WorldWideScience

Sample records for previous cultural thinking

  1. Logic in culture of thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov G. V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available in this article the logic perspective in information culture is investigated. The contents of four laws of logical thinking in their value for thinking and humanitarian culture of the personality are described. Formal and logical laws are characterized by a condition of uniform information culture of mankind.

  2. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  3. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  4. Cross-cultural perspectives on critical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sheryl Daun

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this cross-cultural study was to explore critical thinking among nurse scholars in Thailand and the United States. The study used qualitative methodology to examine how nurse scholars describe critical thinking in nursing. Nurse educators in Thailand and the United States were questioned concerning the following aspects of critical thinking: essential components; teaching and evaluation techniques; characteristics of critical thinkers; and the importance of a consensus definition for critical thinking in nursing. Their statements, which revealed both common and specific cultural aspects of critical thinking, were subjected to content analysis. Certain themes emerged that have not been widely discussed in the literature, including the link between staying calm and thinking critically, the assertion that happiness is an essential component of critical thinking, and the participants' nearly unanimous support for coming to a consensus definition of critical thinking for nursing. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. How Cultural Knowledge Shapes Core Design Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Ranjan, Apara; Bødker, Mads

    2017-01-01

    The growing trend of co-creation and co-design in cross-cultural design teams presents challenges for the design thinking process. We integrate two frameworks, one on reasoning patterns in design thinking, the other on the dynamic constructivist theory of culture, to propose a situation specific...... framework for the empirical analysis of design thinking in cross-cultural teams. We illustrate the framework with a qualitative analysis of 16 episodes of design related conversations, which are part of a design case study. The results show that cultural knowledge, either as shared by the cross......-cultural team or group specific knowledge of some team members, shape the reasoning patterns in the design thinking process across all the 16 episodes. Most of the design discussions were approached by the designers as problem situations that were formulated in a backward direction, where the value to create...

  6. Thinking through creativity and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    Creativity and culture are inherently linked. Society and culture are part and parcel of creativity’s process, outcome, and subjective experience.Equally, creativity does not reside in the individual independent of culture and society. Vlad Petre Glăveanu’s basic framework includes creators...... and social dimensions of creativity. Glăveanu uses an approach based on cultural psychology to present creativity in lay terms and within everyday settings. He concludes with a unitary cultural framework of creativity interrelating actors, audiences, actions, artifacts, and affordances....

  7. Peculiarities of the Development of the Modern Culture of Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara L. Salova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the peculiarities of the formation of a culture of thinking in the modern information society and the ratio of the culture of thinking, information and intellectual culture

  8. How Cultural Knowledge Shapes Design Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Ranjan, Apara; Bødker, Mads

    2016-01-01

    that cultural knowledge, either as shared knowledge by the cross-cultural team or group specific knowledge, influences the Dorst design thinking equations across all the 16 episodes analyzed in DTRS11 data set. Furthermore, most of the design discussions were approached by the designers as problem situations...... and were approached in a backwards manner, where the value to create was known; however, the designers were using available cultural knowledge to figure out the unknown what (products/services) and how (working principles of why something would work or not work). In conclusion, the paper demonstrates...

  9. Teaching Critical Thinking: Cultural Challenges and Strategies in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    Among the challenges faced by educators in promoting critical thinking is that of cultural compatibility. Using Singapore as an illustrative case study, this paper explores the cultural challenges and recommended strategies for the teaching of critical thinking in schools. The research for this study is based on a theoretical framework that…

  10. Why Cultural Studies is the End of Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This article begins from a consideration of this issue's contention that "central to politicized academic projects... is a critique of the cultural power of institutions" and in particular pedagogical institutions. It argues that is clear enough what the Editor is thinking of here: he names "cultural studies" as his prime…

  11. Evolutionary thinking: "A conversation with Carter Phipps about the role of evolutionary thinking in modern culture".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tam

    2014-12-01

    Evolution as an idea has a lengthy history, even though the idea of evolution is generally associated with Darwin today. Rebecca Stott provides an engaging and thoughtful overview of this history of evolutionary thinking in her 2013 book, Darwin's Ghosts: The Secret History of Evolution. Since Darwin, the debate over evolution-both how it takes place and, in a long war of words with religiously-oriented thinkers, whether it takes place-has been sustained and heated. A growing share of this debate is now devoted to examining how evolutionary thinking affects areas outside of biology. How do our lives change when we recognize that all is in flux? What can we learn about life more generally if we study change instead of stasis? Carter Phipps' book, Evolutionaries: Unlocking the Spiritual and Cultural Potential of Science's Greatest Idea, delves deep into this relatively new development. Phipps generally takes as a given the validity of the Modern Synthesis of evolutionary biology. His story takes us into, as the subtitle suggests, the spiritual and cultural implications of evolutionary thinking. Can religion and evolution be reconciled? Can evolutionary thinking lead to a new type of spirituality? Is our culture already being changed in ways that we don't realize by evolutionary thinking? These are all important questions and Phipps book is a great introduction to this discussion. Phipps is an author, journalist, and contributor to the emerging "integral" or "evolutionary" cultural movement that combines the insights of Integral Philosophy, evolutionary science, developmental psychology, and the social sciences. He has served as the Executive Editor of EnlightenNext magazine (no longer published) and more recently is the co-founder of the Institute for Cultural Evolution, a public policy think tank addressing the cultural roots of America's political challenges. What follows is an email interview with Phipps.

  12. Pedagogical System of Future Teachers' Professional Thinking Culture Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abildina, Saltanat K.; Sarsekeyeva, Zhanar Y.; Aidarbekova, Kulzhan A.; Asetova, Zhannur B.; Adanov, Kuanysbek B.

    2016-01-01

    Research objective is to theoretically justify and to develop a pedagogical system of development of future teachers' professional thinking culture. In the research there are used a set of theoretical methods: systematic analysis of the philosophical, psychological and pedagogical literature on the researched topic; compilation and classification…

  13. The Impact of Cultural Differences in Design Thinking Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoring, K.C.; Luippold, C.; Mueller, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Design thinking is a specific method to develop innovative solutions to wicked problems in multidisciplinary teams. The fact that people with different disciplinary and often also cultural backgrounds work together, makes it quite a challenge to compensate for deficits in common understanding of

  14. Sidelong thinking. Disobedient geographies and subaltern cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Vallorani

    2016-11-01

    To the purpose of imagining a more effective critical frame, I’m borrowing Kara Walker’s notion of sidelong glance to develop a reflection on theories and their usefulness in terms of the actual approach to issues whose profile and complexity are to be intended as not only in progress, but also undergoing a very quick definition and redefinition through time. Starting from Hall’s statement that  the postcolonial may be intended as “sign of desire or  signifier of danger” (1996 and also exploiting the notions of rhizoma (Deleuze & Guattari 1980, subalternity (Spivak 1988 and “Thinking plural” (Said 1993, I’m approaching a number of written, visual and performative texts, from Conrad’s Heart of Darkness to tightly contemporary artistic experiences, to show how both the postcolonial and the decolonial paradigms eventually prove inadequate to the reading of our present condition in terms of the ability to go beyond the traditional Western attitude to the post-colonies.

  15. Previous International Experience, Cross-Cultural Training, and Expatriates' Cross-Cultural Adjustment: Effects of Cultural Intelligence and Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo Moon, Hyoung; Kwon Choi, Byoung; Shik Jung, Jae

    2012-01-01

    Although various antecedents of expatriates' cross-cultural adjustment have been addressed, previous international experience, predeparture cross-cultural training, and cultural intelligence (CQ) have been most frequently examined. However, there are few attempts that explore the effects of these antecedents simultaneously or consider the possible…

  16. Reciprocity, culture and human cooperation: previous insights and a new cross-cultural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt

    2009-03-27

    Understanding the proximate and ultimate sources of human cooperation is a fundamental issue in all behavioural sciences. In this paper, we review the experimental evidence on how people solve cooperation problems. Existing studies show without doubt that direct and indirect reciprocity are important determinants of successful cooperation. We also discuss the insights from a large literature on the role of peer punishment in sustaining cooperation. The experiments demonstrate that many people are 'strong reciprocators' who are willing to cooperate and punish others even if there are no gains from future cooperation or any other reputational gains. We document this in new one-shot experiments, which we conducted in four cities in Russia and Switzerland. Our cross-cultural approach allows us furthermore to investigate how the cultural background influences strong reciprocity. Our results show that culture has a strong influence on positive and in especially strong negative reciprocity. In particular, we find large cross-cultural differences in 'antisocial punishment' of pro-social cooperators. Further cross-cultural research and experiments involving different socio-demographic groups document that the antisocial punishment is much more widespread than previously assumed. Understanding antisocial punishment is an important task for future research because antisocial punishment is a strong inhibitor of cooperation.

  17. How to compare cultures? The case of historical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rüsen

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies in historiography are rare. In most cases authors use a pre-given idea of the essentials of historical thinking and historiography to compare Western with non-Western phenomena in the field of historical representation in general, and historiography in particular. This approach to comparison is very problematic since the presupposed paradigm of historiography is an abstraction in the Western tradition. As a consequence this comparison brings about knowledge on non-Western historical thinking and historio-graphy in so far as it is similar to or different from the Western one. Difference normally imply deviation or a lack of historicity. However, comparing Western historiography with Chinese historiography, does not bring about such a big difference as we witness in the case of for example India. Nevertheless, a cultural bias in the comparative work exists that makes the results of comparative work problematic. The article proposes a theoretical means of intercultural comparison that is grounded in a general theory of historical thinking, presented in the form of its matrix. This matrix is explicated, discussed and differentiated into a set of items which can be used as criteria of comparison.

  18. Modular thinking can merge editorial and manufacturing cultures in magazine production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouvari, Panagiota; Rosenqvist, Christopher

    1999-08-01

    The rapid development of the magazine industry in Sweden has stressed the importance of modular thinking. However, using modular thinking in the magazine architecture is not yet established in the magazine industry despite the need for shorter lead-time and improved content quality. A magazine production can be divided into two phases; the editorial phase and the manufacturing phase. Surprisingly the two different phases are seldom synchronized even if they co- operate on the same product. The aim of this research was to evaluate the use of modular thinking in the product and focus on its manufacturability as well as its influence on relationships between the corporate cultures of the two phases. The company culture is often mirrored in the product and in the manufacturing process. In this research we further develop the results from two previous projects where it was concluded that the magazine's product architecture regulates the work flow speed and that the company's culture is a dynamic factor which both affects and is affected by the product. The theoretical analysis shows that a magazine can successfully be re-designed, integrating both manufacturability and layout in the product architecture. The degree of modularity in the product architecture determines the performance of three parameters: lead-time, quality of the content and the level of relationships between the two corporate cultures.

  19. Cross-Cultural Equivalency of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskifoglu, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the cross-cultural applicability of a multidimensional inventory of students' evaluation of critical thinking dispositions (California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory). The goal was to assess the cross-cultural psychometric equivalency of the CCTDI through testing measurement invariance across American and Turkish…

  20. Cultural forms of thinking as translation-communicative basis of the individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekrygina T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available social psychology approach to cultural dynamics used by the authors formed within the framework of the cultural and historical concept is a comparative analysis of cultural-historical process that helps to identify its main characteristic features of a particular cultural community, which are the most sustainable socio-cultural entities (cultural forms and perform translation-communication function of the culture impact on personality development and social relations. The authors concluded that cultural forms were the main determinants of socio-cultural identification with internal mechanism – cultural forms of thinking

  1. Cultural cognition in the thinking-aloud method for usability evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    and evaluator. In conclusion, we point to the importance of matching the task presentation to users' cultural background, the different effects of thinking aloud on task performance between Easterners and Westerners, the differences in nonverbal behaviour that affect usability problem detection, and, finally......We discuss the impact of cultural differences on usability evaluations that are based on the thinking-aloud method (TA). The term ‘cultural differences' helps distinguish differences in the perception and thinking of Westerners (people from Western Europe and US citizens with European origins......) and Easterners (people from China and the countries heavily influenced by its culture). We illustrate the impact of cultural cognition on four central elements of TA: (1) instructions and tasks, (2) the user's verbalizations, (3) the evaluator's reading of the user, and (4) the overall relationship between user...

  2. Cultural cognition in the thinking-aloud method for usability evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the impact of cultural differences on usability evaluations that are based on the thinking-aloud method (TA). The term ‘cultural differences' helps distinguish differences in the perception and thinking of Westerners (people from Western Europe and US citizens with European origins......) and Easterners (people from China and the countries heavily influenced by its culture). We illustrate the impact of cultural cognition on four central elements of TA: (1) instructions and tasks, (2) the user's verbalizations, (3) the evaluator's reading of the user, and (4) the overall relationship between user...... and evaluator. In conclusion, we point to the importance of matching the task presentation to users' cultural background, the different effects of thinking aloud on task performance between Easterners and Westerners, the differences in nonverbal behaviour that affect usability problem detection, and, finally...

  3. Critical Thinking as Culture: Teaching Post-Soviet Teachers in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, Nancy; Shegebayev, Maganat R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the question of whether critical thinking can eventually become part of the cultural fabric in Kazakhstan, a country whose Soviet educational system not only trained teachers to memorise, lecture and intimidate students but also created a culture in educational institutions fraught with many fear-based behaviours engendering…

  4. Developing leaders' strategic thinking through global work experience: the moderating role of cultural distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoni, Lisa; Oh, In-Sue; Tesluk, Paul E; Moore, Ozias A; VanKatwyk, Paul; Hazucha, Joy

    2014-09-01

    To respond to the challenge of how organizations can develop leaders who can think strategically, we investigate the relation of leaders' global work experiences--that is, those experiences that require the role incumbent to transcend national boundaries--to their competency in strategic thinking. We further examine whether leaders' exposure to a country whose culture is quite distinct from the culture of their own country (i.e., one that is culturally distant) moderates these relationships. Our analyses of 231 upper level leaders reveals that the time they have spent in global work experiences positively relates to their strategic thinking competency, particularly for leaders who have had exposure to a more culturally distant country. We discuss these findings in light of the research on international work experiences and leader development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Taxonomies in L1 and L2 Reading Strategies: A Critical Review of Issues Surrounding Strategy-Use Definitions and Classifications in Previous Think-Aloud Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaleefah, Tarek A.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the various classifications of L1 and L2 reading strategies in previous think-aloud studies, the present review aims to provide a comprehensive look into those various taxonomies reported in major L1 and L2 reading studies. The rationale for this review is not only to offer a comprehensive overview of the different classifications in…

  6. Thinking Between Cultures. Pragmatism, Rorty and Intercultural Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenart Skof

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses Rorty’s critique and special relation to intercultural thinking. It looks into the history of both pragmatism and intercultural philosophy, discusses some of their possible points of convergence, and finally follows the implications of this encounter for our intercultural understanding of Rorty’s version of pragmatism, especially in the context of a contemporary North-South intercultural dialogue.

  7. Do wild chimpanzee populations develop diverse cultures? [Latest Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Boesch, C.

    2017-01-01

    Humans pride themselves on having extensive and diverse cultures. However, cultures can also be observed in animals. The research presented in this video aims at understanding the cultures of wild chimpanzee populations in several African countries and how they differ from each other. As chimpanzees avoid human contact, CHRISTOPHE BOESCH explains, the research team conducted the study by setting up camera traps to catch chimpanzee behavior on video. Forty locations were carefully selected to ...

  8. The Investigation of Critical Thinking Dispositions of Religious Culture and Ethics Teacher Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Cekin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the critical thinking dispositions of religious culture and ethics teacher candidates in terms of some variables. The independent variables of the study are gender, high school types from which they graduated, birth place, motherland, education level of their parents, and family’s average income. The sample of the study is 226 teacher candidates in Ankara University and Kastamonu University, religion culture and ethics teaching department. The research is designed as a case study; the data is obtained by Measurement of California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. The inventory is a lykert-type scale, has 51 items. The value of the overall reliability of measurement instrument (Cronbach Alpha is 0.88. A one way analysis of variance (ANOVA and independent samples t-test are used to analyze the data. In the end of the study, it was found that religious culture and ethics teacher candidates think sufficiently critical.

  9. Thinking English, Losing Culture: The near Extinction of the Igbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language is a matter of identity. It has the propensity to transmit culture and so the moment an individual loses his language, it is obvious that his culture will be jeopardized. People, the world over, use their language for home and official interactions and specifically in Nigeria, most other tribes show a high degree of ...

  10. Either scholar or activist? Thinking cultural psychology beyond academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marco Carre Benzi, David

    2016-01-01

    Both Robert Innis’s and Svend Brinkmann’s works bring to the fore a notorious, but usually forgotten, topic on cultural psychology: the normative framework that regulates the relation between the researcher and the phenomena studied. In fact, these ‘models of human flourishing’, using authors...... directions: turning cultural psychology into activism, and conducting value-laden research. For this purpose, the case of Arthur Jensen’s 1969 controversial publication on IQ is discussed. This example is useful to reveal the challenges that cultural psychology must face in order to become more aware of its...

  11. Developing Learning Model Based on Local Culture and Instrument for Mathematical Higher Order Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, Sahat; Napitupulu, E. Elvis; Fauzi, Amin

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to develop a student-centered learning model based on local culture and instrument of mathematical higher order thinking of junior high school students in the frame of the 2013-Curriculum in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The subjects of the research are seventh graders which are taken proportionally random consisted of three public…

  12. Positive Thinking & Good Citizenship Culture: From the Jordanian Universities Students' Points of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrar, Amani Ghazi

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the nature of the relationship between the mode of thinking among the students of Jordanian Universities if positive, and the extent to which that is related to their culture of citizenship, and therefore their positive practices towards the community. A sample of (654) students were selected randomly. And to achieve…

  13. Postglobal Teacher Preparation: Border Thinking along the Global South through International Cross-Cultural Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahatzad, Jubin; Sasser, Hannah L.; Phillion, JoAnn; Karimi, Nastaran; Deng, Yuwen; Akiyama, Reiko; Sharma, Suniti

    2013-01-01

    Preservice teachers' international cross-cultural experiences can provide opportunities for the exploration of epistemic frontiers. In this article we suggest that postglobal teacher preparation take a critically reflective approach that engages preservice teachers in border thinking, which allows for other ways of knowing while studying abroad.…

  14. Cumulative Culture and Future Thinking: Is Mental Time Travel a Prerequisite to Cumulative Cultural Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, G. L.; Flynn, E. G.; Kendal, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative culture denotes the, arguably, human capacity to build on the cultural behaviors of one's predecessors, allowing increases in cultural complexity to occur such that many of our cultural artifacts, products and technologies have progressed beyond what a single individual could invent alone. This process of cumulative cultural evolution…

  15. Analysing young children’s thinking about natural phenomena: A sociocultural/cultural historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JILL ROBBINS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vygotsky’s sociocultural/cultural historical theory emphasised the notion of semiotic mediation – or how thinking is transformed through signs (such as language and cultural tools (such as drawings from an intermental to an intramental plane. While the ideas of Vygotsky have become well-accepted within research in early childhood education in Australia, they are somewhat slower to be adopted within science education research. Yet they offer the potential for gaining new understandings of how young children’s thinking about the world develops. This article will demonstrate one way in which aspects of Vygotsky’s (1987-1999 work, particularly his ideas about semiotic mediation can inform analysis of children’s thinking about the world. Focusing on conversations with children about natural phenomena, and drawings they completed during those conversations, the analysis identifies a number of significant issues that are not normally revealed within the dominant forms of analysis which draw on constructivist perspectives. The findings, which reveal complex and dynamic aspects of children’s thinking, have implications for both teachers and researchers working with young children – especially within science education and science education research.

  16. Critical thinking as culture: Teaching post-Soviet teachers in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, Nancy; Shegebayev, Maganat R.

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores the question of whether critical thinking can eventually become part of the cultural fabric in Kazakhstan, a country whose Soviet educational system not only trained teachers to memorise, lecture and intimidate students but also created a culture in educational institutions fraught with many fear-based behaviours engendering competitiveness, intolerance and other hostile behaviours antithetical to critical thinking and an open, democratic society. While educational reform can have profound effects on a nation, education is but one system in a complex network of governmental and cultural systems, and change must be borne by many. This paper reviews literature and presents qualitative data gathered through interviews with Soviet-trained teachers. The authors recommend that teachers should embrace student-centred techniques and critical thinking methodologies, as well as shift from a fear-based, authoritarian, top-down system of relating to students and colleagues to one of cooperation, openness and fairness. Such a reform will take repetitive, intensive and experiential training as well as regular assessments of progress.

  17. The Effectiveness of Local Culture-Based Mathematical Heuristic-KR Learning towards Enhancing Student's Creative Thinking Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandiseru, Selvi Rajuaty

    2015-01-01

    The problem in this research is the lack of creative thinking skills of students. One of the learning models that is expected to enhance student's creative thinking skill is the local culture-based mathematical heuristic-KR learning model (LC-BMHLM). Heuristic-KR is a learning model which was introduced by Krulik and Rudnick (1995) that is the…

  18. Thinking differently about cultural diversity: Using postcolonial theory to (re)read science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lyn

    2004-11-01

    This paper makes use of postcolonial theory to think differently about aspects of cultural diversity within science education. It briefly reviews some of the increasing scholarship on cultural diversity, and then describes the genealogy and selected key themes of postcolonial theory. Postcolonial theory as oppositional or deconstructive reading practice is privileged, and its practical application illustrated by using some of these key ideas to (re)read Gloria Snively and John Corsiglia's (2001) article Discovering indigenous science: implications for science education and their rejoinder, from the special issue of Science Education (Vol. 85, pp. 6-34) on multiculturalism and science education. While many would regard the expressed views on diversity, inclusivity, multiculturalism, and sustainability to be just and equitable, postcolonial analysis of the texts reveals subtle and lingering referents that unwittingly work against the very attitudes Snively and Corsiglia (2001) seek to promote. Such postcolonial analyses open up thinking about the material and cultural conditions in which science education is produced, circulated, interpreted, and enacted. They also privilege a unique methodology already prominent in academic inquiry that is yet to be well explored within science education. Finally, I conclude this paper with some general comments regarding postcolonialism and the science education scholarship on cultural diversity.

  19. Cross-Cultural and User-Centered Design Thinking in a Global Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Sille Julie Jøhnk; Christensen, Bo

    2018-01-01

    The case presented here was the center of the 11th Design Thinking Research Symposium (DTRS11) and concerns extensive in situ collected video-based data of everyday design team activity traced longitudinally in a professional team of designers working with user involvement. The DTRS11 dataset......-creation, cross-cultural design, design thinking within organizations, and design tools and materials, each of which stem from particulars in the present case, but at the same time serve as hints to developments that are taking place in design practice more broadly....... was shared and analyzed by 28 international design research teams, who approached the data with each their preferred methodology and theoretical interests. In addition to the case description, the current paper also identified themes for distinct analyses conducted by individual design research teams: co...

  20. Visual Culture in the Elementary-School Classroom: Moving from Box-Store Commodities to Out-of-the-Box Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattal, Laura Felleman

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the action research project on visual culture is to contribute to the dialogue on the exploratory ecology vs commodity culture of the elementary school classroom. Exploratory culture, unlike commodity culture, applauds open-ended thinking, inchoate imaginings, and critical thinking with its attachment to divergent paths to resolving…

  1. What is the source of cultural differences? -- Examining the influence of thinking style on the attribution process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Chun-Hui; Lien, Yunn-Wen

    2010-02-01

    The present research is intended to find out whether individuals with analytic or holistic thought have different attribution processes. Cross-cultural research has suggested that East Asians, who tend to have a holistic thought pattern, differ in cognitive process from Westerners, who tend to engage in analytic thought. However, studies that found cultural difference in attribution process may have non-equivalence problems that make it hard to interpret the causal relationship between thinking style and attribution process. The present research extends this by measuring participants' thinking style within a single culture in order to ensure equivalence on potentially confounding variables such as prior knowledge and cognitive capacity. Two experiments demonstrate that both types of thinkers have identical attribution processes and suggest different thinking styles might relate to different tendencies toward situational information, but not to the attribution process itself. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Promoting cultures of thinking: transforming nursing education to transform nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Patricia E; McLaughlin, Dorcas E

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary nursing education is highly invested in the development of the academic, critical, and empirical aspects of education that represent the science of nursing, and concomitantly less attentive to the development of the creative, interpersonal aspects of education typically associated with the art of nursing. This represents a reversal of historic patterns in nursing education, but the pendulum may have swung so far that there could be costs to nursing practice unless the creative, interpersonal aspects of education can be reclaimed and balanced. Ideas and suggestions regarding how nurse educators might foster the creation of cultures of thinking, which represent whole-brain, integrated teaching approaches that are based on emerging neurocognitive evidence, are discussed.

  3. Translation, cultural adaptation and field-testing of the Thinking Healthy Program for Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jane; Nguyen, Hau; Mannava, Priya; Tran, Ha; Dam, Thao; Tran, Huong; Tran, Thach; Durrant, Kelly; Rahman, Atif; Luchters, Stanley

    2014-05-15

    Depression and anxiety are prevalent among women in low- and lower-middle income countries who are pregnant or have recently given birth. There is promising evidence that culturally-adapted, evidence-informed, perinatal psycho-educational programs implemented in local communities are effective in reducing mental health problems. The Thinking Healthy Program (THP) has proved effective in Pakistan. The aims were to adapt the THP for rural Vietnam; establish the program's comprehensibility, acceptability and salience for universal use, and investigate whether administration to small groups of women might be of equivalent effectiveness to administration in home visits to individual women. The THP Handbook and Calendar were made available in English by the program developers and translated into Vietnamese. Cultural adaptation and field-testing were undertaken using WHO guidance. Field-testing of the four sessions of THP Module One was undertaken in weekly sessions with a small group in a rural commune and evaluated using baseline, process and endline surveys. The adapted Vietnamese version of the Thinking Healthy Program (THP-V) was found to be understandable, meaningful and relevant to pregnant women, and commune health centre and Women's Union representatives in a rural district. It was delivered effectively by trained local facilitators. Role-play, brainstorming and small-group discussions to find shared solutions to common problems were appraised as helpful learning opportunities. The THP-V is safe and comprehensible, acceptable and salient to pregnant women without mental health problems in rural Vietnam. Delivery in facilitated small groups provided valued opportunities for role-play rehearsal and shared problem solving. Local observers found the content and approach highly relevant to local needs and endorsed the approach as a mental health promotion strategy with potential for integration into local universal maternal and child health services. These preliminary

  4. METHODS FOR IMPROVING INFORMATION CULTURE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF RESEARCH AND CREATIVE SKILLS STUDENTS BASED ON CREATIVE THINKING

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    Teplaya Naila Aligasanovna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses methods to improve the information culture in the development of research and creative abilities of students on the basis of creative thinking. The purpose: consider ways to improve the information culture in the development of research and creative abilities of students on the basis of creative thinking. Method or methodology of carrying out of job: theoretical analysis of the psychological and educational literature. Results: The essence of the methods to improve the information culture, which leads to the development of abilities to work in a multi-factor systems in the face of uncertainty, to the construction of more complex hierarchical structures of their own activities, updating combinatorial abilities, that improve the development process of research and creativity, to generate the highest level IV information Culture - Professionally. Scope of results: preparation of the information for University students.

  5. Development of a Culture Specific Critical Thinking Ability Test and Using It as a Supportive Diagnostic Test for Giftedness

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    Köksal, Mustafa Serdar

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a culture specific critical thinking ability test for 6, 7, and 8. grade students in Turkey and to use it as an assessment instrument for giftedness. For these purposes, item pool involving 22 items was formed by writing items focusing on the current and common events presented in (Turkish) media from…

  6. Students' Critical Thinking Skills in Chemistry Learning Using Local Culture-Based 7E Learning Cycle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suardana, I. Nyoman; Redhana, I. Wayan; Sudiatmika, A. A. Istri Agung Rai; Selamat, I. Nyoman

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed at describing the effectiveness of the local culture-based 7E learning cycle model in improving students' critical thinking skills in chemistry learning. It was an experimental research with post-test only control group design. The population was the eleventh-grade students of senior high schools in Singaraja, Indonesia. The…

  7. Creating a Culture of Thinking in DCPS: A Generic Proposal for the District of Columbia Public Schools Board of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluellen, Jerry E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Preparing students for college and work in the Knowledge Age. That is the mission of this generic proposal. A counterpoint to Industrial Age mindsets marking most initiatives in the District of Columbia Public schools and described in the "fifth discipline" works of Peter Senge, Creating a Culture of Thinking in DCPS proposes a project…

  8. Practicing Critical Thinking in an Educational Psychology Classroom: Reflections from a Cultural-Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutykh, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Present standards include creative and critical thinking among dispositions essential for the teaching profession. While teaching introductory courses in educational psychology, I have noticed that even though students can easily describe critical thinking in the abstract, they rarely and reluctantly engage in thinking critically about their own…

  9. Neo Strategy to Use Fixed-Whiteboard Based on Student’s Thinking Process and Cultural Ethicaly in Learning Physics

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    Wahyu Hari Kristiyanto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Old guidelines to use the whiteboard stated that teachers were not allowed to write on the whiteboard while talking, because unethical if speak while back facing students. Findings about thinking process profile in information processing were presented with a whiteboard showed that the assimilation process is going to be supported, and audio-visual stimulants. This paper aims to describe the implementation of the latest strategies to use fixed-whiteboard based on student’s thinking process in learning physics with maximum the optimal thought processes and also maintain cultural ethics. This research was conducted through the use of guideline development assessment implementation fixed-slates based on the findings of the process of thinking and ethical culture in physics learning. The results showed that the latest strategy the use of fixed-whiteboard based on the thought process students and ethical culture in learning physics are (1 the assimilation process so that the display contents whiteboard is a material that is correct and does not cause cognitive conflict, (2 they are mutually reinforcing a combination of visual and audio so that the need to write while spelling, and (3 the thinking process to the stage of internalization that stage of the emergence of good information text / image / formula can be seen intact by all students by writing not cover impressions. The implementation results show the subject has been able to implement the latest strategies use fixed-whiteboard with both categories. The conclusions of this study that the use of the latest strategies fixed-whiteboard can be used for the presentation of information which is more than usual for students according to their thinking process and also maintain cultural ethics. The implication of this research is for Workforce Education Institutions need to equip student teachers with the skills to use the whiteboard based on the latest strategy. How to CiteKristiyanto, W. H

  10. Re-Conceptualizing Critical Thinking for Moral Education in Culturally Plural Societies

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    Kwak, Duck-Joo

    2007-01-01

    This paper critically examines the contemporary educational discourse on critical thinking as one of the primary aims of education, its modernist defence and its postmodernist criticism, so as to explore a new way of conceptualizing critical thinking for moral education. What is at stake in this task is finding a plausible answer to the question…

  11. The historical roots of precautionary thinking. The cultural ecological critique and The Limits to Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanekamp, J.C.; Verstegen, S.W.; Vera-Navas, G.

    2005-01-01

    Although, at first glance, the precautionary principle looks perfectly sensible and self-evident, it is based on a way of thinking that has a history of its own, which goes back to the 1960s and early 1970s. Precautionary thinking should mainly be seen as a reaction: it is an answer to the

  12. A Cultural-Historical Study of the Development of Children's Scientific Thinking about Clouds in Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkiadaki, Glykeria; Fleer, Marilyn; Ravanis, Konstantinos

    2017-09-01

    Research into early childhood children's understandings in science has a long history. However, few studies have drawn upon cultural-historical theory to frame their research. Mostly, what is known has come from studies which have examined individual understandings of science concepts, without reference to culture, context or the collective nature in which children learn, play and live. The cultural-historical study reported in this paper examines the process of constructing understandings about clouds by kindergarten children (16 children, aged 4.5 to 6 years, mean age of 5. 3 years) in an urban area of Greece. The research examines how children form relevant representations of clouds, how they conceptualize meteorological understandings in everyday life and how understandings transform through communications with others. The collection of the data was achieved through expanded, open-type conversations between pairs of children and one of the researchers, totalling 4 h of data. In depth analysis, using Rogoff's three foci of analysis (personal, interpersonal and context focusing) allowed for an examination of children's representations of clouds, how social and cultural factors framed thinking and gave insights into the processes of scientific thinking. On this basis, theoretical and methodological insights of this study of natural science by young children are discussed.

  13. On three forms of thinking: magical thinking, dream thinking, and transformative thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2010-04-01

    The author believes that contemporary psychoanalysis has shifted its emphasis from the understanding of the symbolic meaning of dreams, play, and associations to the exploration of the processes of thinking, dreaming, and playing. In this paper, he discusses his understanding of three forms of thinking-magical thinking, dream thinking, and transformative thinking-and provides clinical illustrations in which each of these forms of thinking figures prominently. The author views magical thinking as a form of thinking that subverts genuine thinking and psychological growth by substituting invented psychic reality for disturbing external reality. By contrast, dream thinking--our most profound form of thinking-involves viewing an emotional experience from multiple perspectives simultaneously: for example, the perspectives of primary process and secondary process thinking. In transformative thinking, one creates a new way of ordering experience that allows one to generate types of feeling, forms of object relatedness, and qualities of aliveness that had previously been unimaginable.

  14. Engendering a Culture of Thinking in a Culture of Performativity: The Challenge of Mediating Tensions in the Singaporean Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Kadir, Mohammad Akshir

    2017-01-01

    Among the major policies that have been implemented to ensure its continued success, "Thinking Schools, Learning Nation" (TSLN) has been described as the "big bang of educational reforms" in Singapore. However, while the policy aims to develop critical thinkers in school leavers, the corporatisation of education in the shape of…

  15. Students’ Critical Mathematical Thinking Skills and Character: Experiments for Junior High School Students through Realistic Mathematics Education Culture-Based

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    Anderson L. Palinussa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a quasi-experimental with pre-testpost-test design and control group that aims to assess students’ critical mathematical thinking skills and character through realisticmathematics education (RME culture-based. Subjects of this studywere 106 junior high school students from two low and medium schools level in Ambon. The instruments of the study are: students’ early math skills test, critical thinking skills mathematical test and perception scale of students’character. Data was analyzed by using t test and Anova. The study found that: 1 Achievements and enhancement of students’ critical mathematical thinking skills who were treated with by realistic mathematics education is better then students’ skills were treated by conventional mathematics education. The differences are considered to: a overall students, b the level of early math skills, and c schools’ level; 2 Quality of students’ characterwho were treated by realistic mathematics education is better thenstudents’ character who were treated by conventional mathematicseducation The differences are considered to: a overall students, b the level of early math skills, and c schools’ level

  16. Evolutionary thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tam

    2014-01-01

    Evolution as an idea has a lengthy history, even though the idea of evolution is generally associated with Darwin today. Rebecca Stott provides an engaging and thoughtful overview of this history of evolutionary thinking in her 2013 book, Darwin's Ghosts: The Secret History of Evolution. Since Darwin, the debate over evolution—both how it takes place and, in a long war of words with religiously-oriented thinkers, whether it takes place—has been sustained and heated. A growing share of this debate is now devoted to examining how evolutionary thinking affects areas outside of biology. How do our lives change when we recognize that all is in flux? What can we learn about life more generally if we study change instead of stasis? Carter Phipps’ book, Evolutionaries: Unlocking the Spiritual and Cultural Potential of Science's Greatest Idea, delves deep into this relatively new development. Phipps generally takes as a given the validity of the Modern Synthesis of evolutionary biology. His story takes us into, as the subtitle suggests, the spiritual and cultural implications of evolutionary thinking. Can religion and evolution be reconciled? Can evolutionary thinking lead to a new type of spirituality? Is our culture already being changed in ways that we don't realize by evolutionary thinking? These are all important questions and Phipps book is a great introduction to this discussion. Phipps is an author, journalist, and contributor to the emerging “integral” or “evolutionary” cultural movement that combines the insights of Integral Philosophy, evolutionary science, developmental psychology, and the social sciences. He has served as the Executive Editor of EnlightenNext magazine (no longer published) and more recently is the co-founder of the Institute for Cultural Evolution, a public policy think tank addressing the cultural roots of America's political challenges. What follows is an email interview with Phipps. PMID:26478766

  17. Thinking about the Notion of "Cross-Cultural" from a Social Semiotic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Gunther

    2012-01-01

    In this article the main question is: what might Social Semiotics offer to studies of the "cross-cultural"? Social Semiotics distinguishes between "society" and "culture". "The social" is the domain of "interaction" seen as semiotic work, organized in fields of power. "Culture" is the repository of semiotic resources, of material and non-material…

  18. SCHOOL, INDIGENOUS AND WESTERN CULTURES: REFLEXIONS TO THINK THE EDUCATION IN THE INDIGENOUS SCHOOLS

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    Cláudia Pereira Antunes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The education in the indigenous schools, even though it is build within the legal framework of the State and a modern concept of education, demands new comprehensions from the western society not only in its relation with the indigenous education, but also in its relation with the indigenous people. Because of its condition as a mediator between two different forms of thinking, the indigenous school also represents a fertile ground to think about the western conceptions of education. This article is dedicated to a deeper reflection about some aspects of the relation between the western society, based on rationality and science, and the indian people in the construction of the indigenous schools.

  19. Re-thinking the complexities of 'culture': what might we learn from Bourdieu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, M Judith; Browne, A J; Reimer Kirkham, S; Anderson, J M

    2007-03-01

    In this paper we continue an ongoing dialogue that has as its goal the critical appraisal of theoretical perspectives on culture and health, in an effort to move forward scholarship on culture and health. We draw upon a programme of scholarship to explicate theoretical tensions and challenges that are manifest in the discourses on culture and health and to explore the possibilities Bourdieu's theoretical perspective offers for reconciling them. That is, we hope to demonstrate the need to move beyond descriptions 'of' culture to an understanding of cultures as dynamic, and to show ways cultural practices create contexts that have the potential to foster or impede health. In our early research, largely undertaken in Canada's multicultural context, we sought to make visible the ways in which culture shaped conceptions of health and influenced health practices of immigrant groups. In recent years this focus has expanded to include populations that reflect the cultural and social diversity of our region. From the outset we attempted to move towards a conception of culture as negotiated, unifying, transformative and dynamic. While this position continues to hold appeal we are continually reminded that, despite our leanings towards constructivism, there is salience to the notion of culture as having enduring elements. It is this tension between the view of culture as embodied and enduring and culture as constructed and dynamic that we seek to examine. We explore whether Bourdieu's theoretical perspective offers promise for reconciling these apparently competing views. Using exemplars from our research we share insights that Bourdieu's work has offered to our analyses, thereby enabling us to move towards a view of culture that holds in tension these apparently contradictory positions of culture as both essence (albeit unstable, negotiated) and constructed.

  20. Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: Using the Design / Build Teaching Model for Cross-cultural Dialogue

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    Skip Graffam

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparing future landscape architects for practice involves not only teaching them about globally important cultural, social, and ecological issues but also the processes for addressing them successfully in the built environment. An educational model that immerses students in these issues through community and cross-cultural dialog is the Design/Build Studio. (Winterbottom, 1999

  1. How to challenge a culturalization of human existence? Promoting interculturalism and ethical thinking in education

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    Frédérique Brossard Børhaug

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available What if culture appears to be a universal solution – and problem – to all human encounters in the multicultural school? When teachers explain the problems encountered by minority pupils simply by reference to their cultural (religious backgrounds, one faces the danger of culturalization where the other’s difference is explained only by his/her ethnicity. Culturalization is highly problematic because it emphasizes stereotyped inter-group differences and by doing so erases intra-group and inter-individual differences. The article argues that culture is fundamental in human existence, but it should not be an ambiguous dimension if the school seeks to help the learner get a stronger capacity of voice and aspiration. In order to challenge culturalization of human existence, it is crucial for education to promote the paradigm of interculturalism. Such a paradigm requires educators to acknowledge multiple forms of identity belongings for the individual and to resist the interpretation of culture as common sense. Education becomes intercultural and provides liberating categorizations for the individual when it acknowledges the true value of chosen cultural affiliations and individual aspirations. Nonetheless, promoting interculturalism might not be sufficient. Facing the potential danger of culturalization, we also need to foster ethics in education, in order to deconstruct the categories of cultural identity and belonging. Drawing on the philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas (1905-1995 the article argues that loving the other implies the act of loving the other person as a brother and as a stranger. Responsibility understood as an ethical responsibility opens up the community’s traditional structures and promotes a politics of ethical difference. Justice, thus, is not only about how well rights and duties are enforced, but also a matter of the other’s right to be other. Difference as a category is in other words not cultural but refers to the

  2. Cultivating engineering ethics and critical thinking: a systematic and cross-cultural education approach using problem-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pei-Fen; Wang, Dau-Chung

    2011-08-01

    In May 2008, the worst earthquake in more than three decades struck southwest China, killing more than 80,000 people. The complexity of this earthquake makes it an ideal case study to clarify the intertwined issues of ethics in engineering and to help cultivate critical thinking skills. This paper first explores the need to encourage engineering ethics within a cross-cultural context. Next, it presents a systematic model for designing an engineering ethics curriculum based on moral development theory and ethic dilemma analysis. Quantitative and qualitative data from students' oral and written work were collected and analysed to determine directions for improvement. The paper also presents results of an assessment of this interdisciplinary engineering ethics course. This investigation of a disaster is limited strictly to engineering ethics education; it is not intended to assign blame, but rather to spark debate about ethical issues.

  3. Meaningful Cultural Learning by Imitative Participation: The Case of Abstract Thinking in Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oers, Bert

    2012-01-01

    The article describes a theory-driven approach to meaningful learning in primary schools, based on the Vygotskian cultural-historical theory of human development and learning. This approach is elaborated into an educational concept called "developmental education" that is implemented in the Netherlands in many primary schools. In this…

  4. Flexible Coherence: Re-Thinking e-Learning Design Principles for Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Bradley E.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results from a post-test only experiment conducted in 2011 with undergraduate and graduate students (N = 67) from individualist and collectivist cultures. Demographic information was collected through questions appearing at the end of a post-test administered to subjects after completing the e-learning module. Each person…

  5. Intersections and Translocations: New Paradigms for Thinking about Cultural Diversity and Social Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthias, Floya

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects on the concepts of cultural diversity, belonging and identity which inform important debates for managing "difference" in contemporary European societies. These address issues relating to transnational migration, ethnic diversity and racialisation in a range of social contexts. The article also reflects on the concept of…

  6. Meaningful cultural learning by imitative participation: the case of abstract thinking in primary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oers, B.

    2012-01-01

    The article describes a theory-driven approach to meaningful learning in primary schools, based on the Vygotskian cultural-historical theory of human development and learning. This approach is elaborated into an educational concept called 'developmental education' that is implemented in the

  7. Think globally, act locally: understanding sexual harassment from a cross-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Hatice; Swigart, Valerie; Erdemir, Firdevs

    2011-06-01

    Sexual harassment in medical education has been studied in the Americas, Europe and Asia; however, little is known about sexual harassment in Middle Eastern cultures. Our initial aim was to describe the sexual harassment of female doctors-in-training by male patients and their relatives in Turkey. During our analysis of data, we expanded our objectives to include the formulation of a framework that can provide a theoretical background to enhance medical educators' understanding of sexual harassment across cultures. Questionnaires were provided to female resident doctors. Respondents were asked about their experiences of sexual harassment, about their reactions and about any precautionary measures they had used. Descriptive statistics were generated using SPSS software. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. Forty-nine (51.0%) of 96 distributed questionnaires were completed. Thirty-three (67.3%) participants stated that they had been sexually harassed by a patient or patient's relative at some point in their career. 'Gazing at the doctor in a lewd manner', selected by 25 (51.0%) participants, was the most common form of harassment. The methods of coping selected by the highest numbers of respondents involved seeking the discharge of the patient (24.2%), avoiding contact with the patient or relatives (24.2%) and showing rejection (21.2%). Participants' comments about the prevention of sexual harassment revealed a deep sense of need for protection. The interface between quantitative and qualitative findings and a review of the literature supported the development of a value-based, cross-cultural conceptual framework linking the valuing of hierarchy and conservatism with the occurrence of sexual harassment. We relate our findings to issues of patriarchy, power and socio-cultural influences that impact both the perpetrator and the target of sexual harassment. Medical educators are responsible for the control and prevention of sexual harassment of

  8. Think Research” in Everyday Clinical Practice: Fostering Research Culture in Health Care Settings

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    Valsa Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available “No development without research; No research without development” Yvo Nuyens1TThe quest for knowledge has helped mankind evolve over the years, from discovery of fire through Dolly the sheep clone to Chandrayan moon mission, leaving behind a record of discoveries and inventions in science and technology. Each generation can begin the search for knowledge where the last one left off and contribute their share to the benefit of humanity, cutting across culture and boundaries.

  9. Transition or Translation?: Thinking Through Media and Cultural Studies Students’ Experiences after Graduation

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    Nicole Matthews

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article uses Kevin Robins and Frank Webster’s notion of ‘instrumental progressivism’ as a way of understanding the tensions between discipline-based academic staff and educational policy makers and developers within universities.  Robins and Webster argue that contemporary educational orthodoxies bring together two disparate philosophies: progressive understandings of education as student-centred and lifelong and the view that higher education should serve the economy.  While these writers see instrumental progressivism as a symptom of an ailing university system, this article argues that cultural studies as an interdiscipline with historical ties to progressivism cannot entirely step aside from the logic of these reforms.  The article interrogates Robins and Webster’s argument drawing on two small-scale qualitative research projects which traced the experiences of graduates from media and cultural studies programs, one in the UK and one in Australia.  While there are formidable political problems with progressivism and real challenges in smoothing educational transitions, the article argues that cultural studies programs can help students translate the categories, research questions, and disciplinary concentrations of their field into the languages and taxonomies of the work place.

  10. Something to Talk About: Re-thinking Conversations on Research Culture in Canadian Academic Libraries

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    Heidi LM Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As Canadian academic librarians have experienced an increasing presence in faculty associations and unions, expectations of librarian scholarship and research have increased as well. However, literature from the past several decades on academic librarianship and scholarship focuses heavily on obstacles faced by librarians in their research endeavours, which suggests that the research environment at many academic libraries has stalled. Though many have called for the development of a research culture, little has been said regarding how the profession might go about encouraging this development, and conversations often become mired in the contemplation of obstacles. As a way to move forward, we suggest building upon pre-existing strengths by adopting the model of “intellectual communities” put forward by Walker et al. They describe four qualities necessary for strong “intellectual communities”: shared purpose; diverse and multigenerational community; flexible and forgiving community; and respectful and generous community. Although these qualities are often embedded within our libraries, they need to be made a conscious part of our research environment through reflection and conversation. Working toward strong research cultures requires that we focus less on obstacles and more on reflective and productive activities that build on our strengths.

  11. Plant-fed versus chemicals-fed rhizobacteria of Lucerne: Plant-only teabags culture media not only increase culturability of rhizobacteria but also recover a previously uncultured Lysobacter sp., Novosphingobium sp. and Pedobacter sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazi, Nabil A; Sarhan, Mohamed S; Fayez, Mohamed; Patz, Sascha; Murphy, Brian R; Ruppel, Silke

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to axenically culture the previously uncultivable populations of the rhizobacteria of Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.), we propose plant-only teabags culture media to mimic the nutritional matrix available in the rhizosphere. Here, we show that culture media prepared from Lucerne powder teabags substantially increased the cultivability of Lucerne rhizobacteria compared with a standard nutrient agar, where we found that the cultivable populations significantly increased by up to 60% of the total bacterial numbers as estimated by Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Cluster analysis of 16S rDNA Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of cultivable Colony-Forming Units (CFUs) revealed a more distinct composition and separation of bacterial populations recovered on the plant-only teabags culture media than those developed on a standard nutrient agar. Further, the new plant medium gave preference to the micro-symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti, and succeeded in isolating a number of not-yet-cultured bacteria, most closely matched to Novosphingobium sp., Lysobacter sp. and Pedobacter sp. The present study may encourage other researchers to consider moving from the well-established standard culture media to the challenging new plant-only culture media. Such a move may reveal previously hidden members of rhizobacteria, and help to further explore their potential environmental impacts.

  12. Plant-fed versus chemicals-fed rhizobacteria of Lucerne: Plant-only teabags culture media not only increase culturability of rhizobacteria but also recover a previously uncultured Lysobacter sp., Novosphingobium sp. and Pedobacter sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazi, Nabil A.; Sarhan, Mohamed S.; Fayez, Mohamed; Patz, Sascha; Murphy, Brian R.; Ruppel, Silke

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to axenically culture the previously uncultivable populations of the rhizobacteria of Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.), we propose plant-only teabags culture media to mimic the nutritional matrix available in the rhizosphere. Here, we show that culture media prepared from Lucerne powder teabags substantially increased the cultivability of Lucerne rhizobacteria compared with a standard nutrient agar, where we found that the cultivable populations significantly increased by up to 60% of the total bacterial numbers as estimated by Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Cluster analysis of 16S rDNA Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of cultivable Colony-Forming Units (CFUs) revealed a more distinct composition and separation of bacterial populations recovered on the plant-only teabags culture media than those developed on a standard nutrient agar. Further, the new plant medium gave preference to the micro-symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti, and succeeded in isolating a number of not-yet-cultured bacteria, most closely matched to Novosphingobium sp., Lysobacter sp. and Pedobacter sp. The present study may encourage other researchers to consider moving from the well-established standard culture media to the challenging new plant-only culture media. Such a move may reveal previously hidden members of rhizobacteria, and help to further explore their potential environmental impacts. PMID:28686606

  13. Plant-fed versus chemicals-fed rhizobacteria of Lucerne: Plant-only teabags culture media not only increase culturability of rhizobacteria but also recover a previously uncultured Lysobacter sp., Novosphingobium sp. and Pedobacter sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil A Hegazi

    Full Text Available In an effort to axenically culture the previously uncultivable populations of the rhizobacteria of Lucerne (Medicago sativa L., we propose plant-only teabags culture media to mimic the nutritional matrix available in the rhizosphere. Here, we show that culture media prepared from Lucerne powder teabags substantially increased the cultivability of Lucerne rhizobacteria compared with a standard nutrient agar, where we found that the cultivable populations significantly increased by up to 60% of the total bacterial numbers as estimated by Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR. Cluster analysis of 16S rDNA Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE of cultivable Colony-Forming Units (CFUs revealed a more distinct composition and separation of bacterial populations recovered on the plant-only teabags culture media than those developed on a standard nutrient agar. Further, the new plant medium gave preference to the micro-symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti, and succeeded in isolating a number of not-yet-cultured bacteria, most closely matched to Novosphingobium sp., Lysobacter sp. and Pedobacter sp. The present study may encourage other researchers to consider moving from the well-established standard culture media to the challenging new plant-only culture media. Such a move may reveal previously hidden members of rhizobacteria, and help to further explore their potential environmental impacts.

  14. Efficient Culture Adaptation of Hepatitis C Virus Recombinants with Genotype-Specific Core-NS2 by Using Previously Identified Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Troels Kasper Høyer; Gottwein, Judith M; Carlsen, Thomas H R

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important cause of chronic liver disease, and interferon-based therapy cures only 40 to 80% of patients, depending on HCV genotype. Research was accelerated by genotype 2a (strain JFH1) infectious cell culture systems. We previously developed viable JFH1-based...... mutations did not adapt to culture. Universal adaptive effects of mutations in NS3 (Q1247L, I1312V, K1398Q, R1408W, and Q1496L) and NS5A (V2418L) were investigated for JFH1-based genotype 1 to 5 core-NS2 recombinants; several mutations conferred adaptation to H77C (1a), J4 (1b), S52 (3a), and SA13 (5a......-specific patterns in HCV disease and control....

  15. Students’ Critical Mathematical Thinking Skills and Character:Experiments for Junior High School Students through Realistic Mathematics Education Culture-Based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson L. Palinussa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a quasi-experimental with pre-test-post-test design and control group that aims to assess students’ critical mathematical thinking skills and character through realistic mathematics education (RME culture-based. Subjects of this study were 106 junior high school students from two low and medium schools level in Ambon. The instruments of the study are: students’ early math skills test, critical thinking skills mathematical test and perception scale of students’character. Data was analyzed by using t-test and Anova. The study found that: 1 Achievements and enhancement of students’ critical mathematical thinking skills who were treated with by realistic mathematics education is better then students’ skills were treated by conventional mathematics education. The differences are considered to: a overall students, b the level of early math skills, and c schools’ level; 2 Quality of students’ character who were treated by realistic mathematics education is better then students’ character who were treated by conventional mathematics education The differences are considered to: a overall students, b the level of early math skills, and c schools’ level  Keywords: Critical Thinking, Students’ Character, Realistic Mathematics Education Culture-Based DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.1.566.75-94

  16. Culture, Transnational Education and Thinking: Case Studies in Global Schooling. Routledge Research in International and Comparative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casinader, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    The notion of thinking skills as a key component of a 21st century school education is now firmly entrenched in educational policy and curriculum frameworks in many parts of the world. However, there has been relatively little questioning of the manner in which educational globalisation has facilitated this diffusion of thinking skills, curriculum…

  17. Cross cultural usability testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Goyal, Shivam

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study in Denmark of cross cultural effects on Think Aloud usability testing. We provide an overview of previous research on cross cultural usability evaluation with a special focus on the relationship between the evaluator and the test user...

  18. Investigating engagement, thinking, and learning among culturally diverse, urban sixth graders experiencing an inquiry-based science curriculum, contextualized in the local environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Sybil Schantz

    This mixed-methods study combined pragmatism, sociocultural perspectives, and systems thinking concepts to investigate students' engagement, thinking, and learning in science in an urban, K-8 arts, science, and technology magnet school. A grant-funded school-university partnership supported the implementation of an inquiry-based science curriculum, contextualized in the local environment through field experiences. The researcher worked as co-teacher of 3 sixth-grade science classes and was deeply involved in the daily routines of the school. The purposes of the study were to build a deeper understanding of the complex interactions that take place in an urban science classroom, including challenges related to implementing culturally-relevant instruction; and to offer insight into the role educational systems play in supporting teaching and learning. The central hypothesis was that connecting learning to meaningful experiences in the local environment can provide culturally accessible points of engagement from which to build science learning. Descriptive measures provided an assessment of students' engagement in science activities, as well as their levels of thinking and learning throughout the school year. Combined with analyses of students' work files and focus group responses, these findings provided strong evidence of engagement attributable to the inquiry-based curriculum. In some instances, degree of engagement was found to be affected by student "reluctance" and "resistance," terms defined but needing further examination. A confounding result showed marked increases in thinking levels coupled with stasis or decrease in learning. Congruent with past studies, data indicated the presence of tension between the diverse cultures of students and the mainstream cultures of school and science. Findings were synthesized with existing literature to generate the study's principal product, a grounded theory model representing the complex, interacting factors involved in

  19. Genetic Research Methodology Meets Early Childhood Science Education Research: A Cultural-Historical Study of Child’s Scientific Thinking Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fragkiadaki G.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study reported in this paper aims to structure a cultural-historical understanding on how early childhood children experience science and how they develop scientific thinking as they interact with the social, cultural and material world. Moving beyond the cognitive dimensions of learning by interrelating different aspects of the process of children’s scientific thinking development constitutes a research prior- ity for the study. From a wide range of collected data, in the present article one qualitative empirical case study is presented. The detailed single example that is analyzed refers to a kindergarten female student, aged 5.2 years old, from an urban area of Greece. A developmental research methodology as specified from the requirements of cultural-historical theory framework is used. Following four of the main principles of the experimental genetic method, this study creates a fecund ground for a cultural-historical exploration and interpretation of the very processes of the child’s development. The collection of the data was achieved through expanded, open-type conversations conducted at three concrete phases between the case study child, two of her peers and the educator. Drawing upon the system of theoretical concepts of cultural- historical theory the analysis is mainly based on the concept of perezhivanie as analytical tool as well as the concept of the developmental trajectories. The concept of the conceptualization of a precursor model as a theoretical tool that derives from the field of Science Education is also used. The analysis gives insights into how a certain social situation between children and educators in kindergarten settings becomes the unique social situation of a child’s development. Using as a base the dialectic perspective that Vygotsky posed in the analysis of human psyche, the study in this paper offers a creative insight in order to elaborate on a broad and dynamic understanding of the child

  20. Culture Negative Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis Resulting in Hydrocephalus and Severe Neurological Sequelae in a Previously Healthy Immunocompetent Man with Penicillin Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Gaini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 74-year-old Caucasian man with penicillin allergy was admitted with evolving headache, confusion, fever, and neck stiffness. Treatment for bacterial meningitis with dexamethasone and monotherapy ceftriaxone was started. The cerebrospinal fluid showed negative microscopy for bacteria, no bacterial growth, and negative polymerase chain reaction for bacterial DNA. The patient developed hydrocephalus on a second CT scan of the brain on the 5th day of admission. An external ventricular catheter was inserted and Listeria monocytogenes grew in the cerebrospinal fluid from the catheter. The patient had severe neurological sequelae. This case report emphasises the importance of covering empirically for Listeria monocytogenes in all patients with penicillin allergy with suspected bacterial meningitis. The case also shows that it is possible to have significant infection and inflammation even with negative microscopy, negative cultures, and negative broad range polymerase chain reaction in cases of Listeria meningitis. Follow-up spinal taps can be necessary to detect the presence of Listeria monocytogenes.

  1. Is the Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) taken up by plants from soils previously planted with Bt corn and by carrot from hydroponic culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icoz, I; Andow, D; Zwahlen, C; Stotzky, G

    2009-07-01

    The uptake of the insecticidal Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) by various crops from soils on which Bt corn had previously grown was determined. In 2005, the Cry1Ab protein was detected by Western blot in tissues (leaves plus stems) of basil, carrot, kale, lettuce, okra, parsnip, radish, snap bean, and soybean but not in tissues of beet and spinach and was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to be 0.05 +/- 0.003 ng g(-1) of fresh plant tissue in basil, 0.02 +/- 0.014 ng g(-1) in okra, and 0.34 +/- 0.176 ng g(-1) in snap bean. However, the protein was not detected by ELISA in carrot, kale, lettuce, parsnip, radish, and soybean or in the soils by Western blot. In 2006, the Cry1Ab protein was detected by Western blot in tissues of basil, carrot, kale, radish, snap bean, and soybean from soils on which Bt corn had been grown the previous year and was estimated by ELISA to be 0.02 +/- 0.014 ng g(-1) of fresh plant tissue in basil, 0.19 +/- 0.060 ng g(-1) in carrot, 0.05 +/- 0.018 ng g(-1) in kale, 0.04 +/- 0.022 ng g(-1) in radish, 0.53 +/- 0.170 ng g(-1) in snap bean, and 0.15 +/- 0.071 ng g(-1) in soybean. The Cry1Ab protein was also detected by Western blot in tissues of basil, carrot, kale, radish, and snap bean but not of soybean grown in soil on which Bt corn had not been grown since 2002; the concentration was estimated by ELISA to be 0.03 +/- 0.021 ng g(-1) in basil, 0.02 +/- 0.008 ng g(-1) in carrot, 0.04 +/- 0.017 ng g(-1) in kale, 0.02 +/- 0.012 ng g(-1) in radish, 0.05 +/- 0.004 ng g(-1) in snap bean, and 0.09 +/- 0.015 ng g(-1) in soybean. The protein was detected by Western blot in 2006 in most soils on which Bt corn had or had not been grown since 2002. The Cry1Ab protein was detected by Western blot in leaves plus stems and in roots of carrot after 56 days of growth in sterile hydroponic culture to which purified Cry1Ab protein had been added and was estimated by ELISA to be 0.08 +/- 0.021 and 0.60 +/- 0.148 ng g(-1) of

  2. Cultivating Engineering Ethics and Critical Thinking: A Systematic and Cross-Cultural Education Approach Using Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pei-Fen; Wang, Dau-Chung

    2011-01-01

    In May 2008, the worst earthquake in more than three decades struck southwest China, killing more than 80,000 people. The complexity of this earthquake makes it an ideal case study to clarify the intertwined issues of ethics in engineering and to help cultivate critical thinking skills. This paper first explores the need to encourage engineering…

  3. A systematic review of critical thinking in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2013-03-01

    This review aimed to explore how critical thinking is perceived in previous studies of nursing education, and analyse the obstacles and strategies in teaching and learning critical thinking mentioned in these studies. Systematic review. This review was based on the following five databases: The British Nursing Index, Ovid Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Scopus. After the screening process and evaluation through using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool, 17 studies were identified that met the inclusion and quality criteria. The studies were read through several times and analysed through thematic synthesis. A total of three themes were developed. The first theme, components for critical thinkers, suggests the abilities and attitudes that critical thinkers should have. The other two themes, influential factors of critical thinking in nursing education, and strategies to promote critical thinking, describe the obstacles and strategies in teaching and learning critical thinking. The 17 studies illustrated that the definition and concept of critical thinking may change from time to time, and hence there is a need to clarify educators' perspective towards critical thinking. There is also a need to evaluate the efficacy of the new strategies mentioned in several selected studies, such as art-based, questioning, cross-cultural nursing experience, and preceptorship. With a better understanding of critical thinking in nursing education, educators and nursing faculty are able to develop better strategies in enhancing critical thinking development in nursing students, in turn preparing them for future clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  5. Cross cultural usability testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Goyal, Shivam

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study in Denmark of cross cultural effects on Think Aloud usability testing. We provide an overview of previous research on cross cultural usability evaluation with a special focus on the relationship between the evaluator and the test user....... This relation was studied in an experiment with usability testing of a localized clipart application in which eight participants from Denmark and India formed pairs of evaluator-test user. The test users were asked to think aloud and the evaluators' role were to facilitate the test users thinking aloud...... and hereby identify usability problems with the clipart application. Data on the evaluators' and test users' behaviour were recorded and analyzed by coding and summarizing statistics on these behavioural events. The results show that Think Aloud Usability Test of a localized application is most effectively...

  6. "Think Like a Man": How Sexual Cultural Scripting and Masculinity Influence Changes in Men's Use of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Tiara C; Khondkaryan, Enna; Callands, Tamora; Kershaw, Trace

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to (a) explore the relationship between sexual cultural scripting and traditional masculine norms on changes in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, and (b) examine traditional masculine norms as an effect modifier among young heterosexual men. This study is a secondary data analysis of a prospective cohort study of 119 young heterosexual men who were followed for 6 months. The adjusted logistic regression results revealed that sexual cultural scripting norms were associated with an increased odds of emotional IPV perpetration and traditional masculine norms were associated with an increased odds of physical IPV perpetration in the past 6 months. There were no significant interaction effects between sexual cultural scripting and traditional masculine norms on IPV perpetration. These findings suggest that socially constructed norms and beliefs surrounding masculinity, femininity, and how women and men interact in sexual relationships are important constructs for understanding the etiology of young men's use of violence against a female partner. While primary IPV interventions targeting young men do address masculinity, sexual cultural scripting is an additional concept that should also be addressed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  7. Culture and Imperialism’s implications for thinking about the lives and identities of contemporary post-imperial Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    Edward Said has been perhaps the most important influence on my own work in postcolonial studies. Three things have struck me in my deliberations over how to engage with Culture and Imperialism twenty years after it was first published; a) what new scholarship has brought new light on the thematic...

  8. Continued development of recursive thinking in adolescence : Longitudinal analyses with a revised recursive thinking test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, E.; de Rooij, M.; Sumter, S.R.; Westenberg, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study adds to the emerging literature on the development of social cognition in adolescence by investigating the development of recursive thinking (i.e., thinking about thinking). Previous studies have indicated that the development of recursive thinking is not completed during

  9. Culture Negative Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis Resulting in Hydrocephalus and Severe Neurological Sequelae in a Previously Healthy Immunocompetent Man with Penicillin Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaini, Shahin; Karlsen, Gunn Hege; Nandy, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    A previously healthy 74-year-old Caucasian man with penicillin allergy was admitted with evolving headache, confusion, fever, and neck stiffness. Treatment for bacterial meningitis with dexamethasone and monotherapy ceftriaxone was started. The cerebrospinal fluid showed negative microscopy...... the catheter. The patient had severe neurological sequelae. This case report emphasises the importance of covering empirically for Listeria monocytogenes in all patients with penicillin allergy with suspected bacterial meningitis. The case also shows that it is possible to have significant infection...... for bacteria, no bacterial growth, and negative polymerase chain reaction for bacterial DNA. The patient developed hydrocephalus on a second CT scan of the brain on the 5th day of admission. An external ventricular catheter was inserted and Listeria monocytogenes grew in the cerebrospinal fluid from...

  10. Development of a rapid lateral flow immunoassay test for detection of exosomes previously enriched from cell culture medium and body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Rodríguez, Myriam; López-Cobo, Sheila; Reyburn, Hugh T; Costa-García, Agustín; López-Martín, Soraya; Yáñez-Mó, María; Cernuda-Morollón, Eva; Paschen, Annette; Valés-Gómez, Mar; Blanco-López, Maria Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are cell-secreted nanovesicles (40-200 nm) that represent a rich source of novel biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of certain diseases. Despite the increasingly recognized relevance of these vesicles as biomarkers, their detection has been limited due in part to current technical challenges in the rapid isolation and analysis of exosomes. The complexity of the development of analytical platforms relies on the heterogeneous composition of the exosome membrane. One of the most attractive tests is the inmunochromatographic strips, which allow rapid detection by unskilled operators. We have successfully developed a novel lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for the detection of exosomes based on the use of tetraspanins as targets. We have applied this platform for the detection of exosomes purified from different sources: cell culture supernatants, human plasma and urine. As proof of concept, we explored the analytical potential of this LFIA platform to accurately quantify exosomes purified from a human metastatic melanoma cell line. The one-step assay can be completed in 15 min, with a limit of detection of 8.54×10(5) exosomes/µL when a blend of anti-CD9 and anti-CD81 were selected as capture antibodies and anti-CD63 labelled with gold nanoparticles as detection antibody. Based on our results, this platform could be well suited to be used as a rapid exosome quantification tool, with promising diagnostic applications, bearing in mind that the detection of exosomes from different sources may require adaptation of the analytical settings to their specific composition.

  11. Development of a rapid lateral flow immunoassay test for detection of exosomes previously enriched from cell culture medium and body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Oliveira-Rodríguez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are cell-secreted nanovesicles (40–200 nm that represent a rich source of novel biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of certain diseases. Despite the increasingly recognized relevance of these vesicles as biomarkers, their detection has been limited due in part to current technical challenges in the rapid isolation and analysis of exosomes. The complexity of the development of analytical platforms relies on the heterogeneous composition of the exosome membrane. One of the most attractive tests is the inmunochromatographic strips, which allow rapid detection by unskilled operators. We have successfully developed a novel lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA for the detection of exosomes based on the use of tetraspanins as targets. We have applied this platform for the detection of exosomes purified from different sources: cell culture supernatants, human plasma and urine. As proof of concept, we explored the analytical potential of this LFIA platform to accurately quantify exosomes purified from a human metastatic melanoma cell line. The one-step assay can be completed in 15 min, with a limit of detection of 8.54×105 exosomes/µL when a blend of anti-CD9 and anti-CD81 were selected as capture antibodies and anti-CD63 labelled with gold nanoparticles as detection antibody. Based on our results, this platform could be well suited to be used as a rapid exosome quantification tool, with promising diagnostic applications, bearing in mind that the detection of exosomes from different sources may require adaptation of the analytical settings to their specific composition.

  12. The role of monumental trees for the preservation of saproxylic biodiversity: re-thinking their management in cultural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Zapponi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ancient trees present structural and functional characteristics fundamental for sustaining complex and unique assemblages of species. They are a resource globally threatened by both intensive land uses and lack of recruitment. Their disappearance would involve not only the loss of majestic organisms with high intrinsic value, but may also result in the disappearance of rare and endangered species. Italy is currently implementing a new list of noteworthy ancient trees (i.e. monumental trees and the preliminary results of this new inventory have been analysed as a case study of a national initiative. The provisional list included 950 complete records, corresponding to 65 genera and 118 species. The most abundant species was Quercus pubescens Willd while the most common genera were Quercus, Larix, Cedrus, Fagus and Platanus. Age and size were the most used criteria for inclusion of trees in the census. The fundamental novelty of the new inventory is that it is based on a set of well-defined criteria of monumentality and that it clearly recognised the ecological value of ancient trees. Preserving a tree for its ecological role requires a profound cultural shift. The value of microhabitats, structures that have historically been considered defects, should be recognised and managed accordingly. Ancient trees are often part of disappearing cultural landscapes: to preserve the richness and diversity of these habitats, new policies and regulations are needed. The preservation of landscapes, where there is still a high density of ancient trees, should be a priority for all European countries in order to conserve their unique associated fauna and for their irreplaceable functional value for biodiversity conservation.

  13. Investigating the Synergy of Critical Thinking and Creative Thinking in the Course of Integrated Activity in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yulin; Li, Bei-Di; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chiu, Fa-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The relationship lying between critical thinking and creative thinking is opposite or complementary, results of previous relevant researches have not yet concluded. However, most of researches put the effort to compare the respective effect of the thinking methods, either the teaching of creative thinking or that of critical thinking. Less of them…

  14. COMPUTATIONAL THINKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy K. Khenner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the research is to draw attention of the educational community to the phenomenon of computational thinking which actively discussed in the last decade in the foreign scientific and educational literature, to substantiate of its importance, practical utility and the right on affirmation in Russian education.Methods. The research is based on the analysis of foreign studies of the phenomenon of computational thinking and the ways of its formation in the process of education; on comparing the notion of «computational thinking» with related concepts used in the Russian scientific and pedagogical literature.Results. The concept «computational thinking» is analyzed from the point of view of intuitive understanding and scientific and applied aspects. It is shown as computational thinking has evolved in the process of development of computers hardware and software. The practice-oriented interpretation of computational thinking which dominant among educators is described along with some ways of its formation. It is shown that computational thinking is a metasubject result of general education as well as its tool. From the point of view of the author, purposeful development of computational thinking should be one of the tasks of the Russian education.Scientific novelty. The author gives a theoretical justification of the role of computational thinking schemes as metasubject results of learning. The dynamics of the development of this concept is described. This process is connected with the evolution of computer and information technologies as well as increase of number of the tasks for effective solutions of which computational thinking is required. Author substantiated the affirmation that including «computational thinking » in the set of pedagogical concepts which are used in the national education system fills an existing gap.Practical significance. New metasubject result of education associated with

  15. Cultivating Critical-Thinking Dispositions throughout the Business Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Janel; Spataro, Sandra E.

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking is an essential component of managerial literacy, yet business school graduates struggle to apply critical-thinking skills at work to the level that employers desire. This article argues for a dispositional approach to teaching critical thinking, rooted in cultivating a critical-thinking culture. We suggest a two-pronged approach…

  16. Ecological thinking: Four qualities

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, James G.

    2010-01-01

    The article proposes a journey on the ecological premises or attributes of ecological thinking. Identifies its four main qualities and probes to demonstrate how at present there is some empirical evidence upon which such premises may be anchored. The first is focused on the interdependencies of persons and social environments, the second is that research methodologies may be congruent with the culture of place, the third that to the community psychologist is required t...

  17. Mind, Thinking and Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Janani Harish

    2016-01-01

    Global civilization is the product of diverse cultures, each contributing a unique perspective arising from the development of different mental faculties and powers of mind. The momentous achievements of modern science are the result of the cumulative development of mind’s capacity for analytic thinking, mathematical rendering and experimental validation. The near-exclusive preoccupation with analysis, universal laws, mechanism, materialism, and objective experience over the past two centurie...

  18. Analysis of Critical Thinking Skills in an International, Cross-Institutional Group of Engineering Master's Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramhall, Michael D.; Gray, Linda; Corker, Chris; Garnett, Kenisha; Hill, Richard

    2012-01-01

    UK educators often express concerns that students from some cultural backgrounds frequently seem unwilling or are unable to apply critical thinking skills within their academic programmes. This may be due not to a lack of ability or confidence but rather to the way they have been previously taught and assessed. Often, the design of UK courses…

  19. Thinking big

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Harry

    2008-02-01

    Physicists are often quick to discount social research based on qualitative techniques such as ethnography and "deep case studies" - where a researcher draws conclusions about a community based on immersion in the field - thinking that only quantitative research backed up by statistical analysis is sound. The balance is not so clear, however.

  20. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...... with the human-centered theory of communication advocated by integrationism....

  1. Thinking recursively

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Eric S

    1986-01-01

    Concentrating on the practical value of recursion, this text, the first of its kind, is essential to computer science students' education. In this text, students will learn the concept and programming applications of recursive thinking. This will ultimately prepare students for advanced topics in computer science such as compiler construction, formal language theory, and the mathematical foundations of computer science.

  2. Thinking Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    This article draws heavily on the author's critical autobiography: "Eileen Adams: Agent of Change." It presents evidence of the value of drawing as a medium for learning, particularly in art and design, and argues that drawing is a useful educational tool. The premise is that drawing makes you think. This article explains various…

  3. Original Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.

  4. think Piece

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    perhaps gay men do in fact need special attention given their higher rates of infection? Many activists appear to ... agenda is to do with maintaining the current economic order and its inequalities. I think that both sides feel that they need ..... Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. London: Allen Lane. Foucault, M.

  5. Forest thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corona P

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This note emphasizes the importance of appreciating the conceptual paths and theories that have historically characterized forestry development. A recent monograph on the history of forest thinking presents the theoretical evolution of silvicultural science, with particular attention to epistemological and ethical implications: the main lines of research progress are stressed by analysing the various schools of thought in this field. The reading of the monograph strengthens the evidence that always behind the facts, there are the ideas.

  6. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  7. Grammatically Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed; Bridges, Alan; Chase, Scott Curland

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a teaching experience conducted and carried out as part of the coursework of first year students of architecture at Strathclyde University. The workshop is the Third of three workshops planned to take place during the course of the first year studio, aimed at introducing new ...... ways of thinking and introducing students to a new pattern of architectural education. The experiment was planned under the theme of “Evaluation” during the Final stage. A grammatical approach was chosen to deliver the methodology in the design studio, based on shape grammars....

  8. Developing Students' Futures Thinking in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alister; Buntting, Cathy; Hipkins, Rose; McKim, Anne; Conner, Lindsey; Saunders, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Futures thinking involves a structured exploration into how society and its physical and cultural environment could be shaped in the future. In science education, an exploration of socio-scientific issues offers significant scope for including such futures thinking. Arguments for doing so include increasing student engagement, developing students'…

  9. Visual Guidebooks: Documenting a Personal Thinking Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shambaugh, Neal; Beacham, Cindy

    2017-01-01

    A personal thinking language consists of verbal and visual means to transform ideas to action in social and work settings. This verbal and visual interaction of images and language is influenced by one's personal history, cultural expectations and professional practices. The article first compares a personal thinking language to other languages…

  10. Detection of previously unknown fumonisin P analogue mycotoxins in a Fusarium verticillioides culture by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization time-of-flight and ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartók, Tibor; Tölgyesi, László; Szécsi, Árpád; Mesterházy, Ákos; Bartók, Mihály; Gyimes, Ernő; Véha, Antal

    2014-07-01

    Five previously unknown fumonisin mycotoxins (iso-FP1, iso-FP(2,3a), iso-FP(2,3b), FP4 and iso-FP4) and three previously described FP analogues (FP(1-3)) were detected in a solid rice culture inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides. The fumonisins were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOFMS) and ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS). The FP isomers were separated by using a flat gradient on a special, high-coverage C18, narrow-bore HPLC column (YMC-Pack J'sphere ODS H80), which was suggested for the separation of structural isomers. The verified structures of the FP(1-3) mycotoxins, the relative retention times (by HPLC-ESI-TOFMS and ITMS), the exact masses of the molecular ions (by TOFMS) and the masses of the product ions, including the hydrocarbon backbones (by ITMS) of the new compounds, strongly suggested their structures. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. New thinking: the evolution of human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2012-08-05

    Humans are animals that specialize in thinking and knowing, and our extraordinary cognitive abilities have transformed every aspect of our lives. In contrast to our chimpanzee cousins and Stone Age ancestors, we are complex political, economic, scientific and artistic creatures, living in a vast range of habitats, many of which are our own creation. Research on the evolution of human cognition asks what types of thinking make us such peculiar animals, and how they have been generated by evolutionary processes. New research in this field looks deeper into the evolutionary history of human cognition, and adopts a more multi-disciplinary approach than earlier 'Evolutionary Psychology'. It is informed by comparisons between humans and a range of primate and non-primate species, and integrates findings from anthropology, archaeology, economics, evolutionary biology, neuroscience, philosophy and psychology. Using these methods, recent research reveals profound commonalities, as well striking differences, between human and non-human minds, and suggests that the evolution of human cognition has been much more gradual and incremental than previously assumed. It accords crucial roles to cultural evolution, techno-social co-evolution and gene-culture co-evolution. These have produced domain-general developmental processes with extraordinary power-power that makes human cognition, and human lives, unique.

  12. Mind, Thinking and Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Harish

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global civilization is the product of diverse cultures, each contributing a unique perspective arising from the development of different mental faculties and powers of mind. The momentous achievements of modern science are the result of the cumulative development of mind’s capacity for analytic thinking, mathematical rendering and experimental validation. The near-exclusive preoccupation with analysis, universal laws, mechanism, materialism, and objective experience over the past two centuries has shaped the world we live in today, accounting both for its accomplishments and its insoluble problems. Today humanity confronts complex challenges that defy solution by piecemeal analysis, unidimensional theories, and fragmented strategies. Poverty, unemployment, economic crisis, fundamentalism, violence, climate change, war, refugees, reflect the limitations and blindspots that have resulted from a partial, one-sided application of the diverse capacities of the human mind. Human monocultures suffer from all the limitations as their biological counterparts. There is urgent need to revive the legitimacy of synthetic, organic and integrated modes of thinking, to restore the credibility of subjective self-experience in science, to reaffirm the place of symbol, analogy and metaphor as valid ways of knowing and communication in education, to recognize the unique role of the individual in social processes, to recognize the central role of insight and intuition in science as in art. This article examines themes presented at the WAAS-WUC course on Mind, Thinking and Creativity, conducted at Dubrovnik in April 2016.

  13. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  14. Thinking Small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Priscilla

    2001-01-01

    Highlights an award-winning school superintendent whose leadership and vision helped create a system of high-performing schools. He established a culture that embraces respect, collaboration, and commitment to lifelong learning for students and staff. Student test scores are high, and the achievement gap between middle- and lower-income students…

  15. GAME AS EXPRESSION OF CULTURE BODY MOTION IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION SCHOOL: the three dimensions of content and the development of critical thinking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Teixeira Maldonado

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The physical education (PE contributes, through their content and working techniques, with the integral development of the child. This paper describes an educational experiment carried out with students from the 7th grade of elementary school to a public school of the east side of São Paulo where the games were themed on the three dimensions of content in view of the proposed political pedagogical project of the school. Students were encouraged to reflect, analyze and discuss the games experienced and his lines showed the presence of critical thinking on the subject.

  16. Thinking Design and Pedagogy: An Examination of Five Canadian Post-Secondary Courses in Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donar, Ann

    2011-01-01

    At the tertiary level today, courses on design thinking can be found in diverse programs in and beyond the realm of traditional design disciplines. Across Canada, design thinking courses feature in communication, culture and information technology, and business and engineering. This paper reports findings from a study that investigated the…

  17. Design thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tim

    2008-06-01

    In the past, design has most often occurred fairly far downstream in the development process and has focused on making new products aesthetically attractive or enhancing brand perception through smart, evocative advertising. Today, as innovation's terrain expands to encompass human-centered processes and services as well as products, companies are asking designers to create ideas rather than to simply dress them up. Brown, the CEO and president of the innovation and design firm IDEO, is a leading proponent of design thinking--a method of meeting people's needs and desires in a technologically feasible and strategically viable way. In this article he offers several intriguing examples of the discipline at work. One involves a collaboration between frontline employees from health care provider Kaiser Permanente and Brown's firm to reengineer nursing-staff shift changes at four Kaiser hospitals. Close observation of actual shift changes, combined with brainstorming and rapid prototyping, produced new procedures and software that radically streamlined information exchange between shifts. The result was more time for nursing, better-informed patient care, and a happier nursing staff. Another involves the Japanese bicycle components manufacturer Shimano, which worked with IDEO to learn why 90% of American adults don't ride bikes. The interdisciplinary project team discovered that intimidating retail experiences, the complexity and cost of sophisticated bikes, and the danger of cycling on heavily trafficked roads had overshadowed people's happy memories of childhood biking. So the team created a brand concept--"Coasting"--to describe a whole new category of biking and developed new in-store retailing strategies, a public relations campaign to identify safe places to cycle, and a reference design to inspire designers at the companies that went on to manufacture Coasting bikes.

  18. Thinking-in-Concert

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Aislinn

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I examine the concept of thinking in Hannah Arendt's writings. Arendt's interest in the experience of thinking allowed her to develop a concept of thinking that is distinct from other forms of mental activity such as cognition and problem solving. For her, thinking is an unending, unpredictable and destructive activity without fixed…

  19. Cultural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur F. LaPage

    1971-01-01

    A critical look at outdoor recreation research and some underlying premises. The author focuses on the concept of culture as communication and how it influences our perception of problems and our search for solutions. Both outdoor recreation and science are viewed as subcultures that have their own bodies of mythology, making recreation problems more difficult to...

  20. Fostering Critical Thinking Practices at Primary Science Classrooms in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Kamal Prasad

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the socio-cultural activities that have direct and indirect impacts on critical thinking practices in primary science classrooms and what kinds of teachers' activities help to foster the development of critical thinking practices in children. Meanwhile, the constructivist and the socio-cultural theoretical dimensions have…

  1. Primary Teachers' Algebraic Thinking: Example from Lesson Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported on primary children's algebraic thinking and generalising in a range of problem settings but there is little evidence of primary teachers' knowledge of algebraic thinking. In this paper the development in algebraic thinking of one primary teacher who taught a research lesson in a Japanese Lesson Study project…

  2. Rational Thinking and Reasonable Thinking in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaeva E. A.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle’s principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc. can be covered only by reasonable thinking.

  3. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  4. Multilingual Education in Morocco and the Question of Cultural Identity: Toward Implementing a Critical Thinking Approach in High School English Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elboubekri, Abdellah

    2013-01-01

    Intercultural pedagogies theorists and cultural studies scholars have no controversies over the fact that language is the appropriate realm for the formation, contestation and negotiation of identities. As a matter of fact, language teaching and learning are not only involved with linguistic structures and lexical components. They are more engaged…

  5. Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    The emergence of more think tanks in recent decades has spawned some interest in how they function and impact policy-making in the European Union and its member states. So far however few empirical studies of think tanks have been carried out and think tanks have mainly been studied in their nati...... and why think tank types converge and diverge across countries and levels of governance, to what extent they are embedded in national contexts and how studies of think tanks can proceed despite methodological problems and disagreement on how to define think tanks....

  6. Psychoticism and thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, E; Claridge, G

    1977-09-01

    In view of evidence linking psychosis with high creative ability, an attempt was made to evaluate the relationship between thinking abilities and personality traits. Tests of divergent thinking and convergent thinking were administered, along with the Eysencks' Personality Questionnaire, to 100 university students. The hypothesis that 'psychoticism' is related to divergent thinking was strongly confirmed. The hypothesis that psychoticism would be related inversely to speed in a convergent-thinking task was rejected. No evidence was found for any relationship between extraversion--introversion or neuroticism--stability and either thinking style.

  7. Visual Thinking Strategies = Creative and Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Mary; Cutler, Kay; Fiedler, Dave; Weier, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) into the Camelot Intermediate School curriculum in Brookings, South Dakota, has fostered the development of creative and critical thinking skills in 4th- and 5th-grade students. Making meaning together by observing carefully, deciphering patterns, speculating, clarifying, supporting opinions, and…

  8. Think Bubbles and Socrates: Teaching Critical Thinking to Millennials in Public Relations Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallent, Rebecca J.; Barnes, Justin J.

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking skills are crucial in the public relations profession, but teaching these skills to the Millennial Generation is vastly different from previous generations. How can a professor get past No Child Left Behind's dependence on test review guides and "everybody wins" in getting students to think for themselves? Using the…

  9. Think tanks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach-Ørsten, Mark; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard

    2016-01-01

    outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re......Though think tanks have a long history internationally, they have especially in recent years come to play an increasingly important role in both policy-formulation and public debate. In this article, we analyse the growing presence of think tanks in a Danish context during the 2000s and the first...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...

  10. Linguistic Relativity and Cultural Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhifang, Zhu

    2002-01-01

    A culture is usually with the bias of universalization. Each culture has its ultimate concern, and its answers to the concern make up a worldview. And each culture is inclined to see its worldview as universal. The Christian thinks that Jehovah God is the creator and law-maker of the whole universe; Chinese think that the sage's teaching sheds…

  11. Foundations for Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.

    2015-01-01

    "Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…

  12. Beyond Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bono, Edward

    1986-01-01

    Suggests our society strongly needs thinking that is constructive, generative, and organizing; describes an educational program, CoRT (Cognitive Research Trust), which teaches creative thinking as a skill; and presents reasons for teaching thinking as a specific subject area. (MBR)

  13. Critical Thinking Concept Reconstructed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Mary Kennedy

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the proposition that teaching of critical thinking (CT) should include: (1) identifying and addressing the many environmental variables acting as barriers to our human thinking, i.e., an open system approach, and (2) utilizing the interrelatedness of the CT building blocks, i.e., creative thinking techniques, levels of…

  14. Visual thinking and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C U M

    2008-01-01

    After a consideration of visual thinking in science the role of such thinking in neuroscience is discussed. Three instances are examined - cortical column, retina, impulse - and it is argued that visual thinking is employed, though in different ways, in each. It lies at the core of neurobiological thought.

  15. To Think and Watch the Evil: The Turn of the Screw as Cultural Reference in Television from Dark Shadows to C.S.I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Viola Sborgi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since its first publication, Henry James’s The Turn of the Screw (1898 has always haunted the imagination of artists (Benjamin Britten, Jack Clayton, Amenábar and has been widely used as a source for television narratives (Dan Curtis, US TV version starring Colin Firth, Tim Fywell. In serial productions, James’s story has been the object of extensive quotation and allusion, from the 1960 gothic soap opera Dark Shadows to the C.S.I. episode Turn of the Screw (Season 4, Episode 21. A milestone in literary history, the story now embodies a set of cultural references conveying different, complex meanings, which can only be disclosed in the light of contemporary forms of representing reality. The novella appeals to two apparently opposite tendencies in contemporary television: the morbid display of the real (C.S.I. and the quest for the supernatural (Buffy The Vampire Slayer, among others. A line can be traced from Dark Shadows, the show that pioneered the genre, to contemporary horror soaps about vampires and supernatural phenomena. This paper shows the ways in which James’ sophisticated novella makes its way through popular culture, and how its constant ambiguous, dilemmatic interplay between reality and imagination can be related to the double-sided drive of the contemporary public towards hyper-reality and the supernatural.

  16. Is there really such a thing as "one health"? Thinking about a more than human world from the perspective of cultural anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Meike

    2015-03-01

    Today's era of globalization is characterized by intensified interspecies encounters, growing ecological concerns and the (re-)emergence of infectious diseases, manifesting themselves in the interplay of medical and biological, but also social, cultural and political processes. One health approaches - which combine multidisciplinary efforts to stimulate collaborations between different health professionals such as veterinarians, medical practitioners, biologists, and public health professionals - can be understood as a response to this complex interconnectedness. Integrating a social science perspective might prove beneficial to this endeavor. This essay locates the one health discussion on disease ecologies in a more than human world within recent developments in cultural and medical anthropology that focus on the entanglements between health and a multitude of animals, plants or microbes, as they are characteristic of a globalized modernity. The paper aims to examine the social dimensions of human-animal-disease-interactions, claiming that disease is a biocultural phenomenon and that social factors generally play a crucial role in the emergence, spread and management of (infectious) disease. Consequently, it will be argued that there is a need to rethink our objects of inquiry and any given assumptions of human health, the human body or the constitution of "the global" as such. Incorporating the social sciences into one health approaches can help address topics such as consumption patterns, human-animal behavior or environmental conflicts in a novel way and on a grander scale than ever before. Yet, a greater sensitivity to context may entail some skepticism about the idea of one health - not in spite of the complex entanglements between humans, environments, animals and pathogens, but precisely because of them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Programming Games for Logical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tsalapatas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Analytical thinking is a transversal skill that helps learners synthesize knowledge across subject areas; from mathematics, science, and technology to critical reading, critical examination, and evaluation of lessons. While most would not doubt the importance of analytical capacity in academic settings and its growing demand for the skill in professional environments, school curricula do not comprehensively address its development. As a result, the responsibility for structuring related learning activities falls to teachers. This work examines learning paradigms that can be integrated into mathematics and science school education for developing logical thinking through game-based exercises based on programming. The proposed learning design promotes structured algorithmic mindsets, is based on inclusive universal logic present in all cultures, and promotes constructivism educational approaches encouraging learners to drive knowledge building by composing past and emerging experiences.

  18. The Progressive Development of Early Embodied Algebraic Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Luis

    2014-06-01

    In this article I present some results from a 5-year longitudinal investigation with young students about the genesis of embodied, non-symbolic algebraic thinking and its progressive transition to culturally evolved forms of symbolic thinking. The investigation draws on a cultural-historical theory of teaching and learning—the theory of objectification. Within this theory, thinking is conceived of as a form of reflection and action that is simultaneously material and ideal: It includes inner and outer speech, sensuous forms of imagination and visualisation, gestures, rhythm, and their intertwinement with material culture (symbols, artifacts, etc.). The theory articulates a cultural view of development as an unfolding dialectic process between culturally and historically constituted forms of mathematical knowing and semiotically mediated classroom activity. Looking at the experimental data through these theoretical lenses reveals a developmental path where embodied forms of thinking are sublated or subsumed into more sophisticated ones through the mediation of properly designed classroom activity.

  19. Cultural Usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Qingxin

    2007-01-01

    Culture has already played an important role in the global market. It not only affects products, but also impacts on usability evaluation methods. This project aims to examine in the established thinking aloud usability evaluation method (TA UEM), how does the evaluator build a supportive...

  20. ThinkQuest to help Internet people Think Young!

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Awards are given to young teams of web site designers. This year, the award ceremony was hosted by CERN on 19 March.   Young visitors to CERN are not unusual. But those you may have seen around the Laboratory last Monday were here for a special event - the ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Awards. This is an international program for students from 12 to 19 working in teams, across different schools and cultures, to design exciting, interactive, and educational web sites. At stake in the competition was over $1 million in scholarships and awards. Martine Brunschwig Graf (top left), Geneva State Councillor responsible for public education, at the ThinkQuest award ceremony at CERN where some 70 young finalists were assembled. For this year's Award Ceremony, the 70 finalists were CERN's guests on Monday after spending three days in Geneva. Ranging in age from 14 to 19 years and representing over 20 countries, the finalists were welcomed to the awards day by CERN Director G...

  1. Facilitating Critical and Creative Thinking Dispositions in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz-Tetrault, Alma M.

    The critical and creative thinking dispositions which are intrinsic to children's critical thought may reflect the standards of an adult culture which values verbalized thought over other kinds of human intelligence. Primary critical and creative thinking dispositions are those which help the child explore the world. These are biological processes…

  2. THINKING IN PAREMIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letitia DURNEA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article has the purpose of highlighting possible interrelationships between proverbs and thinking, both connected through education. Thinking, a complex mental process, is materialized in various forms, being influenced by the individual’s personalities, trends and personal interests. For this reason, we consider that proverbs, reaching so extensive areas, can satisfy different tastes, sometimes even contradictory. It seeks to highlight the form in which thinking can be contrived, guided and even provoked by proverbs - short, popular phrases with fixed forms that convey the millennial wisdom of our ancestors. Assigning multiple roles, the paremiology conceals thinking with the help of educators through education.

  3. Developing algebraic thinking through group discussion | Fletcher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with opportunities to develop their thinking in algebra. In the transmission culture of teaching and learning, mathematics is seen as a body of knowledge and procedures to be 'covered'. Learning is seen as an individual activity based on listening and imitating, and teaching is seen as structuring a linear curriculum for the ...

  4. Inhibiting Intuitive Thinking in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael O. J.

    2015-01-01

    The papers in this issue describe recent collaborative research into the role of inhibition of intuitive thinking in mathematics education. This commentary reflects on this research from a mathematics education perspective and draws attention to some of the challenges that arise in collaboration between research fields with different cultures,…

  5. Critical Thinking in the EFL Context of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Fahim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Critical thinking defined as the ability to think about your own thinking with a more analytical perspective, has long been an important side of education history. Recently there has been much attention devoted to this concept, particularly in the domain of language education. The present study is a review of the literature and previous studies done on the issue of critical thinking. In the first section an introduction to the study is presented. In the next section, the definitions of the notion of critical thinking from different scholars are put forth. In the third part, we discussed the features and characteristics of a real critical thinker. In the fourth part, the idea of teachability of critical thinking is discussed. It is tried to present some strategies which can enhance critical thinking in students.

  6. Two cultures - one symbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Shostak

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the question of similarities in the approach to the multilevel symbolism in Slav and Native American cultures. Ambivalent symbol of the snake is analyzed in the frame of mythological thinking. At the end the author comes to the conclusion that elements of mythological thinking are still present in everyday life and influence human behavior levels

  7. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  8. La subjetividad desde la perspectiva histórico-cultural: un tránsito desde el pensamiento dialéctico al pensamiento complejo / Subjectivity from the historical cultural perspective: a transition from the dialectical to the complex thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Salamanca, Oscar Gilberto

    2008-01-01

    En el presente artículo se expone conceptualmente la categoría de la subjetividad y los elementos que la sustentan desde las propuestas provenientes de la psicología histórico cultural. Para ello se hizo una revisión de las principales ideas de la filosofía del materialismo dialéctico, y de los elementos en la obra de L.Vigotsky que se relacionan con su develamiento. Adicionalmente, se realizó una breve exposición de las contribuciones más destacadas que desde la psicología soviética, facilit...

  9. Advanced Mathematical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Ed; McDonald, Michael A.; Edwards, Barbara S.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we propose the following definition for advanced mathematical thinking: Thinking that requires deductive and rigorous reasoning about mathematical notions that are not entirely accessible to us through our five senses. We argue that this definition is not necessarily tied to a particular kind of educational experience; nor is it…

  10. Blue Ocean Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  11. Assessing Children's Multiplicative Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Chris; Hurrell, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Multiplicative thinking is a "big idea" of mathematics that underpins much of the mathematics learned beyond the early primary school years. This paper reports on a current study that utilises an interview tool and a written quiz to gather data about children's multiplicative thinking. The development of the tools and some of the…

  12. Sigtuna Think Piece 8

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exploring how participatory social learning research may strengthen agency and reflexivity (development of capabilities) in response to socio-ecological conditions. Introduction: Thinking about Climate Change Critically in Context. This think piece emerged from a slow engagement with the topic of climate change and its.

  13. Think It Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. Think It Over. B S Rangaswamy A Krishna Murthy. Think It Over Volume 2 Issue 9 September 1997 pp 73-74. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/09/0073-0074. Author Affiliations.

  14. How Babies Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachleda, Amelia R.; Thompson, Ross A.

    2018-01-01

    Babies think differently than adults, and understanding how they think can help us see their explosive brain growth in everyday behavior. Infants learn language faster than adults do, use statistics to understand how the world works, and even reason about the minds of others. But these achievements can be hidden by their poor self-regulatory…

  15. Thinking inside the Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    When one thinks of 21st century schools, one thinks of geometric modern architecture, sustainable building materials, and high-tech modular classrooms. It's rare, though, that a district has the space or the money to build that school from the ground up. Instead, the challenge for most is the transformation of the 20th century architecture to…

  16. Does Critical Thinking and Logic Education Have a Western Bias? The Case of the Nyaya School of Classical Indian Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Anand Jayprakash

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I develop a cross-cultural critique of contemporary critical thinking education in the United States, the United Kingdom, and those educational systems that adopt critical thinking education from the standard model used in the US and UK. The cross-cultural critique rests on the idea that contemporary critical thinking textbooks…

  17. Island Movements: Thinking with the Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Pugh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether in Homer or Plato, Shakespeare or Huxley, throughout history, thinking about islands has shaped how we think about human nature and our place in the world. However, to date archipelagos have received far less attention. This is problematic because we live, increasingly, in a world of island-island movements and not static forms. Not only in the more obvious cases of the Caribbean, Hawaii or the Philippines but, as Stratford et al (2011 say, many ‘continental forms’ like Canada and Australia are in fact archipelagos composed of thousands of island movements. To this list we can add more manufactured archipelagos: wind turbine arrays, industrial oil and military constellations. The key question therefore arises: what does it mean to think with the archipelago? This paper argues firstly that archipelagic thinking denaturalizes the conceptual basis of space and place, and therefore engages ‘the spatial turn’ presently sweeping the social sciences and humanities. Secondly, such thinking highlights the trope of what I call ‘metamorphosis’, of the adaptation and transformation of material, cultural and political practices through island movements. In both cases, I argue that thinking with the archipelago requires an important shift in how we frame analysis and engagement.

  18. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long been...

  19. Extending Cultural Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecken, Ted J.; Court, Deborah

    1992-01-01

    Advocates defining cultural literacy to recognize the mass media's role in transmitting and maintaining cultural stereotypes and shaping values and beliefs. Distinguishes between ideational and material aspects of culture. Advocates teaching critical thinking and respect for persons in light of questionable moral perspectives in certain media…

  20. Repetitive thinking, executive functioning, and depressive mood in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippot, Pierre; Agrigoroaei, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Previous findings and the depressive-executive dysfunction hypothesis suggest that the established association between executive functioning and depression is accounted for by repetitive thinking. Investigating the association between executive functioning, repetitive thinking, and depressive mood, the present study empirically tested this mediational model in a sample of older adults, while focusing on both concrete and abstract repetitive thinking. This latter distinction is important given the potential protective role of concrete repetitive thinking, in contrast to the depletive effect of abstract repetitive thinking. A sample of 43 elderly volunteers, between 75 and 95 years of age, completed tests of executive functioning (the Stroop test, the Trail Making test, and the Fluency test), and questionnaires of repetitive thinking and depression. Positive correlations were observed between abstract repetitive thinking and depressive mood, and between concrete repetitive thinking and executive functioning; a negative correlation was observed between depressive mood and executive functioning. Further, mediational analysis evidenced that the relation between executive functioning and depressive mood was mediated by abstract repetitive thinking. The present data provide, for the first time, empirical support to the depressive-executive dysfunction hypothesis: the lack of executive resources would favor a mode of abstract repetitive thinking, which in turn would deplete mood. It suggests that clinical intervention targeting depression in the elderly should take into consideration repetitive thinking modes and the executive resources needed to disengage from rumination.

  1. Excellent Thinking and Its Position among EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Shahini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The major goal of education, according to the educationalist Matthew Lipman (2003, is to culture students to become thoughtful by attaining excellent thinking power; i.e., critical, creative, and caring thinking ability. The purpose of this study was to examine the current status of excellent thinking among EFL students. Using accessible sampling, 41 EFL students at Shiraz University, Iran read two passages of various types and were asked to make a number of essay-type questions on each one. The results indicated that the majority of the questions were trivial reading comprehension ones with no sign of excellent thinking. The findings may imply that despite the significance of cultivating excellent thinking within students, no/scant attention is paid to this issue and EFL students have not still gained the necessary skills of excellent thinking.

  2. Nuclear age thinking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depastas, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    According to the practicalist school, thinking emerges from activity and each human practice is giving food to its own distinctive kinds of perception, conduct, and perspective of the world. The author, while studying and describing developments after the commencement of the nuclear age in many fields of human behavior and knowledge, including the social sciences, particularly psychology and international politics, became an adherent to the practicalist philosophy when he perceived new relevant thoughts coming to his mind at the same time. Indeed writing is a learning experience. He has, therefore, systematically included these thoughts in the following pages and synoptically characterized them in the title: Nuclear Age Thinking. He considers this kind of thinking as automatic, conscious activity which is gradually influencing our choices and decisions. The author has reservations as regards Albert Einstein's saying that the unleashed power of the atom changed everything save our modes of thinking, because the uncontrollability of nuclear energy is apparently in the subconscious of mankind nowadays, influencing the development of a new mode of thinking, and that is the nuclear age thinking which is the subject of this book. Nuclear age thinking drives from the collective fear of extinction of life on earth due to this new power at man's disposal, and it is not only limited to the change in the conventional meaning of the words war and peace.

  3. Proto-computational Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatar, Deborah Gail; Harrison, Steve; Stewart, Michael

    2017-01-01

    , the observation that computing is usually about some non-computational thing can lead to an approach that integrates computational thinking instruction with existing core curricular classes. A social justice argument can be made for this approach, because all students take courses in the core curriculum...... in plausible theories of change and a number of different educational projects suitable for classroom instruction. However, a major outcome of the study was to advance the importance of proto-computational thinking (PCT). We argue that, in the absence of preexisting use of representational tools for thinking...

  4. Visual Thinking and Gender Differences in High School Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk; Chicken, Eric

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to examine calculus students' mathematical performances and preferences for visual or analytic thinking regarding derivative and antiderivative tasks presented graphically. It extends previous studies by investigating factors mediating calculus students' mathematical performances and their preferred modes of thinking. Data were…

  5. Relationships among Bilingualism, Critical Thinking Ability, and Critical Thinking Disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Raymond T.; Albert, Rachel E.; Radsma, Jenny

    2002-01-01

    Nursing students (n=111) completed French and English Cloze Tests, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test. There was insufficient evidence to support a relationship between bilingualism and critical thinking ability or between critical thinking disposition and ability. Bilingualism…

  6. Thinking About Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Thinking About Adoption: FAQs Page Content ​​By: Elaine Schulte, MD, MPH, ... Network . Q: What are the different types of adoption? A: Children can be adopted through the national ...

  7. Educational Design Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft

    2015-01-01

    specifically, a clash between educational organization and design thinking paradigms emerges, tensions between goal-oriented education and vision-driven design build, and unproductive war on what education through design implies flare. Children are caught in the middle. Drawing on central works within design...... thinking (e.g. Nelson & Stolterman or Cross), empathic design (e.g. Bannon or Gagnon & Coté), technological imagination (McCarthy & Wright or Balsamo), educational design and technology use within education (Laurrilard or Donohue), the paper builds a case for new ways of thinking through technologies...... in formal and informal educational settings where children’s creative, innovative, and entrepreneurial design processes are the goal. Based on works such as the above as well as data on these matters (see below) the paper develops a conceptual framework for Educational Design Thinking. Here, the focus...

  8. Stress Management: Positive Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Positive thinking helps with stress management and can even improve your health. Practice overcoming negative self-talk ... with optimism is a key part of effective stress management. And effective stress management is associated with ...

  9. Computational Thinking in Mathematics Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadanidis, George; Cendros, Rosa; Floyd, Lisa; Namukasa, Immaculate

    2017-01-01

    As computational thinking (CT) is increasing in focus in K-12 education, it is important to consider how teacher education programs may better prepare teacher candidates (TCs). Previous studies have found that TCs do not always have a firm understanding of what CT involves, and they might not have clear ideas about how to develop CT in their…

  10. Fostering Critical Thinking in Undergraduate Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    LuPone, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Results from previous studies indicated nursing students needed to further develop critical thinking (CT) especially with respect to employing it in their clinical reasoning. Thus, the study was conducted to support development of students' CT in the areas of inference subskills that could be applied as they engaged in clinical reasoning during…

  11. Think Like a Nurse: A Critical Thinking Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Terry D; Morris, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Critical thinking is essential in the practice of the nurse generalist, today. Nursing faculty is frequently trying to identify teaching strategies in promoting critical thinking and engaging students in active learning. To close the gap between critical thinking and student success, a school in the south east United States implemented the use of the 'think like a nurse initiative" for incoming junior nursing students. Faculty collaborated to adopt the fundamental and essential nursing concepts for nursing students to support thinking like a nurse.

  12. Masculinity and suicidal thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkis, Jane; Spittal, Matthew J; Keogh, Louise; Mousaferiadis, Tass; Currier, Dianne

    2017-03-01

    Males feature prominently in suicide statistics, but relatively little work has been done to date to explore whether endorsement of dominant masculinity norms heightens the risk of or is protective against suicidal thinking. This paper aimed to further knowledge in this area. We used baseline data from 13,884 men (aged 18-55) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men) cohort. These men filled in self-complete questionnaires in 2013/14 which covered a range of topics, including conformity to dominant masculinity norms and suicidal thinking. We conducted logistic regression analyses to estimate the strength of association between these two variables. After controlling for other key predictors of suicidal thinking, one characteristic of dominant masculinity-self-reliance-stood out as a risk factor for suicidal thinking (AOR 1.34; 95% CI 1.26-1.43). It suggests that one particular element of dominant masculinity-being self-reliant-may place men at increased risk of suicidal thinking. This finding resonates with current theories of how suicidal thinking develops and leads to action. It also has implications for the full gamut of suicide prevention approaches that target males in clinical settings and in the general population, and for our broader society. Further work is needed, however, to confirm the direction of the relationship between self-reliance and suicidality, and to unpack the means through which self-reliance may exert an influence.

  13. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis of t...... concerning thinking reflects these consequences and finally strives to find another way to think about thinking - a way that brings us back to another of Heidegger's thoughts and that makes it possible to appreciate the work of thought......Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis...... of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However...

  14. Thinking aloud influences perceived time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2015-02-01

    We investigate whether thinking aloud influences perceived time. Thinking aloud is widely used in usability evaluation, yet it is debated whether thinking aloud influences thought and behavior. If thinking aloud is restricted to the verbalization of information to which a person is already attending, there is evidence that thinking aloud does not influence thought and behavior. In an experiment, 16 thinking-aloud participants and 16 control participants solved a code-breaking task 24 times each. Participants estimated task duration. The 24 trials involved two levels of time constraint (timed, untimed) and resulted in two levels of success (solved, unsolved). The ratio of perceived time to clock time was lower for thinking-aloud than control participants. Participants overestimated time by an average of 47% (thinking aloud) and 94% (control). The effect of thinking aloud on time perception also held separately for timed, untimed, solved, and unsolved trials. Thinking aloud (verbalization at Levels 1 and 2) influences perceived time. Possible explanations of this effect include that thinking aloud may require attention, cause a processing shift that overshadows the perception of time, or increase mental workload. For usability evaluation, this study implies that time estimates made while thinking aloud cannot be compared with time estimates made while not thinking aloud, that ratings of systems experienced while thinking aloud may be inaccurate (because the experience of time influences other experiences), and that it may therefore be considered to replace concurrent thinking aloud with retrospective thinking aloud when evaluations involve time estimation.

  15. Thinking aloud in the presence of interruptions and time constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2013-01-01

    Thinking aloud is widely used for usability evaluation and its reactivity is therefore important to the quality of evaluation results. This study investigates whether thinking aloud (i.e., verbalization at levels 1 and 2) affects the behaviour of users who perform tasks that involve interruptions...... and time constraints, two frequent elements of real-world activities. We find that the presence of auditory, visual, audiovisual, or no interruptions interacts with thinking aloud for task solution rate, task completion time, and participants’ fixation rate. Thinking-aloud participants also spend longer...... responding to interruptions than control participants. Conversely, the absence or presence of time constraints does not interact with thinking aloud, suggesting that time pressure is less likely to make thinking aloud reactive than previously assumed. Our results inform practitioners faced with the decision...

  16. Cross-cultural investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Y; Case, R; Bleiker, C; Henderson, B

    1996-01-01

    In Piaget's system, the development of children's cognitive structures is seen as progressing through a universal sequence from sensorimotor, to concrete, to formal logical thought. The data that have been obtained on his measures are problematic in their support for this view, however, because they indicate that adults in traditional societies often fail his formal tasks. Piaget's (1972) interpretation of such findings was that they indicated a problem with his measures, not his theory - if appropriate measures were available, he believed that formal logical operations would be found in all cultures and social groups. Our own interpretation differs. While we acknowledge that adults in all cultures are capable of thinking in a fashion that is more sophisticated, subtle, and complex than that of young children, we see the highest forms of thought as being dependent on the mastery of systems that are cultural creations and not universal human attainments - and we see Piaget's system of formal operations as being just one example of the sort of system that can be created by a culture and passed on from one generation to the next. In a previous investigation, Fiati (1992) studied children who were growing up in isolated, agricultural villages in the Volta region of West Africa. In these communities, life was still a traditional one, and children's experiences with time, money, and mathematical computation were considerably different from those of children who were attending schools in the nearby towns. Under these conditions, Fiati found that village children's skill in using numbers or in thinking about quantitative variables did not develop to a very high level as compared to that of their peers in the towns or as compared to their own thinking about social issues. In the terms used in the present Monograph, it appeared as though children's central conceptual structures for number - in contrast to their central conceptual structures for narrative - did not advance

  17. PROFESSIONAL SPECIFICITY OF CONCEPTUAL THINKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gilmanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Most studies of psychologists and teachers in the phenomenon of conceptual thinking and ways of its formation are considered to be rather controversial and questionable. However, the research results were limited to the phenomenon of conceptual thinking and are therefore not representative for its implementation during the process of vocational training at the higher school. There is still considerable uncertainty with regard to the approaches to the problem of conceptual thinking in the humanities, including pedagogics and psychology. Furthermore, previous studies have not dealt with the objectives of conceptual thinking formation.The aims of the article are: to justify the use of the term “professional conceptualization of thinking” (PCT in theory and practice; to describe the prospects of the development of PCT in the training process.Methodology and research methods. The methodological base of the research involves the Russian psychological and pedagogical science approaches to the consideration of conceptual thinking as a higher mental function, a systematized and summarized form of cognitive reflection of notions and relations of reality. The experimental work was carried out using the method of observation, interviews, and tests. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data was conducted. The process of formation of PCT is described through the theory of stage-by-stage systematic development of mental acts.Results and scientific novelty. The concept “professional conceptualization of thinking” (PCT, a new one for psychological-pedagogical science, is suggested. The PCT levels are identified: ordinary, formal, substantial, system, and holistic. The objectives proposed for the development of the PCT levels in the process of professional education consist in the organization of consecutive transition from conscious mastering of a terminological framework to its use in the performance of educational tasks; from

  18. A Comparative Study of Creative Thinking of American and Japanese College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Noriko; Fan, Xitao; Van Dusen, Lani

    2001-01-01

    Cross-cultural differences in creative thinking were assessed for 51 American and 54 Japanese college students. The American students showed significantly higher scores on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) figural test than the Japanese students. No gender differences were found in either culture. TTCT performance did not correlate…

  19. Thinking about Thinking: An Exploration of Preservice Teachers' Views about Higher Order Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Thinking skills have long been regarded as an essential outcome of the educational process. Yet, research shows that the teaching of thinking skills in K-12 education does not follow a coherent path. Several factors affect the teaching and use of thinking skills in the classroom, with teacher knowledge and beliefs about thinking skills among the…

  20. Critical thinking in the intercultural context: Investigating EFL textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Sobkowiak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The multicultural world has made intercultural teaching necessary. It should focus on students’ ability to comprehend quickly and accurately, and then act appropriately and effectively in a culturally complex environment in order to achieve the desired goal. Intercultural competence is important for successful communication across cultures, and so is critical thinking since the two, if they are not “parallel” (Bennett, 2013, at least overlap (Deardorff, 2009. This article tries to shed light on the linkage between intercultural and critical thinking skills and reports on the findings of research done on whether and to what extent EFL textbooks used in Polish schools contribute to fostering critical thinking skills in students. The study analyzed the cultural content of 20 coursebooks to check whether they go beyond merely depicting the target culture, or various foreign cultures, and involve students in practicing critical thinking, that is, prompt them to explore intercultural encounters and processes, and scrutinize how diverse cultures influence their own understanding of reality. The research revealed an insignificant and limited capacity of the textbooks to develop students’ critical thinking.

  1. The Politics of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Storey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview over the evolution of thinking about "culture" in the work of Raymond Williams. With the introduction of Antonio Gramsci's concept of hegemony culture came to be understood as consisting of not only shared, but contested meanings as well. On the basis of this redefinition by Williams, cultural studies was able to delineate culture as the production, circulation, and consumption of meanings that become embodied and embedded in social practice.

  2. Information cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouvig, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest a genealogy of the concept of information beyond the 20th century. The article discusses how the concept of information culture might provide a way of formulating such a genealogic strategy. The article approaches this purpose by providing a general...... narrative of premodern information cultures, examining works on early-modern scholars and 18th century savants and discussion of what seems to be a Foucauldian rupture in the conceptualization of information in 19th century England. The findings of the article are situated in the thinking that a genealogy...

  3. Cultural Usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Qingxin

    2007-01-01

    Culture has already played an important role in the global market. It not only affects products, but also impacts on usability evaluation methods. This project aims to examine in the established thinking aloud usability evaluation method (TA UEM), how does the evaluator build a supportive...... relationship and communicate effectively with the user in order to find relevant usability problems in culturally localized applications. It includes three parts, pilot study, field study and experiments, to get both qualitative data and quantitative data. From this project, we hope to find an effective way...

  4. Critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2013-09-26

    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools.

  5. Critical Thinking Dispositions of Nursing Students in Asian and Non-Asian Countries: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2013-01-01

    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools. PMID:24171885

  6. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Blink the power of thinking without thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Gladwell, Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    In his landmark bestseller The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell redefined how we understand the world around us. Now, in Blink, he revolutionizes the way we understand the world within. Blink is a book about how we think without thinking, about choices that seem to be made in an instant-in the blink of an eye-that actually aren't as simple as they seem. Why are some people brilliant decision makers, while others are consistently inept? Why do some people follow their instincts and win, while others end up stumbling into error? How do our brains really work-in the office, in the classroom, in the kitchen, and in the bedroom? And why are the best decisions often those that are impossible to explain to others?In Blink we meet the psychologist who has learned to predict whether a marriage will last, based on a few minutes of observing a couple; the tennis coach who knows when a player will double-fault before the racket even makes contact with the ball; the antiquities experts who recognize a fake at a glance. Her...

  8. Educational Design Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft

    2015-01-01

    specifically, a clash between educational organization and design thinking paradigms emerges, tensions between goal-oriented education and vision-driven design build, and unproductive war on what education through design implies flare. Children are caught in the middle. Drawing on central works within design......This paper suggest that the import and implementation of creative, innovative and entrepreneurial design processes within formal informal educational settings carry inherent potentials and pitfalls within them in relation to educational design, pedagogical practice and design agency. More...... thinking (e.g. Nelson & Stolterman or Cross), empathic design (e.g. Bannon or Gagnon & Coté), technological imagination (McCarthy & Wright or Balsamo), educational design and technology use within education (Laurrilard or Donohue), the paper builds a case for new ways of thinking through technologies...

  9. Gaming Science: The Gamification of Scientific Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley eMorris

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Science is critically important for advancing economics, health, and social well being in the 21st century. A scientifically literate workforce is one that is well suited to meet the challenges of an information economy. However, scientific thinking skills do not routinely develop and must be scaffolded via educational and cultural tools. In this paper we outline a rationale for why we believe that video games have the potential to be exploited for gain in science education. The premise we entertain is that several classes of video games can be viewed as a type of cultural tool that is capable of supporting three key elements of scientific literacy: content knowledge, process skills, and understanding the nature of science. We argue that there are three classes of mechanisms through which video games can support scientific thinking. First, there are a number of motivational scaffolds, such as feedback, rewards, and flow states that engage students relative to traditional cultural learning tools. Second, there are a number of cognitive scaffolds, such as simulations and embedded reasoning skills that compensate for the limitations of the individual cognitive system. Third, fully developed scientific thinking requires metacognition, and video games provide metacognitive scaffolding in the form of constrained learning and identity adoption. We conclude by outlining a series of recommendations for integrating games and game elements in science education and provide suggestions for evaluating their effectiveness.

  10. Gaming science: the "Gamification" of scientific thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Bradley J; Croker, Steve; Zimmerman, Corinne; Gill, Devin; Romig, Connie

    2013-09-09

    Science is critically important for advancing economics, health, and social well-being in the twenty-first century. A scientifically literate workforce is one that is well-suited to meet the challenges of an information economy. However, scientific thinking skills do not routinely develop and must be scaffolded via educational and cultural tools. In this paper we outline a rationale for why we believe that video games have the potential to be exploited for gain in science education. The premise we entertain is that several classes of video games can be viewed as a type of cultural tool that is capable of supporting three key elements of scientific literacy: content knowledge, process skills, and understanding the nature of science. We argue that there are three classes of mechanisms through which video games can support scientific thinking. First, there are a number of motivational scaffolds, such as feedback, rewards, and flow states that engage students relative to traditional cultural learning tools. Second, there are a number of cognitive scaffolds, such as simulations and embedded reasoning skills that compensate for the limitations of the individual cognitive system. Third, fully developed scientific thinking requires metacognition, and video games provide metacognitive scaffolding in the form of constrained learning and identity adoption. We conclude by outlining a series of recommendations for integrating games and game elements in science education and provide suggestions for evaluating their effectiveness.

  11. Thinking the unthinkable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders; Dombernowsky, Per

    2004-01-01

    This paper adresses the theme of thinking construction in a changing world. In more specific terms it adresses two topics. The first being the necessary competences and skills in construction, that can be expected in the profile of the future architect after graduation. The second, being the acqu......This paper adresses the theme of thinking construction in a changing world. In more specific terms it adresses two topics. The first being the necessary competences and skills in construction, that can be expected in the profile of the future architect after graduation. The second, being...

  12. Medical Computational Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter; Tatar, Deborah Gail; Rosen, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Computational thinking (CT) in medicine means deliberating when to pursue computer-mediated solutions to medical problems and evaluating when such solutions are worth pursuing in order to assist in medical decision making. Teaching computational thinking (CT) at medical school should be aligned...... with learning objectives, teaching and assessment methods, and overall pedagogical mission of the individual medical school in relation to society. Medical CT as part of the medical curriculum could help educate novices (medical students and physicians in training) in the analysis and design of complex...

  13. Autonomy, culture and healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Anita Holm

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to present a theoretical view of how cultural thinking and action in meetings between patient and therapist can be analyzed with special attention to raising awareness of underlying prejudices and preconceptions in such encounters. The examples in the article are all taken from...... a Scandinavian and mostly a Danish context. A key point of the analysis indicates that a highly efficient health sector may entail an implicit duality: On the one hand, the therapist can relate pragmatically to the patient when engaging in cultural meetings. On the other hand, the therapist may be personally...... challenged when cultural thinking leads to ethical dilemmas....

  14. More Dialectical Thinking, Less Creativity? The Relationship between Dialectical Thinking Style and Creative Personality: The Case of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Fei-xue; Yang, Xiao-yang

    2015-01-01

    People use dialectical thinking to be holistic, reconcile contradictions, and emphasize changes when processing information and managing problems. Using a questionnaire survey, this study examined the relationship between dialectical thinking and creative personality in the Chinese culture, which encourages a holistic and collective thinking style. Undergraduates majoring in different subjects and adults in different professions were surveyed. The results showed that 1) compared with undergraduates majoring in art and adults from the design industry, undergraduates majoring in other disciplines significantly showed the least creative personality; 2) the highest score for dialectical thinking was found in the group of undergraduates who majored in other disciplines, followed by the adult group, and the undergraduates majoring in art had the lowest score; and 3) A negative relationship between dialectical thinking and creative personality was found mostly in the UMA group. The limitations of this study and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:25856372

  15. From Disinformation to Wishful Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreskes, N.; Conway, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    In our book, Merchants of Doubt, we documented how deliberate disinformation campaigns served to confuse the American people about the reality and significance of climate change over more than two decades. We showed how a variety of strategies were used to persuade the public that the scientific "jury was still out" on climate change, including deliberate mispresentation of facts, cherry-picking of evidence, and personal attacks on scientists. And we documented the links, both conceptual and actual, between doubt-mongering about climate change and the rejection of scientific evidence of the harms of tobacco, acid rain, the ozone hole, nuclear winter, and DDT. These tactics are still in use today, but they are now reinforced by a new problem, the problem of wishful thinking. Increasingly, we see commentators who accept the reality of climate change assuring us that the problem can be solved by natural gas, or even by some as yet unknown and uninvented technological innovations. In this paper we argue that these forms of wishful thinking, while not malicious in the same way that previous doubt-mongering campaigns have been, contribute substantially to scientific illiteracy and misunderstanding both of the character of the challenges that we face and of the history of technological innovation.

  16. Think Tank Initiative and Think Tank Fund Peer Exchanges | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Think Tank Initiative (TTI) and the Think Tank Fund (TTF) are partnering to support peer exchanges between think tanks in regions where the programs are active: Africa, Latin America, South Asia, and Central and Eastern Europe (the former Soviet Union). This project will help reduce cooperation barriers among ...

  17. Think I t Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. This section of Resonance is meant to raise thought-provoking. Think It Over Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 92-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/11/0092-0092 ...

  18. Think I t Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This section of Resonance presents thought-provoking questions, and discusses answers a few months later. Readers are invited to send new questions, solutions to old ones and comments, to 'Think It Over', Resonance, Indian Academy of. Sciences, Bangalore 560 080. Items illustrating ideas and concepts will gener~lIy.

  19. Dual thinking for scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten Scheffer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies provide compelling evidence for the idea that creative thinking draws upon two kinds of processes linked to distinct physiological features, and stimulated under different conditions. In short, the fast system-I produces intuition whereas the slow and deliberate system-II produces reasoning. System-I can help see novel solutions and associations instantaneously, but is prone to error. System-II has other biases, but can help checking and modifying the system-I results. Although thinking is the core business of science, the accepted ways of doing our work focus almost entirely on facilitating system-II. We discuss the role of system-I thinking in past scientific breakthroughs, and argue that scientific progress may be catalyzed by creating conditions for such associative intuitive thinking in our academic lives and in education. Unstructured socializing time, education for daring exploration, and cooperation with the arts are among the potential elements. Because such activities may be looked upon as procrastination rather than work, deliberate effort is needed to counteract our systematic bias.

  20. Think It Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 1. How Many Birds are Unwatched. Soubhik Chakraborty. Think It Over Volume 13 Issue 1 January 2008 pp 88-88. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/01/0088-0088 ...

  1. Think I t Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 12. Solution to 'On an Intriguing Limit Problem'. S C Dutta Roy. Think It Over Volume 11 Issue 12 December ... Author Affiliations. S C Dutta Roy1. Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India.

  2. Think It Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 4. On Sums of Powers of Digits. Shipra Mital. Think It Over Volume 8 Issue 4 April 2003 pp 64-65 ... Author Affiliations. Shipra Mital1. Research Scholar, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Utfaranchal 247667, India.

  3. Think It Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. To Find Four Distinct Positive Integers such that the Sum of Any Two of them is a Square. S H Aravind. Think It Over Volume 2 Issue 6 June ... Author Affiliations. S H Aravind1. 12. First Main Road Ponmeni Jayanagar Madurai 625010, India ...

  4. Trust and Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinig, John

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses the tension between trust, as an expression of interpersonal commitment, and critical thinking, which includes a demand for reasons. It explores the importance of each for individual flourishing, and then seeks to establish some ways in which they intersect, drawing on ideas of authority and trustworthiness. It argues that…

  5. Embedding GroupThink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Ban, Cornel; Helgadóttir, Oddný

    This memo outlines key concepts and the methodological approach involved in a recently funded Institute for New Economic Thinking project. Our aim is to pinpoint the relationship between the reception of academic ideas, traced by citation networks with qualitative coding, and positions...

  6. Design Thinking for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    According to Vande Zande (2007), understanding the Design Process can help students become stronger critical thinkers. With this in mind, Andrew Watson decided to undertake an observational case study in which he focused directly on Design Thinking and addressed it more intentionally in his teaching. The hope was to understand how students saw…

  7. Engineering Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammi, Matthew; Becker, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Engineering design thinking is "a complex cognitive process" including divergence-convergence, a systems perspective, ambiguity, and collaboration (Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005, p. 104). Design is often complex, involving multiple levels of interacting components within a system that may be nested within or connected to other systems.…

  8. Think It Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 9. Answer to Burning Question, March 1998. Vilas Gohad. Think It Over Volume 3 Issue 9 September 1998 pp 81-82. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/09/0081-0082 ...

  9. Dual thinking for scientists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.; Bascompte, J.; Bjordam, T.K.; Carpenter, S.R.; Clarke, L.; Folke, C.; Marquet, P.A.; Mazzeo, N.; Meerhoff, M.; Sala, O.; Westley, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies provide compelling evidence for the idea that creative thinking draws upon two kinds of processes linked to distinct physiological features, and stimulated under different conditions. In short, the fast system-I produces intuition whereas the slow and deliberate system-II produces

  10. Think It Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 9. How much can pH Change through Dilution? Anirban Sadhu. Think It Over Volume 3 Issue 9 September 1998 pp 81-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/09/0081-0081 ...

  11. Think It Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 12. Solution to 'A Problem in Graph Theory'. K P Savithri. Think It Over Volume 12 Issue 12 December 2007 pp 53-54. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/12/0053-0054. Keywords.

  12. Thinking Data "with" Deleuze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the author is thinking with Deleuze's philosophical concept of the "image" of the speech-act in cinema and the implications for methodology and ethics in qualitative research. Drawing on research in the USA with white teachers, this paper will specifically engage with Deleuzian concepts presented in his two books on cinema and his…

  13. Think It Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This section of Resonance presents thought-provoking questions, and discusses answers a few months later. Readers are invited to send new questions, solutions to old ones and comments, to 'Think It Over' Resonance, Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore 560 080. Items illustrating ideas and concepts will generally ...

  14. Think It Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Think It Over. This section of Resonance is me.ant to raise thought-provoking, interesting, or just plain brain-teasing questions every month, and discuss answers a few months later. Readers are welcome to send in suggestions for such questions, solutions to questions already posed, comments on the solutions discussed ...

  15. Think It Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This section of Resonance presents thought-provoking questions, and discusses answers a few months later. Readers are invited to send new questions, solutions to old ones and comments, to 'Think It Over', Resonance, Indian Academy of. Sciences, Bangalore 560 080. Items iI.lustrating ideas and concepts will generally.

  16. Think It Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 6. Are you Better off than your Friend? K B Athreya. Think It Over Volume 13 Issue 6 June 2008 pp 595-595. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/06/0595-0595. Keywords. Coin toss.

  17. Think It Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India. THINK IT OVER. 2. Some Questions Concerning Isotopes. In the four part series on 'Use of Isotopes for Studying Reaction. Mechanisms' we described various applications of isotopes. The following questions are related to the topics covered in the series. 1. Propose a reasonable mechanism for the following observa-.

  18. Think I t Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    answers a few months later. Readers are invited to send new questions, solutions to old ones and comments, to 'Think It Over', Resonance, Indian Academy of. Sciences, Bangalore 560 080. Items illustrating ideas and concepts will generally be chosen. Balloons in Balance. The following experiment is suggested in a 4th ...

  19. Wishful thinking in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Stéphane; Clément, Fabrice; Mercier, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The current experiment sought to demonstrate the presence of wishful thinking--when wishes influence beliefs--in young children. A sample of 77 preschoolers needed to predict, eight times in a row, which of two plastic eggs, one containing one toy and the other containing three toys, would be drawn by a blinded experimenter. On the four trials in which the children could not keep the content of the egg drawn, they were equally likely to predict that either egg would be drawn. By contrast, on the four trials in which the children got to keep the content of the egg, they were more likely to predict that the egg with three toys would be drawn. Any effort the children exerted would be the same across conditions, so that this demonstration of wishful thinking cannot be accounted for by an effort heuristic. One group of children--a subgroup of the 5-year-olds--did not engage in wishful thinking. Children from this subgroup instead used the representativeness heuristic to guide their answers. This result suggests that having an explicit representation of the outcome inhibits children from engaging in wishful thinking in the same way as explicit representations constrain the operation of motivated reasoning in adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Think I t Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 10. Floating and Immersed Bodes. Jaywant H Arakeri C Dharuman. Think It Over Volume 11 Issue 10 October 2006 pp 93-94. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/10/0093-0094 ...

  1. Think I t Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 7. On a Use of Normal Distribution. Shailesh A Shirali. Think It Over Volume 10 Issue 7 July 2005 pp 85-86. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/07/0085-0086. Keywords.

  2. Think I t Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Think I t Over. This section of Resonance is meant to raise thought-provoking, interesting, or just plain brain-teasing questions every month, and discuss answers a few months later. Readers are welcome to send in suggestions for such questions, solutions to questions already posed, comments on the solutions discussed ...

  3. Thought and from Thinking Analysis to Experiment De sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Aycan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study is to discuss thought with extension of thinking, one of the main concepts of philosophy education, on the basis of analytical philosophy and philosophy of decomposition and to explain its importance for chemistry. From elementary school to university, experiments to be conducted by students in chemistry laboratories are given them like recipes and they are asked to make their experiments according to these recipes. In fact, by using the thinking style imparted to students in class, they must design an experiment and through the practical thinking skills they have gained again in the class, they must conduct the experiment according to this design. Therefore, understanding thought and thinking in relation to chemistry education is of great importance. In the methodology of the current study, holistic approach was adopted. Descriptive survey method was used and document analysis was conducted. In the study, the difference between the concepts of thought and thinking and personal and socio-cultural factors and concepts giving rise to their emergence and their uniqueness and importance were evaluated. As a result, the conditions in which the instruction about the concept of thinking could be integrated into chemistry education were discussed. Finally, the conditions of thinking instruction to students and teachers was explained and contribution of thinking instruction to students and teachers was given.

  4. Creating the Culture of Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Janet R.

    The high school journalism classroom provides a natural environment for learning in the context of a discipline's culture. This environment can provide the backdrop for moving the student toward the thinking and behavior of professional journalists. To understand this thinking, journalism teachers can turn to the research in cognitive psychology…

  5. Moving on - beyond lean thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, Lauri

    2004-01-01

    Lean Thinking is currently often positioned as the underlying theory of lean production among practitioners and academics, although its originators, Womack and Jones, seem not to have presented it as a theory. This paper endeavors to analyze whether Lean Thinking can be viewed as a theory of lean production. For this purpose, a critical assessment of Lean Thinking is carried out. Lean Thinking is argued to lack an adequate conceptualization of production, which has led to imprecise concepts, ...

  6. The strategic entrepreneurial thinking imperative

    OpenAIRE

    S. Dhliwayo; J. J. Van Vuuren

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that strategic entrepreneurial thinking is a unitary concept which should be viewed as a standalone construct. Design/Methodology/Approach: The concept strategic entrepreneurial thinking is modelled from an analysis of strategic thinking and entrepreneurial thinking from available literature. The strategic entrepreneurial mindset imperative is then emphasised and confirmed. Findings: This paper's finding is that there is no diff...

  7. Healthy Thinking: A Group Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet N.; Carty, Laurie

    1994-01-01

    A "Healthy Thinking" group, based on a modified Aaron Beck Cognitive Therapy model, teaches depressed clients to realistically appraise their experiences by monitoring and changing distorted thinking. Clients learn that situational stress activates long held assumptions (negative beliefs) leading to distorted thinking and ultimately…

  8. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  9. Traditional Literacy and Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    How school librarians focus on activating critical thinking through traditional literacy development can proactively set the stage for the deep thinking that occurs in all literacy development. The critical-thinking skills students build while becoming accomplished readers and writers provide the foundation for learning in a variety of…

  10. Lateral Thinking and Technology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waks, Shlomo

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of technology education and its relevance to lateral thinking. Discusses prospects for utilizing technology education as a platform and a contextual domain for nurturing lateral thinking. Argues that technology education is an appropriate environment for developing complementary incorporation of vertical and lateral thinking.…

  11. Development of Manufacturing Sustainability Assessment Using Systems Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia Moldavska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing body of knowledge in sustainability assessment of manufacturing indicates that although extensive research is going on, significant shortcomings remain unsolved. In this paper, the specific needs of a new sustainability assessment system are discussed. Systems thinking is suggested as an alternative to the reductionist approach which is commonly applied to sustainability assessment. Although previous research has recognized the potential of systems thinking applied to sustainability assessment, few practical examples have been demonstrated. Therefore, this article focuses on a practical application of systems thinking to the development of a sustainability assessment system of a manufacturing organization. A framework for development is proposed employing systems thinking. It is suggested that systems thinking reveals several aspects usually not addressed by the reductionist approaches. It is demonstrated that a combination of tools like analysis of multiple viewpoints, conceptagon, seven samurai, and model-based systems engineering can enhance a development of a suitable assessment systems.

  12. The 'Thinking a Lot' Idiom of Distress and PTSD: An Examination of Their Relationship among Traumatized Cambodian Refugees Using the 'Thinking a Lot' Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinton, D.E.; Reis, R.; de Jong, J.

    2015-01-01

    "Thinking a lot" (TAL)—also referred to as "thinking too much"—is a key complaint in many cultural contexts, and the current article profiles this idiom of distress among Cambodian refugees. The article also proposes a general model of how TAL generates various types of distress that then cause

  13. Strategic thinking in turbulent times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratianu Constantin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a structural analysis of strategic thinking spectrum in turbulent times. Business excellence cannot be achieved without a well-defined strategic thinking spectrum able to elaborate and implement strategies in a fast changeable and unpredictable business environment. Strategic thinking means to think for a desirable future which can be ahead 4-5 years of the present time and to make decisions to the best of our knowledge for that unknown business environment. Thus, the research question is: How can we conceive the spectrum of strategic thinking such that we shall be able to deal with a complex and unknown future in achieving a competitive advantage? The methodology used to answer this question is based on metaphorical thinking, and multidimensional analysis. I shall consider four main dimensions: time, complexity, uncertainty, and novelty. On each of these dimensions I shall analyze the known thinking models and their attributes with respect to request formulated in the research question. Then, I shall choose those thinking models that correspond to the future characteristics and integrate them in a continuous spectrum. On each dimension I shall consider three basic thinking models. On the time dimension they are: inertial, dynamic and entropic thinking. On the complexity dimension they are: linear, nonlinear and systemic thinking. On the uncertainty dimension they are: deterministic, probabilistic and chaotic thinking. Finally, on the novelty dimension we have: template, intelligent and creative thinking. Considering all requirements for the unknown future, we conclude that strategic thinking spectrum should contain: entropic, nonlinear and systemic, probabilistic and chaotic, intelligent and creative thinking models. Such a spectrum increases the capacity of our understanding and as a consequence it enhances the capability of making adequate decisions in conditions of complexity and uncertainty.

  14. Designers' Cognitive Thinking Based on Evolutionary Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Shutao; Jianning Su; Chibing Hu; Peng Wang

    2013-01-01

    The research on cognitive thinking is important to construct the efficient intelligent design systems. But it is difficult to describe the model of cognitive thinking with reasonable mathematical theory. Based on the analysis of design strategy and innovative thinking, we investigated the design cognitive thinking model that included the external guide thinking of "width priority - depth priority" and the internal dominated thinking of "divergent thinking - convergent thinking", built a reaso...

  15. Peer led team learning in introductory biology: effects on peer leader critical thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Julia J; Wiles, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders' critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders' perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders' critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups.

  16. Scientific thinking in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Chandran

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Science, medicine and ophthalmology have all evolved and progressed through varied but powerful influences over the centuries. While the tremendous technological advances in ophthalmology in the past 20 years are readily appreciated, many clinicians fail to grasp the impact of the several clinical trials that have contributed to better patient care. This article briefly traces the history of science, medicine and ophthalmology, and explains how scientific thinking could be applied to the clinical and academic aspects of ophthalmology.

  17. Dual thinking for scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Scheffer, M.; Bascompte, J.; Bjordam, T.K.; Carpenter, S.R.; Clarke, L.; Folke, C.; Marquet, P.A.; Mazzeo, N.; Meerhoff, M.; Sala, O.; Westley, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies provide compelling evidence for the idea that creative thinking draws upon two kinds of processes linked to distinct physiological features, and stimulated under different conditions. In short, the fast system-I produces intuition whereas the slow and deliberate system-II produces reasoning. System-I can help see novel solutions and associations instantaneously, but is prone to error. System-II has other biases, but can help checking and modifying the system-I results. Although...

  18. A science think tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, F.

    1999-01-01

    A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning

  19. Think I t Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    power pack (courtesy ISRO). THINK IT OVER. Batteries. 1. Why does one fill a lead-acid battery with distilled water? 2. Which of the batteries in Table 3 of the article on pages. 66-67 of this issue is the most environment-friendly one? 3. What is the oxidation state of Ni in NiO(OH)?. 4. How many different oxidation states can ...

  20. Cultivating strategic thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author presents an overview of strategic leadership and offers approaches for cultivating strategic thinking skills.

  1. Think It Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THINK IT OVER could not do this (and more power to you if you could!); after all, this is a moderately famous theorem of P Erdos and N G. DeBruijn. To prove this theorem, let's first set up some notations. Let u and b denote the number of books and of customers, respectively. For l~ i ~ u let ri denote the number of customers.

  2. Prior Education of Open University Students Contributes to Their Capability in Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo, Saara; Lehtinen, Taina; Rusanen, Erja; Hyytinen, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this study is on Open University students' entry-level critical thinking skills. The research questions were: how are students' age, and level and discipline of previous education related to critical thinking skills; is the level and discipline of previous education connected to the accuracy of students' self-evaluation of their…

  3. Scientific Thinking in Islamic Thought: Concept and its Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alias Azhar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available God’s revelations, as the main source of knowledge, do not deny, in any way our brain’s functional capabilities. The Quran acknowledges the necessity and importance of the brain. Islamic epistemology regards the brain as the second source of knowledge after the revelations. The holistic perspective on knowledge that is gained by mankind is that it is constructed by man in the context of their thinking culture, education and social concepts. Therefore, in this regard, thinking method directly relates to the objectives of Islam and its Sharia, and gives a significant implication towards understanding and developing Sharia as a dynamic knowledge area. This study combines three (3 methods, content analysis; historical method and comparison of the review of the history of the construction of Islamic thought and the review of screening methods Sociology Society background. The discussion this article covers the definition and concept of scientific thinking skills and scientific Islamic thought and the approaches of critical thinking in Islamic scientific thought. In reality, Muslims are not prohibited by their religion to think scientifically through scientific thinking methods, provided that it does not contradict with Islam. Some knowledge which is built through scientific thinking can be used to understand the Quranic texts more profoundly. Also, undeniably, the eminence of God’s revelations has been made evident and exploited to proof the existence of Allah.

  4. The positive psychology of negative thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norem, Julie K; Chang, Edward C

    2002-09-01

    As the positive psychology movement gains momentum, both within psychology and in the broader culture, it becomes increasingly important to ensure that the complexity of individual personality and psychological processes do not get lost in a "one-size-fits-all" approach to improving human functioning. In this article, we consider some of the ways that the costs and benefits of different kinds of optimism and pessimism may vary across different individuals, situations, and cultural contexts. We use defensive pessimism research to illustrate that there are times when pessimism and negative thinking are indeed positive psychology, as they lead to better performance and personal growth. We also consider the ways in which dominant American culture--and research in psychology--may underestimate some of the costs of optimism. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Thinking in time an introduction to Henri Bergson

    CERN Document Server

    Guerlac, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    "In recent years, we have grown accustomed to philosophical language that is intensely self-conscious and rhetorically thick, often tragic in tone. It is enlivening to read Bergson, who exerts so little rhetorical pressure while exacting such a substantial effort of thought. . . . Bergson's texts teach the reader to let go of entrenched intellectual habits and to begin to think differently—to think in time. . . . Too much and too little have been said about Bergson. Too much, because of the various appropriations of his thought. Too little, because the work itself has not been carefully studied in recent decades."—from Thinking in TimeHenri Bergson (1859–1941), whose philosophical works emphasized motion, time, and change, won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1927. His work remains influential, particularly in the realms of philosophy, cultural studies, and new media studies. In Thinking in Time, Suzanne Guerlac provides readers with the conceptual and contextual tools necessary for informed appreciati...

  6. The strategic entrepreneurial thinking imperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dhliwayo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that strategic entrepreneurial thinking is a unitary concept which should be viewed as a standalone construct. Design/Methodology/Approach: The concept strategic entrepreneurial thinking is modelled from an analysis of strategic thinking and entrepreneurial thinking from available literature. The strategic entrepreneurial mindset imperative is then emphasised and confirmed. Findings: This paper's finding is that there is no difference between strategic thinking and the entrepreneurial mindset. Instead, the composite strategic entrepreneurial mindset construct should be treated as a unitary construct. Practical implications: The importance for practitioners is that the paper integrates two constructs, strategic thinking and entrepreneurial thinking into a new concept, strategic entrepreneurial thinking. The paper shows how difficult it is to split this thinking and behaviour into separate strategic and entrepreneurial thought and action processes. Originality/Value: The paper explores the ''thinking'' aspect of the strategic entrepreneurial concept which prominent authors on the strategic entrepreneurship topic seem to have not focused on. The resultant strategic entrepreneurial mindset is modelled into a new stand alone concept on its own.

  7. Ayahuasca enhances creative divergent thinking while decreasing conventional convergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuypers, K P C; Riba, J; de la Fuente Revenga, M; Barker, S; Theunissen, E L; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-09-01

    Ayahuasca is a South American psychotropic plant tea traditionally used in Amazonian shamanism. The tea contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine oxidase-inhibiting properties. Increasing evidence from anecdotal reports and open-label studies indicates that ayahuasca may have therapeutic effects in treatment of substance use disorders and depression. A recent study on the psychological effects of ayahuasca found that the tea reduces judgmental processing and inner reactivity, classic goals of mindfulness psychotherapy. Another psychological facet that could potentially be targeted by ayahuasca is creative divergent thinking. This mode of thinking can enhance and strengthen psychological flexibility by allowing individuals to generate new and effective cognitive, emotional, and behavioral strategies. The present study aimed to assess the potential effects of ayahuasca on creative thinking. We visited two spiritual ayahuasca workshops and invited participants to conduct creativity tests before and during the acute effects of ayahuasca. In total, 26 participants consented. Creativity tests included the "pattern/line meanings test" (PLMT) and the "picture concept test" (PCT), both assessing divergent thinking and the latter also assessing convergent thinking. While no significant effects were found for the PLMT, ayahuasca intake significantly modified divergent and convergent thinking as measured by the PCT. While convergent thinking decreased after intake, divergent thinking increased. The present data indicate that ayahuasca enhances creative divergent thinking. They suggest that ayahuasca increases psychological flexibility, which may facilitate psychotherapeutic interventions and support clinical trial initiatives.

  8. Critical Thinking versus Neurosexism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Reverter-Bañón

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to offer a view of the assumptions that guide the practice of claiming sex differences in the brain. After the realization that much of the research and publication of neuroscientific findings assume such a difference, we found a great deal of what has been called neurosexism. As a way to overcome it and from a feminist theory with a political commitment we propose a critical approach to the neurosciences. This is understood as a reflective collaboration between disciplines that could provide a framework for overcoming prejudices in thinking and designing science.

  9. Is talking to yourself thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard

    2018-01-01

    The question whether talking to yourself is thinking is considered from two viewpoints: radical behaviorism and teleological behaviorism. For radical behaviorism, following Skinner (1945), mental events such as 'thinking' may be explained in terms of private behavior occurring within the body, ordinarily unobservable by other people; thus, radical behaviorism may identify talking to yourself with thinking. However, to be consistent with its basic principles, radical behaviorism must hold that private behavior, hence thinking, is identical with covert muscular, speech movements (rather than proprioception of those movements). For teleological behaviorism, following Skinner (1938), all mental terms, including 'thinking,' stand for abstract, temporally extended patterns of overt behavior. Thus, for teleological behaviorism, talking to yourself, covert by definition, cannot be thinking. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  10. Bridging the engineering gap: integrated systems thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintré, J. R.; Delfi, M.

    2017-09-01

    On visits to rural Indonesia it is apparent that the advances made possible by technical engineered solutions, are rarely at the same pace as the human captivation of technical development. This uneven pace has limited the application of labour-saving equipment and efficiency. It is suggested to be of primary importance to advance technical application skills among communities as part of the continuous advancement cycle in our human environment. A creative approach to inclusive technology and internal transfer of equipment knowledge in society, reduces barriers and could diminish structural or societal undesired situations. Earlier theoretical concepts provide us a lens for describing the practices of habitus, conceptualization of social capital and integrated systems thinking. The interrelationship and complexities in technical and social systems requires to be investigated. This paper aims to describe those, combined with technological applications in an empirical ethnographic approach. The study analyses the negotiations of community members with the available technology. It intends to foster a better understanding of the various cultural-economic values by exploring the systems thinking theory, with a focus on rice cultivation in Indonesia, Japan and Australia. This research suggests that cultural, economic and technical advances vary considerably and human expectations are strongly influenced by local culture.

  11. CRITICAL THINKING AND ITS AFFECTING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Slameto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to measure the success rate achieved by the alumni of Open/Distance Learning (O/DL, the Bachelor Education In-service Teachers Program (BEITP, Staya Jacana Christian University(SWCU, Salatiga in their critical thinking habit that lead to their success, and to find factors which determined their critical thinking habit. The factors concerned were student factor (learning motivation, alumni’s readiness to enter ICT community, prerequisite or teacher factor (teacher’s ability in creating and using a new instructional context. This quantitative research belongs to the causality ex-post facto research. The data source was one class of O/ DL, the BEITP, SWCUstudents, who were chosen out of four classes, as many as 32 alumni in the academic year 2015/2016. Data were screened using a self-rating scale, which consisted of 40 items tested valid and reliable, and then reduced to 5 variablas. The BEITP, SWCU Salatiga had graduated most of its alumni who owned critical thinking habit at a high rate. The critical thinking habit was affected by the instructional contexts which enabled a new situation (Model 1, alumni’s readiness to enter the ICT community (Model 2, pre-requisite, i.e., mastery of previous lecture materials (Model 3, and student’s learning motivation (Model 4 to reach 81%. The alumni’s critical thinking habit of 51.20% was determined by the teacher’s role in developing instructional contexts which made a new situation possible. This finding was useful for educational quality management for the effectiveness and productivity of higher education, which should have been focused on the teacher in developing an instructional strategy based on context, alumni readiness to enter the ICT community, prerequisite, and student’s learning motivation.

  12. Organizational change through Lean Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsasis, Peter; Bruce-Barrett, Cindy

    2008-08-01

    In production and manufacturing plants, Lean Thinking has been used to improve processes by eliminating waste and thus enhancing efficiency. In health care, Lean Thinking has emerged as a comprehensive approach towards improving processes embedded in the diagnostic, treatment and care activities of health-care organizations with cost containment results. This paper provides a case study example where Lean Thinking is not only used to improve efficiency and cost containment, but also as an approach to effective organizational change.

  13. Cultural Cognition in Usability Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2009-01-01

    and evaluator. In conclusion, we point to the importance of matching the task presentation to users' cultural background, the different effects of thinking aloud on task performance between Easterners and Westerners, the differences in nonverbal behaviour that affect usability problem detection, and, finally......We discuss the impact of cultural differences on usability evaluations that are based on the thinking-aloud method (TA). The term ‘cultural differences' helps distinguish differences in the perception and thinking of Westerners (people from Western Europe and US citizens with European origins......) and Easterners (people from China and the countries heavily influenced by its culture). We illustrate the impact of cultural cognition on four central elements of TA: (1) instructions and tasks, (2) the user's verbalizations, (3) the evaluator's reading of the user, and (4) the overall relationship between user...

  14. Cultural Cognition in Usability Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2009-01-01

    and evaluator. In conclusion, we point to the importance of matching the task presentation to users’ cultural background, the different effects of thinking aloud on task performance between Easterners and Westerners, the differences in nonverbal behaviour that affect usability problem detection, and, finally......We discuss the impact of cultural differences on usability evaluations that are based on the thinking-aloud method (TA). The term ‘cultural differences’ helps distinguish differences in the perception and thinking of Westerners (people from Western Europe and US citizens with European origins......) and Easterners (people from China and the countries heavily influenced by its culture). We illustrate the impact of cultural cognition on four central elements of TA: (1) instructions and tasks, (2) the user’s verbalizations, (3) the evaluator’s reading of the user, and (4) the overall relationship between user...

  15. Cultural Cognition in Usability Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the impact of cultural differences on usability evaluations that are based on the thinking-aloud method (TA). The term ‘cultural differences’ helps distinguish differences in the perception and thinking of Westerners (people from Western Europe and US citizens with European origins......) and Easterners (people from China and the countries heavily influenced by its culture). We illustrate the impact of cultural cognition on four central elements of TA: (1) instructions and tasks, (2) the user’s verbalizations, (3) the evaluator’s reading of the user, and (4) the overall relationship between user...... and evaluator. In conclusion, we point to the importance of matching the task presentation to users’ cultural background, the different effects of thinking aloud on task performance between Easterners and Westerners, the differences in nonverbal behaviour that affect usability problem detection, and, finally...

  16. Resilience and Higher Order Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Fazey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To appreciate, understand, and tackle chronic global social and environmental problems, greater appreciation of the importance of higher order thinking is required. Such thinking includes personal epistemological beliefs (PEBs, i.e., the beliefs people hold about the nature of knowledge and how something is known. These beliefs have profound implications for the way individuals relate to each other and the world, such as how people understand complex social-ecological systems. Resilience thinking is an approach to environmental stewardship that includes a number of interrelated concepts and has strong foundations in systemic ways of thinking. This paper (1 summarizes a review of educational psychology literature on PEBs, (2 explains why resilience thinking has potential to facilitate development of more sophisticated PEBs, (3 describes an example of a module designed to teach resilience thinking to undergraduate students in ways conducive to influencing PEBs, and (4 discusses a pilot study that evaluates the module's impact. Theoretical and preliminary evidence from the pilot evaluation suggests that resilience thinking which is underpinned by systems thinking has considerable potential to influence the development of more sophisticated PEBs. To be effective, however, careful consideration of how resilience thinking is taught is required. Finding ways to encourage students to take greater responsibility for their own learning and ensuring close alignment between assessment and desired learning outcomes are particularly important.

  17. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  18. Applying critical thinking to nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bob

    2015-08-19

    Critical thinking and writing are skills that are not easy to acquire. The term 'critical' is used differently in social and clinical contexts. Nursing students need time to master the inquisitive and ruminative aspects of critical thinking that are required in academic environments. This article outlines what is meant by critical thinking in academic settings, in relation to both theory and reflective practice. It explains how the focus of a question affects the sort of critical thinking required and offers two taxonomies of learning, to which students can refer when analysing essay requirements. The article concludes with examples of analytical writing in reference to theory and reflective practice.

  19. Thinking through children's literature in the classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Torres, Agustín; Soler-Pardo, Betlem

    2014-01-01

    This book is the result of understanding literature as a central part of children's education. Fiction and nonfiction literary works constitute a source to open young minds and to help them understand how and why people - themselves included - live as they do, or to question through critical lenses whether they could live otherwise. By integrating philological, cultural, and pedagogical inquiries, Thinking through Children's Literature in the Classroom approaches the use of literature as a crucial factor to motivate students not only to improve their literacy skills, but also to develop their

  20. Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) enhances divergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Ritter, Simone M; Steenbergen, Laura

    2018-03-01

    Creativity is one of the most important cognitive skills in our complex and fast-changing world. Previous correlative evidence showed that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is involved in divergent but not convergent thinking. In the current study, a placebo/sham-controlled, randomized between-group design was used to test a causal relation between vagus nerve and creativity. We employed transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), a novel non-invasive brain stimulation technique to stimulate afferent fibers of the vagus nerve and speculated to increase GABA levels, in 80 healthy young volunteers. Creative performance was assessed in terms of divergent thinking (Alternate Uses Task) and convergent thinking tasks (Remote Associates Test, Creative Problem Solving Task, Idea Selection Task). Results demonstrate active tVNS, compared to sham stimulation, enhanced divergent thinking. Bayesian analysis reported the data to be inconclusive regarding a possible effect of tVNS on convergent thinking. Therefore, our findings corroborate the idea that the vagus nerve is causally involved in creative performance. Even thought we did not directly measure GABA levels, our results suggest that GABA (likely to be increased in active tVNS condition) supports the ability to select among competing options in high selection demand (divergent thinking) but not in low selection demand (convergent thinking). Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of the critical thinking skills of student radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Enabling students to develop critical thinking skills is one of the key aims of higher education and in preparing student radiographers for the future, there are increasing demands on educators to teach critical thinking skills to facilitate reflective, evidence-based practice and inter-professional working. The aim of the paper is to attempt to compare students' self-perception of their critical thinking skills to their actual written assessment performance. Methods: Students were asked to self-report how they thought the course had developed their critical thinking skills and the outcomes of this exercise were compared to the scores of previous assessments that required the demonstration of these skills. Results: The results suggest that whilst students report having developed critical thinking skills during the course, the results of their written assessments requiring the demonstration of these skills all had a mean score of less than 60% which indicates (in terms of the university's grade criteria guidelines) 'little attempt to use critical discussion in their work.' Discussion: Thirteen components of critical thinking are proposed, together with ways in which they could be incorporated into a radiographic curriculum. Conclusions: It is suggested that educators may need to review the constructive alignment of their curricula and re-assess their teaching and assessment strategies in order to effectively develop students' critical thinking skills

  2. Assessment of the critical thinking skills of student radiographers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, Alan [University of Portsmouth, Centre for Radiography Education, St George' s Building, Portsmouth PO1 2HY (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: alan.castle@port.ac.uk

    2006-05-15

    Purpose: Enabling students to develop critical thinking skills is one of the key aims of higher education and in preparing student radiographers for the future, there are increasing demands on educators to teach critical thinking skills to facilitate reflective, evidence-based practice and inter-professional working. The aim of the paper is to attempt to compare students' self-perception of their critical thinking skills to their actual written assessment performance. Methods: Students were asked to self-report how they thought the course had developed their critical thinking skills and the outcomes of this exercise were compared to the scores of previous assessments that required the demonstration of these skills. Results: The results suggest that whilst students report having developed critical thinking skills during the course, the results of their written assessments requiring the demonstration of these skills all had a mean score of less than 60% which indicates (in terms of the university's grade criteria guidelines) 'little attempt to use critical discussion in their work.' Discussion: Thirteen components of critical thinking are proposed, together with ways in which they could be incorporated into a radiographic curriculum. Conclusions: It is suggested that educators may need to review the constructive alignment of their curricula and re-assess their teaching and assessment strategies in order to effectively develop students' critical thinking skills.

  3. Organizational climate and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Benjamin; Ehrhart, Mark G; Macey, William H

    2013-01-01

    Organizational climate and organizational culture theory and research are reviewed. The article is first framed with definitions of the constructs, and preliminary thoughts on their interrelationships are noted. Organizational climate is briefly defined as the meanings people attach to interrelated bundles of experiences they have at work. Organizational culture is briefly defined as the basic assumptions about the world and the values that guide life in organizations. A brief history of climate research is presented, followed by the major accomplishments in research on the topic with regard to levels issues, the foci of climate research, and studies of climate strength. A brief overview of the more recent study of organizational culture is then introduced, followed by samples of important thinking and research on the roles of leadership and national culture in understanding organizational culture and performance and culture as a moderator variable in research in organizational behavior. The final section of the article proposes an integration of climate and culture thinking and research and concludes with practical implications for the management of effective contemporary organizations. Throughout, recommendations are made for additional thinking and research.

  4. Thinking in English: A New Perspective on Teaching ESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muciaccia, John B.

    2011-01-01

    "Thinking in English" represents Dr. Muciaccia's unique method of teaching English to non-native English speakers. Unlike any other English as a Second Language (ESL) book, Muciaccia's book features the "cultural immersion" approach that he has developed and practiced to a fine degree. In addition to his methodology, Muciaccia includes words of…

  5. Exploring Adolescents' Thinking about Globalization in an International Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John P.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined US high school students' thinking about economic and cultural globalization during their participation in an international education program. The findings mapped the students' categories for the two aspects of globalization and showed that the students' positions were shaped by relatively stable narratives characterizing the…

  6. Implementing entrepreneurial thinking into iSchool curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Michael Rene

    2014-01-01

    The session aims to bring together a group of researchers and educators within the iSchool community interested in implementing entrepreneurial thinking in curriculum (teaching and research). Entrepreneurship is a contemporary social and cultural movement extending beyond its starting point...

  7. Sigtuna Think Piece 7 Readings for Climate Change: Ecocriticism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This think piece elaborates possible research connections between ecocriticism and climate change educational research, addressing the overarching question of what cultural responses to climate change can offer climate change education and climate change education research. It investigates literary critic Louise ...

  8. Thinking about "Design Thinking": A Study of Teacher Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retna, Kala S.

    2016-01-01

    Schools are continuously looking for new ways of enhancing student learning to equip students with skills that would enable them to cope with twenty-first century demands. One promising approach focuses on design thinking. This study examines teacher's perceptions, experiences and challenges faced in adopting design thinking. There is a lack of…

  9. Think Piece: Re-thinking Education for Sustainable Development as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Think Piece: Re-thinking Education for Sustainable Development as Transgressive Processes of Educational Engagement with Human Conduct, Emerging ... theorising the expansive and reflexive learning of citizens and how these processes might produce the desired change towards sustainable development (SD) in ...

  10. Do Critical Thinking Exercises Improve Critical Thinking Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Ellen M.; Tally, Carrie Sacco

    2009-01-01

    Although textbooks routinely include exercises to improve critical thinking skills, the effectiveness of these exercises has not been closely examined. Additionally, the connection between critical thinking skills and formal operational thought is also relatively understudied. In the study reported here, college students completed measures of…

  11. Computational thinking in life science education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Rubinstein

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We join the increasing call to take computational education of life science students a step further, beyond teaching mere programming and employing existing software tools. We describe a new course, focusing on enriching the curriculum of life science students with abstract, algorithmic, and logical thinking, and exposing them to the computational "culture." The design, structure, and content of our course are influenced by recent efforts in this area, collaborations with life scientists, and our own instructional experience. Specifically, we suggest that an effective course of this nature should: (1 devote time to explicitly reflect upon computational thinking processes, resisting the temptation to drift to purely practical instruction, (2 focus on discrete notions, rather than on continuous ones, and (3 have basic programming as a prerequisite, so students need not be preoccupied with elementary programming issues. We strongly recommend that the mere use of existing bioinformatics tools and packages should not replace hands-on programming. Yet, we suggest that programming will mostly serve as a means to practice computational thinking processes. This paper deals with the challenges and considerations of such computational education for life science students. It also describes a concrete implementation of the course and encourages its use by others.

  12. Scientific-creative thinking and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Bermejo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the relationship between scientific-creative thinking construct and academic performance in a sample of adolescents. In addition, the scientific-creative thinking instrument’s reliability will be tested. The sample was composed of 98 students (aged between 12-16 years old attending to a Secondary School in Murcia Region (Spain. The used instruments were: a the Scientific-Creative Thinking Test designed by Hu and Adey (2002, which was adapted to the Spanish culture by the High Abilities research team at Murcia University. The test is composed of 7 task based in the Scientific Creative Structure Model. It assesses the dimensions fluency, flexibility and originality; b The General and Factorial Intelligence Test (IGF/5r; Yuste, 2002, which assess the abilities of general intelligence and logic reasoning, verbal reasoning, numerical reasoning and spatial reasoning; c Students’ academic achievement by domains (scientific-technological, social-linguistic and artistic was collected. The results showed positive and statistical significant correlations between the scientific-creative tasks and academic achievement of different domains.

  13. Gray Matter Volume of the Lingual Gyrus Mediates the Relationship between Inhibition Function and Divergent Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Although previous research provides converging evidence for the role of posterior regions of the brain (including temporal, occipital, and parietal regions involved in inhibition on creative thinking, it remains unclear as to how these regions influence individual differences in creative thinking. Thus, we explored the relationship between posterior regions (i.e., hippocampal, parahippocampal, lingual gyrus, precuneus, and cuneus , inhibition function, and divergent thinking in 128 healthy college students. The results revealed that lower inhibition was associated with larger gray matter volume (GMV in the lingual gyrus, which in turn was associated with higher divergent thinking. In addition, GMV in the lingual gyrus mediated the association between inhibition and divergent thinking. These results provide new evidence for the role of inhibition in creative thinking. Inhibition may affect the amount of information stored in long-term memory, which, in turn influences divergent thinking.

  14. Critical Thinking: Discovery of a Misconception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Sandie

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking skills in the healthcare field are imperative when making quick-thinking decisions. This descriptive comparative study investigated to what extent completing a critical thinking course improved college students' critical thinking skills. The study further investigated whether the instructors' critical thinking skills were…

  15. 'Right' way to 'do' illness? Thinking critically about positive thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, C; Jordens, C F C; Montgomery, K; Kerridge, I H

    2006-10-01

    Exhortations to 'be positive' accompany many situations in life, either as a general injunction or in difficult situations where people are facing pressure or adversity. It is particularly evident in health care, where positive thinking has become an aspect of the way people are expected to 'do' illness in developed society. Positive thinking is framed both as a moral injunction and as a central belief system. It is thought to help patients cope emotionally with illness and to provide a biological benefit. Yet, the meanings, expectations and outcomes of positive thinking are infrequently questioned and the risks of positive thinking are rarely examined. We outline some of the latter and suggest that health professionals should exercise caution in both 'prescribing' positive thinking and in responding to patients and carers whose belief systems and feelings of obligation rest on it.

  16. Thinking outside the box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksen, Peter; Magid, Jakob; de Neergaard, Torben Andreas Flach

    2009-01-01

    -oriented group work and specialized research teams was developed which successfully negotiated this divide, according to a comprehensive student evaluation. International co-operation among Denmark, Thailand, Malaysia, South Africa, Swaziland, and Botswana has revealed structural and cultural barriers...

  17. Critical thinking in physics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadidi, Farahnaz

    2016-07-01

    We agree that training the next generation of leaders of the society, who have the ability to think critically and form a better judgment is an important goal. It is a long-standing concern of Educators and a long-term desire of teachers to establish a method in order to teach to think critically. To this end, many questions arise on three central aspects: the definition, the evaluation and the design of the course: What is Critical Thinking? How can we define Critical Thinking? How can we evaluate Critical Thinking? Therefore, we want to implement Critical Thinking in physics education. How can we teach for Critical Thinking in physics? What should the course syllabus and materials be? We present examples from classical physics and give perspectives for astro-particle physics. The main aim of this paper is to answer the questions and provide teachers with the opportunity to change their classroom to an active one, in which students are encouraged to ask questions and learn to reach a good judgment. Key words: Critical Thinking, evaluation, judgment, design of the course.

  18. A Model of Historical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Peter

    2017-01-01

    "Historical thinking" has a central role in the theory and practice of history education. At a minimum, history educators must work with a model of historical thinking if they are to formulate potential progression in students' advance through a school history curriculum, test that progression empirically, and shape instructional…

  19. The Uses of Binary Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbow, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Argues that oppositional thinking, if handled in the right way, will serve as a way to avoid the very problems that Jonathan Culler and Paul de Mann are troubled by: "purity, order, and hierarchy." Asserts that binary thinking can serve to encourage difference--indeed, encourage nondominance, nontranscendence, instability, and disorder.…

  20. Perspectives on Advanced Mathematical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Annie; Selden, John

    2005-01-01

    This article sets the stage for the following 3 articles. It opens with a brief history of attempts to characterize advanced mathematical thinking, beginning with the deliberations of the Advanced Mathematical Thinking Working Group of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. It then locates the articles within 4…

  1. Holistic education and complexity thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jörg, T.

    2007-01-01

    Paper proposal for the SIG Holistic Education at AERA 2007 Title: Holistic Education and Complexity Thinking Ton Jörg IVLOS Institute of Education University of Utrecht The Netherlands A.G.D.Jorg@ivlos.uu.nl ABSTRACT In this paper I link complexity thinking with Holistic Education (HE). It is a

  2. Critical Thinking in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Changes in American education require that teachers are evaluated more often, and expectations increasingly include teaching to develop critical thinking skills. This article uses Bloom's taxonomy in describing ways physical educators can include critical thinking in their lessons, both to enhance their teaching and to meet expectations of…

  3. Scrutiny of Critical Thinking Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, Ali Mohammad Siahi; Keshtiaray, Narges; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.

    2015-01-01

    Learning critical thinking skills are the goal of educational systems so the term "critical thinking" (CT) is frequently found in educational policy documents. Despite this frequency, however, precise understandings among teachers of what CT really means do not exit. The present study is designed to answer the following question. We can…

  4. Think Crisis-Think Female : The Glass Cliff and Contextual Variation in the Think Manager-Think Male Stereotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, Michelle K.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Hersby, Mette D.; Bongiorno, Renata

    The "think manager think male" (TMTM) association underlies many gender inequalities in the workplace. However, research into the "glass cliff" has demonstrated that the suitability of male and female managers varies as a function of company performance such that in times of poor performance people

  5. Team Based Engineering Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore design thinking among teams of high school students. This objective was encompassed in the research question driving the inquiry: How do teams of high school students allocate time across stages of design? Design thinking on the professional level typically occurs in a team environment. Many…

  6. Thinking Aloud Influences Perceived Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2015-01-01

    a processing shift that overshadows the perception of time, or increase mental workload. Application: For usability evaluation, this study implies that time estimates made while thinking aloud cannot be compared with time estimates made while not thinking aloud, that ratings of systems experienced while...

  7. Mathematical Modeling and Computational Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, John F.; Naidu, Jaideep T.

    2017-01-01

    The paper argues that mathematical modeling is the essence of computational thinking. Learning a computer language is a valuable assistance in learning logical thinking but of less assistance when learning problem-solving skills. The paper is third in a series and presents some examples of mathematical modeling using spreadsheets at an advanced…

  8. A Study of Intuitive Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethe, Susan E. A. M.

    The development and use of intuitive thinking, at all levels of education, have been of concern to scholars in recent years. This paper discusses the findings and theories of various scholars about intuitive thinking and learning, including the work of Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, Richard Jones, and Robert Ornstein. The paper also explores the use…

  9. Multimodal Analysis for Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Kay L.; Tan, Sabine; E., Marissa K. L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a pedagogical approach for teaching and learning critical thinking through multimodal analysis--that is, "multimodal analysis for critical thinking". The approach builds on the conviction that students require competencies that move beyond traditional notions of literacy to meet the changing demands posed by media and…

  10. Why Common Ground Thinking Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Modesto (California) City Schools discovered common-ground thinking during a crisis over a safe-schools policy. Instead of shunning controversy, schools should face issues, invite all stakeholders, get training, formulate and approve policy, and train staff and the community to understand common-ground (religious neutrality) thinking. (MLH)

  11. Think-Aloud Reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Mette

    2018-01-01

    About the book chapter: Bengtsson investigates how selected audiences react to the implied audience in Danish political print newspaper commentary. When introducing the concept of second persona, Edwin Black only uses vague expressions like “vector of influence” and “the pull of an ideology” about...... the impact of the discursive audience construction, but instead of taking this for granted, Bengtsson uses think-aloud protocol as a way of studying an audience’s reaction, getting a better grasp of how people understand, interpret and negotiate commentator discourse. The study finds that while some people...... engage in the implied audience offered, others have strong negative reactions refusing to take it upon them. The study shows how readers react to the commentators postulating manner, and call for arguments to use in discussions with family and friend. About the book: This book examines the reception...

  12. Thinking About Global Warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.

    2006-01-01

    Attitudes toward global warming are influenced by various heuristics, which may distort policy away from what is optimal for the well-being of people. These possible distortions, or biases, include: a focus on harms that we cause, as opposed to those that we can remedy more easily; a feeling that those who cause a problem should fix it; a desire to undo a problem rather than compensate for its presence; parochial concern with one's own group (nation); and neglect of risks that are not available. Although most of these biases tend to make us attend relatively too much to global warming, other biases, such as wishful thinking, cause us to attend too little. I discuss these possible effects and illustrate some of them with an experiment conducted on the World Wide Web

  13. Bases for conceptualisation of the notion of expert thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaić Zora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade This paper presents the bases for conceptualisation of the notion of expert thinking: the key concepts from the L.S. Vygotsky's theory and modern theories of giftedness, as well as empirical findings about the differences in achievement of gifted students from different academic study groups. We first present the conceptual core of the notion of expert thinking, i.e. the concept of artificial development from the sociocultural-historical theory of Vygotsky. Then we proceed to the bases which refer to relevant theoretical discussions and empirical findings about the development of giftedness and expertise, indicating that the phenomena of giftedness and expert thinking can be considered as general developmental psychological problems and in the context of general cognitive development and thinking. Special part refers to empirical data about differences in achievement in psychological tests by the most successful intellectually gifted students from various academic study groups. The paper also includes the working definition of expert thinking, which is defined as thinking of higher order, developed under the influence of culture and systematic education, in the course of which deep knowledge structures are acquired, enabling performance of specific patterns of intellectual operations which depend on particular epistemological nature of individual knowledge domains.

  14. Contributions of Teachers' Thinking Styles to Critical Thinking Dispositions (Istanbul-Fatih Sample)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emir, Serap

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the research was to determine the contributions of the teachers' thinking styles to critical thinking dispositions. Hence, it is aimed to determine whether thinking styles are related to critical thinking dispositions and thinking styles measure critical thinking dispositions or not. The research was designed in relational…

  15. Critical thinking disposition of Hong Kong Chinese and Australian nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Agnes; Avery, Alan; Lai, Patrick

    2003-11-01

    Critical thinking is frequently cited as a desirable professional attribute and a highly valued educational outcome. Despite the abundance of literature on the subject, validation of the critical thinking construct in different cultural populations is under-researched. The purpose of this study was to compare the critical thinking dispositions of Hong Kong Chinese and Australian nursing students. A cross-sectional design was used with two groups of nursing students in two universities, one in Hong Kong and the other in Australia. Critical thinking disposition was measured using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI). Significant differences were detected in critical thinking disposition between the two groups of students (P Chinese students failing to show a positive disposition toward critical thinking on the CCTDI total mean score, while the Australian students showed a positive disposition. Similarities and differences were also noted between the groups in CCTDI subscale mean scores. The findings contribute to knowledge of critical thinking by demonstrating differences and similarities between Hong Kong Chinese and Australian nursing students. The study raises questions about the effects of institutional, educational, professional and cultural factors on the disposition to think critically.

  16. Computational thinking as an emerging competence domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yadav, A.; Good, J.; Voogt, J.; Fisser, P.; Mulder, M.

    2016-01-01

    Computational thinking is a problem-solving skill set, which includes problem decomposition, algorithmic thinking, abstraction, and automation. Even though computational thinking draws upon concepts fundamental to computer science (CS), it has broad application to all disciplines. It has been

  17. Culture evolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A.; Laland, Kevin N.; Stringer, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to facilitate cross-disciplinary fertilization. Each approach emphasizes important linkages between culture and evolutionary biology rather than quarantining one from the other. Recent studies reveal that processes important in cultural transmission are more widespread and significant across the animal kingdom than earlier recognized, with important implications for evolutionary theory. Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed back the origins of human culture to much more ancient times than traditionally thought. These developments suggest previously unidentified continuities between animal and human culture. A third new array of discoveries concerns the later diversification of human cultures, where the operations of Darwinian-like processes are identified, in part, through scientific methods borrowed from biology. Finally, surprising discoveries have been made about the imprint of cultural evolution in the predispositions of human minds for cultural transmission. PMID:21357216

  18. Culture evolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A; Laland, Kevin N; Stringer, Christopher B

    2011-04-12

    Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to facilitate cross-disciplinary fertilization. Each approach emphasizes important linkages between culture and evolutionary biology rather than quarantining one from the other. Recent studies reveal that processes important in cultural transmission are more widespread and significant across the animal kingdom than earlier recognized, with important implications for evolutionary theory. Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed back the origins of human culture to much more ancient times than traditionally thought. These developments suggest previously unidentified continuities between animal and human culture. A third new array of discoveries concerns the later diversification of human cultures, where the operations of Darwinian-like processes are identified, in part, through scientific methods borrowed from biology. Finally, surprising discoveries have been made about the imprint of cultural evolution in the predispositions of human minds for cultural transmission.

  19. Revolutionary new way to train your brain! New thinking and creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochumsen, Bente Würtz; Holm, Henrik Brøndum

    and for maintaining abilities and skills for new thinking - an important part of creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship. A continues training can change the cognitive ability and skills to think new both in the short term as well as for the rest of live as an occupational therapist. The most complex structure......As our understanding of the brain increases, it brings new insights. The Training Program for New Thinking and creativity is a revolutionary new way to development personal thinking/behavior and organizational culture among eg. OT students, OT practitioner and lecturers. It can be used for creating...... in the universe lies inside each and every one of us. It is the human brain with billions of neurons. It is still not fully understood by science. The cognitive Training in new thinking occurs relatively rarely for the vast majority of the world population. Therefore, even very little training in new thinking can...

  20. CULTURE, CULTURE LEARNING AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES: TOWARDS A PEDAGOGICAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Levy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to improve approaches to the learning and teaching of culture using new technologies by relating the key qualities and dimensions of the culture concept to elements within a pedagogical framework. In Part One, five facets of the culture concept are developed: culture as elemental; culture as relative; culture as group membership; culture as contested; and culture as individual (variable and multiple. Each perspective aims to provide a focus for thinking about culture, and thereby to provide a valid and useful point of departure for thinking about the practice of culture learning and teaching with new technologies. The referenced literature draws from a broad range of disciplines and definitions of culture. In Part Two, five projects are chosen to represent relevant technologies currently in use for culture learning: e-mail, chat, a discussion forum and a Web-based project. Each project is used to illustrate facets of the culture concept discussed in Part One with a view to identifying key elements within a pedagogical framework that can help us respond effectively to the challenge of culture learning and teaching utilising new technologies. Thus the goal is to align fundamental qualities of the culture concept with specific pedagogical designs, tasks and technologies.

  1. Critical Thinking in the Nursing Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mary A.; Malcolm, Nancy S.

    1990-01-01

    Offers suggestions about encouraging nursing students to expand their critical thinking skills. Reviews the attitudes, knowledge, and cognitive skills needed for developing critical thinking skills. (JOW)

  2. "Não faz mal pensar que não se está só": estilo, produção cultural e feminismo entre as minas do rock em São Paulo "Doesn't hurt to think you're not alone": style, cultural production, and feminism among the riot grrrls in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Facchini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura contribuir para a compreensão das diversas formas assumidas pelo ativismo político no Brasil contemporâneo, enfocando especificamente a intersecção entre política e estilo no feminismo das minas do rock. Para tanto, recupera material fruto de pesquisa etnográfica realizada entre 2004 e 2007 na cena paulistana do rock de mina. A análise propõe considerar o caráter espetacular do estilo como forma de "dar-se a ver" e comunicar-se, assim como tomar em conta as múltiplas relações de poder nas quais se inscreve o que é comunicado. Desse modo, sugere pensar os estilos como operadores de diferenças, levando em conta que não são produzidos por sujeitos pré-dados, que agem de forma inteiramente consciente em relação aos efeitos provocados por dada composição de aparência, atitude e música. Ao contrário, considera que os sujeitos se constituem no processo de citar e deslocar normas sociais e que isso pode se dar no processo de composição de um estilo.This article aims to offer a contribution to the understanding of the various forms assumed by political activism in contemporary Brazil, focusing specifically on the intersection between politics and style in the riot grrrls' feminism. In order to do that, it rescues material originated from ethnographic research carried out between 2004 and 2007 in the São Paulo riot grrrls' scene. The research coincides with a specific moment of this scene, marked by its expansion, indicated by the growth of the volume of activities and of its visibility, and by the organization of annual editions of the LadyFest Brasil - a cultural festival devised by women and for women that resumed and symbolized the scene's spirit, also integrating it to the calendar of international festivals of the same kind. The analysis proposes to consider the spectacular character of the style as a form of "making oneself visible" and of communicating with one another, as well as to consider the

  3. Cultural resource management and the necessity of cultural and natural resource collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick Kevin Donald; Kara Kusche; Collin Gaines

    2005-01-01

    Cultural Resource Specialists function as interpreters of past and present human behavior through the analysis of cultural/natural resources vital to human ecological sustainability. When developing short and long-term preservation strategies for cultural resources, it is more current and innovative for Cultural Resource Specialists to think of past human populations...

  4. The effects of attachment components on formal-operational thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukčević Branimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work our aim is to examine how the components of attachment influence the thinking development of adolescents in familial context. We investigated the components of attachment: unresolved family traumatisation, the use of external security base, fear of loss of external security base, negative self concept, negative other concept, capacity for mentalisation, low control of anger. We used a revised Questionnaire for Assessment of Adult and Adolescent Attachment (in original: UPIPAV-R. Formal operations were tested by Bond's Logical Operations Test. We examined the cultural-pedagogical status of the family, the parental mediation characteristic for the development of formal operations, and family property as the aspects of familial context. The sample consisted of 200 pupils aged 14 to 19. According to the attachment theory, secure attachment provides the feel of security in environment exploration, which is the ground of personality development. We assumed that components of attachment contribute formal-operational thinking development and change the influence of familial cultural-supportive tools. The findings show us that the culturalpedagogical status of the family improves formal operations development and unresolved family traumatisation has negative influence. Capacity for mentalisation has a positive indirect effect on thinking development through the influence of the cultural-pedagogical status of the family. The low control of anger has a negative indirect effect on thinking development; it increases the influence of unresolved family traumatisation. Negative self concept has indirect effects on thinking development through increasing this negative influence of unresolved family traumatisation and decreasing the role of familial cultural-supportive tools.

  5. Teaching critical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, N G; Wieman, Carl E; Bonn, D A

    2015-09-08

    The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and although it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models. This study reports the results of applying that structure in an introductory physics laboratory course. Students in an experimental condition were repeatedly instructed to make and act on quantitative comparisons between datasets, and between data and models, an approach that is common to all science disciplines. These instructions were slowly faded across the course. After the instructions had been removed, students in the experimental condition were 12 times more likely to spontaneously propose or make changes to improve their experimental methods than a control group, who performed traditional experimental activities. The students in the experimental condition were also four times more likely to identify and explain a limitation of a physical model using their data. Students in the experimental condition also showed much more sophisticated reasoning about their data. These differences between the groups were seen to persist into a subsequent course taken the following year.

  6. Think Before You Click

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Be aware of what attachments you open and what Internet programs you agree to download, the simple click of a mouse can be enough to introduce a virus at CERN and cause widespread damage. Modern viruses are a serious threat to our computers and networks. CERN limits the security risks that these programs pose through the use of its firewall, by constantly updating its anti-virus software, by detecting un-patched security holes, and by blocking many dangerous attachments as they pass through e-mail gateways, but these defenses do not guarantee 100% security. Our habits of clicking "ok" automatically on the Internet and opening attachments without thinking, are the behaviors that modern viruses are using to get past our security protections. Viruses can sit on the Internet waiting for us to activate them as we surf the web. Many of us simply click 'ok' when presented with dialogue boxes and this is exactly what the virus wants: clicking can be enough to download and infect our computers. Viruses can travel as...

  7. Thinking With Disability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Erevelles

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I offer tentative ruminations about the possibilities/challenges of theory and praxis in the field of disability studies. I begin the essay by thinking through my own positionality as a non-disabled woman of color scholar/ally in the field. Cautiously situating myself in a location of outsider-within (Hill-Collins,1998, I explore how disability studies is disruptive of any boundaries that claim to police distinctions between disabled/non-disabled subject positions. Noting the dangers of claiming that everyone is disabled at some historical moment, I propose instead a relational analysis to engage the materiality of disability at the intersections of race, class, gender, nation, and sexual identity within specific historical contexts and discuss the complicated impasses that continue to plague disability studies at these intersections. I conclude the essay by recognizing the labor of scholar/activists in the field who call for a committed politics of accountability and access via disability justice.    Keywords: disability studies, historical materialism, identity politics and intersectionality, disability justice, politics of accountability/allyship

  8. Thinking Outside the Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colter, Tabitha

    2017-01-01

    As an undergraduate physics major who spent 2015 deep in a quantum optics lab at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, I knew my 2016 experience with the House of Representatives Energy and Commerce Committee would be a completely new challenge. I have long had a passion for the bridge of communication between the technical and non-technical worlds but it was only through my AIP Mather internship this summer that I was able to see that passion come to life in the realm of science policy. Suddenly, I went from squeezing political philosophy classes into my packed schedule to witnessing the political process first-hand. I was thrilled to find that the skills of critical thinking and communicating complex issues I have developed throughout my training as a physicist were directly applicable to my work in Congress. Overall, my experience this summer has given me insight into the inner workings of the federal policy process, deepened my appreciation for the work of government employees to keep Congressional members informed on the pressing current issues, and exposed me to a whole range of alternative careers within science. AIP and SPS

  9. The Factors Affecting Techno-Pedagogical Competencies and Critical Thinking Skills of Preservice Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Avni

    2017-01-01

    Students' high-level thinking skills, like critical thinking, have been developed thanks to the use of technology. When the previous researches in the literature are analyzed, it will be understood that this research is original by providing significant contributions to the literature. This research aims to investigate whether techno-pedagogical…

  10. Language and Culture: Nigerian Perspective | Obiegbu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The power of language to reflect culture and influence thinking was first proposed by an American linguist and anthropologist, Edward Sapir (1884-1939) and his student, Benjamin Whorf (1897-1941). The Saphir-Whorf hypothesis stated that the way we think and view the world is determined by our language. This theory ...

  11. Mobile learning and computational thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Freixo Nunes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Computational thinking can be thought of as an approach to problem solving which has been applied to different areas of learning and which has become an important field of investigation in the area of educational research. [continue

  12. Solution Prototyping with Design Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    Information and knowledge workers as well as other employees who are not part of a research or product development team are barely exposed to innovation creation processes. Design Thinking as an innovation method is typi- cally used in R&D. This research analyses whether a short-cycled Design Think......- ing method can be developed, so employees outside R&D can be taken out of their daily jobs and innovate without falling too much behind with their opera- tional work. Alongside with short-cycled DT session there are potential impacts on business and hence on management. Business Thinking barriers...... are tried to be broken and Design Thinking advantages are increasingly preferred by man- agement. This case study based paper provides key insights into how DT phases and behavior can be changed for creating synergy across employees, manage- ment and products from which the end-consumer benefits. The Social...

  13. Solution Prototyping with Design Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Information and knowledge workers as well as other employees who are not part of a research or product development team are barely exposed to innovation creation processes. Design Thinking as an innovation method is typi- cally used in R&D. This research analyses whether a short-cycled Design Think......- ing method can be developed, so employees outside R&D can be taken out of their daily jobs and innovate without falling too much behind with their opera- tional work. Alongside with short-cycled DT session there are potential impacts on business and hence on management. Business Thinking barriers...... are tried to be broken and Design Thinking advantages are increasingly preferred by man- agement. This case study based paper provides key insights into how DT phases and behavior can be changed for creating synergy across employees, manage- ment and products from which the end-consumer benefits. The Social...

  14. Component processes underlying future thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Ortoleva, Claudia; Jumentier, Sabrina; Van der Linden, Martial

    2010-09-01

    This study sought to investigate the component processes underlying the ability to imagine future events, using an individual-differences approach. Participants completed several tasks assessing different aspects of future thinking (i.e., fluency, specificity, amount of episodic details, phenomenology) and were also assessed with tasks and questionnaires measuring various component processes that have been hypothesized to support future thinking (i.e., executive processes, visual-spatial processing, relational memory processing, self-consciousness, and time perspective). The main results showed that executive processes were correlated with various measures of future thinking, whereas visual-spatial processing abilities and time perspective were specifically related to the number of sensory descriptions reported when specific future events were imagined. Furthermore, individual differences in self-consciousness predicted the subjective feeling of experiencing the imagined future events. These results suggest that future thinking involves a collection of processes that are related to different facets of future-event representation.

  15. DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES INFLUENCING INDIVIDUAL ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION AND STRATEGIC THINKING CAPABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Jelenc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Strategic thinking capability is interesting part of the cognitive development of each entrepreneur. This paper develops on notion that there a number of demographic variables that shape the behavior of each particular elements of entrepreneurial orientation and strategic component of each entrepreneur. The demographic variable that have significant role will take the role of moderator in further research. Since both constructs are multidimensional, the demographic variables are not influencing them in the same way. The empirical research has been performed on IT firms in Croatia in 2014. Individual entrepreneurial orientation is measured by the construct developed by Bolton and Lane’s (2012 individual entrepreneurial orientation instrument. The instrument is grounded in the seminal work of Miller (1983, Covin and Slevin (1986; 1988; 1989, Lumpkin and Dess (1996 and Covin and Wales (2011; consisting of three dimensions – risk-taking, innovation, and proactiveness. Strategic thinking was measured by Pisapia’s (2009 Strategic thinking questionnaire (STQ. The STQ asked respondents to rate how often they use systems thinking, reframing, and reflecting skills. Within the framework of individual entrepreneurial orientation the following demographic variables shape the trends: age, gender, education abroad and previous experience. Entrepreneurs between 40-60 years old are less prone to risk, female entrepreneurs are more proactive than men, education abroad provides with the additional proactiveness and the entrepreneur with previous experience is prone to higher risk, proactiveness and innovativeness. Within the framework of strategic thinking capability the following demographic variables shape the trends: age, gender, education and experience. Entrepreneurs older than 60 score high on system thinking as well as females, females also score higher on reframing. Entrepreneurs with PhD degree score lower on reframing, while managers working more

  16. Advanced Analytic Cognition: Thinking Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Dispositions: From Transmission to Enculturation ," Theory into Practice, Vol. 32, No. 3, 1993, pp. 147-148. 8 Distribution A. Approved for public...E. & Perkins, D.N. "Teaching Thinking Dispositions: From Transmission to Enculturation ," Theory into Practice, Vol. 32, No. 3, 1993, p. 148. 10...Jay, E. & Perkins, D.N. "Teaching Thinking Dispositions: From Transmission to Enculturation ," Theory into Practice, Vol. 32, No. 3, 1993, p. 148. 19

  17. Advanced Analytic Cognition: Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Teaching Thinking: Issues and Approaches141 (1990)  “Teaching Thinking Dispositions: from Transmission to Enculturation ”142 (1993...Dispositions: From Transmission to Enculturation ," Theory into Practice, Vol. 32, No. 3, 1993, pp. 147-153. 52 Distribution A. Approved for public...Journal, Vol. 38, No. 2, 2004, pp. 56-62. Florence, M.K. & Yore, L.D. "Learning to Write Like a Scientist: Coauthoring as an Enculturation Task

  18. Design Thinking metodika Design Sprint

    OpenAIRE

    Kubáč, David

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this bachelor thesis is to introduce the Design Sprint method to readers on both theoretical level and practical level of understanding. The bachelor thesis itself is composed of five chapters: The first chapter speaks about the topic, goals, and the structure. The second chapter introduces to readers the term of Design Thinking and the concept behind it as well as methods that are based on Design Thinking followed by the third chapter, in which the Design Sprint is intr...

  19. Sexuality and psychoanalytic aggrandisement: Freud's 1908 theory of cultural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti, Patricia

    2011-03-01

    In 1908, in his article "'Civilized" sexual morality and modern nervous illness', Freud presented neuroses as the consequence of a restrictive state of cultural development and its 'civilized morality'. He found the inspiration for this idea by expanding upon previous formulations in this area by his predecessors (notably Christian von Ehrenfels) that focused on a cultural process earlier introduced by Kant, while also integrating in his analysis the principles of Haeckel's evolutionism (history of development, recapitulation) which eventually re-defined the psychoanalytic theory of neuroses. These new theoretical elements became the basis of psychoanalytic theory and thereby influenced subsequent thinking in the cultural process itself and in human sciences. This transformation of underlying theory provided a unique historical and analytical framework for psychoanalysis which allowed Freud to claim for it a pre-eminent position among the human sciences.

  20. "Think" Pragmatically: Children's Interpretation of Belief Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shevaun; Hacquard, Valentine; Lidz, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Children under 4 years of age often evaluate belief reports based on reality instead of beliefs. They tend to reject sentences like, "John thinks that giraffes have stripes" on the grounds that giraffes do not have stripes. Previous accounts have proposed that such judgments reflect immature Theory of Mind or immature syntactic/semantic…

  1. Act local, think global

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Chris; McRoberts, Doug

    2002-01-01

    Tip O'Neill, one of the grand old men of modem US politics, once famously remarked that all politics is local. Like most politicians who succeed on the national stage - and not just in the US - it was a truth he never lost sight of. What is true for politicians is equally true in the communications business. We may increasingly live in a global village, but successful companies - even multi-nationals - forget the importance of local and regional public relations at their peril. Think of Douglas Ivester, the CEO of Coca-Cola at the time of the 1999 Belgian contamination scandal, who allegedly reacted to first reports of the crisis by asking: 'Where the hell is Belgium?' A more appropriate question today - several years after Coke's share price toppled and the CEO was unceremoniously sacked - might be: 'Who the hell is Douglas Nester?' But - to adapt another famous phrase - the fact that communications (and marketing) professionals still need to 'act local' as much as ever before should not blind us to the growing need to 'think global'. In the nuclear industry, as in the world economy generally, increasing global integration is a reality, as are the international nature of the news media and the increasingly global nature of the anti-nuclear pressure groups. Indeed, it was the growing need for a truly global information network to counter these trends, by increasing the overall speed and accuracy of the worldwide nuclear information flow, that led the nuclear community to establish NucNet in 1991. So where exactly is the line between local and regional nuclear communications on the one hand, and global communications on the other? Is there one spin for a regional audience, and another for a global audience? This presentation proposes some guiding principles, by examining the response of nuclear communicators world-wide to the new communications agenda imposed in the wake of the September 11th suicide attacks in the US. NucNet President Doug McRoberts and Executive

  2. Culture Jamming Versus Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardia Acynthia Putri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This literature study researched Adbusters, the anti-commercial organization, and described the organization’s activities and media usage, mainly in the period of 2007-2010, which critized the populer culture. Adbusters is an organization which performs “Culture Jamming”; a rebellious act reacting towards commercialism domination in many aspects including popular culture. Compared to other similar organizations, Adbusters has been executing more various activisms using several media which other organizations do not use. This study used the Adbusters’ official website and blogs as main data sources. The data of Adbusters’ activities and media usage were categorized and analyzed, thus the tendency of its development can be described. This study also analyzed Adbusters’ activity using Media Hegemony Theory and Political Economy Media Theory. The media has been dominated by a certain group that owns politic and economic power, so the information flow has been dominated by them. Media and its contents have been commercialized, thus capitalism and commercialism have been considered as a common system that should run the world. Adbusters has been trying to stop the domination and change the society’s way of thinking into a more critical way of thinking.   Abstrak: Studi literatur ini meneliti tentang Adbusters, sebuah organisasi anti komersial, dengan mendeskripsikan aktivitas serta penggunaan media organisasi tersebut dari tahun 2007-2010 dalam mengkritisi budaya populer. Adbusters adalah organisasi yang melakukan Culture Jamming, aksi perlawanan terhadap dominasi komersialisme di segala aspek termasuk popular culture. Dibandingkan dengan organisasi lain yang serupa, aktivitas Adbusters lebih bervariasi dan menggunakan media-media yang tidak biasa digunakan organisasi lain. Penelitian ini menggunakan situs online resmi Adbusters sebagai sumber data utama. Data mengenai aktivitas dan

  3. Critical thinking as an outcome of a Master's degree in Nursing programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    This paper is a report of a study measuring critical thinking ability in graduates on completion of a Master's degree in Nursing. Nurse education programmes identify the development of critical thinking capabilities as a central outcome for graduates at Master's level. However, despite the centrality of critical thinking to educational curricula, achievement of this outcome has not been evaluated. A cross-sectional cohort study was conducted in Ireland between 2006 and 2007. Critical thinking was measured using the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal tool. The sample consisted of two cohorts: a control cohort (110 students commencing Master's in Nursing programmes) and an outcome cohort (222 students who had a Master's degree in Nursing). The Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal scores of the graduate cohort were also compared to previously published norm reference scores in the area of nursing and other higher education professional groups. Graduates had statistically significantly higher critical thinking scores than commencing graduates. Graduates from Master's in Nursing programmes also had similar critical thinking scores to nurses at undergraduate and postgraduate levels in the United States of America. However, scores were lower than those of occupational and academic groups in education and medicine. Graduates from a Master's degree in Nursing make statistically significant gains in critical thinking scores when compared to students commencing the programme. However, the gains were relatively modest and call into question the effectiveness of pedagogical methods used to facilitate the development of critical thinking at Master's level.

  4. Narrative thematic analysis of baccalaureate nursing students' reflections: critical thinking in the clinical education context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, Jessica L; Hall, Joanne; Schadler, Craig Matthew

    2014-09-01

    This study sought to identify characteristics of clinically situated critical thinking in nursing students' reflections, originally part of a study guided by Richard Paul's model of critical thinking. Nurses are expected to apply critical thinking in all practice situations to improve health outcomes, including patient safety and satisfaction. In a previous study, Paul's model of critical thinking was used to develop questions for reflective writing assignments. Within that study, 30 nursing students completed six open-ended narratives of nurse-patient clinical encounters during an 8-week period. Improvements were seen in critical thinking scores after the intervention. This article reports the qualitative analysis of the content of six open-ended narratives. Six overarching themes were identified and combined into a tentative conceptual model. Faculty's understanding of the characteristics of critical thinking in the context of clinical education will help them to teach and evaluate students' progress and competencies for future practice.

  5. Applying the Cultural Approach to Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvain, Mary; Beebe, Heidi; Zhao, Shuheng

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive development is a cultural process. More experienced cultural members and the practices, institutions, and artifacts of the culture provide support and guidance for children as they develop knowledge and thinking skills. In this article, the authors describe the value that is added to our understanding of cognitive development when…

  6. Cultural Intentionality: The Core of Effective Helping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Allen E.

    1987-01-01

    Responds to Lloyd by cautioning counselors regarding the centrality of multicultural awareness in counseling curricula. Maintains the primacy of culture cannot be denied as the first dimension in our thinking as professional helpers. Cultural intentionality is proposed as a metagoal of the helping process--the integration of cultural awareness…

  7. When Cultures Clash: Views from the Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedderich, Norbert

    1999-01-01

    Interviewed German and American employees to investigate cultural differences at the workplace, examining their views on culture clash and collecting examples of situations involving miscommunication due to cultural differences. Employees described differences in such areas as work atmospheres, working hours, thinking styles, greetings, work pace,…

  8. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  9. Think It Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By the fact stated in the previous paragraph, each of these integrals is zero and hence the integral over the big rectangular region is also zero. Once again applying the same fact gives us that one of the sides ~f the big rectangle must have integer length. There will be more discussion on this problem in the Classroom.

  10. Critical thinking and systems thinking: towards a critical literacy for systems thinking in practice

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Martin

    2011-01-01

    About the book:\\ud In reflective problem solving and thoughtful decision making using critical thinking one considers evidence, the context of judgment, the relevant criteria for making the judgment well, the applicable methods or techniques for forming the judgment, and the applicable theoretical constructs for understanding the problem and the question at hand. In this book, the authors present topical research in the study of critical thinking. Topics discussed include developing critical ...

  11. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking: Integrating Online Tools to Promote Critical Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    B. Jean Mandernach

    2006-01-01

    The value and importance of critical thinking is clearly established; the challenge for instructors lies in successfully promoting students’ critical thinking skills within the confines of a traditional classroom experience. Since instructors are faced with limited student contact time to meet their instructional objectives and facilitate learning, they are often forced to make instructional decisions between content coverage, depth of understanding, and critical analysis of course materia...

  12. Traduções culturais do livro Como pensamos, da coleção Atualidades Pedagógicas (1933-1981 - Cultural translations of the book How to think in the collection Atualidades Pedagógicas (1933-1981

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita de Almeida Toledo, Brasil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Com esse trabalho objetiva-se analisar os deslocamentos de sentido que são atribuídos à tradução do título de John Dewey Como pensamos, em cada uma das quatro versões, publicada na Coleção Atualidades Pedagógicas, pela Companhia Editora Nacional, ao longo do século 20. Para tanto, toma-se por objeto os dispositivos editoriais e tipográficos de apoio à leitura, acrescidos a cada uma das versões. A coleção estudada é tomada como objeto cultural que, constitutivamente, guarda as marcas de sua produção e de seus usos, entendida como estratégia editorial de difusão de saberes pedagógicos e de normatização das práticas escolares. Esta coleção foi utilizada nos cursos de formação docente, compondo as bibliotecas de faculdades de Pedagogia, Educação, Psicologia, de Escolas Normais e de Magistério. Ela é componente das práticas que se instauram no processo de constituição da cultura pedagógica e das práticas de formação dos professores no Brasil, nas décadas em que circulou.Palavras-chave: tradução cultural, atualidades pedagógicas, como pensamos.  Cultural translations of the  book How to think in the collection Atualidades Pedagógicas (1933-1981 AbstractThe objective of this work is the analysis of the meaning changes on the translation of John Dewey’s How to think in each one of the four versions, published in the Coleção Atualidades Pedagógicas, by the Companhia Editora Nacional, thru the Twentieth Century. The editorial and printing special style typefaces added in each of the versions are used to perform this study. The collection is taken as a cultural object that keeps its production and usage boundaries, understood as editing diffusion strategies of pedagogical knowledge and school practices standards. This collection was used at training colleges, included in libraries of Pedagogy, Education, Psychology and Teaching superior and technical level schools. This collection had strong influence

  13. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking: Integrating Online Tools to Promote Critical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jean Mandernach

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The value and importance of critical thinking is clearly established; the challenge for instructors lies in successfully promoting students’ critical thinking skills within the confines of a traditional classroom experience. Since instructors are faced with limited student contact time to meet their instructional objectives and facilitate learning, they are often forced to make instructional decisions between content coverage, depth of understanding, and critical analysis of course material. To address this dilemma, it is essential to integrate instructional strategies and techniques that can efficiently and effectively maximize student learning and critical thinking. Modern advances in educational technology have produced a range of online tools to assist instructors in meeting this instructional goal. This review will examine the theoretical foundations of critical thinking in higher education, discuss empirically-based strategies for integrating online instructional supplements to enhance critical thinking, offer techniques for expanding instructional opportunities outside the limitations of traditional class time, and provide practical suggestions for the innovative use of critical thinking strategies via online resources.

  14. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking: Integrating Online Tools to Promote Critical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jean Mandernach, PhD

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The value and importance of critical thinking is clearly established; the challenge for instructors lies in successfully promoting students’ critical thinking skills within the confines of a traditional classroom experience. Since instructors are faced with limited student contact time to meet their instructional objectives and facilitate learning, they are often forced to make instructional decisions between content coverage, depth of understanding, and critical analysis of course material. To address this dilemma, it is essential to integrate instructional strategies and techniques that can efficiently and effectively maximize student learning and critical thinking. Modern advances in educational technology have produced a range of online tools to assist instructors in meeting this instructional goal. This review will examine the theoretical foundations of critical thinking in higher education, discuss empirically-based strategies for integrating online instructional supplements to enhance critical thinking, offer techniques for expanding instructional opportunities outside the limitations of traditional class time, and provide practical suggestions for the innovative use of critical thinking strategies via online resources.

  15. Developing thinking skill system for modelling creative thinking and critical thinking of vocational high school student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewanto, W. K.; Agustianto, K.; Sari, B. E.

    2018-01-01

    Vocational students must have practical skills in accordance with the purpose of vocational school that creating the skilled graduates according to their field. Graduates of vocational education are required not just as users, but be able to create. Thus requiring critical and creative thinking skills to assist students in generating ideas, analyzing and creating a product of value. Based on this, then this research aims to develop a system to know the level of ability to think critically and creative students, that resulted students can do self-reflection in improving the ability to think critically and creatively as a supporter of practical ability. The system testing using Naïve Bayes Correlation shown an average accuracy of 93.617% in assessing the students’ critical and creative thinking ability. By using modeling with this system will be known level of students’ critical and creative thinking ability, then the output of the system is used to determine the type of innovation in the learning process to improve the critical and creative thinking skills to support the practical skills of students as skilled vocational students.

  16. Re-thinking reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    suggested that professional practitioners and students could and should develop their work and skills by thinking critically about their actions. However, over the last twenty years, the ideas about reflective practice – what it means and how it is done – have moved away form their radical roots. The idea......The paper presents a socio-cultural perspective on supervision in professional education, which challenges the current reflective paradigm and move the debate on reflection in supervision in professional education and learning towards a recognition of context, power dynamics and ideological...... challenge. Reflection has moved from the margins to the mainstream in the field of supervision, especially as this is conceptualized and operationalized in professional education. In the 1980s, ideas about the importance of reflection in professional practice, and especially in professional education...

  17. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  18. Learning about the world: developing higher order thinking in music education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Kruger

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Innovative thinking is an innate human capacity geared towards adaptation and survival. Theories of education accordingly aim at developing teaching-learning strategies that promote creative, problem-solving reasoning referred to as higher order thinking. This essay briefly explains some of the assumptions underlying this concept, and then suggests how they may be reconfigured in a strategy suitable for education in and through music. The strategy involves a basic process of analysis, evaluation and creativity related to actual social experience. Higher order thinking therefore aims to equip learners with the capacity to synthesise relationships in and beyond particular fields of study so that their thinking may expand into the concreteness of the world. Keywords: social challenges, higher order thinking, education, music education, culture contact, Frère Jacques Disciplines: Disciplines: education, music education, musicology, history, anthropology, folklore studies, philosophy of art

  19. How does language shape the way we think

    OpenAIRE

    Tuszynski, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Is it right to claim that the language, which we speak, strongly influences the way we think and behave? Do linguistic habits of cultures and nations create main differences in how people perceive and conceptualize reality? This thesis reviews and examines the most famous and influential formulations of the above problem conceived by Benjamin Lee Whorf, known as the linguistic relativity principle and demonstrates that even tough the turbulent intellectual climate and modern knowledge have mo...

  20. Concerning technology: thinking with Heidegger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzelsberger, Hilde M

    2004-10-01

    In human lives, technology holds sway in mundane and extraordinary ways, such as in the ways we work, entertain, transport, and feed ourselves, and importantly in the ways we encounter and manage health, disease, illness, and death. A significant area of Heidegger's later work is questioning technology. Unlike many current inquiries that centre on contemporary technology's function, utility, and positive transformations, Heidegger offers a radical way of thinking about technology through developing an inquiry that uncovers technology's essence of revealing. In this article, Heidegger's thinking about technological modes of revealing in regard to bodies, health, and illness is explored. In Heidegger's view, the ordered revealing of modern technology has overshadowed other modes of revealing. This article highlights how remembering concealment and unconcealment in its many modes can be relevant to nurses and others involved in health care. Through tracing Heidegger's thinking about technology, a more critical approach to the effects and outcomes of modern technologies within health care systems can be generated.

  1. Thinking, the Unconscious and Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, we explore a non-standard model of the unconscious, what Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari call the “productive unconscious,” to correct the too-often reductive tendencies of psychoanalysis and film. This introduces the image of a form of thinking we may find in our encounters with film that aims more at pleasure-taking than problem-solving and that, in so doing, really gets us to think. Drawing on this productive unconscious, we come to a richer appreciation of classic Hollywood cinema, a new understanding of classic, nouveau vague and neo-realist films, and we enjoy the chance to ignore the rules and reconsider thinking in philosophy and film.

  2. The art of thinking clearly

    CERN Document Server

    Dobelli, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The Art of Thinking Clearly by world-class thinker and entrepreneur Rolf Dobelli is an eye-opening look at human psychology and reasoning — essential reading for anyone who wants to avoid “cognitive errors” and make better choices in all aspects of their lives. Have you ever: Invested time in something that, with hindsight, just wasn’t worth it? Or continued doing something you knew was bad for you? These are examples of cognitive biases, simple errors we all make in our day-to-day thinking. But by knowing what they are and how to spot them, we can avoid them and make better decisions. Simple, clear, and always surprising, this indispensable book will change the way you think and transform your decision-making—work, at home, every day. It reveals, in 99 short chapters, the most common errors of judgment, and how to avoid them.

  3. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  4. Research Based Learning (RBL: How to Improve Critical Thinking Skills?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptuti Susiani Tri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical thinking is a part of the 21th century necessary skills trained to future teachers. Research-based learning (RBL presents as an alternative learning model that can develop the critical thinking skills. This study aims at describing the effect of the implementation of the research-based Learning (RBL to develop future teachers’ critical thinking skills. Qualitative approach was used in this classroom research. The participants in this study consisted of 106 future teachers. Data were collected using observation and test. The results of the research indicate that the implementation research-based learning (RBL can develop critical thinking skills. It is proved by the fact that the students were able to show their interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference and explanation abilities. Meanwhile, aspect of self- regulation ability has not yet been able to be found. This research were used to make more sure previous research that implementation of the RBL can improve the quality learning process and make positive changes for the students in the intellectual and emotional. This research provides a different learning experience which can develop critical thinking skill.

  5. Gaming science: the “Gamification” of scientific thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Bradley J.; Croker, Steve; Zimmerman, Corinne; Gill, Devin; Romig, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Science is critically important for advancing economics, health, and social well-being in the twenty-first century. A scientifically literate workforce is one that is well-suited to meet the challenges of an information economy. However, scientific thinking skills do not routinely develop and must be scaffolded via educational and cultural tools. In this paper we outline a rationale for why we believe that video games have the potential to be exploited for gain in science education. The premise we entertain is that several classes of video games can be viewed as a type of cultural tool that is capable of supporting three key elements of scientific literacy: content knowledge, process skills, and understanding the nature of science. We argue that there are three classes of mechanisms through which video games can support scientific thinking. First, there are a number of motivational scaffolds, such as feedback, rewards, and flow states that engage students relative to traditional cultural learning tools. Second, there are a number of cognitive scaffolds, such as simulations and embedded reasoning skills that compensate for the limitations of the individual cognitive system. Third, fully developed scientific thinking requires metacognition, and video games provide metacognitive scaffolding in the form of constrained learning and identity adoption. We conclude by outlining a series of recommendations for integrating games and game elements in science education and provide suggestions for evaluating their effectiveness. PMID:24058354

  6. Stakeholder Thinking in Sustainability Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Hove Henriksen, Morten; Frier, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The objective of the paper is to describe and discuss how the biotech company Novozymes integrates stakeholder thinking into everyday sustainability practices. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on first-hand experiences as well as secondary information from Novozymes...... to make sense of stakeholder thinking. Originality/value – The contribution of this paper is to provide a detailed analysis of how various stakeholder relations management methods can be used in practice to integrate sustainability in an organisation....

  7. Re-thinking residential mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  8. ThinkSpace: Spatial Thinking in Middle School Astronomy Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Plummer, Julia; Sadler, Philip M.; Johnson, Erin; Sunbury, Susan; Zhang, Helen; Dussault, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Critical breakthroughs in science (e.g., Einstein's Theory of General Relativity, and Watson & Crick's discovery of the structure of DNA), originated with those scientists' ability to think spatially, and research has shown that spatial ability correlates strongly with likelihood of entering a career in STEM. Mounting evidence also shows that spatial skills are malleable, i.e., they can be improved through training. We report early work from a new project that will build on this research to create a series of middle schools science labs called "Thinking Spatially about the Universe" (ThinkSpace), in which students will use a blend of physical and virtual models (in WorldWide Telescope) to explore complex 3-dimensional phenomena in space science. In the three-year ThinkSpace labs project, astronomers, technologists, and education researchers are collaborating to create and test a suite of three labs designed to improve learners' spatial abilities through studies of: 1) Moon phases and eclipses; 2) planetary systems around stars other than the Sun; and 3.) celestial motions within the broader universe. The research program will determine which elements in the labs will best promote improvement of spatial skills within activities that emphasize disciplinary core ideas; and how best to optimize interactive dynamic visualizations to maximize student understanding.

  9. Think Tank Initiative and Think Tank Fund Peer Exchanges | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    -foster strong relations among the participants and their organizations through collaborative projects in comparative policy research and organizational development issues; -conduct a comparative study on the barriers to think tank collaboration; and, -evaluate this approach as a useful method to improve and encourage ...

  10. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Margaret; Bahr, Nan

    2010-01-01

    The literature on critical thinking in higher education is constructed around the fundamental assumption that, while regarded as essential, is neither clearly nor commonly understood. There is elsewhere evidence that academics and students have differing perceptions of what happens in university classrooms, particularly in regard to higher order…

  11. Intrapersonal positive future thinking predicts repeat suicide attempts in hospital-treated suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rory C; Smyth, Roger; Williams, J Mark G

    2015-02-01

    Although there is clear evidence that low levels of positive future thinking (anticipation of positive experiences in the future) and hopelessness are associated with suicide risk, the relationship between the content of positive future thinking and suicidal behavior has yet to be investigated. This is the first study to determine whether the positive future thinking-suicide attempt relationship varies as a function of the content of the thoughts and whether positive future thinking predicts suicide attempts over time. A total of 388 patients hospitalized following a suicide attempt completed a range of clinical and psychological measures (depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, suicidal intent and positive future thinking). Fifteen months later, a nationally linked database was used to determine who had been hospitalized again after a suicide attempt. During follow-up, 25.6% of linked participants were readmitted to hospital following a suicide attempt. In univariate logistic regression analyses, previous suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression-as well as low levels of achievement, low levels of financial positive future thoughts, and high levels of intrapersonal (thoughts about the individual and no one else) positive future thoughts predicted repeat suicide attempts. However, only previous suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, and high levels of intrapersonal positive future thinking were significant predictors in multivariate analyses. Positive future thinking has predictive utility over time; however, the content of the thinking affects the direction and strength of the positive future thinking-suicidal behavior relationship. Future research is required to understand the mechanisms that link high levels of intrapersonal positive future thinking to suicide risk and how intrapersonal thinking should be targeted in treatment interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  13. A study of cultural content in the British ELT GLobal Coursebook : a cultural studies approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, John

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigates cultural content in a sample of British ELT global coursebooks published over the past three decades from a cultural studies perspective. Using a constructionist epistemology, the study aims to identify the nature of cultural content, to account for the form it takes and to examine what a group of Barcelonabased teachers think about such content and the role of culture in ELT. The research design is based on a modified version of the `circuit of culture...

  14. Metacognitions in desire thinking: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Gabriele; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2010-10-01

    Desire thinking is defined as a voluntary thinking process orienting to prefigure images, information and memories about positive target-related experience. Recent research has highlighted the role of desire thinking in the maintenance of addictive, eating and impulse control disorders. Currently little is known about metacognitions in desire thinking. To investigate: (1) the presence and content of desire thinking during a desire experience; (2) the presence of metacognitive beliefs in desire thinking; (3) the goal of desire thinking; (4) attentional focus during desire thinking; and (5) the impact of desire thinking on craving. Twenty-four individuals with a diagnosis of either alcohol abuse, bulimia nervosa, pathological gambling or smoking dependence were assessed using a semi-structured interview. Findings indicated that participants engaged in desire thinking and endorsed both positive and negative metacognitive beliefs about this process. The goal of desire thinking was to regulate internal states. Participants also reported that during a desire experience their attentional focus was continuously shifting between internal state and external context and that engaging in desire thinking increased craving. These findings provide preliminary evidence that metacognitions play a role in desire thinking.

  15. The participatory archive of the sites of Danish rock music culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Line Vestergaard

    , genres and collaborations. See www.rockensdanmarkskort.dk. In this paper, based on my phd.-project research, I wish to present some examples of these collaboratively generated portrays of Danish sites of rock music. In addition, I wish to explore more theoretically how these portrays of sites gathered......When setting out to tell the story of rock music culture, one approach is a focus at the “meeting places” where bands, fans and those behind the scenes have gathered. With this approach the cultural heritage of rock music becomes situated and site-specific, and it is nearby to think of ways...... to engage those who “inhabited” these specific sites of the previous 60 years of rock music culture. This paper will discuss how the issues of locality and rock music culture can be gathered and researched by a participatory (web 2.0) archive. The research is empirically focused at “The Map of Danish Rock...

  16. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  17. Assessing Repetitive Negative Thinking Using Categorical and Transdiagnostic Approaches: A Comparison and Validation of Three Polish Language Adaptations of Self-Report Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornacka, Monika; Buczny, Jacek; Layton, Rebekah L

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a transdiagnostic process involved in the risk, maintenance, and relapse of serious conditions including mood disorders, anxiety, eating disorders, and addictions. Processing mode theory provides a theoretical model to assess, research, and treat RNT using a transdiagnostic approach. Clinical researchers also often employ categorical approaches to RNT, including a focus on depressive rumination or worry, for similar purposes. Three widely used self-report questionnaires have been developed to assess these related constructs: the Ruminative Response Scale (RRS), the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ), and the Mini-Cambridge Exeter Repetitive Thought Scale (Mini-CERTS). Yet these scales have not previously been used in conjunction, despite useful theoretical distinctions only available in Mini-CERTS. The present validation of the methods in a Polish speaking population provides psychometric parameters estimates that contribute to current efforts to increase reliable replication of theoretical outcomes. Moreover, the following study aims to present particular characteristics and a comparison of the three methods. Although there has been some exploration of a categorical approach, the comparison of transdiagnostic methods is still lacking. These methods are particularly relevant for developing and evaluating theoretically based interventions like concreteness training, an emerging field of increasing interest, which can be used to address the maladaptive processing mode in RNT that can lead to depression and other disorders. Furthermore, the translation of these measures enables the examination of possible cross-cultural structural differences that may lead to important theoretical progress in the measurement and classification of RNT. The results support the theoretical hypothesis. As expected, the dimensions of brooding, general repetitive negative thinking, as well as abstract analytical thinking, can all be classified

  18. Assessing repetitive negative thinking using categorical and transdiagnostic approaches: A comparison and validation of three Polish language adaptations of self-report questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eKornacka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive negative thinking (RNT is a transdiagnostic process involved in the risk, maintenance, and relapse of serious conditions including mood disorders, anxiety, eating disorders, and addictions. Processing mode theory provides a theoretical model to assess, research, and treat RNT using a transdiagnostic approach. Clinical researchers also often employ categorical approaches to RNT, including a focus on depressive rumination or worry, for similar purposes. Three widely used self-report questionnaires have been developed to assess these related constructs: the Ruminative Response Scale (RRT, the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ, and the Mini-Cambridge Exeter Repetitive Thought Scale (Mini-CERTS. Yet these scales have not previously been used in conjunction, despite useful theoretical distinctions only available in Mini-CERTS. The present validation of the methods in a Polish speaking population provides psychometric parameters estimates that contribute to current efforts to increase reliable replication of theoretical outcomes. Moreover, the following study aims to present particular characteristics and a comparison of the three methods. Although there has been some exploration of the categorical approach, the comparison of transdiagnostic methods is still lacking. These methods are particularly relevant for developing and evaluating theoretically based interventions like concreteness training, an emerging field of increasing interest, which can be used to address the maladaptive processing mode in RNT that can lead to depression and other disorders. Furthermore, the translation of these measures enables the examination of possible cross-cultural structural differences that may lead to important theoretical progress in the measurement and classification of RNT. The results support the theoretical hypothesis. As expected, the dimensions of brooding, general Repetitive Negative Thinking and Abstract Analytic Thinking, can all be

  19. Ethical Business Cultures: A Literature Review and Implications for HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Jondle, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    This literature review identifies characteristics of ethical business cultures, describes factors, considered to be important in developing such cultures, describes current practices of developing ethical culture programs, and discusses the role of HRD in developing ethical business cultures. We argue that ethical thinking and behavior can be…

  20. Hard Thinking about Soft Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Guy; Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena

    2016-01-01

    People use various terms to refer to traits and tendencies connected to social-emotional behavior and ways of thinking or approaching problems--from 21st century skills to mindsets to habits of mind. Such traits are also often called soft skills or non-cognitive skills. The authors contend that these latter terms imply that these traits and…

  1. Think Twice about Drug Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    States that schools should think twice before adopting a random drug-testing program for students involved in extracurricular activities even though the U.S. Supreme Court's 5-4 decision in "Board of Education v. Earls" upheld its constitutionality. Briefly describes dissenting opinions in "Earls" and opposition to drug testing…

  2. Thinking Relationally about Studying "Up"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Amy E.; Colyar, Julia E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors argue that despite a resurgence of elite studies, the majority of existing scholarship works to reify and legitimize social inequality through its language and method. In particular, the authors utilize Pierre Bourdieu's concept of relational thinking to review and critique contemporary research on elite education and…

  3. The Classroom "Think Aloud" Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Bonnie W.; Bash, Mary A.

    This program adapts the Think Aloud method, originally designed to assist young aggressive boys in achieving greater self-control, to improve problem-solving skills among first and second graders. Modeling of self-instructional verbalizations is used to teach children a systematic approach to analyzing a problem, planning an attack and evaluating…

  4. Counterfactual Thinking and Educational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Counterfactual thinking refers to imaginative thoughts about what might have been ("if only" or "what if") which are intrinsically linked to self-conscious emotions (regret and guilt) and social judgements (blame). Research in adults suggests that the focus of these thoughts is influenced by order (temporal and causal). Little…

  5. Factors That Shape Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Colin M.

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of design literature discusses the role of the studio and its related pedagogy in the development of design thinking. Scholars in a variety of design disciplines pose a number of factors that potentially affect this development process, but a full understanding of these factors as experienced from a critical pedagogy or student…

  6. Kidding around with Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouché, Jaunine; Crowley, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Elementary students at the Milton Hershey School in Hershey, Pennsylvania, don't just learn knowledge and skills; they put it to work. The school's Innovation Lab for grades K-4 offers students hands-on opportunities to use design thinking to solve problems. In this article, two of the school's educators describe how 2nd graders used design…

  7. Competitive Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    in opportunity structures that are mediated by historically constituted institutions in knowledge regimes. The paper distinguishes between four different strategies, the authoritative, the collaborative, the agenda-setting and the competitive strategy that are distinguished by the relations think tanks have...

  8. Critical Thinking Is Not Enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bono, Edward

    1984-01-01

    Critical thinking alone is reactive, in that it lacks the creative elements necessary for social progress. Accordingly, the author has developed the CoRT (Cognitive Research Trust) program to teach the two aspects of perception: breadth (developing a perceptual map) and change (using the map to discover solutions). (TE)

  9. Put Thinking to the Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Lori L.; Matthews, Missy; Zimmerman, Cheryl; Allen, Patrick A.

    2008-01-01

    Just as comprehension strategies have helped millions of students learn to read like proficient readers, they can also help students think like effective test-takers. The authors show how students can use background knowledge, mental images, synthesizing, monitoring, inferring, questioning, and determining of importance to understand the genre of…

  10. Understanding Think Tank University Relationships

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    pmartin@idrc.ca

    10 Abr 2013 ... Este proyecto procura identificar y lograr una nueva percepción de las maneras en que los think tanks y las universidades han desarrollado ... conclusiones empíricas de los análisis de estudios de caso y contribuye al corpus de conocimiento sobre las relaciones entre el desarrollo de capacidad de los ...

  11. LEAN thinking in Finnish healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorma, Tapani; Tiirinki, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Turkki, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to evaluate how LEAN thinking is used as a management and development tool in the Finnish public healthcare system and what kind of outcomes have been achieved or expected by using it. The main focus is in managing and developing patient and treatment processes. Design/methodology/approach - A mixed-method approach incorporating the Webropol survey was used. Findings - LEAN is quite a new concept in Finnish public healthcare. It is mainly used as a development tool to seek financial savings and to improve the efficiency of patient processes, but has not yet been deeply implemented. However, the experiences from LEAN initiatives have been positive, and the methodology is already quite well-known. It can be concluded that, because of positive experiences from LEAN, the environment in Finnish healthcare is ready for the deeper implementation of LEAN. Originality/value - This paper evaluates the usage of LEAN thinking for the first time in the public healthcare system of Finland as a development tool and a management system. It highlights the implementation and achieved results of LEAN thinking when used in the healthcare environment. It also highlights the expectations for LEAN thinking in Finnish public healthcare.

  12. Scientific Writing = Thinking in Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensuring that research results are reported accurately and effectively is an eternal challenge for scientists. The book Science Writing = Thinking in Words (David Lindsay, 2011. CSIRO Publishing) is a primer for researchers who seek to improve their impact through better written (and oral) presentat...

  13. Bridging intuitive and analytical thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Leron, Uri; Arcavi, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    and in mathematics education has focused on the explanatory power of intuitive thinking as source of errors and misconceptions in human behavior, decision making, reasoning, and problem solving (e.g., Fischbein, 1987, Stavy & Tirosh, 2000; Leron & Hazzan, 2006, 2009), but in this article the emphasis is more...

  14. Visual, Critical, and Scientific Thinking Dispositions in a 3rd Grade Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Stacy

    Many American students leave school without the required 21st century critical thinking skills. This qualitative case study, based on the theoretical concepts of Facione, Arheim, and Vygotsky, explored the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science on the development of scientific thinking skills when used as a conceptual thinking routine in a rural 3rd grade classroom. Research questions examined the disposition to think critically through the arts in science and focused on the perceptions and experiences of 25 students with the Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS) process. Data were collected from classroom observations (n = 10), student interviews (n = 25), teacher interviews ( n = 1), a focus group discussion (n = 3), and artifacts of student work (n = 25); these data included perceptions of VTS, school culture, and classroom characteristics. An inductive analysis of qualitative data resulted in several emergent themes regarding disposition development and students generating questions while increasing affective motivation. The most prevalent dispositions were open-mindedness, the truth-seeking disposition, the analytical disposition, and the systematicity disposition. The findings about the teachers indicated that VTS questions in science supported "gradual release of responsibility", the internalization of process skills and vocabulary, and argumentation. This case study offers descriptive research that links visual arts inquiry and the development of critical thinking dispositions in science at the elementary level. A science curriculum could be developed, that emphasizes the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science, which in turn, could impact the professional development of teachers and learning outcomes for students.

  15. "Thinking about a Sustainable Earth"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeshita, Makoto

    2014-05-01

    1.Introduction The Course of study for Junior high school teaching was changed in 2008 in Japan. We should especially mention about this change that ESD, "Education for Sustainable Development," was written as a point of view. ESD is a kind of educations that is studied with a target for a region and that aims at reorganize of consciousness through thinking of how to be a better region. ESD's view was written for Social studies, Science, Foreign Languages, Health and Physical Education, Home Economics and Technical Arts, and the Period for Integrated Studies. Of these subjects, Social studies are the one of core subjects. Social studies for Junior high school consist of Geography, History and Civics. "Problem of us and international society" is the last part of Civics. Teacher helps students to understand international society deeply and think about the role of our country for it. Students research many problems (global environment, resources and energy, poverty etc.) and organize their thoughts on how make a better society as a part of the human family. I taught them to think about how to solve many themes like religious problems, terrorism problems, the North-South problems, and resource and energy problems. It is my practice to let them think about what they should do to solve the global warming problem. 2.The truth of my class I pointed out to the students that the length of summer time in Japan is increasing, and we can anticipate it will continue to increase in the future. After that, I explained to them that occurrence of sudden, heavy downpour of rain is increasing and helped them understand the process of this kind of downpour through some diagrams and pictures. I helped them understand the context of this increase of the length of summer time and heavy downpour within the whole earth's ecosystem. Such increases as these things are causing global warming. I asked them to think about what are the possible problems if global warming progresses. The ideas the

  16. The Politics of Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    In the 21st century, think tanks have become more than a buzzword in European public discourse. They now play important roles in the policy-making process by providing applied research, building networks and advocating policies. The book studies the development of think tanks and contemporary...... consequences in the United Kingdom, Germany, Denmark and at the EU-level. A Continental think tank tradition in which the state plays a pivotal role and an Anglo-American tradition which facilitates interaction in public policy on market-like terms have shaped the development of think tanks. On the basis...... of a typology of think tanks, quantitative data and interviews with think tank practitioners, the interplay between state and market dynamics and the development of different types of think tanks is analysed. Although think tanks develop along different institutional trajectories, it is concluded that the Anglo...

  17. Thinking too much”: A Systematic review of a common idiom of distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Bonnie N.; Haroz, Emily E.; Kohrt, Brandon A.; Bolton, Paul A.; Bass, Judith K.; Hinton, Devon E.

    2015-01-01

    Idioms of distress communicate suffering via reference to shared ethnopsychologies, and better understanding of idioms of distress can contribute to effective clinical and public health communication. This systematic review is a qualitative synthesis of “thinking too much” idioms globally, to determine their applicability and variability across cultures. We searched eight databases and retained publications if they included empirical quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-methods research regarding a “thinking too much” idiom and were in English. In total, 138 publications from 1979–2014 met inclusion criteria. We examined the descriptive epidemiology, phenomenology, etiology, and course of “thinking too much” idioms and compared them to psychiatric constructs. “Thinking too much” idioms typically reference ruminative, intrusive, and anxious thoughts and result in a range of perceived complications, physical and mental illnesses, or even death. These idioms appear to have variable overlap with common psychiatric constructs, including depression, anxiety, and PTSD. However, “thinking too much” idioms reflect aspects of experience, distress, and social positioning not captured by psychiatric diagnoses and often show wide within-cultural variation, in addition to between-cultural differences. Taken together, these findings suggest that “thinking too much” should not be interpreted as a gloss for psychiatric disorder nor assumed to be a unitary symptom or syndrome within a culture. We suggest five key ways in which engagement with “thinking too much” idioms can improve global mental health research and interventions: it (1) incorporates a key idiom of distress into measurement and screening to improve validity of efforts at identifying those in need of services and tracking treatment outcomes; (2) facilitates exploration of ethnopsychology in order to bolster cultural appropriateness of interventions; (3) strengthens public health

  18. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  19. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  20. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  1. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  2. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  3. A Review on Developing Critical Thinking Skills through Literary Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraini Ahmad Shukri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many ESL instructors are generally in agreement with the belief that it is essential that students should be assisted in developing critical thinking skills while being engaged in their language learning process especially those learning the target language at higher level (Stern, 1985; Dickinson, 1991; McKay, 2001; Terry, 2007; Van, 2009; Odenwald, 2010. As it enables language learners to engage in a more purposeful and self-regulatory in judgment, helping them in their evaluation of the arguments of others and of their own, coming to well-reasoned resolutions to any complex problems and to be able to resolve conflicts encountered in their daily lives. Critical thinking requires them to be actively involved in their own learning process as they attempt to individually understand and apply the information they are exposed to during the classroom interaction (Landsberger, 1999; Tung & Chang, 2009. The many advantageous and feasibility of teaching instruction that incorporates the study of literature in the ESL classroom which suggests that literature texts, if correctly chosen and instructed, can prove to be beneficial to ESL students’ overall level of literacy and critical thinking skills. Numerous empirical researches also asserted that literary texts that are authentic, enjoyable, and motivating would naturally increase both their knowledge of the target language patterns and cultural awareness. Keywords: Critical thinking, ESL classroom, literature, literary text

  4. Teaching for Critical Thinking in Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwager, Susan; Labate, Cathy

    1993-01-01

    Defines critical thinking and provides a practical approach to applying it to teaching physical education (PE). Critical thinking in PE can result in improved skills, fitness, and knowledge. Examples of the kinds of questions and challenges appropriate for a critical thinking lesson in PE are provided. (SM)

  5. Spatial Thinking: Precept for Understanding Operational Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    ATP Army Techniques Publication COP Common Operating Picture DOTMLPF Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Leadership and education ...numbers, linguists in vocal tones (words), and artists in images of feeling. To understand spatial thinking is to understand the nature of how humans...how that space impacts our interactions. Like any mode of thinking, be it numerical, artistic , or vocal, spatial thinking requires a medium for

  6. Fostering Critical Thinking in Physical Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodewyk, Ken R.

    2009-01-01

    Critical thinking is essentially "better thinking." When students think critically they consider complex information from numerous sources and perspectives in order to make a reasonable judgment that they can justify. It has been associated with academic qualities such as decision-making, creativity, reasoning, problem-solving, debating,…

  7. Thinking Tracks for Integrated Systems Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Denkena, B.; Gausemeijer, J.; Scholz-Reiter, B.

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates systems thinking and systems engineering. After a short literature review, the paper presents, as a means for systems thinking, twelve thinking tracks. The tracks can be used as creativity starter, checklist, and as means to investigate effects of design decisions taken early

  8. Design Thinking and the School Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This past school year, the author set out to develop lessons that incorporated the design thinking process into her literature exploration curriculum in the school library. Design thinking is a term that the author has heard many times over the past few years in the context of education. Design thinking has been incorporated into the school…

  9. Using Thinking Skills in the Primary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This book begins with the introductory chapter, "Don't Think; Just Get on with Your Work," in which the author argues that children are thinkers, but that there are schooling barriers to engaging this thinking. Chapter 1, A Place to Think, considers these barriers in more detail and provides some ideas about how children learn in schools and what…

  10. Can counter-stereotypes boost flexible thinking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goclowska, M.A.; Crisp, R.J.; Labuschagne, K.

    2013-01-01

    To reduce prejudice psychologists design interventions requiring people to think of counter-stereotypes (i.e., people who defy stereotypic expectations—a strong woman, a Black President). Grounded in the idea that stereotypes constrain the ability to think flexibly, we propose that thinking of

  11. Does the think-aloud protocol reflect thinking? Exploring functional neuroimaging differences with thinking (answering multiple choice questions) versus thinking aloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durning, S.J.; Artino, A.R.; Beckman, T.J.; Graner, J.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Holmboe, E.; Schuwirth, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Whether the think-aloud protocol is a valid measure of thinking remains uncertain. Therefore, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate potential functional neuroanatomic differences between thinking (answering multiple-choice questions in real time) versus

  12. Thinking Styles of Teachers, Principals, and Inspectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Özlem Yesim Özbek; Çelik, Bünyamin

    2014-01-01

    Much of current studies focus on the investigation of the thinking styles of students and teachers. However, exploring school administrators' and inpectors' thinking styles is also critical for increasing students' achievement at school. For that purpose, this study was performed to determine the thinking styles of teachers, principals, and…

  13. Cultivating Teacher Thinking: Ideas and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia-Li

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to develop, through a literature analysis, a portrait of the functioning and practice of teacher thinking at government and university levels. Teacher thinking is defined as habits and strategies or the habit of thinking used to collect information, analyze, understand institution, reflect, solve problems, inform decisions,…

  14. Divergent Thinking and Age-Related Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Aging can affect cognition in different ways. The extent to which aging affects divergent thinking is unclear. In this study, younger and older adults were compared at the performance on the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking in visual and verbal form. Results showed that older adults can think divergently as younger participants, although they…

  15. Thinking Like a Social Worker: Examining the Meaning of Critical Thinking in Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, John

    2015-01-01

    "Critical thinking" is frequently used to describe how social workers ought to reason. But how well has this concept helped us to develop a normative description of what it means to think like a social worker? This critical review mines the literature on critical thinking for insight into the kinds of thinking social work scholars…

  16. Think Pair Share: A Teaching Learning Strategy to Enhance Students' Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddoura, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the change in critical thinking (CT) skills of baccalaureate nursing students who were educated using a Think-Pair-Share (TPS) or an equivalent Non-Think-Pair-Share (Non-TPS) teaching method. Critical thinking has been an essential outcome of nursing students to prepare them to provide effective and safe quality care for…

  17. Culture in constructive remembering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2012-01-01

    The present chapter explores novel ways of thinking about what it means to remember and how precisely culture is involved in this process. Since Plato, the dominant metaphor for conceptualizing memory has been that of a spatial ‘storage’. In contrast to this, Frederic Bartlett advanced an alterna......The present chapter explores novel ways of thinking about what it means to remember and how precisely culture is involved in this process. Since Plato, the dominant metaphor for conceptualizing memory has been that of a spatial ‘storage’. In contrast to this, Frederic Bartlett advanced...... an alternative temporal metaphor of remembering as ‘construction’. If we push his metaphor further—with the help of cultural psychology—we can say memory construction is done by agents using cultural ‘tools’ such as language and narrative. In this chapter, Bartlett’s theory is contextualized, elucidated......, critiqued and developed with the help of a number of other thinkers. The ultimate aim of the chapter is to go beyond Bartlett and arrive at a thoroughgoing culturally inclusive psychological theory of remembering. Though Bartlett clearly situated remembering within a social process, he did not provide...

  18. Cultural Competence in Business Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Shohei

    Cultural competence in business Japanese requires more than superficial knowledge of business etiquette. One must truly understand why Japanese people think and act differently from their American counterparts. For example, instruction in the use of Japanese taxis must be accompanied by instruction in the concept and implications of seating order…

  19. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  20. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  1. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  2. Critical Thinking in the Classroom…and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking in the classroom is a common term used by educators. Critical thinking has been called "the art of thinking about thinking" (Ruggiero, V. R., 2012) with the intent to improve one's thinking. The challenge, of course, is to create learning environments that promote critical thinking both in the classroom and beyond.…

  3. Scheme of thinking quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V I; Sornette, D

    2009-01-01

    A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field

  4. Representation Elements of Spatial Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiantika, F. R.

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to add a reference in revealing spatial thinking. There several definitions of spatial thinking but it is not easy to defining it. We can start to discuss the concept, its basic a forming representation. Initially, the five sense catch the natural phenomenon and forward it to memory for processing. Abstraction plays a role in processing information into a concept. There are two types of representation, namely internal representation and external representation. The internal representation is also known as mental representation; this representation is in the human mind. The external representation may include images, auditory and kinesthetic which can be used to describe, explain and communicate the structure, operation, the function of the object as well as relationships. There are two main elements, representations properties and object relationships. These elements play a role in forming a representation.

  5. Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ: French Validation of a Transdiagnostic Measure of Repetitive Negative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustine Devynck

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive negative thinking (RNT is a transdiagnostic process involved in the onset and maintenance of many psychological disorders. The Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (Ehring et al., 2011 is a content-independent scale composed of 15 items that assesses RNT from a transdiagnostic perspective in both clinical and general populations. The aim of the current research was to translate and validate the French version of the PTQ through two studies (total N = 1016 following the steps for the trans-cultural validation of psychometric instruments (Hambleton et al., 2006. An exploratory factor analysis conducted on a first community sample revealed a latent structure composed of 10 items distributed on one common factor, labeled RNT, and three subfactors that evaluated the repetitive characteristic of RNT, the intrusiveness of RNT and the effect of RNT on mental resources. This factorial structure was confirmed in two confirmatory factor analyses in community and clinical samples. Scale score reliability indices were good and confirmed the validity of the instrument. The French version of the PTQ is a good content-independent instrument to assess RNT in general and clinical populations of French speakers.

  6. Peer Led Team Learning in Introductory Biology: Effects on Peer Leader Critical Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Julia J.; Wiles, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders’ critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders’ perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders’ critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups. PMID:25629311

  7. Peer led team learning in introductory biology: effects on peer leader critical thinking skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia J Snyder

    Full Text Available This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders' critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders' perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders' critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups.

  8. The Influence of Culture on Teacher Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Razak, Nordin; Darmawan, I. Gusti Ngurah; Keeves, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Culture is believed to be an important factor that influences various aspects of human life, such as behaviour, thinking, perceptions and attitudes. This article examines the similarities and differences in the influence of culture on teacher commitment in three types of Malaysian primary schools. Since commitment to teaching has rarely been…

  9. Deathcore, creativity, and scientific thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Sundstrom, Shana M.; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundMajor scientific breakthroughs are generally the result of materializing creative ideas, the result of an inductive process that sometimes spontaneously and unexpectedly generates a link between thoughts and/or objects that did not exist before. Creativity is the cornerstone of scientific thinking, but scientists in academia are judged by metrics of quantification that often leave little room for creative thinking. In many scientific fields, reductionist approaches are rewarded and new ideas viewed skeptically. As a result, scientific inquiry is often confined to narrow but safe disciplinary ivory towers, effectively preventing profoundly creative explorations that could yield unexpected benefits.New informationThis paper argues how apparently unrelated fields specifically music and belief systems can be combined in a provocative allegory to provide novel perspectives regarding patterns in nature, thereby potentially inspiring innovation in the natural, social and other sciences. The merger between basic human tensions such as those embodied by religion and music, for example the heavy metal genre of deathcore, may be perceived as controversial, challenging, and uncomfortable. However, it is an example of moving the thinking process out of unconsciously established comfort zones, through the connection of apparently unrelated entities. We argue that music, as an auditory art form, has the potential to enlighten and boost creative thinking in science. Metal, as a fast evolving and diversifying extreme form of musical art, may be particularly suitable to trigger surprising associations in scientific inquiry. This may pave the way for dealing with questions about what we don´t know that we don´t know in a fast-changing planet.

  10. 'Resilience thinking' in transport planning

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, JYT

    2015-01-01

    Resilience has been discussed in ecology for over forty years. While some aspects of resilience have received attention in transport planning, there is no unified definition of resilience in transportation. To define resilience in transportation, I trace back to the origin of resilience in ecology with a view of revealing the essence of resilience thinking and its relevance to transport planning. Based on the fundamental concepts of engineering resilience and ecological resilience, I define "...

  11. New Strategies for Cultivation and Detection of Previously Uncultured Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Bradley S.; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Wertz, John T.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Breznak, John A.

    2004-01-01

    An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divisions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection of cells from exogenous peroxides; and inclusion of humic acids or a humic acid analogue (anthraquinone disulfonate) and quorum-signaling compounds (acyl homoserine lactones) in growth media. The bacteria were incubated in the presence of air and in hypoxic (1 to 2% O2 [vol/vol]) and anoxic atmospheres. Some bacteria were incubated with elevated concentrations of CO2 (5% [vol/vol]). Significantly more Acidobacteria were found on isolation plates that had been incubated with 5% CO2. A simple, high-throughput, PCR-based surveillance method (plate wash PCR) was developed. This method greatly facilitated detection and ultimate isolation of target bacteria from as many as 1,000 colonies of nontarget microbes growing on the same agar plates. Results illustrate the power of integrating culture methods with molecular techniques to isolate bacteria from phylogenetic groups underrepresented in culture. PMID:15294811

  12. Thinking in systems a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, Donella H

    2008-01-01

    In the years following her role as the lead author of the international bestseller, "Limits to Growth"-the first book to show the consequences of unchecked growth on a finite planet- Donella Meadows remained a pioneer of environmental and social analysis until her untimely death in 2001. Meadows' newly released manuscript, "Thinking in Systems", is a concise and crucial book offering insight for problem solving on scales ranging from the personal to the global. Edited by the Sustainability Institute's Diana Wright, this essential primer brings systems thinking out of the realm of computers and equations and into the tangible world, showing readers how to develop the systems-thinking skills that thought leaders across the globe consider critical for 21st-century life. Some of the biggest problems facing the world-war, hunger, poverty, and environmental degradation-are essentially system failures. They cannot be solved by fixing one piece in isolation from the others, because even seemingly minor details have e...

  13. Adaptive memory: thinking about function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Raoul; Röer, Jan P; Buchner, Axel

    2015-07-01

    Rating the relevance of words for the imagined situation of being stranded in the grasslands without survival material leads to exceptionally good memory for these words. This survival processing effect has received much attention because it promises to elucidate the evolutionary foundations of memory. However, the proximate mechanisms of the survival processing effect have to be identified before informed speculations about its adaptive function are possible. Here, we test and contrast 2 promising accounts of the survival processing effect. According to the 1st account, the effect is the consequence of the prioritized processing of threat-related information. According to the 2nd account, thinking about the relevance of items for survival stimulates thinking about object function, which is a particularly elaborate form of encoding. Experiment 1 showed that the emotional properties of the survival scenario, as manipulated by the negative or positive framing of the scenario, did not influence recall. A focus on threat at encoding led to worse recall than a focus on function. The latter finding was replicated in Experiment 2, which further showed that focusing on threat did not lead to a memory advantage over a pleasantness control condition. The beneficial effect of inducing a functional focus at encoding even surpasses that of the standard survival processing instruction. Together, the results support the theory that thinking about function is an important component of the survival processing effect. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Think crisis-think female: the glass cliff and contextual variation in the think manager-think male stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michelle K; Haslam, S Alexander; Hersby, Mette D; Bongiorno, Renata

    2011-05-01

    The "think manager-think male" (TMTM) association underlies many gender inequalities in the workplace. However, research into the "glass cliff" has demonstrated that the suitability of male and female managers varies as a function of company performance such that in times of poor performance people may "think female" (Ryan & Haslam, 2005, 2007). Three studies examined gender and managerial stereotypes in the context of companies that are doing well or doing badly. Study 1 reproduced TMTM associations for descriptions of managers of successful companies but demonstrated a reversal for managers of unsuccessful companies. Study 2 examined the prescriptive nature of these stereotypes. No TMTM relationship was found for ideal managers of successful companies, but ideal managers of unsuccessful companies were associated with the female stereotype. Study 3 suggested that women may be favored in times of poor performance, not because they are expected to improve the situation, but because they are seen to be good people managers and can take the blame for organizational failure. Together, the studies illustrate the importance of context as a moderator of the TMTM association. Practical and theoretical implications for gender discrimination in the workplace are discussed.

  15. Teacher Transformation from Complex Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johana Carolina Peña Lozada

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a qualitative investigation of phenomenological interpretative paradigm, of documentary type; and seeks to analyze the transformation of the teacher from the complex thinking, centered on the teacher-student benefit, through a bibliographic documentary triangulation of the authors Edgar Morin and Matthew Lipman with the subject of complex thinking and the necessary knowledge for education, David Ausubel, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky with educational psychology, Pérez Esclarín with the humanization of education, and finally with contributions from Honore Bernard, UNESCO in the field of teacher transformation. Faced with the crisis and the evolution of education in Latin America requires an educational reform where innovation, creativity, training, vocation and love of teaching practices are contemplated, looking towards the adjustment profile of the current reality of apprentices, assuming in a continuous way the challenge of breaking barriers that obstruct the goal that is pursued in the multidimensional, professional, spiritual and human field, immersed in the complexity of their work, and interacting with all the interior and exterior elements of their humanity that are exposed in the challenge of complex thinking.

  16. Young English language learners making thinking and language visible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela K Salmon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide teachers with a resource to assist them in understanding the inner workings of young English Language Learners (ELLs and how they externalize their thoughts in either their first or second language. This article not only analyzes how teachers can help children acquire a second language without sacrificing their first language and motivation, but also focuses on language processing in bilingual children through providing an understanding of both the interplay between language and cognition and the role of the environment. Results from an action research project implementing Harvard Project Zero’s Visible Thinking ideas serve as evidence to discuss the benefits of creating a culture of thinking in the classroom to promote additive bilingualism in young children.

  17. Thinking in z-space: flatness and spatial narrativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zone, Ray

    2012-03-01

    Now that digital technology has accessed the Z-space in cinema, narrative artistry is at a loss. Motion picture professionals no longer can readily resort to familiar tools. A new language and new linguistics for Z-axis storytelling are necessary. After first examining the roots of monocular thinking in painting, prior modes of visual narrative in twodimensional cinema obviating true binocular stereopsis can be explored, particularly montage, camera motion and depth of field, with historic examples. Special attention is paid to the manner in which monocular cues for depth have been exploited to infer depth on a planar screen. Both the artistic potential and visual limitations of actual stereoscopic depth as a filmmaking language are interrogated. After an examination of the historic basis of monocular thinking in visual culture, a context for artistic exploration of the use of the z-axis as a heightened means of creating dramatic and emotional impact upon the viewer is illustrated.

  18. Objective authenticity in cultural tourism: thinking the unthinkable

    OpenAIRE

    Munsters, Wil; Melkert, Marjan

    2010-01-01

    Tourism studies carried out on the "Experience Economy" and on "Authenticity" are mostlyfounded on a subjectivist epistemology. In this article it is argued than an objectivist approach offers a valuable counterpart. This approach will be developed on the basis of the ideas as "Kruithof" who proposes a switch to aa realistic epistemology. "Musschenga" who analyses the concept of intriinsic quality and "Apostel" who pleads for an objective framework of moral abligations. Within this objectivis...

  19. Objective authenticity in cultural tourism : thinking the unthinkable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Wil Munsters; Marjan Melkert

    2010-01-01

    Tourism studies carried out on the "Experience Economy" and on "Authenticity" are mostlyfounded on a subjectivist epistemology. In this article it is argued than an objectivist approach offers a valuable counterpart. This approach will be developed on the basis of the ideas as "Kruithof" who

  20. Tools for bridging the cultures of everyday and scientific thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Jan; Pea, Roy D.

    A perspective about science education is developed which has implications for the design of interactive learning technologies. Current philosophical work concerning the interpretative nature of scientific inquiry is reviewed as a context for discussing the situation of the child in developing scientific understanding. This view of learning emphasizes the relationships among informal understanding, conceptual change, and enculturation into modes of scientific discourse. A prototype software system for supporting scientific inquiry processes in students is described.

  1. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  2. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  3. Intercultural Communicative Competence: A Brief Review of Current Thinking and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Kermani Kojour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to review current thinking and understanding of the issue of Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC especially in foreign language education contexts. There are serious stances on the part of scholars in foreign language contexts, which must be given some serious thinking and consideration in order to uncover the hidden agendas regarding ICC. After all, it seems still unclear in English as a Foreign Language (EFL contexts whether to try to improve the way of thinking regarding the perspective of current intercultural communicative competence, whether there should be a separation of the cultural values from the target language and only integrate language learners’ native culture with the target language. Given the development of technology and globalization, what is the right thing to do? This is a serious issue which needs much attention and contemplation by the interested scholars. By presenting the existing gaps in the literature, the paper maneuvers on the challenging notes on benefiting from culture in English Language Teaching (ELT and, on the other hand, dividing language and culture by merely elaborating on the communicative aspect of language learning and teaching. The study puts the audience into question that although recent views are focusing on taking English as an international means of communication, there exist serious beliefs regarding the separation of language and culture, which demands more thinking and probably serious revisions.

  4. Critical reading and critical thinking Critical reading and critical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loni Kreis Taglieber

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it. The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of

  5. Constructing critical thinking in health professional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlke, Renate; Eva, Kevin

    2018-04-04

    Calls for enabling 'critical thinking' are ubiquitous in health professional education. However, there is little agreement in the literature or in practice as to what this term means and efforts to generate a universal definition have found limited traction. Moreover, the variability observed might suggest that multiplicity has value that the quest for universal definitions has failed to capture. In this study, we sought to map the multiple conceptions of critical thinking in circulation in health professional education to understand the relationships and tensions between them. We used an inductive, qualitative approach to explore conceptions of critical thinking with educators from four health professions: medicine, nursing, pharmacy, and social work. Four participants from each profession participated in two individual in-depth semi-structured interviews, the latter of which induced reflection on a visual depiction of results generated from the first set of interviews. Three main conceptions of critical thinking were identified: biomedical, humanist, and social justice-oriented critical thinking. 'Biomedical critical thinking' was the dominant conception. While each conception had distinct features, the particular conceptions of critical thinking espoused by individual participants were not stable within or between interviews. Multiple conceptions of critical thinking likely offer educators the ability to express diverse beliefs about what 'good thinking' means in variable contexts. The findings suggest that any single definition of critical thinking in the health professions will be inherently contentious and, we argue, should be. Such debates, when made visible to educators and trainees, can be highly productive.

  6. Influence of organizational culture on quality healthcare delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify if aspects of organizational culture may indicate a new terrain in the cultural influences-quality healthcare relationship. This research stems from the author's belief that viewing the role of head of department or directorate as pivotal to health care management is critical to health care planning and quality healthcare delivery. Interviews were undertaken among 50 professional clinician and non-clinician managers working in the role of head of department, in acute care hospitals in Ireland. The sample was drawn from the total population of 850 managers, utilized in a previous survey study. Organizational culture is more complex than was previously thought. Several cultural influences such as excellence in care delivery, ethical values, involvement, professionalism, value-for-money, cost of care, commitment to quality and strategic thinking were found to be key cultural determinants in quality care delivery. Health care managers perceive that in order to deliver quality focused care they need to act in a professional, committed manner and to place excellence at the forefront of care delivery, whilst at the same time being capable of managing the tensions that exist between cost effectiveness and quality of care. These tensions require further research in order to determine if quality of care is affected in a negative manner by those tensions. Originality relates to the new cultural terrain presented in this paper that recognizes the potential of health service managers to influence the organizations' culture and through this influence to take a greater part in ensuring that quality health care is delivered to their patients. It also seems to be important that value-for-money is viewed as an ethical means of delivering healthcare, and not as a conflict between quality and cost.

  7. Need to Manage the Thinking Behind the Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Gupta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available “Crisis” can be defined as a situation that is not conducive to human welfare. It can be either manmade or an act of nature. Acts of nature are beyond the control of man, whereas manmade crisis is controllable and reversible. If we let go of our modern scientific notions about the creation (macrocosm and man, we find that the macrocosm is much larger than as perceived by science. It is a well-organized closed system having different dimensions, and man, a microcosm of the macrocosm, an open system within it. The laws of the macrocosm are fixed and unchangeable; and within the laws, there is also a law that gives man the discretion to either align with the higher laws of the macrocosm and create an internal and external environment of peace and harmony by getting rid of his “crisis” promoting tendencies (lower nature of man viz. Desire (kama, Anger (krodh, Attachment (moha, Greed (lobha and Ego (ahankar, or continue to live in an environment of internal and external confusion, conflict and crisis. The lower nature of man vitiates the basic law of the creation — the law of mutuality and harmony. Normally, we do not realize the implications of our lower nature; and even if we do, we justify ourselves by saying ‘I know it is wrong, but since everyone is doing it, I had no option but to follow suit’. An irresponsible thought, a reflection of our personality. Our personality is driven by our mentality, and our mentality is a product of our awareness level also known as consciousness level (degree of our internal alignment with the cosmic laws i.e. the thinking behind the thinking. The crisis that we face today is majorly manmade.It is a repercussion of leading a life dominated by our lower nature, our mentality of “I-Me-My”. Since, the cause is inside us, the solution also rests within us. We need to change our mentality from the “I-Me-My” mode to the “We-Us-Ours” mode; and the only way to make it happen is to work on

  8. Assessment of Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilic Zabric, T.; Kavsek, D.

    2006-01-01

    Performance. NEK has a strong safety culture, driven from the top with conscious efforts to inculcate the safety thinking in employees from the very start. (author)

  9. Parametric Thinking in Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai

    2010-01-01

    the application of complex and expensive technolo- gies are mostly absent, although they seem appropriate in urban de- sign. A survey of existing approaches confirms the statement, and an example of the application of basic knowledge of geometry and para- metric thinking to urban design forms the argument......The paper states that most applications of parametric mod- elling to architecture and urban design fall into one of two strands of either form for form’s sake, or the negotiation of environmental con- cerns, while approaches which allow scenarios to be easily tested and modified without...

  10. Critical Thinking and Education in College of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    上村,崇; 木原,滋哉; 宮田,健一

    2011-01-01

    We have tried to introduce critical thinking into the education in Kure National College of Technology. This article deals with significance of introduction of critical thinking into education in College of Technology. We think that the ability to think critically consists of the sum of various skills of critical thinking. We built a map of critical thinking skills and taught these skills in the classes, and most students understood these skills. We will introduce critical thinking skills int...

  11. [Develop critical thinking through the practice daily].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Samartino, Maribel

    2012-09-01

    To assess critical thinking skills of students in the UB Hospital Practicum through the development of a daily practice. School of Nursing at UB. Descriptive observational correlational. From the total amount of 3rd course students doing the Hospitalary Practicum from October 2012 to January 2013, we will choose a convenience sample of n=10 from the number of students randomly assigned to each associate teacher, and in this case the main researcher. From the California Critical Thinking skills test CCTST we'll seek personal disposition towards critical thinking through CCTDI California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory questionnaire to be passed to the students before the start of the Hospitalary and critical thinking skills will be sought after. A modified CTS Critical Thinking skills scale will be used to analyze reflexive writings. Data will be statistically treated using SPSS and analized using descriptive statistic.Chi-square tests will be used to verify the existence of correlation between the research variables.

  12. Divergent thinking and constructing episodic simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, Donna Rose; Pan, Ling; Musicaro, Regina; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    Divergent thinking likely plays an important role in simulating autobiographical events. We investigated whether divergent thinking is differentially associated with the ability to construct detailed imagined future and imagined past events as opposed to recalling past events. We also examined whether age differences in divergent thinking might underlie the reduced episodic detail generated by older adults. The richness of episodic detail comprising autobiographical events in young and older adults was assessed using the Autobiographical Interview. Divergent thinking abilities were measured using the Alternative Uses Task. Divergent thinking was significantly associated with the amount of episodic detail for imagined future events. Moreover, while age was significantly associated with imagined episodic detail, this effect was strongly related to age-related changes in episodic retrieval rather than divergent thinking.

  13. CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS FOR LANGUAGE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrisius Istiarto Djiwandono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in language teaching increasingly put a stronger importance on critical thinking skills. While studies in this areahave begun to emerge, it is believed that a probe into the learners’ mind when they process information can contribute significantly to the effort of identifying exactly how our learners think. This study was conducted partly to seek the answers to the issue. A brief training on critical thinking and critical attitude was given to a group of language learners who were studying Business Correspondence. Questionnaires were then used to capture traces of their thinking as they were preparing to accomplish a learning task and while they were listening to their classmates’ presentation of ideas. The data show the change of their thinking process. After the training there is a tendency from the students to ask more critical questions with slightly higher frequencies. It is concluded then that the brief training has prompted their awareness of critical thinking.

  14. The Image of the Enemy as a Stereotype of Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Андреевна Фоменко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the process of stereotype thinking and its verbal expression. We focus our attention on the symbolic vision of our society in the mind of Europeans: Russia is evil, a country where law and democracy have deteriorated. Our aim is to examine the process of mind manipulation and imprinting of the enemy image on the mind of the society by means of communication and show the difficulty of destruction of stereotypes which prevents people of the 21st century from the objective perception of reality. We conducted our study on dictionary entries, articles, B.Obama’s speech in particular, and the extract from David Mitchell’s book “Black Swan Green”. The research is based on the data worked out by a number of sciences: Cultural Linguistics, Psychology, Psycholinguistics, Cross-Cultural Communication. We used the methods of functional and pragmatic analysis of the text. A stereotype is defined as an element of the cultural code which can be decoded by means of language; itt affects the way of thinking, behavior and lexis. Thus, the proposed thesis of a stereotype is supposed to be changing but too slowly. It is concluded that the sterotype “Russia is the enemy” possesses its formal linguistic, mental, and behavioural parametres.

  15. Does mindfulness enhance critical thinking? Evidence for the mediating effects of executive functioning in the relationship between mindfulness and critical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris eNoone

    2016-01-01

    critical thinking which are not accounted for in this model and have a negative effect on critical thinking in addition to the positive effect mediated by inhibition. These findings are discussed in the context of the Default Interventionist Dual Process Theory of Higher-order Cognition and previous studies on mindfulness, self-regulation, executive function and higher-order cognition. In summary, dispositional mindfulness appears to facilitate critical thinking performance and this effect is mediated by the inhibition component of executive functioning. However, this relationship is not straightforward which suggests many possibilities for future research.

  16. Thinking The City Through Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    in modern culture as heard rather than as seen. LaBelle treats the material in his own distinct way adding a distinct imprint of cultural studies blended with his own essayistic signature, producing true findings and thoughtful reflections, but also leaving behind a few methodological question....

  17. CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS FOR LANGUAGE STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Patrisius Istiarto Djiwandono

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in language teaching increasingly put a stronger importance on critical thinking skills. While studies in this areahave begun to emerge, it is believed that a probe into the learners’ mind when they process information can contribute significantly to the effort of identifying exactly how our learners think. This study was conducted partly to seek the answers to the issue. A brief training on critical thinking and critical attitude was given to a group of language learners ...

  18. The pursuit of sustainable development through cultural law and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Report highlighted the cultural dimensions of a human-centered development paradigm and proposed placing culture at the center stage of development thinking. This argument was taken further at the International Conference on Cultural Policies for Development held in Stockholm in 1998, where it was proposed that ...

  19. Encourage Risk, Failure and Values-Driven Decision Making, by Developing and Integrating Ethical and Critical Thinking in Geocurricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, A.

    2015-12-01

    Critical thinking is characterized by risk or uncertainty. Ethical thinking determines if an individual will conform to accepted cultural or professional standards of conduct. Both of these skills are desirable, but have attributes that people tend to resist or avoid. This presentation briefly examines the cognitive nature and development of these two skills. Various outcomes and consequences are illustrated when different ethics and critical thinking strategies are employed to solve the same problem. Further discussion around: why are these skills important, and what particular traits directly impact geosciences? How can educators integrate ethical and critical thinking skills into formal or informal teaching environments? What are the benefits to geoscience and society with individuals who are engaged as ethical and critical thinkers? Do we as geoscientists, have a responsibility to advocate in promoting the development of positive critical and ethical thinking abilities?

  20. USING SIX THINKING HATS AS A TOOL FOR LATERAL THINKING IN ORGANIZATIONAL PROBLEM SOLVING

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. P. S. Aithal; Dr. P. M. Suresh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Six thinking hats is recently introduced technique which outlines different thinking styles required by an individual while analysing a given problem in an effective way. The technique correlates different thinking styles used in a systematic problem-solving procedure with different coloured hats. Alternately, by conceptualizing each type of hat, the person focuses on the style of thinking associated with each colour so that the problem can be analysed from different angles and frame of refer...

  1. Individual moral judgment and cultural ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, D; Getz, I; Rest, J R; Thoma, S J

    1999-03-01

    Moral judgment cannot be reduced to cultural ideology, or vice versa. But when each construct is measured separately, then combined, the product predicts powerfully to moral thinking. In Study 1, 2 churches (N = 96) were selected for their differences on religious ideology, political identity, and moral judgment. By combining these 3 variables, a multiple correlation of .79 predicted to members' moral thinking (opinions on human rights issues). Study 2 replicated this finding in a secular sample, with the formula established in Study 1 (R = .77). Individual conceptual development in moral judgment and socialization into cultural ideology co-occur, simultaneously and reciprocally, in parallel, and not serially. Individual development in moral judgment provides the epistemological categories for cultural ideology, which in turn influences the course of moral judgment, to produce moral thinking (e.g., opinions about abortion, free speech).

  2. With a little help for our thoughts: Making it easier to think for pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Erin C; Wilson, Timothy D; Gilbert, Daniel T

    2017-08-01

    Can people enjoy thinking if they set their mind to it? Previous work suggests that many people do not enjoy the deliberate attempt to have pleasurable thoughts. We suggest that deliberately thinking for pleasure requires mental resources that people are either unwilling or unable to devote to the task. If so, then people should enjoy pleasant thoughts that occur unintentionally more than pleasant thoughts that occur intentionally. This hypothesis was confirmed in an experience sampling study (Study 1) in which participants were contacted 4 times a day for 7 days and asked to rate what they had been thinking about. In Studies 2-5 we experimentally manipulated how easy it was for people to engage in pleasurable thought when given the goal of doing so. All participants listed topics they would enjoy thinking about; then some were given a simple "thinking aid" that was designed to make this experience easier. Participants who received the aid found the experience easier and enjoyed it more. The findings suggest that thinking for pleasure is cognitively demanding, but that a simple thinking aid makes it easier and more enjoyable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Problematic internet pornography use: The role of craving, desire thinking, and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew; Kannis-Dymand, Lee; Katsikitis, Mary

    2017-07-01

    Defined as sexually explicit material that elicits erotic thoughts, feelings, and behaviours, internet pornography is a prevalent form of media that may facilitate problematic use and craving for engagement. Research suggests that superordinate cognitions and information processing, such as desire thinking and metacognition, are central to the activation and escalation of craving in addictive behaviours. The current study aimed to contribute to the literature by testing the proposed metacognitive model of desire thinking and craving in a sample of problematic pornography users, while revising the model by incorporating negative affect. From a theoretical perspective, environmental cues trigger positive metacognitions about desire thinking that directly influence desire thinking, resulting in the escalation of craving, negative metacognitions, and negative affect. Participants were recruited via an online survey and screened for problematic internet pornography use. Path analyses were used to investigate relationships among the aforementioned constructs in a final sample of 191 participants. Consistent with previous research, results of this study validated the existence of metacognitive processes in the activation of desire thinking and escalation of craving, while indicating that desire thinking has the potential to influence negative affect. Additionally, results supported the role of significant indirect relationships between constructs within the revised model of metacognition, desire thinking, and psychopathology. Collectively, the findings demonstrate the clinical value of a metacognitive conceptualisation of problematic pornography use. Exploring the metacognitive mechanisms that underpin problematic internet pornography use may give rise to the development of new treatment and relapse prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Computational Thinking and Media & Information Literacy: An Integrated Approach to Teaching Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretter, Sarah; Yadav, Aman

    2016-01-01

    Developing students' 21st century skills, including creativity, critical thinking, and problem solving, has been a prevailing concern in our globalized and hyper-connected society. One of the key components for students to accomplish this is to take part in today's participatory culture, which involves becoming creators of knowledge rather than…

  5. Towards the Successful Integration of Design Thinking in Industrial Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubin, Omar; Novoa, Mauricio; Al Mahmud, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    This paper narrates a case study on design thinking based education work in an industrial design honours program. Student projects were developed in a multi-disciplinary setting across a Computing and Engineering faculty that allowed promoting technologically and user driven innovation strategies. A renewed culture and environment for Industrial…

  6. So We Think You Can Learn: How Student Perceptions Affect Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Susan; Torres, Talani

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiences in rehearsals have led us to question how student dancers perceive the culture of rehearsal. We are interested in how the influence of shows like "So You Think You Can Dance" affects student expectations. How do students from competitive dance studio backgrounds approach learning in a rehearsal setting? Are there…

  7. International Students' Critical Thinking-Related Problem Areas: UK University Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Nisbah

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to understand the areas of international students' critical thinking-related initial difficulties, in order to facilitate their academic experiences in UK universities. Using a sample of 14 British teachers, the findings reveal that students from culturally and linguistically diverse traditions are very different in…

  8. Fecal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parasites exam Alternative Names Stool culture; Culture - stool; Gastroenteritis fecal culture Images Salmonella typhi organism Yersinia enterocolitica organism Campylobacter jejuni organism Clostridium difficile organism References Beavis, KG, ...

  9. Food Design Thinking: A Branch of Design Thinking Specific to Food Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampollo, Francesca; Peacock, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Is there a need for a set of methods within Design Thinking tailored specifically for the Food Design process? Is there a need for a branch of Design Thinking dedicated to Food Design alone? Chefs are not generally trained in Design or Design Thinking, and we are only just beginning to understand how they ideate and what recourses are available to…

  10. The Interplay between Reflective Thinking, Critical Thinking, Self-Monitoring, and Academic Achievement in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh

    2017-01-01

    The present study assessed the associations among higher-order thinking skills (reflective thinking, critical thinking) and self-monitoring that contribute to academic achievement among university students. The sample consisted of 196 Iranian university students (mean age = 22.05, SD = 3.06; 112 females; 75 males) who were administered three…

  11. Hybrid Tasks: Promoting Statistical Thinking and Critical Thinking through the Same Mathematical Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizikovitsh-Udi, Einav; Clarke, David; Kuntze, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Even though statistical thinking and critical thinking appear to have strong links from a theoretical point of view, empirical research into the intersections and potential interrelatedness of these aspects of competence is scarce. Our research suggests that thinking skills in both areas may be interdependent. Given this interconnection, it should…

  12. Writing Shapes Thinking: Investigative Study of Preservice Teachers Reading, Writing to Learn, and Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Bernice; Lewis, Katie D.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher Preparation Programs must work towards not only preparing preservice teachers to have knowledge of classroom pedagogy but also must expand preservice teachers understanding of content knowledge as well as to develop higher-order thinking which includes thinking critically. This mixed methods study examined how writing shapes thinking and…

  13. Teaching Critical Thinking and Civic Thinking in a First-Year College Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Donald E.; Houlihan, Adam J.; Corbo, Christopher P.; Mosher, Roy H.

    2017-01-01

    Two professors co-taught critical and civic thinking in the same first-semester course for four years. For the first year, they used computerized argument mapping and critical-thinking-for-civic-thinking (CT)[superscript 2] exercises based on open-ended scenarios framed within a civic context. The instructors assessed student skill levels using…

  14. REFLECTIVE THINKING AND TEACHING PRACTICES: A PRECURSOR FOR INCORPORATING CRITICAL THINKING INTO THE CLASSROOM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chee Choy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of reflective thinking as a precursor for incorporating critical thinking has been not been adequately researched. Most research has not given any effective strategies on how to incorporate these two concepts. There is a constant need to incorporate critical thinking into the classroom without much success. This study will attempt to show a link between reflective thinking and its ability to stimulate critical thinking. Teachers often perceive that critical thinking skills need to be taught, however research has shown that they may not know how to do this effectively. The use of reflective thinking may be a precursor to stimulating critical thinking in teachers. The research questions are on the reflective thinking skills of teachers and how they perceive themselves and their teaching. In this study a total of 60 participants from institutions of higher learning volunteered to answer a questionnaire to determine the level at which they reflected on their teaching practices as an indicator of their level of critical thinking. It was found that most of the teachers did not reflect deeply on their teaching practices. They did not seem to practice the four learning processes: assumption analysis, contextual awareness, imaginative speculation and reflective scepticism which were indicative of reflection. It would suggest that critical thinking is practised minimally among teachers. Further research need to be carried out on how to bring about reflective practices among teachers and how it would enhance the quality of lessons in terms of critical thinking.

  15. Thinking in Clinical Nursing Practice: A Study of Critical Care Nurses' Thinking Applying the Think-Aloud, Protocol Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Ja Han, RN, PhD

    2007-06-01

    Conclusion: This study specifies the initial categories of thoughts for each of the processes and various patterns with which these processes are sequentially combined, providing insights into the ways nurses think about problems and address their concerns. The findings suggest that the thinking in clinical practice involves more than focused decision-making and reasoning, and needs to be examined from a broader perspective.

  16. Database thinking development in Context of School Education

    OpenAIRE

    Panský, Mikoláš

    2011-01-01

    The term database thinking is understood as group of Competencies that enables working with Database System. Database thinking development is targeted educational incidence to student with the expected outcome ability working with Database system. Thesis is focused on problematic of purposes, content and methods of database thinking development. Experimental part proposes quantitative metrics for database thinking development. KEYWORDS: Education, Database, Database thinking, Structured Query...

  17. E-learning for Critical Thinking: Using Nominal Focus Group Method to Inform Software Content and Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Steve; Mayner, Lidia; Michael Gillham, David

    2015-12-01

    Undergraduate nursing students are often confused by multiple understandings of critical thinking. In response to this situation, the Critiique for critical thinking (CCT) project was implemented to provide consistent structured guidance about critical thinking. This paper introduces Critiique software, describes initial validation of the content of this critical thinking tool and explores wider applications of the Critiique software. Critiique is flexible, authorable software that guides students step-by-step through critical appraisal of research papers. The spelling of Critiique was deliberate, so as to acquire a unique web domain name and associated logo. The CCT project involved implementation of a modified nominal focus group process with academic staff working together to establish common understandings of critical thinking. Previous work established a consensus about critical thinking in nursing and provided a starting point for the focus groups. The study was conducted at an Australian university campus with the focus group guided by open ended questions. Focus group data established categories of content that academic staff identified as important for teaching critical thinking. This emerging focus group data was then used to inform modification of Critiique software so that students had access to consistent and structured guidance in relation to critical thinking and critical appraisal. The project succeeded in using focus group data from academics to inform software development while at the same time retaining the benefits of broader philosophical dimensions of critical thinking.

  18. Positive thinking about the future in newspaper reports and presidential addresses predicts economic downturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevincer, A Timur; Wagner, Greta; Kalvelage, Johanna; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2014-04-01

    Previous research has shown that positive thinking, in the form of fantasies about an idealized future, predicts low effort and poor performance. In the studies reported here, we used computerized content analysis of historical documents to investigate the relation between positive thinking about the future and economic development. During the financial crisis from 2007 to 2009, the more weekly newspaper articles in the economy page of USA Today contained positive thinking about the future, the more the Dow Jones Industrial Average declined in the subsequent week and 1 month later. In addition, between the New Deal era and the present time, the more presidential inaugural addresses contained positive thinking about the future, the more the gross domestic product and the employment rate declined in the presidents' subsequent tenures. These counterintuitive findings may help reveal the psychological processes that contribute to an economic crisis.

  19. The relationship between suicidal thinking and dating violence in a sample of adolescent abortion patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Gretchen E; Nugent, William R; Cerel, Julie; Vimbba, Mholi

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between suicidal thinking and adolescent dating violence has not been previously explored in a sample of adolescent abortion patients. This paper highlights a study where the relationship between dating violence and severity of suicidal thinking was examined in a sample of 120 young women ages 14-21 seeking to terminate an unintended pregnancy. The Multidimensional Adolescent Assessment Scale and the Conflict in Adolescent Relationships Scale was used to gather information about psychosocial problems and dating violence so that the relationship between the two problems could be examined, while controlling for the other psychosocial problems. The results suggest that dating violence was related to severity of suicidal thinking, and that the magnitude of this relationship was moderated by the severity of problems with aggression. Specifically, as the severity of participant's general problems with aggression increased, the magnitude of the relationship between dating violence and severity of suicidal thinking increased. Limitations of the study and implications for practice are discussed.

  20. Cultural Capital in Context:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Gran; Jæger, Mads Meier

    to be higher in low-achieving schooling environments than in high-achieving ones. These results support the cultural mobility explanation and are in line with previous research suggesting that children from low-SES families benefit more from cultural capital than children from high-SES families....

  1. Cultural Transfer and Creating Cultural Awareness in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language: A Sample from Gaziosmanpasa University Tömer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscan, Adem; Karagöz, Beytullah; Konyar, Merve

    2017-01-01

    Culture and language are two phenomena that have existed by influencing each other for centuries. It is impossible to think independently of the culture on which the language is cultivated, nor on the language, which influences culture. One of the best signs of mastering a language is the ability to understand the cultural elements and the…

  2. Some Thinking from, and Away from, Heidegger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Carl

    2016-01-01

    How do we encourage Heidegger's notion of originary thinking in education, and indeed how should one engage with thinking at all? In this response, I consider the challenge that Heidegger lays down for speculation that refers certainty to the unknown. In my answer to the contributors of this special issue, I highlight the fact that all of us are…

  3. Critical Thinking in the Business Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Joanne R.; Anderson, Phyllis R.

    2012-01-01

    A minicourse in critical thinking was implemented to improve student outcomes in two sessions of a senior-level business course at a Midwestern university. Statistical analyses of two quantitative assessments revealed significant improvements in critical thinking skills. Improvements in student outcomes in case studies and computerized business…

  4. Think Tank Initiative - Hewlett Foundation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation are collaborating on the Think Tank Initiative, a new program to strengthen independent think tanks and policy research centres in the developing world. These organizations provide critical input for the creation of effective public policy to promote growth and reduce ...

  5. Start with Higher-Order Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    "Memorizing facts is boring. Drill-and-practice is boring. But thinking, for most students most of the time, is actually fun," writes Susan M. Brookhart. The author recommends that teachers build interest and engagement into every lesson plan by creating opportunities for deep thinking. She describes three strategies to accomplish this.…

  6. Thinking Skills: A Key to Future Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiri, Judith A.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses the importance of the ability to think logically and solve problems with fundamental communication skills and with the ability to make decisions and adapt to change. Five thinking skills are examined: making decisions, planning and organizing, managing time, proofreading, and using proper language arts composition skills. (CT)

  7. Debate: a strategy for teaching critical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, E A

    1991-01-01

    Nurses in advanced practice require high-level critical thinking skills. Two elements of critical thinking are discovery and justification. The process of justification is focused on argumentation skills. Using the debate process to analyze, critique, and construct arguments may be an effective teaching-learning technique. Suggestions for the use of debate in graduate nursing curricula are included.

  8. Philosophy, Critical Thinking and Philosophy for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Marie-France; Auriac, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, philosophy has been considered as an intellectual activity requiring complex cognitive skills and predispositions related to complex (or critical) thinking. The Philosophy for Children (P4C) approach aims at the development of critical thinking in pupils through philosophical dialogue. Some contest the introduction of P4C in the…

  9. Critical thinking as reflecting on understanding others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torringa, J.G.H.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation about critical thinking processes three questions. The first regards the question what critical thinking means when conceptualizing the phrase away from the dominant account in which it refers to the ability to reason well and the disposition to do so (Bailin & Siegel, 2003). A

  10. Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills among Authoritarian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson Hurley, Martha; Hurley, David

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on assignments designed to enhance critical thinking skills for authoritarian personality types. This paper seeks to add to the literature by exploring instructional methods to overcome authoritarian traits that could inhibit the development of critical thinking skills. The article presents a strategy which can be employed…

  11. A Confucian Conception of Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes a Confucian conception of critical thinking by focussing on the notion of judgement. It is argued that the attainment of the Confucian ideal of "li" (normative behaviours) necessitates and promotes critical thinking in at least two ways. First, the observance of "li" requires the individual to exercise…

  12. Development of Critical Thinking with Metacognitive Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    In this research the author defines critical thinking as the set of skills and dispositions which enable one to solve problems logically and to attempt to reflect autonomously by means of Metacognitive regulation on one's own problem-solving processes. In order to develop their critical thinking, it is important for students to be able to use this…

  13. Assessing Postgraduate Students' Critical Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ansa

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses to assess the critical thinking ability of postgraduate students. The target population was the male and female students at University level in Pakistan. A small sample of 45 male and 45 female students were selected randomly from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cornell Critical Thinking Test Series, The…

  14. Teaching Young Children To Think about Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Alice P.

    2001-01-01

    Constructivist teachers are guided by three basic principles when teaching math to young children. They encourage students to think about their answers, conceptualize how they resolved the problem, and represent their thinking with words, pictures, or symbols. Demonstrating mathematical logic is more important than memorizing rules. (MLH)

  15. Applying design thinking elsewhere : Organizational context matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, F.E.H.M.; Dorst, K.; Vermaas, P.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution design thinking is taken as a transfer of design methods from product development to other domains. It is argued that the success of this transfer depends on the organisational context offered to design thinking in these other domains. We describe the application of design

  16. Intuitive vs Analytical Thinking: Four Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leron, Uri; Hazzan, Orit

    2009-01-01

    This article is an attempt to place mathematical thinking in the context of more general theories of human cognition. We describe and compare four perspectives--mathematics, mathematics education, cognitive psychology, and evolutionary psychology--each offering a different view on mathematical thinking and learning and, in particular, on the…

  17. Critical Thinking for Mass Communications Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Pamela J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one way of systematically teaching critical thinking skills in a journalism-mass communication program. Begins with a general discussion of critical thinking. Proceeds to the theory and structure underlying the course as it is taught at the Ohio State University School of Journalism. (RS)

  18. Educating to Think in Environmental Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, from a pedagogic stand point, analysis of the following issues is necessary: • What does educating to think in an ecological way mean? • How do we educate to think, that is, through what kind of learning contexts? These questions will be analysed within a frame of philosophical reflection which is ecologically ...

  19. Computational Thinking in Constructionist Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintrop, David; Holbert, Nathan; Horn, Michael S.; Wilensky, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Video games offer an exciting opportunity for learners to engage in computational thinking in informal contexts. This paper describes a genre of learning environments called constructionist video games that are especially well suited for developing learners' computational thinking skills. These games blend features of conventional video games with…

  20. Computational Thinking Concepts for Grade School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, John F.; Naidu, Jaideep T.

    2016-01-01

    Early education has classically introduced reading, writing, and mathematics. Recent literature discusses the importance of adding "computational thinking" as a core ability that every child must learn. The goal is to develop students by making them equally comfortable with computational thinking as they are with other core areas of…

  1. Future Teachers' Spatial Thinking Skills and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Euikyung E.; Milson, Andrew J.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial thinking skills and attitudes of geography majors were compared with those of future teachers majoring in elementary education and secondary social studies education. Scores were obtained for each group on two measures: the spatial skills test and the attitude toward spatial thinking inventory. Mean differences were examined based on…

  2. Optimizing Reasonableness, Critical Thinking, and Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuenobe, Polycarp

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that the quantity, superabundance of information, easy availability, and quick access to information in cyberspace may engender critical thinking and the optimization of reasonableness. This point is different from, but presupposes, the commonplace view that critical thinking abilities, criteria, processes, and…

  3. A Technique for Teaching Creative Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bono, Edward

    1986-01-01

    Offers information on and examples of the Cognitive Research Trust (CoRT) Thinking Program, internationally the most widely used program for the teaching of thinking as part of the school curriculum. Describes various CoRT tools, including one in which students list the pluses, minuses, and interesting points about a given issue. (DMM)

  4. Lateral Thinking; Creativity Step by Step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bono, Edward

    The purpose of thinking is to collect information and to make the best possible use of it. Because of the way the mind works to create fixed concept patterns we cannot make the best use of new information unless we have some means for restructuring the old patterns and bringing them up to date. Our traditional methods of thinking teach us how to…

  5. Strategic Thinking: The Untapped Resource for Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    Strategic thinking is an organized, analytical process by which college leaders can assess: (1) existing and potential competitors; (2) sources of competitive advantage; and (3) college capabilities and competitive position. Three outcomes of strategic thinking are: (1) clear institutional strategy and direction; (2) improved institutional…

  6. Curriculum Power: Thinking Futuristically, Acting Realistically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Eugene W.

    Focusing on whether or not it is worthwhile to think and to study about the future, presenting methods for effectively thinking about and studying about the future, and suggesting methods for introducting future studies into the curriculum, this paper argues that the ultimate purpose of futurism in education is to help learners cope with real-life…

  7. A Model for Teaching Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Marnice K.

    2013-01-01

    In an age in which information is available almost instantly and in quantities unimagined just a few decades ago, most educators would agree that teaching adult learners to think critically about what they are reading, seeing, and hearing has never been more important. But just what is critical thinking? Do adult learners agree with educators that…

  8. The Theory of Critical Thinking of Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cheryl

    2002-01-01

    Nursing students (n=47), entry-level nurses (n=48), and expert nurses (n=54) viewed and analyzed simulated nursing incidents. Findings determined that critical thinking and decision making increased with the level of clinical expertise. Grade point average was also correlated with critical thinking and decision making. (Contains 22 references.)…

  9. Critical Thinking Dispositions in Online Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lorraine Mary

    2008-01-01

    As part of a doctoral study, the critical thinking dispositions of post-RN (post-diploma) nurses continuing their education at a mid-sized university were measured before and after the intervention of a three-credit online course. The tool used to measure the changes in critical thinking disposition was the California Critical Thinking…

  10. Research Award: Think Tank Initiative | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... These one‐year, paid, in‐house programs of training and mentorship allow award holders to pursue their research goals and work in one of IDRC's dynamic program or division teams. The Think Tank Initiative is a global program that supports independent policy research organizations – or "think tanks" ...

  11. Research award: Think Tank Initiative | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-06

    Sep 6, 2017 ... These one‐year, paid, in‐house programs of training and mentorship allow award holders to pursue their research goals and work in one of IDRC's dynamic program or division teams. The Think Tank Initiative is a global program that supports independent policy research organizations, or “think tanks”, ...

  12. Repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehring, T.; Watkins, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    The current paper provides an updated review of repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic process. It is shown that elevated levels of repetitive negative thinking are present across a large range of Axis I disorders and appear to be causally involved in the maintenance of emotional

  13. Global Think Tank Initiative Policy Engagement and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Think tanks in developing countries aim to produce quality, evidence-based research to address the policy challenges faced by the countries or regions within which they operate. The potential for think tanks to inform policy and contribute to development debates depends on their ability to engage in the policy process.

  14. Visual-Spatial Thinking in Hypertexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Sheehan, Richard; Baehr, Craig

    2001-01-01

    Explores what it means to think visually and spatially in hypertexts and how users react and maneuver in real and virtual three-dimensional spaces. Offers four principles of visual thinking that can be applied when developing hypertexts. Applies these principles to actual hypertexts, demonstrating how selectivity, fixation, depth discernment, and…

  15. Entrepreneurship and strategic thinking in business ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zahra, Shaker; Nambisan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Success in business ecosystems that include well-established companies and new ventures requires collaboration and competition, a task that demands strategic thinking to leverage a firm's resources and capabilities. Strategic thinking and the entrepreneurial activities in an ecosystem influence one

  16. Critical Thinking Skills for Language Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djiwandono, Patrisius Istiarto

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in language teaching increasingly put a stronger importance on critical thinking skills. While studies in this area have begun to emerge, it is believed that a probe into the learners' mind when they process information can contribute significantly to the effort of identifying exactly how our learners think. This study was…

  17. Developing Critical Thinking through Student Consulting Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canziani, Bonnie; Tullar, William L.

    2017-01-01

    The authors present survey results from faculty at 44 universities on the role of student consulting projects in developing business students' critical thinking. They conclude that students can improve critical thinking by engaging in guided primary and secondary research to inform their business assumptions that underpin business planning and…

  18. Analytic thinking reduces belief in conspiracy theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Voracek, Martin; Stieger, Stefan; Tran, Ulrich S; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Belief in conspiracy theories has been associated with a range of negative health, civic, and social outcomes, requiring reliable methods of reducing such belief. Thinking dispositions have been highlighted as one possible factor associated with belief in conspiracy theories, but actual relationships have only been infrequently studied. In Study 1, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and a range of measures of thinking dispositions in a British sample (N=990). Results indicated that a stronger belief in conspiracy theories was significantly associated with lower analytic thinking and open-mindedness and greater intuitive thinking. In Studies 2-4, we examined the causational role played by analytic thinking in relation to conspiracist ideation. In Study 2 (N=112), we showed that a verbal fluency task that elicited analytic thinking reduced belief in conspiracy theories. In Study 3 (N=189), we found that an alternative method of eliciting analytic thinking, which related to cognitive disfluency, was effective at reducing conspiracist ideation in a student sample. In Study 4, we replicated the results of Study 3 among a general population sample (N=140) in relation to generic conspiracist ideation and belief in conspiracy theories about the July 7, 2005, bombings in London. Our results highlight the potential utility of supporting attempts to promote analytic thinking as a means of countering the widespread acceptance of conspiracy theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  20. The Relationship Between Strategic Thinking and Hospital Managers’ Productivity in Teaching Hospitals of Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiaei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Using different methods of strategic thinking is essential for organizations such as hospitals; without them, many organizations will not survive. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between strategic thinking and management productivity in teaching hospitals of Shiraz. Objectives Because of the importance of strategic management in organizational productivity, the present study is conducted with the goal of assessing the relationship between strategic thinking and hospital managers’ productivity. Patients and Methods This descriptive-correlational study was conducted in 2015. The statistical population included all managers in different levels in the teaching hospitals of Shiraz (170 persons. Among these, 119 participants were selected through Cochran’s formula and a simple random sampling method. Data were collected by a questionnaire addressing strategic thinking based on Liedtka’s model and Hersey and Blanchard’s theory. Its validity was verified by a panel of experts and its reliability was measured in previous studies. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 20 using descriptive and analytic statistics (analysis of variance (ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation test and t-test. Results The average and Standard Deviation of strategic thinking managers was (2.2 ± 0.04, and productivity of management (2.32 ± 0.37 was estimated on the average level. There was a direct meaningful relationship between strategically thinking managers and productivity (r = 0.387, P < 0.001. The results also showed that there is a meaningful correlation between strategic thinking and sustainability, organizational support and understanding of the job. Conclusions Due to the correlation between strategic thinking and productivity, we recommend educating and training managers in the use of strategic thinking, and that they understand its importance to productivity. Managers should understand that increasing efficiency in a