WorldWideScience

Sample records for previous design philosophies

  1. Philosophy of Design: An Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2007-01-01

    The relatively young field of research known as ‘the philosophy of design’ is briefly presented, by asking on behalf of the reader what the philosophy of design is about, and what its use may be.......The relatively young field of research known as ‘the philosophy of design’ is briefly presented, by asking on behalf of the reader what the philosophy of design is about, and what its use may be....

  2. Design philosophy of PFBR shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan Babu, V.; Vijayashree, R.; Govindarajan, S.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Muralikrishna, G.; Shanmugam, T.K.; Chetal, S.C.; Raghavan, K.; Bhoje, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the overall design philosophy of shutdown system of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). It discusses design criteria, parameters calling for safety action, different safety actions and the concepts conceived for shutdown systems. In tune with the philosophy of defence-in-depth, additional passive shutdown features, viz., Self Actuating Device (SADE) and Curie Point Magnetic (CPM) switch and protective feature like absorber rod Stroke Limiting Device (SLD) are contemplated. It also discusses about suitability of Gas Expansion Module (GEM) as one of the safety devices in PFBR. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  3. Safety design philosophy of Mitsubishi PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakata, T.; Kitamura, T.

    1993-01-01

    The basic safety design philosophy of Mitsubishi pressurized water reactors (PWRs) is discussed and compared with the British PWR. PWR plants are designed in accordance with the Japanese regulatory guidelines which are similar to American and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety criteria and are based on defence-in-depth principles. The high reliability of nuclear power plants is especially emphasized in Mitsubishi PWRs, and this has been demonstrated by the good operating experience of PWR plants in Japan. The safety system designs of six key items, which were discussed in the recent review of overseas designs by British utilities, are addressed to show the difference in the design philosophy between the United Kingdom and Japan. (Author)

  4. CNG Fuelling Stations Design Philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, H.

    2004-01-01

    I. Overview (a) Compressed Natural Gas - CNG:- Natural Gas, as an alternative fuel for vehicles, is supplied from the Natural Gas Distribution Network to the CNG fuelling stations to be compressed to 250 bars. It is then dispensed, to be stored on board of the vehicle at about 200 bars in a cylinder installed in the rear, under carriage, or on top of the vehicle. When the Natural Gas is required by the engine, it leaves the cylinder traveling through a high pressure pipe to a high pressure regulator, where the pressure is reduced close to atmospheric pressure, through a specially designed mixer, where it is properly mixed with air. The mixture then flows into the engine's combustion chamber, and is ignited to create the power required to drive the vehicle. (b) CNG Fuelling Stations General Description: as Supply and Metering The incoming gas supply and metering installation primarily depend on the pressure and flow demands of the gas compressor. Natural Gas Compressor In general, gas compressors for natural gas filling stations have relatively low flow rates

  5. Douglas flight deck design philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldale, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The systems experience gained from 17 years of DC-10 operation was used during the design of the MD-11 to automate system operation and reduce crew workload. All functions, from preflight to shutdown at the termination of flight, require little input from the crew. The MD-11 aircraft systems are monitored for proper operation by the Aircraft Systems Controllers (ASC). In most cases, system reconfiguration as a result of a malfunction is automated. Manual input is required for irreversible actions such as engine shutdown, fuel dump, fire agent discharge, or Integrated Drive Generator (IDG) disconnect. During normal operations, when the cockpit is configured for flight, all annunciators on the overhead panel will be extinguished. This Dark Cockpit immediately confirms to the crew that the panels are correctly configured and that no abnormalities are present. Primary systems annunciations are shown in text on the Alert Area of the Engine and Alert Display (EAD). This eliminates the need to scan the overhead. The MD-11 aircraft systems can be manually controlled from the overhead area of the cockpit. The center portion of the overhead panel is composed of the primary aircraft systems panels, which include FUEL, AIR, Electrical (ELEC) and Hydraulic (HYD) systems, which are easily accessible from both flight crew positions. Each Aircraft Systems Controller (ASC) has two automatic channels and a manual mode. All rectangular lights are annunciators. All square lights are combined switches and annunciators called switch/lights. Red switch/lights on the overhead (Level 3 alerts) are for conditions requiring immediate crew action. Amber (Level 2 or Level 1 alerts) indicates a fault or switch out of position requiring awareness or crew interaction. Overhead switches used in normal operating conditions will illuminate blue when in use (Level 0 alerts) such as WING ANTI-ICE - ON. An overhead switch/light with BLACK LETTERING on an amber or red background indicates a system

  6. Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mind~body problem, in its most radical formulation, occurs only in Western philosophy and thinking. In many ways, this formulated problematic is the impetus for and foundation of psychology. The mind-body problem has its philosophical roots in Greek philosophy, especially in the thinking of Socrates and Plato, and ...

  7. Philosophy of parametric design in interactive architecture framework

    OpenAIRE

    Boychenko K.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the parametric design as a new trend not only in the design of technology but as a new approach to development philosophy of architectural elements from the point of view of interactive design. With the entry into the era of modern information technology available to architects, new design tools to create unique objects and to minimise the effort and time that the task, the process from design to determine the behaviour and characteristics of the existing buildings has ...

  8. Engineering Antifragile Systems: A Change In Design Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kennie H.

    2014-01-01

    While technology has made astounding advances in the last century, problems are confronting the engineering community that must be solved. Cost and schedule of producing large systems are increasing at an unsustainable rate and these systems often do not perform as intended. New systems are required that may not be achieved by current methods. To solve these problems, NASA is working to infuse concepts from Complexity Science into the engineering process. Some of these problems may be solved by a change in design philosophy. Instead of designing systems to meet known requirements that will always lead to fragile systems at some degree, systems should be designed wherever possible to be antifragile: designing cognitive cyberphysical systems that can learn from their experience, adapt to unforeseen events they face in their environment, and grow stronger in the face of adversity. Several examples are presented of on ongoing research efforts to employ this philosophy.

  9. A philosophy for CNS radiotracer design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Bittner, Genevieve C; Ricq, Emily L; Hooker, Jacob M

    2014-10-21

    Decades after its discovery, positron emission tomography (PET) remains the premier tool for imaging neurochemistry in living humans. Technological improvements in radiolabeling methods, camera design, and image analysis have kept PET in the forefront. In addition, the use of PET imaging has expanded because researchers have developed new radiotracers that visualize receptors, transporters, enzymes, and other molecular targets within the human brain. However, of the thousands of proteins in the central nervous system (CNS), researchers have successfully imaged fewer than 40 human proteins. To address the critical need for new radiotracers, this Account expounds on the decisions, strategies, and pitfalls of CNS radiotracer development based on our current experience in this area. We discuss the five key components of radiotracer development for human imaging: choosing a biomedical question, selection of a biological target, design of the radiotracer chemical structure, evaluation of candidate radiotracers, and analysis of preclinical imaging. It is particularly important to analyze the market of scientists or companies who might use a new radiotracer and carefully select a relevant biomedical question(s) for that audience. In the selection of a specific biological target, we emphasize how target localization and identity can constrain this process and discuss the optimal target density and affinity ratios needed for binding-based radiotracers. In addition, we discuss various PET test-retest variability requirements for monitoring changes in density, occupancy, or functionality for new radiotracers. In the synthesis of new radiotracer structures, high-throughput, modular syntheses have proved valuable, and these processes provide compounds with sites for late-stage radioisotope installation. As a result, researchers can manage the time constraints associated with the limited half-lives of isotopes. In order to evaluate brain uptake, a number of methods are available

  10. Philosophy of design for low cost and high reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1996-01-01

    The Ørsted Star Imager or Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), includes the full functionallity of a traditional star tracker plus autonomy, i.e. it is able to quickly and autonomously solve "the lost in space" attitude problem, and determine its attitude with high precision. The design also provides......, Computational speed and Fault detection and recovery substantially. The high performance and low cost design was realized by the use of advanced high level integrated chips, along with a design philosophy of maximum autonomy at all levels. This approach necessitated the use of a prototyping facility which could...... and process are described, starting with the system specifications and its derived design drivers, through the design process and its iterations, including the specification, design and capability of the prototyping facility, and ending with the final system design. The rationale for IC-level selection...

  11. NASA balloon design and flight - Philosophy and criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, I. S., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA philosophy and criteria for the design and flight of scientific balloons are set forth and discussed. The thickness of balloon films is standardized at 20.3 microns to isolate potential film problems, and design equations are given for specific balloon parameters. Expressions are given for: flight-stress index, total required thickness, cap length, load-tape rating, and venting-duct area. The balloon design criteria were used in the design of scientific balloons under NASA auspices since 1986, and the resulting designs are shown to be 95 percent effective. These results represent a significant increase in the effectiveness of the balloons and therefore indicate that the design criteria are valuable. The criteria are applicable to four balloon volume classes in combination with seven payload ranges.

  12. Philosophy for seismic design of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramae, Tetsuo

    1981-01-01

    In Japan, earthquakes occur frequently, therefore the basic philosophy in the aseismatic design of nuclear facilities is to design so as not to cause the accident which gives to the public in the surroundings and the employes radiation injuries in the case of large earthquakes. The ''Guideline for the aseismatic design techniques for nuclear power stations'' was drawn up in 1970 as the result of studies by related government offices and organizations. The guideline for determining the earthquakes used for design was published later, and the allowable stress for equipments and pipings has been adopted in accordance with ASME Code, Section 3. The buildings and structures, equipments and pipings in nuclear facilities are classified into three classes according to their importance in aseismatic design. The power of design earthquakes is determined corresponding to the degree of importance. The determination of the standard earthquake waves is explained. The proprieth of aseismatic design is evaluated on the basis of the basic concept of the combination of loads and the allowable limit. The static analysis in accordance with the Building Standards Act is applied to the B and C classes, while the dynamic analysis is required for the A class. The aseismatic analysis of buildings and structures, equipments and pipings is outlined. Many problems to be solved still remain though the concept of aseismatic design has been clarified. (Kako, I.)

  13. A performance goal-based seismic design philosophy for waste repository facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Q.A.

    1994-02-01

    A performance goal-based seismic design philosophy, compatible with DOE's present natural phenomena hazards mitigation and ''graded approach'' philosophy, has been proposed for high level nuclear waste repository facilities. The rationale, evolution, and the desirable features of this method have been described. Why and how the method should and can be applied to the design of a repository facility are also discussed

  14. Basic philosophy of the safety design of the Toshiba boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the safety design of the Toshiba Boiling Water Reactor (TOSBWR) which was created ∼8 years ago. The design concept is intermediate between conventional boiling water reactors (BWRs) and the advanced BWR (ABWR). It utilizes internal pumps and fine motion control rod drive, but the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) configuration is different from both conventional BWRs and the ABWR. The plant output is 1350 MW (electric). The design is based on two important philosophies: the positive cost reduction philosophy and the constant risk philosophy

  15. Optimization of hydraulic machinery by exploiting previous successful designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, S A; Giannakoglou, K C [National Technical University of Athens, Parallel CFD and Optimization Unit, PO Box 64069, Athens 15710 (Greece); Weissenberger, S; Grafenberger, P, E-mail: stelios.Kyriacou@gmail.co [Andritz HYDRO, RD, Lunzerstrasse 78, 4031 Linz (Austria)

    2010-08-15

    A design-optimization method for hydraulic machinery is proposed. Optimal designs are obtained using the appropriate CFD evaluation software driven by an evolutionary algorithm which is also assisted by artificial neural networks used as surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. As shown in a previous IAHR paper by the same authors, such an optimization method substantially reduces the CPU cost, since the metamodels can discard numerous non-promising candidate solutions generated during the evolution, at almost negligible CPU cost, without evaluating them by means of the costly CFD tool. The present paper extends the optimization method of the previous paper by making it capable to accommodate and exploit pieces of useful information archived during previous relevant successful designs. So, instead of parameterizing the geometry of the hydraulic machine components, which inevitably leads to many design variables, enough to slow down the design procedure, in the proposed method all new designs are expressed as weighted combinations of the archived ones. The archived designs act as the design space bases. The role of the optimization algorithms is to find the set (or sets, for more than one objectives, where the Pareto front of non-dominated solutions is sought) of weight values, corresponding to the hydraulic machine configuration(s) with optimal performance. Since the number of weights is much less that the number of design variables of the conventional shape parameterization, the design space dimension reduces and the CPU cost of the metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithm is much lower. The design of a Francis runner is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method.

  16. A performance goal-based seismic design philosophy for waste repository facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Q.A.

    1994-01-01

    A performance goal-based seismic design philosophy, compatible with DOE's present natural phenomena hazards mitigation and open-quotes graded approachclose quotes philosophy, has been proposed for high level nuclear waste repository facilities. The rationale, evolution, and the desirable features of this method have been described. Why and how the method should and can be applied to the design of a repository facility are also discussed

  17. Safety design philosophy of gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katanishi, Shoji; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing design studies of the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor (GTHTR300). The original safety design philosophy has also been discussed and fixed for the GTHTR300. One of the unique feature of the safety philosophy of the GTHTR300 is that a depressurization accident is postulated as a design basis accident in order to show the high level of safety characteristics, though its probability of occurrence is much lower than the probability range of design basis accident. Another feature of safety design is to adopt a double confinement that is one of the original concepts for the GTHTR300. By using a double confinement, a feasibility of safety design without containment vessel was clarified even in case of a depressurization accident. This article describes the safety design philosophy and some results of preliminary evaluations which were conducted in order to clarify the feasibility of original safety design of the GTHTR300. (author)

  18. Design process and philosophy of TVA's latest advance control room complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, G.R.; Masters, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    TVA's latest nuclear power plant control room design includes a greater emphasis on human factors as compared to their earlier plant designs. This emphasis has resulted in changes in the overall design philosophy and design process. This paper discusses some of the prominent design features of both the control room and the surrounding control room complex. In addition, it also presents some of the important activities involved in the process of developing the advanced control room design

  19. Safety design philosophy of gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katanishi, Shoji; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been developing design studies of the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor (GTHTR300). The original safety design philosophy has also been discussed and fixed for the GTHTR300 based on the experience of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) of JAERI which is the first High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in Japan. One of the unique feature of the safety philosophy of the GTHTR300 is that a depressurization accident induced by a large pipe break is postulated as a design basis accident in order to show the high level of safety characteristics, though its probability of occurrence is lower than the probability range of design basis accident. Another feature of safety design is to adopt a double confinement that is one of the original concepts for the GTHTR300. By using a double confinement, a feasibility of safety design without containment vessel was clarified even in case of the depressurization accident. The safety design philosophies for passive cooling system, reactor shutdown system, and so on were determined. The methodology for the safety evaluation, such as safety criteria and selection of events to be evaluated by using estimation of probability of occurrence, were also discussed and determined. This article describes the safety design philosophy and some results of preliminary evaluations which were conducted in order to clarify the feasibility of original safety design of the GTHTR300. The present study is entrusted from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. (author)

  20. Self-Knowledge by Proxy: Parsons on Philosophy of Design and the Modernist Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Galle

    Full Text Available Glenn Parsons’s 2016 work, The Philosophy of Design, looks deeply at design in general, and at the Modernist approach to design in particular. The book would make an excellent textbook, but one could equally treat it as a research monograph. This article provides a detailed review of the book as a contribution to design research. The author’s efforts are original and commendable, although the work is not entirely immune to disagreement. The article highlights the main line of reasoning to guide future readers, and develops a number of considerations. These include a reflection on the feasibility of Modernist design thinking, some background on the nature and origins of the philosophy of design as a discipline, a defense of the notion of a stable essence of the concept of design, and a critical analysis of Parsons’s definition of design.

  1. Philosophy of design for low cost and high reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1996-01-01

    The Ørsted Star Imager or Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), includes the full functionallity of a traditional star tracker plus autonomy, i.e. it is able to quickly and autonomously solve "the lost in space" attitude problem, and determine its attitude with high precision. The design also provides...... robust error rejection and fault recovery, as well as graceful radiation induced, false object and thermal load degradation. The instrument was developed from concept to flight model within 3 years. The instrument surpasses the initial specifications for all design parameters. For Precision...... and process are described, starting with the system specifications and its derived design drivers, through the design process and its iterations, including the specification, design and capability of the prototyping facility, and ending with the final system design. The rationale for IC-level selection...

  2. Control room philosophy: Principles of control room design and control room work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skriver, Jan; Ramberg, Jasmine; Allwin, Pernilla

    2006-01-01

    In order to provide insights for improvement of work in control rooms several factors have to be considered. Knowledge of principles including control room philosophies will guide the recommended improvements. In addition to knowledge about specific principles an advantage for an organization can be an understanding of similarities and policies used in other high risk industry. The report has been developed on the basis of a document analysis of international standards and other guiding documents. (NUREG 0711, ISO 11064, ISO 6385, IEC 60964). In addition to the document analysis which has strived to compare the documents to see similarities in important principals, experience from working with control room design, modifications and evaluations in other high risk industries has pervaded the report. Important principles have been identified which are recommended to be included in a control room philosophy. Many of these are similar to the principles identified in the international standards. An additional principal which is regarded as important is the utilization of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) which can be used as a measure to target preventative means. Further more it is critical that the control room philosophy is easy to access and comprehend for all users. One of the challenges that remain after having developed a control room philosophy is how to utilize it in the daily work situation. It is vital that the document remains as a living document, guiding the continual improvement of the control room in the various life cycle stages

  3. Safety philosophy and design principles for systems and components of nuclear power plant: external event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, J.P.G.

    1986-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, some systems and components are designed to withstand external impacts. Such systems and components are those which have to perform their functions even during and after the occurrences of an earthquake, for example, fulfilling the safety objectives and avoiding the release of radioactive material to the environment. The aim of this report is to introduce the safety philosophy and design principles for systems/components to perform their functions during and after the occurrence of an earthquake, as applied by NUCLEN for Angra 2 and 3. (Author) [pt

  4. Design of vibratory energy harvesters under stochastic parametric uncertainty: a new optimization philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinloo, Ashkan Haji; Turitsyn, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Vibratory energy harvesters as potential replacements for conventional batteries are not as robust as batteries. Their performance can drastically deteriorate in the presence of uncertainty in their parameters. Parametric uncertainty is inevitable with any physical device mainly due to manufacturing tolerances, defects, and environmental effects such as temperature and humidity. Hence, uncertainty propagation analysis and optimization under uncertainty seem indispensable with any energy harvester design. Here we propose a new modeling philosophy for optimization under uncertainty; optimization for the worst-case scenario (minimum power) rather than for the ensemble expectation of the power. The proposed optimization philosophy is practically very useful when there is a minimum requirement on the harvested power. We formulate the problems of uncertainty propagation and optimization under uncertainty in a generic and architecture-independent fashion, and then apply them to a single-degree-of-freedom linear piezoelectric energy harvester with uncertainty in its different parameters. The simulation results show that there is a significant improvement in the worst-case power of the designed harvester compared to that of a naively optimized (deterministically optimized) harvester. For instance, for a 10% uncertainty in the natural frequency of the harvester (in terms of its standard deviation) this improvement is about 570%. (paper)

  5. Damage-tolerant design and inspection philosophy for nuclear and other pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, N.J.I.

    1980-01-01

    Statistical analyses of pressure vessel failure rates indicate that, to date, the record is very good. However, the public hazard and environmental consequences of failure in certain industrial processes now give cause for much greater concern. With the exception of an Appendix in ASME III, the current design codes and requirements for new vessels are all based on the assumption that they are free from cracklike defects, but engineers recognize tht such perfect vessels cannot be manufactured. Taking into account failure mechanisms, material properties, pre- and in-service inspection, proof testing, failure statistics and probabilistic methods, views are put forward on how a damage-tolerant design and inspection philosophy may be developed to reduce further the possibility of ''rogue'' vessel failure. 21 refs

  6. Novel Approaches to Manipulating Bacterial Pathogen Biofilms: Whole-Systems Design Philosophy and Steering Microbial Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Alexandra S

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and manipulating bacterial biofilms is crucial in medicine, ecology and agriculture and has potential applications in bioproduction, bioremediation and bioenergy. Biofilms often resist standard therapies and the need to develop new means of intervention provides an opportunity to fundamentally rethink our strategies. Conventional approaches to working with biological systems are, for the most part, "brute force", attempting to effect control in an input and effort intensive manner and are often insufficient when dealing with the inherent non-linearity and complexity of living systems. Biological systems, by their very nature, are dynamic, adaptive and resilient and require management tools that interact with dynamic processes rather than inert artefacts. I present an overview of a novel engineering philosophy which aims to exploit rather than fight those properties, and hence provide a more efficient and robust alternative. Based on a combination of evolutionary theory and whole-systems design, its essence is what I will call systems aikido; the basic principle of aikido being to interact with the momentum of an attacker and redirect it with minimal energy expenditure, using the opponent's energy rather than one's own. In more conventional terms, this translates to a philosophy of equilibrium engineering, manipulating systems' own self-organisation and evolution so that the evolutionarily or dynamically stable state corresponds to a function which we require. I illustrate these ideas with a description of a proposed manipulation of environmental conditions to alter the stability of co-operation in the context of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infection of the cystic fibrosis lung.

  7. Fundamental philosophy on the safety design of the HTTR-IS hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Kazutaka; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2007-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting an R and D work on the VHTR reactor system and IS hydrogen production system to realize hydrogen production using nuclear heat. As a part of this activity, JAEA is planning to connect an IS test system to the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) to demonstrate its technical feasibility. This paper proposes a fundamental philosophy on the safety design of the HTTR-IS hydrogen production system including the methodology to select postulated abnormal events and its event sequences and to define safety functions of the IS system to ensure the reactor safety. Also the measure to clarify the IS system as non-reactor system is proposed. (author)

  8. Using the Design for Demise Philosophy to Reduce Casualty Risk Due to Reentering Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Recently the reentry of a number of vehicles has garnered public attention due to their risk of human casualty due to fragments surviving reentry. In order to minimize this risk for their vehicles, a number of NASA programs have actively sought to minimize the number of components likely to survive reentry at the end of their spacecraft's life in order to meet and/or exceed NASA safety standards for controlled and uncontrolled reentering vehicles. This philosophy, referred to as "Design for Demise" or D4D, has steadily been adopted, to at least some degree, by numerous programs. The result is that many programs are requesting evaluations of components at the early stages of vehicle design, as they strive to find ways to reduce the number surviving components while ensuring that the components meet the performance requirements of their mission. This paper will discuss some of the methods that have been employed to ensure that the consequences of the vehicle s end-of-life are considered at the beginning of the design process. In addition this paper will discuss the technical challenges overcome, as well as some of the more creative solutions which have been utilized to reduce casualty risk.

  9. Problem-Centered Design and Personal Teaching Style: An Exploratory Study of Youguang Tu's Course on Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hongde

    2016-01-01

    Youguang Tu is a contemporary Chinese philosopher of education. His course on philosophy of education had a significant impact on his students. This exploratory study examines how Tu designed and taught this course. Ultimately, there are two reasons why Tu's course had such a significant influence on his students. The first is that Tu used…

  10. Developing a computer-based environment for the design of nuclear power plants: a perspective and philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brey, H.; Kisner, R.A.

    1985-08-01

    This report surveys the usefulness and general design requirements for a large-scale database and database manager for design and analysis of nuclear power plant control systems. The control engineer's and systems integrator's need for timely, accurate, and searchable information for advanced control system design increases with competitive economics and stringent reliability demands. A philosophy is conveyed for the implementation of an integrated, comprehensive database system

  11. Safety design philosophy of the ABWR for the next generation LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takashi; Akinaga, Makoto; Kojima, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents safety design philosophy of the advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) to be reflected in developing the next generation light water reactors (LWRs). The basic policy of the ABWR safety design was to improve safety and reduce cost simultaneously by reflecting lessons learned of precursors, incidents and accidents that were beyond the design basis such as the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI 2) accident. The ABWR is a fully active safety plant. The ABWR enhanced redundancy and diversity of active safety systems using probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) insights. It adopted a complete three division active emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and attained a very low core damage frequency (CDF) value of less than 10 -7 /ry for internal events. Only very small residual risks, if any, rather exist in external events such as an extremely large earthquake beyond the design basis. This is because external events can constitute a common cause that disables all the redundant active safety systems. Therefore, it is useless to add one more ECCS train and make a four division active ECCS for external events. Nowadays, however, fully passive safety LWRs are already established. Incorporating some of these passive safety systems we can also establish the next generation LWRs that are truly strong against external events. We can establish a plant that can survive a giant earthquake at least three days without AC power source, SA proof safety design that enables no containment failure and no evacuation to eliminate the residual risks. The same basic policy as the ABWR to improve safety and reduce cost simultaneously is again effective for the next generation LWRs. (author)

  12. Gaming with Teaching Philosophies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Christiansen, Birgitte Lund; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    teaching philosophies in a collective process. The perspectives of introducing such methods are to support a team-oriented approach to teaching and to strengthen communities of practice (Wenger 2008)/ communities of learning among teachers. So how can we do this? The authors have conceived and designed......, among directors of Bachelor of Engineering programmes, and at an international conference. Based on our experiences, we have identified a number of possible scenarios where the game can be used: • Participants in a teachers’ training course. Purpose: to clarify and articulate own teaching philosophy......-on session, which is a revised version of a previous workshop, we will introduce the ideas and intentions of the game and guide the participants in playing the game. Ample time will be given for individual reflection and collective discussion of identified values and approaches to teaching and the general...

  13. Developing an Integrated Design Model Incorporating Technology Philosophy for the Design of Healthcare Environments: A Case Analysis of Facilities for Psychogeriatric and Psychiatric Care in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Hoof; M.J. Verkerk

    2013-01-01

    van Hoof, J., Verkerk, M.J. (2013) Developing an Integrated Design Model Incorporating Technology Philosophy for the Design of Healthcare Environments: A Case Analysis of Facilities for Psychogeriatric and Psychiatric Care in The Netherlands. Technology in Society 35(1):1-13

  14. 76 FR 59488 - Addition to the Identifying Information for an Individual Previously Designated Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... information for the following individual who was previously designated pursuant to the Order: GRAJALES PUENTES...; Cedula No. 52455790 (Colombia) (individual) [SDNT] The listing now appears as follows: GRAJALES PUENTES...

  15. South African Journal of Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Journal of Philosophy publishes original contributions (articles, discussions of articles previously published, review articles and book reviews) within any field of philosophy. The South African Journal of Philosophy is indexed in The Philosopher's Index, Current Contents/Arts & Humanities, IBZ & IBR, Bio ...

  16. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de

    1961-01-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs

  17. Experimental philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, Joshua; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun; Robbins, Philip; Sarkissian, Hagop; Sommers, Tamler

    2012-01-01

    Experimental philosophy is a new interdisciplinary field that uses methods normally associated with psychology to investigate questions normally associated with philosophy. The present review focuses on research in experimental philosophy on four central questions. First, why is it that people's moral judgments appear to influence their intuitions about seemingly nonmoral questions? Second, do people think that moral questions have objective answers, or do they see morality as fundamentally relative? Third, do people believe in free will, and do they see free will as compatible with determinism? Fourth, how do people determine whether an entity is conscious?

  18. Pilot opinions on high level flight deck automation issues: Toward the development of a design philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Yvette J.; Rogers, William H.; Pew, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    There has been much concern in recent years about the rapid increase in automation on commercial flight decks. The survey was composed of three major sections. The first section asked pilots to rate different automation components that exist on the latest commercial aircraft regarding their obtrusiveness and the attention and effort required in using them. The second section addressed general 'automation philosophy' issues. The third section focused on issues related to levels and amount of automation. The results indicate that pilots of advanced aircraft like their automation, use it, and would welcome more automation. However, they also believe that automation has many disadvantages, especially fully autonomous automation. They want their automation to be simple and reliable and to produce predictable results. The biggest needs for higher levels of automation were in pre-flight, communication, systems management, and task management functions, planning as well as response tasks, and high workload situations. There is an irony and a challenge in the implications of these findings. On the one hand pilots would like new automation to be simple and reliable, but they need it to support the most complex part of the job--managing and planning tasks in high workload situations.

  19. JPL Thermal Design Modeling Philosophy and NASA-STD-7009 Standard for Models and Simulations - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    The Standard JPL thermal engineering practice prescribes worst-case methodologies for design. In this process, environmental and key uncertain thermal parameters (e.g., thermal blanket performance, interface conductance, optical properties) are stacked in a worst case fashion to yield the most hot- or cold-biased temperature. Thus, these simulations would represent the upper and lower bounds. This, effectively, represents JPL thermal design margin philosophy. Uncertainty in the margins and the absolute temperatures is usually estimated by sensitivity analyses and/or by comparing the worst-case results with "expected" results. Applicability of the analytical model for specific design purposes along with any temperature requirement violations are documented in peer and project design review material. In 2008, NASA released NASA-STD-7009, Standard for Models and Simulations. The scope of this standard covers the development and maintenance of models, the operation of simulations, the analysis of the results, training, recommended practices, the assessment of the Modeling and Simulation (M&S) credibility, and the reporting of the M&S results. The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project thermal control system M&S activity was chosen as a case study determining whether JPL practice is in line with the standard and to identify areas of non-compliance. This paper summarizes the results and makes recommendations regarding the application of this standard to JPL thermal M&S practices.

  20. A proposal for safety design philosophy of HTGR for coupling hydrogen production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Tazawa, Yujiro; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2013-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting research and development for hydrogen production utilizing heat from High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). Towards the realization of nuclear hydrogen production, coupled hydrogen production plants should not be treated as an extension of a nuclear plant in order to open the door for the entry of non-nuclear industries as well as assuring reactor safety against postulated abnormal events initiated in the hydrogen production plants. Since hydrogen production plant utilizing nuclear heat has never been built in the world, little attention has been given to the establishment of a safety design for such system including the High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). In the present study, requirements in order to design, construct and operate hydrogen production plants under conventional chemical plant standards are identified. In addition, design considerations for safety design of nuclear facility are suggested. Furthermore, feasibility of proposed safety design and design considerations are evaluated. (author)

  1. Interrogating the Learning Sciences as a Design Science: Leveraging Insights from Chinese Philosophy and Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Yam San

    2014-01-01

    Design research has been positioned as an important methodological contribution of the learning sciences. Despite the publication of a handbook on the subject, the practice of design research in education remains an eclectic collection of specific approaches implemented by different researchers and research groups. In this paper, I examine the…

  2. An anthology of theories and models of design philosophy, approaches and empirical explorations

    CERN Document Server

    Blessing, Lucienne

    2014-01-01

    While investigations into both theories and models has remained a major strand of engineering design research, current literature sorely lacks a reference book that provides a comprehensive and up-to-date anthology of theories and models, and their philosophical and empirical underpinnings; An Anthology of Theories and Models of Design fills this gap. The text collects the expert views of an international authorship, covering: ·         significant theories in engineering design, including CK theory, domain theory, and the theory of technical systems; ·         current models of design, from a function behavior structure model to an integrated model; ·         important empirical research findings from studies into design; and ·         philosophical underpinnings of design itself. For educators and researchers in engineering design, An Anthology of Theories and Models of Design gives access to in-depth coverage of theoretical and empirical developments in this area; for pr...

  3. Object-oriented philosophy in designing adaptive finite-element package for 3D elliptic deferential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhengyong, R.; Jingtian, T.; Changsheng, L.; Xiao, X.

    2007-12-01

    Although adaptive finite-element (AFE) analysis is becoming more and more focused in scientific and engineering fields, its efficient implementations are remain to be a discussed problem as its more complex procedures. In this paper, we propose a clear C++ framework implementation to show the powerful properties of Object-oriented philosophy (OOP) in designing such complex adaptive procedure. In terms of the modal functions of OOP language, the whole adaptive system is divided into several separate parts such as the mesh generation or refinement, a-posterior error estimator, adaptive strategy and the final post processing. After proper designs are locally performed on these separate modals, a connected framework of adaptive procedure is formed finally. Based on the general elliptic deferential equation, little efforts should be added in the adaptive framework to do practical simulations. To show the preferable properties of OOP adaptive designing, two numerical examples are tested. The first one is the 3D direct current resistivity problem in which the powerful framework is efficiently shown as only little divisions are added. And then, in the second induced polarization£¨IP£©exploration case, new adaptive procedure is easily added which adequately shows the strong extendibility and re-usage of OOP language. Finally we believe based on the modal framework adaptive implementation by OOP methodology, more advanced adaptive analysis system will be available in future.

  4. Philosophy of Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svanæs, Dag

    2011-01-01

    This is an encyclopedia entry for the Interaction-Design.org free IxD encyclopedia. The topic of the entry is the application of the philosophy of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty to a theory of interactivity. Comments by Don Norman and Eva Hornecker.......This is an encyclopedia entry for the Interaction-Design.org free IxD encyclopedia. The topic of the entry is the application of the philosophy of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty to a theory of interactivity. Comments by Don Norman and Eva Hornecker....

  5. Philosophy, Philosophy of Education, and Economic Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John

    2013-01-01

    In 2009 Harvey Siegel edited "The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Education." This article develops a theme, prompted by reflection on several essays in that volume, about the nature of philosophy of education and its relation to philosophy. Siegel's view that philosophy of education is a "branch" of philosophy is put to…

  6. Advanced power generation systems for the 21st Century: Market survey and recommendations for a design philosophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriulli, J.B.; Gates, A.E.; Haynes, H.D.; Klett, L.B.; Matthews, S.N.; Nawrocki, E.A.; Otaduy, P.J.; Scudiere, M.B.; Theiss, T.J.; Thomas, J.F.; Tolbert, L.M.; Yauss, M.L.; Voltz, C.A.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of a study designed to enhance the performance of future military generator sets (gen-sets) in the medium power range. The study includes a market survey of the state of the art in several key component areas and recommendations comprising a design philosophy for future military gen-sets. The market survey revealed that the commercial market is in a state of flux, but it is currently or will soon be capable of providing the technologies recommended here in a cost-effective manner. The recommendations, if implemented, should result in future power generation systems that are much more functional than today's gen-sets. The number of differing units necessary (both family sizes and frequency modes) to cover the medium power range would be decreased significantly, while the weight and volume of each unit would decrease, improving the transportability of the power source. Improved fuel economy and overall performance would result from more effective utilization of the prime mover in the generator. The units would allow for more flexibility and control, improved reliability, and more effective power management in the field.

  7. Experiencing-in-the-World : Using Pragmatist Philosophy to Design for Aesthetic Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Eliens, A.P.W.; Eliëns, A.; Nijholt, Antinus; Kames, J.M.; Novotny, M.

    2007-01-01

    With the growing use of personal and ubiquitous computing technology, an increase is seen in utilizing aesthetic aspects for designing interactive systems. The use of aesthetic interpretations, however, has differed in different applications, often lacking a coherent and holistic meaning of

  8. CLINIC-LABORATORY DESIGN BASED ON FUNCTION AND PHILOSOPHY AT PURDUE UNIVERSITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HANLEY, T.D.; STEER, M.D.

    THIS REPORT DESCRIBES THE DESIGN OF A NEW CLINIC AND LABORATORY FOR SPEECH AND HEARING TO ACCOMMODATE THE THREE BASIC PROGRAMS OF--(1) CLINICAL TRAINING OF UNDERGRADUATE AND GRADUATE STUDENT MAJORS, (2) SERVICES MADE AVAILABLE TO THE SPEECH AND HEARING HANDICAPPED, AND (3) RESEARCH IN SPEECH PATHOLOGY, AUDIOLOGY, PSYCHO-ACOUSTICS, AND…

  9. Anthropology & Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The present book is no ordinary anthology, but rather a workroom in which anthropologists and philosophers initiate a dialogue on trust and hope, two important topics for both fields of study. The book combines work between scholars from different universities in the U.S. and Denmark. Thus, besid......, therefore, also inspire others to work in the productive intersection between anthropology and philosophy....

  10. Noohumanistic philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Shindaulova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the author found that noohumanistic philosophy emerged as a natural reflection of social consciousness on topical issues of the day: a systematic, global, ecological and economic, spiritual crisis; conflicts on religious and ethnic grounds, aggression, and terror. Having imbibed the ideas cosmism, kosmotsentrichnost antiques, the results of modern scientific research, noohumanistic philosophy its ultimate educational product is the formation of the human future ­ the personality with planetary­cosmic type of consciousness, which is inherent in the planetary mind­set responsible for the impact on the environment, understanding of the development of its own strategy human activity, not harming, but on the contrary, consistent and harmonized with the biological, technological and socio processes. In the study of the problem was found that integrating a socio­economic, environmental, spiritual and moral aspects noohumanistic philosophy focused on a conscious harmonization of socio­natural systems, the need for the formation of planetary worldview, activation of vital position of the subject in this direction and raise responsibility, tolerance, moral standards, expansion of ideological horizon. The analysis revealed that noohumanizm it is a new paradigmatic tendency to form noohumanistic philosophy and ideology, which is in the process of its formation, productive, promising and meets the challenges of modern civilization.

  11. Design considerations and philosophy of a device-independent publications/graphics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    Over a period of ten years the National Nuclear Data Center has implemented graphics systems to meet a broad range of user requirements in the areas of interactive graphics, publications, and, to a lesser extent, text-editing, graphical data interpretations, and on-line data evaluation. The systems have been designed to support varying levels of user sophistication with respect to programing ability and user knowledge of the hardware involved. An overview is presented of the NNDC's graphics system which is available to the user via a higher-level language, FORTRAN. The system was designed with layers of software between the user and the device-dependent code. One layer is dedicated to processing the incompatibilities and inconsistencies between such devices as paper plotter, interactive graphics, and FR-80 microfilm/microfiche hardware. Another handles the niceties necessary for finer-quality publications work, e.g., superscripting, subscripting, boldface, variable character/page sizing, rotation, the use of multiple character sets (e.g., mathematical, Greek, physics) as well as features to allow the user to design special characters. 12 figures

  12. Significance of analog instrumentation - design philosophy of replacement dump arrest unit at Pickering Station Candu Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.F.; McDowell, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the differences of opinion concerning power plant instrumentation, including safety systems. One popular view point is that modem instrumentation must be microprocessor-based to be acceptable. An alternative view point is that properly designed analog instrumentation is recommended in some applications and has proven to be viable based upon performance and experience. A practical example is discussed in detail, explaining how a combination of discrete analog circuitry, combined with discrete digital circuitry provides a robust solution to a complex instrumentation replacement problem. In this application, a microprocessor-based instrument was designed as a replacement for an obsolete analog instrument. Due to severe licensing difficulties, the instrument was redesigned as a combination of discrete analog and digital circuitry. In the implementation of this circuitry, all complex testing functions of the improved microprocessor-based instrument were accommodated and system accuracy and performance were not compromised over the micro-processor-based instrument. The instrument has met all requirements for reliability and EMI/RFI susceptibility, as well as isolation of analog outputs and the ability to withstand severe transient noise on inputs and outputs without adversely affecting performance

  13. Stephen Hawking, the Grand Design and the mass media communication: Philosophy, Science and Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Sequeiros

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The return of summer vacances 2010 coincide with the notice concerning the inminent publication of a provocative and scandalous book by the eminent Phisicist Stephen Hawking. The Grand Design came out on September 7 in EE.UU. and on 9 in United Kingdom. On November 15th, the Spanish edition have been issued. The Spanish newpapers have published some fragments, which apparently show Hawking intends to prove scientifically that God not exists. The communications media remark by different ways the scarce frangments of the text: «God is not necessary», «Hawking proves God not exists», «Creator God is a destroyed mith», «Hawking scientifically proves God not exists», «God expeled of the Universe»… We have tracked more than hundred web-pages in which the contents of Hawking book are comment. Rationalists and religious sectors have standed in the debate. But, what has Hawking really defended in The Grand Design?

  14. Tentative design-philosophy for bellows in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors pipings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaller, K.; Vrillon, B.

    1980-01-01

    Expansion joints have proved to be reliable components, when properly designed and realized, in normal industrial equipment. But nevertheless bellows have not been employed widely in nuclear reactors and almost not in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors, where use of expansion-joints could considerably shorten the length of pipelines and, in consequence, lower the cost of the power plant. In the framework of its research and development program on fast reactors the French Atomic Energy.Commission, in cooperation with the industry, develops guidelines, backed up by experiments, to allow a safe design of pipe-lines and compensating-devices. The main points of these guidelines are discussed in this paper with the understanding, that they are tentative rules subject to changes. The guidelines are a complement to existing rules, like ASME - Code III, Code Case 1481, standards of the EJMA Preliminary Draft for Code Case Class I, Expansion Joints in Piping systems and suppliers' rules for the special case of application to sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. Relatively small diameters and easily accessible expansion joints, on control rods and valves for example, are not concerned. These guidelines do not apply to the bellows which are used as an integral part of a component

  15. My Teaching Learning Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjani, Neelam Saleem

    2014-01-01

    The heart of teaching learning philosophy is the concept of nurturing students and teaching them in a way that creates passion and enthusiasm in them for a lifelong learning. According to Duke (1990) education is a practice of artful action where teaching learning process is considered as design and knowledge is considered as colours. Teaching…

  16. Medical education: revolution, devolution and evolution in curriculum philosophy and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittert, Gary A; Nelson, Adam J

    2009-07-06

    Contemporary medical education must train skilled and compassionate health care professionals who are rigorous in their approach to patient care and their pursuit of knowledge and solutions. Problem-based learning has been widely introduced, but there is no evidence that it leads to better outcomes than more traditional programs, and fundamental gaps in conceptual knowledge may result. Recently, emphasis has been placed on a solid grounding in underlying concepts combined with a systems-based approach, and ability to transfer information and solve problems. Integrating traditional scientific and clinical disciplines with progressive and continuous assessment, may be a better means of achieving the combined aims of clinically relevant curriculum design, vertical integration of medical knowledge, and facilitation of the continuum of training. Being adaptable and flexible, cognisant of costs, and driven by evidence are key features of delivering medical education and contemporary medical practice. Educational research should lead to continuous improvement, but innovation without evaluation and attention to costs may create as many, or more, problems as are solved.

  17. The design philosophy for an automatic TLD system to meet current international specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaslahti, J.

    1986-01-01

    The object of this paper is to describe the elements of a new automatic TLD system intended to meet draft IEC/ISO proposals and ANSI requirements in the USA. Dosemeter badge design is based on ICRU recommendations. The basic intent has been to produce a standard system that can measure and file raw data that can be adapted to specific user requirements with software. The system consists of a programmable automatic reader, an automatic irradiator, a computer, and dosemeters for environmental, whole body, extremity, and clinical applications. The reader uses hot nitrogen heating and photon counting, and measurement conditions may be chosen with complete freedom. The reader can produce a real-time glow curve to assist in checking performance. The irradiator has a 90 Sr- 90 Y source to permit programmed irradiation for calibration and material sensitivity checks. Cassettes are used to hold TLD cards during processing. Cassette coding both identifies samples and calls measurement parameters into use from memory. The system can be preprogrammed to measure all common materials and all common dosemeter elements (both square and round). (author)

  18. Theoretical design and discovery of the most-promising, previously overlooked hybrid perovskite compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunger, Alex [University of Colorado Boulder; Kazmerski, Lawrence [University of Colorado Boulder; Dalpian, Gustavo [University of Colorado Boulder

    2018-03-14

    The material class of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (AMX3) has risen rapidly from a virtually unknown material in photovoltaic applications a short 8-years ago into 20-23% efficient thin-film solar cell devices. As promising as this class of materials is, however, there are limitations associated with its poor long-term stability, non-optimal band gap, and the presence of toxic Pb atom on the metalloid site. An Edisonian laboratory exploration (i.e., growth + characterization) via trial-and-error processes of all other candidate materials, is unpractical. Our approach uses high speed computational design and discovery to screen the ‘best of class” candidates based upon optimal functionalities.

  19. Philosophy of Science and Philosophy of Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Van Brakel, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I assess the relation between philosophy of chemistry and (general) philosophy of science, focusing on those themes in the philosophy of chemistry that may bring about major revisions or extensions of current philosophy of science. Three themes can claim to make a unique contribution to philosophy of science: first, the variety of materials in the (natural and artificial) world; second, extending the world by making new stuff; and, third, specific features of the relations betwe...

  20. HTGR safety philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joskimovic, V.; Fisher, C.R.

    1980-08-01

    The accident at the Three Mile Island has focused public attention on reactor safety. Many public figures advocate a safer method of generating nuclear electricity for the second nuclear era in the US. The paper discusses the safety philosophy of a concept deemed suitable for this second nuclear era. The HTGR, in the course of its evolution, included safety as a significant determinant in design philosophy. This is particularly evident in the design features which provide inherent safety. Inherent features cause releases from a wide spectrum of accident conditions to be low. Engineered features supplement inherent features. The significance of HTGR safety features is quantified and order-of-magnitude type of comparisons are made with alternative ways of generating electricity

  1. HTGR safety philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovic, V.; Fisher, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    The accident at the Three Mile Island has focused public attention on reactor safety. Many public figures advocate a safer method of generating nuclear electricity for the second nuclear era in the U.S. The paper discusses the safety philosophy of a concept deemed suitable for this second nuclear era. The HTGR, in the course of its evolution, included safety as a significant determinant in design philosophy. This is particularly evident in the design features which provide inherent safety. Inherent features cause releases from a wide spectrum of accident conditions to be low. Engineered features supplement inherent features. The significance of HTGR safety features is quantified and order-of-magnitude type of comparisons are made with alternative ways of generating electricity. (author)

  2. Application of the Lean Office philosophy and mapping of the value stream in the process of designing the banking units of a financial company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Antônio Calsavara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to conduct a critical analysis of the effects of Lean Office on the design process of the banking units of a financial company and how the implementation of this philosophy may contribute to productivity, thus reducing implementation time. A literature review of the Toyota Production System was conducted, as well as studies on its methods, with advancement to lean thinking and consistent application of Lean philosophies in services and Office. A bibliographic and documentary survey of the Lean processes and procedures for opening bank branches was taken. A Current State Map was developed, modeling the current operating procedures. Soon after the identification and analysis of waste, proposals were presented for reducing deadlines and eliminating and grouping stages, with consequent development of the Future State Map, implementation and monitoring of stages, and the measurement of estimated time gains in operation, demonstrating an estimated 45% reduction, in days, from start to end of the process, concluding that the implementation of the Lean Office philosophy contributed to the process.

  3. Caring to Care: Applying Noddings' Philosophy to Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Dorene F; Hirsh, David A; Monie, Daphne; Weil, Henry; Richards, Boyd F

    2016-12-01

    The authors argue that Nel Noddings' philosophy, "an ethic of caring," may illuminate how students learn to be caring physicians from their experience of being in a caring, reciprocal relationship with teaching faculty. In her philosophy, Noddings acknowledges two important contextual continuities: duration and space, which the authors speculate exist within longitudinal integrated clerkships. In this Perspective, the authors highlight core features of Noddings' philosophy and explore its applicability to medical education. They apply Noddings' philosophy to a subset of data from a previously published longitudinal case study to explore its "goodness of fit" with the experience of eight students in the 2012 cohort of the Columbia-Bassett longitudinal integrated clerkship. In line with Noddings' philosophy, the authors' supplementary analysis suggests that students (1) recognized caring when they talked about "being known" by teaching faculty who "cared for" and "trusted" them; (2) responded to caring by demonstrating enthusiasm, action, and responsibility toward patients; and (3) acknowledged that duration and space facilitated caring relations with teaching faculty. The authors discuss how Noddings' philosophy provides a useful conceptual framework to apply to medical education design and to future research on caring-oriented clinical training, such as longitudinal integrated clerkships.

  4. Philosophy Rediscovered: Exploring the Connections between Teaching Philosophies, Educational Philosophies, and Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Joy E.; Leigh, Jennifer S. A.; Dean, Kathy Lund

    2009-01-01

    Teaching philosophy statements reflect our personal values, connect us to those with shared values in the larger teaching community, and inform our classroom practices. In this article, we explore the often-overlooked foundations of teaching philosophies, specifically philosophy and historical educational philosophies. We review three elements of…

  5. Educational Non-Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The final lines of Deleuze and Guattari's What is Philosophy? call for a non-philosophy to balance and act as a counterweight to the task of philosophy that had been described by them in terms of concept creation. In a footnote, Deleuze and Guattari mention François Laruelle's project of non-philosophy, but dispute its efficacy in terms of the…

  6. Advanced Neutron Source operating philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houser, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    An operating philosophy and operations cost estimate were prepared to support the Conceptual Design Report for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), a new research reactor planned for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The operating philosophy was part of the initial effort of the ANS Human Factors Program, was integrated into the conceptual design, and addressed operational issues such as remote vs local operation; control room layout and responsibility issues; role of the operator; simulation and training; staffing levels; and plant computer systems. This paper will report on the overall plans and purpose for the operations work, the results of the work done for conceptual design, and plans for future effort

  7. Design philosophy for the new harwell α,β/γ ILW facility and associated NDA instrumentation with regard to criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chard, P.M.J.; Cooper, T.J.; Croft, S.; Lambert, K.P.; Syme, D.B.; Wilkins, C.G.

    1995-01-01

    A new Alpha Beta/Gamma Waste Facility is currently being commissioned at Harwell. The facility provides for the assay and re-packing of existing Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) cans and future ILW arisings into 400 litre drums which are then stored in an integral vault prior to ultimate disposal. Paramount to the design philosophy for the plant was the safe retrieval and movement of radioactive material throughout the treatment process and the avoidance of criticality and other hazards. This required sound managerial controls underpinned by state-of-the-art non destructive assay (NDA) measurements. These consist primarily of a gamma spectrometer and a passive/active neutron interrogator. Their prime role is to confirm can identity against plant records and enable a fissile inventory to be developed for each can for criticality assessment. An expert system aids interpretation of assay results and the reconciliation of discrepancies. This paper describes the design philosophy with emphasis on the control measures used and the operation of the expert system. (author)

  8. 87 Philosophy and African Philosophy: A Conceptual Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    method in an attempt to conceptualize philosophy and then. African .... philosophy than this Wonder;xand Aristotle puts it thus, “it is through ... “science of all sciences”. That is why there is philosophy of education, political philosophy, philosophy of law philosophy of science, etc. Indeed, one can say that philosophy gives.

  9. A social philosophy of housing

    OpenAIRE

    King, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This book presents an original perspective by opening up housing to a philosophical approach. It fully integrates discussions on contemporary housing policy and social philosophy in a manner not previously attempted in the housing literature. Professor Jim Kemeny (Uppsala University) described it as ‘the first systematic application of social philosophy from an individual choice perspective’.

  10. French PWR Safety Philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    The first 900 MWe units, built under the American Westinghouse licence and with reference to the U. S. regulation, were followed by 28 standardized units, C P1 and C P2 series. Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from starting and operating experience of French nuclear power plants, completed by the experience learned from the operation of foreign reactors, has contributed to the improvement of French PWR design and safety philosophy. As early as 1976, this experience was taken into account by French Safety organisms to discuss, with Electricite de France, the safety options for the planned 1300 MWe units, P4 and P4 series. In 1983, the new reactor scheduled, Ni4 series 1400 MWe, is a totally French design which satisfies the French regulations and other French standards and codes. Based on a deterministic approach, the French safety analysis was progressively completed by a probabilistic approach each of them having possibilities and limits. Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from operating experience have contributed to the French safety philosophy improvement. The methodology now applied to safety evaluation develops a new facet of the in depth defense concept by taking highly unlikely events into consideration, by developing the search of safety consistency of the design, and by completing the deterministic approach by the probabilistic one

  11. Philosophy, Critical Thinking and Philosophy for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Marie-France; Auriac, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, philosophy has been considered as an intellectual activity requiring complex cognitive skills and predispositions related to complex (or critical) thinking. The Philosophy for Children (P4C) approach aims at the development of critical thinking in pupils through philosophical dialogue. Some contest the introduction of P4C in the…

  12. Philosophy, Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John

    2015-01-01

    This short note takes two quotations from Snooks' recent editorial on neuroeducation and teases out some further details on the philosophy of neuroscience and neurophilosophy along with consideration of the implications of both for philosophy of education.

  13. Philosophy of social science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Vergeer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mark Risjord. Philosophy of Social Science. A Contemporary Introduction. Serie: Routledge Contemporary Introductions to Philosophy. New York and London: Routledge, 2014, 288 p., €42,75. ISBN 978 0 415 89825 6

  14. Natural Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Ann M.

    2006-01-01

    “Natural philosophy” is often used by European historians as an umbrella term to designate the study of nature before it can easily be identified with what we call “science” today, to avoid the modern and potentially anachronistic connotations of that term. But “natural philosophy” (and its equivalents in different languages) was also an actor's category, a term commonly used throughout the early modern period and typically defined quite broadly as the study of natural bodies. As the central ...

  15. Masses of Formal Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masses of Formal Philosophy is an outgrowth of Formal Philosophy. That book gathered the responses of some of the most prominent formal philosophers to five relatively open and broad questions initiating a discussion of metaphilosophical themes and problems surrounding the use of formal methods...... in philosophy. Including contributions from a wide range of philosophers, Masses of Formal Philosophy contains important new responses to the original five questions....

  16. Philosophy in Primary Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John

    2012-01-01

    The article is a critical discussion of the aims behind the teaching of philosophy in British primary schools. It begins by reviewing the recent Special Issue of the "Journal of Philosophy of Education" Vol 45 Issue 2 2011 on "Philosophy for Children in Transition", so as to see what light this might throw on the topic just…

  17. Teaching Philosophy Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the rationale for my teaching philosophy. Using a personal perspective, I explain my objectives, mission, and vision in writing my philosophy of teaching statements. This article also creates a road map and reference points for educators who want to write their own teaching philosophy statements to help them make informed…

  18. Philosophy for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Rob; Onstenk, Jeroen; Veugelers, Wiel

    2016-01-01

    Philosophy for Democracy is a research project that aims to examine whether and how Philosophy with Children contributes to the development of democratic skills and attitudes. In the Netherlands, as in almost all Western countries, Philosophy with Children is linked with the movement for citizenship education. This article reports the research on…

  19. Philosophy of Education Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    In this review essay J.J. Chambliss assesses the current state of the field of philosophy of education through analysis of four recent edited compilations: Randall Curren's "A Companion to Philosophy of Education"; Nigel Blake, Paul Smeyers, Richard Smith, and Paul Standish's "The Blackwell Guide to Philosophy of Education"; Wilfred Carr's "The…

  20. My Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, Oliver

    2012-08-01

    Foreword; Part I. An Elementary Survey of Physical Existence: 1. The constitution of things around us; 2. The progress of physical science; 3. Design and purpose in the universe; 4. Religion and science; 5. The organism and the control; 6. The property of inertia; 7. Summary of new knowledge; 8. Machinery of guidance; Part II. Evidence for and Controversies Concerning the Ether: 9. Matter, energy and the ether; 10. The ether and the forms of energy; 11. Faraday's conception of the ether; 12. Modern gibes at the ether; 13. The physical aspect of the universe; 14. Views of Thomas Young, Newton and Fresnel; 15. The ether and relativity; 16. Magnetism and the ether, with suggestions for experiment; 17. Summary of our present knowledge about the ether; Part III. Introduction of Life and Mind: 18. The interaction of the psychical with the physical; 19. Life and mechanism; 20. A psychical function suggested for the ether of space; 21. Ether and the soul; Part IV. The Evidence for Survival and its Mechanism: 22. Evidence for and mechanism of survival; 23. On the difficulty of proving individual survival; 24. On the reasons for the non-recognition of psychical research by the majority of the scientific world; 25. On the apparent element of caprice introduced by the spiritistic hypothesis; 26. The whole organically considered; 27. The spiritistic hypothesis; 28. The bearing of the theory upon religions; Index.

  1. Michael Polanyi's Philosophy of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michael Polanyi's Philosophy of Science. Positivism may be said to be the outcome of the changing contours of modern science that relies solely on observation, experimentation, and measurement. Experiments in modern science are designed solely to elicit 'yes' or 'no' for an answer. The resultant facts can be fitted into.

  2. Empirical philosophy of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann; Nersessian, Nancy J.; Andersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of philosophers of science make use of qualitative empirical data, a development that may reconfigure the relations between philosophy and sociology of science and that is reminiscent of efforts to integrate history and philosophy of science. Therefore, the first part...... of this introduction to the volume Empirical Philosophy of Science outlines the history of relations between philosophy and sociology of science on the one hand, and philosophy and history of science on the other. The second part of this introduction offers an overview of the papers in the volume, each of which...

  3. Exploring a clinically friendly web-based approach to clinical decision support linked to the electronic health record: design philosophy, prototype implementation, and framework for assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Perry; Phipps, Michael; Chatterjee, Sharmila; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Levin, Forrest; Frawley, Sandra; Tokuno, Hajime

    2014-07-01

    Computer-based clinical decision support (CDS) is an important component of the electronic health record (EHR). As an increasing amount of CDS is implemented, it will be important that this be accomplished in a fashion that assists in clinical decision making without imposing unacceptable demands and burdens upon the provider's practice. The objective of our study was to explore an approach that allows CDS to be clinician-friendly from a variety of perspectives, to build a prototype implementation that illustrates features of the approach, and to gain experience with a pilot framework for assessment. The paper first discusses the project's design philosophy and goals. It then describes a prototype implementation (Neuropath/CDS) that explores the approach in the domain of neuropathic pain and in the context of the US Veterans Administration EHR. Finally, the paper discusses a framework for assessing the approach, illustrated by a pilot assessment of Neuropath/CDS. The paper describes the operation and technical design of Neuropath/CDS, as well as the results of the pilot assessment, which emphasize the four areas of focus, scope, content, and presentation. The work to date has allowed us to explore various design and implementation issues relating to the approach illustrated in Neuropath/CDS, as well as the development and pilot application of a framework for assessment.

  4. Operational Philosophy Concerning Manned Spacecraft Cabin Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimpelaere, Edward

    2011-01-01

    cabin leak occurring. The paper also offers a look at how different equipment configurations on future spacecraft impact the previously defined cabin leak operational philosophy and includes additional operational methods and considerations that result due to various configurations. The intent is to showcase these various considerations and highlight the variability they allow. The paper concludes with a selection of the author s personal observations from a spacecraft operator's point of view and recommendations with the goal of improving the design and operations of future spacecraft.

  5. Philosophy of medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN RONAGHY

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Education is defined as an art with scientific principle. It is described as a form of learning by which knowledge, skills and attitudes of an age group are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, research and practice. Method: This is a historical review about the philosophy of medical education and its changes during the time. Results: It is unfortunate that many developing countries follow the US system rather than those with public financing pattern. Indeed, these systems are “disease care” and not “healthcare” and are mainly motivated by profit. Conclusion: The educational planners in medical schools must design a curricula for students and residents to acquire a crucial set of professional values and qualities, by which the willingness to put the needs of the patient and society first.

  6. Philosophy of technology and engineering sciences

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    The Handbook Philosophy of Technology and Engineering Sciences addresses numerous issues in the emerging field of the philosophy of those sciences that are involved in the technological process of designing, developing and making of new technical artifacts and systems. These issues include the nature of design, of technological knowledge, and of technical artifacts, as well as the toolbox of engineers. Most of these have thus far not been analyzed in general philosophy of science, which has traditionally but inadequately regarded technology as mere applied science and focused on physics, biology, mathematics and the social sciences.

  7. Philosophy as Estrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe, Sverre

    interested in philosophy as a privileged object of investigation and investment ‐ an aim in itself. There are, however, moments and situations in my life where an interest in philosophy has appeared or is necessarily forced upon me; these are times when philosophy appears as a seemingly unavoidable...... and essential questioning of fundamentals,– as a ‘basic’ need. This being said, it can be annoying as well as cumbersome. Philosophy as a ‘basic’ need makes itself felt as an estrangement that has always already taken place. It takes the form of a “Schritt zurück” in which one pulls away from, problematizes...

  8. Philosophy for nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Madsen, W.; Redd, L.

    1993-01-01

    The philosophy used for development of nuclear thermal propulsion will determine the cost, schedule and risk associated with the activities. As important is the impression of the decision makers. If the development cost is higher than the product value, it is doubtful that funding will ever be available. On the other hand, if the development supports the economic welfare of the country with a high rate of return, the probability of funding greatly increases. The philosophy is divided into: realism, design, operations and qualification. ''Realism'' addresses such items as political acceptability, potential customers, robustness-flexibility, public acceptance, decisions as needed, concurrent engineering, and the possible role of the CIS. ''Design'' addresses ''minimum requirement,'' built in safety and reliability redundancy, emphasize on eliminating risk at lowest levels, and the possible inclusion of electric generation. ''Operations'' addresses sately, environment, operations, design margins and degradation modes. ''Qualification'' addresses testing needs and test facilities

  9. Maintenance and repair of LMFBR steam generators. II. Design philosophy of maintenance and repair for Super Phenix 1 steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verriere, P.; Alanche, J.; Minguet, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Creys Malville steam generators have been the subject of a number of papers presented at this congress. However, the general design of the components are outlined, and the in-service monitoring systems and protective devices they are equipped with are briefly described. The methods used in the event of leakage, are described for: leak location, steam generator inspection, steam generator repair, and putting the affected loop back into service

  10. Brief account of the design philosophy for third Qinshan NPP shutdown safety system based on practical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Weihua

    2005-01-01

    Qinshan CANDU power plant is uses the Canadian proven CANDU6 nuclear power technology. It has two characteristic: 1. heavy water-as moderator and coolant; 2. natural uranium as the fuel and change fuel during normal operating. CANDU6 include four special safety system: the No.1 shutdown system (SDS No.1), the No.2 shutdown system (SDS No.2), the containment system, the emergency core cooling system (ECCS). QinShan CANDU power plant is the first commercial PHWR nuclear power plant in China. And some aspect is not similar to everybody. The intention of the article is to introduce the basic design and functions. (authors)

  11. John White on Philosophy of Education and Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    John White offers a provocative characterization of philosophy of education. In this brief reaction, I evaluate the characterization and urge the maintenance of a strong connection between philosophy of education and philosophy.

  12. Design philosophy and practice of asymmetrical 3D fracturing and random fracturing: A case study of tight sand gas reservoirs in western Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchun Guo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present two technical models are commonly taken in tight gas reservoir stimulation: conventional massive fracturing and SRV fracturing, but how to select a suitable fracturing model suitable for reservoir characteristics is still a question waiting to be answered. In this paper, based on the analysis of geological characteristics and seepage mechanism of tight gas and shale gas reservoirs, the differences between stimulation philosophy of tight gas reservoirs and shale reservoirs are elucidated, and the concept that a suitable stimulation model should be selected based on reservoir geological characteristics and seepage mechanism aiming at maximally improving the seepage capability of a reservoir. Based on this concept, two fracturing design methods were proposed for two tight gas reservoirs in western Sichuan Basin: asymmetrical 3D fracturing design (A3DF for the middle-shallow Upper Jurassic Penglaizhen Fm stacked reservoirs in which the hydraulic fractures can well match the sand spatial distribution and seepage capability of the reservoirs; SRV fracturing design which can increase fracture randomness in the sandstone and shale laminated reservoirs for the 5th Member of middle-deep Upper Triassic Xujiahe Fm. Compared with that by conventional fracturing, the average production of horizontal wells fractured by A3DF increased by 41%, indicating that A3DF is appropriate for gas reservoir development in the Penglaizhen Fm; meanwhile, the average production per well of the 5th Member of the Xujiahe Fm was 2.25 × 104 m3/d after SRV fracturing, showing that the SRV fracturing is a robust technical means for the development of this reservoir.

  13. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  14. Philosophy of Data: Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furner, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Philosophy of data should not be dismissed as a cluster of scholastic puzzles whose solutions are of limited practical value. On the contrary, philosophy of data should be recognized as constituting the core of a field of data studies that is informed by, but far from equivalent to, statistics, computer science, and library and information studies.

  15. Conversations in African Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Conversational philosophy is articulated by Jonathan O. Chimakonam as the new wave of philosophical practice both in “place” and in “space”. This journal adopts and promotes this approach to philosophizing for African philosophy. Readers are encouraged to submit their conversational piece (maximum of 2000 words) ...

  16. Philosophy with Guts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Western philosophy, from Plato on, has had the tendency to separate feeling and thought, affect and cognition. This article argues that a strong philosophy (metaphorically, with "guts") utilizes both in its work. In fact, a "complete act of thought" also will include action. Feeling motivates thought, which formulates ideas,…

  17. Trends in African philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    In the contention of Oladipo (2006), the debate on the idea of. African philosophy which has been divided into trends or schools, dates back to the 1960's and 70's, which constitute the modern epoch of African philosophy, when some African thinkers began to question the perspective that traditional African beliefs and.

  18. Particle physics and philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Shoichi.

    1984-01-01

    The philosophy of dialectical materialism is applied to the history of the discovery of building blocks of matter. Engels' theory was adapted by Taketani to describe the cognizance of different levels of material structures. This philosophy was used to construct the composite Sakata model of hadrons in the early sixties. (D.Gy.)

  19. African Journals Online: Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 7 of 7 ... The Journal of Philosophy and Culture is devoted to the promotion of scholarship in philosophy, culture and allied disciplines. ... of capacity among black and women educationists in South Africa, and to broaden contributions to include writers from other African, Latin American, and Asian countries.

  20. Particle physics and philosophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, S.

    1984-01-01

    The philosophy of dialectical materialism is applied to the history of the discovery of building blocks of matter. Engels' theory was adapted by Taketani to describe the cognizance of different levels of material structures. This philosophy was used to construct the composite Sakata model of hadrons in the early sixties.

  1. Why Philosophy Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The motives of philosophers tend to be personal. Philosophy has mattered politically as part of continuing political debates. Its effects on politics, religion and the development of the sciences have been evident. Philosophy has been supposed to have special educational value, from its contents or from the benefits of its methods and arguments.…

  2. Empirical philosophy of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann; Nersessian, Nancy J.; Andersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of philosophers of science make use of qualitative empirical data, a development that may reconfigure the relations between philosophy and sociology of science and that is reminiscent of efforts to integrate history and philosophy of science. Therefore, the first part...... of this introduction to the volume Empirical Philosophy of Science outlines the history of relations between philosophy and sociology of science on the one hand, and philosophy and history of science on the other. The second part of this introduction offers an overview of the papers in the volume, each of which...... is giving its own answer to questions such as: Why does the use of qualitative empirical methods benefit philosophical accounts of science? And how should these methods be used by the philosopher?...

  3. Inflatable Antenna for CubeSat: Extension of the Previously Developed S-Band Design to the X-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuscia, Alessandra; Choi, Thomas; Cheung, Kar-Ming; Thangavelautham, Jekan; Ravichandran, Mithun; Chandra, Aman

    2015-01-01

    The inflatable antenna for CubeSat is a 1 meter antenna reflector designed with one side reflective Mylar, another side clear Mylar with a patch antenna at the focus. The development of this technology responds to the increasing need for more capable communication systems to allow CubeSats to operate autonomously in interplanetary missions. An initial version of the antenna for the S-Band was developed and tested in both anechoic chamber and vacuum chamber. Recent developments in transceivers and amplifiers for CubeSat at X-band motivated the extension from the S-Band to the X-Band. This paper describes the process of extending the design of the antenna to the X-Band focusing on patch antenna redesign, new manufacturing challenges and initial results of experimental tests.

  4. Empirical Philosophy of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansnerus, Erika; Wagenknecht, Susann

    2015-01-01

    The book examines the emerging approach of using qualitative methods, such as interviews and field observations, in the philosophy of science. Qualitative methods are gaining popularity among philosophers of science as more and more scholars are resorting to empirical work in their study...... of scientific practices. At the same time, the results produced through empirical work are quite different from those gained through the kind of introspective conceptual analysis more typical of philosophy. This volume explores the benefits and challenges of an empirical philosophy of science and addresses...

  5. The Leadership Philosophy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-31

    34 leadership philosophy"? One writer states that it is a "distillation of experience and theory , arrived at through a long and somewhat tenuous process of... LEADERSHIP PHILOSOPHY MfODEL .11.9BY .IELJTEN 1NT CO)LONEL CLAYTON E. MELTO.; DIST-. jUTION STATEMIS.T A’ Approved for publiC relea~se; distributicrn...CATALOG NUMBER 4 TITLE (-d Subtitle) T YPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COvERE3 The Leadership Philosophy Model Study Project 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT N,.MBER 7

  6. Opening Philosophy to the World: Derrida and Education in Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burik, Steven

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Steven Burik discusses Jacques Derrida's position with regard to the place of education in philosophy within the university system, and then relates these thoughts to comparative philosophy. Philosophers find themselves constantly having to defend philosophy and the importance of teaching philosophy against pressure from the powers…

  7. Philosophy of Education as Philosophy: A Metaphilosophical Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, George

    2007-01-01

    What is the philosophical status of the philosophy of education? Is it philosophy, no different from the philosophy of science and the philosophy of mind? Much depends on where these latter derive their philosophical bona fides from. There are two ways of viewing the matter. On one account, they are subdivisions of the veritable philosophy…

  8. Philosophy of Money

    CERN Document Server

    Simmel, Georg; Frisby, David; Bottomore, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In The Philosophy of Money, Georg Simmel provides us with a now classic discussion of the social, psychological and philosophical aspects of the money economy, full of brilliant insights into the forms that social relationships take.

  9. The future of philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, J R

    1999-12-29

    There is no sharp dividing line between science and philosophy, but philosophical problems tend to have three special features. First, they tend to concern large frameworks rather than specific questions within the framework. Second, they are questions for which there is no generally accepted method of solution. And third they tend to involve conceptual issues. For these reasons a philosophical problem such as the nature of life can become a scientific problem if it is put into a shape where it admits of scientific resolution. Philosophy in the 20th century was characterized by a concern with logic and language, which is markedly different from the concerns of earlier centuries of philosophy. However, it shared with the European philosophical tradition since the 17th century an excessive concern with issues in the theory of knowledge and with scepticism. As the century ends, we can see that scepticism no longer occupies centre stage, and this enables us to have a more constructive approach to philosophical problems than was possible for earlier generations. This situation is somewhat analogous to the shift from the sceptical concerns of Socrates and Plato to the constructive philosophical enterprise of Aristotle. With that in mind, we can discuss the prospects for the following six philosophical areas: (1) the traditional mind-body problem; (ii) the philosophy of mind and cognitive science; (iii) the philosophy of language; (iv) the philosophy of society; (v) ethics and practical reasons; (vi) the philosophy of science. The general theme of these investigations, I believe, is that the appraisal of the true significance of issues in the philosophy of knowledge enables us to have a more constructive account of various other philosophical problems than has typically been possible for the past three centuries.

  10. The future of philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, J R

    1999-01-01

    There is no sharp dividing line between science and philosophy, but philosophical problems tend to have three special features. First, they tend to concern large frameworks rather than specific questions within the framework. Second, they are questions for which there is no generally accepted method of solution. And third they tend to involve conceptual issues. For these reasons a philosophical problem such as the nature of life can become a scientific problem if it is put into a shape where it admits of scientific resolution. Philosophy in the 20th century was characterized by a concern with logic and language, which is markedly different from the concerns of earlier centuries of philosophy. However, it shared with the European philosophical tradition since the 17th century an excessive concern with issues in the theory of knowledge and with scepticism. As the century ends, we can see that scepticism no longer occupies centre stage, and this enables us to have a more constructive approach to philosophical problems than was possible for earlier generations. This situation is somewhat analogous to the shift from the sceptical concerns of Socrates and Plato to the constructive philosophical enterprise of Aristotle. With that in mind, we can discuss the prospects for the following six philosophical areas: (1) the traditional mind-body problem; (ii) the philosophy of mind and cognitive science; (iii) the philosophy of language; (iv) the philosophy of society; (v) ethics and practical reasons; (vi) the philosophy of science. The general theme of these investigations, I believe, is that the appraisal of the true significance of issues in the philosophy of knowledge enables us to have a more constructive account of various other philosophical problems than has typically been possible for the past three centuries. PMID:10670025

  11. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment; Estudio de algunos aspectos fisicos previos al diseno de una experiencia exponencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de

    1961-07-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs.

  12. Philosophy as Estrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe, Sverre

    I never became interested in philosophy primordially or originally. There is no source event or transformation that I can recall as being the defining moment. Stating ‘It began here!’ would be misleading… I am not even certain that I originally attained an interest, or even that I still am...... interested in philosophy as a privileged object of investigation and investment ‐ an aim in itself. There are, however, moments and situations in my life where an interest in philosophy has appeared or is necessarily forced upon me; these are times when philosophy appears as a seemingly unavoidable...... and essential questioning of fundamentals,– as a ‘basic’ need. This being said, it can be annoying as well as cumbersome. Philosophy as a ‘basic’ need makes itself felt as an estrangement that has always already taken place. It takes the form of a “Schritt zurück” in which one pulls away from, problematizes...

  13. Leadership philosophy of care home managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Daniel; James, Ian Andrew

    Care home managers have a significant influence on staff morale and care delivery. Training methods underpinned by transformational leadership theory (TLT) have been used successfully to develop leaders in healthcare services. The aim of this preliminary study was to establish which aspects of TLT were apparent in care home managers' philosophies of leadership. A qualitative research design was used and 25 care home managers in the north-east of England took part. Participants were asked to provide their philosophies of leadership by completing a questionnaire; a thematic analysis of the responses was then conducted. Development of philosophy, enablement and interpersonal impact emerged as key themes. The findings suggested that elements of TLT were apparent in the participants' philosophies of leadership. However, the importance of gaining the support of senior management when attempting to apply a philosophy of eadership in practice was lacking. Aspects of TLT, such as supporting frontline employees to engage in education and establishing trust, were embedded in care home managers' philosophies. To develop leadership skills, managers may benefit from training programmes that involve both structured teaching and guided learning through experience.

  14. Pragmatism and Existential Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Lipps

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hans Lipps compares pragmatism (William James and John Dewey existentialism (Friedrich Nietzsche, Soren Kierkegaard, and Martin Heidegger in this 1936 article translated from French.  He claims that they aim at the same goals, e.g., a return to lived experience and a rejection of the Cartesian legacy in philosophy.  While summarizing the commonalities of each, he engages in a polemic against philosophy then that remains relevant now into the next century.

  15. Philosophy and mathematics: interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Roshdi

    From Plato to the beginnings of the last century, mathematics provided philosophers with methods of exposition, procedures of demonstration, and instruments of analysis. The unprecedented development of mathematics on the one hand, and the mathematicians' appropriation of Logic from the philosophers on the other hand, have given rise to two problems with which the philosophers have to contend: (1) Is there still a place for the philosophy of mathematics? and (2) To what extent is a philosophy of mathematics still possible? This article offers some reflections on these questions, which have preoccupied a good many philosophers and continue to do so.

  16. Safety philosophy in Plowshare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalgott, R.H.

    1969-01-01

    A nuclear device can be detonated safely when it can ascertained that the detonation can be accomplished without injury to people, either directly or indirectly, and without unacceptable damage to the ecological system and natural or man made structures. This philosophy has its origin in the nuclear weapons testing program dating back to the first detonation in 1945 and applies without reservation to PIowshare projects. This paper therefore will outline the mechanics employed by government in implementing this safety philosophy. The talk will describe those type of actions taken by safety oriented organizations and committees to assure that necessary and desirable safety reviews are conducted. (author)

  17. Technology and Teaching Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the challenges faced when integrating new technologies into the classroom. Viewing the experiences of teaching a first year learning community through the lens of the principles of the Reflective Teaching Portfolio, the author looks to answer the question: "How should Technology relate to our Teaching Philosophy?"…

  18. Game theory in philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Game theory is the mathematical study of strategy and conflict. It has wide applications in economics, political science, sociology, and, to some extent, in philosophy. Where rational choice theory or decision theory is concerned with individual agents facing games against nature, game theory deals

  19. Investigating Talent Management Philosophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbancova Hana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study, motivated by the recognition that organizational performance and success always hinges on employee competencies and management’s skill in utilizing their potentials, focuses on one of the key factors in organizational efficiency: the possibilities of development of talented employees within Czech organizations. The data was collected via two quantitative studies. The first study involved 100 organizations from every economic sector with a main focus on the topic from the organization’s perspective. The second study explored the approach from employees’ perspective. Our analysis shows that different talent management philosophies are used in practice. Almost half of the sample use inclusive and stable philosophy, 11% inclusive and developable philosophy and almost 10% exclusive and developable philosophy. Employees are mostly developed in generally recommended areas without any consideration for the specific individual’s characteristics or related opportunities. It is a stable approach. Limitations of this study may be found in the focus on analysis outcomes - on practitioners in particular. The present findings provide a basis for future hypotheses and research in this area.

  20. Performance and Philosophy Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasoula Kallenou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Was Plato the first philosophical dramatist to explore philosophical ideas through dramatic content, introducing dramatic structures currently in line with contemporary theatre? If Plato was an influential figure for philosophers as well as theatre-makers, it can arguably be said that he was a silent pioneer in creating the newly defined discipline of Performance Philosophy. There is an obvious polarity between performance and philosophy since both disciplines are on the quest of exploring and presenting what life is. At least this can be said of ancient Greek and Roman philosophy. Conceived as “biou techne” the art of living, Greek and Roman philosophers, especially the Epicureans, Stoics and Skeptics, saw philosophy as a way of conceiving what a good life is (a life worth living and pursuing its practical realization for the attainment of eudemonia. Plato was arguably the first significant philosopher to explore philosophical ideas through dramatic content, introducing dramatic structures currently in line with contemporary theatre views. As such, he can be seen as an influential figure for theatre makers as well as for philosophers. Plato’s artistic intention was to uncover the artist that lacked substance and support the knowledgeable creative philosophical mind that besides instant emotional pleasure has to contribute in social development.

  1. Retooling Peace Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk; Hersh, Jacques; Petersen-Overton, Kristofer

    2010-01-01

    This book documents recent and historical events in the theoretically-based practice of peace development. Its diverse collection of essays describes different aspects of applied philosophy in peace action, commonly involving the contributors’ continual engagement in the field, while offering sup...

  2. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  3. Operations and maintenance philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUNCAN, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    This Operations and Maintenance (O and M) Philosophy document is intended to establish a future O and M vision, with an increased focus on minimizing worker exposure, ensuring uninterrupted retrieval operations, and minimizing operation life-cycle cost. It is intended that this document would incorporate O and M lessons learned into on-going and future project upgrades

  4. The mechanization of natural philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Garber, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews the transformation of natural philosophy in the 16th and 17th centuries: description of nature in mathematical terms; comparison of natural phenomena to existing or imaginary machines and the use of mechanical analogies in natural philosophy.

  5. Philosophy and Sociology Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kravchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy and Social science school of MGIMO has received both nationwide and international recognition. The traditions of the school were laid by two highly respected scientists and science managers, George P. Frantsev, who was the rector MGIMO during the crucial period of its early years, and Alexander F. Shishkin, who was the founder and head of the Department of Philosophy. The former belonged to one of the best schools of antic history studies of the Petersburg (Leningrad University. Frantsev made a great contribution to the restoration of Russian social and political science after World War II. After graduating from MGIMO, he worked at the Foreign Ministry of USSR, and then served as a rector of the Academy of Social Sciences and chief-editor of the journal "Problems of Peace and Socialism" in Prague. He consistently supported MGIMO scientists and recommended them as participants for international congresses and conferences. Shishkin was born in Vologda, and studied in Petrograd during 1920s. His research interests included history of education and morality. He was the author of the first textbook on ethics in the postwar USSR. Other works Shishkin, including monograph "XX century and the moral values of humanity", played a in reorienting national philosophy from class interests to universal moral principles. During thirty years of his leadership of the Department of Philosophy, Shishkin managed to prepare several generations of researchers and university professors. Scientists educated by Shishkin students consider themselves to be his "scientific grandchildren". The majority of MGIMO post-graduate students followed the footsteps of Frantsev in their research, but they also were guided by Shishkin's ideas on morality in human relations. Philosophy and Social science school of MGIMO played an important role in the revival of Soviet social and political science. Soviet Social Science Association (SSSA, established in 1958, elected Frantsev

  6. The Philosophy of University Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, James A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a stated philosophy of university housing and the philosophy's effect on the facilitation of the personal and intellectual growth of students residing in the residence halls and the development of a sense of community. This particular philosophy governs the housing operations at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.…

  7. Philosophy and safety requirements for land-based nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, Otto

    1978-01-01

    The main ideas of safety philosophy for land-based nuclear installations are presented together with their background of protection goals. Today's requirements for design and quality assurance are deductively shown. Finally a proposition is made for a new balancing of safety philosophy according to the high safety level that nuclear installations have reached

  8. The death of Philosophy: A response to Stephen Hawking | Scott ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In his 2010 work, The Grand Design, Stephen Hawking, argues that '… philosophy is dead' (2010: 5). While not a Philosopher, Hawking provides strong argument for his thesis, principally that philosophers have not taken science sufficiently seriously and so Philosophy is no longer relevant to knowledge claims.

  9. Development of a nuclear ship safety philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    A unique safety philosophy must be recognized and accepted as an integral part of the design and operation of a nuclear ship. For the nuclear powered ship, the ultimate safety of the reactor and therefore the crew and the environment lies with the safety of the ship itself. The basis for ship safety is its ability to navigate and survive the conditions or the environment in which it may find itself. The subject of traditional ship safety is examined along with its implication for reactor protection and safety. Concepts of reactor safety are also examined. These two philosophies are combined in a manner so as to provide a sound philosophy for the safety of nuclear ships, their crews, and the environment

  10. Experimental Design of a Polymeric Solution to Improve the Mobility Ratio in a Reservoir previous implementation of a pilot project of EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cuenca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes experimental formulations of polymeric solutions through lab evaluations with the objective of finding optimum solution concentration to fluid mobility in reservoirs as previous step before implementing a pilot project of enhanced oil recovery. The polymers, firstly, were selected based on the properties from fluids from reservoir. Two types of polymers were used TCC-330 and EOR909 and the experimental tests were: thermal stability, compatibility, adsorption, salinity, and displacement. The design with the best results was with polymer TCC-330 at 1,500 ppm concentration.

  11. A Philosophy of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Horne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The survival of the homo sapiens sapiens species depends upon learning and passing on to future generations quality knowledge. Yet, we find to an increasing extent a corruption of the process, resulting in ignorance, environmental destruction, and breakdown of community. A fundamental shift in priorities is required to avert disaster. Articulating a solution depends upon a language, which, in turn, depends upon clarifying concepts. This paper identifies the dialectical (something existing because of what it is not interrelationship of episteme (theory and techné (practice within the framework of ethos, pathos, and logos. This structure and process as learning provides coherence in developing knowledge and can then be what in a generic sense is religion (to cohere, or bind. In a monk-like devotion to learning to generate quality knowledge humanity can appreciate its own meaning and make this world a better place in which to live. In this way religion becomes philosophy, and philosophy religion.

  12. A Philosophy of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Horne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The survival of the homo sapiens sapiens species depends upon learning and passing on to future generations quality knowledge. Yet, we find to an increasing extent a corruption of the process, resulting in ignorance, environmental destruction, and breakdown of community. A fundamental shift in priorities is required to avert disaster. Articulating a solution depends upon a language, which, in turn, depends upon clarifying concepts. This paper identifies the dialectical (something existing because of what it is not interrelationship of episteme (theory and techné (practice within the framework of ethos, pathos, and logos. This structure and process as learning provides coherence in developing knowledge and can then be what in a generic sense is religion (to cohere, or bind. In a monk-like devotion to learning to generate quality knowledge humanity can appreciate its own meaning and make this world a better place in which to live. In this way religion becomes philosophy, and philosophy religion.

  13. Immanent philosophy of X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Robin Findlay

    2016-02-01

    In this paper I examine the relationship between historians, philosophers and sociologists of science, and indeed scientists themselves. I argue that (i) they co-habit a shared intellectual territory (science and its past); and (ii) they should be able to do so peacefully, and with mutual respect, even if they disagree radically about how to describe the methods and results of science. I then go on to explore some of the challenges to mutually respectful cohabitation between history, philosophy and sociology of science. I conclude by identifying a familiar kind of project in the philosophy of science which seeks to explore the worldview of a particular scientific discipline, and argue that it too has a right to explore the shared territory even though some historians and sociologists may find it methodologically suspect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The philosophy of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D; Saunders, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Following a long-term international collaboration between leaders in cosmology and the philosophy of science, this volume addresses foundational questions at the limit of science across these disciplines, questions raised by observational and theoretical progress in modern cosmology. Space missions have mapped the Universe up to its early instants, opening up questions on what came before the Big Bang, the nature of space and time, and the quantum origin of the Universe. As the foundational volume of an emerging academic discipline, experts from relevant fields lay out the fundamental problems of contemporary cosmology and explore the routes toward finding possible solutions. Written for graduates and researchers in physics and philosophy, particular efforts are made to inform academics from other fields, as well as the educated public, who wish to understand our modern vision of the Universe, related philosophical questions, and the significant impacts on scientific methodology.

  15. Radiation protection philosophy alters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firmin, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two significant events that have taken place this year in the field of radiation protection are reported. New SI units have been proposed (and effectively adopted), and the ICRP has revised its recommendations. Changes of emphasis in the latest recommendations (ICRP Publication 26) imply an altered radiation protection philosophy, in particular the relation of dose limits to estimates of average risk, an altered view of the critical organ approach and a new attitude to genetic dose to the population. (author)

  16. Microbiology, philosophy and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A

    2016-09-01

    There are not only many links between microbiological and philosophical topics, but good educational reasons for microbiologists to explore the philosophical issues in their fields. I examine three broad issues of classification, causality and model systems, showing how these philosophical dimensions have practical implications. I conclude with a discussion of the educational benefits for recognising the philosophy in microbiology. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Safety philosophy of ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuaki

    1995-01-01

    Measures are important as the means to realize philosophy. Accordingly, it is meaningful to take measures as the object when the philosophy of ICRP is considered. As to controllable risk factors, restraint shall be done so as to make the risk being brought about as small as possible. When it is not necessary to limit restraining means, risk-free is ideal. Ionizing radiation is one of risk factors. The risk that ICRP speaks is the loss of the probability of maintaining life. The object of radiation protection is limited to the exposure to controllable radiation, and the aim of protection is to minimize risk under the condition of as low as reasonably achievable. The philosophy of ICRP and the problems in the measures are discussed. ICRP and ICRU must reconfirm the allotment of roles. Radiation protection system is composed of system of radiation dosimetry and system of dose limitation. The mission of ICRP is to recommend political decision, and it may make the political declaration 'The radiation below a certain amount may be regarded as safe'. It is better only to recommend the conversion relation of radiation dose and risk. The desire and demand to ICRP are mentioned. (K.I.)

  18. Philosophy in Seminaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Tarasiewicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author attempts to answer the question concerning whether or not philosophy is needed in seminaries. In light of his analysis, it can be concluded that philosophical studies for future priests are a serious alternative to the fideistic positions often adopted by Catholics. The presence of philosophy in the seminary curriculum is supported by: (1 the need for building intellectual foundations of the religious faith professed by a cleric; the faith which cannot do without reason and abstain from justifying the rationale of its content; (2 the need for introducing the alumnus to the mysteries of the classical philosophy of being which can equip him with a better understanding of human nature and the surrounding reality. In this way, the seminarian: (1 acquires a reasonable belief that the human mind is able to know the objective and universal truth, including the truth about God as the Ultimate Cause of all that exists; (2 is able to enter into an intelligent dialogue about the truth with an increasingly globalized world.

  19. Newton and scholastic philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Dmitri

    2016-03-01

    This article examines Isaac Newton's engagement with scholastic natural philosophy. In doing so, it makes two major historiographical interventions. First of all, the recent claim that Newton's use of the concepts of analysis and synthesis was derived from the Aristotelian regressus tradition is challenged on the basis of bibliographical, palaeographical and intellectual evidence. Consequently, a new, contextual explanation is offered for Newton's use of these concepts. Second, it will be shown that some of Newton's most famous pronouncements - from the General Scholium appended to the second edition of the Principia (1713) and from elsewhere - are simply incomprehensible without an understanding of specific scholastic terminology and its later reception, and that this impacts in quite significant ways on how we understand Newton's natural philosophy more generally. Contrary to the recent historiographical near-consensus, Newton did not hold an elaborate metaphysics, and his seemingly 'metaphysical' statements were in fact anti-scholastic polemical salvoes. The whole investigation will permit us a brief reconsideration of the relationship between the self-proclaimed 'new' natural philosophy and its scholastic predecessors.

  20. Physics, philosophy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel Maya, Augusto

    2001-01-01

    Physics and philosophy has join developments since the Jonios. The present article tries to analyze some of the philosophical problems that arise of the classic and contemporary physics and that affect the environmental vision. In general, it can be said that the discoveries of the physics has meant a progressive desplatonization of the western world, including the remaining of Platon that is included in Aristoteles philosophy. From the analysis some problems arise that is worthwhile to emphasize. Above all the relationship between determinism and random theory, from the environmental perspective it is necessary to wonder if it is licit to apply these concepts to man. With it the problem of freedom arise, attacked by Spinoza, but carefully protected by Kant's philosophy. Their acceptance supposes, however, the division between man and the cultural schizophrenia. Is it possible to explain freedom from the physics, such as was pretended by Epicuro or Prigonine? Has nature a wide field of freedom as it is assumed in some of the currents of contemporary physics? All of them are questions that the environmental thought has to confront, although it cannot solve them

  1. The philosophy of modelling or does the philosophy of biology have any use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzack, Steven Hecht

    2012-01-19

    Biologists in search of answers to real-world issues such as the ecological consequences of global warming, the design of species' conservation plans, understanding landscape dynamics and understanding gene expression make decisions constantly that are based on a 'philosophical' stance as to how to create and test explanations of an observed phenomenon. For better or for worse, some kind of philosophy is an integral part of the doing of biology. Given this, it is more important than ever to undertake a practical assessment of what philosophy does mean and should mean to biologists. Here, I address three questions: should biologists pay any attention to 'philosophy'; should biologists pay any attention to 'philosophy of biology'; and should biologists pay any attention to the philosophy of biology literature on modelling? I describe why the last question is easily answered affirmatively, with the proviso that the practical benefits to be gained by biologists from this literature will be directly proportional to the extent to which biologists understand 'philosophy' to be a part of biology, not apart from biology.

  2. Philosophy at Cambridge, Newsletter of the Faculty of Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Philosophy Newsletter. Articles by: Edward Craig - From the Chairman. Onora O'Neill - "It's the newspapers I can't stand. Serena Olsaretti - The 2004 Annual Royal Institute of Philosophy Conference. Mary Leng - Mathematical Knowledge Conference. Postgraduate Conference. Jane Heal - Facts, Fables and Funds. Hugh Mellor - Uses and Abuses of Probability. Amanda Boyle - Nobody Knows Anything: Philosophy, Film and Me. Jaime Whyte - Seven Years at Cambridge Alex Oliver...

  3. Shakespeare's Philosophy of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Sulka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Shakespeare is one of the most widely read figures in literature, but his use of music is not usually touched on in literary discussions of his works. In this paper, I discuss how Shakespeare portrays music within the context of his plays, through both dialogue and songs performed within each work. In Shakespeare’s time, Boethius’s philosophy of the Music of the Spheres was still highly popular. This was the idea that the arrangement of the cosmos mirrored musical proportions. As a result, every aspect of the universe was believed to be highly ordered, and this idea is prominent throughout Shakespeare’s works, from "Hamlet" to "A Midsummer Night’s Dream." To make this clear to the reader, I discuss dialogue symmetry weaved throughout "The Merchant of Venice," clear allusions to the music of the spheres in "Pericles," and the use of music as a signifier of the strange and mysterious – from madness to love – in numerous works, always relating these topics back to the philosophy of the music of the spheres. In order to compile this information and make it clear, I researched the philosophy of music during Shakespeare’s era. I also researched how he uses music thematically to emphasize different characters’ struggles as well as plot details. After examining his plays as well as the other sources available on the subject, it is clear that Shakespeare was highly influenced by the philosophical and practical ideas regarding music of his time, specifically the theory of the music of the spheres.

  4. The Philosophy of Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamcham, Khalil; Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D.; Saunders, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Part I. Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology: 1. Cosmology, cosmologia and the testing of cosmological theories George F. R. Ellis; 2. Black holes, cosmology and the passage of time: three problems at the limits of science Bernard Carr; 3. Moving boundaries? - comments on the relationship between philosophy and cosmology Claus Beisbart; 4. On the question why there exists something rather than nothing Roderich Tumulka; Part II. Structures in the Universe and the Structure of Modern Cosmology: 5. Some generalities about generality John D. Barrow; 6. Emergent structures of effective field theories Jean-Philippe Uzan; 7. Cosmological structure formation Joel R. Primack; 8. Formation of galaxies Joseph Silk; Part III. Foundations of Cosmology: Gravity and the Quantum: 9. The observer strikes back James Hartle and Thomas Hertog; 10. Testing inflation Chris Smeenk; 11. Why Boltzmann brains do not fluctuate into existence from the de Sitter vacuum Kimberly K. Boddy, Sean M. Carroll and Jason Pollack; 12. Holographic inflation revised Tom Banks; 13. Progress and gravity: overcoming divisions between general relativity and particle physics and between physics and HPS J. Brian Pitts; Part IV. Quantum Foundations and Quantum Gravity: 14. Is time's arrow perspectival? Carlo Rovelli; 15. Relational quantum cosmology Francesca Vidotto; 16. Cosmological ontology and epistemology Don N. Page; 17. Quantum origin of cosmological structure and dynamical reduction theories Daniel Sudarsky; 18. Towards a novel approach to semi-classical gravity Ward Struyve; Part V. Methodological and Philosophical Issues: 19. Limits of time in cosmology Svend E. Rugh and Henrik Zinkernagel; 20. Self-locating priors and cosmological measures Cian Dorr and Frank Arntzenius; 21. On probability and cosmology: inference beyond data? Martin Sahlén; 22. Testing the multiverse: Bayes, fine-tuning and typicality Luke A. Barnes; 23. A new perspective on Einstein's philosophy of cosmology Cormac O

  5. A TQC philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sandrock

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a recent upsurge in the quest for world class manufacturing. Tremendous amounts of effort are being exerted to attain Total quality Control (TQC - so as to be able to produce "the best". The EEC has stated categorically that it will only support accredited suppliers, and this has been partly responsible for the recent fixation on techniques for excellence. These techniques often fail to produce results. This paper presents a systems based philosophy for working towards world class levels of manufacturing.

  6. Philosophy of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amein, H.; Joyia, Y.; Qureshi, M.N.; Asif, M.

    1995-01-01

    In view of the huge power demand in future, the capital investment requirements for the development of power projects to meet the future energy requirements are so alarming that public sector alone cannot manage to raise funds and participation of the private sector in power generation development has become imperative. This paper discusses a power generation philosophy based on preference to the exploitation of indigenous resources and participation of private sector. In order to have diversification in generation resources, due consideration has been given to the development of nuclear power and even non-conventional but promising technologies of solar, wind, biomass and geothermal etc. (author)

  7. Poetry, philosophy, political

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pucheu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering how persistently a certain amount of specialized critics work to diminish contemporary Brazilian poetry, this essay seeks to conceive an articulation among poetry, philosophy and politics. We atempt to do that, on the one hand, through the philosophical concepts of aporia and wonder (thaumazein, and, on the another hand, by considering what Giorgio Agamben refers to as “an insurmontable disjunction between whatever singularity and the State organization”. Among the many poets that could be approached in this context, we chose to close the text with an interpretation some of Tarso de Melo's remarkably and explicitly political poems.

  8. Introducing philosophy of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Friend, Michele

    2014-01-01

    What is mathematics about? Does the subject-matter of mathematics exist independently of the mind or are they mental constructions? How do we know mathematics? Is mathematical knowledge logical knowledge? And how is mathematics applied to the material world? In this introduction to the philosophy of mathematics, Michele Friend examines these and other ontological and epistemological problems raised by the content and practice of mathematics. Aimed at a readership with limited proficiency in mathematics but with some experience of formal logic it seeks to strike a balance between conceptual acc

  9. Philosophy of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M; Woods, John

    2009-01-01

    One of the most striking features of mathematics is the fact that we are much more certain about the mathematical knowledge we have than about what mathematical knowledge is knowledge of. Are numbers, sets, functions and groups physical entities of some kind? Are they objectively existing objects in some non-physical, mathematical realm? Are they ideas that are present only in the mind? Or do mathematical truths not involve referents of any kind? It is these kinds of questions that have encouraged philosophers and mathematicians alike to focus their attention on issues in the philosophy of mat

  10. Einstein's Phobia of Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alberto

    The famous philosopher Henri Bergson criticized Einstein's special theory of relativity by imagining giants, microbes, two-dimensional beings, and a ''supreme consciousness.'' He argued that Einstein had arbitrarily made a sharp distinction between local and distant events and that Einstein confused time itself with mere clock measurements. I will discuss why Einstein dodged Bergson's pushy efforts to inject more subjectivity into relativity theory by explaining how Einstein, as a lonely young man, developed his critical views on philosophy. This talk is part of the invited FHP session on The Physicist and the Philosopher: Einstein, Bergson and the Debate that Changed Our Understanding of Time.

  11. Rorty, Pragmatism, and Analytic Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Misak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of Richard Rorty's legacies is to have put a Jamesian version of pragmatism on the contemporary philosophical map. Part of his argument has been that pragmatism and analytic philosophy are set against each other, with pragmatism almost having been killed off by the reigning analytic philosophy. The argument of this paper is that there is a better and more interesting reading of both the history of pragmatism and the history of analytic philosophy.

  12. The philosophy of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rickles, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Does the future exist already? What is space? Are time machines physically possible? What is quantum mechanical reality like? Are there many universes? Is there a 'true' geometry of the universe? Why does there appear to be an arrow of time? Do humans play a special role in the world? In this unique introductory book, Dean Rickles guides the reader through these and other core questions that keep philosophers of physics up at night. He discusses the three pillars of modern physics (quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and the theories of relativity), in addition to more cutting-edge themes such as econophysics, quantum gravity, quantum computers, and gauge theories. The book's approach is based on the idea that philosophy of physics is a kind of 'interpretation game' in which we try to map physical theories onto our world. But the rules of this game often lead to a multiplicity of possible victors: rarely do we encounter a simple answer. The Philosophy of Physics offers a highly accessible introduction...

  13. Bioethics from the philosophy of Zubiri

    OpenAIRE

    Pose Varela, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The history of ethics reveals it to be a knowledge that has developed progressively with a construction dependent on numerous factors. From Kant onwards, ethics became universal and categorical, and had never been so until that time. Previously, at least for Socrates and Aristotle, ethics was based on deliberation as a method of research of that which is good; the good being expressed in multiple ways. In this article, we present an explanation of this kind of ethics from Zubiri’s philosophy....

  14. 87 Philosophy and African Philosophy: A Conceptual Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    (wisdom). Thus, to the Greeks, philosophy meant philosophia love of wisdom and a philosopher was regarded as a lover or friend of wisdom. This was what Pythagoras the one who purportedly was the first to use the word 'philosopher' called himself in preference to being called a 'wise man.xivPhilosophy here means 'love ...

  15. Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, and Counseling Ethics: Not an Abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urofsky, Robert I.; Engels, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past several decades, increased attention has been given to ethics in the preparation of counselors and psychologists. With that increase comes a number of voices calling for exposure to and integration of not only moral philosophy but other areas of philosophy to enhance understanding and provide a foundation for counseling practice. The…

  16. The Revolutions in English Philosophy and Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article was first published in 1982 in "Educational Analysis" (4, 75-91) and republished in 1998 (Hirst, P. H., & White, P. (Eds.), "Philosophy of education: Major themes in the analytic tradition," Vol. 1, "Philosophy and education, Part 1," pp. 61-78. London: Routledge). I was then a lecturer in philosophy…

  17. Introduction: philosophy in and philosophy of cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Despite being there from the beginning, philosophical approaches have never had a settled place in cognitive research and few cognitive researchers not trained in philosophy have a clear sense of what its role has been or should be. We distinguish philosophy in cognitive research and philosophy of cognitive research. Concerning philosophy in cognitive research, after exploring some standard reactions to this work by nonphilosophers, we will pay particular attention to the methods that philosophers use. Being neither experimental nor computational, they can leave others bewildered. Thought experiments are the most striking example but not the only one. Concerning philosophy of cognitive research, we will pay particular attention to its power to generate and test normative claims, claims about what should and should not be done. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Philosophy of phenomenology: how understanding aids research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Mary

    2012-01-01

    To assist the researcher in understanding the similarities and differences between the Husserlian and Heideggerian philosophies of phenomenology, and how that philosophy can inform nursing research as a useful methodology. Nurse researchers using phenomenology as a methodology need to understand the philosophy of phenomenology to produce a research design that is philosophically congruent. However, phenomenology has a long and complex history of development, and may be difficult to understand and apply. The author draws from Heidegger (1962), Gadamer (2004), and nurse scholars and methodologists. To give the reader a sense of the development of the philosophy of phenomenology, the author briefly recounts its historical origins and interpretations, specifically related to Husserl, Heidegger and Gadamer. The author outlines the ontological and epistemological assumptions of Husserlian and Heideggerian phenomenology and guidance for methodology inspired by these philosophers. Difficulties with engaging in phenomenological research are addressed, especially the processes of phenomenological reduction and bracketing, and the lack of clarity about the methods of interpretation. Despite its complexity, phenomenology can provide the nurse researcher with indepth insight into nursing practice. An understanding of phenomenology can guide nurse researchers to produce results that have meaning in nursing patient care.

  19. Constructive philosophy of technology and responsible innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.; Franssen, M.; Vermaas, P.E.; Kroes, P.; Meijers, A.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    This essay argues for a new turn after the empirical turn in the philosophy of technology: the societal turn, which is the turn from reflective philosophy of technology (academic philosophy concerned with analysis and understanding) to constructive philosophy of technology (philosophy that is

  20. Present Day Philosophies of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2006-01-01

    Presently, there are competing philosophies of education which need comparison. Two philosophies will be compared which are at opposite ends of the continuum. They are distinctly different. And yet, both schools of thought have their disciples. Each of the two will be discussed in terms of its essential features and then there will be selected…

  1. Odera Oruka's Contribution to Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commentators on the four trends in contemporary African philosophy as enunciated by H. Odera Oruka frequently focus on the merits and demerits of each trend. However, many of them are obblivious to the way in which sagacity emancipates African philosophy by putting reason in its rightful pivotal position. This article ...

  2. Elementary School Philosophy: A Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to criticism of my book "Big Ideas for Little Kids." The main topics addressed are: Who is the audience for the book? Can people without formal philosophical training can be good facilitators of elementary school philosophy discussions? Is it important to assess attempts to teach philosophy in elementary school? Should…

  3. Kaupapa Maori, Philosophy and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Georgina

    2014-01-01

    Goals for adding philosophy to the school curriculum centre on the perceived need to improve the general quality of critical thinking found in society. School philosophy also provides a means for asking questions of value and purpose about curriculum content across and between subjects, and, furthermore, it affirms the capability of children to…

  4. Reflections concerning radiation protection philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seelentag, W.

    1981-01-01

    Critical philosophy also includes observations of the technical amplified senses make, i.e. the application of accessory instruments, measuring instruments and statistic methods. The application of this philosophy is, among other things, referred to when taking the linear dose response relationship for stochastic radiation effects as an example. (DG) [de

  5. Towards Intercultural Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Heesoon; Eppert, Claudia; Scott, Charles; Tait, Saskia; Nguyen, Tram

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an understanding of philosophy of education as cultural and intercultural work and philosophers of education as cultural and intercultural workers. In our view, the discipline of philosophy of education in North America is currently suffering from measures of insularity and singularity. It is vital that we justly and…

  6. Philosophy of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Forster, Malcolm R

    2011-01-01

    Statisticians and philosophers of science have many common interests but restricted communication with each other. This volume aims to remedy these shortcomings. It provides state-of-the-art research in the area of philosophy of statistics by encouraging numerous experts to communicate with one another without feeling "restricted” by their disciplines or thinking "piecemeal” in their treatment of issues. A second goal of this book is to present work in the field without bias toward any particular statistical paradigm. Broadly speaking, the essays in this Handbook are concerned with problems of induction, statistics and probability. For centuries, foundational problems like induction have been among philosophers' favorite topics; recently, however, non-philosophers have increasingly taken a keen interest in these issues. This volume accordingly contains papers by both philosophers and non-philosophers, including scholars from nine academic disciplines.

  7. Philosophy of Computer Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aatami Järvinen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diversity and interdisciplinary of Computer Sciences, and the multiplicity of its uses in other sciences make it difficult to define them and prescribe how to perform them. Furthermore, also cause friction between computer scientists from different branches. Because of how they are structured, these sciences programs are criticized for not offer an adequate methodological training, or a deep understanding of different research traditions. To collaborate on a solution, some have decided to include in their curricula courses that enable students to gain awareness about epistemology and methodological issues in Computer Science, as well as give meaning to the practice of computer scientists. In this article the needs and objectives of the courses on the philosophy of Computer Science are analyzed, and its structure and management are explained.

  8. Physics and philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Feyerabend, P K; Agassi, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This collection of the writings of Paul Feyerabend is focused on his philosophy of quantum physics, the hotbed of the key issues of his most debated ideas. Written between 1948 and 1970, these writings come from his first and most productive period. These early works are important for two main reasons. First, they document Feyerabend's deep concern with the philosophical implications of quantum physics and its interpretations. These ideas were paid less attention in the following two decades. Second, the writings provide the crucial background for Feyerabend's critiques of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn. Although rarely considered by scholars, Feyerabend's early work culminated in the first version of Against Method. These writings guided him on all the key issues of his most well-known and debated theses, such as the incommensurability thesis, the principles of proliferation and tenacity, and his particular version of relativism, and more specifically on quantum mechanics.

  9. Philosophy of ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bryson; Peacock, Kent A

    2011-01-01

    The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology to policy or other practical concerns right, humanity needs a clear and disinterested philosophical understanding of ecology which can help identify the practical lessons of science. Conversely, the urgent practical demands humanity faces today cannot help but direct scientific and philosophical investigation toward the basis of those ecological challenges that threaten human survival. This book will help to fuel the timely renaissance of interest in philosophy of ecology that is now oc...

  10. Legitimizing Blacks in Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameliah Shorter-Bourhanou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In its efforts toward improving diversity, the discipline of philosophy has tended to focus on increasing the number of black philosophers. One crucial issue that has received less attention is the extent to which black philosophers are delegitimized in the discipline because their philosophical contributions challenge the status quo. A systematic problem that bars black philosophers from equal and full participation, this delegitimization precludes the emergence of genuine diversity and reveals the importance of interrogating broader attitudes toward black philosophical contributions. In this essay, I argue for radical systematic changes to disciplinary hallmarks of professionalization such as pedagogy, mentoring, publishing, and hiring practices with the aim of legitimizing black philosophers and their contributions.

  11. Philosophie en islam

    OpenAIRE

    Jambet, Christian

    2013-01-01

    I. L’héritage d’Avicenne au xviie siècle : le Commentaire de la Métaphysique du Shifā’ par Mullā Ṣadrā Les philosophes de l’Iran safavide ont une dette envers l’œuvre d’Avicenne, Abū ʽAlī ibn Sīnā (m. 428/1037). L’ouvrage synthétique et allusif d’Avicenne, al-Ishārāt wa l-tanbīhāt fut méthodiquement étudié par les savants imamites quand Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī en eut achevé son commentaire vers 664/1246. Les philosophes instruits de la théologie rationnelle imamite et de la philosophie « illumin...

  12. Philosophy of clinical psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, Massimiliano

    2013-03-01

    The renewal of the philosophical debate in psychiatry is one exciting news of recent years. However, its use in psychopharmacology may be problematic, ranging from self-confinement into the realm of values (which leaves the evidence-based domain unchallenged) to complete rejection of scientific evidence. In this paper philosophy is conceived as a conceptual audit of clinical psychopharmacology. Its function is to criticise the epistemological and methodological problems of current neopositivist, ingenuously realist and evidence-servant psychiatry from within the scientific stance and with the aim of aiding psychopharmacologists in practicing a more self-aware, critical and possibly useful clinical practice. Three examples are discussed to suggest that psychopharmacological practice needs conceptual clarification. At the diagnostic level it is shown that the crisis of the current diagnostic system and the problem of comorbidity strongly influence psychopharmacological results, new conceptualizations more respondent to the psychopharmacological requirements being needed. Heterogeneity of research samples, lack of specificity of psychotropic drugs, difficult generalizability of results, need of a phenomenological study of drug-induced psychopathological changes are discussed herein. At the methodological level the merits and limits of evidence-based practice are considered, arguing that clinicians should know the best available evidence but that guidelines should not be constrictive (due to several methodological biases and rhetorical tricks of which the clinician should be aware, sometimes respondent to extra-scientific, economical requests). At the epistemological level it is shown that the clinical stance is shaped by implicit philosophical beliefs about the mind/body problem (reductionism, dualism, interactionism, pragmatism), and that philosophy can aid physicians to be more aware of their beliefs in order to choose the most useful view and to practice coherently

  13. [Treatment goals in FACE philosophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Domingo; Maté, Amaia; Zabalegui, Paula; Valenzuela, Jaime

    2017-03-01

    The FACE philosophy is characterized by clearly defined treatment goals: facial esthetics, dental esthetics, periodontal health, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The purpose is to establish ideal occlusion with good facial esthetics and an orthopedic stable joint position. The authors present all the concepts of FACE philosophy and illustrate them through one case report. Taking into account all the FACE philosophy concepts increases diagnostic ability and improves the quality and stability of treatment outcomes. The goal of this philosophy is to harmonize the facial profile, tooth alignment, periodontium, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The evaluation and treatment approach to vertical problems are unique to the philosophy. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.

  14. Philosophy of Research in Applied Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Torabi

    2011-01-01

    The term  “ philosophy of research in applied linguistics” may be considered to cover a wide range of academically and philosophically important issues that have recently begun to capture the attention of scholars in research programs in their efforts, on the one hand, to reflect upon how they have traditionally approached their scientific practices and, on the other, to reconsider and redefine their research priorities in the light of new findings and revise their methodologies and designs i...

  15. Qualitative tools and experimental philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andow, James

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Experimental philosophy brings empirical methods to philosophy. These methods are used to probe how people think about philosophically interesting things such as knowledge, morality, and freedom. This paper explores the contribution that qualitative methods have to make in this enterprise. I argue that qualitative methods have the potential to make a much greater contribution than they have so far. Along the way, I acknowledge a few types of resistance that proponents of qualitative methods in experimental philosophy might encounter, and provide reasons to think they are ill-founded. PMID:28392629

  16. Yoneda Philosophy in Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambrini Seremeti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models, such as sets of equations, are used in engineering to represent and analyze the behaviour of physical systems. The conventional notations in formulating engineering models do not clearly provide all the details required in order to fully understand the equations, and, thus, artifacts such as ontologies, which are the building blocks of knowledge representation models, are used to fulfil this gap. Since ontologies are the outcome of an intersubjective agreement among a group of individuals about the same fragment of the objective world, their development and use are questions in debate with regard to their competencies and limitations to univocally conceptualize a domain of interest. This is related to the following question: “What is the criterion for delimiting the specification of the main identifiable entities in order to consistently build the conceptual framework of the domain in question?” This query motivates us to view the Yoneda philosophy as a fundamental concern of understanding the conceptualization phase of each ontology engineering methodology. In this way, we exploit the link between the notion of formal concepts of formal concept analysis and a concluding remark resulting from the Yoneda embedding lemma of category theory in order to establish a formal process.

  17. Cosmology and philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of establishing boundaries between cosmology and philosophy is discussed. It is stated that the theoretic knowledge and observation data do not contradict the selection of one of non-stationary homogenous and isotropic relativistic models, which are also called the Friedmann models. In this model (with a zero Λ - member) there is a critical value of the substance density which is 10 -29 g/cm 2 . The determination of the average density of the Universe substance relatively to this value enables to choose between a closed and an open Universe model. Nowadays, this problem is not yet solved. But some philosophic theses reject the closed cosmological model without any naturally scientific argumentation. Critical remarks about such an approach to the problem studied are presented. The conclusion is made that the problems of the Universe volume infinity of finity, laws of its evolution in time or the like are not philosophic and should be considered taking into account the data of astronomic observations and modern physics

  18. The changing shape of U.S. licensing philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remick, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    The shape of U.S. nuclear licensing and regulatory philosophy and process has already changed. The new process requires NRC review and approval of the vendor designs before a prospective utility license applicant purchases the design and begins construction. The new philosophy has resulted from the lessons learned from extensive operating experience accumulated in the United States. New criteria established for judging reactor designs include the capability of future designs to be more tolerant of accidents beyond the traditional design basis events. Qualitative and quantitative goals have been chosen as a guide for allocating resources for regulation of the currently operating plants. The changing shape of nuclear licensing and regulatory philosophy is also a result of economic circumstances in the United States. All will have a better opportunity to take part in the process which is most likely to encourage further development of safe nuclear energy in the United States. (author)

  19. The Concept "System of Philosophy"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2005-01-01

    is to analyze Jacob Brucker’s employment of the concept in his influential history of philosophy, Historia critica philosophiae, dating from 1742-68. To Brucker, a ‘system of philosophy’ is characterized by the following four features: (a) it is autonomous in regard to other, non-philosophical disciplines; (b......In this article I shall examine and discuss the concept ‘system of philosophy’ as a methodological tool in the history of philosophy. I shall do so in two moves. First I shall analyze the historical origin of the concept in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Thereafter I shall undertake...... a discussion of its methodological weaknesses — a discussion, which is not only relevant to the writing of history of philosophy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but also to the writing of history of philosophy in our times, where the concept remains an important methodological tool. My first move...

  20. Why still philosophy?: Once again

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to revisit, once again the question asked by Adorno and Habermas and other contemporary thinkers under different headings few decades ago. The author is suggesting that nowadays philosophy requires a final departure from the idea of having single and perennial face, and that this would not only allow, but also enable philosophy to test its various faces freely, that is, without norm or limit set in advance. At the same time, by creating such ′liberal′ climate philosophy would no longer be frightened by the possible answer, and hence would no longer dramatize the very question of ′why still?′. Even if philosophy turns out to be far less than the mission it once bestowed upon itself.

  1. Statistical reporting inconsistencies in experimental philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Matteo; Duev, Georgi; Nuijten, Michèle B; Sprenger, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Experimental philosophy (x-phi) is a young field of research in the intersection of philosophy and psychology. It aims to make progress on philosophical questions by using experimental methods traditionally associated with the psychological and behavioral sciences, such as null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). Motivated by recent discussions about a methodological crisis in the behavioral sciences, questions have been raised about the methodological standards of x-phi. Here, we focus on one aspect of this question, namely the rate of inconsistencies in statistical reporting. Previous research has examined the extent to which published articles in psychology and other behavioral sciences present statistical inconsistencies in reporting the results of NHST. In this study, we used the R package statcheck to detect statistical inconsistencies in x-phi, and compared rates of inconsistencies in psychology and philosophy. We found that rates of inconsistencies in x-phi are lower than in the psychological and behavioral sciences. From the point of view of statistical reporting consistency, x-phi seems to do no worse, and perhaps even better, than psychological science.

  2. [Neurosciences and philosophy of mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saal, Aarón

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we argue that the interaction between neurosciences and philosophy of the mind is on the way to understand consciousness, and to solve the mind-body or mind-brain problem. Naturalism is the view that mental processes are just brain processes and that consciousness is a natural phenomenon. It is possible to construct a theory about its nature by blending insights from neuroscience, philosophy of the mind, phenomenology, psychology and evolutionary biology.

  3. Testing philosophy and simulation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtbecker, H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews past and present testing philosophies and simulation techniques in the field of structure loading and response studies. The main objective of experimental programmes in the past was to simulate a hypothetical energy release with explosives and to deduce the potential damage to a reactor from the measured damage to the model. This approach was continuously refined by improving the instrumentation of the models, by reproducing the structures as faithful as possible and by developing new explosive charges. This paper presents an analysis of the factors which are expected to have an influence on the validity of the results e.g. strain rate effects and the use of water instead of sodium. More recently the discussion of a whole series of accidents in the probabilistic accident analysis and the intention to compare different reactor designs has revealed the need to develop and validate computer codes. Consequently experimental programmes have been started in which the primary aim is not to test a specific reactor but to validate codes. This paper shows the principal aspects of this approach and discusses first results. (Auth.)

  4. HOBBES’ POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MHAI NOVAC

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This is basically an attempt at an original conceptual reconstruction of Hobbes’ philosophy as set in Lehiathan, namely one in the view of which Hobbes was neither an atheist nor an absolutist, as the standard interpretation holds, but rather what we could call an agnostical pragmatist (fact which, quite surprisingly, places Hobbes in the company of Burke. More to the point, my basic claim within this paper is that Hobbes was not such an ‘enemy of individual freedom’ as we traditionally hold him to be and that his thought was just as attached to the notion of individual freedom as the later contractualist views. The difference however, arises from the fact that Hobbes, unlike Locke, Rousseau or Kant, was what we could call a voluntaristic determinist and consequently viewed human freedom not so much as ‘unhindered action derived from reflective choice’, but rather as what we could call ‘reasonable fulfillment of the basic human inclinations’ (self-interest. As such, I will analyze the three main focal points of Hobbes’ thought, namely (i human nature, (ii the principle of association and (iii the principle of authority. More specifically I will try to offer a perspective on the link between his voluntaristic determinism, his notion of legitimate absolute coercion (sovereignity and his political theology (the view that any form of political authority rests on a religious legitimacy in trying to demonstrate how all these were Hobbes’ specific way of seeking to find individual freedom a place under the sun.

  5. Science and philosophy in Deleuze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krtolica Igor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deleuze will not wait until he had completed his works to frame and formulate a theory on the relation between philosophy and science. The first articulations of this question are already present as early as the 1950s and 1960s in the studies on Bergson and Nietzsche, and then in Difference and repetition as well as in The Logic of Sense. It is also true that this question will be specifically developed in 1991 in What Is Philosophy? But throughout his work, the main thrust would proceed. This issue, it seems, comprises three main aspects: in the first place, in a polemic against the neo-Kantian epistemological legacy, it primarily consists in denying the critical definition of philosophy as being a ‘reflection on scientific knowledge’ to replace it by a conception drawn from Bergson’s expressionist ontology that places science and philosophy on both sides of the being; secondly, in an attempt to restore the concept of dialectics, it consists in making the dialectics of ideas the communal sphere of both science and philosophy; thirdly, aiming to specify every form of thinking, it consists in shaping how each expresses its ideas or its problems with its own signs. These three aspects, it seems, can frame the overall conception Deleuze formed of the link between science and philosophy. We shall successively analyze them, exclusively considering the first period of Deleuze’s work, which is to say the pre-guattarian publications.

  6. The Question of African Philosophy: Methodological or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ontological status of African Philosophy has generated a lot of controversy. While some scholars have been sceptical on the existence of African philosophy, others have maintained that African philosophy is an established branch of philosophy, and dismissed any sceptical attitude towards it. Against this background ...

  7. Transcendental Philosophy and its Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishihara, Yuko

    There is an interesting overlap between Heidegger and Nishida that has not gained attention in the literature. During the late 1920s, both philosophers looked to transcendental philosophy as a way to overcome the Western metaphysical tradition. Neither philosopher, however,simply accepted...... traditional forms of transcendental philosophy. Rather, both attempted to transform it from within. In this work, I aim to articulate the extent to which Heidegger and Nishidastill worked within a traditional transcendental framework and also the ways in which they attempt to transform transcendental...... philosophy. I argue that while Heidegger’s “hermeneutic” and Nishida’s “chorological” (I employ this term from Plato’s chōra) transformations have much in common, the latter is more radical than the former. Specifically, Nishida reveals the pre-reflective origin of transcendental reflection not in the pre...

  8. MEDIA TECHNOLOGIES IN TEACHING PHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grednovskaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the experience of the Department of Philosophy of the South Ural State University (Russia on the use of media technology in the teaching of philosophy. Media technologies are examined not simply as tools of knowledge translation to students, but they are comprehended as a media reality, which sometimes completely dissolve a human. Media philosophy which appeared as a new philosophical trend that meets the today realities, contemplates the nowadays situation of influence of mass communications on human’s world outlook, on his selfidentification, also on his body and feelings. The students are possessed to analyze a visual media material, because the foundation of media reality is a visual image.

  9. Considering the Relationship between Architecture and Philosophy: Toyo Ito's Conceptual Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Serap Durmus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to exemplify the relation of architecture and philosophy over the Japanese architect Toyo Ito's conceptual architecture. The study is practiced in 'Architecture and Philosophy Readings' elective course with 22 sophomore architecture students in Karadeniz Technical University Department of Architecture. It is planned as a workshop, which discusses the design philosophy of Toyo Ito's buildings and the reflections of concept in his intellectual architecture. So, the pape...

  10. Philosophy, policies, and procedures - The three P's of flight-deck operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl L.

    1991-01-01

    Standard operating procedures are drafted and provided to flightcrews to dictate the manner in which tasks are carried out. Failure to conform to Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) is frequently listed as the cause of violations, incidents, and accidents. However, procedures are often designed piecemeal, rather than being based on a sound philosophy of operations and policies that follow from such a philosophy. A framework of philosophy, policies, and procedures is proposed.

  11. Nursing practice. Developing a philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, C

    1989-01-01

    The application of nursing models has been a recent theme in British nursing. Part of this process is the development of a nursing philosophy which underpins the model. Nurses at clinical level are often required to define their philosophy to meet clinical, educational and managerial objectives. The first part of this two-part article explores the significance of nursing philosophy to practice. In the second part, a case study is used to illustrate how clinical nurses can set about defining a philosophy of nursing for themselves. Dickoff et al (1) indicate that a philosophy is significant in the generation of theory. By identifying the nature of practice, theoretical relationships become apparent. It is also significant as Johnson (2) states in nursing's development as a profession. Johnson further asserts that nurses should use their beliefs to build a conceptual system of the person to be served and an abstract model for practice which allows such purpose to be fulfilled. However a nurse's beliefs and values about nursing may have no theoretical substance to them. They may be purely intuitive in nature. Writing a philosophy legitimates intuition. Kitson (3) considers that nurse theorists who believe that only developing a knowledge base through a scientific approach are at risk of throwing away the intuitive sources of knowledge within nursing. Yet gut reactions have been shown to be critical in the development of excellence in nursing (4). Kitson believes that intuitions can lead to developing 'grassroots standards of care' and a clearer definition of what nursing is.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  13. Experimental philosophy leading to a small scale digital data base of the conterminous United States for designing experiments with remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labovitz, M. L.; Masuoka, E. J.; Broderick, P. W.; Garman, T. R.; Ludwig, R. W.; Beltran, G. N.; Heyman, P. J.; Hooker, L. K.

    1983-01-01

    Research using satellite remotely sensed data, even within any single scientific discipline, often lacked a unifying principle or strategy with which to plan or integrate studies conducted over an area so large that exhaustive examination is infeasible, e.g., the U.S.A. However, such a series of studies would seem to be at the heart of what makes satellite remote sensing unique, that is the ability to select for study from among remotely sensed data sets distributed widely over the U.S., over time, where the resources do not exist to examine all of them. Using this philosophical underpinning and the concept of a unifying principle, an operational procedure for developing a sampling strategy and formal testable hypotheses was constructed. The procedure is applicable across disciplines, when the investigator restates the research question in symbolic form, i.e., quantifies it. The procedure is set within the statistical framework of general linear models. The dependent variable is any arbitrary function of remotely sensed data and the independent variables are values or levels of factors which represent regional climatic conditions and/or properties of the Earth's surface. These factors are operationally defined as maps from the U.S. National Atlas (U.S.G.S., 1970). Eighty-five maps from the National Atlas, representing climatic and surface attributes, were automated by point counting at an effective resolution of one observation every 17.6 km (11 miles) yielding 22,505 observations per map. The maps were registered to one another in a two step procedure producing a coarse, then fine scale registration. After registration, the maps were iteratively checked for errors using manual and automated procedures. The error free maps were annotated with identification and legend information and then stored as card images, one map to a file. A sampling design will be accomplished through a regionalization analysis of the National Atlas data base (presently being conducted

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL PHILOSOPHY AND ECOLOGICAL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalimat M. Alilova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the research is to study environmental problems related to the decline of culture, the importance of philosophy in overcoming private and personal interests as well as the unilateral approach of man in his relationship to nature. The study shows how philosophy can participate in the formation of ecological culture, a new ecological consciousness in man, while ecological culture is called upon to resist technocratic stereotypes and the course of history was aimed at preventing the biosphere from becoming deserted. Discussion. On the basis of the analysis of literary sources, we used the method of socio-cultural and socio-natural approaches based on the possibility of philosophy to introduce a new life into culture, new ecological values and new ecological principles. To solve these problems, environmental philosophy develops new theories. Representatives of different cultures, ethnic groups, nations, religions must learn to coexist with each other. We consider philosophy as a means of teaching rapprochement between peoples and creating new opportunities for understanding and improving the environmental situation. Cultural development makes it possible to assess the level of a man’s knowledge of nature, himself and the world around him. Ecological culture is a way of connecting man with nature on the basis of deeper knowledge and understanding. Philosophy says that you cannot move away from nature and be lauded over it since this will destroy culture. Rational doctrines tend to put a person above other living beings so the synthesis of philosophy with culture can have a positive ecological meaning. Conclusion. The findings obtained can be recommended for practical use in schools, starting from primary school, as well as in secondary special educational institutions and universities. It is necessary to work on the motivation and values of people, develop a common and ecological culture. Only a cultured person can move from

  15. Logic and Philosophy of Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A.N. Prior (1914-69) in the course of the 1950s and 1960s founded a new and revolutionary paradigm in philosophy and logic. Its most central feature is the preoccupation with time and the development of the logic of time. However, this was inseparably interwoven with fundamental questions about...... human freedom, ethics, and existence. This remarkable integration of themes also embodies an original and in fact revolutionary conception of logic. The book series, Logic and Philosophy of Time, is dedicated to a deep investigation and also the further development of Prior’s paradigm. ...

  16. How is a philosophy of photography possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchuk Valery

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the following question: how is philosophy of anything possible? Where lies the boundary of specialisation area beyond which the term “philosophy” loses not only its strength, but also its meaning? When we talk about specific genre, for example, graphic art or sculpture we use the term “philosophy” in a broader, metaphorical sense. Why then should philosophy of photography be any different? All of the abovementioned questions are discussed in the present article. Philosophy of photography is, indeed, a legitimate discipline, just as philosophy of language, philosophy of science and technology and philosophy of politics are.

  17. From Daily Life to Philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bransen, J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that the little everyday things of life often provide excellent entries into the intellectual problems of academic philosophy. This is illustrated with an analysis of four small stories taken from daily life in which people are in agony because they do not know what to do. It is

  18. GREEN CHEMISTRY: NEW CHEMICAL PHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Tykhomirova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The review deals with the principles and guidelines of “Green chemistry” in comparison with the philosophy of nanotechnology. Modern philosophy and methodology of science research focus is on the process of the growth of scientific knowledge. Modern chemistry is complex, hierarchical, multilevel and multidimensional system. Philosophy of nanotechnology relies heavily on the value of scientism and the idea of domination of man over nature , there is an apology of human intervention in nature. “Green chemistry” is called “new thinking”of chemistry, philosophy of modern chemical research. The chemicals and processes in accordance with the principles of “Green chemistry” are considered not only in terms of production of substances and materials with desired properties, but also taking into account the consequences for the environment. In the “Green chemistry” created image of the “ideal customer” – he uses a minimum number of products understands the need to preserve the environment. Ideological landmark “Green chemistry” – co-evolution of man and nature, preservation of the biosphere. It emphasized the need to implement the ideology of “Green chemistry” in the training of future specialists.

  19. The Philosophy of Mathematics Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    research inquiry in the philosophy of mathematics education. It is part of a broader practice of ‘philosophical archaeology’: the uncovering of hidden assumptions and buried ideologies within the concepts and methods of research and practice in mathematics education. An extensive bibliography is also...

  20. Philosophy, computing and information science

    CERN Document Server

    Hagengruber, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Over the last four decades computers and the internet have become an intrinsic part of all our lives, but this speed of development has left related philosophical enquiry behind. Featuring the work of computer scientists and philosophers, these essays provide an overview of an exciting new area of philosophy that is still taking shape.

  1. CONTEMPORARY AFRICAN PHILOSOPHY: EMERGENT ISSUES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    prominent issues. Really, the problem of African identity, one dares to say, has constituted the basic perennial question of contemporary. African philosophy. In various ..... of the trauma of the slave trade, of the humiliation that was colonization, of ... form of government could be “bad” or “ideally good,” it is not the case that it ...

  2. Features of formation of philosophy of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Baranov G. V.

    2016-01-01

    in article the main content of problems and achievements of philosophy of Russia on initial stage of its history is researched; urgent achievements of the Russian philosophy in their value for modern humanitarian culture are characterized.

  3. Phenomenological Philosophy and Orthodox Christian Scientific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    documents/hf_ben-xvi_spe_2006. 0912_university-regensburg_en.html. Boudouris, K., & Kalimtzis, K. (Eds.). (1999). Philosophy and ecology: Greek philosophy and the environment. (Vols. 1 & 2). Athens: Ionia Publications. Davis, C. (1967).

  4. A unifying philosophy of governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankarshan Acharya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bertrand Russell won Nobel Prize for arguing that science has triumphed over religion. Since religions are based on god, Russell’s argument implies that science has triumphed over both religion and god. But neither Russell nor anyone else has ever defined religion and god, rationally. The assertion about triumph of science (which is founded on rationality over concepts such as religion and god (which are not defined rationally or scientifically in the extant literature cannot be rational. This paper offers a novel rational philosophical foundation for the concepts of god, religion and science in which the claim that science triumphs over religion is redundant. This paper also presents substantial new insights about epistemic truths to help resolve current problems facing humanity like financial moral hazard and terrorism which have unnerved nations worldwide. The humanity now begs to answer a fundamental question of how we can govern ourselves. This paper offers a coherent set of credible answers. In particular, it offers a coherent unified philosophy about how humans have universally formed beliefs to govern themselves and how this philosophy could help resolve current problems. The universal rendering of beliefs articulated here subsumes the extant characterization of probability beliefs in mathematics, science, engineering, economics, religion and philosophy. The universal beliefs so articulated in this paper obviate the currently prevalent philosophical conflicts between religion and science or between theism and atheism and paves the way for optimal governance for prosperity amid stability. This philosophy also offers a rational characterization of the spiritual notion of Nirvana or salvation of the soul and the notion of epistemic truth. The unifying philosophy can help humanity achieve unity, stability and prosperity, sans financial moral hazard, antagonism, wars, nuclear proliferation, global warming and atmospheric pollution.

  5. A decentralized design philosophy for satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard

    2011-01-01

    For the last decade development and construction of student cubesat satellites has played an important part in the engineering Master Program within Electrical Engineering and Information Technology at Aalborg University, Denmark. As a result three cubesats AAU CUBESAT, AAUSAT-II and AAUSAT3 has ...

  6. An introductory course in philosophy of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, A

    2004-06-01

    Philosophy of medicine, narrowly defined as ontology and epistemology of medicine, is a well developed research field, yet education in this field is less well developed. The aim of this paper is to present an educational development in philosophy of medicine-an introductory course in philosophy of medicine. Central features of the course are described. Participants (medical undergraduate students) scored high on average. The conclusion is that further such educational ventures in philosophy of medicine should be developed and implemented.

  7. A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Jan Kyrre Berg O.; Pedersen, Stig Andur; Hendricks, Vincent F.

    The aim of philosophy of technology is to help us understand technology's complex interrelationships with the environment, society, culture - and with our very existence. A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology is the first comprehensive, authoritative reference source for this burgeoning...... those of the humanities, social studies, natural science, sociology, psychology, and engineering sciences and reflect a diversity of philosophical traditions such as pragmatism, analytical philosophy, and phenomenology. Erudite and authoritative, A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology is a major...

  8. Educational Studies and the Map of Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldane, John

    2012-01-01

    One figure who was transitional between educational philosophy and philosophy of education, and who by his industry and prominence laid the foundation for the London school of analytical philosophers of education, was Louis Arnaud Reid who was appointed at the London Institute of Education to the first UK professorship in the philosophy of…

  9. Freedom of Speech and Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roy

    2009-01-01

    Why is freedom of speech so seldom raised as an issue in philosophy of education? In assessing this question, it is important to distinguish (i) between a freedom and its exercise, and (ii) between different philosophies of education. Western philosophies of education may be broadly divided into classes derived from theories of knowledge first…

  10. Contemporary African philosophy: emergent issues and challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... all philosophies remain context-dependent and cultureoriented. A contrary view ignores the proper nature of philosophy. A new phenomenon confronts currently confronts all comers to contemporary African philosophy: an expansive vision of African philosophical discourse. Contemporary African philosophers attempt to ...

  11. Philosophy of Education and Other Educational Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    2014-01-01

    This article largely agrees with John White's characterizations of the relationships among philosophy of education, philosophy more generally, and the conventional world. It then extends what White identifies as the fundamental problem that should now be occupying philosophy of education--the irreconcilable opposition between education for…

  12. Philosophy and the Disciplines: The Borderlines | Minimah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work examines the borderlines of philosophy in relation to the central concern of other disciplines. As a preliminary step towards our examination, we attempt to uncover the specific nature of philosophy on the basis of its subject matter. We argue that while philosophy asks 'second order' questions about the totality of ...

  13. PHILOSOPHY IN CONTEMPORARY TIME: RELEVANCE VS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    students of philosophy do not understand what philosophy students do in their philosophy classes. Some people have ... contributing to the practical existence of the contemporary society or to society in general? To hold a position in the ..... bewitchment of our intelligence by means of language”.27. For this singular reason, ...

  14. PHILOSOPHY AND LOGIC AS INESCAPABLE ORGANON FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Philosophy of literature and philosophy of history is of similar value in understanding the humanities and philosophy ... thinking about value, ethical theory and the messy facts of human social arrangements into the discussion. .... guide the journalist in the collection and dissemination of news information. If journalists have.

  15. Public School Superintendent Philosophies and Their Tenure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, John

    2012-01-01

    Postmodernism is a philosophical description that encompasses philosophy, the arts, a period of history, and many other aspects of today's existence. This dissertation examines the extent to which Indiana public school superintendents use postmodern philosophy as opposed to modern philosophy to inform their practice. This was accomplished by…

  16. Philosophical sagacity as conversational philosophy and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, I aimed to carry out a comparative analysis of the methods of conversational philosophy and sage philosophy as contributions towards overcoming the problem of methodology in African philosophy. The purpose was to show their points of convergence and probably, if possible, their point of divergence as well.

  17. Philosophy, Exposure, and Children: How to Resist the Instrumentalisation of Philosophy in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert

    2011-01-01

    The use of philosophy in educational programmes and practices under such names as philosophy for children, philosophy with children, or the community of philosophical enquiry, has become well established in many countries around the world. The main attraction of the educational use of philosophy seems to lie in the claim that it can help children…

  18. Philosophical Questions about Teaching Philosophy: What's at Stake in High School Philosophy Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    What is at stake in high school philosophy education, and why? Why is it a good idea to teach philosophy at this level? This essay seeks to address some issues that arose in revising the Ontario grade 12 philosophy curriculum documents, significant insights from philosophy teacher education, and some early results of recent research funded by the…

  19. Is Philosophy of Education a Historical Mistake? Connecting Philosophy and Education Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I suggest that the question whether the proper place for philosophy of education is in the domain of philosophy or the domain of education cannot be resolved as long as we think of the connection between philosophy and education in terms of the idea of "philosophy of education". To substantiate this point, I look into…

  20. From philosophy to science (to natural philosophy): evolutionary developmental perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Alan C

    2008-03-01

    This paper focuses on abstraction as a mode of reasoning that facilitates a productive relationship between philosophy and science. Using examples from evolutionary developmental biology, I argue that there are two areas where abstraction can be relevant to science: reasoning explication and problem clarification. The value of abstraction is characterized in terms of methodology (modeling or data gathering) and epistemology (explanatory evaluation or data interpretation).

  1. Philosophy of biology. Is there still a need for philosophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Mario

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we now focus on critically examining the theoretical and methodological conceptual foundations in the particular field of science of the living, namely the philosophy of biology. The latter seems to draw attention to two disparate disciplines in methods and scope of interest. On the one hand there seems to be a point of view that considers the cognitive phenomenon in question in a way so as to say "abstract", i.e. as something that seeks to determine the nature or essence, to use a term dear to many philosophers. On the other hand, there is a point of view that considers these phenomena in the actual place, the result of a process caused by the cognitive system of the subject, if the latter, of course, does not mean that they are human beings. We will argue that the two approaches do not represent two distinct planes of research: in fact philosophy takes on a main task, namely helping to lay the foundations for a philosophy of nature capable of meeting first a completeness, that is, to describe and explain what is special in all the different layers of the different natural systems.

  2. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  3. Philosophy versus Student Need? A Reply to Smith and Hilton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainforth, Beverly

    1994-01-01

    This response to Smith and Hilton (1994) suggests that those authors reject philosophical bases for decision making regarding program design for students with mental retardation while actually proposing their own philosophical base for such decision making. The importance of philosophy in guiding decisions and practice over the last several…

  4. Philosophies and School Evaluations: Are They Origins of Hypocrisy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, H. Earl, Jr.

    This two-part article addresses itself to philosophical and instructional guidelines. Part I is entitled "Relationships of High School Philosophy and Objectives to Curriculum and Instruction in the Education Process" and Part II, "A Rating Instrument Designed to Improve School Evaluation and the Resulting Instructional Program." (CK)

  5. Classroom Teacher's Adherence to Philosophy and Ethics of Home ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzed and discussed the philosophy and goals of education, evaluating them on how classroom teachers adhere to the ethics of home economics for sustainable development in Anambra state, Nigeria. A descriptive survey design was used and the sample, randomly selected, was made up of two hundred ...

  6. Later Wittgenstein and the Philosophy of Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stig Børsen

    2010-01-01

    This article sets out by distinguishing Wittgenstein’s own views in the philosophy of religion from a school of thought in the philosophy of religion that relies on later Wittgenstein’s philosophy of language. After a survey of distinguishing features of Wittgenstein’s later philosophy, the third...... section explores Wittgenstein’s treatment of Frazer’s account of magic among primitive peoples. The following section offers an account of Wittgensteinian philosophy of religion, including the use of the notions of a language game and superstition. I conclude by criticizing a very influential argument...

  7. Chinese Traditional Philosophy and Indigenous Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on three key notions of Chinese traditional philosophy, i.e., Zhongyong, Yin Yang, and Wu, pointing out the possible mistakes in Prof. Peter Ping Li's arguments as well as some questions that are often neglected and taken for granted. The author posits, Chinese traditional...... philosophy is a system of thought distinct from the Western philosophy; while the Western philosophy is mainly concerned about the True, i.e., the objective knowledge of the world, the aim of Chinese traditional philosophy is the pursuit of the Good, i.e., the unification of heaven and human....

  8. [Towards a philosophy of medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cléber Domingos Cunha

    2015-09-01

    Medicine and philosophy: where do these concepts intersect? From a biopolitical standpoint, the scope of this essay is to highlight the existence of new challenges for those who deal with the issue of pharmaceuticalization in contemporary society. The analyses revealed that essentially technical approaches are insufficient to confront issues such as: the exorbitant profits from the sale of medication; the disproportionate ratio of these amounts with the number of new innovative molecules; and the difficulty of access to the few new drugs. It would seem to be the opportune moment for adopting a more critical stance for drafting a philosophy of medication in the field of public health with the establishment of areas of resistance to the omnipresent pharmacotherapeutic onslaught. After all, medication is not a constitutive element that is isolated from human life; although, it has become a central component in the management of contemporary life, its adequate use requires the exercise of in-depth introspection.

  9. A history of erotic philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soble, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This essay historically explores philosophical views about the nature and significance of human sexuality, starting with the Ancient Greeks and ending with late 20th-century Western philosophy. Important figures from the history of philosophy (and theology) discussed include Sappho, Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, St. Jerome, the Pelagians, St. Thomas Aquinas, Michel de Montaigne, Rene Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Søren Kierkegaard, Arthur Schopenhauer, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Sigmund Freud, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Wilhelm Reich, and Herbert Marcuse. Contemporary philosophers whose recent work is discussed include Michel Foucault, Thomas Nagel, Roger Scruton, Karol Wojtyla (Pope John Paul II), Catharine MacKinnon, Richard Posner, and John Finnis. To show the unity of the humanities, the writings of various literary figures are incorporated into this history, including Mark Twain, Arthur Miller, James Thurber, E. B. White, Iris Murdoch, and Philip Roth.

  10. Reading Bohr physics and philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2006-01-01

    Reading Bohr: Physics and Philosophy offers a new perspective on Niels Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics as complementarity, and on the relationships between physics and philosophy in Bohr's work, which has had momentous significance for our understanding of quantum theory and of the nature of knowledge in general. Philosophically, the book reassesses Bohr's place in the Western philosophical tradition, from Kant and Hegel on. Physically, it reconsiders the main issues at stake in the Bohr-Einstein confrontation and in the ongoing debates concerning quantum physics. It also devotes greater attention than in most commentaries on Bohr to the key developments and transformations of his thinking concerning complementarity. Most significant among them were those that occurred, first, under the impact of Bohr's exchanges with Einstein and, second, under the impact of developments in quantum theory itself, both quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. The importance of quantum field theory for Bohr's thi...

  11. Cluster randomization and political philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwang, Eric

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, I will argue that, while the ethical issues raised by cluster randomization can be challenging, they are not new. My thesis divides neatly into two parts. In the first, easier part I argue that many of the ethical challenges posed by cluster randomized human subjects research are clearly present in other types of human subjects research, and so are not novel. In the second, more difficult part I discuss the thorniest ethical challenge for cluster randomized research--cases where consent is genuinely impractical to obtain. I argue that once again these cases require no new analytic insight; instead, we should look to political philosophy for guidance. In other words, the most serious ethical problem that arises in cluster randomized research also arises in political philosophy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Philosophy of Science and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This is a vast and vague topic. In order to do justice to it one has to write a book or maybe more than one. For it can be understood in quite different ways and on different levels. For example you may think mainly of the historical aspect, that is how philosophy of science developed in the last hundred or so years and how its influence on…

  13. Philosophy of education in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Aakre, Bjørn Magne

    2009-01-01

    In Japan as well as Norway we experience growing interests and discussions about education. The main reason seems to be the fact that education has become more important than ever before. At the same time, most educational systems seem to face problems adapting to the rapid changes caused by globalization of values and cultures. Therefore, discussions about education not only involve new technology or alternative teaching methods, but also fundamental issues related to philosophy of education...

  14. Kierkegaardian motives in Heidegger's philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanov, Viacheslav; Luchynska, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    The article aims at critical assessment of methodological approaches to historical analysis of Heidegger's references to Kierkegaard. Heidegger's relation to existentialist philosophy seems to be one of the is sues which are deeply contaminated by the philosopher's ambivalent self-interpretations distorting the course of objective historical and philosophical study of real links between Heidegger's discourse and the legacy of existentialist thinkers. Analysis of reflexive literature on the pr...

  15. Toward a Philosophy of Transnationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Doyle

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay suggests, first of all, that the power of transnational studies lies in its fundamentally dialectical approach, and, secondly, that this approach opens the way to a fresh consideration of the human subject of history. In the kind of transnational studies highlighted here, the focus is less strictly on the movements of people and capital across national borders and more on the implicitly other-oriented interactions between and among nations, making them mutually contingent phenomena, a situation which in turn entails intersubjective and intertextual events and calls for a fresh philosophy of the subject. Doyle draws on the thinking of Frantz Fanon, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Louis Althusser to explore one such possible "transnational philosophy." The second half of the essay pursues the idea that literature offers a micro-world of the dialectics of both transnational history and existential intersubjectivity. Doyle interprets Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe and Olaudah Equiano's Interesting Narrative in relation to each other as well as in relation to transnational Atlantic history. Such readings model a method for transnational literary studies, one grounded in philosophy as well as history.

  16. Toward a Philosophy of Transnationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Doyle

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This essay suggests, first of all, that the power of transnational studies lies in its fundamentally dialectical approach, and, secondly, that this approach opens the way to a fresh consideration of the human subject of history. In the kind of transnational studies highlighted here, the focus is less strictly on the movements of people and capital across national borders and more on the implicitly other-oriented interactions between and among nations, making them mutually contingent phenomena, a situation which in turn entails intersubjective and intertextual events and calls for a fresh philosophy of the subject. Doyle draws on the thinking of Frantz Fanon, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Louis Althusser to explore one such possible "transnational philosophy." The second half of the essay pursues the idea that literature offers a micro-world of the dialectics of both transnational history and existential intersubjectivity. Doyle interprets Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe and Olaudah Equiano's Interesting Narrative in relation to each other as well as in relation to transnational Atlantic history. Such readings model a method for transnational literary studies, one grounded in philosophy as well as history.

  17. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  18. The self: from philosophy to cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiong, Winston

    2011-06-01

    Neuroscientists have recently begun to explore topics, such as the nature of the self, that were previously considered problems for philosophy rather than for science. This article aims to provide a starting point for interdisciplinary exchange by reviewing three philosophical debates about the nature of the self in light of contemporary work in cognitive neuroscience. Continental rationalist and British empiricist approaches to the unity of the self are discussed in relation to earlier work on split-brain patients, and to more recent work on "mental time travel" and the default mode network; the phenomenological movement, and the central concept of intentionality, are discussed in relation to interoceptive accounts of emotion and to the mirror neuron system; and ongoing philosophical debates about agency and autonomy are discussed in relation to recent work on action awareness and on insight in clinical populations such as addicts and patients with frontotemporal dementia.

  19. Safety philosophy of the GTHTR300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Katanishi, Shoji

    2003-01-01

    In parallel to successful operation of the Japan's first High Temperature Gas-cooed Reactor, HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor), JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) started design and development of a high temperature gas cooled reactor with a gas turbine electric generation system, GTHTR300 (Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor 300), in April 2001. The GTHTR300 is expected to be deployed in 2010s as a safe and economically competitive electric generation system in Japan. Unique safety philosophy is proposed for this system. Severe accidents are defined as any conditions beyond design base accidents, causing core damages with fission product releases to the environment, although all severe accident sequences are very low in probability. The new safety philosophy is to avoid most accidents, and to achieve a probability of severe accidents of 10 -8 /ry that is at least two orders lower than current reactors. Even in the worst event such as double guillotine break of a primary concentric duct, fuel temperature exceeding its failure limit and excessive fuel oxidation by air ingress can be avoided because of inherent safety features and the passive decay heat removal system. Furthermore, double confinement buildings are enough to keep reactor safety in such accidents. Elimination of a leak-tight steel containment vessel is a big economical advantage for this system. Another unique feature is that nearly full-scale worst accident simulation tests can be carried out to obtain licensing before commercial operations because safety assessment by analysis is not usually enough to convince the public and the regulators of trusting this safety concept. In current reactors no accident simulation tests are carried out before commercial operations although inspection and performance tests in normal condition are conducted. This paper describes the safety philosophy together with the outline of the design features of the GTHTR300, and the results of

  20. Glenn Parson's 'The Philosohpy of Design'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2015-01-01

    With The Philosophy of Design, Glenn Parsons constructs an elegant bridge between two major islands in the archipelago of human thought: philosophy and design. Per Galle, The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Design.......With The Philosophy of Design, Glenn Parsons constructs an elegant bridge between two major islands in the archipelago of human thought: philosophy and design. Per Galle, The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Design....

  1. Philosophy of Science and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Walter

    2012-08-01

    This is a vast and vague topic. In order to do justice to it one has to write a book or maybe more than one. For it can be understood in quite different ways and on different levels For example you may think mainly of the historical aspect, that is how philosophy of science developed in the last hundred or so years and how its influence on education changed; you may think of quite different schools of philosophy, from Marxist or positivist to such exotic but at some places influential philosophic positions like that of Rudolph Steiner; of course, you may limit the subject to special fields like epistemology, theory of scientific methodology, or, what has become fashionable recently, sociology of knowledge which may have a considerable bearing on physics teaching (Collins and Shapin 1983; Jung 1985). Again we may think of the topic treated by a philosopher, a scientist, an educationalist, a teacher, which would mean quite a difference. I am trying here to speak as an educationalist, with the physics teacher in mind: this is my vocational perspective as someone who educates physics teachers. Of course, our main concern is the contribution of science, especially physics, to general education, which integrates many of the special topics mentioned. Philosophy of science comes in because it is not at all clear what science and physics is, and what of it should be taught, and how such chosen parts should be taught. I also take this opportunity to give an idea of the longstanding tradition of this discussion in Germany, connected with names like Wagenshein, Litt, Heisenberg and many others.

  2. Environmental philosophy: response to critics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sahotra

    2014-03-01

    The following piece is a response to the critiques from Frank, Garson, and Odenbaugh. The issues at stake are: the definition of biodiversity and its normativity, historical fidelity in ecological restoration, naturalism in environmental ethics, and the role of decision theory. The normativity of the concept of biodiversity in conservation biology is defended. Historical fidelity is criticized as an operative goal for ecological restoration. It is pointed out that the analysis requires only minimal assumptions about ethics. Decision theory is presented as a tool, not a domain-limiting necessary requirement for environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 1. Editorial: Philosophy and Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Albertone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After “Erasmian Science” and “Gastronomy and Revolution”, the Journal of Interdisciplinary History of Ideas has again issued a Call for Paper, for a special issue dedicated to the historical relations of Philosophy and Geography. It will be guest-edited by Ernesto Sferrazza Papa and Simone Mammola, and appear end 2017. In the Editorial we present the contents of the Call, that can also be found, together with practical information for submission, in the News of the JIHI.

  4. Philosophy and the front line of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernu, Tuomas K

    2008-03-01

    According to one traditional view, empirical science is necessarily preceded by philosophical analysis. Yet the relevance of philosophy is often doubted by those engaged in empirical sciences. I argue that these doubts can be substantiated by two theoretical problems that the traditional conception of philosophy is bound to face. First, there is a strong normative etiology to philosophical problems, theories, and notions that is dfficult to reconcile with descriptive empirical study. Second, conceptual analysis (a role that is typically assigned to philosophy) seems to lose its object of study if it is granted that terms do not have purely conceptual meanings detached from their actual use in empirical sciences. These problems are particularly acute to the current naturalistic philosophy of science. I suggest a more concrete integration of philosophy and the sciences as a possible way of making philosophy of science have more impact.

  5. On the Need for Speculative Philosophy Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew James Taggart

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘On the Need for Speculative Philosophy Today’ takes seriously Hegel’s claims that speculative philosophy begins in diremption and ends in higher-order conceptualization. To make Hegel’s theses more perspicuous, I examine the set of modern life needs—historical, metaphysical, phenomenological, and political—that give rise to speculative philosophy. I then attempt to show that speculative philosophy’s ultimate aim is to provide us with higher-order consolation. In the final section, I mean to draw on the second sense of speculation, conjecturing that rational form of inquiry I have undertaken is a propaedeutic to ‘philosophies of action’: philosophy of life and public philosophy.

  6. Philosophy and Post-Totalitarian Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Yosypenko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This writing aims to outline the principles of researches on philosophy in Central and Eastern European countries, preferably USSR, in the latest soviet and post-soviet periods. In author’s opinion, the crucial points for such kind of research are: a to discover a correlation between philosophy and the phenomenon of totalitarianism; b to correlate a soviet philosophy with totalitarian experience. The article considers methodological and axiological problems in research of post-totalitarian practices in general as such as in philosophy. In author’s opinion the main problem in development of the post-soviet philosophy is interiorisation of intellectual, cultural and social practices, which were formed concerning to totalitarian experience. This became a reason of “cynicism” and “nihilism” of post-soviet philosophy. It’s impossible to cast mentioned phenomena off without consideration of totalitarian phenomenon and critical reconsideration of the own totalitarian experience.

  7. G w leibniz, interrelations between mathematics and philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Goethe, Norma B; Rabouin, David

    2015-01-01

    Up to now there have been scarcely any publications on Leibniz dedicated to investigating the interrelations between philosophy and mathematics in his thought. In part this is due to the previously restricted textual basis of editions such as those produced by Gerhardt. Through recent volumes of the scientific letters and mathematical papers series of the Academy Edition scholars have obtained a much richer textual basis on which to conduct their studies - material which allows readers to see interconnections between his philosophical and mathematical ideas which have not previously been manifested. The present book draws extensively from this recently published material. The contributors are among the best in their fields. Their commissioned papers cover thematically salient aspects of the various ways in which philosophy and mathematics informed each other in Leibniz's thought.

  8. G.W. Leibniz, interrelations between mathematics and philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Goethe, Norma B; Rabouin, David

    2015-01-01

    Up to now there have been scarcely any publications on Leibniz dedicated to investigating the interrelations between philosophy and mathematics in his thought. In part this is due to the previously restricted textual basis of editions such as those produced by Gerhardt. Through recent volumes of the scientific letters and mathematical papers series of the Academy Edition scholars have obtained a much richer textual basis on which to conduct their studies - material which allows readers to see interconnections between his philosophical and mathematical ideas which have not previously been manifested. The present book draws extensively from this recently published material. The contributors are among the best in their fields. Their commissioned papers cover thematically salient aspects of the various ways in which philosophy and mathematics informed each other in Leibniz's thought.

  9. The philosophy and limitations of FAA aeromedical standards, policies and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-06-01

    Designated Aviation Medical Examiners need available basic information concerning the FAA medical certification system, the philosophy which underlies standards, policy and procedures, and certain limitations of the system. It is through such informa...

  10. Some Trends in the Philosophy of Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Zinkernagel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A short review of some recent developments in the philosophy of physics is presented. I focus on themes which illustrate relations and points of common interest between philosophy of physics and three of its `neighboring' elds: Physics, metaphysics and general philosophy of science. The main examples discussed in these three `border areas' are (i decoherence and the interpretation of quantum mechanics; (ii time in physics and metaphysics; and (iiimethodological issues surrounding the multiverse idea in modern cosmology.

  11. The Need to Revive Islamic Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Muqtedar Khan

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the contemporary attempts at reviving Islamic civilization will remain incomplete until a simultaneous effort is made to revive Islamic philosophy. This paper identifies the characteristics of Islamic philosophy and underscores its significance to Islamic intellectual renaissance. Islamic philosophy has a unique dimension-it encompasses science and spirituality along with reason and logic. Arguing that perhaps the decline of philosophy was an important element in the decline of Islamic civilization, the paper contends that Muslim efforts at negotiating modernity or appropriating science will not be successful without the support of a rejuvenated Islamic philosophical tradition.

  12. Peter Redpath’s Philosophy of History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis L. Hancock

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Peter Redpath is a distinguished historian of philosophy. He believes that the best way to acquire a philosophical education is through the study of philosophy’s history. Because he is convinced that ideas have consequences, he holds that the history of philosophy illuminates important events in history. Philosophy is a necessary condition for sound education, which, in turn, is a necessary condition for cultural and political leadership. Hence, the way educators and leaders shape culture reflects the effects of philosophy on culture. In light of this background, it is possible to discern in Redpath’s account of the history of philosophy a corresponding philosophy of history. This emerges as he explains how philosophers have produced changes in thinking that have profound consequences for the culture at large. Some of these changes, many of them significant, have been positive, but others have been disastrous. Much of Redpath’s philosophy of history diagnoses what went wrong in the history of philosophy so as to indicate why modern culture suffers considerable disorder. The good news is that Redpath’s philosophy of history prescribes ways to correct Western Civilization’s current malaise.

  13. Philosophy of biology: naturalistic or transcendental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Filip; Van de Vijver, Gertrudis

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to clarify the meaning of a naturalistic position within philosophy of biology, against the background of an alternative view, founded on the basic insights of transcendental philosophy. It is argued that the apparently minimal and neutral constraints naturalism imposes on philosophy of science turn out to involve a quite heavily constraining metaphysics, due to the naturalism's fundamental neglect of its own perspective. Because of its intrinsic sensitivity to perspectivity and historicity, transcendental philosophy can avoid this type of hidden metaphysics.

  14. Philosophy of medicine 2017: reviewing the situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    In this introduction to a special subsection of Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics comprising separate reviews of the Springer Handbook of the Philosophy of Medicine, The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Medicine, and The Bloomsbury Companion to Contemporary Philosophy of Medicine, I compare the three texts with respect to their overall organization and their approach to the relation between the science and the art of medicine. I then indicate two areas that merit more explicit attention in developing a comprehensive philosophy of medicine going forward: health economics and systematic relations within the field as a whole. The reviews that follow speak for themselves.

  15. A Companion to Philosophy of Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan-Kyrre Berg

    The aim of philosophy of technology is to help us understand technology's complex interrelationships with the environment, society, culture - and with our very existence. A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology is the first comprehensive, authoritative reference source for this burgeoning...... those of the humanities, social studies, natural science, sociology, psychology, and engineering sciences and reflect a diversity of philosophical traditions such as pragmatism, analytical philosophy, and phenomenology. Erudite and authoritative, A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology is a major...... contribution to one of the fastest-growing and most vital areas of scholarship and study today....

  16. Modern Basics Philosophy of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Bazaluk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In thisarticle the authors examine the current understanding ofthe foundations ofthe philosophy of education. Lately when it is spoken about human development and education and concretized that it is the perfection of its mind. And if at the end of the twentieth century the subject of educational impact was human being, consisting of social and biological entities, at the beginning of the XXI century the situation has changed. Advances in neuroscience (Risto Nааtаnеn, James Olds, Donald Hebb, Elkhonon Goldberg and others allowed specifying the subject of the educational impact and identifying in a person the material organization that really makes him standing out from the world of living organisms. We are talking about the neural structures that are formed and developed in the human brain and which are not observed (and if they are observed, then in a different format and with different functional manifestations in the brain of higher animals. We are talking about consistently evolving neural networks and subconscious consciousness which perform the corresponding functions: subliminal (unconscious and conscious. If the consistent development of the structure of the human brain sees neuroscience, the development of the functions of this structure, considering psychology. Methods, ways and means of transmission of socio-cultural heritage from one generation to another explores pedagogy. Therefore, the philosophy of education that considers the impact of educational technology, global educational model should be based on the integration of research in neuroscience, psychology and pedagogy.

  17. Buddha philosophy and western psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!

  18. Medicine in John Locke's philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, M A

    1990-12-01

    John Locke's philosophy was deeply affected by medicine of his times. It was specially influenced by the medical thought and practice of Thomas Sydenham. Locke was a personal friend of Sydenham, expressed an avid interest in his work and shared his views and methods. The influence of Sydenham's medicine can be seen in the following areas of Locke's philosophy: his "plain historical method"; the emphasis on observation and sensory experience instead of seeking the essence of things; the rejection of hypotheses and principles; the refusal of research into final causes and inner mechanisms; the ideal of irrefutable evidence and skepticism on the possibilities of certainty in science. The science which for Locke held the highest paradigmatic value in his theory of knowledge was precisely medicine. To a great extent, Locke's Essay on Human Understanding can be understood as an attempt to justify, substantiate, and promote Sydenham's medical method. This method, generalized, was then proposed as an instrument for the elaboration of all natural sciences.

  19. PHILOSOPHY OF DESCARTES: BASIC INTENTION AND STATUS OF ANTHROPOLOGY ABSTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Malivskyi, Anatolii M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to emphasize the insufficiency of reductionist interpretation of Descartes’ heritage and to bring into focus the constitutive role of anthropology in Descartes authentic project. Scientific novelty. Substantiation of anthropology in Descartes’ philosophical structure is based upon recognition of key importance of anthropological intention in previous philosophy as well as anthropological one in philosopher’s own works. Therefore, the insufficiency of established ...

  20. Safety philosophy of gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji Katanishi; Kazuhiko Kunitomi; Shusaku Shiozawa

    2002-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has undertaken the study of an original design concept of gas turbine high temperature reactor, the GTHTR300. The general concept of this study is development of a greatly simplified design that leads to substantially reduced technical and cost requirements. Newly proposed design features enable the GTHTR300 to be an efficient and economically competitive reactor in 2010's. Also, the GTHTR300 fully takes advantage of its inherent safety characteristics. The safety philosophy of the GTHTR300 is developed based on the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) of JAERI which is the first HTGR in Japan. Major features of the newly proposed safety philosophy for the GTHTR300 are described in this article. (authors)

  1. [Sustainable process improvement with application of 'lean philosophy'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouppe van der Voort, Marc B V; van Merode, G G Frits; Veraart, Henricus G N

    2013-01-01

    Process improvement is increasingly being implemented, particularly with the aid of 'lean philosophy'. This management philosophy aims to improve quality by reducing 'wastage'. Local improvements can produce negative effects elsewhere due to interdependence of processes. An 'integrated system approach' is required to prevent this. Some hospitals claim that this has been successful. Research into process improvement with the application of lean philosophy has reported many positive effects, defined as improved safety, quality and efficiency. Due to methodological shortcomings and lack of rigorous evaluations it is, however, not yet possible to determine the impact of this approach. It is, however, obvious that the investigated applications are fragmentary, with a dominant focus on the instrumental aspect of the philosophy and a lack of integration in a total system, and with insufficient attention to human aspects. Process improvement is required to achieve better and more goal-oriented healthcare. To achieve this, hospitals must develop integrated system approaches that combine methods for process design with continuous improvement of processes and with personnel management. It is crucial that doctors take the initiative to guide and improve processes in an integral manner.

  2. Group Design Problems in Engineering Design Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes group design techniques used within the engineering design graphics sequence at Western Washington University. Engineering and design philosophies such as concurrent engineering place an emphasis on group collaboration for the solving of design problems. (Author/DDR)

  3. Redpath on the Nature of Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Delfino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author discusses Peter A. Redpath’s understanding of the nature of philosophy and his account of how erroneous understandings of philosophy have led to the decline of the West and to the separation of philosophy from modern science and modern science from wisdom. Following Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas, Redpath argues that philosophy is a sense realism because it begins in wonder about real things known through the senses. Philosophy presupposes pre-philosophical knowledge, common sense, which consists of principles rooted in sensation that make human experience, sense wonder, and philosophy possible. Philosophy is certain knowledge demonstrated through causes and thus philosophy is the same as science. Redpath understands science as a habit that we acquire through repeated practice. More precisely, a scientific habit is a simple quality of the intellect that enables us to demonstrate (prove the necessary properties of a genus through their causes or principles. In this way, science is the study of the one and the many. Redpath argues that metaphysics is the final cause of the arts and sciences, providing the foundation for all of the arts and sciences and justifying their principles. Finally, he argues that with modernity’s loss of belief in God and its rejection of metaphysics as a science, utopian socialism has become an historical/political substitute for metaphysics.

  4. Philosophy, Human Development and National Question | Ekei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the solution to this dilemma is still being sought, Socrates shifted the attention of philosophy (with obvious reasons) from nature to ethical-political question, that is, to the issue of human development. It interests this essay, to find out, what exactly is human development, and why philosophy after Socrates considers ...

  5. Information Retrieval and the Philosophy of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of some of the main ideas in the philosophy of language that have relevance to the issues of information retrieval, focusing on the description of the intellectual content. Highlights include retrieval problems; recall and precision; words and meanings; context; externalism and the philosophy of language; and scaffolding and…

  6. African Tradition, Philosophy, and Modernization | Ikuenobe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I examine Wiredu's views that (1) ethnophilosophy cannot be considered a legitimate philosophy because it has the feature of authoritarianism, and that (2) this feature of African tradition will not allow modern philosophy to flourish because it prevents individuals from rationally and critically examining beliefs. The ability to ...

  7. "Open" Philosophy or Down the Rabbit Hole?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    In this essay, I challenge the open-closed dualism at the heart of Allsup's project and question the very possibility of an "open" philosophy. I propose an account of music, musical instruction, and philosophy as ethically guided practices, discussing a number of practical and philosophical consequences that follow from such a view.

  8. School and the Limits of Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Philosophy and schools, children and dynamite, elephants and postage stamps: each has a place, but not necessarily in any natural combination with the other. Whether schools and philosophy belong together depends largely on what we mean by both. To the extent that schools are instruments of government regulation and a mechanism for production of…

  9. The Relationship between Philosophy and Culture | Agbanusi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the years, there has been this controversy over the relationship between philosophy and culture. It is an issue that has always polarized scholars including philosophers. On one side, a group of philosophers and scholars hold the view that philosophy is distinct from culture, whereas an opposing group is of the opinion ...

  10. Philosophy in Schools: A Catholic School Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sean

    2015-01-01

    This article builds on the recent Special Interest issue of this journal on "Philosophy for Children in Transition" (2011) and the way that the debate about philosophy in schools has now shifted to whether or not it ought to be a compulsory part of the curriculum. This article puts the spotlight on Catholic schools in order to present a…

  11. Radiation protection philosophy: time for changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovich, J.V.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation protection philosophy, or paradigm, has evolved over a number of decades and it is still evolving. Traditionally, it has dealt only with man-made, planned, in principle avoidable, radiation exposures of workers and general public. This philosophy, as presently accepted around the world, has some deficiencies. The object of this paper is to discuss these deficiencies and propose some changes. (author)

  12. South African Journal of Philosophy: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof Andrea Hurst Editor Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU). South African Journal of Philosophy, Department of Philosophy, University of Fort Hare, 50 Church Street, East London 5201. Phone: +27 41 504 4848. Email: Andrea.Hurst@nmmu.ac.za ...

  13. Archives: Journal of Philosophy and Culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives: Journal of Philosophy and Culture. Journal Home > Archives: Journal of Philosophy and Culture. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 5 of 5 Items. 2014 ...

  14. Immanuel Kant, his philosophy and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesing, Urban

    2008-06-01

    The article examines the statements made by Immanuel Kant with reference to medicine as well as the impact of his philosophy on medicine. It describes the initial reaction of Kantian philosophy on medicine in the late 18th and early 19th century and its influence in the late 20th century.

  15. From reflective to constructive philosophy of technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.; Nan, Wang; Yating, Zhu

    2014-01-01

    In this essay, I argue that where the 20th century saw the emergence of a reflective philosophy of technology, one that attempted to understand technology and its implications for society, our focus in the 21st century should be on a constructive philosophy of technology that actively seeks to

  16. ON DELIMITING AFRICAN PHILOSOPHY AND THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    Do these schools exhaust all there is to African Philosophy in the present? In this paper, the researcher thinks that the various schools of African. Philosophy were not well-founded, and that there still exists another school of thought ..... emotions is artificial intelligence like computers and robots.14 Thus, any system of ...

  17. From the Editor: Aesthetics as First Philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gerwen, R.C.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Not metaphysics but aesthetics should be viewed as first philosophy, because it, and its subject matter, art, are concerned with the way representations work. All other disciplines, whether in philosophy or in the sciences base their insights in representations, assuming that these work as intended.

  18. Journal of Philosophy and Culture: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Manuscripts, books for review, subscriptions, advertising and related correspondences should be sent to The Corresponding Editor, Journal of Philosophy and Culture, Department of Classics and Philosophy, University of Cape Coast, PMB, GHANA. Electronic submission should be on Microsoft Word ...

  19. Moral Philosophy and Social Work Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, Amanda

    2009-10-01

    Policies in the United States regarding personal responsibility and deviant behavior often follow an underlying moral philosophy. This paper examines the philosophies in American social policy, and how beliefs about personal responsibility, definitions of deviance and the role of the social welfare system shape current policies.

  20. Moral Philosophy and Social Work Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Reiman, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Policies in the United States regarding personal responsibility and deviant behavior often follow an underlying moral philosophy. This paper examines the philosophies in American social policy, and how beliefs about personal responsibility, definitions of deviance and the role of the social welfare system shape current policies.

  1. Conversations in African Philosophy | Chimakonam | Filosofia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conversational philosophy is articulated by Jonathan O. Chimakonam as the new wave of philosophical practice both in “place” and in “space”. This journal adopts and promotes this approach to philosophizing for African philosophy. Readers are encouraged to submit their conversational piece (maximum of 2000 words) ...

  2. Translation and Interpretation in Contemporary Jewish Philosophy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By inquiring into the translatability of Judaism and philosophy, we reawaken an ancient problem that asks after philosophy's relation with religion: What has Athens to do with Jerusalem? Translation is a rejuvenated means of wrestling with this irksome question, which seeks to understand how multiple approaches to ...

  3. For Philosophy of Education in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The time has come to re-assess the role that Philosophy has to play in the education of teachers, both at the beginning of and during their careers. The currently fashionable craft conception of teaching is inadequate as a preparation for a career in teaching. Philosophy of Education has an important role to play in preparing for a career in…

  4. Does Philosophy of Education Have a Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The apparently simple question, "Does philosophy of education have a future?", is without a simple answer. Like so many other questions, it all depends on what we mean, and in this case, what we mean by the expression "philosophy of education". I shall look at it in all of three ways: as a social institution, as an academic…

  5. Technology in Muslim Moral Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Ebrahim

    2016-04-01

    The article explores the place, role and status of technology in Muslim moral philosophy. Invoking early Muslim encounters with technology the author makes the case why technology is already deeply embedded in contemporary Muslim bioethical thinking. Due to an absence of the philosophical grounding there remains some ambivalence as to why technology is essential to Muslim ethical thinking. Countering the techno-pessimists, the author makes a case in favor of compositional thinking, namely that our thinking itself is altered by our tools and our environment. Compositional thinking opposes the representational mode of thinking that creates a dichotomy between nature versus culture, and technology versus nature. One should, however, anticipate an environment in which technology would be beneficial and not be viewed as potentially harmful.

  6. The Philosophy behind Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik ZINKERNAGEL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates some of the philosophical and conceptual issues raised by the search for a quantum theory of gravity. It is critically discussed whether such a theory is necessary in the first place, and how much would be accomplished if it is eventually constructed. I argue that the motivations behind, and expectations to, a theory of quantum gravity are entangled with central themes in the philosophy of science, in particular unification, reductionism, and the interpretation of quantum mechanics. I further argue that there are —contrary to claims made on behalf of string theory— no good reasons to think that a quantum theory of gravity, if constructed, will provide a theory of everything, that is, a fundamental theory from which all physics in principle can be derived.

  7. Is philosophy of education a historical mistake? Connecting philosophy and education differently

    OpenAIRE

    Biesta, G

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I suggest that the question whether the proper place for philosophy of education is in the domain of philosophy or the domain of education cannot be resolved as long as we think of the connection between philosophy and education in terms of the idea of 'philosophy of education'. To substantiate this point, I look into the history of the idea of 'philosophy of education', both as a general idea and with regard to the way in which it became institutionalised in universities in ...

  8. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  9. An introduction to the philosophy of science

    CERN Document Server

    Staley, Kent W

    2014-01-01

    This book guides readers by gradual steps through the central concepts and debates in the philosophy of science. Using concrete examples from the history of science, Kent W. Staley shows how seemingly abstract philosophical issues are relevant to important aspects of scientific practice. Structured in two parts, the book first tackles the central concepts of the philosophy of science, such as the problem of induction, falsificationism, and underdetermination, and important figures and movements, such as the logical empiricists, Thomas Kuhn, and Paul Feyerabend. The second part turns to contemporary debates in the philosophy of science, such as scientific realism, explanation, the role of values in science, the different views of scientific inference, and probability. This broad yet detailed overview will give readers a strong grounding whilst also providing opportunities for further exploration. It will be of particular interest to students of philosophy, the philosophy of science, and science. Read more at h...

  10. Artificial intelligence, quantum mechanics, neuroscience, and the philosophy of mind

    OpenAIRE

    Mainzer, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    Artificial intelligence, quantum mechanics, neuroscience, and the philosophy of mind. - In: Philosophy and the many faces of science / ed. by Dionysios Anapolitanos ... - Lanham u.a. : Rowman & Littlefield, 1998. - S. 235-251. - (CPS Publications in the philosophy of science)

  11. Three views of logic mathematics, philosophy, and computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Loveland, Donald W; Sterrett, S G

    2014-01-01

    Demonstrating the different roles that logic plays in the disciplines of computer science, mathematics, and philosophy, this concise undergraduate textbook covers select topics from three different areas of logic: proof theory, computability theory, and nonclassical logic. The book balances accessibility, breadth, and rigor, and is designed so that its materials will fit into a single semester. Its distinctive presentation of traditional logic material will enhance readers' capabilities and mathematical maturity. The proof theory portion presents classical propositional logic and first-orde

  12. Treatment Rationale and Design for J-AXEL: A Randomized Phase 3 Study Comparing Nab-Paclitaxel With Docetaxel in Patients With Previously Treated Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneshima, Yasuto; Morita, Satoshi; Ando, Masahiko; Miura, Satoru; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Abe, Tetsuya; Kato, Terufumi; Kondo, Masashi; Hosomi, Yukio; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Kishimoto, Junji; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Okamoto, Isamu

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab) paclitaxel is a promising new therapeutic agent for all histologic types of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We recently performed a phase 2 study of weekly nab-paclitaxel in patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC, finding promising activity and acceptable toxicity for this regimen. We have now designed a randomized phase 3 intergroup study (J-AXEL, UMIN000017487) to examine the clinical benefit and safety of nab-paclitaxel compared to docetaxel in patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC. Patients are randomized to receive either docetaxel (60 mg/m 2 on day 1 every 3 weeks, control arm) or nab-paclitaxel (100 mg/m 2 on days 1, 8, and 15 every 3 weeks, experimental arm), with each drug being administered until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The study will evaluate the noninferiority of nab-paclitaxel relative to docetaxel for the primary end point of overall survival. If the primary objective is achieved, this study will provide evidence for a new alternative treatment option for patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tai Chi philosophy and nursing epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperson, Sunny Yim

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the philosophy underpinning Tai Chi practice in light of nursing epistemology. The first half of the article reviews the general characteristics of major Chinese philosophical traditions that have been merged in Tai Chi: Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism. In the second half, themes of integration and praxis in Tai Chi are linked with Carper's fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing. Tai Chi is a practical fusion of humanistic philosophy with an experiential dimension of movement in a nondualistic foundation. The author argues that TC philosophy can be applied to integrated knowledge development and nursing praxis.

  14. The Landscape Of Philosophy Of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nistrup Madsen, Bodil; Hjørland, Birger; Brier, Søren

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, all higher education programs must include a course on philosophy of science. Therefore, a group of researchers at Copenhagen Business School (CBS) are developing a smartphone application where information about central theoretical paradigms and concepts from philosophy of science can...... be visualized and disseminated in an easily accessible and systematic manner. This will be achieved by entering structured knowledge about concepts from philosophy of science in both Danish and English into a terminology and knowledge base which will provide the opportunity to “navigate in conceptual landscapes...

  15. Environmental philosophy: from theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sahotra

    2014-03-01

    Environmental philosophy is a hybrid discipline drawing extensively from epistemology, ethics, and philosophy of science and analyzing disciplines such as conservation biology, restoration ecology, sustainability studies, and political ecology. The book being discussed both provides an overview of environmental philosophy and develops an anthropocentric framework for it. That framework treats natural values as deep cultural values. Tradeoffs between natural values are analyzed using decision theory to the extent possible, leaving many interesting question for philosophical deliberation. This framework is supposed to be applicable in practical contexts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Philosophy for the rest of cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Nigel; Chemero, Anthony; Turvey, Michael T

    2011-04-01

    Cognitive science has always included multiple methodologies and theoretical commitments. The philosophy of cognitive science should embrace, or at least acknowledge, this diversity. Bechtel's (2009a) proposed philosophy of cognitive science, however, applies only to representationalist and mechanist cognitive science, ignoring the substantial minority of dynamically oriented cognitive scientists. As an example of nonrepresentational, dynamical cognitive science, we describe strong anticipation as a model for circadian systems (Stepp & Turvey, 2009). We then propose a philosophy of science appropriate to nonrepresentational, dynamical cognitive science. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. Wherefore Art Thou Philosophy? Badiou without Badiou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Barker

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the encroaching, seemingly pernicious backlash against Alain Badiou’s thinking, which appears partly motivated by the bad faith of “philosophical” rivalries, this essay aims to argue in favour of the ongoing and authentically philosophical stakes of Badiou’s ontology. At the same time the essay attempts to highlight the methodological difficulties Badiou encounters in attempting to reconcile an intrinsic ontology as the dominant condition of philosophy, with a philosophy of the event. The essay concludes by speculating on the “unbound”, “unconditioned” potential of this two-headed philosophy.

  18. The Philosophy of Self or Truth

    OpenAIRE

    Özgen, Mehmet Kasım

    2015-01-01

    What is meant by the ‘I’ is the philosophy that places the ‘I’ in the center and has a reflectional view on the ‘I’. This article deals with the differences between the philosophy of the ‘I’ in the West and the philosophy of the ‘Truth’ in the East. The person who approaches to the ‘I’ will also approaches to the ‘Truth’ or vice versa. In the modern point of view, modern ‘I’ is not innate. It is something man made, a result of human intention and decision and something invented. Individuals b...

  19. The LHC taken with philosophy

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    "Whether or not scientists at the LHC will find the Higgs boson, they will learn something about the secrets of Nature that will greatly advance human understanding". These are the words of Anthony Grayling, Professor of Philosophy at Birkbeck College, University of London, and presenter of the forthcoming BBC series "Exchanges at the Frontier". He visited CERN to prepare for his next interview with Jim Virdee, CMS Spokesperson.Grayling’s interview with Virdee is part of a series of events at Welcome Trust Collection in London: five of the biggest names in the world of science will discuss the social impact of their discoveries. These events will be broadcast to over 40 million people worldwide in December 2009 by the BBC World Service in the framework of the Exchanges at the Frontier series. Grayling has been following the LHC via the media but his tour of the CMS experiment increased his philosophical awareness of the international cooperation that has enabled it be bu...

  20. On the philosophy of cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, George Francis Rayner

    2014-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of significant issues in the philosophy of cosmology, starting off by emphasizing the uniqueness of the universe and the way models are used in description and explanation. It then considers, basic limits on observations; the need to test alternatives; ways to test consistency; and implications of the uniqueness of the universe as regards distinguishing laws of physics from contingent conditions. It goes on to look at the idea of a multiverse as a scientific explanation of facts about fine-tuning, in particular considering criteria for a scientific theory and for justifying unseen entities. It considers the relation between physical laws and the natures of existence, and emphasizes limits on our knowledge of the physics relevant to the early universe (the physics horizon), and the non-physical nature of some claimed infinities. The final section looks briefly at deeper issues, commenting on the scope of enquiry of cosmological theory and the limits of science in relation to the creation of the universe.

  1. Hylomorphism in Modern Analytical Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpov Kirill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical metaphysics in the 20th century was marked by the predominance of scientifi c reductionism. As a result metaphysics was considered dependent on the natural sciences in its topics and methodology. Conversely, the last two decades introduced new trends, defending the autonomy of metaphysical knowledge, while keeping such an important distinguishing feature of analytical philosophy as orientation on achievements of natural sciences. Hylomorphism is one of these new trends, which might be characterized as 'neo-Aristotelian’. Contemporary Hylomorphism is heterogeneous, has a number of branches, which are united by the idea that all material objects are composed of two basic elements — matter and form. The latter is often understood as a form in the strict sense, as a structure, a constitution or a power. The author considers the main issue faced by all hylomorphic ontologies: if matter and form are independent principles, what then unites them into a single composite? The article pays particular attention to the application of hylomorphic ontologies in solving such important philosophical and theological problems as the problem of the material constitution, mind-body problem, the Trinity. The last aspect deserves special attention. The author analyzes advantages and disadvantages of the proposed hylomorphic solutions. The main advantage is the amazing fl exibility of hylomorphic ontologies — they allow philosophers to introduce easily new principles, thus adopting to various problems solving. The disadvantages come directly from the main advantage and consist in weak reconcilement of those new principles with each other.

  2. The Method of Hypothesis in Plato's Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Aboie Mehrizi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the examination of method of hypothesis in Plato's philosophy. This method, respectively, will be examined in three dialogues of Meno, Phaedon and Republic in which it is explicitly indicated. It will be shown the process of change of Plato’s attitude towards the position and usage of the method of hypothesis in his realm of philosophy. In Meno, considering the geometry, Plato attempts to introduce a method that can be used in the realm of philosophy. But, ultimately in Republic, Plato’s special attention to the method and its importance in the philosophical investigations, leads him to revise it. Here, finally Plato introduces the particular method of philosophy, i.e., the dialectic

  3. Mario Bunge's Philosophy of Mathematics: An Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I present and discuss critically the main elements of Mario Bunge's philosophy of mathematics. In particular, I explore how mathematical knowledge is accounted for in Bunge's systemic emergent materialism.

  4. Towards an African Philosophy of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaya-Lakidi, Dent

    1980-01-01

    Compares and contrasts contemporary philosophies of education in Africa with two philosophical doctrines (naturalism and idealism). Topics discussed include value selectors, westernization, the role of missionaries in African education, critical consciousness, relevance, and African education today. (DB)

  5. Preface. Philosophy and History of Talmudic Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schumann Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This volume contains the papers presented at the Philosophy and History of Talmudic Logic Affiliated Workshop of Krakow Conference on History of Logic (KHL2016, held on October 27, 2016, in Krakow, Poland.

  6. Has Richard Rorty a moral philosophy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asghari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available I try to show that Richard Rorty, although is not a moral philosopher like Kant, nerveless, has moral philosophy that must be taken seriously. Rorty was not engaged with moral philosophy in the systematic manner common among leading modern and contemporary moral philosophers. This paper has two parts: first part, in brief, is concerned with principles of his philosophy such as anti-essentialism, Darwinism, Freudism, and historicism. Second part which be long and detailed, considers many moral themes in Rorty's thought such as critique of Kantian morality, solidarity, moral progress, cruelty and concept of other, etc. Subsequently, I will try to answer the research question of the article namely, has Rorty a moral philosophy?

  7. Philosophy as the Wisdom of Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicovacki Predrag

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The author argues that love should play a central role in philosophy (and ethics. In the past, philosophical practice has been too narrowly defined by theory and explanation. Although unquestionably important, they do not belong to the very core of our philosophizing. Philosophy is primarily a way of life, centered on the soul and the development of our humanity – in its most diverse aspects and to its utmost potential. For such a life to be possible, love must play a central role in philosophy and philosophy should be understood not in the traditional sense as “the love of wisdom,” but in a new way – as the wisdom of love.

  8. The Copernican Revolution in Pragmatism? Dewey on Philosophy and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Ann P. Llanera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A Copernican revolution heralds a grand renovation of a tradition of knowledge. In science—the discipline from which the concept originates—it aptly connotes a paradigm shift from a previously accepted notion of reality. It is upon this conceptualization that John Dewey wrote: “Kant claimed that he had effected a Copernican revolution in philosophy by treating the world and our knowledge of it from the standpoint of the knowing subject.” For the Enlightenment thinker, traditional philosophy construed a rational system of nature and then borrowed from it the features by which to characterize knowledge. He argued that this “borrowing” of a rational system should not be credited to some outworldy power, but to human reason. Thus, his “revolution” was a shift from theological to human authorship and a placing of the locus of intellect in man as a knowing subject. Kant’s work created a new center in philosophy: that it is the mind that knows by means of an equipment of powers complete within itself and that it merely exercises its capabilities upon an antecedent external material equally complete in itself.

  9. Modern Western Concepts of Philosophy of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Ivanova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The philosophy of education is represented by a wide range of concepts and approaches. The basic concepts of the philosophy of education can be divided into 4 groups according to the «pure» philosophical systems: realism, idealism, pragmatism, existentialism. Among the goals of the philosophy of education as an independent science are: stimulation, analysis, ordering, research. The delineation of the concept of education and the notion of school education are an important aspect in formulating the goals of the philosophy of education. A significant place in the process of finding and setting the goals of the philosophy of education is occupied by an alternative: discipline of mind or discipline of knowledge? It is worth paying attention to the goals of the modern Western philosophy of education: training for the formation of character, training for personal growth and success, training for the development and refinement of aesthetic predispositions, etc. Within the frameworks of the American philosophy of education, three main directions were formed: empiricism, rationalism, naturalism. According to the approach of the empiricists, education is the main factor, influencing human existence, which stimulates human activity, forms the person’s abilities and character. Rationalists introduced the idea of «self-alienation» as the most important for the philosophy of education. «Self-alienation» is a transition of a student from one stage of training to another one under the supervision of a teacher, when human mind becomes an object of his own attention. At the last stage of the student’s intellectual development, discovery of universals, laws and principles takes place. According to naturalists’ concept, the conclusions of scientific study of nature should be understood not as a testimony of truth, but as working hypotheses for further investigation. Scientific discoveries should be discoveries for education. Modern educational systems

  10. Philosophie et colonialisme chez Anquetil-Duperron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Gallegos Gabilondo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Anquetil-Duperron was one of the main critics of Montesquieu’s concept of despotism, a tenacious opponent of eurocentrism and an unconventional exponent of anticolonial thought in the Enlightenment. He questioned the philosophical use of travel literature and also denounced that philosophy can be an instrument of conquest, grounding colonization’s image of the world. This article focuses on the original relationship that his works disclosed between colonialism and philosophy.

  11. Database on wind characteristics - Structure and philosophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.C.; Hansen, K.S.

    2001-11-01

    The main objective of IEA R and D Wind Annex XVII - Database on Wind Characteristics - is to provide wind energy planners and designers, as well as the international wind engineering community in general, with easy access to quality controlled measured wind field time series observed in a wide range of environments. The project partners are Sweden, Norway, U.S.A., The Netherlands, Japan and Denmark, with Denmark as the Operating Agent. The reporting of IEA R and D Annex XVII falls in three separate parts. Part one deals with the overall structure and philosophy behind the database, part two accounts in details for the available data in the established database bank and part three is the Users Manual describing the various ways to access and analyse the data. The present report constitutes the first part of the Annex XVII reporting, and it contains a detailed description of the database structure, the data quality control procedures, the selected indexing of the data and the hardware system. (au)

  12. The Beginnings of the History of Philosophy in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacija J. Fridl

    2010-12-01

    to the original experience (not merely thinking of the truth. Moreover, Plato seeks to free philosophy from the tyranny of authorship, from the rule of an ego limited to a narrow space and time. The talking in his writings is wholly left to Socrates and numerous other interlocutors, while he himself is – most tellingly – referred to as the absent one.  The view of earlier wisdom, grounded by Aristotle on the principle of a spiritual struggle and difference, is thus still conceived by Plato as a continuity. The two key points of Plato’s attitude to philosophical heritage as traced in this paper – the experience of the past as a golden age of wisdom and the perception of philosophy as a sequence of thought, a kind of spiritual genealogy – are already present in early Greek epic poetry and Herodotus’ historiography. As demonstrated in the paper, they similarly predominate in the Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers by Diogenes Laertius. Therefore his text cannot be read as a typical Hellenistic phenomenon, but rather as a work prompting us, now as then, to reconsider the philosophical heritage of Ancient Greece. The present study is designed retrospectively. Running from an analysis of the state of the art and a definition of Aristotle’s concept of philosophical history back to Plato, Herodotus, and early Greek epic poetry, it seeks to reach the original source of the Greek view of the past, and to place Diogenes Laertius’ work in the field of Greek philosophical thought by the principle of continuity. In the same way, the inquiry into the subject shifts, time and again, to a methodological inquiry into what and how the history of philosophy can tell us today.

  13. Advances in philosophy and environment in Iberoamerica. Meaningful link between philosophy and environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugallo, Alicia Irene

    2007-01-01

    The growing expansion of environmental conscience in the last thirty years of the X X century has influenced the field of philosophy, especially practical philosophy, through the questioning of beliefs, values and goals of industrial civilization. The emergence of the eco philosophy realm was accompanied by the incidence of different scientific disciplines as ecology, biology, economy, anthropology or sociology. But together with these influences, environmental philosophy remains forcefully normative, as a kind of sophia, wisdom. It implies prescriptions, not only scientific description and prediction. The consideration of the term biodiversity as a thick ethical concept shows this integration of descriptive and normative

  14. Operational Health Physics-Science or Philosophy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M. W.

    2004-01-01

    Operational health physics is concerned with protecting workers and the public from harm due to ionizing radiation. This requires the application of philosophy (ethics) as well as science. Operational health physics philosophy has been dominated by the ICRP. A particular aspect of ICRP's philosophy that is often misunderstood is (As low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account). (ALARA) Although the ALARA philosophy has been interpreted as a cost-benefit approach it is in fact a risk-benefit approach including social considerations as the ICRP has emphasised from time to time. A recent report has accused the ICRP of using a discarded philosophical approach, namely Utilitarianism, as a result of which its recommendations are unethical. The report suggests that a (rights) based philosophy such as Rawls' Theory of Justice would be a more appropriate basis. This paper discusses this accusation, considers some relevant philosophies and concludes that the accusation is not valid and that ICRP's recommendations are ethical but are frequently misinterpreted. (Author)

  15. Operational Health Physics-Science or Philosophy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M. W.

    2004-07-01

    Operational health physics is concerned with protecting workers and the public from harm due to ionizing radiation. This requires the application of philosophy (ethics) as well as science. Operational health physics philosophy has been dominated by the ICRP. A particular aspect of ICRP's philosophy that is often misunderstood is (As low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account). (ALARA) Although the ALARA philosophy has been interpreted as a cost-benefit approach it is in fact a risk-benefit approach including social considerations as the ICRP has emphasised from time to time. A recent report has accused the ICRP of using a discarded philosophical approach, namely Utilitarianism, as a result of which its recommendations are unethical. The report suggests that a (rights) based philosophy such as Rawls' Theory of Justice would be a more appropriate basis. This paper discusses this accusation, considers some relevant philosophies and concludes that the accusation is not valid and that ICRP's recommendations are ethical but are frequently misinterpreted. (Author)

  16. Reflections on the Growth and Development of Islamic Philosophy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of secular dimension that the Western philosophy inclines to, many see philosophy as a phenomenon that cannot be attributed to religion, which led to hasty conclusion in some quarters that philosophy is against religion and must be seen and treated as such. This paper looks at the concept of philosophy in ...

  17. Philosophy of Education: Becoming Less Western, More African?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Posing the question "How diverse is philosophy of education in the West?" this paper responds to two recent defences of African philosophy of education which endorse its communitarianism and oppose individualism in Western philosophy of education. After outlining Thaddeus Metz's argument that Western philosophy of education should become…

  18. Some Main Features of Wittgenstein´s Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Steen

    Two chapters from a book manuscript, where four parts of Wittgenstein´s philosophy are systematically interconnected, philosophy of language, mathematics, psychology and natural science......Two chapters from a book manuscript, where four parts of Wittgenstein´s philosophy are systematically interconnected, philosophy of language, mathematics, psychology and natural science...

  19. A Confucian philosophy of medicine and some implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ping-Cheung

    2010-08-01

    Two crucial topics in the philosophy of medicine are the philosophy of nature and philosophical anthropology. In this essay I engage the philosophy of nature by exploring Anne Fagot-Largeault's study of norms in nature as a way of articulating a Confucian philosophy of medicine. I defend the Confucian position as a moderate naturalism.

  20. Doing Philosophy Effectively: Student Learning in Classroom Teaching.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, Natascha; Imants, Jeroen; Karskens, Machiel; van der Heijden, Peter G. M.

    2015-01-01

    An important aim of teaching philosophy in Dutch secondary schools is to learn about philosophy (i.e., the great philosophers) by doing philosophy. We examined doing philosophy and focused specifically on the relationship between student learning activities and teacher behavior; in doing so, a

  1. Doing Philosophy Effectively : Student Learning in Classroom Teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, Natascha; Imants, Jeroen; Karskens, Machiel; van der Heijden, Peter G. M.

    2015-01-01

    An important aim of teaching philosophy in Dutch secondary schools is to learn about philosophy (i.e., the great philosophers) by doing philosophy. We examined doing philosophy and focused specifically on the relationship between student learning activities and teacher behavior; in doing so, a

  2. Choosing phenomenology as a guiding philosophy for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matua, Gerald Amandu

    2015-03-01

    To provide an overview of important methodological considerations that nurse researchers need to adhere to when choosing phenomenology as a guiding philosophy and research method. Phenomenology is a major philosophy and research method in the humanities, human sciences and arts disciplines with a central goal of describing people's experiences. However, many nurse researchers continue to grapple with methodological issues related to their choice of phenomenological method. The author conducted online and manual searches of relevant research books and electronic databases. Using an integrative method, peer-reviewed research and discussion papers published between January 1990 and December 2011 and listed in the CINAHL, Science Direct, PubMed and Google Scholar databases were reviewed. In addition, textbooks that addressed research methodologies such as phenomenology were used. Although phenomenology is widely used today to broaden understanding of human phenomena relevant to nursing practice, nurse researchers often fail to adhere to acceptable scientific and phenomenological standards. Cognisant of these challenges, researchers are expected to indicate in their work the focus of their investigations, designs, and approaches to collecting and analysing data. They are also expected to present their findings in an evocative and expressive manner. Choosing phenomenology requires researchers to understand it as a philosophy, including basic assumptions and tenets of phenomenology as a research method. This awareness enables researchers, especially novices, to make important methodological decisions, particularly those necessary to indicate the study's scientific rigour and phenomenological validity. This paper adds to the discussion of phenomenology as a guiding philosophy for nursing research. It aims to guide new researchers on important methodological decisions they need to make to safeguard their study's scientific rigour and phenomenological validity.

  3. Philosophy of art and art of philosophy | Etim | Sophia: An African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an attempt to examine the relationship between philosophy and art. Philosophy and art can be seen primarily as two distinct but logically related phenomena in human experience. For although they differ in subject matter, each of them does have implications for the other in the sphere of knowledge and ...

  4. CLA Booklist. New Gods for Old - Why Philosophy is Dull. Philosophy - 1970-1971

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbery, Michael G.

    1971-01-01

    The essential attributes of philosophy are: (1) it must be useless, (2) it must discuss the important and perennial problems intimately related to human existence, and (3) it must not solve these problems. The discussion is followed by a list of philosophy books. (19 references) (NH)

  5. From the Philosophy of Theatre to Performance Philosophy: Laruelle, Badiou and the Equality of Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cull Ó Maoilearca

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  This article draws from François Laruelle's non-standard philosophy to locate gestures of philosophical "authority" or 'sufficiency" within recent work in the philosophy of theatre – including material from contemporary Anglo-American philosophical aesthetics, and texts by Alain Badiou, such as In Praise of Theatre (2015. Whilst Badiou initially appears magnanimous in relation to theatre's own thinking - famously describing theatre as "an event of thought" that "directly produces ideas" (Badiou 2005: 72 - I argue that this very benevolence, from a Laruellean perspective, constitutes another form of philosophical authoritarianism. In contrast, I indicate some affinities between Laruelle's non-standard aesthetics and the emerging field of Performance Philosophy - one aim of which, as distinct from the philosophy of theatre, would be to allow performance to qualitatively extend our concepts of thinking and/or to be attentive to the ways in which performance has already provided new forms of philosophy.

  6. Treatment rationale and study design for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II study evaluating onartuzumab (MetMAb) in combination with bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX-6 in patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, Johanna C; Ervin, Thomas J; Gallinson, David; Singh, Jaswinder; Wallace, James A; Saleh, Mansoor N; Vallone, Marcy; Phan, See-Chun; Hack, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    Dysregulation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/MET pathway is associated with poor prognosis, more aggressive biological characteristics of the tumor, and shortened survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Onartuzumab (MetMAb) is a recombinant humanized monovalent monoclonal antibody directed against MET. We present the treatment rationale and protocol for an ongoing randomized multicenter placebo-controlled phase II study designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MetMAb combined with bevacizumab and mFOLFOX-6 (5-fluoruracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin). Eligible patients with previously untreated mCRC are randomized 1:1 to either mFOLFOX-6 combined with bevacizumab and placebo followed by 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin plus bevacizumab and placebo or mFOLFOX6, bevacizumab plus MetMAb followed by 5 FU/LV, bevacizumab, and MetMAb. The primary end point of this study is progression-free survival (PFS) in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Secondary end points include overall survival (OS), objective response rate, and safety. Subanalyses will be performed to evaluate the effect of MET receptor expression on study primary and secondary end points. Correlative studies will be performed on tissue- and blood-derived biomarkers related to both HGF/MET signaling and other associated pathway markers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The ABCDEF Bundle: Science and Philosophy of How ICU Liberation Serves Patients and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, E Wesley

    2017-02-01

    Over the past 20 years, critical care has matured in a myriad of ways resulting in dramatically higher survival rates for our sickest patients. For millions of new survivors comes de novo suffering and disability called "the postintensive care syndrome." Patients with postintensive care syndrome are robbed of their normal cognitive, emotional, and physical capacity and cannot resume their previous life. The ICU Liberation Collaborative is a real-world quality improvement initiative being implemented across 76 ICUs designed to engage strategically the ABCDEF bundle through team- and evidence-based care. This article explains the science and philosophy of liberating ICU patients and families from harm that is both inherent to critical illness and iatrogenic. ICU liberation is an extensive program designed to facilitate the implementation of the pain, agitation, and delirium guidelines using the evidence-based ABCDEF bundle. Participating ICU teams adapt data from hundreds of peer-reviewed studies to operationalize a systematic and reliable methodology that shifts ICU culture from the harmful inertia of sedation and restraints to an animated ICU filled with patients who are awake, cognitively engaged, and mobile with family members engaged as partners with the ICU team at the bedside. In doing so, patients are "liberated" from iatrogenic aspects of care that threaten his or her sense of self-worth and human dignity. The goal of this 2017 plenary lecture at the 47th Society of Critical Care Medicine Congress is to provide clinical ICU teams a synthesis of the literature that led to the creation of ICU liberation philosophy and to explain how this patient- and family-centered, quality improvement program is novel, generalizable, and practice changing.

  8. Philosophy and Politics: The anti-political character of Socrates’ philosophy and Plato ’s project of making philosophy political

    OpenAIRE

    Hrvoje Cvijanović

    2016-01-01

    The intention of this research is to elaborate on Socrates’ philosophy and its serious consequences for the relationship between philosophy and politics, hence making them hostile to each other, and Socrates an enemy of the people. The author explores the tension between philosophy and public life by comparing and contrasting two opposing philosophical projects – Socrates and Plato’s – while illuminating different methods and paths they follow in their understanding of philosophy and politics...

  9. Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jafari Eskandari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard McKay Rorty (1932-2007 is the American neo-pragmatist. Criticizing the prevalent issues of traditional philosophy such as truth, knowledge, objectivity, logic and philosophy, he considers epistemology a modern subject which emerged via forging the mind by Rene Descartes. In his view, separation of mind–body is an unprecedented matter created in Descartes philosophy. He thinks that, in creating such a matter, Descartes was aided by the big and strong image of human mind as a large mirror which reflects the world. Rorty states that this image is not trustable. This study investigates the view of Rorty about mind and body. The main hypothesis of this study is that Rorty does not seek solution for selecting monism or dualism or other view, and thus he prefers the annulling approach to solving approach.

  10. Philosophy of Education: contemporary critical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Anselmo Guilherme

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Where does philosophy of education take us? In the social, political and cultural turmoil of the present age, it can be argued that our social imagination might be confined, and our political subverted. In response to this, some philosophers of education have strived to reveal many ideologies at work in modern myths such as the orders of educational progression, of equality of opportunity, and of the power of measurement. But is there something beyond what Paul Ricoeur called the «desert of criticism» (Ricoeur. The Symbolism of Evil? How helpful and effective have these criticisms of our modern age been? In this editorial, an introduction to the special issue of Philosophy of Education: Contemporary Critical Issues, I discuss the importance of a critical attitude in education, and philosophy of education, whilst making reference to the works of Ilan Gur-Ze’ev and David Carr.

  11. Sociology as Moral Philosophy (and Vice Versa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Frédéric

    2017-11-01

    In this article, I want to make an attempt to reconnect sociology to moral philosophy and moral philosophy to sociology. The thesis I want to defend is that sociology continues by other means the venerable tradition of practical and moral philosophy. Like its forebears, it stands and falls with a defense of "practical wisdom" (Aristotle) and "practical reason" (Kant). The development of a moral sociology presupposes, however, that one recognizes and rejects Max Weber's theory of axiological neutrality as an extremist position and that one carefully articulates prescriptive and descriptive, internal and external, as well as observer and actor positions. © 2017 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  12. The Metaphysics of Chinese Information Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liqian, Zhou; Brier, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Compared with other transdisciplinary frames of information Wu Kun’s philosophy of information differs in its metaphysical framework in that it has a background in a conception of Dialectics of Nature coming from the old Stalin textbook system but also a part of the renewal of thinking in China...... appearing through the thought liberty movement in the 1980s, which among other things also added a modern view of information to Chinese thinking. Still it is a philosophy in a distinctive Chinese style. Wu’s philosophical system begins by re-dividing the field of existence and founding a new ontological...... area or aspect of being, which he called the world of information and named it objective unreality. This, ontological framework, different from that in the West, made the concept of information in his system different from the information concept in Shannon’s and even Wiener’s sense. Wu’s philosophy...

  13. Intercultural otherness philosophy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro B. Márquez-Fernández

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural philosophy in Latin America takes it that the only way to achieve the liberation from the rationality and thinking of the hegemonic colonial culture, present in their countries from the “discovery” of America until now, would be through the recognition of the other in its identity and origin. This philosophy of ‘decolonization’ stresses that it is there where intersubjectivity comes ontologically into being where the authentic origins of their cultures in their ancestral practices emerge. Therefore, the emergence of the other is the dialectical result of a fenomenological consciousness that becomes aware of the existence of being as otherness; that is, a being that is there for another. This liberty makes possible an encounter without the kind of alienations that take place when a culture boasts of its superiority upon another. The intercultural discourse of Latin-American philosophy emphasizes the evolvement of being with others in favor of liberation for all.

  14. [Philosophy within the context of neurosciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estany, Anna

    2013-03-16

    Based on the interrelation between science and philosophy, this article addresses the impact of neurosciences on the philosophical issues posed by today's society, especially those related with epistemology and the philosophy of science. To do so, the different approaches in the cognitive sciences are taken into account, with special attention paid to those that have to do with social, embodied and situated cognition versus a more individual, rational and abstract cognition. This initial framework is taken as the starting point with which to analyse the ways of representing knowledge and the characteristics of the cognoscente agent.

  15. Well-Being, Science, and Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    in philosophy. This state of affairs is lamentable, as it robs science and public policy of the expertise of philosophers, a desirable tool when evaluating empirical claims about well-being promotion. In this article, I examine the reasons for this lack of communication. In particular, I reject the view...... according to which it originates in the idea that philosophers take well-being to be a single and general concept, and argue instead that it is likely to be the result of the different theoretical constraints under which philosophy and empirical science respectively operate. Finally, I show...

  16. Nuclear safety philosophy in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Development of the United Kingdom (UK) nuclear safety philosophy is described in the context of the UK nuclear power program since 1959 and of its legislative framework. Basic to the philosophy is that the licensee is wholly responsible for nuclear safety. The licensing process and safety assessment principles used by the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate are discussed, and examples from the assessment of the proposed UK pressurized-water reactor are used to illustrate how the approach works in practice. The UK siting policy and regulatory developments since 1979 are also discussed. Recent, current, and future issues of interest to the regulatory authority are described against the development nuclear scene in the UK

  17. Truth Obviousness in Ancient Greek Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Halyna I. Budz

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the features of the axiomatic approach to the truth understanding in ancient Greek philosophy. Truth in the works by ancient philosophers has axiomatic essence, basing on divine origin of truth. As the truth has a divine origin, it is in reality. The reality, created by Gods is the solemn reality. Therefore, understanding of reality by man is the display of divine reality, which is true and clever. In of the context of ancient Greek philosophy, to know truth is to know so...

  18. An outline of object-oriented philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Graham

    2013-01-01

    This article summarises the principles of object-oriented philosophy and explains its similarities with, and differences from, the outlook of the natural sciences. Like science, the object-oriented position avoids the notion (quite common in philosophy) that the human-world relation is the ground of all others, such that scientific statements about the world would only be statements about the world as it is for humans. But unlike science, object-oriented metaphysics treats artificial, social, and fictional entities in the same way as natural ones, and also holds that the world can only be known allusively rather than directly.

  19. Radiation protection measurement. Philosophy and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recht, P.; Lakey, J.R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A selection from the proceedings of the International Symposium held by the U.K. Society for radiological protection in June 1974 was presented. The central theme was the philosophy of radiation protection measurement and its interpretation although some specific areas of good health physics practice were included. The 28 papers selected were chosen to be either representative of the central theme or of wider interest. The papers have been grouped in 6 main sections: philosophy of measurements; interpretation of measurements; implementation by legislation and monitoring; radiation exposure and control; reactor safety and siting; accidents

  20. Emotions in Philosophy. A Short Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowski Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, there has been a renewed attention to the emotions amongst scientists of different disciplines: psychology, psychiatry, neurobiology, cognitive science, computer science, sociology, economics, and many others. There are many research centers and scientific journals devoted to affective states already existing. However, studies of emotion have a very long history - especially in philosophy (anthropology, ethics, aesthetics, epistemology, and rhetoric. Philosophers first raised many important questions about emotions and their contribution to the discovery of the nature of emotions is very important. The aim of the article is the reconstruction of the views on emotions of particular thinkers in history of philosophy.

  1. The Role of History and Philosophy of in University Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Carter, Jessica M H Grund

    2014-01-01

    uses of history and the research direction in philosophy of mathematics denoted ‘Philosophy of Mathematical Practice’. We link history and philosophy of mathematical practices to recent ideas in mathematics education in order to identify different roles history and philosophy can play in the learning...... at the universities. We shall see, however, that the history courses address philosophical questions and that the philosophy courses employ historical material. The chapter ends with comments on how mathematics educations at university level can benefit from history and philosophy of mathematics...

  2. Air-cleaning philosophy in a nuclear-materials fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, F.Y.; Yoder, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    At the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant there is a major ventilation improvement project underway. To achieve the desired goals of ALARA regarding radioactivity and toxic material releases and natural phenomena insults, a comprehensive air-cleaning philosophy and policy statement was developed. Design of the upgraded systems were evaluated against these statements and we believe that upon completion of the projects that an efficient system will be demonstrated. the design permits reuse and heat recovery of ventilation air, the optimization of sampling points to reduce analytical laboratory services. This paper discusses the basis of the philosophy and the engineering features incorporated to meet this stated objective. Points of compromise are noted

  3. Towards an Ecology of Participation: Process Philosophy and Co-Creation of Higher Education Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Carol A.; Bovill, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    This article brings together the authors' previous work on co-created curricula (Bovill, 2013a, 2014; Bovill et al., 2011) and on partnership and ethics (Taylor, 2015; Taylor and Robinson, 2014), to develop the concept of co-created curricula as an ecology of participation. In doing so, it deploys Alfred North Whitehead's process philosophy to…

  4. Empirical Moral Philosophy and Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjetne, Espen; Afdal, Hilde Wågsås; Anker, Trine; Johannesen, Nina; Afdal, Geir

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the possible contributions of empirical moral philosophy to professional ethics in teacher education. We argue that it is both possible and desirable to connect knowledge of how teachers empirically do and understand professional ethics with normative theories of teachers' professional ethics. Our argument is made in…

  5. Aliu Babatunde Fafunwa's philosophy of education | Oyelade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aliu Babatunde Fafunwa's philosophy of education. ... Makerere Journal of Higher Education ... Nigerian professor of Education and as a highly influential Nigerian Minister of Education, Aliu Babatunde Fafunwa is distinguished and honoured in Nigeria and elsewhere as a thought leader in the area of education. It is with ...

  6. New waves in philosophy of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bueno, O

    2009-01-01

    Thirteen promising young researchers write on what they take to be the right philosophical account of mathematics and discuss where the philosophy of mathematics ought to be going. New trends are revealed, such as an increasing attention to mathematical practice, a reassessment of the canon, and inspiration from philosophical logic.

  7. Ethics, Ricoeur And Philosophy: Ethical Teacher Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Baumann, Alison

    2006-01-01

    This work is about the ethics of education, and about philosophy as a discipline that can help us to help children look at ethics afresh. The study and practice of ethics is about morals and uncertainties and, as such, poses problems for the research community. The philosopher Ricoeur challenges research as only one way to find meaning in the…

  8. Social Philosophy in Postcolonial Africa: Some Preliminaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is one thing about some of the first crop of post independence rulers of Africa that I admire greatly. It is their keen sense of the practical importance of philosophy. Preeminent among them were leaders like Nkrumah, Senghor, Nyerere, Awolowo, Kaunda, and Sekou Toure. Amidst the awesome exigencies of ...

  9. Philosophy of computing and information technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.; Soraker, Johnny; Meijers, A.

    2009-01-01

    Philosophy has been described as having taken a “computational turn,” referring to the ways in which computers and information technology throw new light upon traditional philosophical issues, provide new tools and concepts for philosophical reasoning, and pose theoretical and practical questions

  10. John Dewey on Philosophy and Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Maughn; Granger, David

    2012-01-01

    John Dewey was not a philosopher of education in the now-traditional sense of a doctor of philosophy who examines educational ends, means, and controversies through the disciplinary lenses of epistemology, ethics, and political theory, or of agenda-driven schools such as existentialism, feminism, and critical theory. Rather, Dewey was both an…

  11. Hermeneutics in African philosophy | Fayemi | Filosofia Theoretica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions ... critical inquisition on the strengths and the problems involved in the conceptions of hermeneutics by these African philosophers, this paper argues that basic to hermeneutics is dialogue and its proclivity towards intercultural understanding.

  12. Virtue Epistemology and the Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallister, James

    2012-01-01

    This article initially provides a brief overview of virtue epistemology; it thereafter considers some possible ramifications of this branch of the theory of knowledge for the philosophy of education. The main features of three different manifestations of virtue epistemology are first explained. Importantly, it is then maintained that developments…

  13. Do it yourself: existentialism as punk philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Hanscomb, S.

    2010-01-01

    Existentialism is a notoriously difficult philosophy to explain. The thesis here is that comparing it with Punk Rock is a useful way in. They share a number of features: nihilistic, extreme, passionate, liberating, inclusive, amateur and violent, and each of these serves as a heading under which similarities are explored.

  14. Phenomenology as first philosophy | Allsobrook | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper interprets phenomenology as a mode of inquiry that addresses fundamental questions of first philosophy, beyond the limitation of the practice by its leading theorists to the study of mere appearances. I draw on Adorno's critique of phenomenology to show that it has typically functioned as a mode of first ...

  15. Vagueness in Philosophy: 'Unbestimmtheit' in Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirner, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    I work out the difference between vagueness in philosophy and Unbestimmtheit (indefiniteness) in physics. Vague predicates do not allow a decision whether the predicate is true or false. Unbestimmtheit includes uncertainty and indeterminacy. I will describe the phenomenology of both concepts and discuss practical ways how to handle these cases. (author)

  16. Bohr's Philosophy of Wave–Particle Complementarity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 10. Bohr's Philosophy of Wave–Particle Complementarity. Dipankar Home. General Article Volume 18 Issue 10 October 2013 pp 905-916. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Radiation protection: Philosophy, recommendations and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    The philosophy developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the control of human radiation exposure will be described. The application of the ICRP recommendations to the authorization and control of the disposal of radioactive wastes to the sea will be discussed in the context of the practice in the United Kingdom. (author)

  18. Moral Philosophy, Disability, and Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, E. Frank

    2009-01-01

    Disability and dependence are integral to the human experience and yet have been largely marginalized or denigrated within Western philosophy. Joining a growing counter narrative from the disability studies movement, several mainstream moral philosophers are helping to redress this error. In this essay, the author discusses ideas from four such…

  19. Chinese Traditional Philosophy and Indigenous Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on three key notions of Chinese traditional philosophy, i.e., Zhongyong, Yin Yang, and Wu, pointing out the possible mistakes in Prof. Peter Ping Li's arguments as well as some questions that are often neglected and taken for granted. The author posits, Chinese traditional phil...

  20. PHILOSOPHY, HUMANISM AND TECHNO-SCIENTIFIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims at reconstructing an accurate picture of development as it relates to science and technology, towards bringing out the relevance of philosophy in mediating between the loose ties of disputations it poses against human prospects in the social system. It takes a special interest in the situation of development in ...

  1. Science-its Philosophy and Spirit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 7. Science - its Philosophy and Spirit. Hermann Bondi. Reflections Volume 1 Issue 7 July 1996 pp 82-95. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/07/0082-0095. Author Affiliations.

  2. The Philosophy of the Physical Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 12. The Philosophy of the Physical Sciences. N Mukunda. Personal Reflections Volume 12 Issue 12 December 2007 pp 58-73. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/12/0058-0073 ...

  3. Book Review: Philosophic Sagacity and Intercultural Philosophy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Narcissism, Nationalism and Philosophy in Heidegger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    New York: Harper Torchbooks. Heidegger, M. (1977). The question concerning technology. New York: Harper and Row. Heidegger, M. (1985). The self-assertion of the German university. (Karsten Harries, Trans.). Review of Metaphysics. 38, 470-480. Lacoue-Labarthe, P. (1989). Typography: Mimesis, philosophy, politics.

  5. Phenomenological Philosophy and Orthodox Christian Scientific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In its place, this paper suggests that phenomenological philosophy becomes the unique and transcendent partner, as it were, in the interpretive dialogue. The methodological thinking of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger offers a way of philosophical understanding that is more satisfactory than the traditional scholastic ...

  6. Phil@Scale : Computational methods within philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wierst, Pauline; Vrijenhoek, Sanne; Schlobach, Stefan; Betti, Arianna

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of Phil@Scale, a project directed at the development of computational methods for (the history of) philosophy.1 In this project, philosophers and computer scientists together created SalVe, a tool that helps philosophers answering text-based questions. SalVe has

  7. Investigating Philosophies Underpinning Dietetic Private Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Harper

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is limited theory or knowledge regarding dietitians’ practice philosophies and how these philosophies are generated and incorporated into their professional practices. For the purposes of this study, a conceptual framework will explain and define the ‘philosophies’ as three different types of knowledge; episteme, techne, and phronesis. This study aimed to develop an explanatory theory of how dietitians in private practice source, utilise, and integrate practice philosophies. A grounded theory qualitative methodology was used to inform the sampling strategy, data collection, and analytical processes. Semi-structured interviews with dietitians in private practice were undertaken and data were collected and analysed concurrently. The results show that dietitians form collaborative relationships with their clients, in order to nurture change over time. They use intrinsic and intertwined forms of episteme, techne, and phronesis, which allow them to respond both practically and sensitively to their clients’ needs. The learning and integration of these forms of knowledge are situated in their own practice experience. Dietitians adapt through experience, feedback, and reflection. This study highlights that private practice offers a unique context in which dietitians deal with complex issues, by utilising and adapting their philosophies.

  8. Conversations in African Philosophy | Chimakonam | Filosofia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Book Review: Conversational Philosophy in Practice | Irem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Is African philosophy progressing? | Agada | Filosofia Theoretica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 1 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Sophia: An African Journal of Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal aims at publishing scholarly articles in any branch of philosophy and related disciplines. It shows a special interest in articles which encourage philosophising within the content of Africa, etc. Notice from the journal: You are cordially invited for the 2016 RESEACHERS INTERNATIONAL NETWORK ...

  12. Emotions in Philosophy. A Short Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Dąbrowski Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, there has been a renewed attention to the emotions amongst scientists of different disciplines: psychology, psychiatry, neurobiology, cognitive science, computer science, sociology, economics, and many others. There are many research centers and scientific journals devoted to affective states already existing. However, studies of emotion have a very long history - especially in philosophy (anthropology, ethics, aesthetics, epistemology, and rhetoric). Philosophers first rai...

  13. Recent debates in philosophy of management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we examine legitimacy in relation to recent debates on the philosophy of management and corporations that have emerged to deal with the decline of Protestant ethics. On this basis, we discuss the concepts of corporate citizenship and the good citizen corporations as recent effort...

  14. Doing Philosophy Effectively: Student Learning in Classroom Teaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha Kienstra

    Full Text Available An important aim of teaching philosophy in Dutch secondary schools is to learn about philosophy (i.e., the great philosophers by doing philosophy. We examined doing philosophy and focused specifically on the relationship between student learning activities and teacher behavior; in doing so, a qualitative cross-case analysis of eight philosophy lessons was performed. The effectiveness of doing philosophy was operationalized into five learning activities comprising rationalizing, analyzing, testing, producing criticism, and reflecting, and scored by means of qualitative graphical time registration. Using CA we find a quantitative one-dimensional scale for the lessons that contrasts lessons that are more and less effective in terms of learning and teaching. A relationship was found between teaching by teachers and doing philosophy by students. In particular we found students to produce a higher level of doing philosophy with teachers who chose to organize a philosophical discussion with shared guidance by the teacher together with the students.

  15. Doing Philosophy Effectively: Student Learning in Classroom Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienstra, Natascha; Imants, Jeroen; Karskens, Machiel; van der Heijden, Peter G M

    2015-01-01

    An important aim of teaching philosophy in Dutch secondary schools is to learn about philosophy (i.e., the great philosophers) by doing philosophy. We examined doing philosophy and focused specifically on the relationship between student learning activities and teacher behavior; in doing so, a qualitative cross-case analysis of eight philosophy lessons was performed. The effectiveness of doing philosophy was operationalized into five learning activities comprising rationalizing, analyzing, testing, producing criticism, and reflecting, and scored by means of qualitative graphical time registration. Using CA we find a quantitative one-dimensional scale for the lessons that contrasts lessons that are more and less effective in terms of learning and teaching. A relationship was found between teaching by teachers and doing philosophy by students. In particular we found students to produce a higher level of doing philosophy with teachers who chose to organize a philosophical discussion with shared guidance by the teacher together with the students.

  16. Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions: About this journal. Journal Home > Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Archives: Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 11 of 11 ... Archives: Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. Journal Home > Archives: Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions: Advanced Search. Journal Home > Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. The philosophy of Hans-Georg Gadamer / Wolfgang Drechsler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Drechsler, Wolfgang, 1963-

    1998-01-01

    Rets.rmt.: The philosophy of Hans-Georg Gadamer : a review of the philosophy of Hans-Georg Gadamer / Lewis Edwin Hahn, ed. Chicago and La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1997. (The Library of Living Philosophers, vol. XXIV)

  20. Doing Philosophy Effectively: Student Learning in Classroom Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    An important aim of teaching philosophy in Dutch secondary schools is to learn about philosophy (i.e., the great philosophers) by doing philosophy. We examined doing philosophy and focused specifically on the relationship between student learning activities and teacher behavior; in doing so, a qualitative cross-case analysis of eight philosophy lessons was performed. The effectiveness of doing philosophy was operationalized into five learning activities comprising rationalizing, analyzing, testing, producing criticism, and reflecting, and scored by means of qualitative graphical time registration. Using CA we find a quantitative one-dimensional scale for the lessons that contrasts lessons that are more and less effective in terms of learning and teaching. A relationship was found between teaching by teachers and doing philosophy by students. In particular we found students to produce a higher level of doing philosophy with teachers who chose to organize a philosophical discussion with shared guidance by the teacher together with the students. PMID:26379267

  1. The architecture of modern mathematics essays in history and philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreiros, J

    2006-01-01

    Aimed at both students and researchers in philosophy, mathematics and the history of science, this edited volume, authored by leading scholars, highlights foremost developments in both the philosophy and history of modern mathematics.

  2. Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Nuclear reactor philosophy and criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atchison, R.J.

    1979-07-01

    Nuclear power plant safety criteria and principles developed in Canada are directed towards minimizing the chance of failure of the fuel and preventing or reducing to an acceptably low level the escape of fission products should fuel failure occur. Safety criteria and practices are set forth in the Reactor Siting Guide, which is based upon the concept of defence in depth. The Guide specifies that design and construction shall follow the best applicable code, standard or practice; the total of all serious process system failures shall not exceed one in three years; special safety systems are to be physically and functionally separate from process systems and each other; and safety systems shall be testable, with unavailability less than 10 - 3 . Doses to the most exposed member of the public due to normal operation, serious process failures, and dual failures are specified. Licensees are also required to consider the effects of extreme conditions due to airplane crashes, explosions, turbine disintegration, pipe burst, and natural disasters. Safety requirements are changing as nuclear power plant designs evolve and in response to social and economic pressures

  4. Logic and philosophy of mathematics in the early Husserl

    CERN Document Server

    Centrone, Stefania

    2010-01-01

    This text focuses on the first ten years of Edmund Husserl's work, from the publication of his Philosophy of Arithmetic to that of Logical Investigations. It aims to locate this work in the fields of logic, philosophy of logic and philosophy of mathematics.

  5. Approaching Political Philosophy through the Critique of Liberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    2014-01-01

    Understanding political philosophy as practical implies reflecting on principles as well as on material matters, on justice as well as on government. Liberalism is the main challenge to political philosophy, since its optimistic laissez faire attitude denies the legitimacy of political government...... overcome liberalism to be able to practice politics and political philosophy in the way presented here....

  6. The Birth of Philosophy and the Contempt for Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    The history of philosophy of food is an unhappy one. It seems that only by denying the relevance of food for a happy life, philosophy could establish itself as a serious branch of knowledge: this is what I call the philosopher's incoherence. First with the Greeks, philosophy want to get rid of the

  7. The Relationship between Philosophy and Evidence in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Gina; Brighouse, Harry

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the ways that philosophy and evidence interact in the exploration of normative questions in philosophy of education. First, the authors provide a description of reflective equilibrium, a central method in normative philosophizing. They proceed to describe three tasks of normative philosophy, each of which requires engagement…

  8. Making Philosophy of Science Education Practical for Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, F. J. J. M.; van Berkel, B.

    2015-01-01

    Philosophy of science education can play a vital role in the preparation and professional development of science teachers. In order to fulfill this role a philosophy of science education should be made practical for teachers. First, multiple and inherently incomplete philosophies on the teacher and teaching on what, how and why should be…

  9. Interactions between science and technology and present-day philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The authors plead for a revival of the symbiosis between science and technology and philosophy. Their contributions to the assessment of the consequences in science and technology as a task of philosophy as well as to the effects of science and technology on present-day philosophy want to give new impulses to this revival. (DG) [de

  10. Philosophy in contemporary time: Relevance vs. Public perception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What is the relevance of philosophy in this contemporary time? Philosophy is viewed by many people as an irrelevant discipline- one of no social and/or practical significance. It is sometimes seen also as an abstract and drab enterprise fit only for the intellectuals. Overtime also, philosophy has come to be perceived as ...

  11. "Whys" and "Hows" of Using Philosophy in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankvist, Uffe Thomas; Iversen, Steffen Møllegaard

    2014-01-01

    The article elaborates and exemplifies a potential categorization of the reasons for using philosophy, in particular the philosophy of mathematics, in mathematics education and approaches to doing so-the so-called "whys" and "hows". More precisely, the "whys" are divided into the two categories of "philosophy as…

  12. "Inside-out Pedagogy": Theorising Pedagogical Transformation through Teaching Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Rosie

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective interview study focused on the impact that training and implementation of Philosophy, in Lipman's tradition of Philosophy for Children, had on the pedagogy of 14 primary teachers at one school. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to document the impact of teaching Philosophy on pedagogy, the resources required to…

  13. God, Sport Philosophy, Kinesiology: A MacIntyrean Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    Sport philosophy is in crisis. This subdiscipline of kinesiology garners little to no respect and few tenure track lines in kinesiology departments. Why is this the case? Why isn't philosophy held in greater esteem? Is it possible that philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre's (2009) diagnosis found in "God, Philosophy, Universities" could…

  14. Philosophy and Ethics in Western Australian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of Philosophy and Ethics to the Western Australian Certificate of Education courses in 2008 brought philosophy into the Western Australian secondary school curriculum for the first time. How philosophy came to be included is part of a larger story about the commitment and perseverance of a relatively small number of Australian…

  15. 310 The Impact of Philosophy to Human Development Henry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    globalization is unfolded by the simple activity of philosophy. Introduction. Philosophy plays ... Russell in his definition of philosophy. In summary ... fact of globalization. How? Globalization as we know is defined as the opening of borders of nations for the rapid and free circulation of goods and services. It aims at making the ...

  16. What Is Our First Philosophy in Mathematics Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Paul

    2012-01-01

    What are the theoretical foundations of mathematics education? Recently disciplines other than mathematics and psychology have grown in importance, including philosophy. But which branch of philosophy is the most fundamental for mathematics education? In this article, I consider the claims of five branches of philosophy to be our "first…

  17. Philosophy, Mythology and an African Cosmological System | Udefi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a tendency by some scholars, especially those professional African philosophers who belong to the analytic school of African philosophy, to deny any relationship between philosophy, myth and cosmology. Their denial is based on their characterisation of philosophy as a rational and critical inquiry, while myth and ...

  18. Reflections on Beardsley's "Aesthetics: Problems in the Philosophy of Criticism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Monroe Beardsley's "Aesthetics" was published the year the author was a junior philosophy major at the University of California, Berkeley, and by the end of that academic year, the author had completed semester courses in the history of ancient as well as modern philosophy, logic, ethics, and the philosophy of religion. The requirements remaining…

  19. Further Reflections on a Catholic Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Mario O.

    2018-01-01

    Readers of this journal will recall two articles on the Catholic philosophy education: "Towards a contemporary Catholic philosophy of education," by Brendan Carmody SJ, [Carmody, Brendan. (2011). "Towards a Contemporary Catholic Philosophy of Education." "International Studies in Catholic Education" 3 (2): 106-119],…

  20. How new is the new philosophy of psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Damiaan

    2007-01-01

    In their recent paper, Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton evaluate seven volumes of the Oxford University Press series “International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry,” an international book series begun in 2003 focusing on the emerging interdisciplinary field at the interface of philosophy and psychiatry. According to Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton, the series represents a clear indication that the interdisciplinary field of philosophy of psychiatry has been flourishing lately. Philosophers and psychiatrists face a “new philosophy of psychiatry”. However, the optimism which the “new” philosophy of psychiatry celebrates is precisely the exiling of philosophy from the foundations of psychiatry. The 150 year old belief that psychopathology cannot do without philosophical reflection has virtually disappeared from common psychiatric education and daily clinical practice. Though the discipline of psychiatry is particularly suited to contributions from philosophy, the impact of philosophy on psychiatry nowadays remains limited. With some exceptions, philosophical papers are embedded in a philosophical context inscrutable to ordinary psychiatrists. Much current philosophical work is perceived by psychiatrists as negativistic. I would encourage the field of psychiatry to incorporate once again basic philosophical attitudes which render possible true dialogue with philosophy and enrich both disciplines. The views developed here should not discredit the value and importance of Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton’s paper and the excellent series “International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry.” As Jaspers said “Everybody inclined to disregard philosophy will be overwhelmed by philosophy in an unperceived way”. PMID:17949505

  1. Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filosofia Theoretica Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions, a publication of the Calabar School of Philosophy (CSP) is dedicated to the publication of astute academic research in African Philosophy, Culture, History, Art, Literature, Science, Education and Religions, etc. The articles submitted to Filosofia ...

  2. Philosophy, Mythology and an African Cosmological System | Udefi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a tendency by some scholars, especially those professional African philosophers who belong to the analytic school of African philosophy, to deny the existence of any relationship between philosophy, myth and cosmology. Their denial is based on their characterisation of philosophy as a rational and critical inquiry, ...

  3. The Philosophy of the New Radiation Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikman, P.

    2004-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection has proposed a new philosophy of radiation protection. An important component in the proposed system of protection is the principle I f the individual is sufficiently protected from a source, then society is also protected from that source . This principle is here analysed and found to be subject to several problems. The principle reflects the controversial ethical position that the likely harm to several people can be ignored as long as the individual risk is small. The ICRP states that the new system involves a change from a previous utilitarian ethics to an individual-oriented philosophy. It is argued that a rights-based or a duty-based ethic requires a more risk avert interpretation of when an individual is sufficiently protected than what the proposal suggests. It is concluded that the proposed principle contradicts the other important principle in the new system - the optimisation principle. Due to these problems it is suggested that the ICRP ought to discard the proposed principle from the new system of radiation protection. (Author) 7 refs

  4. Rethinking Philosophy:a Proposed Model Aimed at Improving the Philosophy of Education Within Hospitality Management in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Colin

    2003-01-01

    This study explores the philosophy of higher education within hospitality management education in Ireland. The central aim of this study is to develop a model to assist educators examine and improve their philosophy of hospitality education. The study reveals the positive contribution that the philosophy of education can make to educators of hospitality management and the hospitality industry. The purpose and role of educational philosophy is both a fundamental and valid concept for those ...

  5. Project ALPHA (Advanced Learning Program in the Humanities and Arts): The Art, Music and Philosophy of China. A Study Unit Designed for Education of the Gifted in the Humanities and the Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Storti, Anthony J.; McCarry, Maureen

    The unit, designed for junior and senior high gifted students interested in Chinese thought and art, is intended to to acquaint students with examples of Chinese painting, sculpture, and music along with examination of related philosophical ideas. Five subject areas are presented in terms of objectives, materials, and teaching presentation. The…

  6. Philosophy of Science, with Special Consideration Given to Behaviorism as the Philosophy of the Science of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2010-01-01

    The philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy that critically examines the foundations, assumptions, methods, products, and implications of the activity called science. The present sketch reviews the historical development of the philosophy of science, representative individuals in the field, and topics of long-standing interest. The…

  7. Philosophy across the Curriculum and the Question of Teacher Capacity; Or, What Is Philosophy and Who Can Teach It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Pre-college philosophy has proliferated greatly over the last few decades, including in the form of "philosophy across the curriculum." However, there has been very little sustained examination of the nature of philosophy as a subject relative to other standard pre-college subjects and the kinds of expertise an effective philosophy…

  8. Two Cheers for Naturalised Philosophy of Science--Or: Why Naturalised Philosophy of Science Is Not the Cat's Whiskers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, John

    1999-01-01

    Argues that, although naturalized philosophy of science points to important aspects of the scientific process that have not attracted the attention they deserve, it is not an acceptable philosophy. Claims that the basic theses of full-fledged naturalized philosophy of science simply cannot be true since they end up either in logical circles or in…

  9. Taipower's philosophy and practices for management of its nuclear power development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, D.S.L.

    1985-01-01

    Taipower has been considered successful in nuclear power development and utilization in recent years. This paper presents Taipower's philosophy and practices in managing its nuclear power program with respect to management participation, personnel training, planning, design and construction, operation and maintenance, and the fuel cycle

  10. Applied philosophy and psychotherapy: Heraclitus as case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Beukes

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates a recent attempt to apply philosophy within the discipline of psychotherapy and to investigate the somewhat undefined realm of philosophical counselling. After introducing the claims of this interdisciplinary exercise and after addressing the problems involved in crossing the boundaries between philosophy and psychotherapy, the article elaborates on  Alex Howard’s (2000 [Philosophy for counselling and psychotherapy: Pythagoras to post-modernism. London: Macmillan] attempt to make explicit use of philosophy in psychotherapy, using his interpretation and application of Heraclitus’ philosophy as case study.

  11. Physics, philosophy, and the nature of reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudlin, Tim

    2015-12-01

    Both science and philosophy have been characterized as seeking to understand the nature of reality. They are sometimes even pitted against each other, suggesting that the success of science undermines the relevance of philosophy. But attending to the sort of understanding or explanation being sought offers a different picture: contemporary physics as practiced sometimes fails to provide a clear physical account of the world. This lies at the root of the dissatisfaction with standard quantum theory expressed by Einstein, Schrödinger, and John Bell. As an example, close consideration of Schrödinger's famous cat example suggests that physicists often have missed his point. What a philosophical disposition can contribute is not alternative physics, but rather the sort of careful attention to argument needed to extract a physical picture from a mathematical formalism. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Can there be science without philosophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Marco J; Brancaccio, Diego; Zoccali, Carmine

    2016-12-01

    Over the last few decades, philosophy has gained an increasingly bad reputation among working scientists. Prominent researchers have suggested, in various forms and degrees of mockery, that philosophy has little or nothing positive to contribute to science. This essay provides a response to these allegations. We begin by examining, and ultimately questioning, an influential argument purporting to undermine the significance of a philosophical approach to science. Next, we offer some biomedical examples where philosophical speculation plays a prominent role. We conclude by arguing that, when understood in the appropriate context, philosophical reflection is an important-indeed, integral-ingredient of healthy scientific inquiry. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioethics: why philosophy is essential for progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    It is the JME's 40th anniversary and my 20th anniversary working in the field. I reflect on the nature of bioethics and medical ethics. I argue that both bioethics and medical ethics together have, in many ways, failed as fields. My diagnosis is that better philosophy is needed. I give some examples of the importance of philosophy to bioethics. I focus mostly on the failure of ethics in research and organ transplantation, although I also consider genetic selection, enhancement, cloning, futility, disability and other topics. I do not consider any topic comprehensively or systematically or address the many reasonable objections to my arguments. Rather, I seek to illustrate why philosophical analysis and argument remain as important as ever to progress in bioethics and medical ethics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. All about science philosophy, history, sociology & communication

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Liu

    2014-01-01

    There is a lot of confusion and misconception concerning science. The nature and contents of science is an unsettled problem. For example, Thales of 2,600 years ago is recognized as the father of science but the word science was introduced only in the 14th century; the definition of science is often avoided in books about philosophy of science. This book aims to clear up all these confusions and present new developments in the philosophy, history, sociology and communication of science. It also aims to showcase the achievement of China's top scholars in these areas. The 18 chapters, divided into five parts, are written by prominent scholars including the Nobel laureate Robin Warren, sociologist Harry Collins, and physicist-turned-historian Dietrich Stauffer.

  15. Philosophy of Systems and Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This entry aims to clarify how systems and synthetic biology contribute to and extend discussions within philosophy of science. Unlike fields such as developmental biology or molecular biology, systems and synthetic biology are not easily demarcated by a focus on a specific subject area or level...... computational approaches, about the relation between living and artificial systems, and about the implications of interdisciplinary research for science and society. The entry can be openly accessed at the webpage of the Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/systems-synthetic-biology/...... of organization. Rather, they are characterized by the development and application of mathematical, computational, and synthetic modeling strategies in response to complex problems and challenges within the life sciences. Proponents of systems and synthetic biology often stress the necessity of a perspective...

  16. Philosophy, Psychology, Physics and Practice of Ki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tsuyoshi Ohnishi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ki (in Japanese or Qi (in Chinese is the key concept in Eastern medicine, Eastern philosophy, as well as in martial arts. We explain the philosophical and psychological background of Ki. We emphasize that the unique aspects of Eastern philosophy are ‘non-linearity’ and ‘holistic’ approach. We then present physics aspect of Ki. Our experiments demonstrated that a ‘Ki-beam’ carries ‘entropy’ (or information, which is different from ‘energy’. We introduce our experience of having taught Ki to 37 beginners in the United States through the Nishino Breathing Method. If beginners had martial arts training or a strong background in music or dance, about half of them could sense Ki within 10 weeks (1 h class per week of practice.

  17. The philosophy of space and time

    CERN Document Server

    Reichenbach, Hans

    1958-01-01

    With unusual depth and clarity, the author covers the problem of the foundations of geometry, the theory of time, the theory and consequences of Einstein's relativity including: relations between theory and observations, coordinate definitions, relations between topological and metrical properties of space, the psychological problem of the possibility of a visual intuition of non-Euclidean structures, and many other important topics in modern science and philosophy. While some of the book utilizes mathematics of a somewhat advanced nature, the exposition is so careful and complete that most people familiar with the philosophy of science or some intermediate mathematics will understand the majority of the ideas and problems discussed. Partial contents: I. The Problem of Physical Geometry. Universal and Differential Forces. Visualization of Geometries. Spaces with non-Euclidean Topological Properties. Geometry as a Theory of Relations. II. The Difference between Space and Time. Simultaneity. Time Order. Unreal ...

  18. MCNP4A: Features and philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes MCNP, states its philosophy, introduces a number of new features becoming available with version MCNP4A, and answers a number of questions asked by participants in the workshop. MCNP is a general-purpose three-dimensional neutron, photon and electron transport code. Its philosophy is ''Quality, Value and New Features.'' Quality is exemplified by new software quality assurance practices and a program of benchmarking against experiments. Value includes a strong emphasis on documentation and code portability. New features are the third priority. MCNP4A is now available at Los Alamos. New features in MCNP4A include enhanced statistical analysis, distributed processor multitasking, new photon libraries, ENDF/B-VI capabilities, X-Windows graphics, dynamic memory allocation, expanded criticality output, periodic boundaries, plotting of particle tracks via SABRINA, and many other improvements. 23 refs

  19. (AntiHermeneutical Philosophy for Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldas Juozelis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Philosophical hermeneutics claims that human understanding, while being contingent and historical, is likewise universal and bears within itself some pervasive features detectable via hermeneutical analyses of historically imparted tradition and language. Similarly, hermeneutical philosophy of science is confident that hermeneutical methods are the only proper tool to adequately assess, reconstruct, explain or give a meaning to historical but universal scientific knowledge and its various forms. I point out two versions of hermeneutical philosophy of science and argue that whenever philosophical hermeneutics pursues rescuing "scientificity", human rationality, human rights, common values, and so forth under the pretence of its universality and competence, it necessarily transcends and violates the tenets of its own. I conclude in the favour of moderate interpretation of practical hermeneutics, perhaps in the very essence of it rest postmodern concepts of historicality, transparency and tolerance, without which there is no possibility of extricating oneself from hermeneuticism.

  20. The Metaphorical Language of Branding Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Mirna Hocenski Dreiseidl; Dubravka Papa

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of the language of branding philosophy used in the famous book «Lovemarks – The Future Beyond Brands» written by the international branding guru Kevin Roberts, CEO Worldwide of Ideas Company Saatchi & Saatchi. His new branding approach shows how by using the universal, fundamental, timeless emotion LOVE expressed in universally (anywhere) and timelessly (anytime) comprehensible metaphors a new idea of a «lovemark» embodies mystery (great stories, ...

  1. Philosophy under the Sign of Crisis Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bobica

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available According to Plato, philosophy was born out of the amazement, out of the impact the contemplation of the grandiose and harmonious nature show and its regular cycles had upon the human mind. However amazement is only one of the impulses that determine one to search forintelligible answers to the questions of a reflexive mind when coming into contact with a reality that causes amazement.

  2. Review of Terrence Malick: Film and Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Çağlayan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This new anthology edited by Thomas Dean Tucker and Stuart Kendall predates the release of The Tree of Life and examines Malick’s earlier work from a variety of philosophical perspectives. The editors argue that Malick’s background in philosophy not only warrants philosophical questions into his oeuvre, but more importantly his “films offer privileged sites for this kind of inquiry”

  3. Of light and limits: Philosophy matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Botha

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The deepest religious or faith commitments of a scholar enter into her theoretical work through the mediation of a (scientific world view with its embedded philosophical assumptions about the subject matter. These philosophical assumptions are about the fundamental structure (order of the world and imply assumptions about the nature of this order or structure. They are often embedded in theoretical notions that purport not to require any further grounding. As such they are thoroughly “religious”. Metaphorical language and models often mediate these religious convictions. Christian scholarship implies critically weighing and assessing such assumptions and exposing their ideological or mythical nature. The pivotal issue at the centre of the historical “turns” in philosophy of science appears to be diverse articulations of this locus of order. It is this perennial search for the elusive universal that surfaces in each of the “turns” in either philosophy or science which “turns” up with monotonous regularity in subject-related literature. All these “turns” seem to be bound in their point of departure to an epistemological position which could best still be described as that of modernity, i.e., anchored in the Enlightenment ideal of the subject-object divide and the belief that objective rational knowledge can be acquired, yet attempting to approach this rational objective knowledge via the medium of the knowing subject. This perennial search for the elusive universal reaches a dead-end in post-modernism. If Christian philosophy wants to shed light on this issue so central to the heart of theorizing, it needs to develop a dynamic understanding of the notion of law, order, limits and boundaries and the way such an understanding could inform the discussions concerning scientific realism and the end(s of philosophy.

  4. Thermal and mechanical design of WITAMIR-I blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, D.K.; Sviatoslavsky, I.N.

    1980-10-01

    The design philosophy of WITAMIR-I, a Wisconsin Tandem Mirror Reactor design study, uses the experience obtained from our previous tokamak studies and combines it with the unique features of the tandem mirror to obtain an attractive design of a TM power reactor. It is aimed at maximizing the strengths of the tandem mirror while mitigating its weaknesses. The end product should be a safe, reliable, maintainable and a relatively economic power reactor. The general description of the reactor, the plasma calculations, the magnet design, the neutronic calculations and the maintenance considerations are presented elsewhere. This paper presents the blanket design of this reactor study

  5. Listening to Cage: Nonintentional philosophy and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Fleming

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Listening to Cage: Nonintentional Philosophy and Music threads together the writings of ordinary language philosophy and the music of John Cage, responding specifically to requests made by Cage and Stanley Cavell. While many texts downplay or ignore the philosophical demands in Cage’s music and other texts find grandiose spiritual and philosophical material tied to his work, this text rejects both efforts. It challenges the basic directions of the growing secondary source material on Cage, finding it largely contrary to what Cage himself and his music teaches. That secondary material constantly offers an intentional approach to the music which is to make Cage understandable or easier to understand. The present text makes him appropriately difficult and basically unapproachable, asking the reader for serious acknowledgment of what Cage says he does, namely, “I have nothing to say and I am saying it.” While there is little hope of stopping the Cage industry that academia and publishers have grown, this text wishes at least to try to slow it down. The footnotes of this text include direct conversation material with Cage from the 1980s and 1990s regarding many subjects—his own compositions, our life struggles, remarks on Wittgenstein, Thoreau, philosophy, and music—all with a new context for their hearing.

  6. Philosophy and the practice of Bayesian statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Andrew; Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla

    2013-02-01

    A substantial school in the philosophy of science identifies Bayesian inference with inductive inference and even rationality as such, and seems to be strengthened by the rise and practical success of Bayesian statistics. We argue that the most successful forms of Bayesian statistics do not actually support that particular philosophy but rather accord much better with sophisticated forms of hypothetico-deductivism. We examine the actual role played by prior distributions in Bayesian models, and the crucial aspects of model checking and model revision, which fall outside the scope of Bayesian confirmation theory. We draw on the literature on the consistency of Bayesian updating and also on our experience of applied work in social science. Clarity about these matters should benefit not just philosophy of science, but also statistical practice. At best, the inductivist view has encouraged researchers to fit and compare models without checking them; at worst, theorists have actively discouraged practitioners from performing model checking because it does not fit into their framework. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Truth Obviousness in Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna I. Budz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the features of the axiomatic approach to the truth understanding in ancient Greek philosophy. Truth in the works by ancient philosophers has axiomatic essence, basing on divine origin of truth. As the truth has a divine origin, it is in reality. The reality, created by Gods is the solemn reality. Therefore, understanding of reality by man is the display of divine reality, which is true and clever. In of the context of ancient Greek philosophy, to know truth is to know something, existing in reality, in other words, something, truly existing, eternal reality. Consequently, to know truth is it to know the substantial reality base. That’s why the justification of the reality origin is the axiomatic doctrine of truth at the same time, because only fundamental principle “truly” exists and is the truth itself. The idea of fundamental principle in ancient Greek philosophy is the axiom, universal principle, which is the base of reality as a substance from ontological perspective and is realized as the truth from gnosiological perspective. Fundamental principle, as Greeks understand it, coincides with the truth, in other words, reality and thinking are identical. The idea of reality source is the universal criterion of world perception at the same time, in other words, it is the truth, which is perceived axiomatically.

  8. The Philosophy of War and Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Bazaluk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author comprehends ontology of the war and peace. Using the results of empirical and theoretical research in the field of geophilosophy, as well as neuroscience, psychology, social philosophy and military history, the author comprehends the philosophy of war and peace. The author proves that the problem of war and peace originates in the features of forming mentality. War and peace are the ways to achieve a regulatory compromise between manifestations of the active principle, which was initially laid in the foundation of the human mentality, and the influence of the external environment through natural selection; between the complicating needs of mental space as a totality of mentalities at the scale of the Earth and the possibilities of satisfying them; between the proclaimed idea that unites mental space, and the possibility of its implementation. War and Peace regulate high-quality structure and manifestations of mental space: reduce the number of mentalities, whose structures predispose to aggression, and increase the number of mentalities, whose manifestations are directed at integration and cooperation. Through the proposed theory of war and peace, I have come to realize that, the state of peace for the evolving mental space includes the philosophy of war; the transition from peace to war depends mainly on the effectiveness of educational technology.

  9. Philosophy and the practice of Bayesian statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Andrew; Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla

    2015-01-01

    A substantial school in the philosophy of science identifies Bayesian inference with inductive inference and even rationality as such, and seems to be strengthened by the rise and practical success of Bayesian statistics. We argue that the most successful forms of Bayesian statistics do not actually support that particular philosophy but rather accord much better with sophisticated forms of hypothetico-deductivism. We examine the actual role played by prior distributions in Bayesian models, and the crucial aspects of model checking and model revision, which fall outside the scope of Bayesian confirmation theory. We draw on the literature on the consistency of Bayesian updating and also on our experience of applied work in social science. Clarity about these matters should benefit not just philosophy of science, but also statistical practice. At best, the inductivist view has encouraged researchers to fit and compare models without checking them; at worst, theorists have actively discouraged practitioners from performing model checking because it does not fit into their framework. PMID:22364575

  10. John Dewey on philosophy of experience and human education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcísio Natal Muraro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the conception of philosophy and its relation to human formation in the thinking of John Dewey. The work aimed at analyzing the concepts in the main works of the author and his interpreters. The paper analyzes the reconstruction of philosophy as a philosophy of experience anchored in the genetic, experimental, reflexive, critical and creative method. The philosophy of experience is opposed to the dualisms and the spectator philosophies of knowledge that maintains the social division into classes. The role of the philosophy of experience is to rationalize through inquiry the possibilities of human experience through the critical reconstruction of the meanings. The philosophy of experience is a condition of possibility for democratic life and for an education based on freedom and human emancipation.

  11. Examining Philosophy of Technology Using Grounded Theory Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark David Webster

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative study was conducted to examine the philosophy of technology of K-12 technology leaders, and explore the influence of their thinking on technology decision making. The research design aligned with CORBIN and STRAUSS grounded theory methods, and I proceeded from a research paradigm of critical realism. The subjects were school technology directors and instructional technology specialists, and data collection consisted of interviews and a written questionnaire. Data analysis involved the use of grounded theory methods including memo writing, open and axial coding, constant comparison, the use of purposive and theoretical sampling, and theoretical saturation of categories. Three broad philosophy of technology views were widely held by participants: an instrumental view of technology, technological optimism, and a technological determinist perspective that saw technological change as inevitable. Technology leaders were guided by two main approaches to technology decision making, represented by the categories Educational goals and curriculum should drive technology, and Keep up with technology (or be left behind. The core category and central phenomenon that emerged was that technology leaders approached technology leadership by placing greater emphasis on keeping up with technology, being influenced by an ideological orientation to technological change, and being concerned about preparing students for a technological future. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160252

  12. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  13. UTILITARIANISM AS A PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Yarkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The article is devoted to the representation of utilitarianism as the philosophy of education. The main problem is the relevance of utilitarian strategies for the present stage of development of education in Russia. Methods, results and scientific novelty. Utilitarianism is presented as an educational strategy, nominating at the forefront the principle of usefulness of education, positioning education as a means of achieving social and individual wellbeing. The author represents the basic principles of utilitarian philosophy, and also reveals how these principles have been refracted in the philosophy of education using the methods of value-semantic reduction and qualitative content analysis. The first part of the article is devoted to the history of utilitarianism as the philosophy of education in the Euro-American pedagogical culture, as well as the analysis of modern utilitarianism as widely existent in this culture of philosophy of education. In the second part of the article the author explicates the role of utilitarianism in the education strategies of the Russian pedagogical culture, past and present. The main idea of the article is the idea that we have two value-semantic forms of utilitarianism: narrowly understood (tactical utilitarianism and widespread (strategic utilitarianism. Within the tactical utilitarianism as socially and/or individually useful education is considered to be vocationalism, claimed the currently market education. This kind of education is characterized by its focus on learning/teaching applied science and recognition of the futility of Sciences fundamental and philosophical. Under the strategic utilitarianism individually and/or socially beneficial is considered: first, the versatile education characterized by its focus on learning/teaching not only applications, but also fundamental and philosophical disciplines, secondly, eclectic education aimed at obtaining different professional competences. Versatile

  14. Adequacy of power-to-volume scaling philosophy to simulate natural circulation in Integral Test Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Venkat Raj, V.; Aritomi, Masanori

    1998-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations were carried out to study the adequacy of power-to-volume scaling philosophy for the simulation of natural circulation and to establish the scaling philosophy applicable for the design of the Integral Test Facility (ITF-AHWR) for the Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). The results indicate that a reduction in the flow channel diameter of the scaled facility as required by the power-to-volume scaling philosophy may affect the simulation of natural circulation behaviour of the prototype plants. This is caused by the distortions due to the inability to simulate the frictional resistance of the scaled facility. Hence, it is recommended that the flow channel diameter of the scaled facility should be as close as possible to the prototype. This was verified by comparing the natural circulation behaviour of a prototype 220 MWe Indian PHWR and its scaled facility (FISBE-1) designed based on power-to-volume scaling philosophy. It is suggested from examinations using a mathematical model and a computer code that the FISBE-1 simulates the steady state and the general trend of transient natural circulation behaviour of the prototype reactor adequately. Finally the proposed scaling method was applied for the design of the ITF-AHWR. (author)

  15. Docking and Molecular Dynamics Calculations of Some Previously Studied and newly Designed Ligands to Catalytic Core Domain of HIV-1 Integrase and an Investigation to Effects of Conformational Changes of Protein on Docking Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Ercan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, AIDS still remains as a worldwide pandemic and continues to cause many death which arise from HIV-1 virus. For nearly 35 years, drugs that target various steps of virus life cycle have been developed. HIV-1 integrase is the one of these steps which is essential for virus life cycle. Computer aided drug design is being used in many drug design studies as also used in development of the first HIV-1 integrase inhibitor Raltegravir. In this study 3 ligands which are used as HIV-1 integrase inhibitors and 4 newly designed ligands were docked to catalytic core domain of HIV-1 integrase. Each of ligands docked to three different conformations of protein. Prepared complexes (21 item were carried out by 50 ns MD simulations and results were analyzed. Finally, the binding free energies of ligands were calculated. Hereunder, it was determined that designed ligands L01 and L03 gave favorable results. The questions about the ligands which have low docking scores in a conformation of protein could give better scores in another conformation of protein and if the MD simulations carry the different oriented and different localized ligands in same position at the end of simulation were answered.

  16. The Concept "System of Philosophy":The Case of Jacob Brucker's Historiography of Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Catana, Leo

    2005-01-01

    In this article I shall examine and discuss the concept ‘system of philosophy’ as a methodological tool in the history of philosophy. I shall do so in two moves. First I shall analyze the historical origin of the concept in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Thereafter I shall undertake a discussion of its methodological weaknesses — a discussion, which is not only relevant to the writing of history of philosophy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but also to the writing of h...

  17. Mechanics and natural philosophy before the scientific revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Gavroglu, Kostas; Roux, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    Modern mechanics was forged in the seventeenth century from materials inherited from Antiquity and transformed in the period from the Middle Ages through to the sixteenth century. These materials were transmitted through a number of textual traditions and within several disciplines and practices, including ancient and medieval natural philosophy, statics, the theory and design of machines, and mathematics. This volume deals with a variety of moments in the history of mechanics when conflicts arose within one textual tradition, between different traditions, or between textual traditions and the wider world of practice. Its purpose is to show how the accommodations sometimes made in the course of these conflicts ultimately contributed to the emergence of modern mechanics. The first part of the volume is concerned with ancient mechanics and its transformations in the Middle Ages; the second part with the reappropriation of ancient mechanics and especially with the reception of the Pseudo-Aristotelian Mechanica i...

  18. Why natural science needs phenomenological philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Steven M

    2015-12-01

    Through an exploration of theoretical physics, this paper suggests the need for regrounding natural science in phenomenological philosophy. To begin, the philosophical roots of the prevailing scientific paradigm are traced to the thinking of Plato, Descartes, and Newton. The crisis in modern science is then investigated, tracking developments in physics, science's premier discipline. Einsteinian special relativity is interpreted as a response to the threat of discontinuity implied by the Michelson-Morley experiment, a challenge to classical objectivism that Einstein sought to counteract. We see that Einstein's efforts to banish discontinuity ultimately fall into the "black hole" predicted in his general theory of relativity. The unavoidable discontinuity that haunts Einstein's theory is also central to quantum mechanics. Here too the attempt has been made to manage discontinuity, only to have this strategy thwarted in the end by the intractable problem of quantum gravity. The irrepressible discontinuity manifested in the phenomena of modern physics proves to be linked to a merging of subject and object that flies in the face of Cartesian philosophy. To accommodate these radically non-classical phenomena, a new philosophical foundation is called for: phenomenology. Phenomenological philosophy is elaborated through Merleau-Ponty's concept of depth and is then brought into focus for use in theoretical physics via qualitative work with topology and hypercomplex numbers. In the final part of this paper, a detailed summary is offered of the specific application of topological phenomenology to quantum gravity that was systematically articulated in The Self-Evolving Cosmos (Rosen, 2008a). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Design paper: A phase II study of Bevacizumab and Erlotinib in patients with non-Squamous non-small cell lung cancer that is refractory or relapsed after 1-2 previous Treatment (BEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Young H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combination of erlotinib and bevacizumab is a promising regimen in advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. We are conducting a single arm phase II trial which aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this regime as a second- or third-line chemotherapy. Methods Key eligibility criteria were histologically or cytologically confirmed non-squamous NSCLC, stage III/IV or recurrent NSCLC not indicated radical chemoradiation, prior one or two regimen of chemotherapy, age 20 years or more, and performance status of two or less. The primary endpoint is objective response rate. The secondary endpoints include overall survival, progression-free survival, disease control rate and incidence of adverse events. This trial plans to accrue 80 patients based on a two-stage design employing a binomial distribution with an alternative hypothesis response rate of 35% and a null hypothesis threshold response rate of 20%. A subset analysis according to EGFR mutation status is planned. Discussion We have presented the design of a single arm phase II trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combination of bevacizumab and erlotinib in advanced non-squamous NSCLC patients. In particular we are interested in determining the merit of further development of this regimen and whether prospective patient selection using EGFR gene is necessary in future trials. Trial registration This trial was registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000004255 (http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm.

  20. Quantum philosophy understanding and interpreting contemporary science

    CERN Document Server

    Omnès, Roland

    2002-01-01

    In this magisterial work, Roland Omnès takes us from the academies of ancient Greece to the laboratories of modern science as he seeks to do no less than rebuild the foundations of the philosophy of knowledge. One of the world's leading quantum physicists, Omnès reviews the history and recent development of mathematics, logic, and the physical sciences to show that current work in quantum theory offers new answers to questions that have puzzled philosophers for centuries: Is the world ultimately intelligible? Are all events caused? Do objects have definitive locations? Omnès addresses these p

  1. Relativity the theory and its philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Angel, Roger B

    1980-01-01

    Relativity: The Theory and its Philosophy provides a completely self-contained treatment of the philosophical foundations of the theory of relativity. It also surveys the most essential mathematical techniques and concepts that are indispensable to an understanding of the foundations of both the special and general theories of relativity. In short, the book includes a crash course in applied mathematics, ranging from elementary trigonometry to the classical tensor calculus.Comprised of 11 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to fundamental mathematical concepts such as sets, relatio

  2. Pediatric burn rehabilitation: Philosophy and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Ohgi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a huge public health issue for children throughout the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. Burn injuries can leave a pediatric patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of pediatric burn treatment. The aim of this article was to review the literature on pediatric burn rehabilitation from the Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases. An attempt has been made to present the basic aspects of burn rehabilitation, provide practical information, and discuss the goals and conceptualization of rehabilitation as well as the development of rehabilitation philosophy and strategies.

  3. The demonism of creation in Goethe's philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Râmbu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Goethe's philosophy of creativity revolves around what he called das Dämonische. This essay is not meant as a definition or an explanation of demonic creation, but instead presents a demonic work par excellence, as the term "demonic" is defined by Goethe in the Elegy from Marienbad. The process of the creation of this work, as it is described by Goethe, also represents a strange exorcism, as the entire daemonic creative force of the author is transposed in this lyrical masterpiece of German and universal literature. After writing the Elegy Goethe, it is no longer demonic.

  4. Redefining ecological ethics: science, policy, and philosophy at Cape Horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodeman, Robert

    2008-12-01

    In the twentieth century, philosophy (especially within the United States) embraced the notion of disciplinary expertise: philosophical research consists of working with and writing for other philosophers. Projects that involve non-philosophers earn the deprecating title of "applied" philosophy. The University of North Texas (UNT) doctoral program in philosophy exemplifies the possibility of a new model for philosophy, where graduate students are trained in academic philosophy and in how to work with scientists, engineers, and policy makers. This "field" (rather than "applied") approach emphasizes the inter- and transdisciplinary nature of the philosophical enterprise where theory and practice dialectically inform one another. UNT's field station in philosophy at Cape Horn, Patagonia, Chile is one site for developing this ongoing experiment in the theory and practice of interdisciplinary philosophic research and education.

  5. How philosophy of medicine has changed medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, Robert M

    2006-12-01

    The celebration of thirty years of publication of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy provides an opportunity to reflect on how medical ethics has evolved over that period. The reshaping of the field has occurred in no small part because of the impact of branches of philosophy other than ethics. These have included influences from Kantian theory of respect for persons, personal identity theory, philosophy of biology, linguistic analysis of the concepts of health and disease, personhood theory, epistemology, and political philosophy. More critically, medicine itself has begun to be reshaped. The most fundamental restructuring of medicine is currently occurring--stemming, in part, from the application of contemporary philosophy of science to the medical field. There is no journal more central to these critical events of the past three decades than The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy.

  6. Recharting The Philosophy of Technology in Contemporary Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Santosa Revianto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology is an indispensable aspect of architecture. In fact, it is being an essential part of the human effort in making architecture. Since the early modern era, technology that rapidly change has been seen as the sign of progress, not only pertaining to the technology itself, but also architecture and even civilization. Modern architectural theoreticians, from Sant’Elia to Le Corbusier, enthusiastically embraced the progressive side of technology and engineering. Philosophically, however, modern technology is regarded pessimistically. Heidegger and Jaspers considered technology as the source of alienation to the human being themselves and to the reality they face. To overcome this gap, Alan Drengson, proposed the four philosophy of technology to rechart the variety of tendency towards technology in Western society, consisting of (1 technological anarchy, (2 technophilia, (3 technophobia, and (4 technological appropriateness. In this explanation, he coined the terms “creative philosophy” to include many aspects and ways of thinking which might be incorporated in the creative activities like architectural design. This paper attempts to evaluate the appropriatenes of Drengson’s philosophical scheme as a platform for architectural education in Indonesia in general, by relating his framework with the architectural theories and practices in Indonesia. The result of this effort is while the formulation of his scheme is the very inclusive and closely related with creative activity like architectural design, it contains bias of industrial technology appearing in the Asian scene brought by Western European colonials. Discussing philosophy underlying Gandhi’s movement in India to reject oppressive technology, we may arrive at the conclusion that the philosopy of non-violence, truth and justice based on the principle of self restrained are relevant to figure out the ideal of appropriate technology in Asia.

  7. From Determinism and Probability to Chaos: Chaotic Evolution towards Philosophy and Methodology of Chaotic Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We present and discuss philosophy and methodology of chaotic evolution that is theoretically supported by chaos theory. We introduce four chaotic systems, that is, logistic map, tent map, Gaussian map, and Hénon map, in a well-designed chaotic evolution algorithm framework to implement several chaotic evolution (CE) algorithms. By comparing our previous proposed CE algorithm with logistic map and two canonical differential evolution (DE) algorithms, we analyse and discuss optimization performance of CE algorithm. An investigation on the relationship between optimization capability of CE algorithm and distribution characteristic of chaotic system is conducted and analysed. From evaluation result, we find that distribution of chaotic system is an essential factor to influence optimization performance of CE algorithm. We propose a new interactive EC (IEC) algorithm, interactive chaotic evolution (ICE) that replaces fitness function with a real human in CE algorithm framework. There is a paired comparison-based mechanism behind CE search scheme in nature. A simulation experimental evaluation is conducted with a pseudo-IEC user to evaluate our proposed ICE algorithm. The evaluation result indicates that ICE algorithm can obtain a significant better performance than or the same performance as interactive DE. Some open topics on CE, ICE, fusion of these optimization techniques, algorithmic notation, and others are presented and discussed. PMID:25879067

  8. From Determinism and Probability to Chaos: Chaotic Evolution towards Philosophy and Methodology of Chaotic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Pei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present and discuss philosophy and methodology of chaotic evolution that is theoretically supported by chaos theory. We introduce four chaotic systems, that is, logistic map, tent map, Gaussian map, and Hénon map, in a well-designed chaotic evolution algorithm framework to implement several chaotic evolution (CE algorithms. By comparing our previous proposed CE algorithm with logistic map and two canonical differential evolution (DE algorithms, we analyse and discuss optimization performance of CE algorithm. An investigation on the relationship between optimization capability of CE algorithm and distribution characteristic of chaotic system is conducted and analysed. From evaluation result, we find that distribution of chaotic system is an essential factor to influence optimization performance of CE algorithm. We propose a new interactive EC (IEC algorithm, interactive chaotic evolution (ICE that replaces fitness function with a real human in CE algorithm framework. There is a paired comparison-based mechanism behind CE search scheme in nature. A simulation experimental evaluation is conducted with a pseudo-IEC user to evaluate our proposed ICE algorithm. The evaluation result indicates that ICE algorithm can obtain a significant better performance than or the same performance as interactive DE. Some open topics on CE, ICE, fusion of these optimization techniques, algorithmic notation, and others are presented and discussed.

  9. From determinism and probability to chaos: chaotic evolution towards philosophy and methodology of chaotic optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yan

    2015-01-01

    We present and discuss philosophy and methodology of chaotic evolution that is theoretically supported by chaos theory. We introduce four chaotic systems, that is, logistic map, tent map, Gaussian map, and Hénon map, in a well-designed chaotic evolution algorithm framework to implement several chaotic evolution (CE) algorithms. By comparing our previous proposed CE algorithm with logistic map and two canonical differential evolution (DE) algorithms, we analyse and discuss optimization performance of CE algorithm. An investigation on the relationship between optimization capability of CE algorithm and distribution characteristic of chaotic system is conducted and analysed. From evaluation result, we find that distribution of chaotic system is an essential factor to influence optimization performance of CE algorithm. We propose a new interactive EC (IEC) algorithm, interactive chaotic evolution (ICE) that replaces fitness function with a real human in CE algorithm framework. There is a paired comparison-based mechanism behind CE search scheme in nature. A simulation experimental evaluation is conducted with a pseudo-IEC user to evaluate our proposed ICE algorithm. The evaluation result indicates that ICE algorithm can obtain a significant better performance than or the same performance as interactive DE. Some open topics on CE, ICE, fusion of these optimization techniques, algorithmic notation, and others are presented and discussed.

  10. A Philosophy of Geography for New Zealand Schools. Foreword: Clark on a Philosophy of Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Provides background information on Andrew Clark specifically addressing his work in geography while in New Zealand in order to place Clark's 1941 paper entitled "A Philosophy of Geography for New Zealand Schools" into intellectual context by emphasizing links between this paper and his later work. Provides his 1941 paper in full. (CMK)

  11. Basic concepts of philosophy of management and corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents some fundamental concepts of the philosophy of management and corporations by addressing the problem of corporate legitimacy and Immanuel Kant’s distinction between theoretical, practical, and aesthetic reason and judgment. This chapter begins with a general definition...... of philosophy of management and corporations and continues by presenting its ontological and epistemological underpinnings. This approach is used to address the relation between economics, business ethics, and philosophy of management. Finally, ethical and aesthetic judgment is presented as the mediator between...

  12. How new is the new philosophy of psychiatry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Damiaan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In their recent paper, Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton evaluate seven volumes of the Oxford University Press series “International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry,” an international book series begun in 2003 focusing on the emerging interdisciplinary field at the interface of philosophy and psychiatry. According to Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton, the series represents a clear indication that the interdisciplinary field of philosophy of psychiatry has been flourishing lately. Philosophers and psychiatrists face a “new philosophy of psychiatry”. However, the optimism which the “new” philosophy of psychiatry celebrates is precisely the exiling of philosophy from the foundations of psychiatry. The 150 year old belief that psychopathology cannot do without philosophical reflection has virtually disappeared from common psychiatric education and daily clinical practice. Though the discipline of psychiatry is particularly suited to contributions from philosophy, the impact of philosophy on psychiatry nowadays remains limited. With some exceptions, philosophical papers are embedded in a philosophical context inscrutable to ordinary psychiatrists. Much current philosophical work is perceived by psychiatrists as negativistic. I would encourage the field of psychiatry to incorporate once again basic philosophical attitudes which render possible true dialogue with philosophy and enrich both disciplines. The views developed here should not discredit the value and importance of Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton’s paper and the excellent series “International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry.” As Jaspers said “Everybody inclined to disregard philosophy will be overwhelmed by philosophy in an unperceived way”.

  13. Introduction: film-philosophy and a world of cinemas

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Jones, David

    2016-01-01

    This Special Section arose out of the 2014 Film-Philosophy conference,\\ud held at the University of Glasgow, which took as its theme: A World of\\ud Cinemas. The aim of both the conference theme and this resulting Special\\ud Section is to broaden the debate in film-philosophy, both in terms of a\\ud world of cinemas and a world of philosophies. This introduction considers\\ud the reasons why such an intervention is worthwhile.

  14. Comparison of China and Japan in philosophy education

    OpenAIRE

    王,立波; 香川,知晶

    1997-01-01

    Teaching methods of philosophy education in China and Japan are fundamentally different. In Japan philosophy education is relevant to the teachers' personal interest and the students' daily life. In China philosophy education is overwhelmingly influenced by the Soviet Union Marxism-Leninism in the1930s. There are problems of the disparity between the Chinese system's restrictiveness and the social challenges of modern students which result in a considerable loss of the Chinese students' inter...

  15. The history of the philosophy of management and corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, the history of philosophy of management is discussed with a focus on the search for legitimacy in the Judeo-Christian tradition. This is the basis for evaluating modern concepts of the economics of the philosophy of management and corporations. The chapter also presents the neoli...... the neoliberal paradigm of the philosophy of management and the attempt to search for another economy beyond rational individual utility maximization. Here we move toward business ethics, CSR, and corporate citizenship....

  16. Systems thinking, critical realism and philosophy a confluence of ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Mingers, John

    2014-01-01

    Systems Thinking, Critical Realism and Philosophy: A Confluence of Ideas seeks to re-address the whole question of philosophy and systems thinking for the twenty first century and provide a new work that would be of value to both systems and philosophy. This is a highly opportune time when different fields - critical realism, philosophy of science and systems thinking - are all developing around the same set of concepts and yet not realizing it. This book will be of interest to the academic systems community worldwide and due to it's interdisciplinary coverage, it will also

  17. Challenging the Conventional Wisdom: From Philosophy to Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Franklin G

    2017-01-01

    Philosophy is a core discipline that has contributed importantly to bioethics. In this essay, the author traces his trajectory from philosophy to bioethics, oriented around the theme of challenging the conventional wisdom. Three topics are discussed to illustrate this theme: the ethics of randomized trials, determination of death and organ transplantation, and pragmatism as a method of bioethics. In addition, the author offers some general reflections on the relationship between philosophy and bioethics. Philosophy recovers itself when it ceases to be a device for dealing with the problems of philosophers and becomes a method, cultivated by philosophers, for dealing with the problems of men.-John Dewey (1917).

  18. The Periodic Table and the Philosophy of Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses some problems in the philosophy of classification based on a discussion of the periodic system of chemistry and physics. The emerging interdisciplinary field ‘philosophy of classification’ is briefly introduced and related to the field of knowledge organization (KO) within Li...... scientific progress, including the development of the periodic table. The existence of alternatives to the periodic system is also considered.......This paper discusses some problems in the philosophy of classification based on a discussion of the periodic system of chemistry and physics. The emerging interdisciplinary field ‘philosophy of classification’ is briefly introduced and related to the field of knowledge organization (KO) within...

  19. The Metaphorical Language of Branding Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Hocenski Dreiseidl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of the language of branding philosophy used in the famous book «Lovemarks – The Future Beyond Brands» written by the international branding guru Kevin Roberts, CEO Worldwide of Ideas Company Saatchi & Saatchi. His new branding approach shows how by using the universal, fundamental, timeless emotion LOVE expressed in universally (anywhere and timelessly (anytime comprehensible metaphors a new idea of a «lovemark» embodies mystery (great stories, past, present and future, taps into dreams, myths and icons, inspiration, sensuality (sound, sight, smell, touch, taste, and intimacy (commitment, empathy, passion. Lovemark that, according to Roberts, «…reaches one's heart, as well as one's mind, and creates emotional connection to the consumer…» has been created and accepted in the business culture worldwide. In view of this, the paper points out the significance of metaphorical way of expressing in the language of branding as well as the irreplaceable role of language as the main factor in branding philosophy. The language analysis focuses on the metaphors of love influencing the shift of language of branding from material (brand to intangible (lovemark. It also highlights the fact that new ideas as incentives to language enrichment generate new lexemes like trustmark and lovemark.

  20. Philosophy of science and the diagnostic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Brian H; Beebee, Helen; Lasserson, Daniel S

    2013-10-01

    This is an overview of the principles that underpin philosophy of science and how they may provide a framework for the diagnostic process. Although philosophy dates back to antiquity, it is only more recently that philosophers have begun to enunciate the scientific method. Since Aristotle formulated deduction, other modes of reasoning including induction, inference to best explanation, falsificationism, theory-laden observations and Bayesian inference have emerged. Thus, rather than representing a single overriding dogma, the scientific method is a toolkit of ideas and principles of reasoning. Here we demonstrate that the diagnostic process is an example of science in action and is therefore subject to the principles encompassed by the scientific method. Although a number of the different forms of reasoning are used readily by clinicians in practice, without a clear understanding of their pitfalls and the assumptions on which they are based, it leaves doctors open to diagnostic error. We conclude by providing a case example from the medico-legal literature in which diagnostic errors were made, to illustrate how applying the scientific method may mitigate the chance for diagnostic error.

  1. Discourse on the incomprehensible in philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Aleksandar M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy has its roots in history as a thought and consideration about things of heaven and earth, about their interplay and sense, as their logos. The meaning of life still concerns human kind. Archaic thinking has been sharpened and perfected through time, while the development brought about deep rooted terminology, as well as the key concepts that reflect a specific and marked approach to thinking. Concepts that are expressed by words also belong to the realm of things; therefore, their correlation sets the history of the deliberation on the content of thinking. The expression of a mature thought implies that the obstacles have been removed from the path to wisdom which can often lead sideways. Hegel describes a sharpened critical thought, but also expresses the need for further development of philosophical thought. Misologic statements that are common even today use those sideways to show that philosophy is barren and unnecessary. However, can expression of things that concern us all ever be boring and superfluous? This can only be answered by a philosopher.

  2. Biodiversity, biotechnologies and the philosophy of biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleni, Lodovico

    2004-01-01

    The thesis of this paper is that in front of the development of biotechnology and of the capacity of techniques of altering the living, there is still a very old philosophy of biology. A rapid historical view is given where the rise and diffusion of the reductionistic paradigm is presented and the connections between this paradigm and biotechnologies are traced. Curiously biotechnologies are still based on the philosophy of F. Bacon. Then the necessity of a new paradigm in biology based on the recent discoveries of complexity is underlined. It is reminded that the main discovery of science of the XX century is that we are living in a small planet of limited resources and frail equilibriums. This discovery asks for a different view of the scientific progress, more linked to the conservation of the Biosphere than to its alteration. Stability is the task for the future interactions of human-kind with nature. For this reason the relationships between stability and diversity are summarised. Finally, as the species is the main step of Biodiversity, a brief discussion of the problems posed by the altering of species barriers is presented.

  3. Materialism, Subjectivity and the Outcome of French Philosophy: Interview with Adrian Johnston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O'Neill Burns

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adrian Johnston is well known for his work at the intersection of Lacanian psychoanalysis, German idealism, contemporary French philosophy and most recently cognitive neuroscience. In the context of the current issue, Johnston represents the most complete development of a contemporary theory of Transcendental Materialism. In the following interview we explore both the implications of Johnston’s previous work, as well as the directions his most recent projects are taking.

  4. An instrumentation and control philosophy for high-level nuclear waste processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigle, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an instrumentation and control philosophy which may be applied to high-level nuclear waste processing facilities. This philosophy describes the recommended criteria for automatic/manual control, remote/local control, remote/local display, diagnostic instrumentation, interlocks, alarm levels, and redundancy. Due to the hazardous nature of the process constituents of a high-level nuclear waste processing facility, it is imperative that safety and control features required for accident-free operation and maintenance be incorporated. A well-instrumented and controlled process, while initially more expensive in capital and design costs, is generally safer and less expensive to operate. When the long term cost savings of a well designed process is coupled with the high savings enjoyed by accident avoidance, the benefits far outweigh the initial capital and design costs

  5. Safety design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Shiozawa, Shusaku

    2004-01-01

    JAERI established the safety design philosophy of the HTTR based on that of current reactors such as LWR in Japan, considering inherent safety features of the HTTR. The strategy of defense in depth was implemented so that the safety engineering functions such as control of reactivity, removal of residual heat and confinement of fission products shall be well performed to ensure safety. However, unlike the LWR, the inherent design features of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) enables the HTTR meet stringent regulatory criteria without much dependence on active safety systems. On the other hand, the safety in an accident typical to the HTGR such as the depressurization accident initiated by a primary pipe rupture shall be ensured. The safety design philosophy of the HTTR considers these unique features appropriately and is expected to be the basis for future Japanese HTGRs. This paper describes the safety design philosophy and safety evaluation procedure of the HTTR especially focusing on unique considerations to the HTTR. Also, experiences obtained from an HTTR safety review and R and D needs for establishing the safety philosophy for the future HTGRs are reported

  6. Go beyond Design by Adopting a Philosophy of Packaging Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jack

    1993-01-01

    Describes how a changeover to desktop publishing, working in teams, expansion of the journalism room, and the concept of packaging combined to dramatically change a high school newspaper's approach and product. Argues for a debate on evaluation services. (SR)

  7. Evidence of The Importance of Philosophy of Science Course On Undergraduate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyono

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to describe academic impact of Philosophy of Science course in change of students’ conceptions on the Nature of science (NOS) before and after attending the course. This study followed one group pretest-posttest design. Treatment in this study was Philosophy of Science course for one semester. Misconception diagnostic tests of the NOS had been developed by Suyono et al. (2015) equipped with Certainty of Response Index (CRI). It consists of 15 concept questions about the NOS. The number of students who were tested on Chemistry Education Program (CEP) and Chemistry Program (CP) respectively 42 and 45 students. This study shows that after the learning of Philosophy of Science course happened: (1) the decrease of the number of misconception students on the NOS from 47.47 to 19.20% in CEP and from 47.47 to 18.18% in CP and (2) the decrease in the number of concepts that understood as misconception by the large number of students from 11 to 2 concepts on the CEP and from 10 to 2 concepts on CP. Therefore, the existence of Philosophy of Science course has a positive academic impact on students from both programs on undergraduate level.

  8. Beyond Identity: the Dynamic Self at the Intersection of Performance Philosophy and the Philosophy of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibila Petlevski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we advocate the methodological feedback loop in the study of the dynamical self at the crossroads of performance philosophy, (artistic performance, and the philosophy of science. We point to the importance of the dynamics of methodology transfer between arts and sciences and the “interactive continuum” proposed by Newman & Benz in 1998. In the first part of this paper we give a comparative review of the research context relevant for our field of study, and we explain our research hubs in approaching the concept of “performance”. We suggest the possibility to define our filed of research in three equally legitimate ways: as philosophy-of-performance, philosophy-as-performance and performance-as-philosophy. In our recent work we are primarily interested in artistic performances that incorporate elements of artistic practice in the methodology of research output (Frayling 1993, as well as in the potentials of performative aspects of scientific praxis and methodology. However, the conceptual background relevant for this paper is in the field of process philosophy and its relation to science (Birkhard’s “interactivist model” 2009; Campbell’s “process-based model for an interactive ontology” 2009. We attribute particular importance to the notion of “autopoietic feedback” (Maturana and Varela 1974; Luhmann 1990. The second part addresses the issue of transcending identity in the representations of the self and the other; the relationship between Theory-Theory (TT and Simulation Theory (ST, as well as some recent attempts at combining different theories of mind (e.g. Barlassina 2013. We also deal with the notion of “embodied praxis” (Gallagher and Meltzoff 1996; we mention some neuroscientific insights into the similar phenomena, and – commenting on the importance of the dialogue between neuroscientists and philosophers (Changeux and Ricour – we give an example of an enactive approach to understanding

  9. Safety philosophy and licensing practice in different member states of IAEA: Germany, F.R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahner, K.

    1981-01-01

    The safety philosophy, as the basis of the design of a NPP, will be shown under the aspects of general design rules, requirements by law, reactor safety commission and nuclear or conventional technical standards. Then a discussion of the licensing practise in the Federal Republic of Germany and in the USA will follow for the different stages of conceptual design, construction and operation with special consideration of the example of the NPP Muelheim-Kaerlich. The interrelation between designer and licensing authority, reactor safety commission and technical consultants will be taken into account. (orig./RW)

  10. On the nature of language – Heidegger and African Philosophy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    My contention is that Heidegger's daring phenomenology of language is also found and even radicalised within the framework of African philosophy, particularly the philosophy of myth. I argue that the exploration of the relation between these views of language offers the possibility not only to expand on the conventional ...

  11. Language and politics in the philosophy of Adam Small: some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small's philosophy draws its inspiration from the humanistic tradition of Western philosophical thinking. His appropriation of this tradition is especially evident in his reformulation of the western legacy of “philosophy-as-dialogue”. From this perspective, Small proceeds by way of a linguistic turn, in which Kaaps (the language ...

  12. Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. P age. 8. 9. CONVERSATIONS: Conversational thinking is articulated as the new approach to philosophical inquiry. It has two strands: conversational philosophy and interrogatory theory with conversationalism and interrogationism as their ...

  13. The Importance of Teaching a Win-Win Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Alan J.

    Most people are raised in a traditional environment which teaches that someone-winning implies that someone-loses. However, psychology and the examples provided in the Watergate scandal demonstrate that such a philosophy is neither productive nor beneficial. A "win-win" philosophy of cooperation, not competition, is needed for…

  14. Philosophy and Gifted Students: Where Has the Time Gone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David A.

    1999-01-01

    The second in a series on ways to introduce gifted students to philosophy, this article focuses on the importance of metaphysics. The nature of time is discussed through excerpts from "The Confessions" by St. Augustine and strategies are provided for engaging students in a discussion of his philosophy. (CR)

  15. Descriptive currents in philosophy of religion for Hebrew Bible studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-30

    Sep 30, 2010 ... Original Research. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v67i3.855. Descriptive currents in philosophy of religion for. Hebrew Bible studies. Author: Jacobus W. Gericke1 ... interdisciplinary research are available in the form of descriptive varieties of philosophy ...... Otto, R., 1968, The Idea of the Holy, Galaxy Books, vol.

  16. The optimal rating philosophy for the rating of SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikkers, F.; Thibeault, A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the optimal rating philosophy for the rating of SMEs, and to describe the consequences of the chosen philosophy on several related aspects. As to our knowledge, this is the first paper that studies the considerations of financial institutions on what

  17. The Postcolonial Heart of African Philosophy | Tabensky | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This piece is one of among a handful that seek in the first instance to reveal the origin of African philosophy as an academic discipline, the source of its unity and distinctiveness. The discipline of African philosophy originates in tragedy, out of pain, confusion and rage stemming from colonial destruction; destruction that is ...

  18. THE QUESTION OF AFRICAN PHILOSOPHY AND KWASI wm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discussions of African philosophy, over the role and function it is to play in an African culture, have tended over the past decade or so to centre around the question of the very possibility and intelligibility of a notion of African philosophy. The reasons for this concentration are not hard to find. As Kwasi Wiredu succinctly puts ...

  19. Preparing Students to Write a Professional Philosophy of Recreation Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Cheryl; Schneider, Paige P.; Johnson, Corey W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a process for guiding students through the writing of a Professional Philosophy of Recreation Paper and a one-page philosophy statement suitable for use in students' professional portfolios. The authors describe how the review of recreation education literature, scholarship on teaching and learning, and assessment of student…

  20. Elusive Rivalry? Conceptions of the Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John

    2010-01-01

    What is analytical philosophy of education (APE)? And what has been its place in the history of the subject over the past 50 years? In a recent essay in "Ethics and Education" (Vol. 2, No. 2, October 2007) on 'Rival conceptions of the philosophy of education', Paul Standish described a number of features of APE. Relying on both historical and…

  1. Some Main Features of Wittgenstein´s Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Der er tale om to kapitler fra et bogmanuskript om Wittgensteins filosofi. Teksten laver en systematisk kobling mellem sprogfilosofien, matematikfilosofien, psykologiens filosofi og naturvidenskabs-filosofien. Two chapters from a book manuscript, where four parts of Wittgenstein´s philosophy are systematically interconnected, philosophy of language, mathematics, psychology and natural science

  2. Pragmatism: A bridge between Anglo-American and Contintental Philosophy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grube, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, I will restrict myself to interpreting certain features of Margolis’ rich argument. I will discuss only those features that have a direct bearing on his thesis that pragmatism wins the three-sided contest between Anglo-American Philosophy, continental philosophy and pragmatism and, as

  3. Interaction between Philosophy of Education and Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bim-Bad, Boris Michailovich; Egorova, Lioudmila Ivanovna

    2016-01-01

    The article attempts to analyse the interaction between philosophy of education and teaching practice. Such area of learning as "philosophy of education" is defined, genesis and dynamics of practice as universals of human existence are traced; such concepts as "practice," "teaching practice" are analysed in view of…

  4. Role of Philosophy in Human Development in Nigeria | Asike | UJAH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is indeed absurd to talk about development or impose on a human race a civilization without reference to Philosophy. Philosophy is a living subject which embraces all dialectical interpretations of life changes in society. It gives the hermeneutics understanding of reality by acting as a means to an end, through the ...

  5. Introduction to Christian philosophy | Nnaji | Sophia: An African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper revisits and reconstructs the beginning of medieval philosophy (i.e. Renaissance philosophy) from about 400CE-1650CE when Catholic Reverend Fathers used the tools of Aristotelian syllogisms to argue (in order) to establish the existence of God, not only the genuineness of the Christian religion. The, method ...

  6. African philosophy in globalising world: A particularist perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quest for an authentic methodology for doing African philosophy has over the past thirty years culminated in two philosophical camps namely; universalist and particularist camps. The universalists contend that the concept of philosophy should in terms of methodology be the same in Western and African discourses.

  7. Philosophy of Education Subscales: Predictors of EFL Teachers' Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Hamid; Kafi, Zahra H.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the relationship between Iranian EFL, English as a foreign language, male and female instructors' philosophy of education and their professional development to see whether there is any significant relation between the type of philosophy of education that teachers hold and their professional development. It…

  8. Iran's Implicit Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri Noaparast, Khosrow

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to extract Iran's philosophy of education from two sources of the constitution and the course of practice in educational institutions. Regarding the first source, it is argued that parallel to the two main threads of the constitution, Iran's main elements of philosophy of education are expected to be derived from; (1) Islam and (2)…

  9. Philosophy and teacher education: An african perspective | Isichei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus here is on the relevance of philosophy as a discipline to teacher education in Africa. The article admits that all the countries on the continent are developing and have high illiteracy rate and lack scientific and technological culture. The aticle attempts to define and explain the nature, and scope of philosophy of ...

  10. Philosophy as Pharmakon : Towards the hermeneutics of healing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of philosophy gives us an insight into what good life portends. Plato, Aristotle and other ancient classics developed guiding principles on the ethical basis for behavioural cognition and existential logic. Hence, the interest of philosophy in other disciplines such as medicine and psychology is well known.

  11. Philosophy and logic as inescapable organon for human development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philosophy which is not possible without logic just as it is impossible to imagine life devoid of logic. Philosophy is a clearing house or a store house, a kind of museum of all field of human knowledge. It is equally an imperialist colonizing all fields of human endeavors. As a store keeper of knowledge, it is frugal in distributing ...

  12. Why Philosophy Is Important for Administrators in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The fact that "philosophy," to many people, is just a mysterious word that brings to mind images of white beards and mysticism is no surprise. Contemporary society seem to have little reason to value a field devoted to ideas rather than production. Simply, philosophy is impractical, a distraction from the important world of growing an…

  13. Physical Education Teacher's Attitudes towards Philosophy of Education and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkeli, Anil; Senel, Omer

    2016-01-01

    The current study was carried out to find out the attitudes of physical education teachers towards educational philosophy and technology, and to determine the relationship between the philosophy of education that they adopt and their attitudes toward technology. With this aim, the study was conducted on 22 female and 69 male physical education…

  14. The problem of language in contemporary African philosophy: some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A critical discussion of the contentious problem of language in contemporary African philosophy is attempted in this paper. The problem centres on whether or not African languages can be used in 'doing' contemporary African philosophy, where 'doing' means teaching, writing and researching. It also revolves around the ...

  15. Philosophy of Education as an accidental trickle | Mwaniki | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philosophy of Education as an accidental trickle. ... Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa ... and employing an anecdotic, hypothetical quasi scenario-building methodology to visit learning and teaching of philosophy of education and the career-building in the field at our universities, it attempts, ...

  16. Race Ideology and the Conceptualization of Philosophy: The Story ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philosophy in Africa has come a long way. From the 18th and 19th centuries when it was totally ignored or denied altogether, to when it was given a lower status by ethnophilosophers. Today we talk proudly of an African philosophy. What is often forgotten is its history and the players behind its historical moments.

  17. Preparing to Lead: A Leadership Philosophy Exercise for Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyran, Kristi Lewis

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a leadership philosophy exercise where students reflect on their values and prepare a statement of what they intend to do as a leader in their careers. This exercise has the potential to add value to leadership classes or seminars where personal leadership is the focus. By using the leadership philosophy exercise, I argue…

  18. Simone de Beauvoir: The Philosophy of Lived Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, James D.

    2006-01-01

    Simone de Beauvoir, best known outside France as a leading modern feminist theorist, is also recognized as a writer of literature, philosophy, and drama. In this essay, James D. Marshall aims to present Beauvoir, not as a mere entry in the history of French philosophy, nor as an under-laborer to Jean-Paul Sartre, but as someone who has important…

  19. The prefix "African" and its implication for philosophy in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. THE PREFIX “AFRICAN” AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR. PHILOSOPHY IN AFRICA ..... knowledge and its source, morality and moral judgements, the sequence and validity of arguments etc. This will imply that it also concerns itself with branches of ...

  20. African Philosophy and the Challenge of Innovative Thinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that the continued emphasis on ethno-philosophy and the relative absence of intellectual passion and curiosity are the greatest challenges facing African philosophy. The paper rejects the racist lamentation of scholars such as Olufemi Taiwo who blame the West for Africa's absence from the stage of world ...