]). Significantly more Acidobacteria were found on isolation plates that had been incubated with 5% CO2. A simple, high-throughput, PCR-based surveillance method (plate wash PCR) was developed. This method greatly facilitated detection and ultimate isolation of target bacteria from as many as 1,000 colonies of nontarget microbes growing on the same agar plates. Results illustrate the power of integrating culture methods with molecular techniques to isolate bacteria from phylogenetic groups underrepresented in culture. PMID:15294811

  4. Attribute and topology based change detection in a constellation of previously detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, Reginald N.

    2016-01-19

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  5. Detection and identification of previously unrecognized microbial pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Relman, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    Features of a number of important but poorly explained human clinical syndromes strongly indicate a microbial etiology. In these syndromes, the failure of cultivation-dependent microbial detection methods reveals our ignorance of microbial growth requirements. Sequence-based molecular methods, however, offer alternative approaches for microbial identification directly from host specimens found in the setting of unexplained acute illnesses, chronic inflammatory disease, and from anatomic sites...

  6. Error detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Eric J.

    2013-06-11

    An apparatus, program product, and method that run an algorithm on a hardware based processor, generate a hardware error as a result of running the algorithm, generate an algorithm output for the algorithm, compare the algorithm output to another output for the algorithm, and detect the hardware error from the comparison. The algorithm is designed to cause the hardware based processor to heat to a degree that increases the likelihood of hardware errors to manifest, and the hardware error is observable in the algorithm output. As such, electronic components may be sufficiently heated and/or sufficiently stressed to create better conditions for generating hardware errors, and the output of the algorithm may be compared at the end of the run to detect a hardware error that occurred anywhere during the run that may otherwise not be detected by traditional methodologies (e.g., due to cooling, insufficient heat and/or stress, etc.).

  7. Waveguide disturbance detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneev, Valeri A.; Nihei, Kurt T.; Myer, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    A method for detection of a disturbance in a waveguide comprising transmitting a wavefield having symmetric and antisymmetric components from a horizontally and/or vertically polarized source and/or pressure source disposed symmetrically with respect to the longitudinal central axis of the waveguide at one end of the waveguide, recording the horizontal and/or vertical component or a pressure of the wavefield with a vertical array of receivers disposed at the opposite end of the waveguide, separating the wavenumber transform of the wavefield into the symmetric and antisymmetric components, integrating the symmetric and antisymmetric components over a broad frequency range, and comparing the magnitude of the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components to an expected magnitude for the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components for a waveguide of uniform thickness and properties thereby determining whether or not a disturbance is present inside the waveguide.

  8. Method for acoustic signal detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blalock, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a method and apparatus for acoustic signal detection, adapted for use in acoustic velocity well logging to measure the difference in transit times of an acoustic signal between a transmitter and two or more receivers. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention two timing measurements of the signal arriving at each of two receivers may be made by activating zero crossing detectors at the arrival of the first negative and first positive half-cycles at each receiver. A transit time is calculated from the zero crossing times following the first negative half-cycle. This first transit time may be checked for accuracy by comparing the first transit time with a second transit time calculated from zero crossing times following the first positive half-cycles, by comparing the first transit time to a previously measured transit time and/or by detecting the order of arrival of the negative and positive half-cycles to determine whether the half-cycles have been detected out of sequence at either receiver. Should the first transit time be determined to be inaccurate, the previously measured transit time or the second transit time may be substituted therefor

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging detection of prostate cancer in men with previous negative prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Matthew; Frye, Thomas P

    2017-06-01

    Use of transrectal ultrasound guided systematic prostate biopsy has poor diagnostic accuracy for prostate cancer (PCa) detection. Recently multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the prostate and MR/US fusion biopsy has been gaining popularity for men who have previously undergone a negative biopsy. We performed PubMed ® and Web of Science ® searches to identify studies on this subject, particularly focusing on studies consisting of patients who have had at least one previously negative biopsy. Across the literature, when a suspicious lesion is found on mpMRI, MR/US fusion biopsy has consistently demonstrated higher detection rate for any PCa and clinically significant PCa (csPCa) compared to the traditional repeat systematic biopsy (SB) approach. Furthermore, anteriorly located tumors are frequently identified using MR targeted biopsy (TB), suggesting that an MR guided approach allows for increased accuracy for detecting tumors commonly missed by systematic biopsies. We conclude that men with a prior negative biopsy and continued suspicion of PCa should strongly be encouraged to get a prostate mpMRI prior to a repeat biopsy.

  10. Nonlinear Multiantenna Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear detection technique designed for multiple-antenna assisted receivers employed in space-division multiple-access systems is investigated. We derive the optimal solution of the nonlinear spatial-processing assisted receiver for binary phase shift keying signalling, which we refer to as the Bayesian detector. It is shown that this optimal Bayesian receiver significantly outperforms the standard linear beamforming assisted receiver in terms of a reduced bit error rate, at the expense of an increased complexity, while the achievable system capacity is substantially enhanced with the advent of employing nonlinear detection. Specifically, when the spatial separation expressed in terms of the angle of arrival between the desired and interfering signals is below a certain threshold, a linear beamformer would fail to separate them, while a nonlinear detection assisted receiver is still capable of performing adequately. The adaptive implementation of the optimal Bayesian detector can be realized using a radial basis function network. Two techniques are presented for constructing block-data-based adaptive nonlinear multiple-antenna assisted receivers. One of them is based on the relevance vector machine invoked for classification, while the other on the orthogonal forward selection procedure combined with the Fisher ratio class-separability measure. A recursive sample-by-sample adaptation procedure is also proposed for training nonlinear detectors based on an amalgam of enhanced -means clustering techniques and the recursive least squares algorithm.

  11. Identification of multidrug resistance in previously treated tuberculosis patients: a mixed methods study in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, S; Khann, S; Yadav, RP; Mao, ET; Cattamanchi, A; Sam, S; Handley, MA

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Setting Previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients are a priority for drug susceptibility testing (DST) to identify cases with multidrug resistance (MDR). In Cambodia, a recent study found that only one-third of smear-positive previously treated patients had DST results. Objective To quantify the gaps in detecting MDR in previously treated TB patients in Cambodia, and describe health workers’ perspectives on barriers, facilitators and potential interventions. Design We analyzed case notifications in Cambodia (2004–2012) and conducted semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders Results The proportion of previously treated notifications varied significantly across provinces 2010–12, in the context of longer term trends of decreasing relapse and increasing “other” retreatment notifications. Correct classification of patients’ TB treatment history and ensuring specimens from previously-treated patients are collected and reach the laboratory could nearly double the number of detected MDR-TB cases. Identified barriers include patients’ reluctance to disclose and staff difficulty eliciting treatment history, partly due to availability of streptomycin only in hospitals. Facilitators include trained health workers, collection of sputum for DST even if previously treated patients are not taking streptomycin, streamlining sputum transportation and promptly reporting results. Conclusion Improved monitoring, supportive supervision, and correctly classifying previously treated patients are essential for improving detection of MDR-TB. PMID:25299861

  12. A Voltage Quality Detection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Wei, Mu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a voltage quality detection method based on a phase-locked loop (PLL) technique. The technique can detect the voltage magnitude and phase angle of each individual phase under both normal and fault power system conditions. The proposed method has the potential to evaluate vario...... power quality disturbances, such as interruptions, sags and imbalances. Simulation studies have been performed. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been demonstrated under the simulated typical power disturbances.......This paper presents a voltage quality detection method based on a phase-locked loop (PLL) technique. The technique can detect the voltage magnitude and phase angle of each individual phase under both normal and fault power system conditions. The proposed method has the potential to evaluate various...

  13. Detection methods for irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    The plenary lecture gives a brief historical review of the development of methods for the detection of food irradiation and defines the demands on such methods. The methods described in detail are as follows: 1) Physical methods: As examples of luminescence methods, thermoluminescence and chermoluminescence are mentioned; ESR spectroscopy is discussed in detail by means of individual examples (crustaceans, frutis and vegetables, spieces and herbs, nuts). 2) Chemical methods: Examples given for these are methods that make use of alterations in lipids through radiation (formation of long-chain hydrocarbons, formation of 2-alkyl butanones), respectively radiation-induced alterations in the DNA. 3) Microbiological methods. An extensive bibliography is appended. (VHE) [de

  14. Review of leak detection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choumoff, S.; Le Pavec, M.

    The development of the leak-tightness concept and the industrial sectors mainly concerned are reviewed, after which the various methods of leak detection are outlined briefly. The extent to which gases such as ammonia, freon, sulfur hexafluoride and helium are used, generally involving the use of specific detectors, leads to considerations on the principles of leak detection by tracer gas. Practical applications are discussed with regard to criteria of choice, sensitivity required and cost price. Finally the possibilities of using detection methods for industrial purposes are pointed out. They imply that equipment called on to fulfil tightness criteria can be designed to account for certain factors necessary for successful application of the detection methods chosen [fr

  15. GMDD: a database of GMO detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei; Yang, Litao; Shen, Kailin; Kim, Banghyun; Kleter, Gijs A; Marvin, Hans J P; Guo, Rong; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

    2008-06-04

    Since more than one hundred events of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been developed and approved for commercialization in global area, the GMO analysis methods are essential for the enforcement of GMO labelling regulations. Protein and nucleic acid-based detection techniques have been developed and utilized for GMOs identification and quantification. However, the information for harmonization and standardization of GMO analysis methods at global level is needed. GMO Detection method Database (GMDD) has collected almost all the previous developed and reported GMOs detection methods, which have been grouped by different strategies (screen-, gene-, construct-, and event-specific), and also provide a user-friendly search service of the detection methods by GMO event name, exogenous gene, or protein information, etc. In this database, users can obtain the sequences of exogenous integration, which will facilitate PCR primers and probes design. Also the information on endogenous genes, certified reference materials, reference molecules, and the validation status of developed methods is included in this database. Furthermore, registered users can also submit new detection methods and sequences to this database, and the newly submitted information will be released soon after being checked. GMDD contains comprehensive information of GMO detection methods. The database will make the GMOs analysis much easier.

  16. A New Lagrangian Relaxation Method Considering Previous Hour Scheduling for Unit Commitment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, H.; Rashidinejad, M.; Purakbari-Kasmaie, M.; Abdollahi, A.

    2009-08-01

    Generation scheduling is a crucial challenge in power systems especially under new environment of liberalization of electricity industry. A new Lagrangian relaxation method for unit commitment (UC) has been presented for solving generation scheduling problem. This paper focuses on the economical aspect of UC problem, while the previous hour scheduling as a very important issue is studied. In this paper generation scheduling of present hour has been conducted by considering the previous hour scheduling. The impacts of hot/cold start-up cost have been taken in to account in this paper. Case studies and numerical analysis presents significant outcomes while it demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyakova, A.; Tsvetkova, E.; Nikolova, R.

    2005-01-01

    In connection with the ongoing world application of irradiation as a technology in Food industry for increasing food safety, it became a need for methods of identification of irradiation. It was required to control international trade of irradiated foods, because of the certain that legally imposed food laws are not violated; supervise correct labeling; avoid multiple irradiation. Physical, chemical and biological methods for detection of irradiated foods as well principle that are based, are introducing in this summary

  18. Adjunct methods for caries detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of adjunct methods used to detect and quantify dental caries. Study design. A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Abstracts and full text articles were assessed...

  19. Aortic pseudoaneurysm detected on external jugular venous distention following a Bentall procedure 10 years previously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Naoto; Shomura, Yu; Nasu, Michihiro; Okada, Yukikatsu

    2010-11-01

    An asymptomatic 49-year-old woman was admitted for the purpose of surgery for aortic pseudoaneurysm. She had Marfan syndrome and had undergone an emergent Bentall procedure 10 years previously. About six months previously, she could palpate distended bilateral external jugular veins, which became distended only in a supine position and without any other symptoms. Enhanced computed tomography revealed an aortic pseudoaneurysm originating from a previous distal anastomosis site. During induction of general anesthesia in a supine position, bilateral external jugular venous distention was remarkable. Immediately after a successful operation, distention completely resolved. The present case emphasizes the importance of physical examination leading to a diagnosis of asymptomatic life-threatening diseases in patients with a history of previous aortic surgery.

  20. Preoperative electrocardiography: its cost-effectiveness in detecting abnormalities when a previous tracing exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabkin, S W; Horne, J M

    1979-01-01

    In 812 patients who underwent routine preoperative electrocardiography a mean of 24.6 months after undergoing electrocardiography at the same institution, the frequency of new abnormalities was estimated to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this procedure prior to an operation. New abnormalities were judged to be either relevant or irrelevant to the assessment of operative risk, depending upon their previously demonstrated correlation with operative and postoperative morbidity and mortality. Since new abnormalities, especially new relevant abnormalities, were found to be relatively infrequent, the cost-effectiveness of routine preoperative electrocardiography was considered to be low. The evidence suggested that when a previous tracing exists preoperative electrocardiography is most clearly indicated for patients who are 60 years of age or older or whose previous tracing exhibited abnormalities. However, further research is required to develop more sensitive and specific protocols, and to evaluate the role of repeat electrocardiography in clinical decision-making. PMID:111793

  1. Possible Detection of Perchlorates by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument: Comparison with Previous Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalex, Rafael; Sutter, Brad; Archer, Doug; Ming, Doug; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Franz, Heather; Glavin, Daniel; McAdam, Amy; Stern, Jennifer; McKay, Christopher; hide

    2013-01-01

    The first chemical analysis of soluble salts in the soil was carried out by the Phoenix Lander in the Martian Arctic [1]. Surprisingly, chlorine was present as magnesium or calcium perchlorate at 0.4 to 0.6 percent. Additional support for the identification of perchlorate came from the evolved gas analysis which detected the release of molecular oxygen at 350-550C [1]. When Mars-like soils from the Atacama Desert were spiked with magnesium perchlorate (1 percent) and heated using the Viking GC-MS protocol, nearly all the organics were combusted but a small amount was chlorinated, forming chloromethane and dichloromethane [2]. These chlorohydrocarbons were detected by the Viking GC-MS experiments when the Martian soil was analyzed but they were considered to be terrestrial contaminants [3]. Reinterpretation of the Viking results suggests detected compounds (CH3Cl and CH2Cl2) were carried from Earth [4]. Recently the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) ran four samples from an aeolian bedform named Rocknest. The samples analyzed were portioned from the fifth scoop at this location. The samples were heated to 835C at 35C/min with a He flow. The SAM QMS detected a major oxygen release (300-500C) [5], coupled with the release of chlorinated hydrocarbons (chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, and chloromethylpropene) detected both by SAM QMS and GC-MS derived from known Earth organic contaminants in the instrument [6]. Calcium perchlorate appears to be the best candidate for evolved O2 in the Rocknest samples at this time but other Cl species (e.g., chlorates) are possible and must be evaluated. The potential detection of perchlorates in Rocknest material adds weight to the argument that both Viking Landers measured signatures of perchlorates. Even if the source of the organic carbon detected is still unknown, the chlorine source was likely Martian. Two mechanisms have been hypothesized for the formation of soil

  2. Method of detecting failed fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Hideaki; Suzumura, Takeshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable the settlement of the temperature of an adequate filling high temperature pure water by detecting the outlet temperature of a high temperature pure water filling tube to a fuel assembly to control the heating of the pure water and detecting the failed fuel due to the sampling of the pure water. Method: A temperature sensor is provided at a water tube connected to a sipping cap for filling high temperature pure water to detect the temperature of the high temperature pure water at the outlet of the tube, and the temperature is confirmed by a temperature indicator. A heater is controlled on the basis of this confirmation, an adequate high temperature pure water is filled in the fuel assembly, and the pure water is replaced with coolant. Then, it is sampled to settle the adequate temperature of the high temperature coolant used for detecting the failure of the fuel assembly. As a result, the sipping effect does not decrease, and the failed fuel can be precisely detected. (Yoshihara, H.)

  3. [Vaginal delivery after previous cesarean: comparison between own method and Weinstein's predictive score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreba, R; Dudkiewicz, D; Drygalski, M; Poreba, A; Sipiński, A

    2000-04-01

    121 women after previous caesarean section were examined. The amount of successful labours were compared (according to the own diagnostic card) with the foreseeing probability of vaginal labours according to Weinstein's score. 63% pregnant woman was classified to the natural labour on the base of the own diagnostic card, probability of natural labour according to Weinstein's score were more or equal than 67%. There were no agreement between prognostic Weinstein's scale and our own method in the cases of failed attempt of labour followed by caesarean section.

  4. Bacteria detection instrument and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, W.; Fealey, R. D. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A method and apparatus for screening a sample fluid for bacterial presence are disclosed wherein the fluid sample is mixed with culture media of sufficient quantity to permit bacterial growth in order to obtain a test solution. The concentration of oxygen dissolved in the test solution is then monitored using the potential difference between a reference electrode and a noble metal electrode which are in contact with the test solution. The change in oxygen concentration which occurs during a period of time as indicated by the electrode potential difference is compared with a detection criterion which exceeds the change which would occur absent bacteria.

  5. [A brief history of resuscitation - the influence of previous experience on modern techniques and methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucmin, Tomasz; Płowaś-Goral, Małgorzata; Nogalski, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is relatively novel branch of medical science, however first descriptions of mouth-to-mouth ventilation are to be found in the Bible and literature is full of descriptions of different resuscitation methods - from flagellation and ventilation with bellows through hanging the victims upside down and compressing the chest in order to stimulate ventilation to rectal fumigation with tobacco smoke. The modern history of CPR starts with Kouwenhoven et al. who in 1960 published a paper regarding heart massage through chest compressions. Shortly after that in 1961Peter Safar presented a paradigm promoting opening the airway, performing rescue breaths and chest compressions. First CPR guidelines were published in 1966. Since that time guidelines were modified and improved numerously by two leading world expert organizations ERC (European Resuscitation Council) and AHA (American Heart Association) and published in a new version every 5 years. Currently 2010 guidelines should be obliged. In this paper authors made an attempt to present history of development of resuscitation techniques and methods and assess the influence of previous lifesaving methods on nowadays technologies, equipment and guidelines which allow to help those women and men whose life is in danger due to sudden cardiac arrest. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  6. Detection of previously undiagnosed cases of COPD in a high-risk population identified in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Anders; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Dahl, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Under-diagnosis of COPD is a widespread problem. This study aimed to identify previously undiagnosed cases of COPD in a high-risk population identified through general practice. Methods: Participating GPs (n = 241) recruited subjects with no previous diagnosis of lung disease,...

  7. Current status of biological indicators to detect and quantify previous exposures to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.; Eisele, G.; Burr, W. Jr.; Hubner, K.; Wachholz, B.

    1991-01-01

    As noted in the text of this paper, immunological concepts are in a state of rapid development, and it is possible that improved methods for applying immunologic procedures as biological indicators of radiation may be developed in the future. However, at the present time, immunological indicators are not useful, even in an early time period, for quantitating radiation dose after total-body irradiation. A semiquantitative effect is observable in the early phase after total-body irradiation over a period of days to weeks, but there is little data available to indicate whether any of the immunological parameters can be indicative of a dose when the test is applied several years after radiation exposure. More detailed information regarding immunological indicators for estimating irradiation dose has been summarized elsewhere

  8. Frequency and clinical significance of previously undetected incidental findings detected on computed tomography simulation scans for breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Naoki; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Takahashi, Osamu; Kikuchi, Mari; Honda, Satoshi; Shikama, Naoto; Akahane, Keiko; Sekiguchi, Kenji

    2012-11-01

    To determine the frequency and clinical significance of previously undetected incidental findings found on computed tomography (CT) simulation images for breast cancer patients. All CT simulation images were first interpreted prospectively by radiation oncologists and then double-checked by diagnostic radiologists. The official reports of CT simulation images for 881 consecutive postoperative breast cancer patients from 2009 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Potentially important incidental findings (PIIFs) were defined as any previously undetected benign or malignancy-related findings requiring further medical follow-up or investigation. For all patients in whom a PIIF was detected, we reviewed the clinical records to determine the clinical significance of the PIIF. If the findings from the additional studies prompted by a PIIF required a change in management, the PIIF was also recorded as a clinically important incidental finding (CIIF). There were a total of 57 (6%) PIIFs. The 57 patients in whom a PIIF was detected were followed for a median of 17 months (range, 3-26). Six cases of CIIFs (0.7% of total) were detected. Of the six CIIFs, three (50%) cases had not been noted by the radiation oncologist until the diagnostic radiologist detected the finding. On multivariate analysis, previous CT examination was an independent predictor for PIIF (p = 0.04). Patients who had not previously received chest CT examinations within 1 year had a statistically significantly higher risk of PIIF than those who had received CT examinations within 6 months (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-9.50; p = 0.01). The rate of incidental findings prompting a change in management was low. However, radiation oncologists appear to have some difficulty in detecting incidental findings that require a change in management. Considering cost, it may be reasonable that routine interpretations are given to those who have not received previous chest CT examinations within 1 year

  9. A novel method for detection of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagariya, Alexander M., E-mail: zagariya@uic.edu

    2012-04-15

    There are two different Angiotensin II (ANG II) peptides in nature: Human type (ANG II) and Bovine type (ANG II*). These eight amino acid peptides differ only at position 5 where Valine is replaced by Isoleucine in the Bovine type. They are present in all species studied so far. These amino acids are different by only one atom of carbon. This difference is so small, that it will allow any of ANG II, Bovine or Human antibodies to interact with all species and create a universal method for apoptosis detection. ANG II concentrations are found at substantially higher levels in apoptotic, compared to non-apoptotic, tissues. ANG II accumulation can lead to DNA damage, mutations, carcinogenesis and cell death. We demonstrate that Bovine antiserum can be used for universal detection of apoptosis. In 2010, the worldwide market for apoptosis detection reached the $20 billion mark and significantly increases each year. Most commercially available methods are related to Annexin V and TUNNEL. Our new method based on ANG II is more widely known to physicians and scientists compared to previously used methods. Our approach offers a novel alternative for assessing apoptosis activity with enhanced sensitivity, at a lower cost and ease of use.

  10. A novel method for detection of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagariya, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    There are two different Angiotensin II (ANG II) peptides in nature: Human type (ANG II) and Bovine type (ANG II*). These eight amino acid peptides differ only at position 5 where Valine is replaced by Isoleucine in the Bovine type. They are present in all species studied so far. These amino acids are different by only one atom of carbon. This difference is so small, that it will allow any of ANG II, Bovine or Human antibodies to interact with all species and create a universal method for apoptosis detection. ANG II concentrations are found at substantially higher levels in apoptotic, compared to non-apoptotic, tissues. ANG II accumulation can lead to DNA damage, mutations, carcinogenesis and cell death. We demonstrate that Bovine antiserum can be used for universal detection of apoptosis. In 2010, the worldwide market for apoptosis detection reached the $20 billion mark and significantly increases each year. Most commercially available methods are related to Annexin V and TUNNEL. Our new method based on ANG II is more widely known to physicians and scientists compared to previously used methods. Our approach offers a novel alternative for assessing apoptosis activity with enhanced sensitivity, at a lower cost and ease of use.

  11. Outlier Detection Method Use for the Network Flow Anomaly Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimas Ciplinskas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New and existing methods of cyber-attack detection are constantly being developed and improved because there is a great number of attacks and the demand to protect from them. In prac-tice, current methods of attack detection operates like antivirus programs, i. e. known attacks signatures are created and attacks are detected by using them. These methods have a drawback – they cannot detect new attacks. As a solution, anomaly detection methods are used. They allow to detect deviations from normal network behaviour that may show a new type of attack. This article introduces a new method that allows to detect network flow anomalies by using local outlier factor algorithm. Accom-plished research allowed to identify groups of features which showed the best results of anomaly flow detection according the highest values of precision, recall and F-measure.

  12. Hemosiderin detected by T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms: indication of previous bleeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shihomi; Inoue, Takashi; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2011-01-01

    Previous bleeding from a cerebral aneurysm indicates a higher risk of rupture. Hemosiderin may be detected during aneurysm surgery or by preoperative imaging sensitive to hemosiderin. The detection of hemosiderin deposits by T(2)*-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was evaluated in 49 patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms who underwent open surgery. MR imaging was performed using 3.0 tesla MR scanner. Two sequences of T(2)*-weighted imaging, and proton density images were obtained. Preliminary study in patients with old subarachnoid hemorrhage provided the definitions of likely pathological findings during surgery and on T(2)*-weighted imaging due to previous hemorrhage. Hemosiderin deposits in the subarachnoid space were observed during surgery in 9 of the 49 patients, although no obvious rupture site was detected around the aneurysm wall. Size, presence of bleb, location, and number of aneurysms showed no significant difference between patients with and without hemosiderin deposition. Hypointense areas on T(2)*-weighted imaging were recognized in four patients. The mean size of the aneurysms in these patients was 9.8 mm, significantly larger than those in other patients (p = 0.029). Hemosiderin deposits were observed during surgery in sites close to the lesions on T(2)*-weighted imaging in two of these four patients. Hemosiderin deposits are not rare in patients with unruptured aneurysms, and preoperative T(2)*-weighted imaging can detect such deposits.

  13. Chronic Chagas disease: PCR-xenodiagnosis without previous microscopic observation is a useful tool to detect viable Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Saavedra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the elimination of the microscopic stage of conventional xenodiagnosis (XD to optimize the parasitological diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi in chronic Chagas disease. To this purpose we applied under informed consent two XD cages to 150 Chilean chronic chagasic patients. The fecal samples (FS of the triatomines at 30, 60 and 90 days post feeding were divided into two parts: in one a microscopic search for mobile trypomastigote and/or epimastigote forms was performed. In the other part, DNA extraction-purification for PCR directed to the conserved region of kDNA minicircles of trypanosomes (PCR-XD, without previous microscopic observation was done. An XD was considered positive when at least one mobile T. cruzi parasite in any one of three periods of incubation was observed, whereas PCR-XD was considered positive when the 330 bp band specific for T. cruzi was detected. 25 of 26 cases with positive conventional XD were PCR-XD positive (concordance 96.2%, whereas 85 of 124 cases with negative conventional XD were positive by PCR-XD (68.5%. Human chromosome 12 detected by Real-time PCR used as exogenous internal control of PCR-XD reaction allowed to discounting of PCR inhibition and false negative in 40 cases with negative PCR-XD. Conclusion: PCR-XD performed without previous microscopic observation is a useful tool for detection of viable parasites with higher efficiency then conventional XD.

  14. Molecular techniques: An overview of methods for the detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several DNA molecular markers are now available for use in surveillance and investigation of food-borne outbreaks that were previously difficult to detect. The results from several sources of literature indicate substantially different degrees of sensitivities between conventional detection methods and molecular-based ...

  15. TLC bioautographic method for detecting lipase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Abdel Moniem Sadek

    2012-01-01

    Bioautographic assays using TLC play an important role in the search for active compounds from plants. A TLC bioautographic assay has previously been established for the detection of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors but not for lipases. Development of a TLC bioautographic method for detecting lipase inhibitors in plant extracts. After migration of the plant extracts, the TLC plate was sprayed with α-naphtyl acetate and enzyme solutions before incubation at 37°C for 20 min. Finally, the solution of Fast Blue B salt was sprayed onto the TLC plate giving a purple background colouration. Lipase inhibitors were visualised as white spots on the TLC plates. Orlistat (a known lipase inhibitor) inhibited lipase down to 0.01 µg. Methanolic extracts of Camellia sinensis (L.) kuntz and Rosmarinus officinalis L after migration on TLC gave enzymatic inhibition when applied in amounts of 82 and 56 µg, respectively. On the other hand the methanolic extract of Morus alba leaves did not exhibit any lipase inhibitory activity. The screening test was able to detect lipase inhibition by pure reference substances and by compounds present in complex matrices, such as plant extracts. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Methods - Annual Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early cancer detection is a proven life-saving strategy. Learn about the research opportunities NCI supports, including liquid biopsies and other less-invasive methods, for detecting early cancers and precancerous growths.

  17. Investigating physiological methods to determine previous exposure of immature insects to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Effect of gamma radiation on phenoloxidase activity in codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., larvae was investigated. Phenoloxidase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the increase in optical density at 490 nm, or by observing the degree of melanization in larvae killed by freezing. Results showed that, in unirradiated larvae, phenoloxidase activity could be detected in 7 day old larvae and activity continued to increase throughout the larval stage. This increase was not observed when larvae were irradiated with a minimum dose of 50 Gy during the 1st week of their development. However, irradiating larvae in which enzyme activity was already high (24 week old) did not eliminate the activity but reduced further increase. Larval melanization studies were in general agreement with the results of the phenoloxidase assay. (author)

  18. Method for restoring contaminants to base levels in previously leached formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, E.T.; Espencheid, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for restoring to environmentally acceptable levels the soluble contaminants in a subterranean formation that has been subjected to oxidative leaching. The contaminants are defined as those ionic species that when subjected to calcium ions form precipitates which are insoluble in the formation fluids. In accordance with the present invention, soluble calcium values are introduced into the formation. The level of contaminants is monitored and when such reaches the desired level, the introduction of soluble calcium values is stopped. The introduction of calcium values may be achieved in several ways one of which is to inject into the formation an aqueous solution containing therein solubilized calcium values. Another method of introducing calcium values into a formation, is to inject into the formation an aqueous solution containing carbon dioxide to solubilize calcium values, such as calcium carbonates, found in the formation

  19. 33 CFR 149.421 - What is the requirement for a previously approved fire detection and alarm system on a deepwater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... previously approved fire detection and alarm system on a deepwater port? 149.421 Section 149.421 Navigation... Requirements § 149.421 What is the requirement for a previously approved fire detection and alarm system on a deepwater port? An existing fire detection and alarm system on a deepwater port need not meet the...

  20. Material detection method and device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigenaka, Naoto; Fujimori, Haruo; Ono, Shigeki; Fuse, Motomasa; Uchida, Shunsuke.

    1994-01-01

    A specimen A sampled from an objective member for integrity evaluation, as well as a virgin specimen B having the same composition as the member are prepared. Ion injection, for example, is performed to the specimens A and B under the same condition to form deposits derived from ions, and the shape of the deposits of the specimens A and B are compared. The deposits formed on the crystal grain boundary has a convex shape, and a relative value for the energy of crystal grain boundary can be determined based on the aspect ratio. In addition, since the energy of the crystal grain boundary is in proportion to the grain boundary corrosion rate, the relative value for the grain boundary corrosion rate can be evaluated by measuring the shape of the deposits formed in the crystal grain boundary. If the grain boundary corrosion rate of the virgin specimen is previously measured, the change of the grain boundary corrosion rate can quantitatively be evaluated. A crack propagating rate of the reactor material upon evaluation of integrity, which has been difficult so far, can be determined, thereby enabling to forecast the remaining life time of the material at high accuracy. (N.H.)

  1. Comparison of Methods for Oscillation Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares a selection of methods for detecting oscillations in control loops. The methods are tested on measurement data from a coal-fired power plant, where some oscillations are occurring. Emphasis is put on being able to detect oscillations without having a system model and without u...

  2. Rapid methods for detection of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ø.; Miller, M.

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods: Measu......: Measurements of Adosine Triphosphate and BactiQuantTM have shown promising results as new monitoring tools, which gives the result within minutes/hours....

  3. Improved GLR method to instrument failure detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hak Yeoung; Chang, Soon Heung

    1985-01-01

    The generalized likehood radio(GLR) method performs statistical tests on the innovations sequence of a Kalman-Buchy filter state estimator for system failure detection and its identification. However, the major drawback of the convensional GLR is to hypothesize particular failure type in each case. In this paper, a method to solve this drawback is proposed. The improved GLR method is applied to a PWR pressurizer and gives successful results in detection and identification of any failure. Furthmore, some benefit on the processing time per each cycle of failure detection and its identification can be accompanied. (Author)

  4. Detection of tumor recurrence using technetium99m-tetrofosmin brain SPECT in patients with previously irradiated brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llamas A; Reyes A; Uribe, L F; Martinez T

    2004-01-01

    Objective: to assess the clinical utility of brain SPECT with Tc-99m Tetrofosmin to differentiate between tumor recurrence and radionecrosis in patients with primary brain tumors previously treated with external beam radiotherapy. Materials and methods: thirteen patients with clinical or radiological suspicion of tumor recurrence were studied with brain SPECT using 20-mCi of Tc-99m Tetrofosmin. Obtained images were interpreted by consensus between two experienced observers and subsequently classified as positive or negative for tumor viability. Results were compared to those of conventional diagnostic imaging techniques. Diagnostic test values and 95% confidence intervals were quantified. Results: SPECT results included 7 true-positives, 5 true-negatives and 1 false negative result. Conclusions: Tc-99m Tetrofosmin brain SPECT night be a useful alternative to diagnose recurrent brain tumors, especially with non-conclusive clinical and radiological findings

  5. Detecting sulphate aerosol geoengineering with different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Y. T. Eunice; Charlton-Perez, Andrew J.; Lott, Fraser C.; Highwood, Eleanor J.

    2016-12-01

    Sulphate aerosol injection has been widely discussed as a possible way to engineer future climate. Monitoring it would require detecting its effects amidst internal variability and in the presence of other external forcings. We investigate how the use of different detection methods and filtering techniques affects the detectability of sulphate aerosol geoengineering in annual-mean global-mean near-surface air temperature. This is done by assuming a future scenario that injects 5 Tg yr-1 of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere and cross-comparing simulations from 5 climate models. 64% of the studied comparisons would require 25 years or more for detection when no filter and the multi-variate method that has been extensively used for attributing climate change are used, while 66% of the same comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection using a trend-based filter. This highlights the high sensitivity of sulphate aerosol geoengineering detectability to the choice of filter. With the same trend-based filter but a non-stationary method, 80% of the comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection. This does not imply sulphate aerosol geoengineering should be deployed, but suggests that both detection methods could be used for monitoring geoengineering in global, annual mean temperature should it be needed.

  6. Detection of Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans in previously root-filled teeth in a population of Gujarat with polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruhvi Poptani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Micro-organisms are the primary causative agents of endodontic infections. Phenotype based procedures for bacterial identification has certain drawbacks especially, when investigating the microbiota of root-filled teeth. Thus, more sensitive methods like Polymerase chain reaction (PCR can provide results that are more accurate and reliable for the microbial prevalence in the root filled teeth. Aim: In this study, we have investigated twenty symptomatic root-filled teeth with chronic apical periodontitis for the prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans in the root filled teeth associated with symptomatic cases with or without periradicular lesions. Materials and Methods: Microbiological samples were taken from the canals immediately after removal of previous gutta percha cones using aseptic techniques. After removal of root canal filling, samples were obtained with paper points placed in the canal. Paper points were transferred to a cryotube containing "Tris EDTA" buffer and immediately frozen at −20°C. Results: By PCR amplification of the samples using taxon specific primers, E. faecalis was found to be prevalent species, detected in 65% of the cases and C. albicans was detected in 35% of cases. Conclusion: The results of the study shows that geographical influence and dietary factors might have some role to play in the prevalence of the species like C. albicans and presence of E. faecalis confirming the assertion of previous culture-dependent and independent approaches for the microbiological survey of root filled teeth.

  7. Reference values for spirometry, including vital capacity, in Japanese adults calculated with the LMS method and compared with previous values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Masaru; Kobayashi, Hirosuke; Quanjer, Philip H; Omori, Hisamitsu; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Kanazawa, Minoru

    2014-07-01

    Reference values for lung function tests should be periodically updated because of birth cohort effects and improved technology. This study updates the spirometric reference values, including vital capacity (VC), for Japanese adults and compares the new reference values with previous Japanese reference values. Spirometric data from healthy non-smokers (20,341 individuals aged 17-95 years, 67% females) were collected from 12 centers across Japan, and reference equations were derived using the LMS method. This method incorporates modeling skewness (lambda: L), mean (mu: M), and coefficient of variation (sigma: S), which are functions of sex, age, and height. In addition, the age-specific lower limits of normal (LLN) were calculated. Spirometric reference values for the 17-95-year age range and the age-dependent LLN for Japanese adults were derived. The new reference values for FEV(1) in males are smaller, while those for VC and FVC in middle age and elderly males and those for FEV(1), VC, and FVC in females are larger than the previous values. The LLN of the FEV(1)/FVC for females is larger than previous values. The FVC is significantly smaller than the VC in the elderly. The new reference values faithfully reflect spirometric indices and provide an age-specific LLN for the 17-95-year age range, enabling improved diagnostic accuracy. Compared with previous prediction equations, they more accurately reflect the transition in pulmonary function during young adulthood. In elderly subjects, the FVC reference values are not interchangeable with the VC values. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel methods for detecting buried explosive devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.; Burlage, R.S.; Patek, D.R.; Smith, C.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hibbs, A.D.; Rayner, T.J. [Quantum Magnetics, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Quantum Magnetics, Inc. (QM) are exploring novel landmine detection technologies. Technologies considered here include bioreporter bacteria, swept acoustic resonance, nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and semiotic data fusion. Bioreporter bacteria look promising for third-world humanitarian applications; they are inexpensive, and deployment does not require high-tech methods. Swept acoustic resonance may be a useful adjunct to magnetometers in humanitarian demining. For military demining, NQR is a promising method for detecting explosive substances; of 50,000 substances that have been tested, none has an NQR signature that can be mistaken for RDX or TNT. For both military and commercial demining, sensor fusion entails two daunting tasks, identifying fusible features in both present-day and emerging technologies, and devising a fusion algorithm that runs in real-time on cheap hardware. Preliminary research in these areas is encouraging. A bioreporter bacterium for TNT detection is under development. Investigation has just started in swept acoustic resonance as an approach to a cheap mine detector for humanitarian use. Real-time wavelet processing appears to be a key to extending NQR bomb detection into mine detection, including TNT-based mines. Recent discoveries in semiotics may be the breakthrough that will lead to a robust fused detection scheme.

  9. Detection of forced oscillations in power systems with multichannel methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follum, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The increasing availability of high fidelity, geographically dispersed measurements in power systems improves the ability of researchers and engineers to study dynamic behaviors in the grid. One such behavior that is garnering increased attention is the presence of forced oscillations. Power system engineers are interested in forced oscillations because they are often symptomatic of the malfunction or misoperation of equipment. Though the resulting oscillation is not always large in amplitude, the root cause may be serious. In this report, multi-channel forced oscillation detection methods are developed. These methods leverage previously developed detection approaches based on the periodogram and spectral-coherence. Making use of geographically distributed channels of data is shown to improved detection performance and shorten the delay before an oscillation can be detected in the online environment. Results from simulated and measured power system data are presented.

  10. Quantitative boron detection by neutron transmission method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okka, M.; Genceli, M.; Eren, E.; Bayulken, A.

    2008-01-01

    //Quantitative boron detection is mainly performed by chemical methods like colorimetric titration. High neutron absorption cross section of natural boron makes attractive its detection by absorption measurements. This work is an extension of earlier investigations where neutron radiography technique was used for boron detection. In the present investigation, the neutron absorption rate of boron containing solutions is the way to measure quantitatively the boron content of the solutions. The investigation was carried out in Istanbul TRIGA Mark-II reactor. In the end of the experiments, it was observed that even |ppw| grade boron in aqueous solution can be easily detected. The use of this method is certainly very useful for boron utilizing industries like glass and steel industries.The major disadvantage of the method is the obligation to use always aqueous solutions to be able to detect homogeneously the boron content. Then, steel or glass samples have to be put first in an appropriate solution form. The irradiation of steel samples can give the distribution of boron by the help of a imaging and this suggested method will give its quantitative measurement. The superiority of this method are its quick response time and its accuracy. To test this accuracy, a supposed unknown , solution of boric acid is irradiated and then calculated by the help of the calibration curve. The measured value of boric acid was 0.89 mg and the calculated value was found to be 0.98 mg which gives an accuracy of 10 %. It was also seen that the method is more accurate for low concentration. (authors)

  11. Reference Values for Spirometry Derived Using Lambda, Mu, Sigma (LMS) Method in Korean Adults: in Comparison with Previous References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Bum Seak; Myong, Jun Pyo; Rhee, Chin Kook; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Koo, Jung Wan; Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2018-01-15

    The present study aimed to update the prediction equations for spirometry and their lower limits of normal (LLN) by using the lambda, mu, sigma (LMS) method and to compare the outcomes with the values of previous spirometric reference equations. Spirometric data of 10,249 healthy non-smokers (8,776 females) were extracted from the fourth and fifth versions of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV, 2007-2009; V, 2010-2012). Reference equations were derived using the LMS method which allows modeling skewness (lambda [L]), mean (mu [M]), and coefficient of variation (sigma [S]). The outcome equations were compared with previous reference values. Prediction equations were presented in the following form: predicted value = e{a + b × ln(height) + c × ln(age) + M - spline}. The new predicted values for spirometry and their LLN derived using the LMS method were shown to more accurately reflect transitions in pulmonary function in young adults than previous prediction equations derived using conventional regression analysis in 2013. There were partial discrepancies between the new reference values and the reference values from the Global Lung Function Initiative in 2012. The results should be interpreted with caution for young adults and elderly males, particularly in terms of the LLN for forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity in elderly males. Serial spirometry follow-up, together with correlations with other clinical findings, should be emphasized in evaluating the pulmonary function of individuals. Future studies are needed to improve the accuracy of reference data and to develop continuous reference values for spirometry across all ages. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  12. Radioimmunoassay method for detection of gonorrhea antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A novel radioimmunoassay for the detection of gonorrhea antibodies in serum is described. A radionuclide is bound to gonorrhea antigens produced by a growth culture. In the presence of gonorrhea antibodies in the serum, an antigen-antibody conjugate is formed, the concentration of which can be measured with conventional radiometric methods. The radioimmunoassay is highly specific

  13. A method for detecting hydrophobic patches protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijnzaad, P.; Berendsen, H.J.C.; Argos, P.

    1996-01-01

    A method for the detection of hydrophobic patches on the surfaces of protein tertiary structures is presented, it delineates explicit contiguous pieces of surface of arbitrary size and shape that consist solely of carbon and sulphur atoms using a dot representation of the solvent-accessible surface,

  14. GMDD: a database of GMO detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, W.; Yang, L.; Shen, K.; Kim, B.; Kleter, G.A.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Guo, R.; Liang, W.; Zhang, D.

    2008-01-01

    Since more than one hundred events of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been developed and approved for commercialization in global area, the GMO analysis methods are essential for the enforcement of GMO labelling regulations. Protein and nucleic acid-based detection techniques have been

  15. Intrusion detection using pattern recognition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Yu, Li

    2007-09-01

    Today, cyber attacks such as worms, scanning, active attackers are pervasive in Internet. A number of security approaches are proposed to address this problem, among which the intrusion detection system (IDS) appears to be one of the major and most effective solutions for defending against malicious users. Essentially, intrusion detection problem can be generalized as a classification problem, whose goal is to distinguish normal behaviors and anomalies. There are many well-known pattern recognition algorithms for classification purpose. In this paper we describe the details of applying pattern recognition methods to the intrusion detection research field. Experimenting on the KDDCUP 99 data set, we first use information gain metric to reduce the dimensionality of the original feature space. Two supervised methods, the support vector machine as well as the multi-layer neural network have been tested and the results display high detection rate and low false alarm rate, which is promising for real world applications. In addition, three unsupervised methods, Single-Linkage, K-Means, and CLIQUE, are also implemented and evaluated in the paper. The low computational complexity reveals their application in initial data reduction process.

  16. Molecular methods for the detection of mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, C; Marcelino, L A; Conde, A R; Saraiva, C; Giphart-Gassler, M; De Nooij-van Dalen, A G; Van Buuren-van Seggelen, V; Van der Keur, M; May, C A; Cole, J; Lehmann, A R; Steinsgrimsdottir, H; Beare, D; Capulas, E; Armour, J A

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of a collaborative study aimed at developing reliable, direct assays for mutation in human cells. The project used common lymphoblastoid cell lines, both with and without mutagen treatment, as a shared resource to validate the development of new molecular methods for the detection of low-level mutations in the presence of a large excess of normal alleles. As the "gold standard, " hprt mutation frequencies were also measured on the same samples. The methods under development included i) the restriction site mutation (RSM) assay, in which mutations lead to the destruction of a restriction site; ii) minisatellite length-change mutation, in which mutations lead to alleles containing new numbers of tandem repeat units; iii) loss of heterozygosity for HLA epitopes, in which antibodies can be used to direct selection for mutant cells; iv) multiple fluorescence-based long linker arm nucleotides assay (mf-LLA) technology, for the detection of substitutional mutations; v) detection of alterations in the TP53 locus using a (CA) array as the target for the screening; and vi) PCR analysis of lymphocytes for the presence of the BCL2 t(14:18) translocation. The relative merits of these molecular methods are discussed, and a comparison made with more "traditional" methods.

  17. Metagenomic Detection Methods in Biopreparedness Outbreak Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Oskar Erik; Hansen, Trine; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-01-01

    In the field of diagnostic microbiology, rapid molecular methods are critically important for detecting pathogens. With rapid and accurate detection, preventive measures can be put in place early, thereby preventing loss of life and further spread of a disease. From a preparedness perspective...... of a clinical sample, creating a metagenome, in a single week of laboratory work. As new technologies emerge, their dissemination and capacity building must be facilitated, and criteria for use, as well as guidelines on how to report results, must be established. This article focuses on the use of metagenomics......, from sample collection to data analysis and to some extent NGS, for the detection of pathogens, the integration of the technique in outbreak response systems, and the risk-based evaluation of sample processing in routine diagnostics labs. The article covers recent advances in the field, current debate...

  18. Hough transform methods used for object detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qussay A Salih; Abdul Rahman Ramli; Md Mahmud Hassan Prakash

    2001-01-01

    The Hough transform (HT) is a robust parameter estimator of multi-dimensional features in images. The HT is an established technique which evidences a shape by mapping image edge points into a parameter space. The HT is technique which is used to isolate curves of a give shape in an image. The classical HT requires that the curve be specified in some parametric from and, hence is most commonly used in the detection of regular curves. The HT has been generalized so that it is capable of detecting arbitrary curved shapes. The main advantage of this transform technique is that it is very tolerant of gaps in the actual object boundaries the classical HT for the detection of line , we will indicate how it can be applied to the detection of arbitrary shapes. Sometimes the straight line HT is efficient enough to detect features such as artificial curves. The HT is an established technique for extracting geometric shapes based on the duality definition of the points on a curve and their parameters. This technique has been developed for extracting simple geometric shapes such as lines, circles and ellipses as well as arbitrary shapes. The HT provides robustness against discontinuous or missing features, points or edges are mapped into a partitioned parameter of Hough space as individual votes where peaks denote the feature of interest represented in a non-analytically tabular form. The main drawback of the HT technique is the computational requirement which has an exponential growth of memory space and processing time as the number of parameters used to represent a primitive increases. For this reason most of the research on the HT has focused on reducing the computational burden for extracting of arbitrary shapes under more general transformations include a overview of describing the methods for the detection image processing programs are frequently required to detect and particle classification in an industrial setting, a standard algorithms for this detection lines

  19. Lifting wavelet method of target detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; Zhang, Chi; Jiang, Xu; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Jin

    2009-11-01

    Image target recognition plays a very important role in the areas of scientific exploration, aeronautics and space-to-ground observation, photography and topographic mapping. Complex environment of the image noise, fuzzy, all kinds of interference has always been to affect the stability of recognition algorithm. In this paper, the existence of target detection in real-time, accuracy problems, as well as anti-interference ability, using lifting wavelet image target detection methods. First of all, the use of histogram equalization, the goal difference method to obtain the region, on the basis of adaptive threshold and mathematical morphology operations to deal with the elimination of the background error. Secondly, the use of multi-channel wavelet filter wavelet transform of the original image de-noising and enhancement, to overcome the general algorithm of the noise caused by the sensitive issue of reducing the rate of miscarriage of justice will be the multi-resolution characteristics of wavelet and promotion of the framework can be designed directly in the benefits of space-time region used in target detection, feature extraction of targets. The experimental results show that the design of lifting wavelet has solved the movement of the target due to the complexity of the context of the difficulties caused by testing, which can effectively suppress noise, and improve the efficiency and speed of detection.

  20. Research and Design of Rootkit Detection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Leian; Yin, Zuanxing; Shen, Yuli; Lin, Haitao; Wang, Hongjiang

    Rootkit is one of the most important issues of network communication systems, which is related to the security and privacy of Internet users. Because of the existence of the back door of the operating system, a hacker can use rootkit to attack and invade other people's computers and thus he can capture passwords and message traffic to and from these computers easily. With the development of the rootkit technology, its applications are more and more extensive and it becomes increasingly difficult to detect it. In addition, for various reasons such as trade secrets, being difficult to be developed, and so on, the rootkit detection technology information and effective tools are still relatively scarce. In this paper, based on the in-depth analysis of the rootkit detection technology, a new kind of the rootkit detection structure is designed and a new method (software), X-Anti, is proposed. Test results show that software designed based on structure proposed is much more efficient than any other rootkit detection software.

  1. Detecting data anomalies methods in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosiej, Lukasz

    2009-06-01

    Distributed systems became most popular systems in big companies. Nowadays many telecommunications companies want to hold large volumes of data about all customers. Obviously, those data cannot be stored in single database because of many technical difficulties, such as data access efficiency, security reasons, etc. On the other hand there is no need to hold all data in one place, because companies already have dedicated systems to perform specific tasks. In the distributed systems there is a redundancy of data and each system holds only interesting data in appropriate form. Data updated in one system should be also updated in the rest of systems, which hold that data. There are technical problems to update those data in all systems in transactional way. This article is about data anomalies in distributed systems. Avail data anomalies detection methods are shown. Furthermore, a new initial concept of new data anomalies detection methods is described on the last section.

  2. Chemical detection system and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, Augustine J.; Chichester, David L.; Egger, Ann E.; Krebs, Kenneth M.; Seabury, Edward H.; Van Siclen, Clinton D.; Wharton, C. Jayson; Zabriskie, John M.

    2017-06-27

    A chemical detection system includes a frame, an emitter coupled to the frame, and a detector coupled to the frame proximate the emitter. The system also includes a shielding system coupled to the frame and positioned at least partially between the emitter and the detector, wherein the frame positions a sensing surface of the detector in a direction substantially parallel to a plane extending along a front portion of the frame. A method of analyzing composition of a suspect object includes directing neutrons at the object, detecting gamma rays emitted from the object, and communicating spectrometer information regarding the gamma rays. The method also includes presenting a GUI to a user with a dynamic status of an ongoing neutron spectroscopy process. The dynamic status includes a present confidence for a plurality of compounds being present in the suspect object responsive to changes in the spectrometer information during the ongoing process.

  3. Radon in buildings: a simple detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumb, N.

    1989-01-01

    Natural background radiation inside buildings can be studied using this simple detection method. Contaminated dust particles adhere readily to a membrane made of soft toilet paper placed across the collection pipe of a vacuum cleaner. Indirect evidence for the abundance of radon in the air can be inferred from measuring the radon daughters on the membrane using a Geiger-Muller tube. Experimental results are presented and discussed. (UK)

  4. Method and device for detecting radiatons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borel, J.; Goascoz, V.

    1979-01-01

    The method consists in fabricating an MOS transistor comprising a drain region and a source region separated from each other by a bulk region of opposite doping type relative to the first two regions, in delivering the radiation to be detected into the carrier-collection region of the MOS transistor, in leaving the bulk region at a floating potential and in collecting the drain-source current of the transistor

  5. DIAGNOSTIC METHODS IN BREAST CANCER DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijana Hertl

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the world as well as in Slovenia, breast cancer is the most frequent female cancer. Due to its high incidence, it appears to be a serious health and economic problem. Content. Among other, tumour size at diagnosis, is an important prognostic factors of the course of the disease. The probability of axillary lymph node involvement as well as distant metastases is greater in larger tumours. This is the reason that encouraged the development of various diagnostic methods for early detection of small, clinically non-palpable breast tumours. Mammography, however, remains the »golden standard« of early breast cancer detection. It is the basic diagnostic method applied in all symptomatic women over 35 years of age and in asymptomatic women over 40 years of age. Ultrasonography (US, additional projections, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and ductography are regarded as complementary diagnostic breast imaging techniques in addition to mammography. The detected changes in the breast can be further confirmed by US-, MR-guided or stereotactic biopsy. If necessary, surgical biopsy and the excision of a tissue sample, after wire or isotope localisation of the nonpalpable lesion, can be performed. Conclusions. Any of the above mentioned diagnostic methods has advantages as well as drawbacks and only detailed knowledge and understanding of each of them may assure the best option.

  6. Detection Method of TOXOPLASMA GONDII Tachyzoites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eassa, Souzan; Bose, Chhanda; Alusta, Pierre; Tarasenko, Olga

    2011-06-01

    Tachyzoites are considered to be the most important stage of Toxoplasma gondii which causes toxoplasmosis. T. gondii is, an obligate intracellular parasite which infects a wide range of cells. The present study was designed to develop a method for an early detection of T. gondii tachyzoites. The method comprised of a binding assay which was analyzed using principal component and cluster analysis. Our data showed that glycoconjugates GC1, GC2, GC3 and GC10 exhibit a significantly higher binding affinity for T. gondii tachyzoites as compared to controls (T. gondii only, PAA only, GC 1, 2, 3, and 10 only).

  7. Analytical detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    The present publication is a review of scientific literature on the analytical identification of foods treated with ionizing radiation and the quantitative determination of absorbed dose of radiation. Because of the extremely low level of chemical changes resulting from irradiation or because of the lack of specificity to irradiation of any chemical changes, a few methods of quantitative determination of absorbed dose have shown promise until now. On the other hand, the present review has identified several possible methods, which could be used, following further research and testing, for the identification of irradiated foods. An IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Analytical Detection Methods for Irradiation Treatment of Food ('ADMIT'), established in 1990, is currently investigating many of the methods cited in the present document. Refs and tab

  8. Sea water leak detection method and device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Shigemi; Ogawa, Shozo.

    1997-01-01

    In a method of detecting sea water leakage by detecting it based on electroconductivity or electric resistance of condensates taken out of a condensator of a power plant, the condensates are degassed to remove gaseous carbon dioxide dissolved in the condensate, before the detection for the electroconductivity of the condensates. Alternatively, a degassing means for removing gaseous carbon dioxide dissolved in the condensate is disposed to a prestage of the condensate electroconductivity measuring means. The degassing means comprises a membrane-degassing device, and the membrane-degassing device comprises a hollow thread membrane for passing through the condensate and permeating gaseous carbon dioxide in the condensates and an evacuating device to form a pressure reduced space on the side opposite to the water passing side of the hollow thread membrane, and allows the dissolved gaseous carbon dioxide in the condensates to permeate on the side of the pressure reduced space by way of the hollow thread membrane. Erroneous operation of the condensator due to vacuum breakage is prevented thereby capable of reliably detecting the leakage of sea water, and the power plant can be restarted rapidly with no time loss. (N.H.)

  9. Application of a thermoluminescence method for detection of irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastelum, S.; Osuna, I.; Melendrez, R.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Chernov, V.; Calderon, T.; Barboza-Flores, M

    2002-07-01

    Food irradiation is extremely effective at reducing food-borne illness as well as losses caused by infestation and contamination. Despite the well-established regulations that permit irradiation to control pathogens in spices, there are no widespread methods to detect previously irradiated food. Therefore, it has become necessary to develop new detection and dose determination methods for food subjected previously to irradiation. The present work deals with the application of the thermoluminescence (TL) phenomenon to detect irradiated spices. The process is based upon the thermoluminescence properties exhibited by the polymineral content of the irradiated specimen. After separating the organic material, it is possible to extract some polymineral substances that are suitable for thermoluminescence analysis due to interaction of the spice to ionising radiation. The method was successfully applied to examine irradiated and non-irradiated paprika of Mexican origin. The spice was irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 5, 10 and 15 kGy. The separated thermoluminescent polymineral was found to be composed mainly of quartz and feldspar. The thermoluminescence glow curve of the irradiated specimen shows a side band peaked 228, 268 and 336 deg. C, resembling pretty much the combined TL of quartz and feldspars. The method allows for the determination of the retrospective dose exposure. (author)

  10. Detection method for nuclear reactor material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Motoyuki.

    1995-01-01

    A fine state of a test piece taken out of a reactor core is analyzed upon periodical inspection, and a new test piece previously reproducing the state described above at the outside of the reactor is disposed to the reactor core upon completion of the periodical inspection. Further, a fine state of the material at a time preceding to the operation time at a certain periodical inspection is forecast, and a test piece reproducing the state at the outside of the reactor is disposed to the reactor core upon the completion of the periodical inspection. Since a test piece previously reproducing the change of the state up to a certain periodical inspection by a method other than irradiation of neutrons is newly disposed, radiation of the test piece is not extremely increased even after an extremely long period of summed up reactor operation time, to provide substantially constant radiation level on every test piece. (T.M.)

  11. Sub-terahertz spectroscopy reveals that proteins influence the properties of water at greater distances than previously detected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushko, Oleksandr; Dubrovka, Rostyslav; Donnan, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The initial purpose of the study is to systematically investigate the solvation properties of different proteins in water solution by terahertz (THz) radiation absorption. Transmission measurements of protein water solutions have been performed using a vector network analyser-driven quasi-optical bench covering the WR-3 waveguide band (0.220–0.325 THz). The following proteins, ranging from low to high molecular weight, were chosen for this study: lysozyme, myoglobin, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Absorption properties of solutions were studied at different concentrations of proteins ranging from 2 to 100 mg/ml. The concentration-dependent absorption of protein molecules was determined by treating the solution as a two-component model first; then, based on protein absorptivity, the extent of the hydration shell is estimated. Protein molecules are shown to possess a concentration-dependent absorptivity in water solutions. Absorption curves of all three proteins sharply peak towards a dilution-limit that is attributed to the enhanced flexibility of protein and amino acid side chains. An alternative approach to the determination of hydration shell thickness is thereby suggested, based on protein absorptivity. The proposed approach is independent of the absorption of the hydration shell. The derived estimate of hydration shell thickness for each protein supports previous findings that protein-water interaction dynamics extends beyond 2-3 water solvation-layers as predicted by molecular dynamics simulations and other techniques such as NMR, X-ray scattering, and neutron scattering. According to our estimations, the radius of the dynamic hydration shell is 16, 19, and 25 Å, respectively, for lysozyme, myoglobin, and BSA proteins and correlates with the dipole moment of the protein. It is also seen that THz radiation can serve as an initial estimate of the protein hydrophobicity

  12. Sub-terahertz spectroscopy reveals that proteins influence the properties of water at greater distances than previously detected

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sushko, Oleksandr; Dubrovka, Rostyslav; Donnan, Robert S., E-mail: r.donnan@qmul.ac.uk [School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-07

    The initial purpose of the study is to systematically investigate the solvation properties of different proteins in water solution by terahertz (THz) radiation absorption. Transmission measurements of protein water solutions have been performed using a vector network analyser-driven quasi-optical bench covering the WR-3 waveguide band (0.220–0.325 THz). The following proteins, ranging from low to high molecular weight, were chosen for this study: lysozyme, myoglobin, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Absorption properties of solutions were studied at different concentrations of proteins ranging from 2 to 100 mg/ml. The concentration-dependent absorption of protein molecules was determined by treating the solution as a two-component model first; then, based on protein absorptivity, the extent of the hydration shell is estimated. Protein molecules are shown to possess a concentration-dependent absorptivity in water solutions. Absorption curves of all three proteins sharply peak towards a dilution-limit that is attributed to the enhanced flexibility of protein and amino acid side chains. An alternative approach to the determination of hydration shell thickness is thereby suggested, based on protein absorptivity. The proposed approach is independent of the absorption of the hydration shell. The derived estimate of hydration shell thickness for each protein supports previous findings that protein-water interaction dynamics extends beyond 2-3 water solvation-layers as predicted by molecular dynamics simulations and other techniques such as NMR, X-ray scattering, and neutron scattering. According to our estimations, the radius of the dynamic hydration shell is 16, 19, and 25 Å, respectively, for lysozyme, myoglobin, and BSA proteins and correlates with the dipole moment of the protein. It is also seen that THz radiation can serve as an initial estimate of the protein hydrophobicity.

  13. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter G. Groer

    2002-01-01

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed compartmental activities. From the estimated probability densities of the model parameters we were able to derive the densities for compartmental activities for a two compartment catenary model at different times. We also calculated the average activities and their standard deviation for a simple two compartment model

  14. Using a pregnancy decision support program for women choosing birth after a previous caesarean in Japan: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torigoe, Ikuyo; Shorten, Allison

    2018-02-01

    Opportunities for women and providers to use decision aids and share decisions about birth after caesarean in practice are currently limited in Japan. This is despite known benefits of decision aids to support value-sensitive healthcare decisions. To explore Japanese women's decision making experiences using a decision aid program for birth choices after caesarean. A mixed methods study was conducted among 33 consenting pregnant women with previous caesarean in five obstetrics institutions located in the western part of Japan. Outcome measures included change in level of decisional conflict, change in knowledge, and preference for birth method. Semi-structured interviews examined women's decision making experiences, and qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The participants in the program experienced a statistically significant improvement in knowledge and reduction in decisional conflict about birth after caesarean. Four themes were identified in the qualitative data related to decision making: change in women's knowledge about birth choices, clarifying women's birth preference, feelings about shared decision making, and contrasting feelings after receiving information. This study confirmed potential benefits of using the decision aid program. However, uncertainty about mode of birth continued for some women immediately prior to the birth. This finding emphasized the need to identify additional ways to support women emotionally throughout the process of decision making about birth after caesarean. It was feasible to adapt the decision aid for use in clinical practice. Future research is necessary to examine its effectiveness when implemented in Japanese clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Apparatus and method for detecting explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, B.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus is described for use in situations such as airports to detect explosives hidden in containers (for eg. suitcases). The method involves the evaluation of the quantities of oxygen and nitrogen within the container by neutron activation analysis and the determination of whether these quantities exceed predetermined limits. The equipment includes a small sub-critical lower powered reactor for thermal (0.01 to 0.10 eV) neutron production, a radium beryllium primary source, a deuterium-tritium reactor as a high energy (> 1.06 MeV) neutron source and Geiger counter detector arrays. (UK)

  16. Detection of viability: radiopharmacological conditions, methods, indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, T.; Moser, E.

    1996-01-01

    The indication of revascularization in patients with coronary artery disease is mainly based on factors such as coronary anatomy ischemia as well as ventricular function, patient's biological age or accompanying diseases. In general, evidence of vital myocardium plays a secondary role but will be important in patients with hibernating myocardium. Tl-201 scintigraphy with re-injection technique or rest-redistribution-examination is a simple and cost-effective method of the detection or exclusion of hibernation. However, in case of doubt F-18 FDG PET is recommended to guide further therapeutic strategies. (orig.) [de

  17. Methods and Instruments for Fast Neutron Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, David V.; Reeder, Paul L.; Cooper, Matthew W.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Warren, Glen A.

    2005-05-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the performance of a large-area (~0.7 m2) plastic scintillator time-of-flight (TOF) sensor for direct detection of fast neutrons. This type of sensor is a readily area-scalable technology that provides broad-area geometrical coverage at a reasonably low cost. It can yield intrinsic detection efficiencies that compare favorably with moderator-based detection methods. The timing resolution achievable should permit substantially more precise time windowing of return neutron flux than would otherwise be possible with moderated detectors. The energy-deposition threshold imposed on each scintillator contributing to the event-definition trigger in a TOF system can be set to blind the sensor to direct emission from the neutron generator. The primary technical challenge addressed in the project was to understand the capabilities of a neutron TOF sensor in the limit of large scintillator area and small scintillator separation, a size regime in which the neutral particle’s flight path between the two scintillators is not tightly constrained.

  18. Detecting method and device for pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Akihiko; Hirano, Atsuya; Otaka, Masahiro; Kanno, Satoshi; Amano, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Katsumasa; Hattori, Shigeo; Yamamoto, Michiyoshi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and a device for diagnosing integrity of pipelines having the surfaces being in a corrosive atmosphere in a nuclear power plant. Namely, through holes are perforated to the pipeline. The predetermined area in the inside of the pipeline is scanned by laser light through the through holes. A luminance distribution of the laser light reflected at the inner circumference of the pipeline is photographed by a CCD camera. The images of the distribution of the luminance is processed to pick out a failed state. The image of the failed state is measured to determine the dimension of the failure. Alternatively, an inspection module having a function of irradiating laser light and detecting the lasers is inserted from a portion which can be removed upon conducting detection among the inside of the pipeline system to a position of the object to be detected. A predetermined area is scanned by laser light. The luminance distribution of the laser light reflected in the pipeline is photographed by the CCD camera. The images of the luminance distribution are processed to pick out the failed state, and the image of the failed state is measured to determine the dimension of the failure. (I.S.)

  19. Radiation sensitive area detection device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Hecht, Diana L. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A radiation sensitive area detection device for use in conjunction with an X ray, ultraviolet or other radiation source is provided which comprises a phosphor containing film which releases a stored diffraction pattern image in response to incoming light or other electromagnetic wave. A light source such as a helium-neon laser, an optical fiber capable of directing light from the laser source onto the phosphor film and also capable of channelling the fluoresced light from the phosphor film to an integrating sphere which directs the light to a signal processing means including a light receiving means such as a photomultiplier tube. The signal processing means allows translation of the fluoresced light in order to detect the original pattern caused by the diffraction of the radiation by the original sample. The optical fiber is retained directly in front of the phosphor screen by a thin metal holder which moves up and down across the phosphor screen and which features a replaceable pinhole which allows easy adjustment of the resolution of the light projected onto the phosphor film. The device produces near real time images with high spatial resolution and without the distortion that accompanies prior art devices employing photomultiplier tubes. A method is also provided for carrying out radiation area detection using the device of the invention.

  20. Platelet antibody: review of detection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, K.A.

    1988-10-01

    The driving force behind development of in vitro methods for platelet antibodies is identification of plasma factors causing platelet destruction. Early methods relied on measurement of platelet activation. Current methods are more specific and use a purified antibody against immunoglobulin or complement, which is usually labeled with /sup 125/I or tagged with an enzyme or fluorescein. Comparisons of quantitation of platelet-associated IgG show wide variability between different methods. The disparate results can be related both to differences in binding of secondary antibodies to immunoglobulin in solution compared to immunoglobulins attached to platelets and to the improper assumption that the binding ratio between the secondary detecting and primary antiplatelet antibody is one. Most assays can 1) identify neonatal isoimmune thrombocytopenia and posttransfusion purpura, 2) help to differentiate between immune and nonimmune thrombocytopenias, 3) help to sort out the offending drug when drug-induced thrombocytopenia is suspected, and 4) identify platelet alloantibodies and potential platelet donors via a cross match assay for refractory patients. However, the advantages of quantitative assays over qualitative methods with respect to predictions of patients clinical course and response to different treatments remain to be investigated. 61 references.

  1. An integrated automatic system to evaluate U and Th dynamic lixiviation from solid matrices, and to extract/pre-concentrate leached analytes previous ICP-MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Melisa Rodas; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor; Ferrer, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Leached fractions of U and Th from different environmental solid matrices were evaluated by an automatic system enabling the on-line lixiviation and extraction/pre-concentration of these two elements previous ICP-MS detection. UTEVA resin was used as selective extraction material. Ten leached fraction, using artificial rainwater (pH 5.4) as leaching agent, and a residual fraction were analyzed for each sample, allowing the study of behavior of U and Th in dynamic lixiviation conditions. Multivariate techniques have been employed for the efficient optimization of the independent variables that affect the lixiviation process. The system reached LODs of 0.1 and 0.7ngkg -1 of U and Th, respectively. The method was satisfactorily validated for three solid matrices, by the analysis of a soil reference material (IAEA-375), a certified sediment reference material (BCR- 320R) and a phosphogypsum reference material (MatControl CSN-CIEMAT 2008). Besides, environmental samples were analyzed, showing a similar behavior, i.e. the content of radionuclides decreases with the successive extractions. In all cases, the accumulative leached fraction of U and Th for different solid matrices studied (soil, sediment and phosphogypsum) were extremely low, up to 0.05% and 0.005% of U and Th, respectively. However, a great variability was observed in terms of mass concentration released, e.g. between 44 and 13,967ngUkg -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Method and system for detecting explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Edward L [Idaho Falls, ID; Jewell, James K [Idaho Falls, ID; Rohde, Kenneth W [Idaho Falls, ID; Seabury, Edward H [Idaho Falls, ID; Blackwood, Larry G [Idaho Falls, ID; Edwards, Andrew J [Idaho Falls, ID; Derr, Kurt W [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-03-10

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  3. Diagnostic methods for detection of bone metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Łukaszewski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal metastases are severe complications in the course of cancer, and they indicate a worse prognosis. The use of modern imaging techniques allows rapid diagnosis of bone metastases. Properly selected diagnostic imaging (scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, whole body MRI allows us to evaluate the number of metastatic foci in the skeletal system. Complementary imaging examinations (X-ray, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging determine the extent of metastasis and its character: osteolytic, osteoblast, mixed. Hypercalcaemia is a symptom of low specificity for metastatic bone disease (a result of osteolysis; nevertheless, it is a significant complication in oncological treatment and worsens the prognosis of the patient. A biopsy is the final stage of the diagnostic process, which allows us to assess cell and tissue changes. Guided biopsies are performed under the control of musculoskeletal imaging methods (CT, MRI and they are the most promising tools in bone metastases diagnosis. The development of guided biopsy techniques has led to the conclusion that they should be standard in diagnosing bone metastases. Liquid biopsy (LB seems to be the most promising diagnostic method for detection of bone metastases. LB based on tumour-specific DNA mutation gives an opportunity for early detection and assessment of the molecular heterogeneity of the overall disease.

  4. Nucleic acid detection system and method for detecting influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hong; Song, Jian

    2015-03-17

    The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.

  5. Thermoluminescence method for detection of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnioja, S

    1998-12-31

    A method of thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was developed for the detection of irradiated foods. The TL method is based on the determination of thermoluminescence of adhering or contaminating minerals separated from foods by wet sieving and treatment with high density liquid. Carbon tetrachloride provided a suitable alternative for foods that form gels with water. Thermoluminescence response of minerals in a first TL measurement is normalised with a second TL measurement of the same mineral sample after calibration irradiation to a dose of 5 kGy. The decision about irradiation is made on the basis of a comparison of the two TL spectra: if the two TL glow curves match in shape and intensity the sample has been irradiated, and if they are clearly different it has not been irradiated. An attractive feature of TL analysis is that the mineral material itself is used for calibration; no reference material is required. Foods of interest in the investigation were herbs, spices, berries and seafood. The presence of minerals in samples is a criterion for application of the method, and appropriate minerals were found in all herbs, spices and berries. The most common minerals in terrestrial food were tecto-silicates - quartz and feldspars - which with their intense and stable thermoluminescence were well suited for the analysis. Mica proved to be useless for detection purposes, whereas carbonate in the form of calcite separated from intestines of seafood was acceptable. Fading of the TL signal is considerable in the low temperature part of the glow curve during a storage of several months after irradiation. However, spices and herbs could easily be identified as irradiated even after two years storage. Conditions for seafood, which is stored in a freezer, are different, and only slight fading was observed after one year. The effect of mineral composition and structure on TL was studied for feldspars. Feldspars originating from subtropical and tropical regions exhibit lower TL

  6. Thermoluminescence method for detection of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnioja, S.

    1998-01-01

    A method of thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was developed for the detection of irradiated foods. The TL method is based on the determination of thermoluminescence of adhering or contaminating minerals separated from foods by wet sieving and treatment with high density liquid. Carbon tetrachloride provided a suitable alternative for foods that form gels with water. Thermoluminescence response of minerals in a first TL measurement is normalised with a second TL measurement of the same mineral sample after calibration irradiation to a dose of 5 kGy. The decision about irradiation is made on the basis of a comparison of the two TL spectra: if the two TL glow curves match in shape and intensity the sample has been irradiated, and if they are clearly different it has not been irradiated. An attractive feature of TL analysis is that the mineral material itself is used for calibration; no reference material is required. Foods of interest in the investigation were herbs, spices, berries and seafood. The presence of minerals in samples is a criterion for application of the method, and appropriate minerals were found in all herbs, spices and berries. The most common minerals in terrestrial food were tecto-silicates - quartz and feldspars - which with their intense and stable thermoluminescence were well suited for the analysis. Mica proved to be useless for detection purposes, whereas carbonate in the form of calcite separated from intestines of seafood was acceptable. Fading of the TL signal is considerable in the low temperature part of the glow curve during a storage of several months after irradiation. However, spices and herbs could easily be identified as irradiated even after two years storage. Conditions for seafood, which is stored in a freezer, are different, and only slight fading was observed after one year. The effect of mineral composition and structure on TL was studied for feldspars. Feldspars originating from subtropical and tropical regions exhibit lower TL

  7. Odour Detection Methods: Olfactometry and Chemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lovascio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the odours issue arises from the sensory nature of smell. From the evolutionary point of view olfaction is one of the oldest senses, allowing for seeking food, recognizing danger or communication: human olfaction is a protective sense as it allows the detection of potential illnesses or infections by taking into account the odour pleasantness/unpleasantness. Odours are mixtures of light and small molecules that, coming in contact with various human sensory systems, also at very low concentrations in the inhaled air, are able to stimulate an anatomical response: the experienced perception is the odour. Odour assessment is a key point in some industrial production processes (i.e., food, beverages, etc. and it is acquiring steady importance in unusual technological fields (i.e., indoor air quality; this issue mainly concerns the environmental impact of various industrial activities (i.e., tanneries, refineries, slaughterhouses, distilleries, civil and industrial wastewater treatment plants, landfills and composting plants as sources of olfactory nuisances, the top air pollution complaint. Although the human olfactory system is still regarded as the most important and effective “analytical instrument” for odour evaluation, the demand for more objective analytical methods, along with the discovery of materials with chemo-electronic properties, has boosted the development of sensor-based machine olfaction potentially imitating the biological system. This review examines the state of the art of both human and instrumental sensing currently used for the detection of odours. The olfactometric techniques employing a panel of trained experts are discussed and the strong and weak points of odour assessment through human detection are highlighted. The main features and the working principles of modern electronic noses (E-Noses are then described, focusing on their better performances for environmental analysis. Odour emission monitoring

  8. Odour detection methods: olfactometry and chemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattoli, Magda; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; de Pinto, Valentina; Loiotile, Annamaria Demarinis; Lovascio, Sara; Penza, Michele

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of the odours issue arises from the sensory nature of smell. From the evolutionary point of view olfaction is one of the oldest senses, allowing for seeking food, recognizing danger or communication: human olfaction is a protective sense as it allows the detection of potential illnesses or infections by taking into account the odour pleasantness/unpleasantness. Odours are mixtures of light and small molecules that, coming in contact with various human sensory systems, also at very low concentrations in the inhaled air, are able to stimulate an anatomical response: the experienced perception is the odour. Odour assessment is a key point in some industrial production processes (i.e., food, beverages, etc.) and it is acquiring steady importance in unusual technological fields (i.e., indoor air quality); this issue mainly concerns the environmental impact of various industrial activities (i.e., tanneries, refineries, slaughterhouses, distilleries, civil and industrial wastewater treatment plants, landfills and composting plants) as sources of olfactory nuisances, the top air pollution complaint. Although the human olfactory system is still regarded as the most important and effective "analytical instrument" for odour evaluation, the demand for more objective analytical methods, along with the discovery of materials with chemo-electronic properties, has boosted the development of sensor-based machine olfaction potentially imitating the biological system. This review examines the state of the art of both human and instrumental sensing currently used for the detection of odours. The olfactometric techniques employing a panel of trained experts are discussed and the strong and weak points of odour assessment through human detection are highlighted. The main features and the working principles of modern electronic noses (E-Noses) are then described, focusing on their better performances for environmental analysis. Odour emission monitoring carried out through

  9. A Method to Detect AAC Audio Forgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhong Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Audio Coding (AAC, a standardized lossy compression scheme for digital audio, which was designed to be the successor of the MP3 format, generally achieves better sound quality than MP3 at similar bit rates. While AAC is also the default or standard audio format for many devices and AAC audio files may be presented as important digital evidences, the authentication of the audio files is highly needed but relatively missing. In this paper, we propose a scheme to expose tampered AAC audio streams that are encoded at the same encoding bit-rate. Specifically, we design a shift-recompression based method to retrieve the differential features between the re-encoded audio stream at each shifting and original audio stream, learning classifier is employed to recognize different patterns of differential features of the doctored forgery files and original (untouched audio files. Experimental results show that our approach is very promising and effective to detect the forgery of the same encoding bit-rate on AAC audio streams. Our study also shows that shift recompression-based differential analysis is very effective for detection of the MP3 forgery at the same bit rate.

  10. SCREENING METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF CARTELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail BUŞU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During their everyday activities, the economic operators conclude a multitude of agreements in tacit or written form, such as: contracts or conventions. Some of these arrangements are absolutely necessary for the development of their current activities. These are agreements which, by respecting the rules of competition, are able to bring benefits to consumers and to the entire economy, as a whole. On the other hand, the economic operators often conclude agreements which are harmful to the economy as well as to the consumers, violating the competition rules. Some examples in this respect are: operators’ agreements on price fixing, on market or customers sharing. Before investigating the violation of competition rules, the relevant authorities should identify the possibility of the existence of such illegalities. The theoretical models for detecting the cartels do represent a proactive tool concerning the antitrust activity of competition authorities. The present paper furnishes a review of the methods for detecting cartels as well as a part of their practical application.

  11. Systems and methods for detecting neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2005-08-09

    Systems and methods for detecting neutrons. One or more neutron-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of nano-sized particles, dopants and an extruded plastic material, such as polystyrene. The nano-sized particles can be compounded into the extruded plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. One or more plastic light collectors can be associated with a neutron-sensitive scintillator, such that the plastic light collector includes a central hole thereof. A wavelength-shifting fiber can then be located within the hole. The wavelength shifting (WLS) fiber absorbs scintillation light having a wavelength thereof and re-emits the light at a longer wavelength.

  12. Detection methods for irradiated mites and insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.

    1999-01-01

    Results of the study on the following tests for separation of irradiated pests from untreated ones are reported: (a) test for identification of irradiated mites (Acaridae) based on lack of fecundity of treated females; (b) test for identification of irradiated beetles based on their locomotor activity; (c) test for identification of irradiated pests based on electron spin resonance (ESR) signal derived from treated insects; (d) test for identification of irradiated pests based on changes in the midgut induced by gamma radiation; and (e) test for identification of irradiated pests based on the alterations in total proteins of treated adults. Of these detection methods, only the test based on the pathological changes induced by irradiation in the insect midgut may identify consistently either irradiated larvae or adults. This test is simple and convenient when a rapid processing technique for dehydrating and embedding the midgut is used. (author)

  13. Method of detecting a fuel element failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for detecting a fuel element failure in a liquid-sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor consisting of equilibrating a sample of the coolant with a molten salt consisting of a mixture of barium iodide and strontium iodide (or other iodides) whereby a large fraction of any radioactive iodine present in the liquid sodium coolant exchanges with the iodine present in the salt; separating the molten salt and sodium; if necessary, equilibrating the molten salt with nonradioactive sodium and separating the molten salt and sodium; and monitoring the molten salt for the presence of iodine, the presence of iodine indicating that the cladding of a fuel element has failed. (U.S.)

  14. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  15. Two different hematocrit detection methods: Different methods, different results?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuepbach Reto A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Less is known about the influence of hematocrit detection methodology on transfusion triggers. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare two different hematocrit-assessing methods. In a total of 50 critically ill patients hematocrit was analyzed using (1 blood gas analyzer (ABLflex 800 and (2 the central laboratory method (ADVIA® 2120 and compared. Findings Bland-Altman analysis for repeated measurements showed a good correlation with a bias of +1.39% and 2 SD of ± 3.12%. The 24%-hematocrit-group showed a correlation of r2 = 0.87. With a kappa of 0.56, 22.7% of the cases would have been transfused differently. In the-28%-hematocrit group with a similar correlation (r2 = 0.8 and a kappa of 0.58, 21% of the cases would have been transfused differently. Conclusions Despite a good agreement between the two methods used to determine hematocrit in clinical routine, the calculated difference of 1.4% might substantially influence transfusion triggers depending on the employed method.

  16. On the Evaluation of Outlier Detection and One-Class Classification Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swersky, Lorne; Marques, Henrique O.; Sander, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that unsupervised outlier detection methods can be adapted to the one-class classification problem. In this paper, we focus on the comparison of oneclass classification algorithms with such adapted unsupervised outlier detection methods, improving on previous comparison studies ...

  17. Recent developments in optical detection methods for microchip separations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, S.; Karst, U.

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the features and performances of optical detection systems currently applied in order to monitor separations on microchip devices. Fluorescence detection, which delivers very high sensitivity and selectivity, is still the most widely applied method of detection. Instruments

  18. DOM Based XSS Detecting Method Based on Phantomjs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ri-Zhan; Ling, Jie; Liu, Yi

    Because malicious code does not appear in html source code, DOM based XSS cannot be detected by traditional methods. By analyzing the causes of DOM based XSS, this paper proposes a detection method of DOM based XSS based on phantomjs. This paper uses function hijacking to detect dangerous operation and achieves a prototype system. Comparing with existing tools shows that the system improves the detection rate and the method is effective to detect DOM based XSS.

  19. Vortex flows in the solar chromosphere. I. Automatic detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Y.; Wedemeyer, S.

    2017-05-01

    Solar "magnetic tornadoes" are produced by rotating magnetic field structures that extend from the upper convection zone and the photosphere to the corona of the Sun. Recent studies show that these kinds of rotating features are an integral part of atmospheric dynamics and occur on a large range of spatial scales. A systematic statistical study of magnetic tornadoes is a necessary next step towards understanding their formation and their role in mass and energy transport in the solar atmosphere. For this purpose, we develop a new automatic detection method for chromospheric swirls, meaning the observable signature of solar tornadoes or, more generally, chromospheric vortex flows and rotating motions. Unlike existing studies that rely on visual inspections, our new method combines a line integral convolution (LIC) imaging technique and a scalar quantity that represents a vortex flow on a two-dimensional plane. We have tested two detection algorithms, based on the enhanced vorticity and vorticity strength quantities, by applying them to three-dimensional numerical simulations of the solar atmosphere with CO5BOLD. We conclude that the vorticity strength method is superior compared to the enhanced vorticity method in all aspects. Applying the method to a numerical simulation of the solar atmosphere reveals very abundant small-scale, short-lived chromospheric vortex flows that have not been found previously by visual inspection.

  20. Image Processing Methods Usable for Object Detection on the Chessboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beran Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation and object detection is challenging problem in many research. Although many algorithms for image segmentation have been invented, there is no simple algorithm for image segmentation and object detection. Our research is based on combination of several methods for object detection. The first method suitable for image segmentation and object detection is colour detection. This method is very simply, but there is problem with different colours. For this method it is necessary to have precisely determined colour of segmented object before all calculations. In many cases it is necessary to determine this colour manually. Alternative simply method is method based on background removal. This method is based on difference between reference image and detected image. In this paper several methods suitable for object detection are described. Thisresearch is focused on coloured object detection on chessboard. The results from this research with fusion of neural networks for user-computer game checkers will be applied.

  1. Frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3)--current concepts and the detection of a previously unknown branch of the Danish FTD-3 family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, S.G.; Braedgaard, H.; Svenstrup, K.

    2008-01-01

    entities of FTD have involved identification of several new causative genes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report the finding of a truncating mutation in the CHMP2B gene (c.532-1G>C) in a patient with early onset dementia. The patient was previously not known to be related to the single Danish pedigree known...

  2. Radio frequency detection assembly and method for detecting radio frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cown, Steven H.; Derr, Kurt Warren

    2010-03-16

    A radio frequency detection assembly is described and which includes a radio frequency detector which detects a radio frequency emission produced by a radio frequency emitter from a given location which is remote relative to the radio frequency detector; a location assembly electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and which is operable to estimate the location of the radio frequency emitter from the radio frequency emission which has been received; and a radio frequency transmitter electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and the location assembly, and which transmits a radio frequency signal which reports the presence of the radio frequency emitter.

  3. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Nam, Hye Seon; Oh, Kyong Nam; Woo, Si Ho; Kim, Kyeung Eun; Yi, Sang Duk; Park, Jun Young; Kim, Kyong Su; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2000-04-01

    In 1999, we have been studied (1) on the detection of irradiated foods by ESR spectroscopy, by thermoluminescence, and by viscometry for physical measurements, (2) on the detection of hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones derived from fatty foods by GC/MS for chemical measurements, (3) on the screening and detection of irradiated foods by Comet assay and immunochemical (ELISA) technique for biological or biochemical measurements

  4. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Nam, Hye Seon; Oh, Kyong Nam; Woo, Si Ho; Kim, Kyeung Eun; Yi, Sang Duk; Park, Jun Young; Kim, Kyong Su; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2000-04-01

    In 1999, we have been studied (1) on the detection of irradiated foods by ESR spectroscopy, by thermoluminescence, and by viscometry for physical measurements, (2) on the detection of hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones derived from fatty foods by GC/MS for chemical measurements, (3) on the screening and detection of irradiated foods by Comet assay and immunochemical (ELISA) technique for biological or biochemical measurements.

  5. Locating previously unknown patterns in data-mining results: a dual data- and knowledge-mining method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knaus William A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data mining can be utilized to automate analysis of substantial amounts of data produced in many organizations. However, data mining produces large numbers of rules and patterns, many of which are not useful. Existing methods for pruning uninteresting patterns have only begun to automate the knowledge acquisition step (which is required for subjective measures of interestingness, hence leaving a serious bottleneck. In this paper we propose a method for automatically acquiring knowledge to shorten the pattern list by locating the novel and interesting ones. Methods The dual-mining method is based on automatically comparing the strength of patterns mined from a database with the strength of equivalent patterns mined from a relevant knowledgebase. When these two estimates of pattern strength do not match, a high "surprise score" is assigned to the pattern, identifying the pattern as potentially interesting. The surprise score captures the degree of novelty or interestingness of the mined pattern. In addition, we show how to compute p values for each surprise score, thus filtering out noise and attaching statistical significance. Results We have implemented the dual-mining method using scripts written in Perl and R. We applied the method to a large patient database and a biomedical literature citation knowledgebase. The system estimated association scores for 50,000 patterns, composed of disease entities and lab results, by querying the database and the knowledgebase. It then computed the surprise scores by comparing the pairs of association scores. Finally, the system estimated statistical significance of the scores. Conclusion The dual-mining method eliminates more than 90% of patterns with strong associations, thus identifying them as uninteresting. We found that the pruning of patterns using the surprise score matched the biomedical evidence in the 100 cases that were examined by hand. The method automates the acquisition of

  6. Laser-Based Detection Methods for Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Photofragmentation-Fragment Detection (SPF-FD) Cabalo and Sausa introduced a technique for detection of explosives with low vapor pressure called SPF-FD (149...1999, 38, 6447. 149. Cabalo , J.; Sausa, R. Appl. Spectrosc. 2003, 57, 1196. 150. Claspy, P. C.; Pao, Y.-H.; Kwong, S.; Nodov, E. IEEE J. Quant

  7. Crack Detection Method Applied to 3D Computed Tomography Images of Baked Carbon Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Picard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon anodes used in the aluminium industry were imaged through destructive and non-destructive testing (NDT methods. For the latter case, computed tomography (CT, which has previously been used to map the 3D apparent density distribution, was extended to crack detection. Previous work has shown how to overcome technical hurdles related to crack detection by using percolation-based algorithms operating on low-resolution images of full-scale baked carbon anodes. The previous application to 2D images was extended here to the 3D case. The crack detection algorithm has been performed on anode slices containing several independent macro cracks with different morphologies.

  8. Comparison of Unsupervised Anomaly Detection Methods

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Several different unsupervised anomaly detection algorithms have been applied to Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) data to serve the purpose of developing a...

  9. Investigating physiological methods to determine previous exposure of immature insects to ionizing radiation and estimating the exposure dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    1999-01-01

    Effects of gamma radiation on pupation and adult emergence in mature (diapausing and non-diapausing) codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., larvae and on phenoloxidase activity in larvae killed by freezing were investigated. Results showed that, a dose of 50 Gy reduced adult emergence (and pupation) significantly and a dose of 200 Gy completely prevented it. Diapausing larvae were more susceptible to irradiation than non-diapausing larvae, and female moths were more susceptible to irradiation injury than males. Phenoloxidase activity in codling moth larvae was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the increase in optical density at 490 nm, or by observing the degree of melanization in larvae killed by freezing. Results showed that, in un-irradiated larvae, phenoloxidase activity can be detected in 7 days old larvae and it continues to accumulate throughout the larvae stage. This accumulation was not observed when larvae were irradiated with a minimum dose of 50 Gy during the 1st week of their development. However, irradiating larvae in which enzyme activity was already high (2-3 week old) did not remove activity but only reduced further accumulation. Larval melanization studies were in agreement with results of the phenoloxidase assay.(author)

  10. Investigating physiological methods to determine previous exposure of immature insects to ionizing radiation and estimating the exposure dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    1998-10-01

    Effects of gamma radiation on pupation and adult emergence in mature (diapausing and non-diapausing) codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., larvae and on phenoloxidase activity in larvae killed by freezing were investigated. Results showed that, a dose of 50 Gy reduced adult emergence (and pupation) significantly and 200 Gy completely prevented it. Diapausing larvae were more susceptible to irradiation that non-diapausing larvae and female moths were more susceptible to irradiation injury than males. Phenoloxidase activity in codling moth larvae was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the increase in optical density at 490 nm, or by observing the degree of melanization in larvae killed by freezing. Results showed that, in un-irradiated larvae, phenoloxidase activity can be detected in 7 day old larvae and activity continued to accumulate throughout the larval stage. This accumulation was not observed when larvae were irradiated with a minimum dose of 50 Gy during the 1st week of their development. However, irradiating larvae in which enzyme activity was already high (2-3 week old) did not remove activity but only reduced further accumulation. Larval melanization studies were in agreement with results of the phenoloxidase assay. (author)

  11. A new approach to detect small peptides clearly and sensitively by Western blotting using a vacuum-assisted detection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomisawa, Satoshi; Abe, Chiharu; Kamiya, Masakatsu; Kikukawa, Takashi; Demura, Makoto; Kawano, Keiichi; Aizawa, Tomoyasu

    2013-01-01

    Western blotting is a widely used technique for the detection and quantification of proteins and peptides. However, it is challenging to detect small peptides efficiently by the conventional Western blotting method with shaking, in part because the peptides readily detach from the blotted membrane. Although some modified Western blotting protocols have been developed to overcome this problem, it remains difficult to prevent peptide detachment from the membrane. In this study, we show that the previously developed vacuum-assisted detection method greatly improves the detection of small peptides without additional protocol modification. The vacuum-assisted method was developed to shorten the time required for all immunodetection steps, and all the Western blotting solutions penetrated the membrane quickly and efficiently by this method. By using this vacuum method, we succeeded in detecting small peptides that were completely undetectable by the conventional Western blotting method. We also confirmed that peptide detachment was induced even by gentle shaking in the case of the conventional method, and the detachment was accelerated when detergent was present in the buffer. Unlike in the conventional method, there is no need to shake the membrane in solution in the vacuum method. Therefore, it is thought that the small peptides could be detected sensitively only by the vacuum method.

  12. System and method for detecting cells or components thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Marc D [Ames, IA; Lipert, Robert J [Ames, IA; Doyle, Robert T [Ames, IA; Grubisha, Desiree S [Corona, CA; Rahman, Salma [Ames, IA

    2009-01-06

    A system and method for detecting a detectably labeled cell or component thereof in a sample comprising one or more cells or components thereof, at least one cell or component thereof of which is detectably labeled with at least two detectable labels. In one embodiment, the method comprises: (i) introducing the sample into one or more flow cells of a flow cytometer, (ii) irradiating the sample with one or more light sources that are absorbed by the at least two detectable labels, the absorption of which is to be detected, and (iii) detecting simultaneously the absorption of light by the at least two detectable labels on the detectably labeled cell or component thereof with an array of photomultiplier tubes, which are operably linked to two or more filters that selectively transmit detectable emissions from the at least two detectable labels.

  13. Radiation detection device and a radiation detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, A.

    1975-01-01

    A radiation detection device is described including at least one scintillator in the path of radiation emissions from a distributed radiation source; a plurality of photodetectors for viewing each scintillator; a signal processing means, a storage means, and a data processing means that are interconnected with one another and connected to said photodetectors; and display means connected to the data processing means to locate a plurality of radiation sources in said distributed radiation source and to provide an image of the distributed radiation sources. The storage means includes radiation emission response data and location data from a plurality of known locations for use by the data processing means to derive a more accurate image by comparison of radiation responses from known locations with radiation responses from unknown locations. (auth)

  14. Doppler method leak detection for LMFBR steam generators. Pt. 1. Experimental results of bubble detection using small models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi

    1999-01-01

    To prevent the expansion of the tube damage and to maintain structural integrity in the steam generators (SGs) of fast breeder reactors (FBRs), it is necessary to detect precisely and immediately the leakage of water from heat transfer tubes. Therefore, an active acoustic method was developed. Previous studies have revealed that in practical steam generators the active acoustic method can detect bubbles of 10 l/s within 10 seconds. To prevent the expansion of damage to neighboring tubes, it is necessary to detect smaller leakages of water from the heat transfer tubes. The Doppler method is designed to detect small leakages and to find the source of the leak before damage spreads to neighboring tubes. To evaluate the relationship between the detection sensitivity of the Doppler method and the bubble volume and bubble size, the structural shapes and bubble flow conditions were investigated experimentally, using a small structural model. The results show that the Doppler method can detect the bubbles under bubble flow conditions, and it is sensitive enough to detect small leakages within a short time. The doppler method thus has strong potential for the detection of water leakage in SGs. (author)

  15. Gas tightness detecting method for overpack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harashima, Takeo; Hasegawa, Yasuyuki

    1999-01-01

    High level radioactive wastes and timing gas generation means for jetting out an inert gas after a predetermined period of time are contained together in a steel overpack. A steel lid is welded to the opening of the overpack so as to seal the high level radioactive wastes and the timing gas generation means. Then, the inert gas is jetted out from the timing gas generating device, and the gas tightness is detected by detecting the inert gas at the circumference of the overpack. Alternatively, a corrosion resistant coating layer having a gas generation means for jetting out an inert gas is coated at the circumference of a steel overpack containing high level radioactive wastes, and the overpack is sealed. The inert gas is generated from the gas generating means in the coating layer, and the inert gas at the periphery of the coating layer is detected to determine gas tightness. (N.H.)

  16. Method to detect steam generator tube leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Kiyomi

    1994-01-01

    It is important for plant operation to detect minor leakages from the steam generator tube at an early stage, thus, leakage detection has been performed using a condenser air ejector gas monitor and a steam generator blow down monitor, etc. In this study highly-sensitive main steam line monitors have been developed in order to identify leakages in the steam generator more quickly and accurately. The performance of the monitors was verified and the demonstration test at the actual plant was conducted for their intended application to the plants. (author)

  17. An Entropy-Based Network Anomaly Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Bereziński

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning and statistics. One of the data mining tasks is anomaly detection which is the analysis of large quantities of data to identify items, events or observations which do not conform to an expected pattern. Anomaly detection is applicable in a variety of domains, e.g., fraud detection, fault detection, system health monitoring but this article focuses on application of anomaly detection in the field of network intrusion detection.The main goal of the article is to prove that an entropy-based approach is suitable to detect modern botnet-like malware based on anomalous patterns in network. This aim is achieved by realization of the following points: (i preparation of a concept of original entropy-based network anomaly detection method, (ii implementation of the method, (iii preparation of original dataset, (iv evaluation of the method.

  18. Molecular Methods for Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anjum, Muna F.; Zankari, Ea; Hasman, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The increase in bacteria harboring antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem because there is a paucity of antibiotics available to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in humans and animals. Detection of AMR present in bacteria that may pose a threat to veterinary and public...

  19. Steam generator leak detection using acoustic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goluchko, V.V.; Sokolov, B.M.; Bulanov, A.N.

    1982-05-01

    The main requirements to meet by a device for leak detection in sodium - water steam generators are determined. The potentialities of instrumentation designed based on the developed requirements have been tested using a model of a 550 kw steam generator [fr

  20. Detection methods for centrifugal microfluidic platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burger, Robert; Amato, Letizia; Boisen, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Centrifugal microfluidics has attracted much interest from academia as well as industry, since it potentially offers solutions for affordable, user-friendly and portable biosensing. A wide range of so-called fluidic unit operations, e.g. mixing, metering, liquid routing, and particle separation...... for the centrifugal microfluidics platform and cover optical as well as mechanical and electrical detection principles....

  1. Ultrasound Imaging Methods for Breast Cancer Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozmen, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is on modeling acoustic wavefield propagation and implementing imaging algorithms for breast cancer detection using ultrasound. As a starting point, we use an integral equation formulation, which can be used to solve both the forward and inverse problems. This thesis

  2. Method of detecting and counting bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An improved method is provided for determining bacterial levels, especially in samples of aqueous physiological fluids. The method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of nonbacterial ATP. The bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay. A concentration technique is included to make the method more sensitive. It is particularly useful where the fluid to be measured contains an unknown or low bacteria count.

  3. Anomaly-based Network Intrusion Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Nevlud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with detection of network anomalies. Network anomalies include everything that is quite different from the normal operation. For detection of anomalies were used machine learning systems. Machine learning can be considered as a support or a limited type of artificial intelligence. A machine learning system usually starts with some knowledge and a corresponding knowledge organization so that it can interpret, analyse, and test the knowledge acquired. There are several machine learning techniques available. We tested Decision tree learning and Bayesian networks. The open source data-mining framework WEKA was the tool we used for testing the classify, cluster, association algorithms and for visualization of our results. The WEKA is a collection of machine learning algorithms for data mining tasks.

  4. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Chong Ki; Lee, Hae Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Insitiute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong Su [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    To identify irradiated foods, studies have been carried out with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy on bone containing foods, such as chicken, pork, and beef. The intensity of the signal induced in bones increased linearly with irradiation doses in the range of 1.0 kGy to 5.0 kGy, and it was possible to distinguish between samples given low and high doses of irradiation. The signal stability for 6 weeks made them ideal for the quick and easy identification of irradiated meats. The analysis of DNA damage made on single cells by agarose gel electrophoresis (DNA 'comet assay') can be used to detect irradiated food. All the samples irradiated with over 0.3 kGy were identified to detect post-irradiation by the tail length of their comets. Irradiated samples showed comets with long tails, and the tail length of the comets increased with the dose, while unirradiated samples showed no or very short tails. As a result of the above experiment, the DNA 'comet assay' might be applied to the detection of irradiated grains as a simple, low-cost and rapid screening test. When fats are irradiated, hydrocarbons contained one or two fewer carbon atoms are formed from the parent fatty acids. The major hydrocarbons in irradiated beef, pork and chicken were 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecene originating from leic acid. 1,7 hexadecadiene was the highest amount in irradiated beef, pork and chicken. Eight kinds of hydrocarbons were identified from irradiated chicken, among which 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecen were detected as major compounds. The concentration of radiation-induced hydrocarbons was relatively constant during 16 weeks.

  5. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Chong Ki; Lee, Hae Jung; Kim, Kyong Su

    1999-04-01

    To identify irradiated foods, studies have been carried out with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy on bone containing foods, such as chicken, pork, and beef. The intensity of the signal induced in bones increased linearly with irradiation doses in the range of 1.0 kGy to 5.0 kGy, and it was possible to distinguish between samples given low and high doses of irradiation. The signal stability for 6 weeks made them ideal for the quick and easy identification of irradiated meats. The analysis of DNA damage made on single cells by agarose gel electrophoresis (DNA 'comet assay') can be used to detect irradiated food. All the samples irradiated with over 0.3 kGy were identified to detect post-irradiation by the tail length of their comets. Irradiated samples showed comets with long tails, and the tail length of the comets increased with the dose, while unirradiated samples showed no or very short tails. As a result of the above experiment, the DNA 'comet assay' might be applied to the detection of irradiated grains as a simple, low-cost and rapid screening test. When fats are irradiated, hydrocarbons contained one or two fewer carbon atoms are formed from the parent fatty acids. The major hydrocarbons in irradiated beef, pork and chicken were 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecene originating from leic acid. 1,7 hexadecadiene was the highest amount in irradiated beef, pork and chicken. Eight kinds of hydrocarbons were identified from irradiated chicken, among which 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecen were detected as major compounds. The concentration of radiation-induced hydrocarbons was relatively constant during 16 weeks

  6. Developing methods for detecting radioactive scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellian, J.G.; Johnston, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    During the last 10 years, there have been major developments in radiation detection systems used for catching shielded radioactive sources in scrap metal. The original testing required to determine the extent of the problem and the preliminary designs of the first instruments will be discussed. Present systems available today will be described listing their advantages and disadvantages. In conclusion, the newest developments and state of the art equipment will also be included describing the limits and most appropriate locations for the systems

  7. Blind Methods for Detecting Image Fakery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahdian, Babak; Saic, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2010), s. 18-24 ISSN 0885-8985 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0470 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Image forensics * Image Fakery * Forgery detection * Authentication Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.179, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/ZOI/saic-0343316.pdf

  8. Conventional versus newer methods for detection of drug resistance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Conventional versus newer methods for detection of drug resistance in tuberculosis. Classical microbiological methods are well established but are cumbersome and time consuming. Newer rapid methods for rapid detection of drug resistance - microbiological, ...

  9. A Distributed Signature Detection Method for Detecting Intrusions in Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Woo Ro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks are easily exposed to open and unprotected regions. A security solution is strongly recommended to prevent networks against malicious attacks. Although many intrusion detection systems have been developed, most systems are difficult to implement for the sensor nodes owing to limited computation resources. To address this problem, we develop a novel distributed network intrusion detection system based on theWu–Manber algorithm. In the proposed system, the algorithm is divided into two steps; the first step is dedicated to a sensor node, and the second step is assigned to a base station. In addition, the first step is modified to achieve efficient performance under limited computation resources. We conduct evaluations with random string sets and actual intrusion signatures to show the performance improvement of the proposed method. The proposed method achieves a speedup factor of 25.96 and reduces 43.94% of packet transmissions to the base station compared with the previously proposed method. The system achieves efficient utilization of the sensor nodes and provides a structural basis of cooperative systems among the sensors.

  10. A distributed signature detection method for detecting intrusions in sensor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilkyu; Oh, Doohwan; Yoon, Myung Kuk; Yi, Kyueun; Ro, Won Woo

    2013-03-25

    Sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks are easily exposed to open and unprotected regions. A security solution is strongly recommended to prevent networks against malicious attacks. Although many intrusion detection systems have been developed, most systems are difficult to implement for the sensor nodes owing to limited computation resources. To address this problem, we develop a novel distributed network intrusion detection system based on the Wu-Manber algorithm. In the proposed system, the algorithm is divided into two steps; the first step is dedicated to a sensor node, and the second step is assigned to a base station. In addition, the first step is modified to achieve efficient performance under limited computation resources. We conduct evaluations with random string sets and actual intrusion signatures to show the performance improvement of the proposed method. The proposed method achieves a speedup factor of 25.96 and reduces 43.94% of packet transmissions to the base station compared with the previously proposed method. The system achieves efficient utilization of the sensor nodes and provides a structural basis of cooperative systems among the sensors.

  11. Distance Measurement Methods for Improved Insider Threat Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Lo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Insider threats are a considerable problem within cyber security and it is often difficult to detect these threats using signature detection. Increasing machine learning can provide a solution, but these methods often fail to take into account changes of behaviour of users. This work builds on a published method of detecting insider threats and applies Hidden Markov method on a CERT data set (CERT r4.2 and analyses a number of distance vector methods (Damerau–Levenshtein Distance, Cosine Distance, and Jaccard Distance in order to detect changes of behaviour, which are shown to have success in determining different insider threats.

  12. Gold Cleaning Methods for Electrochemical Detection Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Tenje, Maria; Heiskanen, Arto

    2009-01-01

    This work investigates methods for obtaining reliably clean gold film surfaces. Nine gold cleaning methods are investigated here: UV ozone photoreactor; potassium hydroxide-hydrogen peroxide; potassium hydroxide potential sweep; sulfuric acid hydrogen peroxide; sulfuric acid potential cycling......-ray photo-electron spectroscopy are used to characterize surface cleanliness. A low peak-current potential-difference and charge transfer resistance indicates a cleaner surface, as does a higher percentage of elemental gold on the electrode surface. The potassium hydroxide potential sweep method is found...... to leave the gold surface the cleanest overall....

  13. System and method for detecting gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Oscar Ken; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Miller, Jacob Andrew

    2010-03-16

    A system to detect a presence of a specific gas in a mixture of gaseous byproducts comprising moisture vapor is disclosed. The system includes an electrochemical cell, a transport to deliver the mixture of gaseous byproducts from the electrochemical cell, a gas sensor in fluid communication with the transport, the sensor responsive to a presence of the specific gas to generate a signal corresponding to a concentration of the specific gas, and a membrane to prevent transmission of liquid moisture, the membrane disposed between the transport and the gas sensor.

  14. Abnormality degree detection method using negative potential field group detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongli; Liu, Shulin; Li, Dong; Shi, Kunju; Wang, Bo; Cui, Jiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Online monitoring methods have been widely used in many major devices, however the normal and abnormal states of equipment are estimated mainly based on the monitoring results whether monitored parameters exceed the setting thresholds. Using these monitoring methods may cause serious false positive or false negative results. In order to precisely monitor the state of equipment, the problem of abnormality degree detection without fault sample is studied with a new detection method called negative potential field group detectors(NPFG-detectors). This method achieves the quantitative expression of abnormality degree and provides the better detection results compared with other methods. In the process of Iris data set simulation, the new algorithm obtains the successful results in abnormal detection. The detection rates for 3 types of Iris data set respectively reach 100%, 91.6%, and 95.24% with 50% training samples. The problem of Bearing abnormality degree detection via an abnormality degree curve is successfully solved.

  15. Experimental methods of heavy quark detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himel, T.

    1984-11-01

    By comparing how b and c were observed we saw that the heavier quark was more difficult to detect. For various reasons the signal was smaller and the signal-to-noise worse. This trend is expected to continue when searching for the still heavier top quark. In fact many detection techniques which worked well for bottom and charm are not viable for top. For masses less than about 60 GeV/c 2 top should be visible at the CERN S anti ppS. For larger masses the higher energy of the Fermilab Tevatron will be necessary. At both machines semileptonic decays are the most promising tag. There are background rejection techniques which should result in a fairly clean signal. As there are many possible background sources it is important to carefully estimate the residual background from the data itself. At e + e - machines top will be copiously produced in Z 0 decays if M/sub t/ 0 //2. In this case it is possible to estimate its mass and study its decay modes. 40 references, 40 figures

  16. Experimental methods of heavy quark detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himel, T.

    1984-11-01

    By comparing how b and c were observed we saw that the heavier quark was more difficult to detect. For various reasons the signal was smaller and the signal-to-noise worse. This trend is expected to continue when searching for the still heavier top quark. In fact many detection techniques which worked well for bottom and charm are not viable for top. For masses less than about 60 GeV/c/sup 2/ top should be visible at the CERN S anti ppS. For larger masses the higher energy of the Fermilab Tevatron will be necessary. At both machines semileptonic decays are the most promising tag. There are background rejection techniques which should result in a fairly clean signal. As there are many possible background sources it is important to carefully estimate the residual background from the data itself. At e/sup +/e/sup -/ machines top will be copiously produced in Z/sup 0/ decays if M/sub t/ < M/sub Z/sup 0///2. In this case it is possible to estimate its mass and study its decay modes. 40 references, 40 figures.

  17. Marine Biotoxins: Occurrence, Toxicity, and Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, M.

    2017-04-01

    This review summarizes the role of marine organisms as vectors of marine biotoxins, and discusses the need for surveillance to protect public health and ensure the quality of seafood. I Paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) and PSP-bearing organisms-PSP is produced by toxic dinoflagellates species belonging to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium, and Pyrodinium. Traditionally, PSP monitoring programs have only considered filter-feeding molluscs that concentrate these toxic algae, however, increasing attention is now being paid to higher-order predators that carry PSP, such as carnivorous gastropods and crustaceans. II. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and TTX-bearing organisms - TTX is the most common natural marine toxin that causes food poisonings in Japan, and poses a serious public health risk. TTX was long believed to be present only in pufferfish. However, TTX was detected in the eggs of California newt Taricha torosa in 1964, and since then it has been detected in a wide variety of species belonging to several different phyla. In this study, the main toxic components in the highly toxic ribbon worm Cephalothrix simula and the greater blue-ringed octopus Hapalochlaena lunulata from Japan were purified and analysed.

  18. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colston, B W; DaSilva, L B; Everett, M J; Featherstone, J D B; Fried, D; Ragadio, J N; Sathyam, U S.

    1999-01-01

    This study demonstrates the potential of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for non-invasive in vivo detection and characterization of early, incipient caries lesions. PS-OCT generates cross-sectional images of biological tissue while measuring the effect of the tissue on the polarization state of incident light. Clear discrimination between regions of normal and demineralized enamel is first shown in PS-OCT images of bovine enamel blocks containing well-characterized artificial lesions. High-resolution, cross-sectional images of extracted human teeth are then generated that clearly discriminate between the normal and carious regions on both the smooth and occlusal surfaces. Regions of the teeth that appeared to be demineralized in the PS-OCT images were verified using histological thin sections examined under polarized light microscopy. The PS-OCT system discriminates between normal and carious regions by measuring the polarization state of the back-scattered 1310 nm light, which is affected by the state of demineralization of the enamel. Demineralization of enamel increases the scattering coefficient, thus depolarizing the incident light. This study shows that PS-OCT has great potential for the detection, characterization, and monitoring of incipient caries lesions

  19. Knowledge representation methods for early failure detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, K.P.; Stiller, P.

    1990-01-01

    To supervise technical processes like nuclear power plants, it is very important to detect failure modes in an early stage. In the nuclear research center at Karlsruhe an expert system is developed, embedded in a computer network of autonomous computers, which are used for intelligent prepocessing. Events, process data and actual parameter values are stored in slots of special frames in the knowledge base of the expert system. Both rule based and fact based knowledge representations are employed to generate cause consequence chains of failure states. By on-line surveillance of the reactor process, the slots of the frames are dynamically actualized. Immediately after the evaluation, the inference engine starts in the special domain experts (triggered by metarules from a manager) and detects the correspondend failures or anomaly state. Matching the members of the chain and regarding a catalogue of instructions and messages, what is to do by the operator, future failure states can be estimated and propagation can be prohibited. That means qualitative failure prediction based on cause consequence in the static part of the knowledge base. Also, a time series of physical data can be used to predict on analytical way future process state and to continue such a theoretical propagation with matching the cause consuquence chain

  20. Detection methods and performance criteria for genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertheau, Yves; Diolez, Annick; Kobilinsky, André; Magin, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    Detection methods for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are necessary for many applications, from seed purity assessment to compliance of food labeling in several countries. Numerous analytical methods are currently used or under development to support these needs. The currently used methods are bioassays and protein- and DNA-based detection protocols. To avoid discrepancy of results between such largely different methods and, for instance, the potential resulting legal actions, compatibility of the methods is urgently needed. Performance criteria of methods allow evaluation against a common standard. The more-common performance criteria for detection methods are precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, which together specifically address other terms used to describe the performance of a method, such as applicability, selectivity, calibration, trueness, precision, recovery, operating range, limit of quantitation, limit of detection, and ruggedness. Performance criteria should provide objective tools to accept or reject specific methods, to validate them, to ensure compatibility between validated methods, and be used on a routine basis to reject data outside an acceptable range of variability. When selecting a method of detection, it is also important to consider its applicability, its field of applications, and its limitations, by including factors such as its ability to detect the target analyte in a given matrix, the duration of the analyses, its cost effectiveness, and the necessary sample sizes for testing. Thus, the current GMO detection methods should be evaluated against a common set of performance criteria.

  1. Development and Establishment of Detection Method of Irradiated Foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Jo, Cheo Run; Kim, Jang Ho; Kim, Kyong Su

    2004-12-15

    The present project was related to the development and establishment of the detection techniques for the safety management of gamma-irradiated food and particularly conducted for the establishment of standard detection method for gamma-irradiated dried spices and raw materials, dried meat and fish powder for processed foods, bean paste powder, red pepper paste powder, soy sauce powder, and starch for flavoring ingredients described in 3, 6, 7 section of Korean Food Standard. Since the approvement of gamma-irradiated food items will be enlarged due to the international tendency for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded that the establishment of detailed detection methods for each food group is not efficient for the enactment and enforcement of related regulations. For this reason, in order to establish the standard detection method, a detection system for gamma-irradiated food suitable for domestic operation was studied using comparative analysis of domestic and foreign research data classified by items and methods and European Standard as a reference. According to the comparative analyses of domestic and foreign research data and regulations of detection for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded to be desirable that the optimal detection method should be decided after principal detection tests such as physical, chemical, and biological detection methods are established as standard methods and that the specific descriptions such as pre-treatment of raw materials, test methods, and the evaluation of results should be separately prescribed.

  2. Development and Establishment of Detection Method of Irradiated Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Jo, Cheo Run; Kim, Jang Ho; Kim, Kyong Su

    2004-12-01

    The present project was related to the development and establishment of the detection techniques for the safety management of gamma-irradiated food and particularly conducted for the establishment of standard detection method for gamma-irradiated dried spices and raw materials, dried meat and fish powder for processed foods, bean paste powder, red pepper paste powder, soy sauce powder, and starch for flavoring ingredients described in 3, 6, 7 section of Korean Food Standard. Since the approvement of gamma-irradiated food items will be enlarged due to the international tendency for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded that the establishment of detailed detection methods for each food group is not efficient for the enactment and enforcement of related regulations. For this reason, in order to establish the standard detection method, a detection system for gamma-irradiated food suitable for domestic operation was studied using comparative analysis of domestic and foreign research data classified by items and methods and European Standard as a reference. According to the comparative analyses of domestic and foreign research data and regulations of detection for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded to be desirable that the optimal detection method should be decided after principal detection tests such as physical, chemical, and biological detection methods are established as standard methods and that the specific descriptions such as pre-treatment of raw materials, test methods, and the evaluation of results should be separately prescribed

  3. [Detection of norovirus RNA in bivalve molluscs by using bacteria-culture-employed method (A3T method)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Nagano, Miyuki; Mori, Kohji; Hayashi, Yukinao; Obata, Hiromi; Chiba, Takashi; Ikuta, Yasuhisa; Kamiya, Yoriko; Nakama, Akiko; Hosaka, Mitsugu; Kai, Akemi

    2010-01-01

    Norovirus (NV) RNA has rarely been detected in foods despite the use of highly sensitive methods such as RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. In the modified method (A3T method) reported previously, a bacterial culture process was introduced into the standard protocol for NV detection to remove some inhibitor(s) present in food ingredients. To confirm the efficiency of the A3T method and to examine NV contamination in bivalve molluscs, we tried to detect NV RNA in bivalve molluscs on the market and in oyster samples associated with foodborne outbreaks by using the standard method and the A3T method. NV RNAs were detected in 20 samples (18.0%) of 111 bivalve molluscs, including oysters, on the market by use of the A3T method, while only one sample (0.9%) was positive according to the standard method. NV RNA was also detected in 10 of 35 oyster samples related to foodborne outbreaks by the A3T method. Those results show that the A3T method is suitable for the detection of NV in bivalve molluscs in general laboratories.

  4. Thermal History Devices, Systems For Thermal History Detection, And Methods For Thermal History Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo Frescas, Jesus Alfonso

    2015-05-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include nanowire field-effect transistors, systems for temperature history detection, methods for thermal history detection, a matrix of field effect transistors, and the like.

  5. The Regularized Iteratively Reweighted MAD Method for Change Detection in Multi- and Hyperspectral Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes new extensions to the previously published multivariate alteration detection (MAD) method for change detection in bi-temporal, multi- and hypervariate data such as remote sensing imagery. Much like boosting methods often applied in data mining work, the iteratively reweighted...... an agricultural region in Kenya, and hyperspectral airborne HyMap data from a small rural area in southeastern Germany are given. The latter case demonstrates the need for regularization....

  6. Distributed gas detection system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challener, William Albert; Palit, Sabarni; Karp, Jason Harris; Kasten, Ansas Matthias; Choudhury, Niloy

    2017-11-21

    A distributed gas detection system includes one or more hollow core fibers disposed in different locations, one or more solid core fibers optically coupled with the one or more hollow core fibers and configured to receive light of one or more wavelengths from a light source, and an interrogator device configured to receive at least some of the light propagating through the one or more solid core fibers and the one or more hollow core fibers. The interrogator device is configured to identify a location of a presence of a gas-of-interest by examining absorption of at least one of the wavelengths of the light at least one of the hollow core fibers.

  7. METHODS FOR DETECTING BACTERIA USING POLYMER MATERIALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Grinsven Bart Robert, Nicolaas; Cleij, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    A method for characterizing bacteria includes passing a liquid containing an analyte comprising a first bacteria and a second bacteria over and in contact with a polymer material on a substrate. The polymer material is formulated to bind to the first bacteria, and the first bacteria binds to the

  8. Method of Pentest Synthesis and Vulnerability Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Hahanova Irina Vitalyevna

    2012-01-01

    The structural method for penetration test generation and vulnerability simulation for infrastructure of telecommunication hardwaresoftware information cybernetic systems (CS), focused to protect against unauthorized access the services defined in the system specification by means of penetrating through legal interfaces of component interaction, which have vulnerabilities, is proposed. A protection service infrastructure is created with cybersystem and maintains it during the life cycle, serv...

  9. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria from Reflected Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  10. Islanding detection scheme based on adaptive identifier signal estimation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, M; Noroozian, R; Gharehpetian, G B

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel, passive-based anti-islanding method for both inverter and synchronous machine-based distributed generation (DG) units. Unfortunately, when the active/reactive power mismatches are near to zero, majority of the passive anti-islanding methods cannot detect the islanding situation, correctly. This study introduces a new islanding detection method based on exponentially damped signal estimation method. The proposed method uses adaptive identifier method for estimating of the frequency deviation of the point of common coupling (PCC) link as a target signal that can detect the islanding condition with near-zero active power imbalance. Main advantage of the adaptive identifier method over other signal estimation methods is its small sampling window. In this paper, the adaptive identifier based islanding detection method introduces a new detection index entitled decision signal by estimating of oscillation frequency of the PCC frequency and can detect islanding conditions, properly. In islanding conditions, oscillations frequency of PCC frequency reach to zero, thus threshold setting for decision signal is not a tedious job. The non-islanding transient events, which can cause a significant deviation in the PCC frequency are considered in simulations. These events include different types of faults, load changes, capacitor bank switching, and motor starting. Further, for islanding events, the capability of the proposed islanding detection method is verified by near-to-zero active power mismatches. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Laser pulse detection method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Willis C. (Inventor); Janesick, James R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A sensor is described for detecting the difference in phase of a pair of returned light pulse components, such as the two components of a light pulse of an optical gyro. In an optic gyro, the two light components have passed in opposite directions through a coil of optical fiber, with the difference in phase of the returned light components determining the intensity of light shining on the sensor. The sensor includes a CCD (charge coupled device) that receives the pair of returned light components to generate a charge proportional to the number of photons in the received light. The amount of the charge represents the phase difference between the two light components. At a time after the transmission of the light pulse and before the expected time of arrival of the interfering light components, charge accumulating in the CCD as a result of reflections from optical components in the system, are repeatedly removed from the CCD, by transferring out charges in the CCD and dumping these charges.

  12. Recent developments in analytical detection methods for radiation processed foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jilan

    1993-01-01

    A short summary of the programmes of 'ADMIT' (FAO/IAEA) and the developments in analytical detection methods for radiation processed foods has been given. It is suggested that for promoting the commercialization of radiation processed foods and controlling its quality, one must pay more attention to the study of analytical detection methods of irradiated food

  13. High Speed Iris Detection Method for Man-Machine Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Hideki; Hongo, Hitoshi; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    We propose a high speed iris detection method for man-machine interface. In order to communicate between humans and computers comfortably, it is required that high speed processing and adapting the changes of the face direction and the individual variation of the face. Our iris detection method consists of a face detection function, a facial parts extraction function and an iris detection function. The face detection function adapts to individual variation or a light condition by using standard skin color method which decides the standard skin color by a color histogram every frame. The facial parts extraction function adapts to changes of face direction and the individual variation in order to by using the hybrid template matching which consists the four directional features field and the color different features. The iris detection function performs high speed and stable detection by segmentation of iris region using color information and the Hough transform. We conducted the comparison experiment with our past method which uses the least approximation method. By this result, processing time of our method realized equivalent to our past method. In addition, accuracy rate of iris detection with our method improved.

  14. A review on automated pavement distress detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Tom B.J.; Golroo, Amir

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, extensive research has been conducted on pavement distress detection. A large part of these studies applied automated methods to capture different distresses. In this paper, a literature review on the distresses and related detection methods are presented. This review also includes

  15. Validated method for the detection and quantitation of synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Validated method for the detection and quantitation of synthetic cannabinoids in whole blood and urine, and its application to postmortem cases in Johannesburg, South ... A LC-HRMS (liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry) method for the detection and quantitation of several synthetic ...

  16. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  17. An Overview of Islanding Detection Methods in Photovoltaic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Yee Teoh; Chee Wei Tan

    2011-01-01

    The issue of unintentional islanding in PV grid interconnection still remains as a challenge in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper discusses the overview of popularly used anti-islanding detection methods, practically applied in PV grid-connected systems. Anti-islanding methods generally can be classified into four major groups, which include passive methods, active methods, hybrid methods and communication base methods. Active methods have been the pref...

  18. Infrared small target detection method based on local threshold attenuation of constant false alarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ke-feng; Shi, Zhi-guang; Lu, Xin-ping

    2016-03-01

    In the infrared small target detection system, CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) is a commonly used technology, but in the traditional single frame detection method, detection rate is requested to be improved while the false alarm rate is increasing. This paper proposes a threshold attenuation CFAR detection method based on Gauss distribution. After the preprocessing of infrared images, we came into the designing of CFAR detector based on Gauss distribution. According to the previous frame target location and attenuation of local threshold, the detection rate of the target neighbourhood can be improved to obtain the current target location. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively control the threshold, and under the precondition that the background clutter was suppressed by the global low false alarm rate, it can improve the local detection rate and reduce the probability of target loss.

  19. Track detection methods of radium measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1986-06-01

    The principles of tack formation and processing including the description of etching and etch-track evaluation for the preferably used plastic track detectors are discussed. Measuring methods to determine 226 Ra activity based either on the mapping of alpha-decaying elements in the complete U-Ra series by alpha-radiography, or on the measurement of uranium alone by neutron induced fissionography, or on the alpha-decay measurement of 222 Rn, the first daughter element of radium, and finally on the measurement of alpha-tracks originating from radium itself, which is separated from its parent nuclides are described in detail. (V.N.)

  20. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, S.M.; Maier, W.B. II; Holland, R.F.; Beattie, W.H.

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (approx. 2 ppM) present in commercial Xe and ppM levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  1. Imaging methods for detection of infectious foci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couret, I.; Rossi, M.; Weinemann, P.; Moretti, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Several tracers can be used for imaging infection. None is a worthwhile agent for all infectious foci, but each one has preferential applications, depending on its uptake mechanism by the infectious and/or inflammatory focus. Autologous leucocytes labeled in vitro with indium-111 (In-111) or with technetium-99-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (Tc-99m HMPAO) were applied with success in the detection of peripheral bone infection, focal vascular graft infection and inflammatory bowel disease. Labeling with In-111 is of interest in chronic bone infection, while labeling with Tc-99m HMPAO gets the advantage of a better dosimetry and imaging. The interest of in vivo labeled leucocytes with a Tc-99m labeled monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody anti-NCA 95 (BW 250/183) was proved in the same principal type of infectious foci than in vitro labeled leucocytes. Sites of chronic infection in the spine and the pelvis, whether active or healed, appear as photopenic defects on both in vitro labeled leucocytes and Tc-99m monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody (BW 250/183) scintigraphies. With gallium-67 results showed a high sensitivity with a low specificity. This tracer demonstrated good performance to delineate foci of infectious spondylitis. In-111 and Tc-99m labeled polyclonal human immunoglobulin (HIG) was applied with success in the assessment of various infectious foci, particularly in chronic sepsis. As labeled leucocytes, labeled HIG showed cold defects in infectious sepsis of the spine. Research in nuclear medicine is very active in the development of more specific tracers of infection, mainly involved in Tc-99m or In-111 labeled chemotactic peptides, antigranulocyte antibody fragments, antibiotic derivatives and interleukins. (authors). 70 refs

  2. Delamination detection using methods of computational intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihesiulor, Obinna K.; Shankar, Krishna; Zhang, Zhifang; Ray, Tapabrata

    2012-11-01

    Abstract Reliable delamination prediction scheme is indispensable in order to prevent potential risks of catastrophic failures in composite structures. The existence of delaminations changes the vibration characteristics of composite laminates and hence such indicators can be used to quantify the health characteristics of laminates. An approach for online health monitoring of in-service composite laminates is presented in this paper that relies on methods based on computational intelligence. Typical changes in the observed vibration characteristics (i.e. change in natural frequencies) are considered as inputs to identify the existence, location and magnitude of delaminations. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated using numerical models of composite laminates. Since this identification problem essentially involves the solution of an optimization problem, the use of finite element (FE) methods as the underlying tool for analysis turns out to be computationally expensive. A surrogate assisted optimization approach is hence introduced to contain the computational time within affordable limits. An artificial neural network (ANN) model with Bayesian regularization is used as the underlying approximation scheme while an improved rate of convergence is achieved using a memetic algorithm. However, building of ANN surrogate models usually requires large training datasets. K-means clustering is effectively employed to reduce the size of datasets. ANN is also used via inverse modeling to determine the position, size and location of delaminations using changes in measured natural frequencies. The results clearly highlight the efficiency and the robustness of the approach.

  3. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  4. Measurement of capillary permeability in canine heart determined by the tissue injection, residue detection method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Paaske, W P; Haunsø, S

    1991-01-01

    In previous studies the tissue injection, residue detection method failed to provide results of diffusional capillary permeability comparable to those of other methods. For this reason we reconsidered the kinetic theory and found that it is necessary to take into account the apparent (restricted...... (apparent) interstitial volume of distribution, tev is the mean transit time of the indicator, and klo is the recorded fractional initial washout rate constant. In experiments on open chest dog hearts we examined capillary permeability for 51Cr-EDTA and 99mTc-DTPA with the tissue injection, residue...... detection method and the single injection, residue detection method. Blood flow was measured independently with local 133Xenon washout. D and D' were measured by a true transient diffusion method. We found that the tissue injection, residue detection method gave results for capillary extraction and Pd...

  5. Measurement of capillary permeability in canine heart determined by the tissue injection, residue detection method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Paaske, William P; Haunsø, S

    1991-01-01

    detection method and the single injection, residue detection method. Blood flow was measured independently with local 133Xenon washout. D and D' were measured by a true transient diffusion method. We found that the tissue injection, residue detection method gave results for capillary extraction and Pd......In previous studies the tissue injection, residue detection method failed to provide results of diffusional capillary permeability comparable to those of other methods. For this reason we reconsidered the kinetic theory and found that it is necessary to take into account the apparent (restricted...... (apparent) interstitial volume of distribution, tev is the mean transit time of the indicator, and klo is the recorded fractional initial washout rate constant. In experiments on open chest dog hearts we examined capillary permeability for 51Cr-EDTA and 99mTc-DTPA with the tissue injection, residue...

  6. Change Detection by Fusing Advantages of Threshold and Clustering Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M.; Hao, M.

    2017-09-01

    In change detection (CD) of medium-resolution remote sensing images, the threshold and clustering methods are two kinds of the most popular ones. It is found that the threshold method of the expectation maximum (EM) algorithm usually generates a CD map including many false alarms but almost detecting all changes, and the fuzzy local information c-means algorithm (FLICM) obtains a homogeneous CD map but with some missed detections. Therefore, we aim to design a framework to improve CD results by fusing the advantages of threshold and clustering methods. Experimental results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. CHANGE DETECTION BY FUSING ADVANTAGES OF THRESHOLD AND CLUSTERING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In change detection (CD of medium-resolution remote sensing images, the threshold and clustering methods are two kinds of the most popular ones. It is found that the threshold method of the expectation maximum (EM algorithm usually generates a CD map including many false alarms but almost detecting all changes, and the fuzzy local information c-means algorithm (FLICM obtains a homogeneous CD map but with some missed detections. Therefore, we aim to design a framework to improve CD results by fusing the advantages of threshold and clustering methods. Experimental results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Rotors fault detection using vibration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej GRZADZIELA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ships’ propulsion plant usually works in a hard environment caused by static forces and permanent dynamic loads. Basic elements of propulsion systems are rotation machines like gas turbine engines, gear boxes, propulsion shafts etc. Another loads coming from technological faults of rotation machines like misalignment, unbalancing or resonance. Exciding of tolerated values of shaft alignments or unbalancing can cause a damage of radial and thrust bearings in relative short time. Similar situation is occurred when the mode or modes of rotors natural resonances are in the range of operational speed. The paper compares three methods of calculating and recognizing modes of rotors’ natural frequencies using laboratory model of rotational machine. Results of FEM modeling, modal hammers measurements and synchronous vibration measurement show that free stop-down process is an interesting area for the vibration diagnosing of rotational machines.

  9. Comparison of Two Detection Methods in Thin Layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    silver nitrate method, photosynthesis inhibition method and fungi spore inhibition method (Lowor, 2000). Of these detection methods, o-tolidine plus potassium iodide and ... The cartridge and its contents were dried for 15 min by a vacuum pump. The herbicide was then eluted with 10 μl of acetone to give the clean extracts.

  10. Onset of nuclear boiling in forced convection (Method of detection)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachedi, M.

    1986-01-01

    Local onset of boiling in any pressure water cooling systems, as a PWR for instance, can mean a possible dangerous mismatch between the produced heat and the cooling capabilities. Its consequences can lead to serious accidental conditions and a reliable technique to detect such a phenomenon is therefore of particular need. Most techniques used up to now rely basically on local measurements and assume therefore usually the previous knowledge of the actual hot or boiling spot. The method proposed here based on externally located accelerometers appears to be sensitive to the global behaviour of the mechanical structure and is therefore not particularly bound to any exact localization of the sensors. The vibrations produced in the mechanical structure of the heated assembly are measured by accelerometers placed on the external surfaces that are easily accessible. The onset of the boiling, the growth and condensation of the bubbles on the heated wall, induces a resonance in the structure and an excitation at its particular eigen frequencies. Distinctive peaks are clearly observed in the spectral density function calculated from the accelerometer signal as soon as bubbles are produced. The technique is shown to be very sensitive even at the earliest phase of boiling and quite independent on sensor position. A complete hydrodynamic analysis of the experimental channels have been performed in order to assess the validity of the method both in steady conditions and during rapid power transients

  11. Steam leak detection method in pipeline using histogram analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Oh; Jeon, Hyeong Seop; Son, Ki Sung; Chae, Gyung Sun; Park, Jong Won

    2015-01-01

    Leak detection in a pipeline usually involves acoustic emission sensors such as contact type sensors. These contact type sensors pose difficulties for installation and cannot operate in areas having high temperature and radiation. Therefore, recently, many researchers have studied the leak detection phenomenon by using a camera. Leak detection by using a camera has the advantages of long distance monitoring and wide area surveillance. However, the conventional leak detection method by using difference images often mistakes the vibration of a structure for a leak. In this paper, we propose a method for steam leakage detection by using the moving average of difference images and histogram analysis. The proposed method can separate the leakage and the vibration of a structure. The working performance of the proposed method is verified by comparing with experimental results

  12. Real-Time Pore Pressure Detection: Indicators and Improved Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Jincai Zhang; Shangxian Yin

    2017-01-01

    High uncertainties may exist in the predrill pore pressure prediction in new prospects and deepwater subsalt wells; therefore, real-time pore pressure detection is highly needed to reduce drilling risks. The methods for pore pressure detection (the resistivity, sonic, and corrected d-exponent methods) are improved using the depth-dependent normal compaction equations to adapt to the requirements of the real-time monitoring. A new method is proposed to calculate pore pressure from the connecti...

  13. Systems and Methods for Automated Water Detection Using Visible Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L. (Inventor); Matthies, Larry H. (Inventor); Bellutta, Paolo (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods are disclosed that include automated machine vision that can utilize images of scenes captured by a 3D imaging system configured to image light within the visible light spectrum to detect water. One embodiment includes autonomously detecting water bodies within a scene including capturing at least one 3D image of a scene using a sensor system configured to detect visible light and to measure distance from points within the scene to the sensor system, and detecting water within the scene using a processor configured to detect regions within each of the at least one 3D images that possess at least one characteristic indicative of the presence of water.

  14. Rapid radiometric method for detection of Salmonella in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, B.J.; Eyles, M.J.; Murrell, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    A radiometric method for the detection of Salmonella in foods has been developed which is based on Salmonella poly H agglutinating serum preventing Salmonella from producing 14CO2 from [14C] dulcitol. The method will detect the presence or absence of Salmonella in a product within 30 h compared to 4 to 5 days by routine culture methods. The method has been evaluated against a routine culture method using 58 samples of food. The overall agreement was 91%. Five samples negative for Salmonella by the routine method were positive by the radiometric method. These may have been false positives. However, the routine method may have failed to detect Salmonella due to the presence of large numbers of lactose-fermenting bacteria which hindered isolation of Salmonella colonies on the selective agar plates

  15. 25 Years of Self-organized Criticality: Numerical Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAteer, R. T. James; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Dimitropoulou, Michaila; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Pruessner, Gunnar; Morales, Laura; Ireland, Jack; Abramenko, Valentyna

    2016-01-01

    The detection and characterization of self-organized criticality (SOC), in both real and simulated data, has undergone many significant revisions over the past 25 years. The explosive advances in the many numerical methods available for detecting, discriminating, and ultimately testing, SOC have played a critical role in developing our understanding of how systems experience and exhibit SOC. In this article, methods of detecting SOC are reviewed; from correlations to complexity to critical quantities. A description of the basic autocorrelation method leads into a detailed analysis of application-oriented methods developed in the last 25 years. In the second half of this manuscript space-based, time-based and spatial-temporal methods are reviewed and the prevalence of power laws in nature is described, with an emphasis on event detection and characterization. The search for numerical methods to clearly and unambiguously detect SOC in data often leads us outside the comfort zone of our own disciplines—the answers to these questions are often obtained by studying the advances made in other fields of study. In addition, numerical detection methods often provide the optimum link between simulations and experiments in scientific research. We seek to explore this boundary where the rubber meets the road, to review this expanding field of research of numerical detection of SOC systems over the past 25 years, and to iterate forwards so as to provide some foresight and guidance into developing breakthroughs in this subject over the next quarter of a century.

  16. A Method of Detections' Fusion for GNSS Anti-Spoofing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Huiqi; Li, Hong; Lu, Mingquan

    2016-12-19

    The spoofing attack is one of the security threats of systems depending on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). There have been many GNSS spoofing detection methods, and each of them focuses on a characteristic of the GNSS signal or a measurement that the receiver has obtained. The method based on a single detector is insufficient against spoofing attacks in some scenarios. How to fuse multiple detections together is a problem that concerns the performance of GNSS anti-spoofing. Scholars have put forward a model to fuse different detection results based on the Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) of evidence combination. However, there are some problems in the application. The main challenge is the valuation of the belief function, which is a key issue in DST. This paper proposes a practical method of detections' fusion based on an approach to assign the belief function for spoofing detections. The frame of discernment is simplified, and the hard decision of hypothesis testing is replaced by the soft decision; then, the belief functions for some detections can be evaluated. The method is discussed in detail, and a performance evaluation is provided, as well. Detections' fusion reduces false alarms of detection and makes the result more reliable. Experimental results based on public test datasets demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

  17. Rubella virus detection by ELISA method in exposed radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianmei; Zhu Bo; Zhu Youming; Shao Jinhui; Wu Weiping; Han Jinxiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A rapid diagnosis method was developed to detect Rubella virus infection in radiation workers. Methods: Modified ELISA method was used to detect the level of lgG and lgM antibodies in 514 in Jinan district. Results: 90.47% of 514 cases was shown to be resistant against Rubella virus; 6.42% were sensitive type; 0.78% belonged to be reinfected. Conclusion: Detection of Rubella virus in exposed radiation workers was imperative, and vaccine against Rubella virus was also needed to eliminate the infection risk. (authors)

  18. An Automatic Shadow Detection Method for VHR Remote Sensing Orthoimagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiongjie Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The application potential of very high resolution (VHR remote sensing imagery has been boosted by recent developments in the data acquisition and processing ability of aerial photogrammetry. However, shadows in images contribute to problems such as incomplete spectral information, lower intensity brightness, and fuzzy boundaries, which seriously affect the efficiency of the image interpretation. In this paper, to address these issues, a simple and automatic method of shadow detection is presented. The proposed method combines the advantages of the property-based and geometric-based methods to automatically detect the shadowed areas in VHR imagery. A geometric model of the scene and the solar position are used to delineate the shadowed and non-shadowed areas in the VHR image. A matting method is then applied to the image to refine the shadow mask. Different types of shadowed aerial orthoimages were used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed shadow detection method, and the results were compared with the results obtained by two state-of-the-art methods. The overall accuracy of the proposed method on the three tests was around 90%, confirming the effectiveness and robustness of the new method for detecting fine shadows, without any human input. The proposed method also performs better in detecting shadows in areas with water than the other two methods.

  19. Dim target detection method based on salient graph fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruo-lan; Shen, Yi-yan; Jiang, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Dim target detection is one key problem in digital image processing field. With development of multi-spectrum imaging sensor, it becomes a trend to improve the performance of dim target detection by fusing the information from different spectral images. In this paper, one dim target detection method based on salient graph fusion was proposed. In the method, Gabor filter with multi-direction and contrast filter with multi-scale were combined to construct salient graph from digital image. And then, the maximum salience fusion strategy was designed to fuse the salient graph from different spectral images. Top-hat filter was used to detect dim target from the fusion salient graph. Experimental results show that proposal method improved the probability of target detection and reduced the probability of false alarm on clutter background images.

  20. A Novel Unscheduled Islanding Detection Method for Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microgrid with its intelligent and flexible control characteristics conform to the trend of sustainable development of electricity, and when the microgrid in the unplanned island state, the successful detection of the island is a prerequisite, energy storage inverter as the key equipment in the microgrid system, island protection is one of the necessary functions. In this paper, an improved islanding detection method based on active frequency drift and q-axis reactive power perturbation is proposed. The method has the advantages of faster detection speed and minor influence on power quality, which makes the energy storage inverter with better output power quality when it works on grid-connected state, and can be detected the islanding state quickly from grid-connected mode to islanded mode. Finally, the validity and superiority of the improved island detection method are verified by simulation experiments.

  1. A method for detecting microcalcifications in Digital Mammograms

    OpenAIRE

    Wallet, Bradley C.; Solka, Jeffrey L.; Priebe, Carey E.

    1997-01-01

    Microcalcification clusters are often an important indicator for the detection of malignancy in mammograms. In many cases, microcalcifications are the only indication of a malignancy. However, the detection of microcalcifications can be a difficult process. They are small and can be embedded in dense tissue. This paper presents a method for automatically detecting microcalcifications. We utilize a high-boost filter to suppress background clutter enabling segmentation even in very dense breast...

  2. Current status of the EPR method to detect irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desrosiers, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    This review gives a brief outline of the principles of the EPR detection method for irradiated foods by food type. For each food type, the scope, limitations and status of the method are given. The extensive reference list aims to include all which define the method, as well as some rarely cited works of historical importance. (author)

  3. DNA based methods used for characterization and detection of food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of food borne pathogen is of outmost importance in the food industries and related agencies. For the last few decades conventional methods were used to detect food borne pathogens based on phenotypic characters. At the advent of complementary base pairing and amplification of DNA, the diagnosis of food ...

  4. Method for the detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agron, Peter G. (Castro Valley, CA); Andersen, Gary L. (Berkeley, CA); Walker, Richard L. (Davis, CA)

    2008-10-28

    Described herein is the identification of a novel Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis locus that serves as a marker for DNA-based identification of this bacterium. In addition, three primer pairs derived from this locus that may be used in a nucleotide detection method to detect the presence of the bacterium are also disclosed herein.

  5. [Studies on detection methods for Legionella species from environmental water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, O; Takagi, K; Tani, K; Kinumaki, A

    1999-01-01

    We investigated selective cultivation media and previous treatments of samples suitable for detection of Legionella species from environmental water and for elimination of co-existing microbes which gave rise to an interference with the evaluation of Legionella sp. growth. Twenty thousand U of polymyxin B (PL-B)/ml and 100 micrograms of oxytetracycline (OTC)/ml seem to be useful as additives to MWY selective agar medium. Both antibiotics markedly inhibited the growth of co-existing microbes with almost no influence on the growth of Legionella sp. In the studies on the resistance of 8 strains of Legionella sp., 24 strains of co-existing microbes and 2 standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to acid treatment (0.2 M HCl-KCl, pH 2.2, 25 degrees C, 4 minutes) and heating (50 degrees C, 20 minutes), acid treatment or heating alone showed no inhibition on the growth of almost all strains examined. However, combination with acid treatment after heating resulted in an apparent extinction of almost all microbes except for Legionella sp., Seven strains from co-existing microbes showed an apparent growth inhibition against 8 strains of Legionella sp. with different serotypes and were all identified as Pseudomonas aeurginosa, which were all eliminated by means of the combination with acid treatment after heating. From these results, it was concluded that the combined pre-treatment of water samples with acid after heating and the addition of PL-B and OTC into the selective cultivation medium is an useful method for detection of Legionella sp. from environmental water.

  6. Karst topography : noninvasive geophysical detection methods and construction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the current state of the practice with regards to karst detection : methods and current karst construction practices and to recommend the best practices for use by the Virginia : Department of Transpor...

  7. Research advancement of detection methods of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yunxia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen of both human beings and animals,which has been widely recognized over the world.L.monocytogenes can be found in dairy products,vegetables,meat and other food,so it has caused great threat to human health.How to detect the trace of L.monocytogenes is a key link in the process of food-borne disease prevention and control.A wide variety of culture and alternative methods have been developed in order to detect this pathogen in food.The current articl introduces the traditional detection method and all kinds of rapid methods such as immunoassay,biosensors,Bacteriophage-based detection methods and molecular biological assay.

  8. Application of Trend Detection Methods in Monitoring Physiological Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Melek

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of various trend detection methods developed using fuzzy logic, statistical, and regression techniques. A new method that uses noise rejection fuzzy clustering is also proposed in the paper to enhance the performance of trend detection methodologies. The comparative investigation has produced systematic guidelines for the selection of a proper trend detection method for different application requirements. This paper has resulted from work on military applications of on-line trend analysis, such as monitoring of wounded soldiers by first-response medical staff at the battlefield and high-acceleration protection of fighter jet pilots. Efficient trend detection methods can provide early warnings, severity assessments of a subject's physiological state, and decision support for firstresponse medical attendants. Representative physiological variables such as blood pressure, heartbeat rate, and ear opacity are considered in this paper.

  9. Revisiting chlorophyll extraction methods in biological soil crusts – methodology for determination of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll a + b as compared to previous methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Caesar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll concentrations of biological soil crust (biocrust samples are commonly determined to quantify the relevance of photosynthetically active organisms within these surface soil communities. Whereas chlorophyll extraction methods for freshwater algae and leaf tissues of vascular plants are well established, there is still some uncertainty regarding the optimal extraction method for biocrusts, where organism composition is highly variable and samples comprise major amounts of soil. In this study we analyzed the efficiency of two different chlorophyll extraction solvents, the effect of grinding the soil samples prior to the extraction procedure, and the impact of shaking as an intermediate step during extraction. The analyses were conducted on four different types of biocrusts. Our results show that for all biocrust types chlorophyll contents obtained with ethanol were significantly lower than those obtained using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO as a solvent. Grinding of biocrust samples prior to analysis caused a highly significant decrease in chlorophyll content for green algal lichen- and cyanolichen-dominated biocrusts, and a tendency towards lower values for moss- and algae-dominated biocrusts. Shaking of the samples after each extraction step had a significant positive effect on the chlorophyll content of green algal lichen- and cyanolichen-dominated biocrusts. Based on our results we confirm a DMSO-based chlorophyll extraction method without grinding pretreatment and suggest the addition of an intermediate shaking step for complete chlorophyll extraction (see Supplement S6 for detailed manual. Determination of a universal chlorophyll extraction method for biocrusts is essential for the inter-comparability of publications conducted across all continents.

  10. An improved PCA method with application to boiler leak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xi; Marquez, Horacio J; Chen, Tongwen; Riaz, Muhammad

    2005-07-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular fault detection technique. It has been widely used in process industries, especially in the chemical industry. In industrial applications, achieving a sensitive system capable of detecting incipient faults, which maintains the false alarm rate to a minimum, is a crucial issue. Although a lot of research has been focused on these issues for PCA-based fault detection and diagnosis methods, sensitivity of the fault detection scheme versus false alarm rate continues to be an important issue. In this paper, an improved PCA method is proposed to address this problem. In this method, a new data preprocessing scheme and a new fault detection scheme designed for Hotelling's T2 as well as the squared prediction error are developed. A dynamic PCA model is also developed for boiler leak detection. This new method is applied to boiler water/steam leak detection with real data from Syncrude Canada's utility plant in Fort McMurray, Canada. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively reduce false alarm rate, provide effective and correct leak alarms, and give early warning to operators.

  11. Some methods for the detection of fissionable matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guery, M.

    1967-03-01

    A number of equipments or processes allowing to detect uranium or plutonium in industrial plants, and in particular to measure solution concentrations, are studied here. Each method has its own field of applications and has its own performances, which we have tried to define by calculations and by experiments. The following topics have been treated: γ absorptiometer with an Am source, detection test by neutron multiplication, apparatus for the measurement of the α activity of a solution, fissionable matter detection by γ emission, fissionable matter detection by neutron emission. (author) [fr

  12. Dynamic baseline detection method for power data network service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic baseline Traffic detection Method which is based on the historical traffic data for the Power data network. The method uses Cisco's NetFlow acquisition tool to collect the original historical traffic data from network element at fixed intervals. This method uses three dimensions information including the communication port, time, traffic (number of bytes or number of packets) t. By filtering, removing the deviation value, calculating the dynamic baseline value, comparing the actual value with the baseline value, the method can detect whether the current network traffic is abnormal.

  13. Evaluation of primary coolant leaks and assessment of detection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassette, P.; Giroux, C.; Roche, H.; Seveon, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A review of the French PWR situation concerning primary coolant leaks is presented, including a description of operating technical specifications, of the collecting system of primary coolant leakage into the containment and of the detection methods. It is mainly based on a compilation over three years, 1981 to 1983, of almost all actual leaks, their natures, causes, consequences and methods used for their detection. By analysing these data it is possible to evaluate the efficiency of the primary coolant leak detection system and the problems raised by compliance with the criteria defined in the operating technical specifications. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of primary coolant leaks and assessment of detection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassette, P.; Giroux, C.; Roche, H.; Seveon, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    A review of the French PWR situation concerning primary coolant leaks is presented, including a description of operating technical specifications, of the collecting system of primary coolant leakage into the containment and of the detection methods. It is mainly based on a compilation over three years, 1981 to 1983, of almost all actual leaks, their natures, causes, consequences and methods used for their detection. By analysing these data it is possible to evaluate the efficiency of the primary coolant leak detection system and the problems raised by compliance with the criteria defined in the operating technical specifications

  15. Defects detecting method of lamp cap of single soldering lug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jihe; Lv, Jidong

    2017-07-01

    In order to resolve the problems of low efficiency and large separating difference in fault detection of lamp holders with single soldering lug, an image-detection-based defect detection method is presented in this paper. The selected image is first preprocessed, where the possible area of soldering lug is cut in this preprocessing to narrow the scope for subsequent partition with the consideration that the smooth surface of metal at lamp holder and black insulation glass may reflect the light. Then, the soldering lug is extracted by a series of processing including clustering partition. Based on this, the defects are detected by regional marking, area comparison, circularity and coordinate deviation. The experiment results show that the designed method is simple and practical to detect main quality defects of lamp holder with single soldering lug correctly and efficiently.

  16. An automated patient recognition method based on an image-matching technique using previous chest radiographs in the picture archiving and communication system environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Junji; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Kondo, Keisuke; Doi, Kunio

    2001-01-01

    An automated patient recognition method for correcting 'wrong' chest radiographs being stored in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) environment has been developed. The method is based on an image-matching technique that uses previous chest radiographs. For identification of a 'wrong' patient, the correlation value was determined for a previous image of a patient and a new, current image of the presumed corresponding patient. The current image was shifted horizontally and vertically and rotated, so that we could determine the best match between the two images. The results indicated that the correlation values between the current and previous images for the same, 'correct' patients were generally greater than those for different, 'wrong' patients. Although the two histograms for the same patient and for different patients overlapped at correlation values greater than 0.80, most parts of the histograms were separated. The correlation value was compared with a threshold value that was determined based on an analysis of the histograms of correlation values obtained for the same patient and for different patients. If the current image is considered potentially to belong to a 'wrong' patient, then a warning sign with the probability for a 'wrong' patient is provided to alert radiology personnel. Our results indicate that at least half of the 'wrong' images in our database can be identified correctly with the method described in this study. The overall performance in terms of a receiver operating characteristic curve showed a high performance of the system. The results also indicate that some readings of 'wrong' images for a given patient in the PACS environment can be prevented by use of the method we developed. Therefore an automated warning system for patient recognition would be useful in correcting 'wrong' images being stored in the PACS environment

  17. Treatment response in psychotic patients classified according to social and clinical needs, drug side effects, and previous treatment; a method to identify functional remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alenius, Malin; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta; Honoré, Per Gustaf Hartvig

    2009-01-01

    ; underestimating residual symptoms, negative symptoms, and side effects; or being to open for individual interpretation. The aim of this study was to present and evaluate a new method of classification according to treatment response and, thus, to identify patients in functional remission. METHOD: A naturalistic......, cross-sectional study was performed using patient interviews and information from patient files. The new classification method CANSEPT, which combines the Camberwell Assessment of Need rating scale, the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser side effect rating scale (SE), and the patient's previous treatment...... history (PT), was used to group the patients according to treatment response. CANSEPT was evaluated by comparison of expected and observed results. RESULTS: In the patient population (n = 123), the patients in functional remission, as defined by CANSEPT, had higher quality of life, fewer hospitalizations...

  18. Retrospective identification of a previously undetected clinical case of OXA-48-producing K-pneumoniae and E-coli : the importance of adequate detection guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Ina; van Esser, Joost; Kluytmans-van den Bergh, Marjolein; Zhou, Kai; Rossen, John W.; Verhulst, Carlo; Verduin, Kees; Kluytmans, Jan

    The laboratory detection of OXA-48-carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is difficult, as minimum inhibition concentrations for carbapenems are often below the clinical breakpoint. In 2011, the Dutch national guideline for the detection of highly resistant micro-organisms was issued, which

  19. Musical Tone Law Method for the Structural Damage Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage detection tests of inclined cables, steel pipes, spherical shells, and an actual cable-stayed bridge were conducted based on the proposed musical tone law method. The results show that the musical tone law method could be used in the damage detection of isotropic material structures with simple shape, like cables, pipes, plates, and shells. Having distinct spectral lines like a comb with a certain interval distribution rule is the main characteristic of the music tone law. Damage detection baseline could be established by quantizing the fitting relationship between modal orders and the corresponding frequency values. The main advantage of this method is that it could be used in the structural damage detection without vibration information of an intact structure as a reference.

  20. Detection method for genetically modified papaya using duplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Shimizu, Kaori; Mishima, Takashi; Aoki, Nobutaro; Hattori, Hideki; Sato, Hidetaka; Ueda, Nobuo; Watanabe, Takahiro; Hino, Akihiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio

    2006-08-01

    A simple and rapid method for the identification of genetically modified (GM) papaya, derived from Line 55-1, was developed by modifying the Japanese official PCR method. Genomic DNA was directly extracted from the fresh fruit without the lyophilization step, using a commercial silica-based kit. To develop a duplex PCR method which simultaneously detects the GM papaya-specific gene and the intrinsic papain gene, the papain 2-5'/3' (amplicon size; 184 bp) primer pair for the detection of the papain gene was newly designed within the region of the products (211 bp) amplified using the papain 1-5'/-3' primer pair adopted in the Japanese official PCR method. To detect the GM papaya-specific gene, the primer pair Nos C-5'/CaM N-3' described in the Japanese official method was used. The DNA sequences of the GM papaya gene and the intrinsic papain gene were co-amplified using the PCR method in a single tube. The developed duplex PCR method allows the simultaneous detection of the products by means of agarose gel electrophoresis or microchip electrophoresis. The proposed method for GM papaya identification is simple and rapid.

  1. Soybean allergen detection methods--a comparison study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M. Højgaard; Holzhauser, T.; Bisson, C.

    2008-01-01

    Soybean containing products are widely consumed, thus reliable methods for detection of soy in foods are needed in order to make appropriate risk assessment studies to adequately protect soy allergic patients. Six methods were compared using eight food products with a declared content of soy...

  2. The harmonics detection method based on neural network applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The harmonics detection method based on neural network applied to harmonics compensation. R Dehini, A Bassou, B Ferdi. Abstract. Several different methods have been used to sense load currents and extract its harmonic component in order to produce a reference current in shunt active power filters (SAPF), and to ...

  3. Comprehensive methods for earlier detection and monitoring of forest decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Pontius; Richard Hallett

    2014-01-01

    Forested ecosystems are threatened by invasive pests, pathogens, and unusual climatic events brought about by climate change. Earlier detection of incipient forest health problems and a quantitatively rigorous assessment method is increasingly important. Here, we describe a method that is adaptable across tree species and stress agents and practical for use in the...

  4. Comparison of detection methods for antibodies to boar spermatozoa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The different methods varied in their sensitivity to determination of sperm antibody titers. The ELISA was the most sensitive of the methods. The ELISA and Protein A agglutination were the most suitable in terms of specificity and repeatability for sperm antibody detection in swine. (Tropical Veterinarian: 2003 21(1): 1-13) ...

  5. A Double Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Detecting African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To establish a double polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the simultaneous detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV). Methods: By using reference sequences of ASFV and SVDV, this study synthesized parts of the genes connected to the 19-T vector which ...

  6. Method of detecting genetic deletions identified with chromosomal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe W; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas

    2013-11-26

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acids probes are typically of a complexity greater tha 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particlularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar ut genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  7. Improved Ordinary Measure and Image Entropy Theory based intelligent Copy Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengpan Ye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more and more multimedia websites appear in social network. It brings some security problems, such as privacy, piracy, disclosure of sensitive contents and so on. Aiming at copyright protection, the copy detection technology of multimedia contents becomes a hot topic. In our previous work, a new computer-based copyright control system used to detect the media has been proposed. Based on this system, this paper proposes an improved media feature matching measure and an entropy based copy detection method. The Levenshtein Distance was used to enhance the matching degree when using for feature matching measure in copy detection. For entropy based copy detection, we make a fusion of the two features of entropy matrix of the entropy feature we extracted. Firstly,we extract the entropy matrix of the image and normalize it. Then, we make a fusion of the eigenvalue feature and the transfer matrix feature of the entropy matrix. The fused features will be used for image copy detection. The experiments show that compared to use these two kinds of features for image detection singly, using feature fusion matching method is apparent robustness and effectiveness. The fused feature has a high detection for copy images which have been received some attacks such as noise, compression, zoom, rotation and so on. Comparing with referred methods, the method proposed is more intelligent and can be achieved good performance.

  8. A review on detection methods used for foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne pathogens have been a cause of a large number of diseases worldwide and more so in developing countries. This has a major economic impact. It is important to contain them, and to do so, early detection is very crucial. Detection and diagnostics relied on culture-based methods to begin with and have developed in the recent past parallel to the developments towards immunological methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA and molecular biology-based methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The aim has always been to find a rapid, sensitive, specific and cost-effective method. Ranging from culturing of microbes to the futuristic biosensor technology, the methods have had this common goal. This review summarizes the recent trends and brings together methods that have been developed over the years.

  9. A New Outlier Detection Method for Multidimensional Datasets

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Messih, Mario A.

    2012-07-01

    This study develops a novel hybrid method for outlier detection (HMOD) that combines the idea of distance based and density based methods. The proposed method has two main advantages over most of the other outlier detection methods. The first advantage is that it works well on both dense and sparse datasets. The second advantage is that, unlike most other outlier detection methods that require careful parameter setting and prior knowledge of the data, HMOD is not very sensitive to small changes in parameter values within certain parameter ranges. The only required parameter to set is the number of nearest neighbors. In addition, we made a fully parallelized implementation of HMOD that made it very efficient in applications. Moreover, we proposed a new way of using the outlier detection for redundancy reduction in datasets where the confidence level that evaluates how accurate the less redundant dataset can be used to represent the original dataset can be specified by users. HMOD is evaluated on synthetic datasets (dense and mixed “dense and sparse”) and a bioinformatics problem of redundancy reduction of dataset of position weight matrices (PWMs) of transcription factor binding sites. In addition, in the process of assessing the performance of our redundancy reduction method, we developed a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the confidence level of reduced dataset representing the original dataset. The evaluation of the results shows that our method can be used in a wide range of problems.

  10. A high-throughput multiplex method adapted for GMO detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; Chupeau, Gaëlle; Berard, Aurélie; McKhann, Heather; Romaniuk, Marcel; Giancola, Sandra; Laval, Valérie; Bertheau, Yves; Brunel, Dominique

    2008-12-24

    A high-throughput multiplex assay for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMO) was developed on the basis of the existing SNPlex method designed for SNP genotyping. This SNPlex assay allows the simultaneous detection of up to 48 short DNA sequences (approximately 70 bp; "signature sequences") from taxa endogenous reference genes, from GMO constructions, screening targets, construct-specific, and event-specific targets, and finally from donor organisms. This assay avoids certain shortcomings of multiplex PCR-based methods already in widespread use for GMO detection. The assay demonstrated high specificity and sensitivity. The results suggest that this assay is reliable, flexible, and cost- and time-effective for high-throughput GMO detection.

  11. Transistor-based particle detection systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ankit; Nair, Pradeep R.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2015-06-09

    Transistor-based particle detection systems and methods may be configured to detect charged and non-charged particles. Such systems may include a supporting structure contacting a gate of a transistor and separating the gate from a dielectric of the transistor, and the transistor may have a near pull-in bias and a sub-threshold region bias to facilitate particle detection. The transistor may be configured to change current flow through the transistor in response to a change in stiffness of the gate caused by securing of a particle to the gate, and the transistor-based particle detection system may configured to detect the non-charged particle at least from the change in current flow.

  12. A new detection method of oil rigs in SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Yang, Jingsong; Ren, Lin

    2013-10-01

    It's difficult for simple space-borne SAR to identify oil rigs effectively in single pass SAR image. One method of oil rig detection is using multi-temporal SAR images. Some papers had do some research on it. In this paper, we use interferometry SAR image to detect the oil rigs. We get the correlation coefficient image from the In-SAR data, and using the histogram of correlation coefficient image, A Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) algorithm is imported to detect the oil rigs. The Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) is used to get the threshold of detection. The test result shows that sea coherent target detection in the coherent coefficient image is efficacious.

  13. MoveSteg: A Method of Network Steganography Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Szczypiorski, Krzysztof; Tyl, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a new method for detecting a source point of time based network steganography - MoveSteg. A steganography carrier could be an example of multimedia stream made with packets. These packets are then delayed intentionally to send hidden information using time based steganography methods. The presented analysis describes a method that allows finding the source of steganography stream in network that is under our management.

  14. Development of a rapid lateral flow immunoassay test for detection of exosomes previously enriched from cell culture medium and body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Rodríguez, Myriam; López-Cobo, Sheila; Reyburn, Hugh T; Costa-García, Agustín; López-Martín, Soraya; Yáñez-Mó, María; Cernuda-Morollón, Eva; Paschen, Annette; Valés-Gómez, Mar; Blanco-López, Maria Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are cell-secreted nanovesicles (40-200 nm) that represent a rich source of novel biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of certain diseases. Despite the increasingly recognized relevance of these vesicles as biomarkers, their detection has been limited due in part to current technical challenges in the rapid isolation and analysis of exosomes. The complexity of the development of analytical platforms relies on the heterogeneous composition of the exosome membrane. One of the most attractive tests is the inmunochromatographic strips, which allow rapid detection by unskilled operators. We have successfully developed a novel lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for the detection of exosomes based on the use of tetraspanins as targets. We have applied this platform for the detection of exosomes purified from different sources: cell culture supernatants, human plasma and urine. As proof of concept, we explored the analytical potential of this LFIA platform to accurately quantify exosomes purified from a human metastatic melanoma cell line. The one-step assay can be completed in 15 min, with a limit of detection of 8.54×10(5) exosomes/µL when a blend of anti-CD9 and anti-CD81 were selected as capture antibodies and anti-CD63 labelled with gold nanoparticles as detection antibody. Based on our results, this platform could be well suited to be used as a rapid exosome quantification tool, with promising diagnostic applications, bearing in mind that the detection of exosomes from different sources may require adaptation of the analytical settings to their specific composition.

  15. Development of a rapid lateral flow immunoassay test for detection of exosomes previously enriched from cell culture medium and body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Oliveira-Rodríguez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are cell-secreted nanovesicles (40–200 nm that represent a rich source of novel biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of certain diseases. Despite the increasingly recognized relevance of these vesicles as biomarkers, their detection has been limited due in part to current technical challenges in the rapid isolation and analysis of exosomes. The complexity of the development of analytical platforms relies on the heterogeneous composition of the exosome membrane. One of the most attractive tests is the inmunochromatographic strips, which allow rapid detection by unskilled operators. We have successfully developed a novel lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA for the detection of exosomes based on the use of tetraspanins as targets. We have applied this platform for the detection of exosomes purified from different sources: cell culture supernatants, human plasma and urine. As proof of concept, we explored the analytical potential of this LFIA platform to accurately quantify exosomes purified from a human metastatic melanoma cell line. The one-step assay can be completed in 15 min, with a limit of detection of 8.54×105 exosomes/µL when a blend of anti-CD9 and anti-CD81 were selected as capture antibodies and anti-CD63 labelled with gold nanoparticles as detection antibody. Based on our results, this platform could be well suited to be used as a rapid exosome quantification tool, with promising diagnostic applications, bearing in mind that the detection of exosomes from different sources may require adaptation of the analytical settings to their specific composition.

  16. Effects of Feature Extraction and Classification Methods on Cyberbully Detection

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZEL, Selma Ayşe; SARAÇ, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying is defined as an aggressive, intentional action against a defenseless person by using the Internet, or other electronic contents. Researchers have found that many of the bullying cases have tragically ended in suicides; hence automatic detection of cyberbullying has become important. In this study we show the effects of feature extraction, feature selection, and classification methods that are used, on the performance of automatic detection of cyberbullying. To perform the exper...

  17. Tumor specific glycoproteins and method for detecting tumorigenic cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, E.A.; Bolmer, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    The detection of tumour specific glycoproteins (TSGP) in human sera often indicates the presence of a malignant tumour in a patient. The distinguishing characteristics of TSGP isolated from the blood sera of cancer patients are described in detail together with methods of TSGP isolation and purification. Details are also given of radioimmunoassay techniques capable of detecting very low levels of serum TSGP with high specificity. (U.K.)

  18. Detecting Pipe Bursts Using Heuristic and CUSUM Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, M.; Jung, D.; Vreeburg, J.; van de Roer, M.; Lansey, K.; Rietveld, L.

    2014-01-01

    Pipe bursts in a drinking water distribution system lead to water losses, interruption of supply, and damage to streets and houses due to the uncontrolled water flow. To minimize the negative consequences of pipe bursts, an early detection is necessary. This paper describes a heuristic burst detection method, which continuously compares forecasted and measured values of the water demand. The forecasts of the water demand were generated by an adaptive water demand forecasting model. To test th...

  19. Steam leak detection in advance reactors via acoustics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Raj Kumar; Rao, A. Rama

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Steam leak detection system is developed to detect any leak inside the reactor vault. → The technique uses leak noise frequency spectrum for leak detection. → Testing of system and method to locate the leak is also developed and discussed in present paper. - Abstract: Prediction of LOCA (loss of coolant activity) plays very important role in safety of nuclear reactor. Coolant is responsible for heat transfer from fuel bundles. Loss of coolant is an accidental situation which requires immediate shut down of reactor. Fall in system pressure during LOCA is the trip parameter used for initiating automatic reactor shut down. However, in primary heat transport system operating in two phase regimes, detection of small break LOCA is not simple. Due to very slow leak rates, time for the fall of pressure is significantly slow. From reactor safety point of view, it is extremely important to find reliable and effective alternative for detecting slow pressure drop in case of small break LOCA. One such technique is the acoustic signal caused by LOCA in small breaks. In boiling water reactors whose primary heat transport is to be driven by natural circulation, small break LOCA detection is important. For prompt action on post small break LOCA, steam leak detection system is developed to detect any leak inside the reactor vault. The detection technique is reliable and plays a very important role in ensuring safety of the reactor. Methodology developed for steam leak detection is discussed in present paper. The methods to locate the leak is also developed and discussed in present paper which is based on analysis of the signal.

  20. Enhanced detection method for corneal protein identification using shotgun proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlager John J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cornea is a specialized transparent connective tissue responsible for the majority of light refraction and image focus for the retina. There are three main layers of the cornea: the epithelium that is exposed and acts as a protective barrier for the eye, the center stroma consisting of parallel collagen fibrils that refract light, and the endothelium that is responsible for hydration of the cornea from the aqueous humor. Normal cornea is an immunologically privileged tissue devoid of blood vessels, but injury can produce a loss of these conditions causing invasion of other processes that degrade the homeostatic properties resulting in a decrease in the amount of light refracted onto the retina. Determining a measure and drift of phenotypic cornea state from normal to an injured or diseased state requires knowledge of the existing protein signature within the tissue. In the study of corneal proteins, proteomics procedures have typically involved the pulverization of the entire cornea prior to analysis. Separation of the epithelium and endothelium from the core stroma and performing separate shotgun proteomics using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry results in identification of many more proteins than previously employed methods using complete pulverized cornea. Results Rabbit corneas were purchased, the epithelium and endothelium regions were removed, proteins processed and separately analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Proteins identified from separate layers were compared against results from complete corneal samples. Protein digests were separated using a six hour liquid chromatographic gradient and ion-trap mass spectrometry used for detection of eluted peptide fractions. The SEQUEST database search results were filtered to allow only proteins with match probabilities of equal or better than 10-3 and peptides with a probability of 10-2 or less with at least two unique peptides isolated within

  1. Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs.

  2. Recent and innovative methods for detection of bacteremia and fungemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reller, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    Advances continue to be made in methods for more reliable or more rapid means of detecting bacteremia and fungemia. The importance of blood sample volume and broth dilution has been established in controlled studies. New technology includes the use of resins that remove antimicrobials from blood samples, detection of radioactivity from organisms given radiolabeled substrate, use of dyes that stain microbial DNA and RNA, use of slides coated with growth media, and lysis-centrifugation for trapping microorganisms. Technology now being considered includes counterimmunoelectrophoresis, head-space gas chromatography, electrical impedance, microcalorimetry, and the use of lasers to detect pH changes and turbidity

  3. Methods and Algorithms for Detecting Objects in Video Files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen The Cuong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Video files are files that store motion pictures and sounds like in real life. In today's world, the need for automated processing of information in video files is increasing. Automated processing of information has a wide range of application including office/home surveillance cameras, traffic control, sports applications, remote object detection, and others. In particular, detection and tracking of object movement in video file plays an important role. This article describes the methods of detecting objects in video files. Today, this problem in the field of computer vision is being studied worldwide.

  4. Radiometric method for the rapid detection of Leptospira organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, N.; Verardi, R.; Colombrita, D.; Ravizzola, G.; Savoldi, E.; Turano, A.

    1986-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive radiometric method for detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni is described. Stuart's medium and Middlebrook TB (12A) medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, catalase, and casein hydrolysate and labeled with 14 C-fatty acids were used. The radioactivity was measured in a BACTEC 460. With this system, Leptospira organisms were detected in human blood in 2 to 5 days, a notably shorter time period than that required for the majority of detection techniques

  5. Radiometric method for the rapid detection of Leptospira organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manca, N.; Verardi, R.; Colombrita, D.; Ravizzola, G.; Savoldi, E.; Turano, A.

    1986-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive radiometric method for detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni is described. Stuart's medium and Middlebrook TB (12A) medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, catalase, and casein hydrolysate and labeled with /sup 14/C-fatty acids were used. The radioactivity was measured in a BACTEC 460. With this system, Leptospira organisms were detected in human blood in 2 to 5 days, a notably shorter time period than that required for the majority of detection techniques.

  6. Radiation detection and measurement concepts, methods and devices

    CERN Document Server

    McGregor, Douglas

    2018-01-01

    This text on radiation detection and measurement is a response to numerous requests expressed by students at various universities, in which the most popularly used books do not provide adequate background material, nor explain matters in understandable terms. This work provides a modern overview of radiation detection devices and radiation measurement methods. The topics selected in the book have been selected on the basis of the author’s many years of experience designing radiation detectors and teaching radiation detection and measurement in a classroom environment.

  7. Microlensing of unresolved stars as a brown dwarf detection method

    CERN Document Server

    Bouquet, A; Melchior, A L; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Baillon, Paul

    1993-01-01

    We describe a project of brown dwarf detection in the dark halo of a galaxy using the microlensing effect. We argue that monitoring pixels instead of stars could provide an enhancement in the number of detectable events. We estimate the detection efficiency with a Monte-Carlo simulation. We expect a ten-fold increase with respect to current experiments. To assess the feasibility of this method we have determined the photometric precision of a pixel by comparing several pictures of a same field in the LMC. To be published in the Proceeding of the workshop 'The dark side of the universe...', Roma, Juin 1993,

  8. Machine Learning Methods for Attack Detection in the Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozay, Mete; Esnaola, Inaki; Yarman Vural, Fatos Tunay; Kulkarni, Sanjeev R; Poor, H Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Attack detection problems in the smart grid are posed as statistical learning problems for different attack scenarios in which the measurements are observed in batch or online settings. In this approach, machine learning algorithms are used to classify measurements as being either secure or attacked. An attack detection framework is provided to exploit any available prior knowledge about the system and surmount constraints arising from the sparse structure of the problem in the proposed approach. Well-known batch and online learning algorithms (supervised and semisupervised) are employed with decision- and feature-level fusion to model the attack detection problem. The relationships between statistical and geometric properties of attack vectors employed in the attack scenarios and learning algorithms are analyzed to detect unobservable attacks using statistical learning methods. The proposed algorithms are examined on various IEEE test systems. Experimental analyses show that machine learning algorithms can detect attacks with performances higher than attack detection algorithms that employ state vector estimation methods in the proposed attack detection framework.

  9. Comparison of Different Methods of Detection of Enteric Pathogenic Protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N H Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study was conducted to compare different methods of detection of pathogenic protozoan parasites in stool specimens of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA. Materials and Methods: Stool specimens of 242 HIV sero-positive patients were examined using the wet mount technique, modified Ziehl-Neelsen′s (ZN staining, auto-fluorescence and auramine fluorescence staining. Patient specimens, 94 and 40 out of 242, were also subjected to Giardia antigen detection using an enzyme immunoassay and Cryptosporidium antigen detection by immuno-chromatography, respectively. For calculation of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, light microscopy of wet mounts and modified ZN stained smears for Giardia and Coccidia, respectively, were considered as gold standards. Results: Sensitivity of auto-fluorescence, auramine-O staining and antigen detection techniques was found to be 100% as compared to the routine standards. The specificity of auto-fluorescence was 90.6% and 100% for Cyclospora and Isospora, respectively; that of auramine-O staining was 98.9% for Cryptosporidium, 99.30% for Cyclospora and 100% for Isospora; and that of antigen detection was 90.6% and 97.7% for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively. Conclusion: In laboratories requiring screening of large number of stool specimens for detection of protozoan parasites, fluorescence microscopy and antigen detection can be useful techniques. Confirmation of positive results, however, needs to be done with the standard techniques.

  10. Fuel failure detection and location methods in CAGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.M.

    1982-06-01

    The release of fission products from AGR fuel failures and the way in which the signals from such failures must be detected against the background signal from uranium contamination of the fuel is considered. Theoretical assessments of failure detection are used to show the limitations of the existing Electrostatic Wire Precipitator Burst Can Detection system (BCD) and how its operating parameters can be optimised. Two promising alternative methods, the 'split count' technique and the use of iodine measurements, are described. The results of a detailed study of the mechanical and electronic performance of the present BCD trolleys are given. The limited experience of detection and location of two fuel failures in CAGR using conventional and alternative methods is reviewed. The larger failure was detected and located using the conventional BCD equipment with a high confidence level. It is shown that smaller failures may not be easy to detect and locate using the current BCD equipment, and the second smaller failure probably remained in the reactor for about a year before it was discharged. The split count technique used with modified BCD equipment was able to detect the smaller failure after careful inspection of the data. (author)

  11. Heart beat detection using a multimodal data coupling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollakazemi, M Javad; Atyabi, S Abbas; Ghaffari, Ali

    2015-08-01

    The most straightforward method for heart beat estimation is R-peak detection based on an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. Current R-peak detection methods do not work properly when the ECG signal is contaminated or missing, which leads to the incorrect estimation of the heart rate. This raises the need for reliable algorithms which can locate heart beats in continuous long-term multimodal data, allowing robust analysis.In this paper, three peak detectors are evaluated for heart beat detection using various cardiovascular signals. One of the peak detectors is a new general peak detector (GPD) algorithm which is applicable on ECG and other pulsatile signals to compensate for the limitation of QRS detection. This peak detector algorithm is adaptive and independently finds amplitude characteristics for every recording, while not tuned for ECG or other pulsatile signals. Three strategies, which are different disciplines of detectors, are then proposed while the fusion method remains the same in all strategies. In the first strategy, the ECG and the lowest-indexed signal of general blood pressure (BP), arterial blood pressure (ART) and pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) are processed through gqrs and wabp (from the PhysioNet library), respectively. In the second strategy, all beats in different signals are detected by GPD. In the third strategy, ECG and other signals are processed by gqrs and GPD, respectively. In all three strategies two criteria are used in order to fuse the detections. The first criterion is based on the number of candidate detections in a specific time period, based on which signals of interest are selected. The second fusion criterion is based on the regularity of the derived intervals between subsequent candidate detections. If the number of detections in ECG and one of BP, ART and PAP signals have reasonable physiological range, a new signal is generated in which they are coupled with each other. Heart beats can more easily be detected in noisy

  12. Including shielding effects in application of the TPCA method for detection of embedded radiation sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, William C.; Shokair, Isaac R.

    2011-12-01

    Conventional full spectrum gamma spectroscopic analysis has the objective of quantitative identification of all the radionuclides present in a measurement. For low-energy resolution detectors such as NaI, when photopeaks alone are not sufficient for complete isotopic identification, such analysis requires template spectra for all the radionuclides present in the measurement. When many radionuclides are present it is difficult to make the correct identification and this process often requires many attempts to obtain a statistically valid solution by highly skilled spectroscopists. A previous report investigated using the targeted principal component analysis method (TPCA) for detection of embedded sources for RPM applications. This method uses spatial/temporal information from multiple spectral measurements to test the hypothesis of the presence of a target spectrum of interest in these measurements without the need to identify all the other radionuclides present. The previous analysis showed that the TPCA method has significant potential for automated detection of target radionuclides of interest, but did not include the effects of shielding. This report complements the previous analysis by including the effects of spectral distortion due to shielding effects for the same problem of detection of embedded sources. Two examples, one with one target radionuclide and the other with two, show that the TPCA method can successfully detect shielded targets in the presence of many other radionuclides. The shielding parameters are determined as part of the optimization process using interpolation of library spectra that are defined on a 2D grid of atomic numbers and areal densities.

  13. Efficient method for events detection in phonocardiographic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Alajarin, Juan; Ruiz-Merino, Ramon

    2005-06-01

    The auscultation of the heart is still the first basic analysis tool used to evaluate the functional state of the heart, as well as the first indicator used to submit the patient to a cardiologist. In order to improve the diagnosis capabilities of auscultation, signal processing algorithms are currently being developed to assist the physician at primary care centers for adult and pediatric population. A basic task for the diagnosis from the phonocardiogram is to detect the events (main and additional sounds, murmurs and clicks) present in the cardiac cycle. This is usually made by applying a threshold and detecting the events that are bigger than the threshold. However, this method usually does not allow the detection of the main sounds when additional sounds and murmurs exist, or it may join several events into a unique one. In this paper we present a reliable method to detect the events present in the phonocardiogram, even in the presence of heart murmurs or additional sounds. The method detects relative maxima peaks in the amplitude envelope of the phonocardiogram, and computes a set of parameters associated with each event. Finally, a set of characteristics is extracted from each event to aid in the identification of the events. Besides, the morphology of the murmurs is also detected, which aids in the differentiation of different diseases that can occur in the same temporal localization. The algorithms have been applied to real normal heart sounds and murmurs, achieving satisfactory results.

  14. Simulation study of neutronic and acoustic methods of boiling detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazaki, J.; Fujii, Y.; Shinohara, Y.; Araki, H.

    1981-01-01

    As a part of the work on the development of a diagnostic system for detecting anomalies in the core of a fast breeder reactor, a study is being made on the methods of detecting abnormal reactivity and coolant boiling on the basis computer simulation. The objective of the present simulation study is to obtain some basic information useful for developing sensitive method of signal processing suitable for boiling detection. Neutronic, acoustic and measurement noises as well as reactor kinetics and reactivity estimator are simulated on a hybrid computer and analyzed for various noise conditions using correlation, spectral and coherence analyses. It has been confirmed that the cross-spectral and coherence analyses between neutronic and acoustic signals are effective method for boiling detection provided that the void coefficient of reactivity is sufficiently large and that detection capability is slightly improved by using a discriminator of signal level before making spectral analysis. A simulated boiling detection experiment using a zero power thermal reactor is also planned in order to check the validity of computer simulation. (author)

  15. Detection of oral HPV infection - Comparison of two different specimen collection methods and two HPV detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Marjorie M A; Hartel, Gunter; Whiteman, David C; Antonsson, Annika

    2018-04-01

    Very little is known about the natural history of oral HPV infection. Several different methods exist to collect oral specimens and detect HPV, but their respective performance characteristics are unknown. We compared two different methods for oral specimen collection (oral saline rinse and commercial saliva kit) from 96 individuals and then analyzed the samples for HPV by two different PCR detection methods (single GP5+/6+ PCR and nested MY09/11 and GP5+/6+ PCR). For the oral rinse samples, the oral HPV prevalence was 10.4% (GP+ PCR; 10% repeatability) vs 11.5% (nested PCR method; 100% repeatability). For the commercial saliva kit samples, the prevalences were 3.1% vs 16.7% with the GP+ PCR vs the nested PCR method (repeatability 100% for both detection methods). Overall the agreement was fair or poor between samples and methods (kappa 0.06-0.36). Standardizing methods of oral sample collection and HPV detection would ensure comparability between future oral HPV studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection methods for legionellae. Possibilities and limitations of detection methods; Niet alle detectiemethoden geschikt voor legionellagroei. Mogelijkheden en beperkingen detectiemethoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffer, W.

    2011-06-15

    This article provides an overview of existing and new methods for detecting legionella in water. It offers insight in the characteristics and applications of existing and new detection methods. However, it is impossible to assess the value of alternative methods at the moment. That will require additional research. [Dutch] Een overzicht is gemaakt van bestaande en nieuwe methoden om legionella in water aan te tonen. Daarmee wordt inzicht verkregen in de kenmerken en toepassingsmogelijkheden van bestaande en nieuwe detectiemethoden. De waarde van alternatieve methoden in een installatie kan echter nog niet worden beoordeeld. Daarvoor is nader onderzoek nodig.

  17. Method for predicting peptide detection in mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Lars [West Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA; Petritis, Konstantinos [Richland, WA

    2010-07-13

    A method of predicting whether a peptide present in a biological sample will be detected by analysis with a mass spectrometer. The method uses at least one mass spectrometer to perform repeated analysis of a sample containing peptides from proteins with known amino acids. The method then generates a data set of peptides identified as contained within the sample by the repeated analysis. The method then calculates the probability that a specific peptide in the data set was detected in the repeated analysis. The method then creates a plurality of vectors, where each vector has a plurality of dimensions, and each dimension represents a property of one or more of the amino acids present in each peptide and adjacent peptides in the data set. Using these vectors, the method then generates an algorithm from the plurality of vectors and the calculated probabilities that specific peptides in the data set were detected in the repeated analysis. The algorithm is thus capable of calculating the probability that a hypothetical peptide represented as a vector will be detected by a mass spectrometry based proteomic platform, given that the peptide is present in a sample introduced into a mass spectrometer.

  18. Fault detection of gearbox using time-frequency method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, A.; Satrijo, Dj.; Prahasto, T.; Haryanto, I.

    2017-04-01

    This research deals with fault detection and diagnosis of gearbox by using vibration signature. In this work, fault detection and diagnosis are approached by employing time-frequency method, and then the results are compared with cepstrum analysis. Experimental work has been conducted for data acquisition of vibration signal thru self-designed gearbox test rig. This test-rig is able to demonstrate normal and faulty gearbox i.e., wears and tooth breakage. Three accelerometers were used for vibration signal acquisition from gearbox, and optical tachometer was used for shaft rotation speed measurement. The results show that frequency domain analysis using fast-fourier transform was less sensitive to wears and tooth breakage condition. However, the method of short-time fourier transform was able to monitor the faults in gearbox. Wavelet Transform (WT) method also showed good performance in gearbox fault detection using vibration signal after employing time synchronous averaging (TSA).

  19. Effects of Feature Extraction and Classification Methods on Cyberbully Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra SARAÇ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbullying is defined as an aggressive, intentional action against a defenseless person by using the Internet, or other electronic contents. Researchers have found that many of the bullying cases have tragically ended in suicides; hence automatic detection of cyberbullying has become important. In this study we show the effects of feature extraction, feature selection, and classification methods that are used, on the performance of automatic detection of cyberbullying. To perform the experiments FormSpring.me dataset is used and the effects of preprocessing methods; several classifiers like C4.5, Naïve Bayes, kNN, and SVM; and information gain and chi square feature selection methods are investigated. Experimental results indicate that the best classification results are obtained when alphabetic tokenization, no stemming, and no stopwords removal are applied. Using feature selection also improves cyberbully detection performance. When classifiers are compared, C4.5 performs the best for the used dataset.

  20. Compositions and methods for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Hsin-Chih; Werner, James; Martinez, Jennifer S.

    2016-11-22

    Described herein are nucleic acid based probes and methods for discriminating and detecting single nucleotide variants in nucleic acid molecules (e.g., DNA). The methods include use of a pair of probes can be used to detect and identify polymorphisms, for example single nucleotide polymorphism in DNA. The pair of probes emit a different fluorescent wavelength of light depending on the association and alignment of the probes when hybridized to a target nucleic acid molecule. Each pair of probes is capable of discriminating at least two different nucleic acid molecules that differ by at least a single nucleotide difference. The methods can probes can be used, for example, for detection of DNA polymorphisms that are indicative of a particular disease or condition.

  1. A divisive spectral method for network community detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jianjun; Li, Longjie; Yao, Yukai; Chen, Xiaoyun; Leng, Mingwei; Lu, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    Community detection is a fundamental problem in the domain of complex network analysis. It has received great attention, and many community detection methods have been proposed in the last decade. In this paper, we propose a divisive spectral method for identifying community structures from networks which utilizes a sparsification operation to pre-process the networks first, and then uses a repeated bisection spectral algorithm to partition the networks into communities. The sparsification operation makes the community boundaries clearer and sharper, so that the repeated spectral bisection algorithm extract high-quality community structures accurately from the sparsified networks. Experiments show that the combination of network sparsification and a spectral bisection algorithm is highly successful, the proposed method is more effective in detecting community structures from networks than the others. (paper: interdisciplinary statistical mechanics)

  2. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  3. Environmental risk comparisons with internal methods of UST leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgin, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    The past five years have seen a variety of advances in how leaks can be detected from within underground storage tanks. Any leak-detection approach employed within a storage tanks must be conducted at specific time intervals and meet certain leak-rate criteria according to federal and state regulations. Nevertheless, the potential environmental consequences of leak detection approaches differ widely. Internal, volumetric UST monitoring techniques have developed over time including: (1) inventory control with stick measurements, (2) precision tank testing, (3) automatic tank gauging (ATG), (4) statistical inventory reconciliation (SIR), and (5) statistical techniques with automatic tank gauging. An ATG focuses on the advantage of precise data but measured for only a brief period. On the other hand, stick data has less precision but when combined with SIR over extended periods it too can detect low leak rates. Graphs demonstrate the comparable amounts of fuel than can leak out of a tank before being detected by these techniques. The results indicate that annual tank testing has the greatest potential for large volumes of fuel leaking without detection while new statistical approaches with an ATG have the least potential. The environmental implications of the volumes of fuel leaked prior to detection are site specific. For example, if storage tank is surrounded by a high water table and in a sole-source aquifer even small leaks may cause problems. The user must also consider regulatory risks. The level of environmental and regulatory risk should influence selection of the UST leak detection method

  4. An infrared spectroscopy method to detect ammonia in gastric juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannozzi, Andrea M; Pennecchi, Francesca; Muller, Paul; Balma Tivola, Paolo; Roncari, Silvia; Rossi, Andrea M

    2015-11-01

    Ammonia in gastric juice is considered a potential biomarker for Helicobacter pylori infection and as a factor contributing to gastric mucosal injury. High ammonia concentrations are also found in patients with chronic renal failure, peptic ulcer disease, and chronic gastritis. Rapid and specific methods for ammonia detection are urgently required by the medical community. Here we present a method to detect ammonia directly in gastric juice based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ammonia dissolved in biological liquid samples as ammonium ion was released in air as a gas by the shifting of the pH equilibrium of the ammonium/ammonia reaction and was detected in line by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy system equipped with a gas cell for the quantification. The method developed provided high sensitivity and selectivity in ammonia detection both in pure standard solutions and in a simulated gastric juice matrix over the range of diagnostic concentrations tested. Preliminary analyses were also performed on real gastric juice samples from patients with gastric mucosal injury and with symptoms of H. pylori infection, and the results were in agreement with the clinicopathology information. The whole analysis, performed in less than 10 min, can be directly applied on the sample without extraction procedures and it ensures high specificity of detection because of the ammonia fingerprint absorption bands in the infrared spectrum. This method could be easily used with endoscopy instrumentation to provide information in real time and would enable the endoscopist to improve and integrate gastroscopic examinations.

  5. A novel visual saliency detection method for infrared video sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yuzhen; Ning, Chen

    2017-12-01

    Infrared video applications such as target detection and recognition, moving target tracking, and so forth can benefit a lot from visual saliency detection, which is essentially a method to automatically localize the ;important; content in videos. In this paper, a novel visual saliency detection method for infrared video sequences is proposed. Specifically, for infrared video saliency detection, both the spatial saliency and temporal saliency are considered. For spatial saliency, we adopt a mutual consistency-guided spatial cues combination-based method to capture the regions with obvious luminance contrast and contour features. For temporal saliency, a multi-frame symmetric difference approach is proposed to discriminate salient moving regions of interest from background motions. Then, the spatial saliency and temporal saliency are combined to compute the spatiotemporal saliency using an adaptive fusion strategy. Besides, to highlight the spatiotemporal salient regions uniformly, a multi-scale fusion approach is embedded into the spatiotemporal saliency model. Finally, a Gestalt theory-inspired optimization algorithm is designed to further improve the reliability of the final saliency map. Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms many state-of-the-art saliency detection approaches for infrared videos under various backgrounds.

  6. Study on UPF Harmonic Current Detection Method Based on DSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H J; Pang, Y F; Qiu, Z M; Chen, M

    2006-01-01

    Unity power factor (UPF) harmonic current detection method applied to active power filter (APF) is presented in this paper. The intention of this method is to make nonlinear loads and active power filter in parallel to be an equivalent resistance. So after compensation, source current is sinusoidal, and has the same shape of source voltage. Meanwhile, there is no harmonic in source current, and the power factor becomes one. The mathematic model of proposed method and the optimum project for equivalent low pass filter in measurement are presented. Finally, the proposed detection method applied to a shunt active power filter experimental prototype based on DSP TMS320F2812 is developed. Simulation and experiment results indicate the method is simple and easy to implement, and can obtain the real-time calculation of harmonic current exactly

  7. A Review of the Detection Methods for Climate Regime Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunqun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An abrupt climate change means that the climate system shifts from a steady state to another steady state. Study on the phenomenon and theory of the abrupt climate change is a new research field of modern climatology, and it is of great significance for the prediction of future climate change. The climate regime shift is one of the most common forms of abrupt climate change, which mainly refers to the statistical significant changes on the variable of climate system at one time scale. These detection methods can be roughly divided into five categories based on different types of abrupt changes, namely, abrupt mean value change, abrupt variance change, abrupt frequency change, abrupt probability density change, and the multivariable analysis. The main research progress of abrupt climate change detection methods is reviewed. What is more, some actual applications of those methods in observational data are provided. With the development of nonlinear science, many new methods have been presented for detecting an abrupt dynamic change in recent years, which is useful supplement for the abrupt change detection methods.

  8. Full-waveform detection of non-impulsive seismic events based on time-reversal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Ericka Alinne; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala; Liu, Qinya

    2017-12-01

    We present a full-waveform detection method for non-impulsive seismic events, based on time-reversal principles. We use the strain Green's tensor as a matched filter, correlating it with continuous observed seismograms, to detect non-impulsive seismic events. We show that this is mathematically equivalent to an adjoint method for detecting earthquakes. We define the detection function, a scalar valued function, which depends on the stacked correlations for a group of stations. Event detections are given by the times at which the amplitude of the detection function exceeds a given value relative to the noise level. The method can make use of the whole seismic waveform or any combination of time-windows with different filters. It is expected to have an advantage compared to traditional detection methods for events that do not produce energetic and impulsive P waves, for example glacial events, landslides, volcanic events and transform-fault earthquakes for events which velocity structure along the path is relatively well known. Furthermore, the method has advantages over empirical Greens functions template matching methods, as it does not depend on records from previously detected events, and therefore is not limited to events occurring in similar regions and with similar focal mechanisms as these events. The method is not specific to any particular way of calculating the synthetic seismograms, and therefore complicated structural models can be used. This is particularly beneficial for intermediate size events that are registered on regional networks, for which the effect of lateral structure on the waveforms can be significant. To demonstrate the feasibility of the method, we apply it to two different areas located along the mid-oceanic ridge system west of Mexico where non-impulsive events have been reported. The first study area is between Clipperton and Siqueiros transform faults (9°N), during the time of two earthquake swarms, occurring in March 2012 and May

  9. An Effective Conversation-Based Botnet Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruidong Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A botnet is one of the most grievous threats to network security since it can evolve into many attacks, such as Denial-of-Service (DoS, spam, and phishing. However, current detection methods are inefficient to identify unknown botnet. The high-speed network environment makes botnet detection more difficult. To solve these problems, we improve the progress of packet processing technologies such as New Application Programming Interface (NAPI and zero copy and propose an efficient quasi-real-time intrusion detection system. Our work detects botnet using supervised machine learning approach under the high-speed network environment. Our contributions are summarized as follows: (1 Build a detection framework using PF_RING for sniffing and processing network traces to extract flow features dynamically. (2 Use random forest model to extract promising conversation features. (3 Analyze the performance of different classification algorithms. The proposed method is demonstrated by well-known CTU13 dataset and nonmalicious applications. The experimental results show our conversation-based detection approach can identify botnet with higher accuracy and lower false positive rate than flow-based approach.

  10. A new ultrasonic signal amplification method for detection of bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Shiva Kant; López, Pablo Resa; Sánchez, Carlos Sierra; Segura, Luis Elvira; Urréjola, José

    2012-01-01

    A new method is presented that increases the sensitivity of ultrasound-based techniques for detection of bacteria. The technique was developed for the detection of catalase-positive microorganisms. It uses a bubble trapping medium containing hydrogen peroxide that is mixed with the sample for microbiological evaluation. The enzyme catalase is present in catalase-positive bacteria, which induces a rapid hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide, forming bubbles which remain in the medium. This reaction results in the amplification of the mechanical changes that the microorganisms produce in the medium. The effect can be detected by means of ultrasonic wave amplitude continuous measurement since the bubbles increase the ultrasonic attenuation significantly. It is shown that microorganism concentrations of the order of 10 5 cells ml −1 can be detected using this method. This allows an improvement of three orders of magnitude in the ultrasonic detection threshold of microorganisms in conventional culture media, and is competitive with modern rapid microbiological methods. It can also be used for the characterization of the enzymatic activity. (paper)

  11. A new ultrasonic signal amplification method for detection of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant Shukla, Shiva; Resa López, Pablo; Sierra Sánchez, Carlos; Urréjola, José; Segura, Luis Elvira

    2012-10-01

    A new method is presented that increases the sensitivity of ultrasound-based techniques for detection of bacteria. The technique was developed for the detection of catalase-positive microorganisms. It uses a bubble trapping medium containing hydrogen peroxide that is mixed with the sample for microbiological evaluation. The enzyme catalase is present in catalase-positive bacteria, which induces a rapid hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide, forming bubbles which remain in the medium. This reaction results in the amplification of the mechanical changes that the microorganisms produce in the medium. The effect can be detected by means of ultrasonic wave amplitude continuous measurement since the bubbles increase the ultrasonic attenuation significantly. It is shown that microorganism concentrations of the order of 105 cells ml-1 can be detected using this method. This allows an improvement of three orders of magnitude in the ultrasonic detection threshold of microorganisms in conventional culture media, and is competitive with modern rapid microbiological methods. It can also be used for the characterization of the enzymatic activity.

  12. An Automata Based Intrusion Detection Method for Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT transforms network communication to Machine-to-Machine (M2M basis and provides open access and new services to citizens and companies. It extends the border of Internet and will be developed as one part of the future 5G networks. However, as the resources of IoT’s front devices are constrained, many security mechanisms are hard to be implemented to protect the IoT networks. Intrusion detection system (IDS is an efficient technique that can be used to detect the attackers when cryptography is broken, and it can be used to enforce the security of IoT networks. In this article, we analyzed the intrusion detection requirements of IoT networks and then proposed a uniform intrusion detection method for the vast heterogeneous IoT networks based on an automata model. The proposed method can detect and report the possible IoT attacks with three types: jam-attack, false-attack, and reply-attack automatically. We also design an experiment to verify the proposed IDS method and examine the attack of RADIUS application.

  13. Nonlinear preprocessing method for detecting peaks from gas chromatograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hyeyoung

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The problem of locating valid peaks from data corrupted by noise frequently arises while analyzing experimental data. In various biological and chemical data analysis tasks, peak detection thus constitutes a critical preprocessing step that greatly affects downstream analysis and eventual quality of experiments. Many existing techniques require the users to adjust parameters by trial and error, which is error-prone, time-consuming and often leads to incorrect analysis results. Worse, conventional approaches tend to report an excessive number of false alarms by finding fictitious peaks generated by mere noise. Results We have designed a novel peak detection method that can significantly reduce parameter sensitivity, yet providing excellent peak detection performance and negligible false alarm rates from gas chromatographic data. The key feature of our new algorithm is the successive use of peak enhancement algorithms that are deliberately designed for a gradual improvement of peak detection quality. We tested our approach with real gas chromatograms as well as intentionally contaminated spectra that contain Gaussian or speckle-type noise. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve near perfect peak detection performance while maintaining very small false alarm probabilities in case of gas chromatograms. Given the fact that biological signals appear in the form of peaks in various experimental data and that the propose method can easily be extended to such data, our approach will be a useful and robust tool that can help researchers highlight valid signals in their noisy measurements.

  14. Sunglass detection method for automation of video surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikandar, Tasriva; Samsudin, Wan Nur Azhani W.; Hawari Ghazali, Kamarul; Mohd, Izzeldin I.; Fazle Rabbi, Mohammad

    2018-04-01

    Wearing sunglass to hide face from surveillance camera is a common activity in criminal incidences. Therefore, sunglass detection from surveillance video has become a demanding issue in automation of security systems. In this paper we propose an image processing method to detect sunglass from surveillance images. Specifically, a unique feature using facial height and width has been employed to identify the covered region of the face. The presence of covered area by sunglass is evaluated using facial height-width ratio. Threshold value of covered area percentage is used to classify the glass wearing face. Two different types of glasses have been considered i.e. eye glass and sunglass. The results of this study demonstrate that the proposed method is able to detect sunglasses in two different illumination conditions such as, room illumination as well as in the presence of sunlight. In addition, due to the multi-level checking in facial region, this method has 100% accuracy of detecting sunglass. However, in an exceptional case where fabric surrounding the face has similar color as skin, the correct detection rate was found 93.33% for eye glass.

  15. A method for the detection of shallow buried objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. McGee

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous geophysical techniques have successfully contributed to geotechnical engineering and environmental problems of the shallow subsurface. Geophysical surveys are used to: delineate geologic features, measure in-situ engineering properties, and detect hidden cultural features. Most technologies for the detection of shallow buried objects are electromagnetic methods which measure the contrast in ferrous content, electrical conductivity, or dielectric constant between the object and surrounding soil. Seismic technologies measure the contrast in mechanical properties of the subsurface, however, scaled down versions of conventional seismic methods are not suitable for the detection shallow buried objects. In this paper, we discuss the development of a method based on acoustic to seismic coupling for the detection of shallow buried object. Surface vibrations induced by an impinging acoustic wave from a loudspeaker is referred to as acoustic to seismic coupling. These vibrations can be remotely detected using a laser-Doppler vibrometer (LDV. If an object is present below the surface of the insonified patch, the transmitted wave is back scattered by the target towards the surface. For targets very close to the surface, the scattered field produces anomalous ground vibrational velocities that are indicative of the shape and size of the target.

  16. A robust GWSS method to simultaneously detect rare and common variants for complex disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Feng Kao

    Full Text Available The rapid advances in sequencing technologies and the resulting next-generation sequencing data provide the opportunity to detect disease-associated variants with a better solution, in particular for low-frequency variants. Although both common and rare variants might exert their independent effects on the risk for the trait of interest, previous methods to detect the association effects rarely consider them simultaneously. We proposed a class of test statistics, the generalized weighted-sum statistic (GWSS, to detect disease associations in the presence of common and rare variants with a case-control study design. Information of rare variants was aggregated using a weighted sum method, while signal directions and strength of the variants were considered at the same time. Permutations were performed to obtain the empirical p-values of the test statistics. Our simulation showed that, compared to the existing methods, the GWSS method had better performance in most of the scenarios. The GWSS (in particular VDWSS-t method is particularly robust for opposite association directions, association strength, and varying distributions of minor-allele frequencies. It is therefore promising for detecting disease-associated loci. For empirical data application, we also applied our GWSS method to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data, and the results were consistent with the simulation, suggesting good performance of our method. As re-sequencing studies become more popular to identify putative disease loci, we recommend the use of this newly developed GWSS to detect associations with both common and rare variants.

  17. Apparatus and method for noninvasive particle detection using doppler spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2016-05-31

    An apparatus and method for noninvasively detecting the presence of solid particulate matter suspended in a fluid flowing through a pipe or an oil and gas wellbore are described. Fluid flowing through a conduit containing the particulate solids is exposed to a fixed frequency (>1 MHz) of ultrasonic vibrations from a transducer attached to the outside of the pipe. The returning Doppler frequency shifted signal derived from the scattering of sound from the moving solid particles is detected by an adjacent transducer. The transmitted signal and the Doppler signal are combined to provide sensitive particulate detection. The magnitude of the signal and the Doppler frequency shift are used to determine the particle size distribution and the velocity of the particles. Measurement of the phase shift between the applied frequency and the detected Doppler shifted may be used to determine the direction of motion of the particles.

  18. Ultrasonic defect detection method for socket welding joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Masaaki; Matsuo, Toshiyuki; Ueno, Akihiro; Watanabe, Kunimichi; Kawamata, Kunio.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of detecting defects over a wide range of a socket weld portion of various kinds of pipelines used, for example, in a nuclear power plant. Namely, an inclined probe is disposed to a jig for detecting defects by ultrasonic waves. This is rotated at least by one turn along the peripheral surface of the material to be detected such as weld tube joints. Defects of weld portion of the material can be detected automatically by using ultrasonic waves during the rotation. The inclined probe for detecting defects by ultrasonic waves comprises a transmission portion having a planar transmittance oscillator disposed to a wedge on the transmission side and a receiving portion comprising a planar receiving oscillator disposed to a wedge on the receiving side. With such a constitution, ultrasonic waves are emitted from the transmission portion to the defect detection portion in the welded portion. If a defect is present, defective echo is reflected to the receiving portion disposed ahead of the probe. Since the defective echo changes depending on the height of the detective portion, the estimation of the height of the defect can be facilitated. (I.S.)

  19. Emergency First Responders' Experience with Colorimetric Detection Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandra L. Fox; Keith A. Daum; Carla J. Miller; Marnie M. Cortez

    2007-10-01

    Nationwide, first responders from state and federal support teams respond to hazardous materials incidents, industrial chemical spills, and potential weapons of mass destruction (WMD) attacks. Although first responders have sophisticated chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive detectors available for assessment of the incident scene, simple colorimetric detectors have a role in response actions. The large number of colorimetric chemical detection methods available on the market can make the selection of the proper methods difficult. Although each detector has unique aspects to provide qualitative or quantitative data about the unknown chemicals present, not all detectors provide consistent, accurate, and reliable results. Included here, in a consumer-report-style format, we provide “boots on the ground” information directly from first responders about how well colorimetric chemical detection methods meet their needs in the field and how they procure these methods.

  20. An improved electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction method for highly sensitive detection of plant viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Yabing [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Xing Da [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)]. E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.cn; Zhu Debin [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Liu Jinfeng [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2007-01-23

    Recently, we have reported an electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) method for detection of genetically modified organisms. The ECL-PCR method was further improved in the current study by introducing a multi-purpose nucleic acid sequence that was specific to the tris(bipyridine) ruthenium (TBR) labeled probe, into the 5' terminal of the primers. The method was applied to detect plant viruses. Conserved sequence of the plant viruses was amplified by PCR. The product was hybridized with a biotin labeled probe and a TBR labeled probe. The hybridization product was separated by streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, and detected by measuring the ECL signals of the TBR labeled. Under the optimized conditions, the experiment results show that the detection limit is 50 fmol of PCR products, and the signal-to-noise ratio is in excess of 14.6. The method was used to detect banana streak virus, banana bunchy top virus, and papaya leaf curl virus. The experiment results show that this method could reliably identity viruses infected plant samples. The improved ECL-PCR approach has higher sensitivity and lower cost than previous approach. It can effectively detect the plant viruses with simplicity, stability, and high sensitivity.

  1. Methods for gas detection using stationary hyperspectral imaging sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, James L [San Ramon, CA; Henderson, John R [Castro Valley, CA

    2012-04-24

    According to one embodiment, a method comprises producing a first hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data cube of a location at a first time using data from a HSI sensor; producing a second HSI data cube of the same location at a second time using data from the HSI sensor; subtracting on a pixel-by-pixel basis the second HSI data cube from the first HSI data cube to produce a raw difference cube; calibrating the raw difference cube to produce a calibrated raw difference cube; selecting at least one desired spectral band based on a gas of interest; producing a detection image based on the at least one selected spectral band and the calibrated raw difference cube; examining the detection image to determine presence of the gas of interest; and outputting a result of the examination. Other methods, systems, and computer program products for detecting the presence of a gas are also described.

  2. COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tantillo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the conventional methods for detection of Listeria monocytogenes in food using media Oxford and ALOA (Agar Listeria acc. to Ottaviani & Agosti in according to the ISO 11290-1 to a new chromogenic medium “CHROMagar Listeria” standardized in 2005 AFNOR ( CHR – 21/1-12/01. A total of 40 pre-packed ready-to-eat food samples were examined. Using two methods six samples were found positive for Listeria monocytogenes but the medium “CHROMagar Listeria” was more selective in comparison with the others. In conclusion this study has demonstrated that isolation medium able to target specifically the detection of L. monocytogenes such as “CHROMagar Listeria” is highly recommendable because of that detection time is significantly reduced and the analysis cost is less expensive.

  3. A hybrid approach for efficient anomaly detection using metaheuristic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Tamer F; Elkilani, Wail S; Abdul-Kader, Hatem M

    2015-07-01

    Network intrusion detection based on anomaly detection techniques has a significant role in protecting networks and systems against harmful activities. Different metaheuristic techniques have been used for anomaly detector generation. Yet, reported literature has not studied the use of the multi-start metaheuristic method for detector generation. This paper proposes a hybrid approach for anomaly detection in large scale datasets using detectors generated based on multi-start metaheuristic method and genetic algorithms. The proposed approach has taken some inspiration of negative selection-based detector generation. The evaluation of this approach is performed using NSL-KDD dataset which is a modified version of the widely used KDD CUP 99 dataset. The results show its effectiveness in generating a suitable number of detectors with an accuracy of 96.1% compared to other competitors of machine learning algorithms.

  4. A hybrid approach for efficient anomaly detection using metaheuristic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer F. Ghanem

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection based on anomaly detection techniques has a significant role in protecting networks and systems against harmful activities. Different metaheuristic techniques have been used for anomaly detector generation. Yet, reported literature has not studied the use of the multi-start metaheuristic method for detector generation. This paper proposes a hybrid approach for anomaly detection in large scale datasets using detectors generated based on multi-start metaheuristic method and genetic algorithms. The proposed approach has taken some inspiration of negative selection-based detector generation. The evaluation of this approach is performed using NSL-KDD dataset which is a modified version of the widely used KDD CUP 99 dataset. The results show its effectiveness in generating a suitable number of detectors with an accuracy of 96.1% compared to other competitors of machine learning algorithms.

  5. Analytical Method and Detection Limit Studies for Detection of GB in GB Hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    8217 names in this report does not constitute an official endorsement of any commercial products . This report may not be cited for purposes of advertisement...performed at pH 8 and room temperature with a J 50:2 hydrolysate:solvent ratio. Extraction recoveries are listed in Table 13. Hexane and isooctane were...22 Solvent Extraction Efficiency Chloroform 50% Methylene Chloride 49 % Hexane 5 % Isooctane None detected Previous studies have indicated that GB

  6. Photostimulated luminescence, fast method of detection of irradiated foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, G.P.; Stachowicz, W.

    2005-01-01

    The principle of pulsed photostimulated luminescence (PPSL) method, description of instrumentation and methodology of measurements are presented. The pathway of operational procedure and testing of the PPSL instrument in the Laboratory for Detection of Irradiated Food of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology are described. Attention has been paid to the positives of the new method while some limitation of its application have been also discussed. (author)

  7. Clinical value of different detection methods in blunt ocular trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Blunt ocular can cause persistent change of eye structure and function, the method of detection which is closely related to eye injury including B-can ultrasonography, UBM, OCT, FFA, scanning laser polarimetry, fundus autofluorescence, each examination with particular emphasis. This paper aims to review the advantages and disadvantages of different inspection methods in order to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of blunt ocular trauma.

  8. Biomedical journals lack a consistent method to detect outcome reporting bias: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, L N; Tejani, A M; Egan, G

    2014-10-01

    An increasing amount of recently published literature has implicated outcome reporting bias (ORB) as a major contributor to skewing data in both randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews; however, little is known about the current methods in place to detect ORB. This study aims to gain insight into the detection and management of ORB by biomedical journals. This was a cross-sectional analysis involving standardized questions via email or telephone with the top 30 biomedical journals (2012) ranked by impact factor. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was excluded leaving 29 journals in the sample. Of 29 journals, 24 (83%) responded to our initial inquiry of which 14 (58%) answered our questions and 10 (42%) declined participation. Five (36%) of the responding journals indicated they had a specific method to detect ORB, whereas 9 (64%) did not have a specific method in place. The prevalence of ORB in the review process seemed to differ with 4 (29%) journals indicating ORB was found commonly, whereas 7 (50%) indicated ORB was uncommon or never detected by their journal previously. The majority (n = 10/14, 72%) of journals were unwilling to report or make discrepancies found in manuscripts available to the public. Although the minority, there were some journals (n = 4/14, 29%) which described thorough methods to detect ORB. Many journals seemed to lack a method with which to detect ORB and its estimated prevalence was much lower than that reported in literature suggesting inadequate detection. There exists a potential for overestimation of treatment effects of interventions and unclear risks. Fortunately, there are journals within this sample which appear to utilize comprehensive methods for detection of ORB, but overall, the data suggest improvements at the biomedical journal level for detecting and minimizing the effect of this bias are needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Some methods for solution of quantum detection and measurement problems

    OpenAIRE

    Grishanin, Boris A.

    2003-01-01

    Representation of the quantum measurement with the help of non-orthogonal decomposition of unit is presented in the paper for the first time. Methods for solution of the quantum detection and measurement problems based on the suggested representation are proposed, as well.

  10. A Double Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Detecting African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Double Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Detecting African Swine Fever and Swine Vesicular Disease Virus. ... specificity as only the recombinant plasmids of ASFV and SVDV were amplified and control plasmids for three other diseases - porcine circovirus (PCV), pseudorabies virus (PRV), and porcine parvovirus ...

  11. Laboratory methods for diagnosis and detection of drug resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data source: Published series of peer reviewed journals and manuals written on laboratory methods that are currently used for diagnosis and detection of drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex were reviewed using the index medicus, pubmed and medline search. Conventional bacteriological microscopy ...

  12. Comparison of two detection methods in thin layer chromatographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    o-tolidine plus potassium iodide and photosynthesis inhibition detection methods were investigated for the analysis of three triazine herbicides (atrazine, ametryne, simazine) and two urea herbicides (diuron, metobromuron) in a coastal savanna soil using thin layer chromatography to compare the suitability of the two ...

  13. Application of Bayesian Methods for Detecting Fraudulent Behavior on Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip

    2018-01-01

    Producers and consumers of test scores are increasingly concerned about fraudulent behavior before and during the test. There exist several statistical or psychometric methods for detecting fraudulent behavior on tests. This paper provides a review of the Bayesian approaches among them. Four hitherto-unpublished real data examples are provided to…

  14. A novel duplicate images detection method based on PLSA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yongji; Ding, Liping; Gu, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Web image search results usually contain duplicate copies. This paper considers the problem of detecting and clustering duplicate images contained in web image search results. Detecting and clustering the duplicate images together facilitates users' viewing. A novel method is presented in this paper to detect and cluster duplicate images by measuring similarity between their topics. More specifically, images are viewed as documents consisting of visual words formed by vector quantizing the affine invariant visual features. Then a statistical model widely used in text domain, the PLSA(Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis) model, is utilized to map images into a probabilistic latent semantic space. Because the main content remains unchanged despite small digital alteration, duplicate images will be close to each other in the derived semantic space. Based on this, a simple clustering process can successfully detect duplicate images and cluster them together. Comparing to those methods based on comparison between hash value of visual words, this method is more robust to the visual feature level alteration posed on the images. Experiments demonstrates the effectiveness of this method.

  15. USE OF METHOD DETECTION LIMITS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental measurements often produce values below the method detection limit (MDL). Because low or zero values may be used in determining compliance with regulatory limits, in determining emission factors (typical concentrations emitted by a given type of source), or in model...

  16. Photo-fission Methods to detect Fissile Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Micah S.; Glenn, A.; Hartouni, E. P.; Sheets, S. A.; Soltz, R. A.; Danagoulian, A.; Korbly, S. E.; Ledoux, R. J.

    2014-09-01

    A mission objective of various national security agencies is to develop systems that can detect fissile material. There are a myriad of researchers at national laboratories, academic institutions, and industry who are investigating various methods to detect fissile materials. These methods are broken down into active or passive detection systems. Examples of active systems include neutron or photon sources to stimulate and/or scatter from materials. Our focus has been to use photons near the fission barrier of various actinides to excite fission modes and measure the correlated and uncorrelated neutrons. We will present and discuss results from recent measurements. We will present the overall results of our effort and discuss some of the open questions. A mission objective of various national security agencies is to develop systems that can detect fissile material. There are a myriad of researchers at national laboratories, academic institutions, and industry who are investigating various methods to detect fissile materials. These methods are broken down into active or passive detection systems. Examples of active systems include neutron or photon sources to stimulate and/or scatter from materials. Our focus has been to use photons near the fission barrier of various actinides to excite fission modes and measure the correlated and uncorrelated neutrons. We will present and discuss results from recent measurements. We will present the overall results of our effort and discuss some of the open questions. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Edge detection methods based on generalized type-2 fuzzy logic

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Claudia I; Castro, Juan R; Castillo, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    In this book four new methods are proposed. In the first method the generalized type-2 fuzzy logic is combined with the morphological gra-dient technique. The second method combines the general type-2 fuzzy systems (GT2 FSs) and the Sobel operator; in the third approach the me-thodology based on Sobel operator and GT2 FSs is improved to be applied on color images. In the fourth approach, we proposed a novel edge detec-tion method where, a digital image is converted a generalized type-2 fuzzy image. In this book it is also included a comparative study of type-1, inter-val type-2 and generalized type-2 fuzzy systems as tools to enhance edge detection in digital images when used in conjunction with the morphologi-cal gradient and the Sobel operator. The proposed generalized type-2 fuzzy edge detection methods were tested with benchmark images and synthetic images, in a grayscale and color format. Another contribution in this book is that the generalized type-2 fuzzy edge detector method is applied in the preproc...

  18. Methods for parasitic protozoans detection in the environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skotarczak B.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental route of transmission of many parasitic protozoa and their potential for producing large numbers of transmissive stages constitute persistent threats to public and veterinary health. Conventional and new immunological and molecular methods enable to assess the occurrence, prevalence, levels and sources of waterborne protozoa. Concentration, purification, and detection are the three key steps in all methods that have been approved for routine monitoring of waterborne cysts and oocysts. These steps have been optimized to such an extent that low levels of naturally occurring (oocysts of protozoan can be efficiently recovered from water. Ten years have passed since the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA introduced the 1622 and 1623 methods and used them to concentrate and detect the oocysts of Cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia in water samples. Nevertheless, the methods still need studies and improvements. Pre-PCR processing procedures have been developed and they are still improved to remove or reduce the effects of PCR inhibitors. The progress in molecular methods allows to more precise distinction of species or simultaneous detection of several parasites, however, they are still not routinely used and need standardization. Standardized methods are required to maximize public health surveillance.

  19. Study of New Method Combined Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) Method and Ultrasonic Method on PD Detection for GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanran; Chen, Duo; Zhang, Jiwei; Chen, Ning; Li, Xiaoqi; Gong, Xiaojing

    2017-09-01

    GIS (gas insulated switchgear), is an important equipment in power system. Partial discharge plays an important role in detecting the insulation performance of GIS. UHF method and ultrasonic method frequently used in partial discharge (PD) detection for GIS. It is necessary to investigate UHF method and ultrasonic method for partial discharge in GIS. However, very few studies have been conducted on the method combined this two methods. From the view point of safety, a new method based on UHF method and ultrasonic method of PD detection for GIS is proposed in order to greatly enhance the ability of anti-interference of signal detection and the accuracy of fault localization. This paper presents study aimed at clarifying the effect of the new method combined UHF method and ultrasonic method. Partial discharge tests were performed in laboratory simulated environment. Obtained results show the ability of anti-interference of signal detection and the accuracy of fault localization for this new method combined UHF method and ultrasonic method.

  20. Treatment response in psychotic patients classified according to social and clinical needs, drug side effects, and previous treatment; a method to identify functional remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenius, Malin; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta; Hartvig, Per; Sundquist, Staffan; Lindström, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Various approaches have been made over the years to classify psychotic patients according to inadequate treatment response, using terms such as treatment resistant or treatment refractory. Existing classifications have been criticized for overestimating positive symptoms; underestimating residual symptoms, negative symptoms, and side effects; or being to open for individual interpretation. The aim of this study was to present and evaluate a new method of classification according to treatment response and, thus, to identify patients in functional remission. A naturalistic, cross-sectional study was performed using patient interviews and information from patient files. The new classification method CANSEPT, which combines the Camberwell Assessment of Need rating scale, the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser side effect rating scale (SE), and the patient's previous treatment history (PT), was used to group the patients according to treatment response. CANSEPT was evaluated by comparison of expected and observed results. In the patient population (n = 123), the patients in functional remission, as defined by CANSEPT, had higher quality of life, fewer hospitalizations, fewer psychotic symptoms, and higher rate of workers than those with the worst treatment outcome. In the evaluation, CANSEPT showed validity in discriminating the patients of interest and was well tolerated by the patients. CANSEPT could secure inclusion of correct patients in the clinic or in research.

  1. Comparison of methods to detect Pasteurella multocida in carrier waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Johnson, W.P.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted laboratory challenge trials using mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) to compare methods for detecting carriers of Pasteurella multocida, the bacterium that causes avian cholera, in wild birds. Birds that survived the initial infection were euthanized at 2-4 wk intervals up to 14 wk post challenge. Isolates of P. multocida were obtained at necropsy from 23% of the birds that survived initial infection. We found that swab samples (oral, cloacal, nasal, eye, and leg joint) were most effective for detecting carrier birds up to 14 wk post infection. No detectable differences in isolation were observed for samples stored in either 10% dimethysulfoxide or brain heart infusion broth. The frequency of detecting carriers in our challenge trials appeared to be related to mortality rates observed during the trial, but was not related to a number of other factors including time after challenge, time delays in collecting tissues postmortem, and route of infection. In our trials, there was little association between antibody levels and carrier status. We concluded that swabs samples collected from recently dead birds, stored in liquid nitrogen, and processed using selective broth provide a feasible field method for detecting P. multocida carriers in wild waterfowl.

  2. Methods and tools to detect thermal noise in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, M.; Giovannini, R.

    1985-07-01

    The Specialists' Meeting on ''Methods and Tools to Detect Thermal Noise in Fast Reactors'' was held in Bologna on 8-10 October 1984. The meeting was hosted by the ENEA and was sponsored by the IAEA on the recommendation of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors. 17 participants attended the meeting from France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, Joint Research Centre of CEC and from IAEA. The meeting was presided over by Prof. Mario Motta of Italy. The purpose of the meeting was to review and discuss methods and tools for temperature noise detection and related analysis as a potential means for detecting local blockages in fuel and blanket subassemblies and other faults in LMFBR. The meeting was divided into four technical sessions as follows: 1. National review presentations on application purposes and research activities for thermal noise detection. (5 papers); 2. Detection instruments and electronic equipment for temperature measurements in fast reactors. (5 papers); 3. Physical models. (2 papers); 4. Signal processing techniques. (3 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  3. Outcomes following detection of low level plasma HIV RNA in HIV-infected patients previously virologically suppressed on antiretroviral therapy: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Annabelle M; Cheng, Allen C; Watson, Kerrie; Lewin, Sharon R; Hoy, Jennifer F

    2017-06-01

    Progressively sensitive assays for plasma HIV RNA have led to increased detection of plasma HIV RNA between 20 and 200 copies/ml, known as low level viremia (LLV) when recurrent or persistent, in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The aim of this study was to determine outcomes following initial detection of LLV in an Australian cohort. A retrospective study using the HIV Service Database (Alfred Hospital) included all patients on ART who recorded plasma HIV RNA 20-200 copies/mL following prior virological suppression (viral load (VL) HIV RNA 200 copies/mL. Factors associated with LLV included co-morbid type 2 diabetes, shorter prior virological suppression and lower nadir CD4 cell count. Clinician management of VL 20-200 copies/mL was generally conservative, with infrequent requests for genotypic analysis (3.3% cases) or change in ART (<1% cases). LLV following virological suppression is common, and occurred as an isolated viral blip in half the patients. Those patients with persistent or recurrent LLV had higher rates of type 2 diabetes, shorter prior virological suppression and lower nadir CD4 cell count.

  4. Vaginal swab specimen processing methods influence performance of rapid semen detection tests: a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Marcia M; Steiner, Markus J; Rich, Kimberly D; Gallo, Maria F; Warner, Lee; Macaluso, Maurizio

    2010-09-01

    Detection of semen biomarkers in vaginal fluid can be used to assess women's recent exposure to semen. Quantitative tests for detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) perform well, but are expensive and require specialized equipment. We assessed two rapid immunochromatographic strip tests for identification of semen in vaginal swabs. We tested 581 vaginal swabs collected from 492 women. Vaginal secretions were eluted into saline, and PSA was measured using the quantitative IMx (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA) assay. Specimens were also tested using the ABAcard p30 test (Abacus Diagnostics, West Hills, CA, USA) for detection of PSA and RSID-Semen test (Independent Forensics, Hillside, IL, USA) for detection of semenogelin (Sg). Vaginal swab extraction using saline was compatible with direct assessment of vaginal swab eluates using ABAcard for PSA detection, but not for Sg detection using RSID. The rapid PSA test detected 91% of specimens containing semen compared to 74% by the rapid Sg test. Investigators are urged to optimize vaginal swab specimen preparation methods for performance of RSID or other tests to detect semen components other than PSA. Previously described methods for PSA testing are not uniformly applicable to other tests. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging method (CFI for early detection of herbicide resistance in weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menegat, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of herbicide tolerant weed populations is illustrating the increasing demand for reliable methods for an accelerated detection of herbicide tolerance compared to greenhouse studies. Several methods for resistance quick detection have been published in previous years. One of the recent methods is the Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging Method (CFI. For this method changes in photosynthetic activity of the target organisms, caused by herbicides, are determined. General assumption of this method in terms of herbicide resistance detection is that each herbicidal compound, independent of the mode of action, will cause changes within the photosynthetic apparatus of the target organisms. This effect already could be confirmed for several modes of action (PSII, ALS, ACCase, EPSPS, synth. Auxins. Aim of this study is to validate this novel method on the basis of greenhouse experiments and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP analysis. The resistance profiles of 10 black-grass populations (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. have been determined in greenhouse herbicide efficacy trials and constitutive SNP analyses of the survivors. With the CFI-method it was possible to detect the resistance profile as well as the resistance frequency within the populations. The results from the greenhouse experiments could be reproduced with conformity of 94%. This result is valid for the tested herbicides mesosulfuron, pyroxsulam as well as clodinafop and pinoxaden.

  6. Potential new methods of detection of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffi, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The irradiation of food by X- and gamma-rays and by electron beams is a technological process which may be used for food preservation in addition to heat or chemical treatment. The role of the Community Bureau of Reference - the BCR programme - in this area is to support the development and the improvement of analytical methods required for the preparation and implementation of the European legislation. In this context, after consultation of specialists in the Member States and the EFTA countries, it was decided that the BCR should undertake a collaborative project for the identification of irradiated food. The aim of the Cadarache workshop was to examine the development of new methods of detection and to set up a concerted research action covering four areas: DNA based methods; microbiological and biological methods; physical methods; chemical methods

  7. Comparison of ultraviolet detection and charged aerosol detection methods for liquid-chromatographic determination of protoescigenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Katarzyna; Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Gruza, Mariusz; Jatczak, Kamil; Zagrodzki, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Escin, a complex mixture of pentacyclic triterpene saponins obtained from horse chestnut seeds extract (HCSE; Aesculus hippocastanum L.), constitutes a traditional herbal active substance of preparations (drugs) used for a treatment of chronic venous insufficiency and capillary blood vessel leakage. A new approach to exploitation of pharmacological potential of this saponin complex has been recently proposed, in which the β-escin mixture is perceived as a source of a hitherto unavailable raw material, pentacyclic triterpene aglycone-protoescigenin. Although many liquid chromatography methods are described in the literature for saponins determination, analysis of protoescigenin is barely mentioned. In this work, a new ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method developed for protoescigenin quantification has been described. CAD (charged aerosol detection), as a relatively new detection method based on aerosol charging, has been applied in this method as an alternative to ultraviolet (UV) detection. The influence of individual parameters on CAD response and sensitivity was studied. The detection was performed using CAD and UV (200 nm) simultaneously and the results were compared with reference to linearity, accuracy, precision and limit of detection.

  8. Factors Influencing Choices for Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Previously Unscreened African and Caucasian Americans: Findings from a Triangulation Mixed Methods Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Mack T.; Creswell, John W.; Jimbo, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    We investigated factors that influence choice of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test and assessed the most- and least-preferred options among fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, and double contrast barium enema among adults with varied race, gender, and geographic region demographics. Mixed methods data collection consisted of 10 focus group interviews and a survey of the 93 focus group participants. Participants were ≥50 years of age and reported not having been screened for colorectal cancer in the last ten years. Analyses examined differences by race, gender, and geographic location. Participants had modest knowledge about CRC and there were fewer correct answers to knowledge questions by African Americans. Participants recognized value of early detection, and identified health symptoms and their doctor's recommendation as influential for obtaining CRC screening. They chose colonoscopy and FOBT as the most preferred tests, while barium enema was least preferred. The analysis revealed intra-group variations in preference, though there were no significant differences by race, gender, or location. Openness of discussing this sensitive topic, lack of knowledge about colorectal cancer and screening costs, and diversity of preferences expressed within study groups suggest the importance of patient-physician dialogue about colorectal cancer screening options. New approaches to promoting colorectal cancer screening need to explore methods to facilitate patients establishing and expressing preferences among the screening options. PMID:19082695

  9. Molecular methods for detecting and typing of Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Deirdre A; Elliott, Briony; Riley, Thomas V

    2015-04-01

    Since the early 2000s, Clostridium difficile has emerged as a major international pathogen. Recently, strains of C. difficile in circulation appear to be changing, with greater diversity, leading to challenges for diagnostics and surveillance. Currently molecular diagnostic methods are favoured for their high sensitivity and rapid processing times; however, a number of issues still exist with molecular tests, in particular high cost, low clinical specificity and failure to detect some variant C. difficile strains. Molecular typing methods are used to determine the continually evolving epidemiology of C. difficile infection. Typing methods including PCR ribotyping and pulsed field gel electrophoresis are currently popular in Europe and North America, respectively, while high-throughput next-generation sequencing is likely to become more widely used in years to come. This review discusses current molecular detection and typing techniques for C. difficile.

  10. Fast and sensitive methods for on-line anomaly detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.; Hagen van der, T.H.J.J.; Ciftcioglu, O.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses methods for anomaly detection based on comparison of signal values in time domain with predictions from an autoregressive model of the signal. As the calculation of the signal prediction value needs only a small number of operations, these methods are suitable for on-line applications. Three different methods for tests on anomalies are introduced and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Their performance is demonstrated on an artificially generated signal containing two different types of anomalies and on signals of an actual nuclear reactor under different operating conditions. Anomalies resulting a 10-20% change in standard deviation of the residual noise signal could be detected within 10 seconds with a negligibly low probability of false alarms

  11. Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Wright, Jerry P [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-09-27

    Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an earth analysis method includes engaging a device with the earth, analyzing the earth in a single substantially lineal direction using the device during the engaging, and providing information regarding a subsurface feature of the earth using the analysis.

  12. Establishment of analysis method for methane detection by gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyuan; Yang, Jie; Ye, Tianyi; Han, Zeyu

    2018-02-01

    The study focused on the establishment of analysis method for methane determination by gas chromatography. Methane was detected by hydrogen flame ionization detector, and the quantitative relationship was determined by working curve of y=2041.2x+2187 with correlation coefficient of 0.9979. The relative standard deviation of 2.60-6.33% and the recovery rate of 96.36%∼105.89% were obtained during the parallel determination of standard gas. This method was not quite suitable for biogas content analysis because methane content in biogas would be over the measurement range in this method.

  13. Image change detection systems, methods, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James L.; Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.

    2010-01-05

    Aspects of the invention relate to image change detection systems, methods, and articles of manufacture. According to one aspect, a method of identifying differences between a plurality of images is described. The method includes loading a source image and a target image into memory of a computer, constructing source and target edge images from the source and target images to enable processing of multiband images, displaying the source and target images on a display device of the computer, aligning the source and target edge images, switching displaying of the source image and the target image on the display device, to enable identification of differences between the source image and the target image.

  14. Quench detection method for 2G HTS wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchevsky, M; Xie, Y-Y; Selvamanickam, V

    2010-01-01

    2G HTS conductors are increasingly used in various commercial applications and their thermal and electrical stability is an important reliability factor. Detection and prevention of quenches in 2G wire-based cables and solenoids has proven to be a difficult engineering task. This is largely due to a very slow normal zone propagation in coated conductors that leads to formation of localized hotspots while the rest of the conductor remains in the superconducting state. We propose an original method of quench and hotspot detection for 2G wires and coils that is based upon local magnetic sensing and takes advantage of 2G wire planar geometry. We demonstrate our technique experimentally and show that its sensitivity is superior to the known voltage detection scheme. A unique feature of the method is its capability to remotely detect instant degradation of the wire critical current even before a normal zone is developed within the conductor. Various modifications of the method applicable to practical device configurations are discussed.

  15. Quench detection method for 2G HTS wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchevsky, M; Xie, Y-Y; Selvamanickam, V, E-mail: maxmarche@gmail.co, E-mail: yxie@superpower-inc.co [SuperPower, Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    2G HTS conductors are increasingly used in various commercial applications and their thermal and electrical stability is an important reliability factor. Detection and prevention of quenches in 2G wire-based cables and solenoids has proven to be a difficult engineering task. This is largely due to a very slow normal zone propagation in coated conductors that leads to formation of localized hotspots while the rest of the conductor remains in the superconducting state. We propose an original method of quench and hotspot detection for 2G wires and coils that is based upon local magnetic sensing and takes advantage of 2G wire planar geometry. We demonstrate our technique experimentally and show that its sensitivity is superior to the known voltage detection scheme. A unique feature of the method is its capability to remotely detect instant degradation of the wire critical current even before a normal zone is developed within the conductor. Various modifications of the method applicable to practical device configurations are discussed.

  16. Methods for detecting the environmental coccoid form of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz eMazaheri Assadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is recognized as the most common pathogen to cause gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. The organisms are found in two forms: 1 spiral-shaped bacillus and 2 coccoid. H. pylori coccoid form, generally found in the environment, is the transformed form of the normal spiral-shaped bacillus after exposed to water or adverse environmental conditions such as exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents. The putative infectious capability and the viability of H. pylori under environmental conditions are controversial. This disagreement is partially due to the fact of lack in detecting the coccoid form of H. pylori in the environment. Accurate and effective detection methods of H. pylori will lead to rapid treatment and disinfection, and less human health damages and reduction in health care costs. In this review, we provide a brief introduction to H. pylori environmental coccoid forms, their transmission and detection methods. We further discuss the use of these detection methods including their accuracy and efficiency.

  17. Methods of detecting and controlling mucoid Pseudomonas biofilm production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongwei D. (Inventor); Qiu, Dongru (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Compositions and methods for detecting and controlling the conversion to mucoidy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are disclosed. The present invention provides for detecting the switch from nonmucoid to mucoid state of P. aeruginosa by measuring mucE expression or MucE protein levels. The interaction between MucE and AlgW controls the switch to mucoidy in wild type P. aeruginosa. Also disclosed is an alginate biosynthesis heterologous expression system for use in screening candidate substances that inhibit conversion to mucoidy.

  18. Statistical methods for anomaly detection in the complex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Mouhamed, Mayez

    1977-09-01

    In a number of complex physical systems the accessible signals are often characterized by random fluctuations about a mean value. The fluctuations (signature) often transmit information about the state of the system that the mean value cannot predict. This study is undertaken to elaborate statistical methods of anomaly detection on the basis of signature analysis of the noise inherent in the process. The algorithm presented first learns the characteristics of normal operation of a complex process. Then it detects small deviations from the normal behavior. The algorithm can be implemented in a medium-sized computer for on line application. (author) [fr

  19. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D

    1987-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  20. Transcriptional profiling of human breast cancer cells cultured under microgravity conditions revealed the key role of genetic gravity sensors previously detected in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Lavan, David; Diego Orihuela-Tacuri, M.; Sanabria, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    Currently, studies in Drosophila melanogaster has shown emerging evidence that microgravity stimuli can be detected at the genetic level. Analysis of the transcriptome in the pupal stage of the fruit flies under microgravity conditions versus ground controls has suggested the presence of a few candidate genes as "gravity sensors" which are experimentally validated. Additionally, several studies have shown that microgravity causes inhibitory effects in different types of cancer cells, although the genes involved and responsible for these effects are still unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the genes suggested as the sensors of gravitational waves in Drosophila melanogaster and their human counterpart (orthologous genes) are highly involved in carcinogenesis, proliferation, anti-apoptotic signals, invasiveness, and metastatic potential of breast cancer cell tumors. The transcriptome analyses suggested that the observed inhibitory effect in cancer cells could be due to changes in the genetic expression of these candidates. These results encourage the possibility of new therapeutic targets managed together and not in isolation.

  1. Automated Detection of Salt Marsh Platforms : a Topographic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, G.; Mudd, S. M.; Clubb, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring the topographic evolution of coastal marshes is a crucial step toward improving the management of these valuable landscapes under the pressure of relative sea level rise and anthropogenic modification. However, determining their geometrically complex boundaries currently relies on spectral vegetation detection methods or requires labour-intensive field surveys and digitisation.We propose a novel method to reproducibly isolate saltmarsh scarps and platforms from a DEM. Field observations and numerical models show that saltmarshes mature into sub-horizontal platforms delineated by sub-vertical scarps: based on this premise, we identify scarps as lines of local maxima on a slope*relief raster, then fill landmasses from the scarps upward, thus isolating mature marsh platforms. Non-dimensional search parameters allow batch-processing of data without recalibration. We test our method using lidar-derived DEMs of six saltmarshes in England with varying tidal ranges and geometries, for which topographic platforms were manually isolated from tidal flats. Agreement between manual and automatic segregation exceeds 90% for resolutions of 1m, with all but one sites maintaining this performance for resolutions up to 3.5m. For resolutions of 1m, automatically detected platforms are comparable in surface area and elevation distribution to digitised platforms. We also find that our method allows the accurate detection of local bloc failures 3 times larger than the DEM resolution.Detailed inspection reveals that although tidal creeks were digitised as part of the marsh platform, automatic detection classifies them as part of the tidal flat, causing an increase in false negatives and overall platform perimeter. This suggests our method would benefit from a combination with existing creek detection algorithms. Fallen blocs and pioneer zones are inconsistently identified, particularly in macro-tidal marshes, leading to differences between digitisation and the automated method

  2. Railway clearance intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingfang; Guo, Baoqing; Wei, Wei

    2018-03-01

    In the stage of railway construction and operation, objects intruding railway clearance greatly threaten the safety of railway operation. Real-time intrusion detection is of great importance. For the shortcomings of depth insensitive and shadow interference of single image method, an intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision is proposed to reconstruct the 3D scene for locating the objects and judging clearance intrusion. The binocular cameras are calibrated with Zhang Zhengyou's method. In order to improve the 3D reconstruction speed, a suspicious region is firstly determined by background difference method of a single camera's image sequences. The image rectification, stereo matching and 3D reconstruction process are only executed when there is a suspicious region. A transformation matrix from Camera Coordinate System(CCS) to Track Coordinate System(TCS) is computed with gauge constant and used to transfer the 3D point clouds into the TCS, then the 3D point clouds are used to calculate the object position and intrusion in TCS. The experiments in railway scene show that the position precision is better than 10mm. It is an effective way for clearance intrusion detection and can satisfy the requirement of railway application.

  3. Development of a microbiological irradiation detection method for spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, T.; Takekawa, T.; Miyahara, M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to judge whether certain spices had been irradiated or not, we examined the possibility of developing a method based on the microbiological examination of spices. We used the total bacteria count in conjunction with the ratio of B. megaterium and B. cereus to the total bacteria count. The examination results of 6 kinds of spices with or without irradiation (black pepper, white pepper, coriander, paprika, ginger and turmeric), were as follows. Total bacteria counts over 10E5 CFU/g indicated that the samples were 'unirradiated'. When the total bacteria count was less than 10E5 CFU/g, and the ratio of B. megaterium and B. cereus to the total count was more than 30%, a history of irradiation of the samples was indicated. When ratios of B. megaterium and B. cereus were less than 30% and the total bacteria count was also less than 10E5 CFU/g, 'uncertainty' of irradiation was indicated. In this case, it would be possible to confirm whether spices were 'unirradiated' or 'irradiated' by using another detection method. This detection method was applicable to other spices except for paprika. The samples judged as 'irradiated' by using this detection method, surely proved to have a history of irradiation treatment

  4. A Hybrid Vision-Map Method for Urban Road Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid vision-map system is presented to solve the road detection problem in urban scenarios. The standardized use of machine learning techniques in classification problems has been merged with digital navigation map information to increase system robustness. The objective of this paper is to create a new environment perception method to detect the road in urban environments, fusing stereo vision with digital maps by detecting road appearance and road limits such as lane markings or curbs. Deep learning approaches make the system hard-coupled to the training set. Even though our approach is based on machine learning techniques, the features are calculated from different sources (GPS, map, curbs, etc., making our system less dependent on the training set.

  5. PCA method for automated detection of mispronounced words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhenhao; Sharma, Sudhendu R.; Smith, Mark J. T.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a method for detecting mispronunciations with the aim of improving Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) tools used by foreign language learners. The algorithm is based on Principle Component Analysis (PCA). It is hierarchical with each successive step refining the estimate to classify the test word as being either mispronounced or correct. Preprocessing before detection, like normalization and time-scale modification, is implemented to guarantee uniformity of the feature vectors input to the detection system. The performance using various features including spectrograms and Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) are compared and evaluated. Best results were obtained using MFCCs, achieving up to 99% accuracy in word verification and 93% in native/non-native classification. Compared with Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) which are used pervasively in recognition application, this particular approach is computational efficient and effective when training data is limited.

  6. Method for detecting a mass density image of an object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernick, Miles N [Chicago, IL; Yang, Yongyi [Westmont, IL

    2008-12-23

    A method for detecting a mass density image of an object. An x-ray beam is transmitted through the object and a transmitted beam is emitted from the object. The transmitted beam is directed at an angle of incidence upon a crystal analyzer. A diffracted beam is emitted from the crystal analyzer onto a detector and digitized. A first image of the object is detected from the diffracted beam emitted from the crystal analyzer when positioned at a first angular position. A second image of the object is detected from the diffracted beam emitted from the crystal analyzer when positioned at a second angular position. A refraction image is obtained and a regularized mathematical inversion algorithm is applied to the refraction image to obtain a mass density image.

  7. Spatial and Spectral Methods for Weed Detection and Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truchetet Frédéric

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the detection and localization of weed patches in order to improve the knowledge on weed-crop competition. A remote control aircraft provided with a camera allowed to obtain low cost and repetitive information. Different processings were involved to detect weed patches using spatial then spectral methods. First, a shift of colorimetric base allowed to separate the soil and plant pixels. Then, a specific algorithm including Gabor filter was applied to detect crop rows on the vegetation image. Weed patches were then deduced from the comparison of vegetation and crop images. Finally, the development of a multispectral acquisition device is introduced. First results for the discrimination of weeds and crops using the spectral properties are shown from laboratory tests. Application of neural networks were mostly studied.

  8. Spatial and Spectral Methods for Weed Detection and Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vioix, Jean-Baptiste; Douzals, Jean-Paul; Truchetet, Frédéric; Assémat, Louis; Guillemin, Jean-Philippe

    2002-12-01

    This study concerns the detection and localization of weed patches in order to improve the knowledge on weed-crop competition. A remote control aircraft provided with a camera allowed to obtain low cost and repetitive information. Different processings were involved to detect weed patches using spatial then spectral methods. First, a shift of colorimetric base allowed to separate the soil and plant pixels. Then, a specific algorithm including Gabor filter was applied to detect crop rows on the vegetation image. Weed patches were then deduced from the comparison of vegetation and crop images. Finally, the development of a multispectral acquisition device is introduced. First results for the discrimination of weeds and crops using the spectral properties are shown from laboratory tests. Application of neural networks were mostly studied.

  9. Comparison of Bayesian clustering and edge detection methods for inferring boundaries in landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safner, T.; Miller, M.P.; McRae, B.H.; Fortin, M.-J.; Manel, S.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, techniques available for identifying clusters of individuals or boundaries between clusters using genetic data from natural populations have expanded rapidly. Consequently, there is a need to evaluate these different techniques. We used spatially-explicit simulation models to compare three spatial Bayesian clustering programs and two edge detection methods. Spatially-structured populations were simulated where a continuous population was subdivided by barriers. We evaluated the ability of each method to correctly identify boundary locations while varying: (i) time after divergence, (ii) strength of isolation by distance, (iii) level of genetic diversity, and (iv) amount of gene flow across barriers. To further evaluate the methods' effectiveness to detect genetic clusters in natural populations, we used previously published data on North American pumas and a European shrub. Our results show that with simulated and empirical data, the Bayesian spatial clustering algorithms outperformed direct edge detection methods. All methods incorrectly detected boundaries in the presence of strong patterns of isolation by distance. Based on this finding, we support the application of Bayesian spatial clustering algorithms for boundary detection in empirical datasets, with necessary tests for the influence of isolation by distance. ?? 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  10. An Optimized Method to Detect BDS Satellites' Orbit Maneuvering and Anomalies in Real-Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guanwen; Qin, Zhiwei; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Le; Yan, Xingyuan; Wang, Xiaolei

    2018-02-28

    The orbital maneuvers of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Constellations will decrease the performance and accuracy of positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT). Because satellites in the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) are in Geostationary Orbit (GEO) and Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO), maneuvers occur more frequently. Also, the precise start moment of the BDS satellites' orbit maneuvering cannot be obtained by common users. This paper presented an improved real-time detecting method for BDS satellites' orbit maneuvering and anomalies with higher timeliness and higher accuracy. The main contributions to this improvement are as follows: (1) instead of the previous two-steps method, a new one-step method with higher accuracy is proposed to determine the start moment and the pseudo random noise code (PRN) of the satellite orbit maneuvering in that time; (2) BDS Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) orbital maneuvers are firstly detected according to the proposed selection strategy for the stations; and (3) the classified non-maneuvering anomalies are detected by a new median robust method using the weak anomaly detection factor and the strong anomaly detection factor. The data from the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) in 2017 was used for experimental analysis. The experimental results and analysis showed that the start moment of orbital maneuvers and the period of non-maneuver anomalies can be determined more accurately in real-time. When orbital maneuvers and anomalies occur, the proposed method improved the data utilization for 91 and 95 min in 2017.

  11. Method of detecting leakage from sealing attached to pressure tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomomatsu, Ken-ichi; Hayashi, Ken-ichi.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention provides a detection method for measuring the amount of water leaked from sealings attached to the lower end of a pressure tube. That is, the lower end of the pressure tube is sealed only by a metal sealing. A capturing vessel is placed under the pressure tube for capturing the leaked water dropping from the lower end of the pressure tube and the weight of the leaked water is measured on every capturing vessels to determine the amount of the leaked water. The leakage detection method based on the weight measurement has higher accuracy compared with a conventional volume measuring method using a water level gauge as described below. For example, if the volume of the captured water is 10cc, an error of about 0.1cc is caused by the volume measuring method using the water level gauge, whereas if 10g (10cc) weight of water is measured by using an accurate balance, error is only about 10 -4 g (10 -4 cc). Accordingly, the method of the present invention can measure at an accuracy about 1000 times as high as the conventional method. (I.S.)

  12. Conventional and molecular methods to detect bacterial pathogens in mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugliandolo, C; Lentini, V; Spanò, A; Maugeri, T L

    2011-01-01

    To detect Aeromonas spp., Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in mussels and water samples from a farming area, conventional and molecular methods were applied to enrichment cultures. The aerolysin gene (aero) of Aeromonas spp., the invasion plasmid antigen B (ipaB) gene of Salmonella spp., the enterotoxin secretion protein (epsM) gene of V. cholerae, the species-specific region of 16S rRNA gene of V. vulnificus, the 16S-23S rDNA (IGS) gene of V. parahaemolyticus and the pR72H fragment of V. parahaemolyticus were amplified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays on DNA extracted from enrichment cultures. The haemolysin gene (tdh) of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus was also amplified. Conventional culture method allowed the isolation of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus from water and mussels. The genes aero, epsM and 16S rRNA of V. vulnificus were occasionally detected in the enrichment cultures. In mussels, the ipaB and IGS genes were detected from June to September and from April to November, respectively. All genes, except aero, were amplified from mussels collected in September, when pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus (tdh+) strains were also isolated. Multiplex-PCR assays were more sensitive and faster than conventional procedures. The results emphasize the need of an accurate and rapid detection of bacterial pathogens in mussels to protect human health. © 2010 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Alcohol Detection in Exhaled Air by NDIR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitsuka, Norio; Yonemura, Masatoshi; Sakakibara, Kiyomi; Taguchi, Toshiyuki; Wakita, Toshihiro

    In recent years, the increase in traffic accidents associated with drunk driving has become a serious social issue. Therefore, there is a need for an in-vehicle system that can detect the fact that the driver is under the influence of alcohol. We thought a method for alcohol detection in the breath of the driver, based on a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) method, is suitable for this system. Since alcohol content in the driver's breath is significantly diluted at the sensor device, it is necessary that the sensor is highly sensitive to detect diluted alcohol. A quantum cascade laser was used to produce highly intense infrared light source. An infrared hollow fiber used in medical treatment was utilized as a gas absorption cell. Since the core of the fiber is hollow, gas is introduced for analyzer. The flexibility of the fiber allowed it to be looped so that 2 m fiber in length could be formed into a compact coil of 29 cm in diameter. It was clarified that the light intensity change of light output from the hollow fiber with ethanol density, and rarefied ethanol as small as 1 ppm in density was detected.

  14. Detection method of malignant tumors in DR images -Iris Filter-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuo; Jin, Hua-Rong; Kobatake, Hidefumi

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a study on detecting malignant tumors in DR (digital radiography) images. Tumors can be recognized as lower density areas than their neighborhood in DR image and contrast enhancement method such as difference filters have been widely used to detect them. This paper presents a new filter named Iris Filter to detect tumors. It evaluates distribution pattern of gradient vectors in a relatively wide neighborhood area. It is designed so that its output does not depend on the contrast substantially. The proposed filter is robust against disturbances of long and slender patterns such as blood vessels and/or rib edges. The region of support of the proposed filter is adapted optimally to the local pattern of the processed image. The name 'iris' filter originates from this adaptivity. Experiments to test the performance of the proposed filter have been performed. Chest X-ray images and mammograms were used whether the proposed filter is effective to detect lung cancer and breast cancer. Experimental results show that the proposed filter is very effective in detecting tumors with weak contrast. (author)

  15. Evaluation of methods for leak detection in reactor primary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Claytor, T.N.

    1985-01-01

    No currently available, single leak-detection method combines optimal leakage detection sensitivity, leak-locating ability, and leakage measurement accuracy. Technology is available to improve leak detection capability at specific sites by use of acoustic monitoring. However, current acoustic monitoring techniques provide no source discrimination (e.g., to distinguish between leaks from pipe cracks and valves) and no leak-rate information (a small leak may saturate the system). Seven cracks, including three field-induced IGSCC specimens and two thermal-fatigue cracks, have been installed in a laboratory acoustic leak detection facility. The IGSCC specimens produce stronger acoustic signals than the thermal-fatigue cracks at equivalent leak rates. Despite significant differences in crack geometry, the acoustic signals from the three IGSCC specimens, tested at the same leak rate, are virtually identical in the frequency range from 300 to 400 kHz. Thus, the quantitative correlations between the acoustic signals and leak rate in the 300-400 kHz band are very similar for the IGSCC specimens. Also, acoustic background data have been acquired during a hot functional test at the Watts Bar PWR. With these data, it is now possible to estimate the sensitivity of acoustic leak detection techniques. (orig.)

  16. A cascade method for TFT-LCD defect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Songsong; Wu, Xiaojun; Yu, Zhiyang; Mo, Zhuoya

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel cascade detection algorithm which focuses on point and line defects on TFT-LCD. At the first step of the algorithm, we use the gray level difference of su-bimage to segment the abnormal area. The second step is based on phase only transform (POT) which corresponds to the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), normalized by the magnitude. It can remove regularities like texture and noise. After that, we improve the method of setting regions of interest (ROI) with the method of edge segmentation and polar transformation. The algorithm has outstanding performance in both computation speed and accuracy. It can solve most of the defect detections including dark point, light point, dark line, etc.

  17. [Detection of antibodies to mycoplasmas using an immunoenzyme method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hájková, M; Jurmanová, K

    1986-08-01

    Detection of the antibodies to the species Mycoplasma bovis in the serum and milk of dairy cows coming from a mastitis-infected herd is a good example of utilization of the ELISA immunoenzymologic method in the mycoplasmology. Examining the samples from 75 dairy cows and applying the indirect hemagglutination test, good correlation of the results of the two tests was determined. The antibodies to the species Ureaplasma diversum were demonstrated by the ELISA method both in the bovine serum and in the milk of dairy cows infected slightly with mastitis. We chosen that strain which detected the maximum titres in the selected samples of the sera out of four antigens prepared from various strains of U. diversum. Rabbit sera hyperimmune to 26 strains of the mycoplasmas of various species were used to identify two antigens (after removing the antibodies to the components of the media). Specific reaction was obtained with the antisera to M. hyorhinis and M. arginini.

  18. Devices and methods to detect and quantify trace gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Robinson, Alex

    2016-05-03

    Sensing devices based on a surface acoustic wave ("SAW") device coated with an absorbent crystalline or amorphous layer for detecting at least one chemical analyte in a gaseous carrier. Methods for detecting the presence of a chemical analyte in a gaseous carrier using such devices are also disclosed. The sensing devices and methods for their use may be configured for sensing chemical analytes selected from the group consisting of water vapor, carbon dioxide, methanol, ethanol, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, organic amines, organic compounds containing NO.sub.2 groups, halogenated hydrocarbons, acetone, hexane, toluene, isopropanol, alcohols, alkanes, alkenes, benzene, functionalized aromatics, ammonia (NH.sub.3), phosgene (COCl.sub.2), sulfur mustard, nerve agents, sulfur dioxide, tetrahydrofuran (THF) and methyltertbutyl ether (MTBE) and combinations thereof.

  19. Drop weight impact measurements of HE sensitivity: modified detection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, D N; Brown, G W; Tappan, B C; Oshwald, D M; Koby, J R; Schoonover, M L

    2014-01-01

    High explosives small-scale sensitivity testing has been a hallmark of safety screening since WWII. Sensitivity testing was once crude and simple; broom sticks were used to scrape explosives on the floor while experimenters would look, listen, and smell for signs of a reaction. Since then, a wide variety of testing apparatus have been developed to explore the effects of different stimuli on explosives. In concert with the development of the machines themselves, the reaction detection methods have also evolved. This paper's focus is on the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) drop weight impact machine and reaction detection methods. A critical evaluation of results is presented with cautionary examples of false positives that can occur with non-explosive materials.

  20. Neutron imaging integrated circuit and method for detecting neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagarkar, Vivek V.; More, Mitali J.

    2017-12-05

    The present disclosure provides a neutron imaging detector and a method for detecting neutrons. In one example, a method includes providing a neutron imaging detector including plurality of memory cells and a conversion layer on the memory cells, setting one or more of the memory cells to a first charge state, positioning the neutron imaging detector in a neutron environment for a predetermined time period, and reading a state change at one of the memory cells, and measuring a charge state change at one of the plurality of memory cells from the first charge state to a second charge state less than the first charge state, where the charge state change indicates detection of neutrons at said one of the memory cells.

  1. New Vehicle Detection Method with Aspect Ratio Estimation for Hypothesized Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisu Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All kinds of vehicles have different ratios of width to height, which are called the aspect ratios. Most previous works, however, use a fixed aspect ratio for vehicle detection (VD. The use of a fixed vehicle aspect ratio for VD degrades the performance. Thus, the estimation of a vehicle aspect ratio is an important part of robust VD. Taking this idea into account, a new on-road vehicle detection system is proposed in this paper. The proposed method estimates the aspect ratio of the hypothesized windows to improve the VD performance. Our proposed method uses an Aggregate Channel Feature (ACF and a support vector machine (SVM to verify the hypothesized windows with the estimated aspect ratio. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, the estimation of vehicle aspect ratio is inserted between the HG (hypothesis generation and the HV (hypothesis verification. Second, a simple HG method named a signed horizontal edge map is proposed to speed up VD. Third, a new measure is proposed to represent the overlapping ratio between the ground truth and the detection results. This new measure is used to show that the proposed method is better than previous works in terms of robust VD. Finally, the Pittsburgh dataset is used to verify the performance of the proposed method.

  2. Method for fuel element leak detection in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, U.

    1983-01-01

    The method is aimed at detecting fuel element leaks during reactor operation. It is based on neutron flux measurements at many points in the core, using at least two detectors at a time. The detectors must be arranged in the direction of the coolant flow. Values obtained from periodic measurements are compared with threshold values. The location of fuel element leaks is determined from those values exceeding the threshold of individual detectors

  3. The interpolation damage detection method for frames under seismic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongelli, M. P.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper a new procedure, addressed as Interpolation Damage Detecting Method (IDDM), is investigated as a possible mean for early detection and location of light damage in a structure struck by an earthquake. Damage is defined in terms of the accuracy of a spline function in interpolating the operational mode shapes (ODS) of the structure. At a certain location a decrease (statistically meaningful) of accuracy, with respect to a reference configuration, points out a localized variation of the operational shapes thus revealing the existence of damage. In this paper, the proposed method is applied to a numerical model of a multistory frame, simulating a damaged condition through a reduction of the story stiffness. Several damage scenarios have been considered and the results indicate the effectiveness of the method to assess and localize damage for the case of concentrated damage and for low to medium levels of noise in the recorded signals. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm is that it does not require a numerical model of the structure as well as an intense data post-processing or user interaction. The ODS are calculated from Frequency Response Functions hence responses recorded on the structure can be directly used without the need of modal identification. Furthermore, the local character of the feature chosen to detect damage makes the IDDM less sensitive to noise and to environmental changes with respect to other damage detection methods. For these reasons the IDDM appears as a valid option for automated post-earthquake damage assessment, able to provide after an earthquake, reliable information about the location of damage.

  4. Rapid method for Detection of Irradiation Mango Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Salhy, F.T.

    2011-01-01

    To detect mango fruits which have been exposed to low doses of gamma rays (0.5-3.0 kGy), three recommended methods by European Committee for Standardization (EN 1784:1996, EN 1785:1996 and EN 1787:2000) were used to study the possibility for identification of irradiated mango fruits (Ewais variety). Fresh mangoes were irradiated to different doses (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy). The first method for determining the volatile hydrocarbons (VHC) was carried out by using florisil column then identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major VHCs were C14:1, C15:0 and C17:1 at different doses which increased linearly with increasing doses either at low or high doses. The second one for determining the 2-alkyl cyclobutanone (2-DCB) was carried out using florisil chromatography method activated with 20% for separation and identified by GC-MS. 2-DCB bio marker specific for irradiated food proved its presence at the applied doses from 0.75-3.0 kGy but not at 0.5 kGy. All the mentioned compounds could not detected in non-irradiated samples, which mean that these radiolytic products (VHC and 2-DCB) can be used as a detection markers for irradiated mangoes even at low doses. The third one (EN 1787:2000) was conducted by electron spin resonance (ESR) on dried petioles of mangoes. The results proved that ESR was more sensitive for all applied doses.It could be concluded that using the three methods can be succeeded for detection of irradiated mangoes but the rapid one even at low doses with high accuracy was ESR.

  5. A Comparison of Different Methods for Fissure Caries Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Peycheva K.; Boteva E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare the diagnostic capabilities of three different diagnostic methods: Quantitative Laser Fluorescence (QLF) − DIAGNOdent Classic (DD), Light-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) − SoproLife daylight and blue fluorescence, and their relevance to ICDAS II system in detection of fissure caries lesions in permanent molars. Permanent molars (n = 45) are divided in two groups: 1) third molars, n = 35; 2) first and second molars, n = 10. They are examined by 2 examiners with an...

  6. Aspects of physicochemical methods for the detection of latent fingerprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews physicochemical methods of detecting latent finger-prints on a wide range of materials commonly found at the scene of a crime, with particular emphasis placed on the newer autoradiographic techniques. This is set against a description of studies on the fundamental nature of the latent fingerprint and its host substrate, with a brief review of the history of reagents used in latent fingerprint examination. (author)

  7. Validation of the ANSR® Listeria Method for Detection of Listeria spp. in Selected Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Oscar; Alles, Susan; Wendorf, Michael; Gray, R Lucas; Walton, Kayla; Pinkava, Lisa; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    ANSR® Listeria was previously certified as Performance Tested Method(SM) 101202 for detection of Listeria spp. on selected environmental surfaces. This study proposes a matrix extension to the method for detection of Listeria spp. in selected food matrixes. The method is an isothermal nucleic acid amplification assay based on the nicking enzyme amplification reaction technology. Following single-step sample enrichment for 16-24 h, the assay is completed in less than 50 min, requiring only simple instrumentation. Inclusivity testing was performed using a panel of 51 strains of Listeria spp., representing the species L. grayi, L. innocua, L. ivanovii, L. monocytogenes, L. seeligeri, and L. welshimeri. All strains tested were detected by the ANSR assay. Exclusivity testing of 30 strains representing non-Listeria Gram-positive bacteria yielded no evidence of cross-reactivity. Performance of the ANSR method for detection of Listeria spp. was compared to that of reference culture procedures for pasteurized liquid egg, pasteurized 2% milk, Mexican-style cheese, ice cream, smoked salmon, lettuce, cantaloupe, and guacamole. Data obtained in these unpaired studies and analyzed using a probability of detection model demonstrated that there were no statistically significant differences in results between the ANSR and reference culture methods, except for milk at 16 h and cantaloupe. In milk and smoked salmon, ANSR sensitivity was low at 16 h and therefore the recommended incubation time is 24 h. In cantaloupe, ANSR was found to be more sensitive than the reference culture method at both 16 and 24 h in independent laboratory testing. The ANSR Listeria method can be used as an accurate, rapid, and simple alternative to standard culture methods for detection of Listeria spp. in selected food types.

  8. Visual method for detecting critical damage in railway contact strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judek, S.; Skibicki, J.

    2018-05-01

    Ensuring an uninterrupted supply of power in the electric traction is vital for the safety of this important transport system. For this purpose, monitoring and diagnostics of the technical condition of the vehicle’s power supply elements are becoming increasingly common. This paper presents a new visual method for detecting contact strip damage, based on measurement and analysis of the movement of the overhead contact line (OCL) wire. A measurement system configuration with a 2D camera was proposed. The experimental method has shown that contact strips damage can be detected by transverse displacement signal analysis. It has been proven that the velocity signal numerically established on that basis has a comparable level in the case of identical damage, regardless of its location on the surface of the contact strip. The proposed method belongs to the group of contact-less measurements, so it does not require interference with the structure of the catenary network nor the mounting of sensors in its vicinity. Measurement of displacements of the contact wire in 2D space makes it possible to combine the functions of existing diagnostic stands assessing the correctness of the mean contact force control adjustment of the current collector with the elements of the contact strip diagnostics, which involves detecting their damage which may result in overhead contact line rupture.

  9. Small RNA Detection by in Situ Hybridization Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna O. Urbanek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Small noncoding RNAs perform multiple regulatory functions in cells, and their exogenous mimics are widely used in research and experimental therapies to interfere with target gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are the most thoroughly investigated representatives of the small RNA family, which includes short interfering RNAs (siRNAs, PIWI-associated RNA (piRNAs, and others. Numerous methods have been adopted for the detection and characterization of small RNAs, which is challenging due to their short length and low level of expression. These include molecular biology methods such as real-time RT-PCR, northern blotting, hybridization to microarrays, cloning and sequencing, as well as single cell miRNA detection by microscopy with in situ hybridization (ISH. In this review, we focus on the ISH method, including its fluorescent version (FISH, and we present recent methodological advances that facilitated its successful adaptation for small RNA detection. We discuss relevant technical aspects as well as the advantages and limitations of ISH. We also refer to numerous applications of small RNA ISH in basic research and molecular diagnostics.

  10. A review of methods for detect human Papillomavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu André L P

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human Papillomavirus (HPV is the most common sexually transmitted virus. Worldwide, the most common high-risk (HR-HPV are -16/18, and approximately 70% of cervical cancers (CC are due to infection by these genotypes. Persistent infection by HR-HPV is a necessary but not sufficient cause of this cancer, which develops over a long period through precursor lesions, which can be detected by cytological screening. Although this screening has decreased the incidence of CC, HPV-related cervical disease, including premalignant and malignant lesions, continues to be a major burden on health-care systems. Although not completely elucidated, the HPV-driven molecular mechanisms underlying the development of cervical lesions have provided a number of potential biomarkers for both diagnostic and prognostic use in the clinical management of women with HPV-related cervical disease, and these biomarkers can also be used to increase the positive predictive value of current screening methods. In addition, they can provide insights into the biology of HPV-induced cancer and thus lead to the development of nonsurgical therapies. Considering the importance of detecting HPV and related biomarkers, a variety of methods are being developed for these purposes. This review summarizes current knowledge of detection methods for HPV, and related biomarkers that can be used to discriminate lesions with a high risk of progression to CC.

  11. DNS Tunneling Detection Method Based on Multilabel Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Almusawi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available DNS tunneling is a method used by malicious users who intend to bypass the firewall to send or receive commands and data. This has a significant impact on revealing or releasing classified information. Several researchers have examined the use of machine learning in terms of detecting DNS tunneling. However, these studies have treated the problem of DNS tunneling as a binary classification where the class label is either legitimate or tunnel. In fact, there are different types of DNS tunneling such as FTP-DNS tunneling, HTTP-DNS tunneling, HTTPS-DNS tunneling, and POP3-DNS tunneling. Therefore, there is a vital demand to not only detect the DNS tunneling but rather classify such tunnel. This study aims to propose a multilabel support vector machine in order to detect and classify the DNS tunneling. The proposed method has been evaluated using a benchmark dataset that contains numerous DNS queries and is compared with a multilabel Bayesian classifier based on the number of corrected classified DNS tunneling instances. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed SVM classification method by obtaining an f-measure of 0.80.

  12. General survey of detection methods for irradiation foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    The development of detection techniques is needed, in order for regulating authorities to determine whether or not a particular food sample has been irradiated, and label it accordingly so that a consumer's free choice can be exercised. The chemical and physical changes brought about in foods by practical doses of irradiation are very small, and therefore very sensitive methods are required. A number of promising approaches have been developed and evaluated. These include chemical, physical and biological methods ranging from the very simple to highly sophisticated techniques. (author)

  13. Unsupervised detection of salt marsh platforms: a topographic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. H. Goodwin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Salt marshes filter pollutants, protect coastlines against storm surges, and sequester carbon, yet are under threat from sea level rise and anthropogenic modification. The sustained existence of the salt marsh ecosystem depends on the topographic evolution of marsh platforms. Quantifying marsh platform topography is vital for improving the management of these valuable landscapes. The determination of platform boundaries currently relies on supervised classification methods requiring near-infrared data to detect vegetation, or demands labour-intensive field surveys and digitisation. We propose a novel, unsupervised method to reproducibly isolate salt marsh scarps and platforms from a digital elevation model (DEM, referred to as Topographic Identification of Platforms (TIP. Field observations and numerical models show that salt marshes mature into subhorizontal platforms delineated by subvertical scarps. Based on this premise, we identify scarps as lines of local maxima on a slope raster, then fill landmasses from the scarps upward, thus isolating mature marsh platforms. We test the TIP method using lidar-derived DEMs from six salt marshes in England with varying tidal ranges and geometries, for which topographic platforms were manually isolated from tidal flats. Agreement between manual and unsupervised classification exceeds 94 % for DEM resolutions of 1 m, with all but one site maintaining an accuracy superior to 90 % for resolutions up to 3 m. For resolutions of 1 m, platforms detected with the TIP method are comparable in surface area to digitised platforms and have similar elevation distributions. We also find that our method allows for the accurate detection of local block failures as small as 3 times the DEM resolution. Detailed inspection reveals that although tidal creeks were digitised as part of the marsh platform, unsupervised classification categorises them as part of the tidal flat, causing an increase in false negatives

  14. Unsupervised detection of salt marsh platforms: a topographic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Guillaume C. H.; Mudd, Simon M.; Clubb, Fiona J.

    2018-03-01

    Salt marshes filter pollutants, protect coastlines against storm surges, and sequester carbon, yet are under threat from sea level rise and anthropogenic modification. The sustained existence of the salt marsh ecosystem depends on the topographic evolution of marsh platforms. Quantifying marsh platform topography is vital for improving the management of these valuable landscapes. The determination of platform boundaries currently relies on supervised classification methods requiring near-infrared data to detect vegetation, or demands labour-intensive field surveys and digitisation. We propose a novel, unsupervised method to reproducibly isolate salt marsh scarps and platforms from a digital elevation model (DEM), referred to as Topographic Identification of Platforms (TIP). Field observations and numerical models show that salt marshes mature into subhorizontal platforms delineated by subvertical scarps. Based on this premise, we identify scarps as lines of local maxima on a slope raster, then fill landmasses from the scarps upward, thus isolating mature marsh platforms. We test the TIP method using lidar-derived DEMs from six salt marshes in England with varying tidal ranges and geometries, for which topographic platforms were manually isolated from tidal flats. Agreement between manual and unsupervised classification exceeds 94 % for DEM resolutions of 1 m, with all but one site maintaining an accuracy superior to 90 % for resolutions up to 3 m. For resolutions of 1 m, platforms detected with the TIP method are comparable in surface area to digitised platforms and have similar elevation distributions. We also find that our method allows for the accurate detection of local block failures as small as 3 times the DEM resolution. Detailed inspection reveals that although tidal creeks were digitised as part of the marsh platform, unsupervised classification categorises them as part of the tidal flat, causing an increase in false negatives and overall platform

  15. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-06-30

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  16. A graph clustering method for community detection in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, HongFang; Li, Jin; Li, JunHuai; Zhang, FaCun; Cui, YingAn

    2017-03-01

    Information mining from complex networks by identifying communities is an important problem in a number of research fields, including the social sciences, biology, physics and medicine. First, two concepts are introduced, Attracting Degree and Recommending Degree. Second, a graph clustering method, referred to as AR-Cluster, is presented for detecting community structures in complex networks. Third, a novel collaborative similarity measure is adopted to calculate node similarities. In the AR-Cluster method, vertices are grouped together based on calculated similarity under a K-Medoids framework. Extensive experimental results on two real datasets show the effectiveness of AR-Cluster.

  17. ASR damage detection in concrete from ultrasonic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Peng; Patton, Mark E.; Greve, David W.; Harley, Joel B.; Junker, Warren R.; Liu, Chang; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2014-03-01

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is a chemical reaction that can occur between alkaline components in cement paste and reactive forms of silica in susceptible aggregates when sufficient moisture is present. The ASR product, known as ASR gel, can cause expansion and cracking that damages the structure. We pass ultrasonic signals through concrete laboratory specimens and use three different ultrasonic methods to detect the onset of ASR damage, or the presence of ASR damage while still at the microscale. Our test specimens are fabricated with aggregate known to be reactive and are then exposed to an aggressive environment to accelerate ASR development. We use swept-sine excitations and obtain pitch-catch records from specimens that have been exposed to the accelerated environment. From this data, we demonstrate an ultrasonic passband method shows high frequency components diminish faster than low frequency components, and therefore the ultrasonic passband shifts to the low frequency side due to ASR damage. The test results also show that the ultrasonic passband is logically related to specimen size. We also demonstrate a stretching factor method is able to track the progress of ASR damage in concrete very well. These methods are shown to be more reliable than attenuation spectrum or attenuation methods that do not detect the ASR damage in concrete at early stages.

  18. Steganography forensics method for detecting least significant bit replacement attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Wei, Chengcheng; Han, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    We present an image forensics method to detect least significant bit replacement steganography attack. The proposed method provides fine-grained forensics features by using the hierarchical structure that combines pixels correlation and bit-planes correlation. This is achieved via bit-plane decomposition and difference matrices between the least significant bit-plane and each one of the others. Generated forensics features provide the susceptibility (changeability) that will be drastically altered when the cover image is embedded with data to form a stego image. We developed a statistical model based on the forensics features and used least square support vector machine as a classifier to distinguish stego images from cover images. Experimental results show that the proposed method provides the following advantages. (1) The detection rate is noticeably higher than that of some existing methods. (2) It has the expected stability. (3) It is robust for content-preserving manipulations, such as JPEG compression, adding noise, filtering, etc. (4) The proposed method provides satisfactory generalization capability.

  19. A Method of Insulator Detection from Aerial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Zhai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With increased image processing and sensor technologies, it is possible for photogrammetrists to monitor the status of electrical power infrastructures. Identifying and extracting insulators from complex background have great potential in automatic power grid surveillance on board unmanned aerial vehicles. This paper proposes an improved method to automatically extract the insulators from aerial images. A 3D model is introduced into the existing algorithms to obtain samples of insulators, which are Haar features and AdaBoost. Finally, in order to evaluate the performances, we compare our 3D model-based method with the existing methods that does not use 3D model to show the performance improvement. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to successfully extract the insulators from aerial images with an increased average detection ratio to 83 %.

  20. Study on visual detection method for wind turbine blade failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianping; Shen, Zhenteng

    2018-02-01

    Start your abstract here…At present, the non-destructive testing methods of the wind turbine blades has fiber bragg grating, sound emission and vibration detection, but there are all kinds of defects, and the engineering application is difficult. In this regard, three-point slope deviation method, which is a kind of visual inspection method, is proposed for monitoring the running status of wind turbine blade based on the image processing technology. A better blade image can be got through calibration, image splicing, pretreatment and threshold segmentation algorithm. Design of the early warning system to monitor wind turbine blade running condition, recognition rate, stability and impact factors of the method were statistically analysed. The experimental results shown showed that it has highly accurate and good monitoring effect.

  1. Method for detecting clusters of possible uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conover, W.J.; Bement, T.R.; Iman, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    When a two-dimensional map contains points that appear to be scattered somewhat at random, a question that often arises is whether groups of points that appear to cluster are merely exhibiting ordinary behavior, which one can expect with any random distribution of points, or whether the clusters are too pronounced to be attributable to chance alone. A method for detecting clusters along a straight line is applied to the two-dimensional map of 214 Bi anomalies observed as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program in the Lubbock, Texas, region. Some exact probabilities associated with this method are computed and compared with two approximate methods. The two methods for approximating probabilities work well in the cases examined and can be used when it is not feasible to obtain the exact probabilities

  2. Optimization and modification of the method for detection of rhamnolipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Tabuchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of biosurfactants in bioremediation, facilitates and accelerates microbial degradation of hydrocarbons. CTAB/MB agar method created by Siegmund & Wagner for screening of rhamnolipids (RL producing strains, has been widely used but has not improved significantly for more than 20 years. To optimize the technique as a quantitative method, CTAB/MB agar plates were made and different variables were tested, like incubation time, cooling, CTAB concentration, methylene blue presence, wells diameter and inocula volume. Furthermore, a new method for RL detection within halos was developed: precipitation of RL with HCl, allows the formation a new halos pattern, easier to observe and to measure. This research reaffirm that this method is not totally suitable for a fine quantitative analysis, because of the difficulty to accurately correlate RL concentration and the area of the halos. RL diffusion does not seem to have a simple behavior and there are a lot of factors that affect RL migration rate.

  3. Current perspectives on genetically modified crops and detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamle, Madhu; Kumar, Pradeep; Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Bajpai, Vivek K

    2017-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are the fastest adopted commodities in the agribiotech industry. This market penetration should provide a sustainable basis for ensuring food supply for growing global populations. The successful completion of two decades of commercial GM crop production (1996-2015) is underscored by the increasing rate of adoption of genetic engineering technology by farmers worldwide. With the advent of introduction of multiple traits stacked together in GM crops for combined herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, drought tolerance or disease resistance, the requirement of reliable and sensitive detection methods for tracing and labeling genetically modified organisms in the food/feed chain has become increasingly important. In addition, several countries have established threshold levels for GM content which trigger legally binding labeling schemes. The labeling of GM crops is mandatory in many countries (such as China, EU, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Korea, Chile, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand), whereas in Canada, Hong Kong, USA, South Africa, and Argentina voluntary labeling schemes operate. The rapid adoption of GM crops has increased controversies, and mitigating these issues pertaining to the implementation of effective regulatory measures for the detection of GM crops is essential. DNA-based detection methods have been successfully employed, while the whole genome sequencing using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provides an advanced means for detecting genetically modified organisms and foods/feeds in GM crops. This review article describes the current status of GM crop commercialization and discusses the benefits and shortcomings of common and advanced detection systems for GMs in foods and animal feeds.

  4. In Situ CaptureRT-qPCR: A new simple and sensitive method to detect human norovirus in oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the major cause for the non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. RT-qPCR is a widely used method to detect HuNoVs. However, the method is unable to discriminate between infectious and non-infectious viruses. Previously, we reported that the receptor mediated in s...

  5. Early detection of mycobacteria using a novel hydrogel culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi Hee; Kim, Shine Young; Kim, Chang-Ki; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Eun Yup; Chang, Chulhun L

    2014-01-01

    Early laboratory detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is crucial for controlling tuberculosis. We developed a hydrogel mycobacterial culture method that retains the advantages of both solid and liquid methods in terms of speed, cost, and efficiency. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) suspensions and 200 acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive clinical specimens were inoculated in Middlebrook 7H9 liquid media (Becton-Dickinson and Company, USA) and mixed with 75 µL of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-Phe-Phe-OH hydrogel stock solution in an Eppendorf tube just before culture incubation. The mixtures were cultured at 37℃ for as long as 14 days to monitor culture status. The number of M. bovis BCG increased with time. For 200 AFB smear-positive specimens, 155 of 158 conventional culture-positive specimens and 4 culture-negative or contaminated specimens yielded positive cultures within 14 days. For 128 specimens positive with the liquid culture method, the time to positive culture using the hydrogel method (mean, 12.6 days; range, 7 to 14 days) was significantly shorter than that for conventional liquid culture (mean, 16.2 days; range, 6 to 31 days; Pculture system is useful for timely, economical, and efficient detection of mycobacteria in clinical specimens.

  6. Novel plasma telomerase detection method to improve cancer diagnostic assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hilal

    Full Text Available The activity levels of telomerase and its mRNA have been found to be more diagnostically sensitive than cytological results in many cancerous tissues and correlate well with the clinical disease stage. Currently, there are several methods of detecting telomerase in tissues and in blood. The most commonly used method is a conventional quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR which is time and labor exhausting.We have developed a simple and innovative blood test method that allows us to diagnose cancer and relapsed cancer in a cost- and time -effective manner. We had evaluated our novel method in two populations: 1 in vivo in three mice with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC versus one control mouse and 2 clinically in 30 cancer patients versus 10 individuals without cancer. We compared our novel method with the old conventional method. At least one sample was obtained from each patient included in the study.The novel method substantially increased the sensitivity (from 37% to 77%, p<0.001 and negative predictive value (from 32% to 56%, p = 0.005 of the telomerase test for all cancer patients (those who were substantially treated and those who were not. There was no significant difference in telomerase activity between cancer patients and healthy volunteers using the conventional method (p = 0.13, whereas there was a significant difference using the novel method (p = 0.001.Conventional method shows no significant difference in telomerase activity between cancer patients and healthy volunteers (p = 0.13, whereas there was a significant difference using the novel method (p = 0.001.

  7. Application of a thermoluminescence method for the detection of irradiated spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastélum, S; Osuna, I; Meléndrez, R; Cruz-Zaragoza, E; Chernov, V; Calderón, T; Barboza-Flores, M

    2002-01-01

    Food irradiation is extremely effective at reducing food-borne illness as well as losses caused by infestation and contamination. Despite the well-established regulations that permit irradiation to control pathogens in spices, there are no widespread methods to detect previously irradiated food. Therefore, it has become necessary to develop new detection and dose determination methods for food subjected previously to irradiation. The present work deals with the application of the thermoluminescence (TL) phenomenon to detect irradiated spices. The process is based upon the thermoluminescence properties exhibited by the polymineral content of the irradiated specimen. After separating the organic material, it is possible to extract some polymineral substances that are suitable for thermoluminescence analysis due to interaction of the spice to ionising radiation. The method was successfully applied to examine irradiated and non-irradiated paprika of Mexican origin. The spice was irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 5, 10 and 15 kGy. The separated thermoluminescent polymineral was found to be composed mainly of quartz and feldspar. The thermoluminescence glow curve of the irradiated specimen shows a wide band peaked 228, 268 and 336 degrees C, resembling closely the combined TL of quartz and feldspars. The method allows for the determination of the retrospective dose exposure.

  8. Rapid and robust detection methods for poison and microbial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehl, Melanie M; Lu, Peter J; Sims, Peter A; Slocum, Alexander H

    2012-06-27

    Real-time on-site monitoring of analytes is currently in high demand for food contamination, water, medicines, and ingestible household products that were never tested appropriately. Here we introduce chemical methods for the rapid quantification of a wide range of chemical and microbial contaminations using a simple instrument. Within the testing procedure, we used a multichannel, multisample, UV-vis spectrophotometer/fluorometer that employs two frequencies of light simultaneously to interrogate the sample. We present new enzyme- and dye-based methods to detect (di)ethylene glycol in consumables above 0.1 wt % without interference and alcohols above 1 ppb. Using DNA intercalating dyes, we can detect a range of pathogens ( E. coli , Salmonella , V. Cholera, and a model for Malaria) in water, foods, and blood without background signal. We achieved universal scaling independent of pathogen size above 10(4) CFU/mL by taking advantage of the simultaneous measurement at multiple wavelengths. We can detect contaminants directly, without separation, purification, concentration, or incubation. Our chemistry is stable to ± 1% for >3 weeks without refrigeration, and measurements require <5 min.

  9. Methods of detecting and counting raptors: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, M.R.; Mosher, J.A.; Ralph, C. John; Scott, J. Michael

    1981-01-01

    Most raptors are wide-ranging, secretive, and occur at relatively low densities. These factors, in conjunction with the nocturnal activity of owls, cause the counting of raptors by most standard census and survey efforts to be very time consuming and expensive. This paper reviews the most common methods of detecting and counting raptors. It is hoped that it will be of use to the ever-increasing number of biologists, land-use planners, and managers that must determine the occurrence, density, or population dynamics of raptors. Road counts of fixed station or continuous transect design are often used to sample large areas. Detection of spontaneous or elicited vocalizations, especially those of owls, provides a means of detecting and estimating raptor numbers. Searches for nests are accomplished from foot surveys, observations from automobiles and boats, or from aircraft when nest structures are conspicuous (e.g., Osprey). Knowledge of nest habitat, historic records, and inquiries of local residents are useful for locating nests. Often several of these techniques are combined to help find nest sites. Aerial searches have also been used to locate or count large raptors (e.g., eagles), or those that may be conspicuous in open habitats (e.g., tundra). Counts of birds entering or leaving nest colonies or colonial roosts have been attempted on a limited basis. Results from Christmas Bird Counts have provided an index of the abundance of some species. Trapping and banding generally has proven to be an inefficient method of detecting raptors or estimating their populations. Concentrations of migrants at strategically located points around the world afford the best opportunity to count many rap tors in a relatively short period of time, but the influence of many unquantified variables has inhibited extensive interpretation of these counts. Few data exist to demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods. We believe more research on sampling techniques, rather than complete

  10. Obstacle detection method, obstacle removing method, device and production line for practicing the methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Takao; Ishimatsu, Tsuneo; Komata, Hisashi; Suzuki, Keisaburo.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides techniques for detecting and removing obstacles, which can be applied to pipelines and vessels to be used in structures such as nuclear power structures and electric power generation facilities. Namely, when the pipelines or vessels are in any of the stages, namely, production, installation, before the use after installation and before the reuse after inspection, obstacles remaining in the pipelines and vessels are blown off by using a fluid jetting mechanism (air compressor). Elastic waves generated when the blown off obstacles abut against the pipelines and vessels are detected by using a sensor. As a result, the remaining obstacles can be detected during any one of the stages described above. The blowing is repeated till the absence of the obstacles is confirmed by elastic wave signals detected by the sensor. As a result, the remaining obstacles can be removed. (I.S.)

  11. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  12. Neutron-detecting apparatuses and methods of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Rajendra P.; Huang, Jacky Kuan-Chih; Lu, James J. Q.; Danon, Yaron; Bhat, Ishwara B.

    2015-10-06

    Neutron-detecting structures and methods of fabrication are provided which include: a substrate with a plurality of cavities extending into the substrate from a surface; a p-n junction within the substrate and extending, at least in part, in spaced opposing relation to inner cavity walls of the substrate defining the plurality of cavities; and a neutron-responsive material disposed within the plurality of cavities. The neutron-responsive material is responsive to neutrons absorbed for releasing ionization radiation products, and the p-n junction within the substrate spaced in opposing relation to and extending, at least in part, along the inner cavity walls of the substrate reduces leakage current of the neutron-detecting structure.

  13. A novel blink detection method based on pupillometry noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershman, Ronen; Henik, Avishai; Cohen, Noga

    2018-02-01

    Pupillometry (or the measurement of pupil size) is commonly used as an index of cognitive load and arousal. Pupil size data are recorded using eyetracking devices that provide an output containing pupil size at various points in time. During blinks the eyetracking device loses track of the pupil, resulting in missing values in the output file. The missing-sample time window is preceded and followed by a sharp change in the recorded pupil size, due to the opening and closing of the eyelids. This eyelid signal can create artificial effects if it is not removed from the data. Thus, accurate detection of the onset and the offset of blinks is necessary for pupil size analysis. Although there are several approaches to detecting and removing blinks from the data, most of these approaches do not remove the eyelid signal or can result in a relatively large amount of data loss. The present work suggests a novel blink detection algorithm based on the fluctuations that characterize pupil data. These fluctuations ("noise") result from measurement error produced by the eyetracker device. Our algorithm finds the onset and offset of the blinks on the basis of this fluctuation pattern and its distinctiveness from the eyelid signal. By comparing our algorithm to three other common blink detection methods and to results from two independent human raters, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm in detecting blink onset and offset. The algorithm's code and example files for processing multiple eye blinks are freely available for download ( https://osf.io/jyz43 ).

  14. Conventional, molecular methods and biomarkers molecules in detection of septicemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Arabestani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients worldwide and based on studies, 30-40% of all cases of severe sepsis and septic shock results from the blood stream infections (BSIs. Identifying of the disease, performing laboratory tests, and consequently treatment are factors that required for optimum management of BSIs. In addition, applying precise and immediate identification of the etiologic agent is a prerequisite for specific antibiotic therapy of pathogen and thereby decreasing mortality rates. The diagnosis of sepsis is difficult because clinical signs of sepsis often overlap with other noninfectious cases of systemic inflammation. BSIs are usually diagnosed by performing a series of techniques such as blood cultures, polymerase chain reaction-based methods, and biomarkers of sepsis. Extremely time-consuming even to take up to several days is a major limitation of conventional methods. In addition, yielding false-negative results due to fastidious and slow-growing microorganisms and also in case of antibiotic pretreated samples are other limitations. In comparison, molecular methods are capable of examining a blood sample obtained from suspicious patient with BSI and gave the all required information to prescribing antimicrobial therapy for detected bacterial or fungal infections immediately. Because of an emergency of sepsis, new methods are being developed. In this review, we discussed about the most important sepsis diagnostic methods and numbered the advantage and disadvantage of the methods in detail.

  15. [Detection of ciguatoxins: advantages and drawbacks of different biological methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydron-Le Garrec, Raphaële; Benoit, Evelyne; Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Laurent, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Ciguatera is a seafood intoxication that results from ingestion of reef fish contaminated with ciguatoxins at levels orally toxic for humans. Precursors of those toxins, gambiertoxins, are produced by benthic dinoflagellates (genus Gambierdiscus), and then accumulated and biotransformed by herbivorous and carnivorous fishes into ciguatoxins, more toxic for humans. In the absence of specific treatment, that disease remains a health problem with otherwise adverse socio-economic impacts. Thus a cost-effective means of detecting ciguatoxins in fish has long been searched for. Many assays have been developed, including in vivo, in vitro, chemical or immunochemical approaches. This review focuses on some biological methods, from the well-standardised mouse assay to the specific radio-labelled ligand binding assay that is performed on rat brain synaptosomes. In addition to the mouse, the chick and the mongoose were still recently used, in particular for preliminary tests before ciguatoxin extraction from fish, since assays in these animals can directly assay the whole flesh. In contrast, various other in vivo methods, such as the kitten, mosquito and diptera larvae assays, were abandoned despite their interesting results. Finally, the mouse neuroblastoma and rat brain synaptosome assays, carried out in vitro as alternative approaches to animal-using assays, are highly sensitive and much more specific than the in vivo methods to detect ciguatoxins.

  16. Current and Prospective Methods for Plant Disease Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Fang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Food losses due to crop infections from pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and fungi are persistent issues in agriculture for centuries across the globe. In order to minimize the disease induced damage in crops during growth, harvest and postharvest processing, as well as to maximize productivity and ensure agricultural sustainability, advanced disease detection and prevention in crops are imperative. This paper reviews the direct and indirect disease identification methods currently used in agriculture. Laboratory-based techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR, immunofluorescence (IF, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, flow cytometry (FCM and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS are some of the direct detection methods. Indirect methods include thermography, fluorescence imaging and hyperspectral techniques. Finally, the review also provides a comprehensive overview of biosensors based on highly selective bio-recognition elements such as enzyme, antibody, DNA/RNA and bacteriophage as a new tool for the early identification of crop diseases.

  17. A PROBABILISTIC EMBEDDING CLUSTERING METHOD FOR URBAN STRUCTURE DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban structure detection is a basic task in urban geography. Clustering is a core technology to detect the patterns of urban spatial structure, urban functional region, and so on. In big data era, diverse urban sensing datasets recording information like human behaviour and human social activity, suffer from complexity in high dimension and high noise. And unfortunately, the state-of-the-art clustering methods does not handle the problem with high dimension and high noise issues concurrently. In this paper, a probabilistic embedding clustering method is proposed. Firstly, we come up with a Probabilistic Embedding Model (PEM to find latent features from high dimensional urban sensing data by “learning” via probabilistic model. By latent features, we could catch essential features hidden in high dimensional data known as patterns; with the probabilistic model, we can also reduce uncertainty caused by high noise. Secondly, through tuning the parameters, our model could discover two kinds of urban structure, the homophily and structural equivalence, which means communities with intensive interaction or in the same roles in urban structure. We evaluated the performance of our model by conducting experiments on real-world data and experiments with real data in Shanghai (China proved that our method could discover two kinds of urban structure, the homophily and structural equivalence, which means clustering community with intensive interaction or under the same roles in urban space.

  18. Method of automatic detection of tumors in mammogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mei; Ma, Zheng

    2001-09-01

    Prevention and early diagnosis of tumors in mammogram are foremost. Unfortunately, these images are often corrupted by the noise due to the film noise and the background texture of the images, which did not allow isolation of the target information from the background noise, and often results in the suspicious area to be analyzed inaccurately. In order to achieve more accurate detection and segmentation tumors, the quality of the images need to improve, (including to suppressing noise and enhancing the contrast of the image). This paper presents a new adaptive histogram threshold method approach for segmentation of suspicious mass regions in digitized images. The method use multi-scale wavelet decomposition and a threshold selection criterion based on a transformed imageís histogram. This separation can help eliminate background noise and discriminates against objects of different size and shape. The tumors are extracted by used an adaptively bayesian classifier. We demonstrate that the method proposed can greatly improve the accuracy of detection in tumors.

  19. Polyvinylidene fluoride sensor-based method for unconstrained snoring detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Su Hwan; Han, Chung Min; Yoon, Hee Nam; Jung, Da Woon; Lee, Yu Jin; Jeong, Do-Un; Park, Kwang Suk

    2015-07-01

    We established and tested a snoring detection method using a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor for accurate, fast, and motion-artifact-robust monitoring of snoring events during sleep. Twenty patients with obstructive sleep apnea participated in this study. The PVDF sensor was located between a mattress cover and mattress, and the patients' snoring signals were unconstrainedly measured with the sensor during polysomnography. The power ratio and peak frequency from the short-time Fourier transform were used to extract spectral features from the PVDF data. A support vector machine was applied to the spectral features to classify the data into either the snore or non-snore class. The performance of the method was assessed using manual labelling by three human observers as a reference. For event-by-event snoring detection, PVDF data that contained 'snoring' (SN), 'snoring with movement' (SM), and 'normal breathing' epochs were selected for each subject. As a result, the overall sensitivity and the positive predictive values were 94.6% and 97.5%, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the SN and SM results. The proposed method can be applied in both residential and ambulatory snoring monitoring systems.

  20. Current and Prospective Methods for Plant Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi; Ramasamy, Ramaraja P.

    2015-01-01

    Food losses due to crop infections from pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and fungi are persistent issues in agriculture for centuries across the globe. In order to minimize the disease induced damage in crops during growth, harvest and postharvest processing, as well as to maximize productivity and ensure agricultural sustainability, advanced disease detection and prevention in crops are imperative. This paper reviews the direct and indirect disease identification methods currently used in agriculture. Laboratory-based techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunofluorescence (IF), fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry (FCM) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are some of the direct detection methods. Indirect methods include thermography, fluorescence imaging and hyperspectral techniques. Finally, the review also provides a comprehensive overview of biosensors based on highly selective bio-recognition elements such as enzyme, antibody, DNA/RNA and bacteriophage as a new tool for the early identification of crop diseases. PMID:26287253

  1. New methods for leaks detection and localisation using acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, P.

    1993-01-01

    Real time monitoring of Pressurized Water nuclear Reactor secondary coolant system tends to integrate digital processing machines. In this context, the method of acoustic emission seems to exhibit good performances. Its principle is based on passive listening of noises emitted by local micro-displacements inside a material under stress which propagate as elastic waves. The lack of a priori knowledge on leak signals leads us to go deeper into understanding flow induced noise generation. Our studies are conducted using a simple leak model depending on the geometry and the king of flow inside the slit. Detection and localization problems are formulated according to the maximum likelihood principle. For detection, the methods using a indicator of similarity (correlation, higher order correlation) seems to give better results than classical ones (rms value, envelope, filter banks). For leaks location, a large panel of classical (generalized inter-correlation) and innovative (convolution, adaptative, higher order statistics) methods of time delay estimation are presented. The last part deals with the applications of higher order statistics. The analysis of higher order estimators of a non linear non Gaussian stochastic process family, the improvement of non linear prediction performances and the optimal-order choice problem are addressed in simple analytic cases. At last, possible applications to leak signals analysis are pointed out. (authors).264 refs., 7 annexes

  2. Dynamic analysis methods for detecting anomalies in asynchronously interacting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Akshat; Solis, John Hector; Matschke, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Detecting modifications to digital system designs, whether malicious or benign, is problematic due to the complexity of the systems being analyzed. Moreover, static analysis techniques and tools can only be used during the initial design and implementation phases to verify safety and liveness properties. It is computationally intractable to guarantee that any previously verified properties still hold after a system, or even a single component, has been produced by a third-party manufacturer. In this paper we explore new approaches for creating a robust system design by investigating highly-structured computational models that simplify verification and analysis. Our approach avoids the need to fully reconstruct the implemented system by incorporating a small verification component that dynamically detects for deviations from the design specification at run-time. The first approach encodes information extracted from the original system design algebraically into a verification component. During run-time this component randomly queries the implementation for trace information and verifies that no design-level properties have been violated. If any deviation is detected then a pre-specified fail-safe or notification behavior is triggered. Our second approach utilizes a partitioning methodology to view liveness and safety properties as a distributed decision task and the implementation as a proposed protocol that solves this task. Thus the problem of verifying safety and liveness properties is translated to that of verifying that the implementation solves the associated decision task. We develop upon results from distributed systems and algebraic topology to construct a learning mechanism for verifying safety and liveness properties from samples of run-time executions.

  3. Detection and characterisation of anthropogenic pieces by magnetic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodot, Emilie; Munschy, Marc; Benevent, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    Human activities have let many anthropogenic objects buried under our feet. Some of these like explosive devices left after the World Wars turn out to be a threat to safety or environment. Others must be perfectly localised in case of construction work, for example gas pipe. Geophysics and more specifically magnetic cartography (many of these items are magnetic) can obviously help to locate them. We already use this method on daily basis to detect UXO (unexploded ordnance) but less than 10% of the unearthed objects are actually bombs or shells. Detection and mostly characterisation methods must be improved in order to reduce this proportion. On the field there are a few things we can do to increase data qualities. Characterisation may be improved by multiple scale prospections. We search a large area with our usual and rather fast method then we achieve high definition cartographies of small interesting areas (upon the object to characterise). In the case of measurements in an urban environment for example, data are distorted. The traffic (train, tramway, cars…) produces temporal variations of the magnetic field. This effect can be lessened, sometimes even removed by the use of a fixed scalar magnetic sensor. Data treatment is another key as regards the characterisation. Tools such as analytic signal or derivative are frequently used at the first degree. We will see that in a synthetic case the second and third degree bring even more information. A new issue appeared recently about pipes. Can we localise very precisely (less than 10 cm uncertainty) a gas pipe? Horizontally we can but due to our inversion method we still have troubles with the depth accuracy. Our final concern is about the amplitude of some anomalies. Potential methods equations are based on the fact that the anomaly norm must be minor to magnetic field norm. Sometimes this is not the case but vector magnetometry is a lead to solve this problem.

  4. Vehicle target detection method based on the average optical flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J. Y.; Jie, F. R.; Hu, Y. J.

    2017-07-01

    Moving target detection in image sequence for dynamic scene is an important research topic in the field of computer vision. Block projection and matching are utilized for global motion estimation. Then, the background image is compensated applying the estimated motion parameters so as to stabilize the image sequence. Consequently, background subtraction is employed in the stabilized image sequence to extract moving targets. Finally, divide the difference image into uniform grids and average optical flow is employed for motion analysis. Experiment tests show that the proposed average optical flow method can efficiently extract the vehicle targets from dynamic scene meanwhile decreasing the false alarm.

  5. Detection of residues antibiotics in food using a microbiological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ali, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Antibiotics are effective therapeutic agents because of their property of selective bacterial toxicity which helps controlling infections. Animals, just like humans, can be treated with antibiotics. This use of antibiotics can lead to the development of resistance. Resistant strains may cause severe infections in humans and animals. In addition, antibiotic residues might represent a problem for human health. Our objective is to develop a microbiological method for the detection of antibiotic residues in poultry(muscle, liver,...). For this purpose, antibiotic sensitive bacteria and selective agar media were used. An inhibition growth zone surrounds each of the food samples containing antibiotic residues after a prescribed incubation time. (Author). 23 refs

  6. Systems and methods for detecting x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2006-05-02

    Systems and methods for detecting x-rays are disclosed herein. One or more x-ray-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of heavy element nano-sized particles and a plastic material, such as polystyrene. As will be explained in greater detail herein, the heavy element nano-sized particles (e.g., PbWO4) can be compounded into the plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. X-rays interact with the heavy element nano-sized particles to produce electrons that can deposit energy in the x-ray sensitive scintillator, which in turn can produce light.

  7. Bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates: pathogen detection and inactivation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Védy

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the reduction of transfusion related viral transmission has been a priority during the last decade, bacterial infection transmitted by transfusion still remains associated to a high morbidity and mortality, and constitutes the most frequent infectious risk of transfusion. This problem especially concerns platelet concentrates because of their favorable bacterial growth conditions. This review gives an overview of platelet transfusion-related bacterial contamination as well as on the different strategies to reduce this problem by using either bacterial detection or inactivation methods.

  8. Can currently available non-animal methods detect pre and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive testing to identify and characterise substances for their skin sensitisation potential has historically been based on animal tests such as the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA). In recent years, regulations in the cosmetics and chemicals sectors has provided a strong impetus to develop and evaluate non-animal alternative methods. The AOP for skin sensitisation provides a framework to anchor non-animal test methods to key events in the pathway to help identify what tests can be combined together to generate the potency information required for risk assessment. The 3 test methods that have undergone extensive development and validation are the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), the KeratinoSensTM and the human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT). Whilst these methods have been shown to perform relatively well in predicting LLNA results (accuracy ~ 80%), a particular concern that has been raised is their ability to predict chemicals that need to be activated to act as sensitisers (either abiotically on the skin (pre-hapten) or metabolically in the skin (pro-hapten)). The DPRA is a cell free system whereas the other two methods make use of cells that do not fully represent the in vivo metabolic situation. Based on previously published datasets of LLNA data, it has been found that approximately 25% of sensitisers are pre- and/or pro-haptens. This study reviewed an EURL ECVAM dataset of 127 substances for which information was available in the LLNA and the

  9. Automatic ultrasonic image analysis method for defect detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnin, I.; Perdrix, M.; Corneloup, G.; Cornu, B.

    1987-01-01

    Ultrasonic examination of austenitic steel weld seams raises well known problems of interpreting signals perturbed by this type of material. The JUKEBOX ultrasonic imaging system developed at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Center provides a major improvement in the general area of defect localization and characterization, based on processing overall images obtained by (X, Y) scanning. (X, time) images are formed by juxtaposing input signals. A series of parallel images shifted on the Y-axis is also available. The authors present a novel defect detection method based on analysing the timeline positions of the maxima and minima recorded on (X, time) images. This position is statistically stable when a defect is encountered, and is random enough under spurious noise conditions to constitute a discriminating parameter. The investigation involves calculating the trace variance: this parameters is then taken into account for detection purposes. Correlation with parallel images enhances detection reliability. A significant increase in the signal-to-noise ratio during tests on artificial defects is shown

  10. Experimental method research on neutron equal dose-equivalent detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong

    1995-10-01

    The design principles of neutron dose-equivalent meter for neutron biological equi-effect detection are studied. Two traditional principles 'absorption net principle' and 'multi-detector principle' are discussed, and on the basis of which a new theoretical principle for neutron biological equi-effect detection--'absorption stick principle' has been put forward to place high hope on both increasing neutron sensitivity of this type of meters and overcoming the shortages of the two traditional methods. In accordance with this new principle a brand-new model of neutron dose-equivalent meter BH3105 has been developed. Its neutron sensitivity reaches 10 cps/(μSv·h -1 ), 18∼40 times higher than that of all the same kinds of meters 0.23∼0.56 cps/(μSv·h -1 ), available today at home and abroad and the specifications of the newly developed meter reach or surpass the levels of the same kind of meters. Therefore the new theoretical principle of neutron biological equi-effect detection--'absorption stick principle' is proved to be scientific, advanced and useful by experiments. (3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.)

  11. Optimization of Quantitative PCR Methods for Enteropathogen Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Gratz, Jean; Amour, Caroline; Nshama, Rosemary; Walongo, Thomas; Maro, Athanasia; Mduma, Esto; Platts-Mills, James; Boisen, Nadia; Nataro, James; Haverstick, Doris M.; Kabir, Furqan; Lertsethtakarn, Paphavee; Silapong, Sasikorn; Jeamwattanalert, Pimmada; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Mason, Carl; Begum, Sharmin; Haque, Rashidul; Praharaj, Ira; Kang, Gagandeep; Houpt, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    Detection and quantification of enteropathogens in stool specimens is useful for diagnosing the cause of diarrhea but is technically challenging. Here we evaluate several important determinants of quantification: specimen collection, nucleic acid extraction, and extraction and amplification efficiency. First, we evaluate the molecular detection and quantification of pathogens in rectal swabs versus stool, using paired flocked rectal swabs and whole stool collected from 129 children hospitalized with diarrhea in Tanzania. Swabs generally yielded a higher quantification cycle (Cq) (average 29.7, standard deviation 3.5 vs. 25.3 ± 2.9 from stool, P<0.001) but were still able to detect 80% of pathogens with a Cq < 30 in stool. Second, a simplified total nucleic acid (TNA) extraction procedure was compared to separate DNA and RNA extractions and showed 92% (318/344) sensitivity and 98% (951/968) specificity, with no difference in Cq value for the positive results (ΔCq(DNA+RNA-TNA) = -0.01 ± 1.17, P = 0.972, N = 318). Third, we devised a quantification scheme that adjusts pathogen quantity to the specimen’s extraction and amplification efficiency, and show that this better estimates the quantity of spiked specimens than the raw target Cq. In sum, these methods for enteropathogen quantification, stool sample collection, and nucleic acid extraction will be useful for laboratories studying enteric disease. PMID:27336160

  12. SPRi-based adenovirus detection using a surrogate antibody method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadian, Pegah N; Yildirim, Nimet; Gu, April Z; Goluch, Edgar D

    2015-12-15

    Adenovirus infection, which is a waterborne viral disease, is one of the most prevelant causes of human morbidity in the world. Thus, methods for rapid detection of this infectious virus in the environment are urgently needed for public health protection. In this study, we developed a rapid, real-time, sensitive, and label-free SPRi-based biosensor for rapid, sensitive and highly selective detection of adenoviruses. The sensing protocol consists of mixing the sample containing adenovirus with a predetermined concentration of adenovirus antibody. The mixture was filtered to remove the free antibodies from the sample. A secondary antibody, which was specific to the adenovirus antibody, was immobilized onto the SPRi chip surface covalently and the filtrate was flowed over the sensor surface. When the free adenovirus antibodies bound to the surface-immobilized secondary antibodies, we observed this binding via changes in reflectivity. In this approach, a higher amount of adenoviruses resulted in fewer free adenovirus antibodies and thus smaller reflectivity changes. A dose-response curve was generated, and the linear detection range was determined to be from 10 PFU/mL to 5000 PFU/mL with an R(2) value greater than 0.9. The results also showed that the developed biosensing system had a high specificity towards adenovirus (less than 20% signal change when tested in a sample matrix containing rotavirus and lentivirus). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analytical Methods for Mycotoxin Detection in Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chee Wei; Chung, Gerald; Chan, Sheot Harn

    2017-10-03

    Aflatoxins B 1 (AFB 1 ) and B₂ (AFB₂) and G 1 and G₂ remain the top mycotoxins routinely analyzed and monitored by Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) national laboratories primarily for food safety regulation in the major food commodities, nuts and spices. LC tandem fluorescence detection (LC–fluorescence) represents a current mainstream analytical method, with a progressive migration to a primary method by LC tandem MS (MS/MS) for the next half decade. Annual proficiency testing (PT) is conducted by ASEAN Food Reference Laboratories (AFRLs) for mycotoxin testing as part of capability building in national laboratories, with the scope of PT materials spanning from naturally mycotoxin-contaminated spices and nuts in the early 2010s to the recent contamination of corn flour in 2017 for total aflatoxin assay development. The merits of the mainstream LC–fluorescence method are witnessed by a significant improvement ( P < 0.05) in PT z -score passing rates (≤2) from 11.8 to 79.2% for AFB 1 , 23.5 to 83.3% for AFB₂, and 23.5 to 79.2% for total aflatoxins in the last 5 years. This paper discusses the journey of ASEAN national laboratories in analytical testing through AFRLs, and the progressive collective adoption of a multimycotoxin LC-MS/MS method aided by an isotopic dilution assay as a future primary method for safer food commodities.

  14. Some methods of detection of atmospheric contamination by iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Francois; Chevalier, Gerard; Gaillard, Pierre; Pradel, Jacques

    1964-01-01

    Due to the extensive use of iodine, risks of contamination by iodine 131 are increasing. Moreover, the increase of reactor power requires venting installations equipped with efficient safety filters which must be tested. The authors thus report the study of iodine trapping in filters, and its atmospheric detection and measurement. They report studies and achievements in the field of measurement of atmospheric pollution, and tests performed on iodine trapping by activated coals. After having outlined key qualities of an apparatus for atmospheric control, the authors indicate the various sampling methods. They discuss the method and calibration for the measurement of radioactivity of filters and coal which have trapped iodine 131. They discuss measurement sensitivity. They report how the efficiency of coals has been checked. They describe the experimental installation, and report the tests of some detectors of atmospheric contamination: sampling cartridges full of activated coal, gas mask cartridge, continuous control apparatus ('coffee machine' type), and detector of gaseous iodine. Appendices indicate the calculation of error on a cartridge counting rate, iodine generation methods (discontinuous method, continuous method) [fr

  15. Detection of needle to nerve contact based on electric bioimpedance and machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvoy, Havard; Tronstad, Christian; Ullensvang, Kyrre; Steinfeldt, Thorsten; Sauter, Axel R

    2017-07-01

    In an ongoing project for electrical impedance-based needle guidance we have previously showed in an animal model that intraneural needle positions can be detected with bioimpedance measurement. To enhance the power of this method we in this study have investigated whether an early detection of the needle only touching the nerve also is feasible. Measurement of complex impedance during needle to nerve contact was compared with needle positions in surrounding tissues in a volunteer study on 32 subjects. Classification analysis using Support-Vector Machines demonstrated that discrimination is possible, but that the sensitivity and specificity for the nerve touch algorithm not is at the same level of performance as for intra-neuralintraneural detection.

  16. A novel method that improves sensitivity of protein detection in PAGE and western blot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Illarramendi, Ainara; Marciano, Denise K.; Reichardt, Louis F.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a simple and inexpensive method that improves sensitivity of protein and antigen detection in standard PAGE procedures. Our technique uses a sample microloader device with a funnel-like structure, filled with a 4% stacking gel. When attach to the top of a polyacrylamide slab gel the proteins in a sample are concentrated by electrophoresis into a small volume as they emerge from the device's narrow outlet. Our microloader has several advantages over previous devices, including simple assembly, high versatility and absence of cross-contamination between lanes. Addition of this device to a slab gel results in a 5-fold increase in the sensitivity of antigen detection in a western blot. As a result less protein is required for loading and signal detection. Our protocol is a straightforward modification of a standard experimental technique, and is especially useful when only limited sample quantities are available. PMID:23400834

  17. A novel method that improves sensitivity of protein detection in PAGE and Western blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Illarramendi, Ainara; Marciano, Denise K; Reichardt, Louis F

    2013-04-01

    We have developed a simple and inexpensive method that improves sensitivity of protein and antigen detection in standard PAGE procedures. Our technique uses a sample microloader device with a funnel-like structure, filled with a 4% stacking gel. When attach to the top of a polyacrylamide slab gel, the proteins in a sample are concentrated by electrophoresis into a small volume as they emerge from the device's narrow outlet. Our microloader has several advantages over previous devices, including simple assembly, high versatility, and absence of cross-contamination between lanes. Addition of this device to a slab gel results in a fivefold increase in the sensitivity of antigen detection in a Western blot. As a result, less protein is required for loading and signal detection. Our protocol is a straightforward modification of a standard experimental technique, and is especially useful when only limited sample quantities are available. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Detecting and quantifying parasite-induced host mortality from intensity data: method comparisons and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, Mark Q; Weinstein, Sara B; Briggs, Cheryl J

    2016-01-01

    Parasites can significantly impact animal populations by changing host behaviour, reproduction and survival. Detecting and quantifying these impacts is critical for understanding disease dynamics and managing wild animal populations. However, for wild hosts infected with macroparasites, it is notoriously difficult to quantify the fatal parasite load and number of animals that have died due to disease. When ethical or logistical constraints prohibit experimental determination of these values, examination of parasite intensity and distribution data may offer an alternative solution. In this study we introduce a novel method for using intensity data to detect and quantify parasite-induced mortality in wildlife populations. We use simulations to show that this method is more reliable than previously proposed methods while providing quantitative estimates of parasite-induced mortality from empirical data that are consistent with previously published qualitative estimates. However this method, and all techniques that estimate parasite-induced mortality from intensity data alone, have several important assumptions that must be scrutinised before applying those to real-world data. Given that these assumptions are met, our method is a new exploratory tool that can help inform more rigorous studies of parasite-induced host mortality. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Devices, systems, and methods for detecting nucleic acids using sedimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Schaff, Ulrich Y.; Sommer, Gregory J.

    2017-10-24

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward devices, systems, and method for conducting nucleic acid purification and quantification using sedimentation. In one example, a method includes generating complexes which bind to a plurality of beads in a fluid sample, individual ones of the complexes comprising a nucleic acid molecule such as DNA or RNA and a labeling agent. The plurality of beads including the complexes may be transported through a density media, wherein the density media has a density lower than a density of the beads and higher than a density of the fluid sample, and wherein the transporting occurs, at least in part, by sedimentation. Signal may be detected from the labeling agents of the complexes.

  20. Detection of pasteurized milk adulteration through official methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mareze

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of milk consumed is a constant concern of dairy industry and healthcare-related authorities, technicians as well as consumers. The most serious problems are the various frauds which cause economic losses, risks to consumer health and, sometimes, problems for industries, such as the decrease in industrial output. Many foods are subject to fraud, but milk is one of the most commonly spoofed. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of fraudulent substances and assess the physico-chemical properties of pasteurized milk produced in dairies from the North region of Paraná. Eighty samples were evaluated in the period from March to June 2014 and carried out specific methods for detection of restoratives: starch, alcohol, chloride and sucrose; neutralizers: bicarbonate and sodium hydroxide; preservatives: chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide and formaldehyde. The evaluation of physico-chemical characteristics was carried out through the following analyses: density at 15° C, cryoscopic index, Dornic titratable acidity, 72 alizarol stability, pH, alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, fat, total solids, non-fat solids, urea, protein and lactose. Non-standard samples were observed for the following analyses: fat (12.5%, non-fat solids (5%, density (1.25%, cryoscopy (3.75%, pH (48.75%, urea (1.25%. Frauds were observed by addition of water and sucrose (3.75%, presence of hypochlorite (5% and occurrence of skim milk (12.5%. The evidence together can assist in detecting fraud most commonly performed in pasteurized milk, but does not show in which thread might have occurred. However, if not detected, the quality of the product cannot be assured since many frauds have been carried out in a balanced way hindering its detection.

  1. Artificial Intelligence Methods Applied to Parameter Detection of Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arotaritei, D.; Rotariu, C.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present a novel method to develop an atrial fibrillation (AF) based on statistical descriptors and hybrid neuro-fuzzy and crisp system. The inference of system produce rules of type if-then-else that care extracted to construct a binary decision system: normal of atrial fibrillation. We use TPR (Turning Point Ratio), SE (Shannon Entropy) and RMSSD (Root Mean Square of Successive Differences) along with a new descriptor, Teager- Kaiser energy, in order to improve the accuracy of detection. The descriptors are calculated over a sliding window that produce very large number of vectors (massive dataset) used by classifier. The length of window is a crisp descriptor meanwhile the rest of descriptors are interval-valued type. The parameters of hybrid system are adapted using Genetic Algorithm (GA) algorithm with fitness single objective target: highest values for sensibility and sensitivity. The rules are extracted and they are part of the decision system. The proposed method was tested using the Physionet MIT-BIH Atrial Fibrillation Database and the experimental results revealed a good accuracy of AF detection in terms of sensitivity and specificity (above 90%).

  2. A Review on Detection and Treatment Methods of Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, Rajeswari; Mohan, Jagannath; Kanagasabai, Adalarasu

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a review on detection and treatment methods of sleep apnea. Sleep apnea is the most common type of breathing-related sleep disorder. It manifests in a variety of behaviours from teeth grinding to night terrors as involuntary night-time events. The most common sleep disorders are narcolepsy, hypersomnia, sleep talking, sleep walking, and bedwetting. Sleep apnea (somnipathy) is a serious sleep disorder that pauses breathing while sleeping. Breathing pauses occur 30 times or more during sleep and it lasts for few seconds to minutes, when normal breathing starts after this pause. Untreated sleep apnea patients stop breathing, which happens up to hundreds of times during sleep that ultimately results in atrial fibrillation, cardiac arousal, stroke, brain tumor and other vascular diseases at the age of 65 that causes death. Smokers are at a greater threat for sleep apnea. Several studies have suggested that a person who smokes more than two packs a day has 40 times the risk of sleep apnea then nonsmokers. This review includes the discussion about detection of sleep apnea from heart rate and respiratory events. The published literature of sleep apnea and methods of treatment are also discussed.

  3. Detection methods for mycotoxins in cereal grains and cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Michelangelo N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical methods for mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-based products require three major steps, including extraction, clean-up (to eliminate interferences from the extract and concentrate the analyte, and detection/determination of the toxin (by using suitable analytical instruments/technologies. Clean-up is essential for the analysis of mycotoxins at trace levels, and involves the use of solid phase extraction and multifunctional (e.g. MycoSep® or immunoaffinity columns. Different chromatographic methods are commonly used for quantitative determination of mycotoxins, including gas-chromatography (GC coupled with electron capture, flame ionization or mass spectrometry (MS detectors (mainly for type-A trichothecenes, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with ultraviolet, diode array, fluorescence or MS detectors. The choice of method depends on the matrix and the mycotoxin to be analyzed. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS is spreading rapidly as a promising technique for simultaneous screening, identification and quantitative determination of a large number of mycotoxins. In addition, commercial immunometric assays, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA, are frequently used for screening purposes as well. Recently, a variety of emerging methods have been proposed for the analysis of mycotoxins in cereals based on novel technologies, including immunochromatography (i.e. lateral flow devices, fluorescence polarization immunoassays (FPIA, infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs and optical biosensors.

  4. Ranking-based Method for News Stance Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qiang

    2018-04-18

    A valuable step towards news veracity assessment is to understand stance from different information sources, and the process is known as the stance detection. Specifically, the stance detection is to detect four kinds of stances (

  5. A hybrid network-based method for the detection of disease-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Cai, Meng; Dai, Yang; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-02-01

    Detecting disease-related genes is crucial in disease diagnosis and drug design. The accepted view is that neighbors of a disease-causing gene in a molecular network tend to cause the same or similar diseases, and network-based methods have been recently developed to identify novel hereditary disease-genes in available biomedical networks. Despite the steady increase in the discovery of disease-associated genes, there is still a large fraction of disease genes that remains under the tip of the iceberg. In this paper we exploit the topological properties of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network to detect disease-related genes. We compute, analyze, and compare the topological properties of disease genes with non-disease genes in PPI networks. We also design an improved random forest classifier based on these network topological features, and a cross-validation test confirms that our method performs better than previous similar studies.

  6. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods - Development of detection method for radiolytic products of irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyong Su; Lee, Eun Ryong; Hong, Hae Jung [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    Meats, nuts, legumes and cereals were irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray. The detection methods included the fat extraction from samples, isolation of hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones by florisil column chromatography and analyses of GC-FID and GC/MS analyzers. Concentrations of hydrocarbons and 2-clobutanones increased with the irradiation dose in meat, nuts, legumes and cereals. In nuts (sesame seeds, black sesame seeds, perilla seeds, pine nuts and peanuts), legumes (white beans, black soybeans, yellow bean sprout soybeans, mouse-eyed soybeans, mung beans, kidney beans and small red beans) and cereals (brown rice, corns and wheat), 8-heptadecene and 1,7-hexadecadiene originated from oleic acid and 6,9-heptadecadiene and 1,7,10-hexadecatriene induced from linoleic acids were the major hydrocarbons due to the composition of fatty acids. Concentrations of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in nuts were slightly reduced and hydrocarbons were still significantly detectable, during 6 months at -18 deg. C. In meats and nuts, 2-(5'-tetradecenyl)cyclobutanone formed from oleic acid was found in most. 2-Dodecylcyclobutanone was detected in a large amount. The concentrations of radiation-induced 2-alkylcyclobutanones in meats slightly decreased, but relatively constant during 6 months at -18 deg. C. 62 refs., 45 figs., 25 tabs. (Author)

  7. A simplified method to detect epididymal sperm aneuploidy (ESA) in mice using three-chromosome fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, X.; O`Hogan, S.; Wyrobek, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    We developed a new method (ESA) to detect aneuploidy and polyploidy in epididymal sperm of mice using three-chromosome FISH. In comparison to a previous method (TSA-testicular spermatid aneuploidy), which required late-step spermatids, the ESA method utilizes epididymal sperm, which are easier to collect than testicular cells. The ESA method also provides a homogenous population of cells, which significantly speeds up the scoring procedure. A total of 6 mice were investigated by the ESA method and results compared with those obtained by the TSA method: 2 mice each of Robertsonian (8.14) heterozygotes, Rb(8.14) homozygotes and B6C3F1. About 10,000 sperm were scored per mouse. For the ESA method, epididimides were cut into small pieces and filtered. Sperm were prepared for hybridization by sonication and a modification of the DTT/LIS method previously described. Sperm aneuploidy was detected by multi-color FISH using three DNA probes specific for mouse chromosomes X, Y and 8. The sex ratio of X8(49.7%) and Y8(49.6%) did not differ from the expected 1:1. The efficiency of ESA was very high; -0.3% of the cells showed no hybridization domain. Hyperhaploidy frequencies for chromosomes X, Y and 8 compared well between the ESA and TSA methods for Rb(8.14) heterozygous (p=0.79) and B6C3F1 mice (p>0.05). The data obtained from Rb(8.14) homozygotes were similar to those from B6C3F1, as predicted (p=0.3). This highly efficient ESA assay is therefore, recommended for future studies of the mechanism of induction of aneuploidy in male germ cells. It also lays a solid foundation for automated scoring.

  8. A Comparison Between Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Detecting Mutations in Genes Associated with Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC and the Identification of 9 New Mutations Previously Unidentified by DGGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meldrum Cliff J

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Denaturing high performance liquid chromatography is a relatively new method by which heteroduplex structures formed during the PCR amplification of heterozygote samples can be rapidly identified. The use of this technology for mutation detection in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC has the potential to appreciably shorten the time it takes to analyze genes associated with this disorder. Prior to acceptance of this method for screening genes associated with HNPCC, assessment of the reliability of this method should be performed. In this report we have compared mutation and polymorphism detection by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE with denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC in a set of 130 families. All mutations/polymorphisms representing base substitutions, deletions, insertions and a 23 base pair inversion were detected by DHPLC whereas DGGE failed to identify four single base substitutions and a single base pair deletion. In addition, we show that DHPLC has been used for the identification of 5 different mutations in exon 7 of hMSH2 that could not be detected by DGGE. From this study we conclude that DHPLC is a more effective and rapid alternative to the detection of mutations in hMSH2 and hMLH1 with the same or better accuracy than DGGE. Furthermore, this technique offers opportunities for automation, which have not been realised for the majority of other methods of gene analysis.

  9. Multitemporal spectroscopy for crop stress detection using band selection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Thorsten; Franke, Jonas; Menz, Gunter

    2008-08-01

    A fast and precise sensor-based identification of pathogen infestations in wheat stands is essential for the implementation of site-specific fungicide applications. Several works have shown possibilities and limitations for the detection of plant stress using spectral sensor data. Hyperspectral data provide the opportunity to collect spectral reflectance in contiguous bands over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Individual phenomena like the light absorption of leaf pigments can be examined in detail. The precise knowledge of stress-dependent shifting in certain spectral wavelengths provides great advantages in detecting fungal infections. This study focuses on band selection techniques for hyperspectral data to identify relevant and redundant information in spectra regarding a detection of plant stress caused by pathogens. In a laboratory experiment, five 1 sqm boxes with wheat were multitemporarily measured by a ASD Fieldspec® 3 FR spectroradiometer. Two stands were inoculated with Blumeria graminis - the pathogen causing powdery mildew - and one stand was used to simulate the effect of water deficiency. Two stands were kept healthy as control stands. Daily measurements of the spectral reflectance were taken over a 14-day period. Three ASD Pro Lamps were used to illuminate the plots with constant light. By applying band selection techniques, the three types of different wheat vitality could be accurately differentiated at certain stages. Hyperspectral data can provide precise information about pathogen infestations. The reduction of the spectral dimension of sensor data by means of band selection procedures is an appropriate method to speed up the data supply for precision agriculture.

  10. Detection of Acute Gastroenteritis Agents By Molecular Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şafak Göktaş

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gastroenteritis is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups all over the world. Multiplex PCR tests give sensitive and specific results in the investigation of bacterial, viral, parasitic agents. In this study, it was aimed to determine the agents of the stool specimens of patients with acute diarrhea by multiplex PCR. Materials and Methods: Stool sample taken from 471 patients sent to Istanbul Gelişim Laboratories between January 1, 2015 and September 30, 2016 was included in the study. All stool samples were processed according to manufacturer’s instructions with GastroFinder SMART 18 FAST multiplex PCR test (Pathofinder, Holland. 18 different gastrointestinal pathogens were diagnosed in one study. Results: Of the 471 patients stool sample included in the study. The agent was negative in 241 (51.2%, while the agent was isolated in 230 (48.8%. 190 (82% had a single pathogen, 40 had two or more pathogens. Of the 190 samples detected with single agent, 149 (31.6% were bacterial, 26 (5.5% were parasitic and 15 (3.1% were viral agents. Of the 149 bacterial agents, 108 (23% was detected as Salmonella spp, 14 (6% as EHEC, 8 (3.5% as Clostridium difficile toxin A / B, 8 (3.5% as Campylobacter spp., 7 (3% Aeromonas spp., 2 (0.8% Yersinia enterocolitica, 2 (0.8% Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC. Of 26 parasitic agents, 18 (7.8% was detected as Giardia lamblia, 6 (2.6% as Dientamoeba fragilis and 2 (0.8% as Cryptosporidium spp. Conclusion: Identification of enteric pathogens by multiplex PCR will avoids the use of unnecessary antibiotic treatments

  11. Angoff's delta method revisited: improving DIF detection under small samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David; Facon, Bruno

    2012-05-01

    Most methods for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) are suitable when the sample sizes are sufficiently large to validate the null statistical distributions. There is no guarantee, however, that they will still perform adequately when there are few respondents in the focal group or in both the reference and the focal group. Angoff's delta plot is a potentially useful alternative for small-sample DIF investigation, but it suffers from an improper DIF flagging criterion. The purpose of this paper is to improve this classification rule under mild statistical assumptions. This improvement yields a modified delta plot with an adjusted DIF flagging criterion for small samples. A simulation study was conducted to compare the modified delta plot with both the classical delta plot approach and the Mantel-Haenszel method. It is concluded that the modified delta plot is consistently less conservative and more powerful than the usual delta plot, and is also less conservative and more powerful than the Mantel-Haenszel method as long as at least one group of respondents is small. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  12. A novel community detection method in bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cangqi; Feng, Liang; Zhao, Qianchuan

    2018-02-01

    Community structure is a common and important feature in many complex networks, including bipartite networks, which are used as a standard model for many empirical networks comprised of two types of nodes. In this paper, we propose a two-stage method for detecting community structure in bipartite networks. Firstly, we extend the widely-used Louvain algorithm to bipartite networks. The effectiveness and efficiency of the Louvain algorithm have been proved by many applications. However, there lacks a Louvain-like algorithm specially modified for bipartite networks. Based on bipartite modularity, a measure that extends unipartite modularity and that quantifies the strength of partitions in bipartite networks, we fill the gap by developing the Bi-Louvain algorithm that iteratively groups the nodes in each part by turns. This algorithm in bipartite networks often produces a balanced network structure with equal numbers of two types of nodes. Secondly, for the balanced network yielded by the first algorithm, we use an agglomerative clustering method to further cluster the network. We demonstrate that the calculation of the gain of modularity of each aggregation, and the operation of joining two communities can be compactly calculated by matrix operations for all pairs of communities simultaneously. At last, a complete hierarchical community structure is unfolded. We apply our method to two benchmark data sets and a large-scale data set from an e-commerce company, showing that it effectively identifies community structure in bipartite networks.

  13. Theoretical and experimental investigation of multispectral photoacoustic osteoporosis detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Idan; Hershkovich, Hadas Sara; Gannot, Israel; Eyal, Avishay

    2014-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a widespread disorder, which has a catastrophic impact on patients lives and overwhelming related to healthcare costs. Recently, we proposed a multispectral photoacoustic technique for early detection of osteoporosis. Such technique has great advantages over pure ultrasonic or optical methods as it allows the deduction of both bone functionality from the bone absorption spectrum and bone resistance to fracture from the characteristics of the ultrasound propagation. We demonstrated the propagation of multiple acoustic modes in animal bones in-vitro. To further investigate the effects of multiple wavelength excitations and of induced osteoporosis on the PA signal a multispectral photoacoustic system is presented. The experimental investigation is based on measuring the interference of multiple acoustic modes. The performance of the system is evaluated and a simple two mode theoretical model is fitted to the measured phase signals. The results show that such PA technique is accurate and repeatable. Then a multiple wavelength excitation is tested. It is shown that the PA response due to different excitation wavelengths revels that absorption by the different bone constitutes has a profound effect on the mode generation. The PA response is measured in single wavelength before and after induced osteoporosis. Results show that induced osteoporosis alters the measured amplitude and phase in a consistent manner which allows the detection of the onset of osteoporosis. These results suggest that a complete characterization of the bone over a region of both acoustic and optical frequencies might be used as a powerful tool for in-vivo bone evaluation.

  14. A survey about methods dedicated to epistasis detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eNiel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, findings of genome-wide association studies (GWAS improved our knowledge and understanding of disease genetics. To date, thousands of SNPs have been associated to diseases and other complex traits. Statistical analysis typically looks for association between a phenotype and a SNP taken individually via single-locus tests. However, geneticists admit this is an oversimplified approach to tackle the complexity of underlying biological mechanisms. Interaction between SNPs, namely epistasis, must be considered. Unfortunately, epistasis detection gives rise to analytic challenges since analyzing every SNP combination is at present impractical at a genome-wide scale. In this review, we will present the main strategies recently proposed to detect epistatic interactions, along with their operating principle. Some of these methods are exhaustive, such as multifactor dimensionality reduction, likelihood ratio-based tests or receiver operating characteristic curve analysis; some are non-exhaustive, such as machine learning techniques (random forests, Bayesian networks or combinatorial optimization approaches (ant colony optimization, computational evolution system.

  15. Moving object detection by using GPS assisted image registration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Gökçe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a Global Positioning System (GPS assistance based system has been developed for unmanned ground vehicles (UGV to detect moving objects along their route using a computer vision system. Before the real time application of the UGV, image models were created that represents a default background in specified horizontal positions of the specified coordinates on the route. This model is a type of feature matrix which is much smaller than the pure image matrices. The model matrices were recorded in the system database and a database relation was created between the model and its coordinate. The feature matrices of the images captured when the moment UGV arrived to the determined coordinates are compared with the models belong to present coordinate. As a result of the evaluation image frames are aligned with 2D image registration methods. The silhouettes of the objects are obtained by subtracting aligned frames. Thus, using this developed approach, there is no need for costly solutions to compensate for the noise generated by the moving camera. It was observed from the experiments that the system was able to detect the objects with 90% accuracy and it was able to run with 8% CPU loading and 0.057 s processing time per frame.

  16. System and Method for Detecting Cracks and their Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system and method are provided for detecting cracks and their location in a structure. A circuit coupled to a structure has capacitive strain sensors coupled sequentially and in parallel to one another. When excited by a variable magnetic field, the circuit has a resonant frequency that is different for unstrained and strained states. In terms of strained states, the resonant frequency is indicative of a region of the circuit that is experiencing strain induced by strain in a region of the structure in proximity to the region of the circuit. An inductor is electrically coupled to one end of each circuit. A magnetic field response recorder wirelessly transmits the variable magnetic field to the inductor and senses the resonant frequency of the circuit so-excited by the variable magnetic field.

  17. System and method of detecting cavitation in pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Sharma, Santosh Kumar; Yan, Ting; Dimino, Steven A.

    2017-10-03

    A system and method for detecting cavitation in pumps for fixed and variable supply frequency applications is disclosed. The system includes a controller having a processor programmed to repeatedly receive real-time operating current data from a motor driving a pump, generate a current frequency spectrum from the current data, and analyze current data within a pair of signature frequency bands of the current frequency spectrum. The processor is further programmed to repeatedly determine fault signatures as a function of the current data within the pair of signature frequency bands, repeatedly determine fault indices based on the fault signatures and a dynamic reference signature, compare the fault indices to a reference index, and identify a cavitation condition in a pump based on a comparison between the reference index and a current fault index.

  18. Gas sensitive materials for gas detection and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakhtenberg, Leonid Israilevich; Gerasimov, Genrikh Nikolaevich; Gromov, Vladimir Fedorovich; Rozenberg, Valeriya Isaakovna

    2012-12-25

    A gas sensitive material comprising SnO2 nanocrystals doped with In2O3 and an oxide of a platinum group metal, and a method of making the same. The platinum group metal is preferably Pd, but also may include Pt, Ru, Ir, and combinations thereof. The SnO2 nanocrystals have a specific surface of 7 or greater, preferably about 20 m2/g, and a mean particle size of between about 10 nm and about 100 nm, preferably about 40 nm. A gas detection device made from the gas sensitive material deposited on a substrate, the gas sensitive material configured as a part of a current measuring circuit in communication with a heat source.

  19. Gas sensitive materials for gas detection and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakhtenberg, Leonid Israilevich; Gerasimov, Genrikh Nikolaevich; Gromov, Vladimir Fedorovich; Rozenberg, Valeriya Isaakovna

    2014-07-15

    A gas sensitive material comprising SnO.sub.2 nanocrystals doped with In.sub.2O.sub.3 and an oxide of a platinum group metal, and a method of making the same. The platinum group metal is preferably Pd, but also may include Pt, Ru, Ir, and combinations thereof. The SnO.sub.2 nanocrystals have a specific surface of 7 or greater, preferably about 20 m2/g, and a mean particle size of between about 10 nm and about 100 nm, preferably about 40 nm. A gas detection device made from the gas sensitive material deposited on a substrate, the gas sensitive material configured as a part of a current measuring circuit in communication with a heat source.

  20. Improved method for the detection of TATP after explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, D; Levy, A; Shelef, R; Abramovich-Bar, S; Sonenfeld, D; Tamiri, T

    2004-09-01

    TATP in post explosion exhibits was reported earlier to be best recovered from vapor phase. A typical procedure includes its adsorption on Amberlite XAD-7, elution with acetonitrile and analysis by GC/MS. In this work, improved recovery of TATP from the vapor phase was achieved by SPME using PDMS/DVB fiber and immediate sampling to GC/MS. The recovery of TATP by SPME was compared with headspace and with adsorption on Amberlite XAD-7 by spiking onto filter paper put in a 100 mL beaker. The limit of detection of TATP was 6.4 ng in these conditions, few orders magnitude more than in the other tested methods. Recovery of TATP in the presence of various solvents was also studied. Acetone, water, and mixtures of water:alcohols (1:1) were found to reduce the recovery of TATP. Using SPME, TATP has been identified in dozens of post-explosion cases.

  1. Novel inversion method for land mine imaging and detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindoni, Orazio I.; Cohoon, David K.

    2000-08-01

    We have developed, using both partial differential equation approaches and integral equation formulations, a precise method to invert acoustic or electromagnetic scattering data from macroscopic concealed objects. Our approach makes use of the ideas associated with our exact solution of partial differential equations as described in our paper where we were able to collapse the number of equations by elimination of transcendentals therefore preserving the absolute mathematical precision inherent in the partial differential equation formulation. Our mathematical method, as a consequence, has not encountered the traditional loss of precision when inverting the scattered data. The unrestricted wavelength range allows us to penetrate any material which may surround the object and differentiate between the object and the media. For this reason we have applied our inversion scheme to landmine detection as we can penetrate and differentiate under both wet and dry conditions. Also, we are able to account, under certain conditions, for dielectric nonlinearities of material in the concealed object. Therefore, we are able to build in density dependent false colors a 3D grid representative of both the media and of the embedded object including the internal structure of the object. We have surveyed the literature on the subject of recovery of physical location of concealed objects and we have found that most of the present applications such as land mine detection, and we have found that most of the present applications have shortcomings due to the physical changes that are present in the surrounding media or the discontinuities of physical properties of the media. For all the above reasons we believe that we may have the most versatile and mathematically precise approach to the solution of this problem.

  2. Review of islanding detection methods for distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Mahat, Pukar; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of power system islanding and islanding detection techniques. Islanding detection techniques, for a distribution system with distributed generation (DG), can broadly be divided into remote and local techniques. A remote islanding detection technique is associated...... with islanding detection on the utility side, whereas a local technique is associated with islanding detection on the DG side. Local techniques can further be divided into passive techniques, active techniques and hybrid techniques. These islanding detection techniques for DG are described and analyzed....

  3. A Comparison of Different Methods for Fissure Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to compare the diagnostic capabilities of three different diagnostic methods: Quantitative Laser Fluorescence (QLF − DIAGNOdent Classic (DD, Light-Induced Fluorescence (LIF − SoproLife daylight and blue fluorescence, and their relevance to ICDAS II system in detection of fissure caries lesions in permanent molars. Permanent molars (n = 45 are divided in two groups: 1 third molars, n = 35; 2 first and second molars, n = 10. They are examined by 2 examiners with and without magnification x5 using ICDAS II, SoproLife “day light” and “blue light” (405nm, LIF, DIAGNOdent Classic − emitting laser light on 655nm, QLF. The results are proven with histological bucco-lingual or mesio-distal sections through the body of the lesion with diamond blade rinsed with water. Photos of all occlusal surfaces of the molars are taken before and after the sections. The lowest overdiagnosis rate is found with SoproLife camera. When visual examination is applied overdiagnoses are fewer than with DD. DD is not capable to differentiate white and brown spots from a caries lesion. Soprolife is not capable to differentiate brown spots from a caries lesion. The most accurate method in this in vitro study for diagnosis of fissure caries is LIF (SoproLife − 75.6% of the teeth are correctly diagnosed, followed by ICDAS (57.8% and QLF (DIAGNOdent (40%.

  4. Detecting abbreviations in discharge summaries using machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghui; Rosenbloom, S Trent; Denny, Joshua C; Miller, Randolph A; Mani, Subramani; Giuse, Dario A; Xu, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Recognition and identification of abbreviations is an important, challenging task in clinical natural language processing (NLP). A comprehensive lexical resource comprised of all common, useful clinical abbreviations would have great applicability. The authors present a corpus-based method to create a lexical resource of clinical abbreviations using machine-learning (ML) methods, and tested its ability to automatically detect abbreviations from hospital discharge summaries. Domain experts manually annotated abbreviations in seventy discharge summaries, which were randomly broken into a training set (40 documents) and a test set (30 documents). We implemented and evaluated several ML algorithms using the training set and a list of pre-defined features. The subsequent evaluation using the test set showed that the Random Forest classifier had the highest F-measure of 94.8% (precision 98.8% and recall of 91.2%). When a voting scheme was used to combine output from various ML classifiers, the system achieved the highest F-measure of 95.7%.

  5. Rapid surface enhanced Raman scattering detection method for chloramphenicol residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Yao, Weirong

    2015-06-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a widely used amide alcohol antibiotics, which has been banned from using in food producing animals in many countries. In this study, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) coupled with gold colloidal nanoparticles was used for the rapid analysis of CAP. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were conducted with Gaussian 03 at the B3LYP level using the 3-21G(d) and 6-31G(d) basis sets to analyze the assignment of vibrations. Affirmatively, the theoretical Raman spectrum of CAP was in complete agreement with the experimental spectrum. They both exhibited three strong peaks characteristic of CAP at 1104 cm-1, 1344 cm-1, 1596 cm-1, which were used for rapid qualitative analysis of CAP residues in food samples. The use of SERS as a method for the measurements of CAP was explored by comparing use of different solvents, gold colloidal nanoparticles concentration and absorption time. The method of the detection limit was determined as 0.1 μg/mL using optimum conditions. The Raman peak at 1344 cm-1 was used as the index for quantitative analysis of CAP in food samples, with a linear correlation of R2 = 0.9802. Quantitative analysis of CAP residues in foods revealed that the SERS technique with gold colloidal nanoparticles was sensitive and of a good stability and linear correlation, and suited for rapid analysis of CAP residue in a variety of food samples.

  6. Standard Test Procedures for Evaluating Various Leak Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about protocols that testers could use to demonstrate that an individual release detection equipment type could meet the performance requirements noted in the federal UST requirements for detecting leaks.

  7. A novel method to detect bacterial resistance to disinfectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Feng He

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, the important hygienic prevention of bacterial pathogen spread is disinfection of potentially contaminated area. Benzalkonium bromide and chlorhexidine acetate are commonly used disinfectants with a broad spectrum of anti-microbial effect. It is vital to inhibit the spread of pathogen in hospital. However, a large number of pathogens with the decreased antiseptic susceptibility have been isolated from clinical samples which showed an increased minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC against those antiseptics. These resistant pathogens are the major causes for nosocomial cross-infections in hospital. The present study demonstrated the utility of Oxford plate assay system in determining the potential disinfectant resistance of bacteria. The microbiological assay is based on the inhibitory effect of tested disinfectants upon the strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Statistical analysis of the bioassay results indicated the linear correlation (r = 0.87–0.99, P < 0.01 between the diameter of growth inhibition zone and the log dosage of the tested disinfectants. Moreover, comparison of inhibitory efficacy of benzalkonium bromide upon 29 S. aureus strains isolated from clinical samples by both Oxford plate method and broth dilution method showed that the diameter of growth inhibition zone has significantly negative correlation with the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC (r = −0.574, P < 0.001. These results suggest that the Oxford plate is a simple and time-saving method in detecting potential clinical disinfectant resistance and its usefulness for routine surveillance of pathogenic resistance to disinfectants warrants further investigation.

  8. Novel method for detection of glycogen in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurat, Alexander V; Segvich, Dyann M; DePaoli-Roach, Anna A; Roach, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    Glycogen, a branched polymer of glucose, functions as an energy reserve in many living organisms. Abnormalities in glycogen metabolism, usually excessive accumulation, can be caused genetically, most often through mutation of the enzymes directly involved in synthesis and degradation of the polymer leading to a variety of glycogen storage diseases (GSDs). Microscopic visualization of glycogen deposits in cells and tissues is important for the study of normal glycogen metabolism as well as diagnosis of GSDs. Here, we describe a method for the detection of glycogen using a renewable, recombinant protein which contains the carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) from starch-binding domain containing protein 1 (Stbd1). We generated a fusion protein containing g lutathione S-transferase, a cM c eptitope and the tbd1 BM (GYSC) for use as a glycogen-binding probe, which can be detected with secondary antibodies against glutathione S-transferase or cMyc. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we demonstrate that GYSC binds glycogen and two other polymers of glucose, amylopectin and amylose. Immunofluorescence staining of cultured cells indicate a GYSC-specific signal that is co-localized with signals obtained with anti-glycogen or anti-glycogen synthase antibodies. GYSC-positive staining inside of lysosomes is observed in individual muscle fibers isolated from mice deficient in lysosomal enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase, a well-characterized model of GSD II (Pompe disease). Co-localized GYSC and glycogen signals are also found in muscle fibers isolated from mice deficient in malin, a model for Lafora disease. These data indicate that GYSC is a novel probe that can be used to study glycogen metabolism under normal and pathological conditions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Rapid detection of new and expanding human settlements in the Limpopo province of South Africa using a spatio-temporal change detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleynhans, W.; Salmon, B. P.; Wessels, K. J.; Olivier, J. C.

    2015-08-01

    Recent development has identified the benefits of using hyper-temporal satellite time series data for land cover change detection and classification in South Africa. In particular, the monitoring of human settlement expansion in the Limpopo province is of relevance as it is the one of the most pervasive forms of land-cover change in this province which covers an area of roughly 125 000 km2. In this paper, a spatio-temporal autocorrelation change detection (STACD) method is developed to improve the performance of a pixel based temporal Autocorrelation change detection (TACD) method previously proposed. The objective is to apply the algorithm to large areas to detect the conversion of natural vegetation to settlement which is then validated by an operator using additional data (such as high resolution imagery). Importantly, as the objective of the method is to indicate areas of potential change to operators for further analysis, a low false alarm rate is required while achieving an acceptable probability of detection. Results indicate that detection accuracies of 70% of new settlement instances are achievable at a false alarm rate of less than 1% with the STACD method, an improvement of up to 17% compared to the original TACD formulation.

  10. Effect of advanced oxidation processes on the micropollutants and the effluent organic matter contained in municipal wastewater previously treated by three different secondary methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Gamarra Vives, Franco Alejandro; Grandjean, Dominique; Magnet, Anoys; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Pulgarin, César

    2015-11-01

    In this study, wastewater from the output of three different secondary treatment facilities (Activated Sludge, Moving Bed Bioreactor and Coagulation-Flocculation) present in the municipal wastewater treatment plant of Vidy, Lausanne (Switzerland), was further treated with various oxidation processes (UV, UV/H2O2, solar irradiation, Fenton, solar photo-Fenton), at laboratory scale. For this assessment, 6 organic micropollutants in agreement with the new environmental legislation requirements in Switzerland were selected (Carbamazepine, Clarithromycin, Diclofenac, Metoprolol, Benzotriazole, Mecoprop) and monitored throughout the treatment. Also, the overall removal of the organic load was assessed. After each secondary treatment, the efficiency of the AOPs increased in the following order: Coagulation-Flocculation municipal wastewater subjected to biological treatment followed by UV/H2O2 resulted in the highest elimination levels. Wastewater previously treated by physicochemical treatment demonstrated considerably inhibited micropollutant degradation rates. The degradation kinetics were determined, yielding: k (UV) < k (UV/H2O2) and k (Fenton) < k (solar irradiation) < k (photo-Fenton). Finally, the evolution of global pollution parameters (COD & TOC elimination) was followed and the degradation pathways for the effluent organic matter are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fast and Standardized Skin Grafting of Leg Wounds With a New Technique: Report of 2 Cases and Review of Previous Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamnerius, Nils; Wallin, Ewa; Svensson, Åke; Stenström, Pernilla; Svensjö, Tor

    2016-01-01

    Chronic leg ulcers remain a challenge to the treating physician. Such wounds often need skin grafts to heal. This necessitates a readily available, fast, simple, and standardized procedure for grafting. The aim of this work was to test a novel method developed for outpatient transplant procedures. The procedure employs a handheld disposable dermatome and a roller mincer that cut the skin into standardized micrografts that can be spread out onto a suitable graft bed. Wounds were followed until healed and photographed. The device was successfully used to treat and close a traumatic lower limb wound and a persistent chronic venous leg ulcer. The donor site itself healed by secondary intent with minimal cosmetic impairment. The method was successfully used to graft 2 lower extremity wounds.

  12. Factors Influencing Choices for Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Previously Unscreened African and Caucasian Americans: Findings from a Triangulation Mixed Methods Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffin, Mack T.; Creswell, John W.; Jimbo, Masahito; Fetters, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated factors that influence choice of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test and assessed the most- and least-preferred options among fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, and double contrast barium enema among adults with varied race, gender, and geographic region demographics. Mixed methods data collection consisted of 10 focus group interviews and a survey of the 93 focus group participants. Participants were ≥50 years of age and reported not ha...

  13. Evaluation of lesion detection capabilities of anatomically based MAP image reconstruction methods using the computer observer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Kudo, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the lesion detection capabilities of anatomically based maximum a posteriori (MAP) image reconstruction methods in emission computed tomography using the computer observer model. In lesion detection tasks, conventional anatomically based MAP reconstruction methods cannot preserve lesions not present in the anatomical image with high contrast and at the same time suppress noise in the background regions. We previously proposed a new anatomically based MAP reconstruction method called the SOS-MAP method, which is based on the spots-on-smooth image model in which the image is modeled by the sum of the smooth background image and the sparse spot image, and showed that the SOS-MAP method can overcome the above-mentioned drawback of conventional anatomically based MAP methods. However, the lesion detection capabilities of the SOS-MAP method remained to be clarified. In the present study, the computer observer model was used to evaluate the lesion detection capabilities of the SOS-MAP method, and it was found that the SOS-MAP method is superior to conventional anatomically based MAP methods for the detection of lesions. (author)

  14. A statistical method for the detection of alternative splicing using RNA-seq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep sequencing of transcriptome (RNA-seq provides unprecedented opportunity to interrogate plausible mRNA splicing patterns by mapping RNA-seq reads to exon junctions (thereafter junction reads. In most previous studies, exon junctions were detected by using the quantitative information of junction reads. The quantitative criterion (e.g. minimum of two junction reads, although is straightforward and widely used, usually results in high false positive and false negative rates, owning to the complexity of transcriptome. Here, we introduced a new metric, namely Minimal Match on Either Side of exon junction (MMES, to measure the quality of each junction read, and subsequently implemented an empirical statistical model to detect exon junctions. When applied to a large dataset (>200M reads consisting of mouse brain, liver and muscle mRNA sequences, and using independent transcripts databases as positive control, our method was proved to be considerably more accurate than previous ones, especially for detecting junctions originated from low-abundance transcripts. Our results were also confirmed by real time RT-PCR assay. The MMES metric can be used either in this empirical statistical model or in other more sophisticated classifiers, such as logistic regression.

  15. Evaluation of the carbapenem inactivation method (CIM) for detecting carbapenemase activity in enterobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Quiñonero, A; Cano, M E; Gamal, D; Calvo, J; Martínez-Martínez, L

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the CIM test in the detection of carbapenemase activity in 124 strains of Enterobacteriaceae. A panel of 124 previously characterized Enterobacteriaceae was tested: 77 strains producing the following carbapenemase families: KPC (n = 14), GES (n = 22), NDM (n = 19), VIM (n = 4), IMP (n = 4) and OXA-48 (n = 14) and 47 non-carbapenemase producers. For the CIM method, an active susceptibility meropenem disc was exposed to a bacterial suspension of a test strain; when a carbapenemase is produced, the antibiotic is inactivated allowing uninhibited growth of an indicator strain after overnight incubation. A clear inhibition zone (≥20 mm) was considered indicative of no-carbapenemase activity. All KPC, NDM, VIM, IMP or OXA-48 producing strains were unequivocally detected with the CIM test. CIM false negative results were obtained with eleven Enterobacter cloacae producing GES-6. Two other E. cloacae not producing carbapenemase (one with SHV-12, one hyperproducing AmpC) were positive by the test. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay compared to those of molecular methods were 85.7% and 95.7%, respectively. The CIM method proved to be inexpensive and easy to interpret. It provided less than optimal results in the detection of GES-6 activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid Methods for detection of Veterinary Drug residues in Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of substances having hormonal or thyreostatic action as well as b-agonists is banned in many countries. However, sometimes forbidden drugs may be added to feeds for illegal administration to farm animals for promoting increased muscle development or increased water retention and thus obtain an economical benefit. The result is a fraudulent overweight of meat but, what is worse, residues of these substances may remain in meat and may pose a real threat to the consumer either through exposure to the residues, transfer of antibiotic resistance or allergy risk. This has exerted a great concern among the meat consumers. The control of the absence of these forbidden substances in animal foods and feeds is regulated in the European Union by Directive 96/23/EC on measures to monitor certain substances and residues in live animals and animal products. Analytical methodology, including criteria for identification and confirmation, for the monitoring of compliance was also given in Decisions 93/256/EEC and 93/257/EEC. More recently, Decision 2002/657/EC provided rules for the analytical methods to be used in testing of official samples. New substances with anabolic properties are being detected year by year increasing the list of forbidden compounds to be tested. Furthermore, the extended practice consisting in the use of “cocktails” (mixtures of low amounts of several substances that exert a synergistic effect to have a similar growth promotion, reduces the margin for an effective analytical detection. Thus, the evolution of the “black market” is making really difficult to have an effective analytical control of the residues of these substances in foods of animal origin. Control laboratories must face an increasing demand of analysis like the growing number of residues to be analysed in different types of samples, the strict guidelines for analytical methodologies according to the latest Directives, the increased costs of such new

  17. Target detection in diagnostic ultrasound: Evaluation of a method based on the CLEAN algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoom, Hassan; Adve, Raviraj S; Cobbold, Richard S C

    2013-02-01

    A technique is proposed for the detection of abnormalities (targets) in ultrasound images using little or no a priori information and requiring little operator intervention. The scheme is a combination of the CLEAN algorithm, originally proposed for radio astronomy, and constant false alarm rate (CFAR) processing, as developed for use in radar systems. The CLEAN algorithm identifies areas in the ultrasound image that stand out above a threshold in relation to the background; CFAR techniques allow for an adaptive, semi-automated, selection of the threshold. Neither appears to have been previously used for target detection in ultrasound images and never together in any context. As a first step towards assessing the potential of this method we used a widely used method of simulating B-mode images (Field II). We assumed the use of a 256 element linear array operating at 3.0MHz into a water-like medium containing a density of point scatterers sufficient to simulate a background of fully developed speckle. Spherical targets with diameters ranging from 0.25 to 6.0mm and contrasts ranging from 0 to 12dB relative to the background were used as test objects. Using a contrast-detail analysis, the probability of detection curves indicate these targets can be consistently detected within a speckle background. Our results indicate that the method has considerable promise for the semi-automated detection of abnormalities with diameters greater than a few millimeters, depending on the contrast. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of an ultrasonic nondestructive inspection method for impact damage detection in composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, M.; Kim, H. E.; Lanza di Scalea, F.; Kim, H.

    2017-04-01

    High Energy Wide Area Blunt Impact (HEWABI) due to ground service equipment can often occur in aircraft structures causing major damages. These Wide Area Impact Damages (WAID) can affect the internal components of the structure, hence are usually not visible nor detectable by typical one-sided NDE techniques and can easily compromise the structural safety of the aircraft. In this study, the development of an NDI method is presented together with its application to impacted aircraft frames. The HEWABI from a typical ground service scenario has been previously tested and the desired type of damages have been generated, so that the aircraft panels could become representative study cases. The need of the aircraft industry for a rapid, ramp-friendly system to detect such WAID is here approached with guided ultrasonic waves (GUW) and a scanning tool that accesses the whole structure from the exterior side only. The wide coverage of the specimen provided by GUW has been coupled to a differential detection approach and is aided by an outlier statistical analysis to be able to inspect and detect faults in the challenging composite material and complex structure. The results will be presented and discussed with respect to the detection capability of the system and its response to the different damage types. Receiving Operating Characteristics curves (ROC) are also produced to quantify and assess the performance of the proposed method. Ongoing work is currently aimed at the penetration of the inner components of the structure, such as shear ties and C-frames, exploiting different frequency ranges and signal processing techniques. From the hardware and tool development side, different transducers and coupling methods, such as air-coupled transducers, are under investigation together with the design of a more suitable scanning technique.

  19. Modelling of near-field radionuclide transport phenomena in a KBS-3V type of repository for nuclear waste with Goldsim Code - and verification against previous methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkanen, V.-M.; Nordman, H.

    2010-03-01

    Traditional radionuclide transport models overestimate significantly some phenomena, or completely ignore them. This motivates the development of new more precise models. As a result, this work is a description of commissioning of a new KBS-3V near-field radionuclide transport model, which has been done with a commercial software called GoldSim. According to earlier models, GoldSim model uses rz coordinates, but the solubilities of radionuclides have been treated more precisely. To begin with, the physical phenomena concerning near-field transport have been introduced according to GoldSim way of thinking. Also, the computational methods of GoldSim have been introduced and compared to methods used earlier. The actual verification of GoldSim model has been carried out by comparing the GoldSim results from simple cases to the corresponding results obtained with REPCOM, a software developed by VTT and used in several safety assessments. The results agree well. Finally, a few complicated cases were studied. In these cases, the REPCOM's limitations in handling of some phenomena become evident. The differences in the results are caused especially by the extension of the solubility limit to the whole computational domain, and the element-wise treatment of the solubilities which was used instead of nuclide-wise treatment. This work has been carried out as a special assignment to the former laboratory of Advanced Energy Systems in Helsinki University of Technology. The work was done at VTT. (orig.)

  20. Modelling of near-field radionuclide transport phenomena in a KBS-3V type of repository for nuclear waste with Goldsim Code - and verification against previous methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulkkanen, V.-M.; Nordman, H. (VTT Technical Research Centre, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-03-15

    Traditional radionuclide transport models overestimate significantly some phenomena, or completely ignore them. This motivates the development of new more precise models. As a result, this work is a description of commissioning of a new KBS-3V near-field radionuclide transport model, which has been done with a commercial software called GoldSim. According to earlier models, GoldSim model uses rz coordinates, but the solubilities of radionuclides have been treated more precisely. To begin with, the physical phenomena concerning near-field transport have been introduced according to GoldSim way of thinking. Also, the computational methods of GoldSim have been introduced and compared to methods used earlier. The actual verification of GoldSim model has been carried out by comparing the GoldSim results from simple cases to the corresponding results obtained with REPCOM, a software developed by VTT and used in several safety assessments. The results agree well. Finally, a few complicated cases were studied. In these cases, the REPCOM's limitations in handling of some phenomena become evident. The differences in the results are caused especially by the extension of the solubility limit to the whole computational domain, and the element-wise treatment of the solubilities which was used instead of nuclide-wise treatment. This work has been carried out as a special assignment to the former laboratory of Advanced Energy Systems in Helsinki University of Technology. The work was done at VTT. (orig.)

  1. A Bayesian method for detecting pairwise associations in compositional data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Schwager

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Compositional data consist of vectors of proportions normalized to a constant sum from a basis of unobserved counts. The sum constraint makes inference on correlations between unconstrained features challenging due to the information loss from normalization. However, such correlations are of long-standing interest in fields including ecology. We propose a novel Bayesian framework (BAnOCC: Bayesian Analysis of Compositional Covariance to estimate a sparse precision matrix through a LASSO prior. The resulting posterior, generated by MCMC sampling, allows uncertainty quantification of any function of the precision matrix, including the correlation matrix. We also use a first-order Taylor expansion to approximate the transformation from the unobserved counts to the composition in order to investigate what characteristics of the unobserved counts can make the correlations more or less difficult to infer. On simulated datasets, we show that BAnOCC infers the true network as well as previous methods while offering the advantage of posterior inference. Larger and more realistic simulated datasets further showed that BAnOCC performs well as measured by type I and type II error rates. Finally, we apply BAnOCC to a microbial ecology dataset from the Human Microbiome Project, which in addition to reproducing established ecological results revealed unique, competition-based roles for Proteobacteria in multiple distinct habitats.

  2. A Bayesian method for detecting pairwise associations in compositional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwager, Emma; Mallick, Himel; Ventz, Steffen; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2017-11-01

    Compositional data consist of vectors of proportions normalized to a constant sum from a basis of unobserved counts. The sum constraint makes inference on correlations between unconstrained features challenging due to the information loss from normalization. However, such correlations are of long-standing interest in fields including ecology. We propose a novel Bayesian framework (BAnOCC: Bayesian Analysis of Compositional Covariance) to estimate a sparse precision matrix through a LASSO prior. The resulting posterior, generated by MCMC sampling, allows uncertainty quantification of any function of the precision matrix, including the correlation matrix. We also use a first-order Taylor expansion to approximate the transformation from the unobserved counts to the composition in order to investigate what characteristics of the unobserved counts can make the correlations more or less difficult to infer. On simulated datasets, we show that BAnOCC infers the true network as well as previous methods while offering the advantage of posterior inference. Larger and more realistic simulated datasets further showed that BAnOCC performs well as measured by type I and type II error rates. Finally, we apply BAnOCC to a microbial ecology dataset from the Human Microbiome Project, which in addition to reproducing established ecological results revealed unique, competition-based roles for Proteobacteria in multiple distinct habitats.

  3. Detection of graves using the micro-resistivity method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Luzio

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case history of the application of resistivity methods on the detection of a tomb tentatively associated with Damião de Goes, a prominent Portuguese humanist who lived in the XVI century. The survey carried out inside Varzea Church comprised dipole-dipole, gradient and pole-pole arrays. The results obtained from the 2D inversion of dipole-dipole data and 3D inversion of the gradient array have shown high resistivity anomalies that were assigned to the walls of the tomb. The low resistivity anomalies observed in between were interpreted as due to the presence of water enriched by ions from the decomposition of human bodies. This result is corroborated by the imaging obtained using the 3D probability tomography of the gradient and pole-pole data. Excavation works, carried out in accordance with the results of the geoelectrical investigation, successfully found a 2.7×0.8×1.7 m tomb, where several human bones have been collected. A 3D resistivity model incorporating the main features of the tomb was built after the excavation. The pole-pole model responses calculated from this model reproduce the main features observed in the data.

  4. Method and apparatus for detecting micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsky, J.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for determining the presence and quantity of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi and yeast, in a given sample. The apparatus includes two sealed containers, a portion of which may be penetrated by a sharp instrument, as for example, glass vials with flexible septum tops. One container includes a radioactive nutrient medium which is capable of supporting the life process of the microorganism whose presence is being tested. The second container includes a liquid scintillation solution which absorbs the product of metabolism of the organisms. The sample is introduced into the first sealed container, for example, by means of a standard syringe. Any microorganisms present will consume the radioactive nutrient and as a result produce radioactive waste. Means are then applied to penetrate the containers and allow the flow of the radioactive metabolic product from the first container to the second container while preventing any contamination from the ambient. The liquid scintillation solution will emit light in proportion to the amount of the product of metabolism collected from the first container. This light may be detected by standard liquid scintillation counters, thus providing a qualitative and quantitative measure of the microorganism in the tested sample

  5. Direct exoplanet detection and characterization using the ANDROMEDA method: Performance on VLT/NaCo data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantalloube, F.; Mouillet, D.; Mugnier, L. M.; Milli, J.; Absil, O.; Gomez Gonzalez, C. A.; Chauvin, G.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Cornia, A.

    2015-10-01

    Context. The direct detection of exoplanets with high-contrast imaging requires advanced data processing methods to disentangle potential planetary signals from bright quasi-static speckles. Among them, angular differential imaging (ADI) permits potential planetary signals with a known rotation rate to be separated from instrumental speckles that are either statics or slowly variable. The method presented in this paper, called ANDROMEDA for ANgular Differential OptiMal Exoplanet Detection Algorithm, is based on a maximum likelihood approach to ADI and is used to estimate the position and the flux of any point source present in the field of view. Aims: In order to optimize and experimentally validate this previously proposed method, we applied ANDROMEDA to real VLT/NaCo data. In addition to its pure detection capability, we investigated the possibility of defining simple and efficient criteria for automatic point source extraction able to support the processing of large surveys. Methods: To assess the performance of the method, we applied ANDROMEDA on VLT/NaCo data of TYC-8979-1683-1 which is surrounded by numerous bright stars and on which we added synthetic planets of known position and flux in the field. In order to accommodate the real data properties, it was necessary to develop additional pre-processing and post-processing steps to the initially proposed algorithm. We then investigated its skill in the challenging case of a well-known target, β Pictoris, whose companion is close to the detection limit and we compared our results to those obtained by another method based on principal component analysis (PCA). Results: Application on VLT/NaCo data demonstrates the ability of ANDROMEDA to automatically detect and characterize point sources present in the image field. We end up with a robust method bringing consistent results with a sensitivity similar to the recently published algorithms, with only two parameters to be fine tuned. Moreover, the companion flux

  6. Comparison of pattern detection methods in microarray time series of the segmentation clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Lee Dequéant

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available While genome-wide gene expression data are generated at an increasing rate, the repertoire of approaches for pattern discovery in these data is still limited. Identifying subtle patterns of interest in large amounts of data (tens of thousands of profiles associated with a certain level of noise remains a challenge. A microarray time series was recently generated to study the transcriptional program of the mouse segmentation clock, a biological oscillator associated with the periodic formation of the segments of the body axis. A method related to Fourier analysis, the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, was used to detect periodic profiles in the dataset, leading to the identification of a novel set of cyclic genes associated with the segmentation clock. Here, we applied to the same microarray time series dataset four distinct mathematical methods to identify significant patterns in gene expression profiles. These methods are called: Phase consistency, Address reduction, Cyclohedron test and Stable persistence, and are based on different conceptual frameworks that are either hypothesis- or data-driven. Some of the methods, unlike Fourier transforms, are not dependent on the assumption of periodicity of the pattern of interest. Remarkably, these methods identified blindly the expression profiles of known cyclic genes as the most significant patterns in the dataset. Many candidate genes predicted by more than one approach appeared to be true positive cyclic genes and will be of particular interest for future research. In addition, these methods predicted novel candidate cyclic genes that were consistent with previous biological knowledge and experimental validation in mouse embryos. Our results demonstrate the utility of these novel pattern detection strategies, notably for detection of periodic profiles, and suggest that combining several distinct mathematical approaches to analyze microarray datasets is a valuable strategy for identifying genes that

  7. A New Method for Intrusion Detection using Manifold Learning Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Guoping Hou; Xuan Ma; Yuelei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Computer and network security has received and will still receive much attention. Any unexpected intrusion will damage the network. It is therefore imperative to detect the network intrusion to ensure the normal operation of the internet. There are many studies in the intrusion detection and intrusion patter recognition. The artificial neural network (ANN) has proven to be powerful for the intrusion detection. However, very little work has discussed the optimization of the input intrusion fea...

  8. Method for detecting fractures in formations surroundingearth boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertl, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    A well is first logged with gamma ray detection system to provide a base log. Fluid containing salt of potassium, uranium or thorium is then injected into the well opposite the interval of interest. When the well head pressure is increased, some of the injected fluid will move into the fracture or other highly permeable localized zones. The gamma ray detection system is then run again one or more times through the well to provide a log which is compared with the base log. The fracture is detected by localized drastically higher readings observed on the repeat run of the gamma ray detection logging system

  9. A New Moving Object Detection Method Based on Frame-difference and Background Subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiajia; Wang, Junping; Bai, Ruixue; Zhang, Yao; Li, Yong

    2017-09-01

    Although many methods of moving object detection have been proposed, moving object extraction is still the core in video surveillance. However, with the complex scene in real world, false detection, missed detection and deficiencies resulting from cavities inside the body still exist. In order to solve the problem of incomplete detection for moving objects, a new moving object detection method combined an improved frame-difference and Gaussian mixture background subtraction is proposed in this paper. To make the moving object detection more complete and accurate, the image repair and morphological processing techniques which are spatial compensations are applied in the proposed method. Experimental results show that our method can effectively eliminate ghosts and noise and fill the cavities of the moving object. Compared to other four moving object detection methods which are GMM, VIBE, frame-difference and a literature's method, the proposed method improve the efficiency and accuracy of the detection.

  10. The design method and research status of vehicle detection system based on geomagnetic detection principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. H.; Bai, R.; Qian, Z. H.

    2018-03-01

    Vehicle detection systems are applied to obtain real-time information of vehicles, realize traffic control and reduce traffic pressure. This paper reviews geomagnetic sensors as well as the research status of the vehicle detection system. Presented in the paper are also our work on the vehicle detection system, including detection algorithms and experimental results. It is found that the GMR based vehicle detection system has a detection accuracy up to 98% with a high potential for application in the road traffic control area.

  11. Constructing a paleo-DEM in an urban area by the example of the city of Aachen, Germany: Methods and previous results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröschel, Bernhard; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Reconstructing paleo-landscapes in urban areas is always a special challenge since the research area often witnessed constant human impact over long time periods. Dense building development is a major difficulty, particularly in regard to accessibility to in-situ soils and archaeological findings. It is therefore necessary to use data from various sources and combine methods from different fields to gain a detailed picture of the former topography. The area, which is occupied by the city of Aachen today, looks back on a long history of human influence. Traces of human activity can be dated back to Neolithic time. The first architectural structures and the first road network were built by the Romans about 2000 years ago. From then on, the area of Aachen was more or less continuously inhabited forming today's city. This long history is represented by archaeological findings throughout the city. Several meters of settlement deposits, covering different eras, are present in many locations. Therefore, it can be assumed that the modern topography significantly differs from the pre-roman topography. The main objective of this project is a reconstruction of the paleo-topography of Aachen in order to gain new insights on the spatial preconditions that the first settlers found. Moreover, further attention is given to the question whether and to what extent a paleo-DEM can help to clarify specific open archaeological and historical questions. The main database for the reconstruction are the archaeological excavation reports of the past 150 years, provided by municipal and regional archives. After analyzing these written accounts, we linked this information to drill data, provided by the Geological Service of North Rhine-Westphalia. Together with additional sources like geological and hydrological maps, we generated a GIS-based terrain model. The result is a high-resolution terrain model, representing the undisturbed pre-roman topography of the inner city of Aachen without any

  12. Statistical methods for damage detection applied to civil structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gres, Szymon; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Döhler, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Damage detection consists of monitoring the deviations of a current system from its reference state, characterized by some nominal property repeatable for every healthy state. Preferably, the damage detection is performed directly on vibration data, hereby avoiding modal identification of the str...

  13. Parente2: a fast and accurate method for detecting identity by descent

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Jesse M.

    2014-10-01

    Identity-by-descent (IBD) inference is the problem of establishing a genetic connection between two individuals through a genomic segment that is inherited by both individuals from a recent common ancestor. IBD inference is an important preceding step in a variety of population genomic studies, ranging from demographic studies to linking genomic variation with phenotype and disease. The problem of accurate IBD detection has become increasingly challenging with the availability of large collections of human genotypes and genomes: Given a cohort\\'s size, a quadratic number of pairwise genome comparisons must be performed. Therefore, computation time and the false discovery rate can also scale quadratically. To enable accurate and efficient large-scale IBD detection, we present Parente2, a novel method for detecting IBD segments. Parente2 is based on an embedded log-likelihood ratio and uses a model that accounts for linkage disequilibrium by explicitly modeling haplotype frequencies. Parente2 operates directly on genotype data without the need to phase data prior to IBD inference. We evaluate Parente2\\'s performance through extensive simulations using real data, and we show that it provides substantially higher accuracy compared to previous state-of-the-art methods while maintaining high computational efficiency.

  14. A Novel Method for Detection and Classification of Covered Conductor Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Misak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medium-Voltage (MV overhead lines with Covered Conductors (CCs are increasingly being used around the world primarily in forested or dissected terrain areas or in urban areas where it is not possible to utilize MV cable lines. The CC is specific in high operational reliability provided by the conductor core insulation compared to Aluminium-Conductor Steel-Reinforced (ACSR overhead lines. The only disadvantage of the CC is rather the problematic detection of faults compared to the ACSR. In this work, we consider the following faults: the contact of a tree branch with a CC and the fall of a conductor on the ground. The standard protection relays are unable to detect the faults and so the faults pose a risk for individuals in the vicinity of the conductor as well as it compromises the overall safety and reliability of the MV distribution system. In this article, we continue with our previous work aimed at the method enabling detection of the faults and we introduce a method enabling a classification of the fault type. Such a classification is especially important for an operator of an MV distribution system to plan the optimal maintenance or repair the faulty conductors since the fall of a tree branch can be solved later whereas the breakdown of a conductor means an immediate action of the operator.

  15. Detection of genetically modified organisms by electrochemiluminescence PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

    2004-10-15

    With the development of biotechnology, more and more genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have entered commercial market. Because of the safety concerns, detection and characterization of GMOs have attracted much attention recently. In this study, electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) combined with hybridization technique was applied to detect the GMOs in genetically modified (GM) soybeans and papayas for the first time. Whether the soybeans and the papayas contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM soybeans and papayas. The technique may provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its simplicity and high efficiency.

  16. Detection of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in meat samples by using molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Ikuko; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Mimura, Kanako; Yumine, Natsuko; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Akimoto, Shigeru; McClane, Bruce A

    2011-11-01

    To prevent food-borne bacterial diseases and to trace bacterial contamination events to foods, microbial source tracking (MST) methods provide important epidemiological information. To apply molecular methods to MST, it is necessary not only to amplify bacterial cells to detection limit levels but also to prepare DNA with reduced inhibitory compounds and contamination. Isolates carrying the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin gene (cpe) on the chromosome or a plasmid rank among the most important food-borne pathogens. Previous surveys indicated that cpe-positive C. perfringens isolates are present in only ∼5% of nonoutbreak food samples and then only at low numbers, usually less than 3 cells/g. In this study, four molecular assays for the detection of cpe-positive C. perfringens isolates, i.e., ordinary PCR, nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), were developed and evaluated for their reliability using purified DNA. For use in the artificial contamination of meat samples, DNA templates were prepared by three different commercial DNA preparation kits. The four molecular assays always detected cpe when >10³ cells/g of cpe-positive C. perfringens were present, using any kit. Of three tested commercial DNA preparation kits, the InstaGene matrix kit appeared to be most suitable for the testing of a large number of samples. By using the InstaGene matrix kit, the four molecular assays efficiently detected cpe using DNA prepared from enrichment culture specimens of meat samples contaminated with low numbers of cpe-positive C. perfringens vegetative cells or spores. Overall, the current study developed molecular assay protocols for MST to detect the contamination of foods with low numbers of cells, and at a low frequency, of cpe-positive C. perfringens isolates.

  17. Methods for Detection of Families of Molecules in the Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Glen

    2014-06-01

    We present a high velocity resolution (0.04 km/sec) molecular line survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud in the frequency range 39 to 48 GHz with NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank telescope (GBT). The observing method and data reduction process are outlined. We describe the method of obtaining the calibrated, averaged spectral line data online. The RMS survey sensitivity was slightly different for each 200MHz frequency band, and ranged from 0.02 to 0.15 K (T_B) for the different bands. A large number of molecular lines are detected, most of which have previously been associated with already known interstellar molecules. We present a summary processes to combine a number of lines of molecular species in order to identify new species.

  18. A new detection method for a newly revealed mechanism of pyrethroid resistance development in Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachecka, Aneta; Borsuk, Grzegorz; Olszewski, Krzysztof; Paleolog, Jerzy

    2015-11-01

    The Varroa destructor mite has recently displayed an ever increasing resistance to new drugs, contributing to CCD proliferation. This work was aimed at determining new viable methods for identifying the pyrethroid resistance of V. destructor and DNA methylation in resistant and sensitive mites. DNA was extracted from Varroa mites. Nucleotide changes in the DNA of pyrethroid-resistant, pyrethroid-sensitive, and control mites were identified with polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) in the case of five mitochondrial gene fragments. More bands were observed in the drug-resistant mites than in the other two groups. Sequencing confirmed these observations. Decreased global DNA methylation levels were observed in the pyrethroid-resistant mites. There exists a previously undescribed mechanism of pyrethroid resistance development in Varroa mites. The PCR-SSCP methods can be considered and further developed as useful tools for detecting V. destructor resistance.

  19. Reference set for performance testing of pediatric vaccine safety signal detection methods and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauchli Pernus, Yolanda; Nan, Cassandra; Verstraeten, Thomas; Pedenko, Mariia; Osokogu, Osemeke U; Weibel, Daniel; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Bonhoeffer, Jan

    2016-12-12

    Safety signal detection in spontaneous reporting system databases and electronic healthcare records is key to detection of previously unknown adverse events following immunization. Various statistical methods for signal detection in these different datasources have been developed, however none are geared to the pediatric population and none specifically to vaccines. A reference set comprising pediatric vaccine-adverse event pairs is required for reliable performance testing of statistical methods within and across data sources. The study was conducted within the context of the Global Research in Paediatrics (GRiP) project, as part of the seventh framework programme (FP7) of the European Commission. Criteria for the selection of vaccines considered in the reference set were routine and global use in the pediatric population. Adverse events were primarily selected based on importance. Outcome based systematic literature searches were performed for all identified vaccine-adverse event pairs and complemented by expert committee reports, evidence based decision support systems (e.g. Micromedex), and summaries of product characteristics. Classification into positive (PC) and negative control (NC) pairs was performed by two independent reviewers according to a pre-defined algorithm and discussed for consensus in case of disagreement. We selected 13 vaccines and 14 adverse events to be included in the reference set. From a total of 182 vaccine-adverse event pairs, we classified 18 as PC, 113 as NC and 51 as unclassifiable. Most classifications (91) were based on literature review, 45 were based on expert committee reports, and for 46 vaccine-adverse event pairs, an underlying pathomechanism was not plausible classifying the association as NC. A reference set of vaccine-adverse event pairs was developed. We propose its use for comparing signal detection methods and systems in the pediatric population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. An improved method for the immunological detection of mineral bound protein using hydrofluoric acid and direct capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, O E; Collins, M J

    2000-03-06

    Immunological detection of proteins adsorbed to mineral and ceramic surfaces has proved not only difficult but controversial. Unlike the immunological detection of proteins associated with carbonate or phosphate minerals (e.g. shells and bones) proteins adsorbed to siliceous minerals cannot readily be removed by dissolution of the mineral phase. We have previously examined alternative extraction methodologies which claim to bring the protein into solution, but found none of these to be effective. Here we report a novel strategy for immuno-detection of proteins adsorbed to siliceous minerals, the Digestion and Capture Immunoassay (DACIA). The method involves the use of cold, concentrated (4M) hydrofluoric acid (HF) with the simultaneous capture of liberated protein onto a solid phase. The combination of low temperatures and surface stabilisation enables us to detect epitopes from even partially degraded proteins. The method may have a wide application in forensic, archaeological, soil and earth sciences.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Data-Driven Anomaly Detection Methods

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper provides a review of three different advanced machine learning algorithms for anomaly detection in continuous data streams from a ground-test firing of a...

  2. Colour based fire detection method with temporal intensity variation filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trambitckii, K; Musalimov, V; Anding, K; Linß, G

    2015-01-01

    Development of video, computing technologies and computer vision gives a possibility of automatic fire detection on video information. Under that project different algorithms was implemented to find more efficient way of fire detection. In that article colour based fire detection algorithm is described. But it is not enough to use only colour information to detect fire properly. The main reason of this is that in the shooting conditions may be a lot of things having colour similar to fire. A temporary intensity variation of pixels is used to separate them from the fire. These variations are averaged over the series of several frames. This algorithm shows robust work and was realised as a computer program by using of the OpenCV library

  3. TMTI Task 1.6 Genetic Engineering Methods and Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slezak, T; Lenhoff, R; Allen, J; Borucki, M; Vitalis, E; Gardner, S

    2009-12-04

    A large number of GE techniques can be adapted from other microorganisms to biothreat bacteria and viruses. Detection of GE in a microorganism increases in difficulty as the size of the genetic change decreases. In addition to the size of the engineered change, the consensus genomic sequence of the microorganism can impact the difficulty of detecting an engineered change in genomes that are highly variable from strain to strain. This problem will require comprehensive databases of whole genome sequences for more genetically variable biothreat bacteria and viruses. Preliminary work with microarrays for detecting synthetic elements or virulence genes and analytic bioinformatic approaches for whole genome sequence comparison to detect genetic engineering show promise for attacking this difficult problem but a large amount of future work remains.

  4. Literature Search for New Physical Methods of Biological Aerosol Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    their lifetimes and even their 25 limits of detection, many of them of biological interest ( Becker , 1969. Rhys, 1981). Detection at nanogram levels is...terms of selectivity, speed, simplicity, accuracy, precision, interferences, etc.] 1969 Becker R.S., Theory and Interpretation of Fluorescence and...Neuer Gesichtspunkte Zur Analytischen Anwendung des Raman Effektes . is?8 Raman C.V. and Krishnan K.S.. Nature, v.121, p5 01: A New Type of Secondary

  5. Development and validation of methods for GMO detection

    OpenAIRE

    Hodek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The present work is focused on the issue of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection in the plants and derived products. Existing legislation in the European Union regulates monitoring of GMO and lays down rules for their labeling and traceability. The aim was to contribute to solving certain issues of critical points in GMO detection. The first point was DNA extraction. The problem was adressed to the example of DNA extraction from the fruit of papaya and candied papaya. For both food...

  6. Detection of telomerase activity in gastric lavage fluid: a novel method to detect gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephen Ching-ho; Yu, Hanry; So, Jimmy B Y

    2006-04-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein polymerase that is essential for cell immortality. Recent studies have demonstrated that a high percentage of gastric cancer tissue expressed telomerase. This study describes the presence of telomerase activity in gastric lavage fluid in patients with gastric cancer. Gastric lavage fluid was collected during esophageogastroduodenoscopy in 70 patients: 25 with gastric cancer, 25 with peptic ulcer disease, and 20 with normal stomach. The fluid and biopsy samples were analyzed for telomerase activity by a polymerase chain reaction-based telomerase repeat amplification protocol. The findings were related to the histological results. Telomerase activity was present in 24 of the 25 (96%) gastric cancer tissue and in 7 of the 25 tissue specimens from peptic ulcer or gastritis. In the gastric lavage fluid, telomerase was detected in 20 patients (80%) with gastric cancer, 7 patients (28%) with peptic ulcer, and none in normal subjects (P < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of gastric fluid telomerase expression in gastric cancer patients was 80%, 84%, 74%, and 88%, respectively. The presence of telomerase activity is present in gastric lavage fluid of patients with gastric cancer as compared to those without, may represent a novel method for diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  7. Hotspot detection and spatial distribution of methane emissions from landfills by a surface probe method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Valencia, Rodrigo; Magana-Rodriguez, Felipe; Cristóbal, Jordi; Thalasso, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    A surface probe method previously developed was used to detect hotspots and to determine spatial variation of methane (CH4) emissions from three landfills located in Mexico, with an intermediate or a final cover, as well as with or without a landfill gas collection system. The method was effective in the three landfills and allowed mapping of CH4 emissions with a resolution of 24-64 measurements per hectare, as well as the detection and quantification of hotspots, with a moderate experimental effort. In the three selected landfills, CH4 emissions were quantified to 10, 72, and 575gm(-2)d(-1). Two straightforward parameters describing the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions were also developed. The first parameter provides the percentage of area responsible for a given percentage of total emissions, while the second parameter assigns a numerical value to flux homogeneity. Together, the emissions map and the spatial distribution parameters offer an appropriate tool to landfill operators willing to begin recovering CH4 emissions or to improve the effectiveness of an existing recovery system. This method may therefore help to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of landfills, which are still the primary option for waste management in developing countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Methods for the selective detection of alkyne-presenting molecules and related compositions and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carlos A.; Vu, Alexander K.

    2017-10-17

    Provided herein are methods for selectively detecting an alkyne-presenting molecule in a sample and related detection reagents, compositions, methods and systems. The methods include contacting a detection reagent with the sample for a time and under a condition to allow binding of the detection reagent to the one or more alkyne-presenting molecules possibly present in the matrix to the detection reagent. The detection reagent includes an organic label moiety presenting an azide group. The binding of the azide group to the alkyne-presenting molecules results in emission of a signal from the organic label moiety.

  9. The Use of Highly Sensitive Detection Methods for Eradication of Plasmodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Marianne Smedegaard; Knudsen, Birgitta R.

    2017-01-01

    The key to a successful malaria eradication program is highly efficient detection of Plasmodium infected people followed by appropriate treatment to avoid spreading of the parasite. We will discuss some of the demands that such a detection method needs to fulfill and review some of the advantages...... and disadvantages of currently available detection methods...

  10. Detection of wood failure by image processing method: influence of algorithm, adhesive and wood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanying Lin; Sheng He; Feng Fu; Xiping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Wood failure percentage (WFP) is an important index for evaluating the bond strength of plywood. Currently, the method used for detecting WFP is visual inspection, which lacks efficiency. In order to improve it, image processing methods are applied to wood failure detection. The present study used thresholding and K-means clustering algorithms in wood failure detection...

  11. Effect of Multi-condition Training and Speech Enhancement Methods on Spoofing Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hong; Sarkar, Achintya Kumar; Thomsen, Dennis Alexander Lehmann

    2016-01-01

    at different signal-to-noise ratios, and two mainstream speech enhancement methods, Wiener filtering and minimum mean-square error. The experimental results show that enhancement methods are not suitable for the spoofing detection task, as the spoofing detection accuracy will be reduced after speech...... enhancement. Multi-conditional training, however, shows potential at reducing error rates for spoofing detection....

  12. Eddy current probe and method for flaw detection in metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watjen, John P.

    1987-06-23

    A flaw detecting system is shown which includes a probe having a pair of ferrite cores with in-line gaps in close proximity to each other. An insulating, non-magnetic, non-conducting holder fills the gaps and supports the ferrite cores in a manner such that the cores form a generally V-shape. Each core is provided with an excitation winding and a detection winding. The excitation windings are connected in series or parallel with an rf port for connection thereof to a radio frequency source. The detection windings, which are differentially wound, are connected in series circuit to a detector port for connection to a voltage measuring instrument. The ferrite cores at the in-line gaps directly engage the metal surface of a test piece, and the probe is scanned along the test piece. In the presence of a flaw in the metal surface the detection winding voltages are unbalanced, and the unbalance is detected by the voltage measuring instrument. The insulating holder is provided with a profile which conforms to that of a prominent feature of the test piece to facilitate movement of the probe along the feature, typically an edge or a corner.

  13. Eddy current probe and method for flaw detection in metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watjen, J.P.

    1987-06-23

    A flaw detecting system is shown which includes a probe having a pair of ferrite cores with in-line gaps in close proximity to each other. An insulating, non-magnetic, non-conducting holder fills the gaps and supports the ferrite cores in a manner such that the cores form a generally V-shape. Each core is provided with an excitation winding and a detection winding. The excitation windings are connected in series or parallel with an rf port for connection thereof to a radio frequency source. The detection windings, which are differentially wound, are connected in series circuit to a detector port for connection to a voltage measuring instrument. The ferrite cores at the in-line gaps directly engage the metal surface of a test piece, and the probe is scanned along the test piece. In the presence of a flaw in the metal surface the detection winding voltages are unbalanced, and the unbalance is detected by the voltage measuring instrument. The insulating holder is provided with a profile which conforms to that of a prominent feature of the test piece to facilitate movement of the probe along the feature, typically an edge or a corner. 9 figs.

  14. Anti-dynamic-crosstalk method for single photon LIDAR detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Liu, Qiang; Gong, Mali; Fu, Xing

    2017-11-01

    With increasing number of vehicles equipped with light detection and ranging (LIDAR), crosstalk is identified as a critical and urgent issue in the range detection for active collision avoidance. Chaotic pulse position modulation (CPPM) applied in the transmitting pulse train has been shown to prevent crosstalk as well as range ambiguity. However, static and unified strategy on discrimination threshold and the number of accumulated pulse is not valid against crosstalk with varying number of sources and varying intensity of each source. This paper presents an adaptive algorithm to distinguish the target echo from crosstalk with dynamic and unknown level of intensity in the context of intelligent vehicles. New strategy is given based on receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves that consider the detection requirements of the probability of detection and false alarm for the scenario with varying crosstalk. In the adaptive algorithm, the detected results are compared by the new strategy with both the number of accumulated pulses and the threshold being raised step by step, so that the target echo can be exactly identified from crosstalk with the dynamic and unknown level of intensity. The validity of the algorithm has been verified through the experiments with a single photon detector and the time correlated single photo counting (TCSPC) technique, demonstrating a marked drop in required shots for identifying the target compared with static and unified strategy

  15. Study of comparison between Ultra-high Frequency (UHF) method and ultrasonic method on PD detection for GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanran; Chen, Duo; Li, Li; Zhang, Jiwei; Li, Guang; Liu, Hongxia

    2017-11-01

    GIS (gas insulated switchgear), is an important equipment in power system. Partial discharge plays an important role in detecting the insulation performance of GIS. UHF method and ultrasonic method frequently used in partial discharge (PD) detection for GIS. However, few studies have been conducted on comparison of this two methods. From the view point of safety, it is necessary to investigate UHF method and ultrasonic method for partial discharge in GIS. This paper presents study aimed at clarifying the effect of UHF method and ultrasonic method for partial discharge caused by free metal particles in GIS. Partial discharge tests were performed in laboratory simulated environment. Obtained results show the ability of anti-interference of signal detection and the accuracy of fault localization for UHF method and ultrasonic method. A new method based on UHF method and ultrasonic method of PD detection for GIS is proposed in order to greatly enhance the ability of anti-interference of signal detection and the accuracy of detection localization.

  16. Detection of previously unknown fumonisin P analogue mycotoxins in a Fusarium verticillioides culture by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization time-of-flight and ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartók, Tibor; Tölgyesi, László; Szécsi, Árpád; Mesterházy, Ákos; Bartók, Mihály; Gyimes, Ernő; Véha, Antal

    2014-07-01

    Five previously unknown fumonisin mycotoxins (iso-FP1, iso-FP(2,3a), iso-FP(2,3b), FP4 and iso-FP4) and three previously described FP analogues (FP(1-3)) were detected in a solid rice culture inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides. The fumonisins were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOFMS) and ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS). The FP isomers were separated by using a flat gradient on a special, high-coverage C18, narrow-bore HPLC column (YMC-Pack J'sphere ODS H80), which was suggested for the separation of structural isomers. The verified structures of the FP(1-3) mycotoxins, the relative retention times (by HPLC-ESI-TOFMS and ITMS), the exact masses of the molecular ions (by TOFMS) and the masses of the product ions, including the hydrocarbon backbones (by ITMS) of the new compounds, strongly suggested their structures. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Time-varying subspace dimensionality: Useful as a seismic signal detection method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, C. A.; Stead, R. J.; Begnaud, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    We explore the application of dimensional analysis to the problem of anomaly detection in multichannel time series. These techniques, which have been used for real-time load management in large computer systems, revolve around the time-varying dimensionality estimates of the signal subspace. Our application is to multiple channels of incoming seismic waveform data, as from a large array or across a network. Subspace analysis has been applied to seismic data before, but the routine use of the method is for the identification of a particular signal type, and requires a priori information about the range of signals for which the algorithm is searching. In this paradigm, a known but variable source (such as a mining region or aftershock sequence) provides known waveforms that are assumed to span the space occupied by incoming events of interest. Singular value decomposition or principal components analysis of the identified waveforms will allow for the selection of basis vectors that define the subspace onto which incoming signals are projected, to determine whether they belong to the source population of interest. In our application we do not seek to compare incoming signals to previously identified waveforms, but instead we seek to detect anomalies from the background behavior across an array or network. The background seismic levels will describe a signal space whose dimension may change markedly when an earthquake or other signal of interest occurs. We explore a variety of means by which we can evaluate the time-varying dimensionality of the signal space, and we compare the detection performance to other standard event detection methods.

  18. A Hybrid Vehicle Detection Method Based on Viola-Jones and HOG + SVM from UAV Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongzheng; Yu, Guizhen; Wang, Yunpeng; Wu, Xinkai; Ma, Yalong

    2016-08-19

    A new hybrid vehicle detection scheme which integrates the Viola-Jones (V-J) and linear SVM classifier with HOG feature (HOG + SVM) methods is proposed for vehicle detection from low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images. As both V-J and HOG + SVM are sensitive to on-road vehicles' in-plane rotation, the proposed scheme first adopts a roadway orientation adjustment method, which rotates each UAV image to align the roads with the horizontal direction so the original V-J or HOG + SVM method can be directly applied to achieve fast detection and high accuracy. To address the issue of descending detection speed for V-J and HOG + SVM, the proposed scheme further develops an adaptive switching strategy which sophistically integrates V-J and HOG + SVM methods based on their different descending trends of detection speed to improve detection efficiency. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the switching strategy, combined with the road orientation adjustment method, can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle detection from UAV images. The results also show that the proposed vehicle detection method is competitive compared with other existing vehicle detection methods. Furthermore, since the proposed vehicle detection method can be performed on videos captured from moving UAV platforms without the need of image registration or additional road database, it has great potentials of field applications. Future research will be focusing on expanding the current method for detecting other transportation modes such as buses, trucks, motors, bicycles, and pedestrians.

  19. Chemical mutagens: principles and methods for their detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Serres, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the development and validation of short-term assays designed to detect the mutagenic effects of environmental chemicals. Topics considered include the grasshopper neuroblast short-term assay for evaluating the effects of environmental chemicals on chromosomes and cell kinetics, a comparison of the mutagenic responses of lung-derived and skin-derived human diploid fibroblast populations, the L-arabinose resistance test with Salmonella typhimurium, the Bacillus subtilis multigene sporulation test for the detection of environmental mutagens, the L5178Y/TK gene mutation assay system, the induction of bacteriophage lambda by DNA-interacting chemicals, the granuloma pouch assay, the use of multiply marked Escherichia coli K12 strains in the host-mediated assay, and the detection of mutagens in human feces as an approach to the discovery of causes of colon cancer.

  20. Ultrafast laser based coherent control methods for explosives detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-06

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring Optimal Dynamic Detection of Explosives (ODD-Ex), which exploits the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity to explosives signatures while dramatically improving specificity, particularly against matrix materials and background interferences. These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal non-linear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe subpulses. Recent results will be presented.

  1. Failed fuel rod detection method by ultrasonic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamatsu, Masatoshi; Muraoka, Shoichi; Ono, Yukio; Yasojima, Yujiro.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic wave signals sent from an ultrasonic receiving element are supplied to an evaluation circuit by way of a gate. A table for gate opening and closing timings at the detecting position in each of the fuel rods in a fuel assembly is stored in a memory. A fuel rod is placed between an ultrasonic transmitting element and the receiving element to determine the positions of the transmitting element and the receiving element by positional sensors. The opening and closing timings at the positions corresponding to the result of the detection are read out from the table, and the gates are opened and closed by the timing. This can introduce the ultrasonic wave signals transmitted through a control rod always to the evaluation circuit passing through the gate. Accordingly, the state of failure of the fuel rod can be detected accurately. (I.N.)

  2. Method and means for detecting magnetic deposits in tubular plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, W.

    1981-01-01

    Deposits of magnetite on tubes in a heat exchanger, e.g. a steam generator, are detected by measuring the magnetic reluctance within the tubes. A probe for measuring the reluctance includes a permanent magnet (or a magnetic core and an excitation coil wound on the core) and a magnetic flux detector such as a Hall generator mounted for example on one of the non-magnetic rings. Changes in flux density as the probe is pushed through the tubes are detected by the Hall generator, thus indicating the presence of magnetite deposits. The probe includes a non-magnetic tube for pushing it through the heat exchanger tubes. (author)

  3. Pipeline leak detection method and control device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Leaks may be located in a pipeline by introducing into the pipeline an assembly that includes a pipe-sealing packer unit, a control unit, and a radioactive source shielded from the control unit. The control unit includes a gamma ray detector that controls the sealing and unsealing of the pipe by the packer in response to the detection of radiation exceeding a preset threshold - a detection event. The assembly is pushed through the pipeline by a relatively low fluid pressure behind it. The progress of the assembly through the pipeline may be monitored externally by a gamma ray detector

  4. System and method for automated object detection in an image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenyon, Garrett T.; Brumby, Steven P.; George, John S.; Paiton, Dylan M.; Schultz, Peter F.

    2015-10-06

    A contour/shape detection model may use relatively simple and efficient kernels to detect target edges in an object within an image or video. A co-occurrence probability may be calculated for two or more edge features in an image or video using an object definition. Edge features may be differentiated between in response to measured contextual support, and prominent edge features may be extracted based on the measured contextual support. The object may then be identified based on the extracted prominent edge features.

  5. An online visual loop closure detection method for indoor robotic navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhan, Can; Sariyanidi, Evangelos; Sencan, Onur; Temeltas, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an enhanced loop closure method* based on image-to-image matching relies on quantized local Zernike moments. In contradistinction to the previous methods, our approach uses additional depth information to extract Zernike moments in local manner. These moments are used to represent holistic shape information inside the image. The moments in complex space that are extracted from both grayscale and depth images are coarsely quantized. In order to find out the similarity between two locations, nearest neighbour (NN) classification algorithm is performed. Exemplary results and the practical implementation case of the method are also given with the data gathered on the testbed using a Kinect. The method is evaluated in three different datasets of different lighting conditions. Additional depth information with the actual image increases the detection rate especially in dark environments. The results are referred as a successful, high-fidelity online method for visual place recognition as well as to close navigation loops, which is a crucial information for the well known simultaneously localization and mapping (SLAM) problem. This technique is also practically applicable because of its low computational complexity, and performing capability in real-time with high loop closing accuracy.

  6. The regularized monotonicity method: detecting irregular indefinite inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Henrik; Staboulis, Stratos

    2018-01-01

    inclusions, where the conductivity distribution has both more and less conductive parts relative to the background conductivity; one such method is the monotonicity method of Harrach, Seo, and Ullrich. We formulate the method for irregular indefinite inclusions, meaning that we make no regularity assumptions...

  7. An Automatic Cloud Detection Method for ZY-3 Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Zhenwei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Automatic cloud detection for optical satellite remote sensing images is a significant step in the production system of satellite products. For the browse images cataloged by ZY-3 satellite, the tree discriminate structure is adopted to carry out cloud detection. The image was divided into sub-images and their features were extracted to perform classification between clouds and grounds. However, due to the high complexity of clouds and surfaces and the low resolution of browse images, the traditional classification algorithms based on image features are of great limitations. In view of the problem, a prior enhancement processing to original sub-images before classification was put forward in this paper to widen the texture difference between clouds and surfaces. Afterwards, with the secondary moment and first difference of the images, the feature vectors were extended in multi-scale space, and then the cloud proportion in the image was estimated through comprehensive analysis. The presented cloud detection algorithm has already been applied to the ZY-3 application system project, and the practical experiment results indicate that this algorithm is capable of promoting the accuracy of cloud detection significantly.

  8. Detecting Pipe Bursts Using Heuristic and CUSUM Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Jung, D.; Vreeburg, J.; Van de Roer, M.; Lansey, K.; Rierveld, L.

    2014-01-01

    Pipe bursts in a drinking water distribution system lead to water losses, interruption of supply, and damage to streets and houses due to the uncontrolled water flow. To minimize the negative consequences of pipe bursts, an early detection is necessary. This paper describes a heuristic burst

  9. DNA based methods used for characterization and detection of food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... and a DNA ligase enzyme to drive the reaction. Like. PCR, LCR requires a thermal circler to drive the reaction and each cycle results in a doubling of the target nucleic acid molecule. ..... Electric detection of DNA hybridization by nanoparticle nanoswitch. Curr. Appl. Phys. 6S1: e157-e160. Chinowsky TM ...

  10. A New Method for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.N.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

  11. Exploring new methods to detect person misfit in CAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith

    Item scores that do not fit an assumed item response theory model may cause the latent trait value to be inaccurately estimated. Several person-fit statistics for detecting nonfitting response behavior for paper-and-pencil tests have been proposed. In the context of computerized adaptive testing,

  12. Some new methods to detect person fit in CAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith

    Person fit is concerned with detecting nonfitting item-score patterns. Most person-fit statistics have been proposed in the context of conventionally administered tests or paper-and-pencil (P&P) tests. In this study, we will first review some existing person-fit studies in a computerized adaptive

  13. Statistical methods for detecting differentially abundant features in clinical metagenomic samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Robert White

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies are currently underway to characterize the microbial communities inhabiting our world. These studies aim to dramatically expand our understanding of the microbial biosphere and, more importantly, hope to reveal the secrets of the complex symbiotic relationship between us and our commensal bacterial microflora. An important prerequisite for such discoveries are computational tools that are able to rapidly and accurately compare large datasets generated from complex bacterial communities to identify features that distinguish them.We present a statistical method for comparing clinical metagenomic samples from two treatment populations on the basis of count data (e.g. as obtained through sequencing to detect differentially abundant features. Our method, Metastats, employs the false discovery rate to improve specificity in high-complexity environments, and separately handles sparsely-sampled features using Fisher's exact test. Under a variety of simulations, we show that Metastats performs well compared to previously used methods, and significantly outperforms other methods for features with sparse counts. We demonstrate the utility of our method on several datasets including a 16S rRNA survey of obese and lean human gut microbiomes, COG functional profiles of infant and mature gut microbiomes, and bacterial and viral metabolic subsystem data inferred from random sequencing of 85 metagenomes. The application of our method to the obesity dataset reveals differences between obese and lean subjects not reported in the original study. For the COG and subsystem datasets, we provide the first statistically rigorous assessment of the differences between these populations. The methods described in this paper are the first to address clinical metagenomic datasets comprising samples from multiple subjects. Our methods are robust across datasets of varied complexity and sampling level. While designed for metagenomic applications, our software

  14. Rapid detection of Salmonella in pet food: design and evaluation of integrated methods based on real-time PCR detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Priya; Friberg, Maria; Vanlandingham, V; Kozak, K; Manolis, Amanda; Brevnov, Maxim; Crowley, Erin; Bird, Patrick; Goins, David; Furtado, Manohar R; Petrauskene, Olga V; Tebbs, Robert S; Charbonneau, Duane

    2012-02-01

    Reducing the risk of Salmonella contamination in pet food is critical for both companion animals and humans, and its importance is reflected by the substantial increase in the demand for pathogen testing. Accurate and rapid detection of foodborne pathogens improves food safety, protects the public health, and benefits food producers by assuring product quality while facilitating product release in a timely manner. Traditional culture-based methods for Salmonella screening are laborious and can take 5 to 7 days to obtain definitive results. In this study, we developed two methods for the detection of low levels of Salmonella in pet food using real-time PCR: (i) detection of Salmonella in 25 g of dried pet food in less than 14 h with an automated magnetic bead-based nucleic acid extraction method and (ii) detection of Salmonella in 375 g of composite dry pet food matrix in less than 24 h with a manual centrifugation-based nucleic acid preparation method. Both methods included a preclarification step using a novel protocol that removes food matrix-associated debris and PCR inhibitors and improves the sensitivity of detection. Validation studies revealed no significant differences between the two real-time PCR methods and the standard U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (chapter 5) culture confirmation method.

  15. Evaluation of Traditional and Contemporary Methods for Detecting Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera in Laboratory Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gerwin, Philip M; Arbona, Rodolfo J Ricart; Riedel, Elyn R; Lepherd, Michelle L; Henderson, Ken S; Lipman, Neil S

    2017-01-01

    There is no consensus regarding the best practice for detecting murine pinworm infections. Initially, we evaluated 7 fecal concentration methods by using feces containing Aspiculuris tetraptera (AT) eggs (n = 20 samples per method). Sodium nitrate flotation, sodium nitrate centrifugation, Sheather sugar centrifugation, and zinc sulfate centrifugation detected eggs in 100% of samples; zinc sulfate flotation and water sedimentation detected eggs in 90%. All had better detection rates than Sheat...

  16. A method of using γ-ray spectrum of 40K to detect firecrackers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Nangai; Liu Lanhua; Hu Zhihong; Wang Deming

    1991-02-01

    A non-destructive method using 40 K and bismuth germanite scintillator to detect black gunpowder in firecrackers is introduced. The block diagram and performance of detecting time is 10 seconds. The minimum detectable weight of firecracker is 1kg and detecting instrument are also presented. The false discrimination rate is less than 15%. This method is simple and easy to manipulate. It can be used in railway stations, bus terminals and docks

  17. Analytical maximum-likelihood method to detect patterns in real networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2011-01-01

    In order to detect patterns in real networks, randomized graph ensembles that preserve only part of the topology of an observed network are systematically used as fundamental null models. However, the generation of them is still problematic. Existing approaches are either computationally demanding and beyond analytic control or analytically accessible but highly approximate. Here, we propose a solution to this long-standing problem by introducing a fast method that allows one to obtain expectation values and standard deviations of any topological property analytically, for any binary, weighted, directed or undirected network. Remarkably, the time required to obtain the expectation value of any property analytically across the entire graph ensemble is as short as that required to compute the same property using the adjacency matrix of the single original network. Our method reveals that the null behavior of various correlation properties is different from what was believed previously, and is highly sensitive to the particular network considered. Moreover, our approach shows that important structural properties (such as the modularity used in community detection problems) are currently based on incorrect expressions, and provides the exact quantities that should replace them.

  18. Review on the application of physiological and biomechanical measurement methods in driving fatigue detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Heri Sanjaya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have identified driving fatigue as the main cause of road traffic accidents, therefore, the aim of this literature review is to explore the characteristics of driving fatigue both physically and mentally as well as to explore the technology available to measure the process of fatigue physiologically. We performed e-searching in the field of fatigue detection methods through keywords tracking. The instruments studied have their own strength and weakness, and some are intrusive while the others are non-intrusive. The accuracy and stability of measurements are also varied between those instruments. In order to create more reliable fatigue detection methods, it is necessary to involve more instruments with an inter-disciplinary approach. Our intention is to make this study as a stepping stone for a more comprehensive in-vehicle real-time man-machine interaction study. Such study will not only be useful to prevent traffic accidents but also to bridge man and machine communication in the vehicle control along with developing newer technology in the field of vehicle automation.

  19. Safety assessment and detection method of genetically modified Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea cv. alboglabra ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hui; Lu, Chien-Te; Lin, Hsin-Tang; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2009-03-11

    Sporamins are tuberous storage proteins and account for 80% of soluble protein in sweet potato tubers with trypsin-inhibitory activity. The expression of sporamin protein in transgenic Chinese kale (line BoA 3-1) conferred insecticidal activity toward corn earworm [ Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)] in a previous report. In this study, we present a preliminary safety assessment of transgenic Chinese kale BoA 3-1. Bioinformatic and simulated gastric fluid (SGF) analyses were performed to evaluate the allergenicity of sporamin protein. The substantial equivalence between transgenic Chinese kale and its wild-type host has been demonstrated by the comparison of important constituents. A reliable real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method was also developed to control sample quality. Despite the results of most evaluations in this study being negative, the safety of sporamin in transgenic Chinese kale BoA 3-1 was uncluded because of the allergenic risk revealed by bioinformatic analysis.

  20. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS for Echographic Detection of Hepato Cellular Carcinoma in Cirrhotic Patients Previously Treated with Multiple Techniques: Comparison of Conventional US, Spiral CT and 3-Dimensional CEUS with Navigator Technique (3DNav CEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Giangregorio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A commercially available technique named “NAVIGATOR” (Esaote, Italy easily enables a 3-D reconstruction of a single 2-D acquisition of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS imaging of the whole liver (with a volumetric correction thanks to the electromagnetic device of NAVIGATOR. Aim of the study was to evaluate this “panoramic” technique in comparison with conventional US and spiral CT in the detection of new hepatic lesions. 144 cirrhotic patients (previously treated for hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC in follow-up with detection of 98 new nodules (N, 28 multinodular (Nmulti, 14 loco-regional regrowth (LR 94 efficaciously treated without new nodules (neg and four multinodular without new nodules, were submitted to 200 examinations with this new technique from November 2008 to November 2009. 3DNavCEUS was performed using SonoVue (Bracco, as contrast agent, and a machine (Technos MPX, Esaote. Spiral CT and 3DNav CEUS were performed in the same month during follow up. Sens.,Spec.,diagn.-Acc.,PPV and NPV were evaluated; comparison and differences between the techniques were obtained with chi-square (SPSS release-15. Final diagnosis was: 98 new lesions (N (one to three, 28 multinodular HCC (Nmulti and 14 loco-regional regrowth (LR; in 94 no more lesions were observed during follow-up; conventional US obtained: 58 N (+18 multinodularN and 8 LR, 40 false negative (+10 Nmulti and 6 LR (sens:59.2, spec:100%, Diagn Accur:73.6, PPV:100; NPV:70.1; spiral CT obtained: 84N (+26-multinodularN and 14-LR, 14 false-negative (+2-Nmulti, and one false-positive (sens:85.7, spec:97.9%, Diagn Accur:90.9, PPV:97.7; NPV:86.8; 3DNAV obtained: 92N (+28 multinodularN and 14LR, 6 false-negative, and two false-positives (sens:93.9, spec:97.9%, Diagn Accur:95.6, PPV:97.9; NPV:93.9. 3-DNav CEUS is significantly better than US and almost similar to spiral CT for detection of new HCC. This technique, in particular, showed the presence of lesions even in the cases not

  1. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) for Echographic Detection of Hepato Cellular Carcinoma in Cirrhotic Patients Previously Treated with Multiple Techniques: Comparison of Conventional US, Spiral CT and 3-Dimensional CEUS with Navigator Technique (3DNav CEUS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangregorio, Francesco [Department of Gastroenterology, Guglielmo da Saliceto Hospital, Via Taverna 49, Piacenza 29121 (Italy)

    2011-03-30

    A commercially available technique named “NAVIGATOR” (Esaote, Italy) easily enables a 3-D reconstruction of a single 2-D acquisition of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) imaging of the whole liver (with a volumetric correction thanks to the electromagnetic device of NAVIGATOR). Aim of the study was to evaluate this “panoramic” technique in comparison with conventional US and spiral CT in the detection of new hepatic lesions. 144 cirrhotic patients (previously treated for hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC)) in follow-up with detection of 98 new nodules (N), 28 multinodular (Nmulti), 14 loco-regional regrowth (LR) 94 efficaciously treated without new nodules (neg) and four multinodular without new nodules, were submitted to 200 examinations with this new technique from November 2008 to November 2009. 3DNavCEUS was performed using SonoVue (Bracco), as contrast agent, and a machine (Technos MPX, Esaote). Spiral CT and 3DNav CEUS were performed in the same month during follow up. Sens.,Spec.,diagn.-Acc.,PPV and NPV were evaluated; comparison and differences between the techniques were obtained with chi-square (SPSS release-15). Final diagnosis was: 98 new lesions (N) (one to three), 28 multinodular HCC (Nmulti) and 14 loco-regional regrowth (LR); in 94 no more lesions were observed during follow-up; conventional US obtained: 58 N (+18 multinodularN and 8 LR), 40 false negative (+10 Nmulti and 6 LR) (sens:59.2, spec:100%, Diagn Accur:73.6, PPV:100; NPV:70.1); spiral CT obtained: 84N (+26-multinodularN and 14-LR), 14 false-negative (+2-Nmulti), and one false-positive (sens:85.7, spec:97.9%, Diagn Accur:90.9, PPV:97.7; NPV:86.8); 3DNAV obtained: 92N (+28 multinodularN and 14LR), 6 false-negative, and two false-positives (sens:93.9, spec:97.9%, Diagn Accur:95.6, PPV:97.9; NPV:93.9). 3-DNav CEUS is significantly better than US and almost similar to spiral CT for detection of new HCC. This technique, in particular, showed the presence of lesions even in the cases not

  2. Neutron detection methods based on fission fragment track counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posta, S.

    2004-12-01

    The report deals with the development and application of a simple computer-controlled videomicroscope for fission fragment track counting. The principle of the SSFTD (Solid State Fission Track Detector) method, development of image processing methods, and track counting principles are outlined. Focus is on the application of the method to neutron flux density and fluence determination in reactor dosimetry. The procedures developed were applied to neutron parameter measurements in a VVER-1000 mockup in the LR-0 research reactor. (author)

  3. New method to detect organic nanoparticles in live tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixler, Dror; Yariv, Inbar

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, infiltrating materials into the human body has become a great challenge many researches are facing. In medicine and cosmetics today, there are materials which are administrated to patients by injection only. The main challenge with topical medication is penetrating the skin barrier. The skin is an effective barrier between the body and the outside environment, which prevents foreign materials entering the body easily. However, reducing the size of the desired materials might help their skin penetration ability. Recently nanoparticles (NPs) are being evaluated for use in many fields like chemistry, biology, medicine, physics and optics. The technique used in this work for forming organic NPs (ONPs) is the application of sonic waves to an aqueous solution, known as sonochemistry. To investigate the physical penetration depth of ONPs into the human body, we first developed a novel optical technique for detecting NPs within tissues. The detection of NPs is done by the extraction and investigation of the reemitted light phase.

  4. A Review of Imaging Methods for Prostate Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saradwata Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging is playing an increasingly important role in the detection of prostate cancer (PCa. This review summarizes the key imaging modalities–multiparametric ultrasound (US, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, MRI-US fusion imaging, and positron emission tomography (PET imaging–-used in the diagnosis and localization of PCa. Emphasis is laid on the biological and functional characteristics of tumors that rationalize the use of a specific imaging technique. Changes to anatomical architecture of tissue can be detected by anatomical grayscale US and T2-weighted MRI. Tumors are known to progress through angiogenesis–-a fact exploited by Doppler and contrast-enhanced US and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. The increased cellular density of tumors is targeted by elastography and diffusion-weighted MRI. PET imaging employs several different radionuclides to target the metabolic and cellular activities during tumor growth. Results from studies using these various imaging techniques are discussed and compared.

  5. Linear and kernel methods for multi- and hypervariate change detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Canty, Morton J.

    2010-01-01

    The iteratively re-weighted multivariate alteration detection (IR-MAD) algorithm may be used both for unsuper- vised change detection in multi- and hyperspectral remote sensing imagery as well as for automatic radiometric normalization of multi- or hypervariate multitemporal image sequences...... code exists which allows for fast data exploration and experimentation with smaller datasets. Computationally demanding kernelization of test data with training data and kernel image projections have been programmed to run on massively parallel CUDA-enabled graphics processors, when available, giving....... Principal component analysis (PCA) as well as maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) and minimum noise fraction (MNF) analyses of IR-MAD images, both linear and kernel-based (which are nonlinear), may further enhance change signals relative to no-change background. The kernel versions are based on a dual...

  6. Linear and kernel methods for multivariate change detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, Morton J.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2012-01-01

    The iteratively reweighted multivariate alteration detection (IR-MAD) algorithm may be used both for unsupervised change detection in multi- and hyperspectral remote sensing imagery and for automatic radiometric normalization of multitemporal image sequences. Principal components analysis (PCA......), as well as maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) and minimum noise fraction (MNF) analyses of IR-MAD images, both linear and kernel-based (nonlinear), may further enhance change signals relative to no-change background. IDL (Interactive Data Language) implementations of IR-MAD, automatic radiometric...... normalization, and kernel PCA/MAF/MNF transformations are presented that function as transparent and fully integrated extensions of the ENVI remote sensing image analysis environment. The train/test approach to kernel PCA is evaluated against a Hebbian learning procedure. Matlab code is also available...

  7. chromswitch: A flexible method to detect chromatin state switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessa, Selin; Kleinman, Claudia L

    2018-02-09

    Chromatin state plays a major role in controlling gene expression, and comparative analysis of ChIP-seq data is key to understanding epigenetic regulation. We present chromswitch, an R/Bioconductor package to integrate epigenomic data in a defined window of interest to detect an overall switch in chromatin state. Chromswitch accurately classifies a benchmarking dataset, and when applied genome-wide, the tool successfully detects chromatin changes that result in brain-specific expression. Chromswitch is implemented as an R package available from Bioconductor at https://bioconductor.org/packages/chromswitch. claudia.kleinman@mcgill.ca. Supplementary material are available online. All data and code for the analysis presented in this paper are available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1101260.

  8. A Study of Rootkit Stealth Techniques and Associated Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    AVG AntiRootkit(Grisoft), Avira Rootkit Detection(Avira), Dark Spy(CardMagic and Wowocock), Helios( MIEL e-Security), HiddenFinder(Wenpoint...o m p le x it y a n d d if fi c u lt y t o c re a te /m o d if y Figure 4.2: Rootkit Hierarchy 53 4.3 Rootkit Defense Tree A defense tree is the

  9. 4. German conference on food irradiation. Assessment - methods - detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockmann, A.; Erning, D.; Helle, N.; Schreiber, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    The fourth German Conference on Food Irradiation was held from 6th through 7th April 1994. Some seventy participants from the industry, scientific research, consumer organizations and supervising authorities discussed the pros and cons of the procedure and updated themselves on the latest governmental regulations, irradiation techniques, possibilities of detecting irradiated food and the results of official supervisory measures. The papers read at the meeting are summarized in this volume. (orig./vhe) [de

  10. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia Coli Bacteria from Reflected Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light and a method of detecting Eschericha Coli bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  11. An efficient and rapid method for protein detection with an example ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The CMW method has similar detection capabilities as the conventional CBB method. However, compared with the CBB protocol, it did not produce pungent odors, and was more efficient and rapid, which saved more than 4 to 10 h. This method is an acceptable alternative for the preliminary detection of protein expression.

  12. A Soft Shadow Detection Method Based on MRF for Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengwei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shadows limit many remote sensing applications such as classification, target detection, and change detection. Most current shadow detection methods utilize the histogram threshold of spectral characteristics to distinguish the shadows and nonshadows directly, called “hard binary shadow.” Obviously, the performance of threshold-based methods heavily rely on the selected threshold. Simultaneously, these threshold-based methods do not take any spatial information into account. To overcome these shortcomings, a soft shadow description method is developed by introducing the concept of opacity into shadow detection, and MRF-based shadow detection method is proposed in order to make use of neighborhood information. Experiments on remote sensing images have shown that the proposed method can obtain more accurate detection results.

  13. Objective Methods for Reliable Detection of Concealed Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia eSolomon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that it is possible to automatically detect clinical depression from audio-visual recordings. Before considering integration in a clinical pathway, a key question that must be asked is whether such systems can be easily fooled. This work explores the potential of acoustic features to detect clinical depression in adults both when acting normally and when asked to conceal their depression. Nine adults diagnosed with mild to moderate depression as per the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 were asked a series of questions and to read a excerpt from a novel aloud under two different experimental conditions. In one, participants were asked to act naturally and in the other, to suppress anything that they felt would be indicative of their depression. Acoustic features were then extracted from this data and analysed using paired t-tests to determine any statistically significant differences between healthy and depressed participants. Most features that were found to be significantly different during normal behaviour remained so during concealed behaviour. In leave-one-subject-out automatic classification studies of the 9 depressed subjects and 8 matched healthy controls, an 88% classification accuracy and 89% sensitivity was achieved. Results remained relatively robust during concealed behaviour, with classifiers trained on only non-concealed data achieving 81% detection accuracy and 75% sensitivity when tested on concealed data. These results indicate there is good potential to build deception-proof automatic depression monitoring systems.

  14. Detecting anthropogenic climate change with an optimal fingerprint method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegerl, G.C.; Storch, H. von; Hasselmann, K.; Santer, B.D.; Jones, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a general fingerprint strategy to detect anthropogenic climate change and present application to near surface temperature trends. An expected time-space-variable pattern of anthropogenic climate change (the 'signal') is identified through application of an appropriate optimally matched space-time filter (the 'fingerprint') to the observations. The signal and the fingerprint are represented in a space with sufficient observed and simulated data. The signal pattern is derived from a model-generated prediction of anthropogenic climate change. Application of the fingerprint filter to the data yields a scalar detection variable. The statistically optimal fingerprint is obtained by weighting the model-predicted pattern towards low-noise directions. A combination of model output and observations is used to estimate the noise characteristics of the detection variable, arising from the natural variability of climate in the absence of external forcing. We test then the null hypothesis that the observed climate change is part of natural climate variability. We conclude that a statistically significant externally induced warming has been observed, with the caveat of a possibly inadequate estimate of the internal climate variability. In order to attribute this warming uniquely to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing, more information on the climate's response to other forcing mechanisms (e.g. changes in solar radiation, volcanic or anthropogenic aerosols) and their interaction is needed. (orig./KW)

  15. A Comparison of Methods for Detecting Differential Distractor Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the odds-ratio method (Penfield, 2008) and the multinomial logistic regression method (Kato, Moen, & Thurlow, 2009) for measuring differential distractor functioning (DDF) effects in comparison to the standardized distractor analysis approach (Schmitt & Bleistein, 1987). Students classified as participating…

  16. Gel Electrophoresis and Fluorescamine Methods for the Detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the fluorescamine method, clarification was achieved by isoelectric precipitation and precipitation with acid to obtain pH 4.6 and 6% TCA soluble extracts respectively. Non-clarified samples were used for gel electrophoresis. Both methods confirmed that raw milk and milk processed at 85/15s were the most proteolysed, ...

  17. Method of detecting and counting bacteria in body fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A novel method is reported for determining bacterial levels in urine samples, which method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of non-bacterial ATP. After the removal of non-bacterial ATP, the bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay using an enzyme obtained from the firefly.

  18. Immunological and molecular diagnostic methods for detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immuno-diagnostic and moleculardiagnostic methods have shown great potential as far as specificity and sensitivity are concerned and can generate accurate results rapidly. The aim of this overview is to discuss the various immunodiagnostic and molecular diagnostic methods such as enzymes linked immunosorbent ...

  19. A method for the detection of proteolytic enzymes in electropherograms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venrooij, W.J.W. van

    As has been described earlier, it is possible to localize amylase on agar electropherograms exactly and with great sensitivity with the help of a "sandwich method". This method is generally applicable to enzymes, the substrates of which can be differentiated from their degradation products by

  20. Comparative study on 4 quantitative detection methods of apoptosis induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yepeng; Chen Guanying; Zhou Mei; Shen Qinjian; Shen Lei; Zhu Yingbao

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To reveal the capability of 4 apoptosis-detecting methods to discriminate between apoptosis and necrosis and show their respective advantages and shortcomings through comparison of detected results and analysis of detection mechanism. Methods: Four methods, PI staining-flow cytometric detection (P-F method), TUNEL labeling-flow cytometric detection (T-F method), annexing V-FITC/PI vital staining-flow cytometric detection (A-F method) and Hoechst/PI vital staining-fluorescence microscopic observation (H-O method), were used to determine apoptosis and necrosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cell line induced by γ-rays. Hydroxycamptothecine and sodium azide were used to induce positive controls of apoptosis and necrosis respectively. Results: All 4 methods showed good time-dependent and dose dependent respondence to apoptosis induced by γ-rays and hydroxycamptothecine. Apoptotic cell ratios and curve slopes obtained from P-F method were minimum and, on the contrary, those from T-F method were maximum among these 4 methods. With A-F method and H-O method, two sets of data, apoptosis and necrosis, could be gained respectively and the data gained from these two methods were close to equal. A-F method and H-O method could distinguish necrosis induced by sodium azide from apoptosis while P-F method and T-F method presented false increase of apoptosis. Conclusions: P-F method and T-F method can not discriminate between apoptosis and necrosis. P-F method is less sensitive but more simple, convenient and economical than T-F method. A-F method and H-O method can distinguish necrosis from apoptosis. A-F method is more costly but more quick and reliable than H-O method. H-O method is economical, practical and morphological changes of cells and nucleus can be observed simultaneously with it. (authors)