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Sample records for previous criminal history

  1. Criminal Justice History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Krause

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article discusses studies on the history of crime and the criminal law in England and Ireland published during the last few years. These reflect the ›history of crime and punishment‹ as a more or less established sub-discipline of social history, at least in England, whereas it only really began to flourish in the german-speaking world from the 1990s onwards. By contrast, the legal history of the criminal law and its procedure has a strong, recently revived academic tradition in Germany that does not really have a parallel in the British Isles, whose legal scholars still evidence their traditional reluctance to confront penal subjects.

  2. An Examination of Employment and Earning Outcomes of Probationers With Criminal and Substance Use Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Chintakrindi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There exists a strong relationship between having a criminal history and experiencing barriers to employment. Negative credentials facilitate the social and economic exclusion of individuals with criminal records. However, previous research has not concretely identified whether the stratification of economic opportunities by individual-level criminal records may be further affecting those who demonstrate substance use histories. In this study, we examine the substance use and criminal history profiles of probationers participating in an experimental drug treatment study and how probationer characteristics affect employment outcomes and gross earnings at both the 6- and 12-month follow-up periods. We hypothesize that substance use and criminal history have a main effect and interactional relationship that reduces the odds of self-reporting employment and decreases gross earnings outcomes of probationer. Our results demonstrate that substance use history and criminal history has a main effect on employment and earnings outcomes.

  3. Military Recruiting: New Initiatives Could Improve Criminal History Screening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... Notwithstanding the moral character standards, a criminal history record for any type of crime, including a felony, does not automatically eliminate someone from consideration because they may...

  4. 75 FR 79312 - Requirements for Fingerprint-Based Criminal History Records Checks for Individuals Seeking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ...-2008-0619] RIN 3150-AI25 Requirements for Fingerprint-Based Criminal History Records Checks for... a fingerprint- based criminal history records check before granting any individual unescorted access...

  5. 77 FR 27561 - Requirements for Fingerprint-Based Criminal History Records Checks for Individuals Seeking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Fingerprinting and Criminal History Records Check Requirements for Unescorted Access to Research and Test... Criminal History Records Check Requirements for Unescorted Access to the General Atomics' Research and Test...-Based Criminal History Records Checks for Individuals Seeking Unescorted Access to Non-Power Reactors...

  6. Improving risk assessment in schizophrenia: epidemiological investigation of criminal history factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Katrina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Fazel, Seena

    2015-05-01

    Violence risk assessment in schizophrenia relies heavily on criminal history factors. To investigate which criminal history factors are most strongly associated with violent crime in schizophrenia. A total of 13 806 individuals (8891 men and 4915 women) with two or more hospital admissions for schizophrenia were followed up for violent convictions. Multivariate hazard ratios for 15 criminal history factors included in different risk assessment tools were calculated. The incremental predictive validity of these factors was estimated using tests of discrimination, calibration and reclassification. Over a mean follow-up of 12.0 years, 17.3% of men (n = 1535) and 5.7% of women (n = 281) were convicted of a violent offence. Criminal history factors most strongly associated with subsequent violence for both men and women were a previous conviction for a violent offence; for assault, illegal threats and/or intimidation; and imprisonment. However, only a previous conviction for a violent offence was associated with incremental predictive validity in both genders following adjustment for young age and comorbid substance use disorder. Clinical and actuarial approaches to assess violence risk can be improved if included risk factors are tested using multiple measures of performance. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  7. 28 CFR 20.34 - Individual's right to access criminal history record information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Individual's right to access criminal history record information. The procedures by which an individual may... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual's right to access criminal history record information. 20.34 Section 20.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL...

  8. 49 CFR 1542.209 - Fingerprint-based criminal history records checks (CHRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fingerprint-based criminal history records checks... Operations § 1542.209 Fingerprint-based criminal history records checks (CHRC). (a) Scope. The following... fingerprint-based CHRC that does not disclose that he or she has a disqualifying criminal offense, as...

  9. WITHDRAWAL OF PREVIOUS COMPLAINT. A COMPARISON OF THE OLD AND THE NEW CRIMINAL CODE. PROBLEMS OF COMPARATIVE LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Sorin NICOLESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In criminal law previous complaint has a double legal valence, material and procedural in nature, constituting a condition for criminal liability, but also a functional condition in cases expressly and limitatively provided by law, a consequence of criminal sanction condition. For certain offenses criminal law determines the initiation of the criminal complaint by the introduction of previous complaint by the injured party, without its absence being a question of removing criminal liability. From the perspective of criminal material law conditioning of the existence of previous complaint ,its lack and withdrawal, are regulated by art. 157 and 158 of the New Penal Code, with significant changes in relation to the old regulation of the institution . In terms of procedural aspect , previous complaint is regulated in art. 295-298 of the New Code of Criminal Procedure. Regarding the withdrawal of the previuos complaint, in the case of offenses for which the initiation of criminal proceedings is subject to the existence of such a complaint, we note that in the current Criminal Code this legal institution is regulated separately, representing both a cause for removal of criminal liability and a cause that preclude criminal action. This unilateral act of the will of the injured party - the withdrawal of the previous complaint, may be exercised only under certain conditions, namely: it can only be promoted in the case of the offenses for which the initiation of criminal proceedings is subject to the introduction of a previous complaint; it is made exclusively by the rightholder, by legal representatives or with the consent of the persons required by law for persons lacking legal capacity or having limited legal capacity;it must intervene until giving final judgment and it must represent an express and explicit manifestation. A novelty isrepresented by the possibility of withdrawing previous complaint if the prosecution was driven ex officio, although for

  10. 28 CFR 20.33 - Dissemination of criminal history record information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... providing services for the administration of criminal justice pursuant to that agreement. The agreement must... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of criminal history record information. 20.33 Section 20.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION...

  11. Intimate partner violence perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting: criminal history, psychopathology, and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Jens; Bogaerts, Stefan; Sijtsema, Jelle; Klerx-van Mierlo, Fanny

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated criminological, psychopathological, and victimological profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in a sample of 119 Dutch female and male forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 58 years. In addition, differences in criminological, psychopathological, and victimological factors between IPV perpetrators (n = 61, 51.3%) and non-intimate violence (NIV) perpetrators (n = 58, 48.7%) were examined. All data, including information on demographics, criminal history, history of psychological, sexual, and physical victimization during childhood or adolescence, family history of psychopathology, history of psychopathology in childhood and adolescence, and mental disorders, were derived from archival electronic medical records. Mental disorders were measured using structured psychiatric interviews and final consensus diagnoses were established during weekly case consultations. Both IPV and NIV perpetrators displayed high rates of criminal history, psychopathology, and previous victimization, but the two groups did not differ in these factors with two exceptions. IPV perpetrators were significantly more likely to have higher rates of previous physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder than NIV perpetrators. The current study suggests that a history of physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder are specific characteristics of IPV perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting. Future research should focus on mechanisms explaining the association of childhood victimization and IPV and increase our understanding of the role of intermittent explosive disorder in IPV. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Psychiatric disorders and criminal history in male prisoners in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevizopoulos, Giorgos; Igoumenou, Artemis

    2016-01-01

    Τo explore the psychopathology of the Greek male prisoner population and the relationship between psychiatric disorders and the criminal history of the subjects. The Iowa Structured Psychiatric Interview and the Personality Disorders Questionnaire were administered. The prevalence of the most common mental disorders was analyzed separately and in relation to the criminal history. SPSS was used for the statistical analysis. A total of 495 male prisoners were interviewed. Overall, 223 (45.06%) were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder. Non-violent crimes were the most prevalent reason for imprisonment (40.7%). One-third (30.3%) of the sample was convicted with drug-related crimes, and 28.0% with violent crimes. The prevalence of mental disorders in Greek prisoners was higher than in the general population. Personality disorder was the most common type of mental disorder and the only psychiatric diagnosis related to violent crime. This highlights the need for screening for mental disorders and the need for therapeutic provision within the prison setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 49 CFR 1544.230 - Fingerprint-based criminal history records checks (CHRC): Flightcrew members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fingerprint-based criminal history records checks... Fingerprint-based criminal history records checks (CHRC): Flightcrew members. (a) Scope. This section applies... each flightcrew member has undergone a fingerprint-based CHRC that does not disclose that he or she has...

  14. 28 CFR 105.23 - Procedure for requesting criminal history record check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Private Security Officer Employment § 105.23 Procedure for requesting criminal... checks, declaring that it is an authorized employer that employs private security officers; that all fingerprints and requests for criminal history background checks are being submitted for private security...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 86 - Criteria For Criminal History Background Check Disqualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria For Criminal History Background Check Disqualification B Appendix B to Part 86 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS ON INDIVIDUALS IN CHILD CARE SERVICES Pt...

  16. 10 CFR 73.61 - Relief from fingerprinting and criminal history records check for designated categories of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relief from fingerprinting and criminal history records... fingerprinting and criminal history records check for designated categories of individuals permitted unescorted... Commission's regulations, fingerprinting and the identification and criminal history records checks required...

  17. Drug abuse and criminal family records in the criminal history of prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Estrada

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between criminal behavior and the risk factors, family criminal records and drug use, has been firmly established. With the aim of defining the role of these risk factors in the initiation and evolution of criminal behavior, a field study with prison inmates was designed. A survival analysis with the age at which the first unsanctioned crime was committed and the age at which entered by first instance into prison was applied to the data of 157 prison inmates in Villabona (Asturias, Spain. The results of a survival analysis showed that drug abuse re-offenders initiated in criminal acts at an earlier age (13 years than the primary offenders (16 years; re-offenders from family criminal records began his/her criminal activity earlier (13 years than primary ones (16 years; re-offenders with non-criminal family records, initiate in criminal acts at 14 years, whereas primary at 16; the recidivist drug abusers enter by first instance into prison earlier (19 years than the primary ones; non-drug consuming primary offenders enter prison for the first time at the age of 24 whereas recidivists do so at the age of 19; the first entrance into prison of the recidivist with family criminal records occurs early (19 years, than for the primary offenders (23 years; and the recidivist prisoners of non-family criminal records cross the threshold of the prison by first time youngsters (21 years than the primary inmates (26 years. The implications of these results may lead towards a more effective intervention against crime.

  18. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 20 - Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... including private individuals would be permitted to use criminal history record information for research... Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Appendix to Part 20 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Pt. 20, App. Appendix to Part 20—Commentary on...

  19. Rurality and criminal history as predictors of HIV risk among drug-involved offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, J Matthew; Mateyoke-Scrivner, Allison; Staton, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined rurality and criminality as predictors of the lifetime HIV risk behaviors of 661 male, drug-abusing state prisoners. HIV risk behaviors included the number of lifetime sex partners, the number of lifetime drug injections, the number of times had sex with an injection drug user, and the frequency with which a condom was used. Regression analyses showed that criminality was related to the number of lifetime injections, whereas rurality was related to fewer lifetime sex partners and less frequent condom use. A rurality by criminality interaction for sex with an injection drug user was found. Specifically, those from rural areas who had more extensive criminal histories reported relatively high numbers of sex partners who were IDUs. Results are discussed in the context of rural and criminal justice interventions for HIV risk behavior.

  20. Criminal history and future offending of juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Ernest, Melanie; Kaszynski, Katie; Bessler, Cornelia

    2014-08-01

    Most child pornography is distributed online. It is estimated that 3% to 15% of child pornography consumers are juveniles. The present study analyzed a consecutive sample of 54 male juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography. Demographic characteristics, criminal history, and subsequent offending were assessed from criminal files and official reports. Juvenile possessors of child pornography were compared to three different groups of juveniles: Juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography (n = 42), juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a child (n = 64), and juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a peer or adult (n = 104). Juvenile possessors of child pornography were found to have downloaded the illegal material more frequently and over a longer time period than juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography. Furthermore, juvenile possessors of child pornography differed from juveniles who had committed a sexual contact offense in terms of demographics and showed fewer previous and subsequent offending than juveniles who sexually offended against a peer or adult. We conclude that juvenile possessors of child pornography need a specific target intervention focusing on dysfunctional Internet use and sexually deviant arousal. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. The criminal histories and later offending of child pornography offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2005-04-01

    The likelihood that child pornography offenders will later commit a contact sexual offense is unknown. In the present study, we identified a sample of 201 adult male child pornography offenders using police databases and examined their charges or convictions after the index child pornography offense(s). We also examined their criminal records to identify potential predictors of later offenses: 56% of the sample had a prior criminal record, 24% had prior contact sexual offenses, and 15% had prior child pornography offenses. One-third were concurrently charged with other crimes at the time they were charged for child pornography offenses. The average time at risk was 2.5 years; 17% of the sample offended again in some way during this time, and 4% committed a new contact sexual offense. Child pornography offenders with prior criminal records were significantly more likely to offend again in any way during the follow-up period. Child pornography offenders who had committed a prior or concurrent contact sexual offense were the most likely to offend again, either generally or sexually.

  2. The Risk Factors for Criminal Behaviour in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASDs): A Comparison of Childhood Adversities between Individuals with HFASDs Who Exhibit Criminal Behaviour and Those with HFASD and No Criminal Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Chihiro; Ohnishi, Masafumi; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Someki, Fumio; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Tsujii, Masatsugu

    2012-01-01

    Most reports of the criminal behaviour of individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) have been case studies, and few have empirically examined the risk factors of criminal behaviour among these individuals. This study examined 175 individuals with HFASD, including 36 individuals who had a prior history of criminal…

  3. Multispecies Coevolution Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Previous Search History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid coevolution particle swarm optimization algorithm with dynamic multispecies strategy based on K-means clustering and nonrevisit strategy based on Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree (called MCPSO-PSH is proposed. Previous search history memorized into the Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree can effectively restrain the individuals’ revisit phenomenon. The whole population is partitioned into several subspecies and cooperative coevolution is realized by an information communication mechanism between subspecies, which can enhance the global search ability of particles and avoid premature convergence to local optimum. To demonstrate the power of the method, comparisons between the proposed algorithm and state-of-the-art algorithms are grouped into two categories: 10 basic benchmark functions (10-dimensional and 30-dimensional, 10 CEC2005 benchmark functions (30-dimensional, and a real-world problem (multilevel image segmentation problems. Experimental results show that MCPSO-PSH displays a competitive performance compared to the other swarm-based or evolutionary algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and statistical tests.

  4. Academic Politics and the History of Criminal Justice Education. Contributions in Criminology and Penology, No. 46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morn, Frank

    This book reviews the history of academic criminal justice--the studying and teaching of crime, police, law and legal processes, and corrections--from 1870 to the present. The nine chapters have the following titles: (1) "Introduction: Academic Politics and Professionalism, 1870-1930"; (2) "Progressivism and Police Education,…

  5. Is it morally permissible for hospital nurses to access prisoner-patients' criminal histories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, information about a person's criminal history is accessible with a name and date of birth. Ruth Crampton has studied nurses' care for prisoner-patients in hospital settings and found care to be perfunctory and reactive. This article examines whether it is morally permissible for nurses in hospital settings to access information about prisoner-patients' criminal histories. Nurses may argue for a right to such information based on the right to personal safety at work or the obligation to provide prisoner-patients with the care that they deserve. These two arguments are considered and rejected. It is further argued that accessing information about a prisoner-patient's criminal history violates nurses' duty to care. Care, understood through Sarah Ruddick's account as work and relationship, requires nurses to be open and unbiased in order to do their part in forming a caring relationship with patients. Knowledge of a prisoner-patient's criminal history inhibits the formation of this relationship and thus violates nurses' duty to care.

  6. 10 CFR 73.59 - Relief from fingerprinting, identification and criminal history records checks and other elements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relief from fingerprinting, identification and criminal... AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.59 Relief from fingerprinting... categories of individuals. Fingerprinting, and the identification and criminal history records checks...

  7. Women criminality--the influence of socio-familial history and status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luta, Veronica; Pasca, Viorel; Enache, Alexandra; Ciopec, Flavius; Ursachi, Georgeta; Radu, Daniel; Stratul, Stefan; Zarie, Gabriela; Mutiu, Florentina

    2009-04-01

    Our interdisciplinary study aims at the influence of social and familial history and status in a sample of Romanian female offenders. We collected data regarding the social and familial environment and status in the moment of committing a crime from 235 women incarcerated in four Romanian prisons. We applied a 67 item questionnaire conceived by the members of the research group. The items we compared refer to: the type of offence, the offender's marital status and the number of children in the moment of committing the crime, the situation in the family of origin and the offender's evaluation of the relationship with the parents and brothers, the monthly income, the type of relationship with the partner as described by the offender, history of substance abuse and violence in the family of origin and in the own family. We also analyzed the answers regarding the motivation for the criminal act. The paper shows the distribution of various types of criminal offences in correlation with the level of education, the relevance of a stable familial environment and monthly income. The history of criminality, substance abuse and interpersonal violence in the families of origin is also taken into account.

  8. Assessing criminal history as a predictor of future housing success for homeless adults with behavioral health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Daniel K

    2009-02-01

    Homeless adults with serious mental illnesses and chronic substance abuse problems have few housing options, a problem compounded when a criminal background is present. This study compared the criminal backgrounds and other characteristics of homeless individuals who succeeded in housing (retained housing continuously for two years) and those who failed in housing. The study population consisted of homeless adults with behavioral health disorders who moved into supportive housing between January 1, 2000, and June 30, 2004, regardless of criminal background. Data about criminal history and other characteristics were extracted from existing records and analyzed for associations with housing success. Chi square tests and logistic regression analysis were used to find characteristics predictive of subsequent housing success or failure. Data were available for 347 participants. Most (51%) had a criminal record, and 72% achieved housing success. The presence of a criminal background did not predict housing failure. Younger age at move-in, the presence of a substance abuse problem, and higher numbers of drug crimes and property crimes were separately associated with more housing failure; however, when they were adjusted for each of the other variables, only move-in age remained associated with the outcome. The finding that criminal history does not provide good predictive information about the potential for housing success is important because it contradicts the expectations of housing operators and policy makers. The findings suggest that policies and practices that keep homeless people with criminal records out of housing may be unnecessarily restrictive.

  9. Assessment of Risk of Violent Behavior in Female Psychiatric Patients with a Criminal History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makurina A.P.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of study of illegal actions predictors in individuals with mental disorders and discuss the specific features of female criminality. On a sample of 69 patients with a diagnosis of organic mental disorder and schizophrenia, with criminal histories, we applied clinical and psychological hermeneutic analysis, used questionnaires to determine the self-assessments of patients, self-control diagnosis, self-regulation style features, diagnosis of aggression and hostility, coping strategies, destructive attitudes in interpersonal relationships. It made possible to identify clinical, social and pathopsychological factors of aggressive behavior in forensic patients. These individual psychological characteristics of mentally ill women will improve the prognosis of their aggressive behavior, implement differentiated preventive measures in the hospital and to establish appropriate intervention programs

  10. Psychosis, Lack of Job Skills, and Criminal History: Associations With Employment in Two Samples of Homeless Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2016-06-01

    This study examined factors associated with employment among homeless men with mental illness, particularly history of criminal justice involvement. Data from 569 homeless men in the 11-site Collaborative Initiative to Help End Chronic Homelessness (2004-2009) and 1,101 homeless male veterans in the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing program at 19 sites (1992-2003) were analyzed. In neither sample was criminal or incarceration history significantly associated with job attainment or earnings for either black or white participants. In contrast, psychotic disorders and public-support income were negatively associated with job attainment and earnings. The majority of homeless veterans reported lifetime occupations as skilled or unskilled manual workers. These findings highlight the high rate of nonemployment among homeless men and suggest that employment among homeless men is not significantly impeded by a criminal record but by psychiatric problems and reliance on public-support income.

  11. Clarifying the link between childhood abuse history and psychopathic traits in adult criminal offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargis, Monika; Newman, Joseph; Koenigs, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Childhood abuse is a risk factor for the development of externalizing characteristics and disorders, including antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. However, the precise relationships between particular types of childhood maltreatment and subsequent antisocial and psychopathic traits remain unclear. Using a large sample of incarcerated adult male criminal offenders (n = 183), the current study confirmed that severity of overall childhood maltreatment was linked to severity of both psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Moreover, this relationship was particularly strong for physical abuse and the antisocial facet of psychopathy. Sexual abuse history was uniquely related to juvenile conduct disorder severity, rather than adult psychopathy or antisocial behaviors. Additionally, there was a significantly stronger relationship between childhood maltreatment and juvenile conduct disorder than between childhood maltreatment and ASPD or psychopathy. These findings bolster and clarify the link between childhood maltreatment and antisocial behavior later in life. PMID:26389621

  12. 28 CFR 20.21 - Preparation and submission of a Criminal History Record Information Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... officials or agencies; (3) Individuals and agencies pursuant to a specific agreement with a criminal justice agency to provide services required for the administration of criminal justice pursuant to that agreement..., evaluative, or statistical activities pursuant to an agreement with a criminal justice agency. The agreement...

  13. Community College Students with Criminal Justice Histories and Human Services Education: Glass Ceiling, Brick Wall, or a Pathway to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Lisa Hale

    2015-01-01

    In spite of open access to community college education, specifically human service associate degree programs, students with criminal justice histories do not necessarily have an unobstructed pathway to obtaining the degree and admission to the baccalaureate programs in human services and social work that are almost always selective. The first…

  14. Examining the criminal history and future offending of child pornography offenders: an extended prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Angela W; Seto, Michael C; Williams, Jennette

    2011-12-01

    We examined police occurrence and criminal records data for a sample of 201 registered male child pornography offenders originally reported by Seto and Eke (Sex Abus J Res Treat 17:201-210, 2005), extending the average follow-up time for this sample to 5.9 years. In addition, we obtained the same data for another 340 offenders, increasing our full sample to 541 men, with a total average follow-up of 4.1 years. In the extended follow-up of the original sample, 34% of offenders had new charges for any type of reoffense, with 6% charged with a contact sexual offense against a child and an additional 3% charged with historical contact sex offenses (i.e., previously undetected offenses). For the full sample, there was a 32% any recidivism rate; 4% of offenders were charged with new contact sex offences, an additional 2% of offenders were charged with historical contact sex offenses and 7% of offenders were charged with a new child pornography offense. Predictors of new violent (including sexual contact) offending were prior offense history, including violent history, and younger offender age. Approximately a quarter of the sample was sanctioned for a failure on conditional release; in half of these failures, the offenders were in contact with children or used the internet, often to access pornography again.

  15. Empowerment and Social Support: Implications for Practice and Programming Among Minority Women with Substance Abuse and Criminal Justice Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Alexandra; Hunter, Bronwyn A; Salina, Doreen D; Jason, Leonard A

    2017-01-01

    Programs for women with substance abuse and criminal justice histories often incorporate empowerment and social support into service delivery systems. Women's empowerment research has focused on the relationship between women's personal identities and the larger sociopolitical context, with an emphasis on how community-based resources are critical for promoting well-being. Social support often protects against negative outcomes for individuals who live with chronic stress. However, few studies have evaluated community resource knowledge and empowerment among marginalized women or how social support might strengthen or weaken this relationship. This study investigated resource knowledge, social support, and empowerment among 200 minority women in substance abuse recovery who had recent criminal justice involvement. Results indicated that resource knowledge was related to empowerment and belonging social support marginally moderated this relationship. In addition, education level increased and current involvement in the criminal justice system decreased empowerment. Implications for research, practice, and policy are discussed.

  16. Patients with a Previous History of Malignancy Undergoing Lung Cancer Screening: Clinical Characteristics and Radiologic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, Darragh F; Cunningham, Jane D; Long, Niamh M; Sosa, Ramon E; Ginsberg, Michelle S

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and radiologic findings in patients with a previous history of malignancy who underwent computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer. Patients with a previous history of malignancy and a life expectancy of at least 5 years who were referred for lung cancer screening between May 2, 2011, and September 24, 2014, were included. CT scan features assessed included nodule size, morphologic features, and number. The Lung-CT Reporting and Data System scoring system was retrospectively applied to all studies. A total of 139 patients were studied (mean age of 66 years and median smoking history of 50 pack-years). All had a previous history of cancer, most often breast cancer (60 patients [43%]), head or neck cancer (26 patients [19%]), and lung cancer (16 patients [12%]). Of these patients, 42 (30%) had a positive screening study result. Lung cancer was diagnosed in seven patients (5%), and a radiation-induced chest wall sarcoma was diagnosed in one patient (1%); 42 patients (30%) had a positive chest CT scan per the National Comprehensive Cancer Network lung cancer screening nodule follow-up algorithm. The rate of diagnosis of lung cancer in our patient population is higher than in several previously published studies. Smokers with a history of malignancy may be a group at particularly high risk for the development of subsequent lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Department of Defense Compliance With Criminal History Data Reporting Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...." The Secretary of Defense was directed to provide a report to Congress on the consistency with which fingerprint cards and final dispositions are reported by the Defense Criminal Investigative Organizations (DCIOs...

  18. Visual pathway abnormalities were found in most multiple sclerosis patients despite history of previous optic neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Costa Castro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective It was to investigate visual field (VF abnormalities in a group of multiple sclerosis (MS patients in the remission phase and the presence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI lesions in the optic radiations. Methods VF was assessed in 60 participants (age range 20-51 years: 35 relapsing-remitting MS patients [20 optic neuritis (+, 15 optic neuritis (-] and 25 controls. MRI (3-Tesla was obtained in all patients. Results Visual parameters were abnormal in MS patients as compared to controls. The majority of VF defects were diffuse. All patients except one had posterior visual pathways lesions. No significant difference in lesion number, length and distribution was noted between patients with and without history of optic neuritis. One patient presented homonymous hemianopsia. Conclusion Posterior visual pathway abnormalities were found in most MS patients despite history of previous optic neuritis.

  19. Association between urinary incontinence in women and a previous history of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommsen, S.; Foldspang, Anders; Elving, L.

    1993-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, 85% of 3114 women responded to a questionnaire on urinary incontinence and a history of abdominal, gynaecological and urological surgery. In 1987 the prevalence of urinary incontinence was 17%; 63% had undergone surgery, mainly gynaecological, and almost one-third of t......In a cross-sectional study, 85% of 3114 women responded to a questionnaire on urinary incontinence and a history of abdominal, gynaecological and urological surgery. In 1987 the prevalence of urinary incontinence was 17%; 63% had undergone surgery, mainly gynaecological, and almost one......-third of the respondents had had more than one operation. Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed stress urinary incontinence to be associated with previous exposure to surgery....

  20. Life-history traits in an evergreen Mediterranean oak respond differentially to previous experimental environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Rey Benayas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms respond both to current and previous environments, which can have important consequences on population dynamics. However, there is little experimental evidence based on long-term field studies of the effects of previous environments on the performance of individuals. We tested the hypothesis that trees that establish under different environmental conditions perform differently under similar post-establishment conditions. We used the slow-growing, evergreen Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia as target species. We analyzed the effects of previous environments, competition effects and tradeoffs among life-history traits (survival, growth, and reproduction. We enhanced seedling establishment for three years by reducing abiotic environmental harshness by means of summer irrigation and artificial shading in 12 experimental plots, while four plots remained as controls. Then these treatments were interrupted for ten years. Seedlings under ameliorated environmental conditions survived and grew faster during early establishment. During the post-management period, previous treatments 1 did not have any effect on survival, 2 experienced a slower above-ground growth, 3 decreased root biomass as indicated from reflectivity of Ground Penetration Radar, 4 increased acorn production mostly through a greater canopy volume and 5 increased acorn production effort. The trees exhibited a combination of effects related to acclimation for coping with abiotic stress and effects of intra-specific competition. In accordance with our hypothesis, tree performance overall depended on previous environmental conditions, and the response was different for different life-history traits. We recommend early management because it increased plot cover, shortened the time to attain sexual maturity and increased the amount of acorn production. Plots such as those assessed in this study may act as sources of propagules in deforested

  1. Central venous stenosis in haemodialysis patients without a previous history of catheter placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguzkurt, Levent; Tercan, Fahri; Yildirim, Sedat; Torun, Dilek

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate dialysis history, imaging findings and outcome of endovascular treatment in six patients with central venous stenosis without a history of previous catheter placement. Material and methods: Between April 2000 and June 2004, six (10%) of 57 haemodialysis patients had stenosis of a central vein without a previous central catheter placement. Venography findings and outcome of endovascular treatment in these six patients were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were three women (50%) and three men aged 32-60 years (mean age: 45 years) and all had massive arm swelling as the main complaint. The vascular accesses were located at the elbow in five patients and at the wrist in one patient. Results: Three patients had stenosis of the left subclavian vein and three patients had stenosis of the left brachiocephalic vein. The mean duration of the vascular accesses from the time of creation was 25.1 months. Flow volumes of the vascular access were very high in four patients who had flow volume measurement. The mean flow volume was 2347 ml/min. One of three patients with brachiocephalic vein stenosis had compression of the vein by the brachiocephalic artery. All the lesions were first treated with balloon angioplasty and two patients required stent placement on long term. Number of interventions ranged from 1 to 4 (mean: 2.1). Symptoms resolved in five patients and improved in one patient who had a stent placed in the left BCV. Conclusion: Central venous stenosis in haemodialysis patients without a history of central venous catheterization tends to occur or be manifested in patients with a proximal permanent vascular access with high flow rates. Balloon angioplasty with or without stent placement offers good secondary patency rates in mid-term

  2. The Relationship Between Functional Movement, Balance Deficits, and Previous Injury History in Deploying Marine Warfighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Motte, Sarah J; Lisman, Peter; Sabatino, Marc; Beutler, Anthony I; OʼConnor, Francis G; Deuster, Patricia A

    2016-06-01

    Screening for primary musculoskeletal injury (MSK-I) is costly and time-consuming. Both the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Y-Balance Test (YBT) have been shown to predict future MSK-I. With a goal of optimizing the efficiency of primary MSK-I screening, we studied associations between performance on the FMS and YBT and whether history of MSK-I influenced FMS and YBT scores. In total, 365 deploying Marines performed the FMS and YBT as prescribed. Composite and individual scores were each categorized as high risk or low risk using published injury thresholds: High-risk FMS included composite scores ≤14 and right-to-left (R/L) asymmetry for Shoulder Mobility, In-Line Lunge, Straight Leg Raise, Hurdle Step, or Rotary Stability. High-risk YBT consisted of anterior, posteromedial, and/or posterolateral R/L differences >4 cm and/or composite differences ≥12 cm. Pearson's χ tests evaluated associations between: (a) all FMS and YBT risk groups and (b) previous MSK-I and all FMS and YBT risk groups. Marines with high-risk FMS were twice as likely to have high-risk YBT posteromedial scores (χ = 10.2, p = 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-3.2). History of any MSK-I was not associated with high-risk FMS or high-risk YBT. However, previous lower extremity MSK-I was associated with In-Line Lunge asymmetries (χ = 9.8, p = 0.002, OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6). Overall, we found limited overlap in FMS and YBT risk. Because both methods seem to assess different risk factors for injury, we recommend FMS and YBT continue to be used together in combination with a thorough injury history until their predictive capacities are further established.

  3. Participation in physical activity: perceptions of women with a previous history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graco, Marnie; Garrard, Jan; Jasper, Andrea E

    2009-04-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Regular physical activity plays an important role in preventing T2DM. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of physical activity among women with previous GDM, in the context of preventing T2DM. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women with previous GDM who had not been diagnosed with T2DM. Data were analysed using a modified grounded theory approach. Women perceived diet to be significantly more important for the prevention of T2DM than physical activity. They underestimated the role of physical activity in preventing diabetes, which may have resulted from the lack of information they received following their pregnancy. Women consistently placed the needs of their families before their own, despite acknowledging their future health risks. The most commonly cited constraints on physical activity participation were lack of time, partner support, and appropriate childcare. They identified a need for 'family-friendly' community-based physical activity programs for mothers, more accessible childcare, and more information about the role of physical activity in diabetes prevention. Awareness of the role of physical activity for the prevention of diabetes was low. Physical activity promotion for women with previous GDM needs to be shaped around the opportunities and constraints identified by this population group.

  4. Psychopathological features in a sample of substance-abusing individuals with criminal history: Towards a definition of a personality prototype of an 'Addict with Criminal Conduct'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Alessio; Ponti, Lucia; Tani, Franca; Iraci Sareri, Giuseppe; Giannini, Marco; Meringolo, Patrizia; Craparo, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Angelo; Caretti, Vincenzo; Cacioppo, Marco; Paterniti, Rolando; Schuldberg, David

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between substance use disorders and criminal activity is strong, and one that is not easily resolved in the criminal justice system. A better understanding of personality traits among substance misusers who commit offences could support better treatment efforts. The aim of this study is to explore associations between the psychopathology of people addicted to substances who have also committed crimes. We recruited 263 substance-dependent individuals (80% male, 20% female) from a cohort of people attending regional community services in Italy. They all completed an extensive evaluation of their current mental health and personality traits. Their official criminal records were obtained, and the psychopathology of those who had a criminal record compared with those who did not. The criminal group was more likely to perceive the external world as hostile and to consider others as responsible for their own problems and difficulties; in addition, substance-dependent individuals with criminal records showed more personality traits within the psychopathy range and fewer in the dependent personality range than the substance abusers who had never committed crimes. These findings allow us to hypothesise that substance abusers who also have criminal convictions may have a specific personality profile. If further research were to confirm this, then it could have important implications for identifying people for particular treatment pathways and developing more effective treatments. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. [A brief history of resuscitation - the influence of previous experience on modern techniques and methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucmin, Tomasz; Płowaś-Goral, Małgorzata; Nogalski, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is relatively novel branch of medical science, however first descriptions of mouth-to-mouth ventilation are to be found in the Bible and literature is full of descriptions of different resuscitation methods - from flagellation and ventilation with bellows through hanging the victims upside down and compressing the chest in order to stimulate ventilation to rectal fumigation with tobacco smoke. The modern history of CPR starts with Kouwenhoven et al. who in 1960 published a paper regarding heart massage through chest compressions. Shortly after that in 1961Peter Safar presented a paradigm promoting opening the airway, performing rescue breaths and chest compressions. First CPR guidelines were published in 1966. Since that time guidelines were modified and improved numerously by two leading world expert organizations ERC (European Resuscitation Council) and AHA (American Heart Association) and published in a new version every 5 years. Currently 2010 guidelines should be obliged. In this paper authors made an attempt to present history of development of resuscitation techniques and methods and assess the influence of previous lifesaving methods on nowadays technologies, equipment and guidelines which allow to help those women and men whose life is in danger due to sudden cardiac arrest. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  6. Pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with previous history of gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masomeh Rezaie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with a history of previous gestational diabetes and its related recurrence risk factors. This study was conducted on 180 pregnant women with history of gestational diabetes in previous pregnancy that referred to Besat hospital, Sanandaj, Iran. They were divided into two groups (recurrence of gestational diabetes group and non-recurrence of gestational diabetes group .The data were recorded in the check list and analyzed using SPSS software Ver.18. To analyze quantitative variables such as mother`s age, mother`s BMI, interval between pregnancies, Apgar score and neonatal hypoglycemia independent t-tests was used and to compare qualitative variables between the two groups chi square test was used. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of mother`s age (P = 0.22. In terms of mother’s BMI and interval between pregnancies there was statistically significant difference between the two groups (p<0.05. In terms of mode of delivery, after excluding 61 mothers who were replicate Cesarean section the percentage of Caesarean section in recurrence of gestational diabetes group was 15.4%4 and in non- recurrence of gestational diabetes group it was2.4% which difference was statistically significant (P <0.05. In terms of incidence of macrosomia (P <0.001 and neonatal hypoglycemia (p <0.05 there were statistically significant differences between two groups. The recurrence rate of diabetes was 66.6%.Regarding the results of this study in order to prevent maternal and fetal complications, monitoring and giving extra care to mothers with diabetes is recommended.

  7. Effects of anticoagulant therapy on pregnancy outcomes in patients with thrombophilia and previous poor obstetric history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Ilknur; Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Biri, Aydan; Bulut, Berk; Erdem, Mehmet; Erdem, Ahmet

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of anticoagulant therapy on pregnancy outcomes in 204 patients with thrombophilia and previous poor obstetric outcomes. Patients with poor obstetric history (pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation, fetal death, placental abruption, recurrent pregnancy loss) and having hereditary thrombophilia were included in this study. Poor obstetric outcomes were observed more frequently in patients who had not taken anticogulant therapy compared with treated group. Live birth rate, gestational age at birth and Apgar scores were significantly higher in the treated group when compared with the untreated group. There were no significant differences in terms of birthweight, mode of delivery and admission rates to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) plus acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) had higher gestational age at birth, Apgar scores, live birth rate and a lower abortion rates when compared with controls; in contrast, no significant difference was observed in terms of birthweight, mode of delivery, obstetric complications and admission rates to NICU. There were no significant differences between control group and both LMWH only and ASA only groups in terms of gestational age at birth, Apgar scores, birthweight, mode of delivery, obstetric complications and admission rates to NICU. Only LMWH group had higher live birth rate as compared with control group. The use of only ASA did not seem to affect the perinatal complication rates and outcomes. In conclusion, anticoagulant therapy with both LMWH and ASA seems to provide better obstetric outcomes in pregnant women with thrombophilia and previous poor obstetric outcomes.

  8. Increased Symptom Reporting in Young Athletes Based on History of Previous Concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Schatz, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Research documents increased symptoms in adolescents with a history of two or more concussions. This study examined baseline evaluations of 2,526 younger athletes, ages 10 to 14. Between-groups analyses examined Post Concussion Symptom Scale symptoms by concussion history group (None, One, Two+) and clusters of Physical, Cognitive, Emotional, and Sleep symptoms. Healthy younger athletes with a concussion history reported greater physical, emotional, and sleep-related symptoms than those with no history of concussion, with a greater endorsement in physical/sleep symptom clusters. Findings suggest younger athletes with a history of multiple concussions may experience residual symptoms.

  9. Blogging Our Criminal Past: Social Media, Public Engagement and Creative History

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Rather than asking should historians use social media - a question frequently posed online and increasingly discussed in seminars and conferences - this article explores how historians currently use blogging and micro-blogging, and how these media are transforming the ways we think and write about history. Blogging, the article argues, has the potential to ‘turn history upside down’ by breaking down traditional hierarchies separating amateur and professional, young and old, theorist and pract...

  10. Incarceration history relative to health, substance use, and violence in a sample of vulnerable South African women: implications for health services in criminal justice settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer E; Carney, Tara; Kline, Tracy; Browne, Felicia A; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2012-01-01

    International research has suggested that women in the criminal justice system carry a higher burden of many illnesses than women in the community, especially mental health disorders, substance use disorders, sexually transmitted infections, and a history of violent victimization. Knowledge of these health disparities is often used to advocate for relevant screening and treatment services for women passing through criminal justice custody within US and European settings. However, almost all criminal justice health research has taken place in high-income countries, with little or no research taking place in other countries, especially in South Africa. This baseline analysis compares the health, substance use, and violent victimization of women who have ever been incarcerated to those who have not, in a cross-sectional sample of 720 young, vulnerable, substance-using women in Cape Town, South Africa. Results of univariate tests indicated that women who had ever been incarcerated had worse health, mental health, and sexually transmitted infection indicators and were more likely to report use of substances and to have been victims of physical and sexual assault than women who had never been incarcerated. Passing through the criminal justice system appears to be a marker for a variety of current and/or future health service needs among vulnerable South African women, suggesting that screening, prevention, and treatment referral efforts at the time of intersection with the criminal justice system may reduce health burden for these women.

  11. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  12. Older prisoners: psychological distress and associations with mental health history, cognitive functioning, socio-demographic, and criminal justice factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidawi, Susan

    2016-03-01

    The growth among older prisoner populations, including in Australia, necessitates an understanding of this group in order to generate effective management strategies. One particular concern is the mental well-being of older prisoners. This study aimed to determine the level of psychological distress among sentenced prisoners aged 50 years and older, to compare this level to that seen among younger prisoners and older people in the community, and to investigate which mental health history, cognitive functioning, socio-demographic, and criminal justice characteristics were associated with psychological distress. A cross-sectional survey of 173 older (M = 63 years) and 60 younger prisoners (M = 34 years) in two Australian jurisdictions was conducted. The Kessler Psychological Distress (K10) scale was administered with prisoners and additional data were collected from interviews and participant health and corrections files. K10 scores were compared to community norms using data from the Australian Health Survey. Average K10 scores of the older prisoners were significantly lower than the younger prisoners' (p = 0.04), though the effect size was small (r = 0.1). Significantly, higher distress levels were observed in comparison to the general population (p prisoners being three times more likely to display very high levels of distress (12.3% vs. 3.7%). Higher psychological distress scores among older prisoners were significantly associated with female gender (p = 0.002) and a history of mental health issues (p = 0.002). While the levels of distress seen among older prisoners were significantly lower than that of younger prisoners, their higher levels of distress in comparison to community norms demonstrate a need for correctional services to be attuned to the mental health of the expanding older prisoner population.

  13. Criminal groups and criminal subculture

    OpenAIRE

    Romanova N.M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a classification of criminal groups, structured by the following parameters: a) operation mode (secret/open), b) law-enforcement and administrative support (presence/absence). We describe four types of criminal groups: a) legitimized criminal organization, b) secret criminal organization engaged in illegal business, c) secret general crime group, and d) general crime group operating openly. The four types differ in the content of criminal subculture. Modern criminal subcult...

  14. Tick-borne encephalitis in a child with previous history of completed primary vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamy, Manuela; Haberlandt, Edda; Brunner, Jürgen; Dozcy, Ludwig; Rostasy, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 13-year-old girl who presented with fever, headache, nausea and pain behind the right ear. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; leukocytes 227/μL), electroencephalogram and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging were indicative of meningoencephalitis. Despite intensive therapy the general condition worsened and the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit. Serological analysis of CSF and serum indicated acute tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection (IgG and IgM positive). TBEV infection has been reported after incomplete and complete vaccination. TBEV vaccination breakthrough in childhood has been shown to cause severe disease. It has been suggested that immunized patients develop more severe disease due to altered immune response, but the exact mechanism is unknown. In the presence of typical symptoms and a history of vaccination, possible vaccination breakthrough or missing booster vaccination should be considered. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  15. Executive Functioning and Visuospatial Abilities in Bulimia Nervosa with or without a Previous History of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degortes, Daniela; Tenconi, Elena; Santonastaso, Paolo; Favaro, Angela

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate executive functioning and visuospatial abilities in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), with a particular interest in exploring the impact of a previous diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN). Several neuropsychological tasks were administered to 89 BN patients (52 with a previous history of AN and 37 without previous AN) and 160 healthy women. A poorer performance on set-shifting measures (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test) was found only in BN patients with a previous history of AN. Decision-making abilities (Iowa Gambling Task) were significantly impaired in the whole sample of BN patients, but difficulties were more pronounced in the subgroup with previous AN. Finally, we did not find any differences in response inhibition and visuospatial abilities between the two samples of BN patients and healthy women. Our findings support the idea that cognitive abilities in patients with BN are more impaired in the presence of a prior history of AN. The clinical and treatment implications of our findings should be explored in future studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Alteration of distortion product otoacoustic emission input/output functions in subjects with a previous history of middle ear dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De P Campos, Ualace; Sanches, Seisse G; Hatzopoulos, Stavros; Carvallo, Renata M M; Kochanek, Krzysztof; Skarżyński, Henryk

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sub-clinical alterations on the amplitudes and slopes of the DPOAE input-output responses from subjects with previous history of middle ear dysfunction. The study included 15 subjects with and 15 subjects without a history of otitis media in the last 10 years. All participants were assessed with acoustic immittance, pure-tone audiometry, and DPOAEs. For the later, I/O functions and I/O slopes were estimated at 1501, 2002, 3174, 4004 and 6384 Hz. No statistically significant differences were found between the 2 groups in terms of behavioral thresholds. The group with a previous history of middle ear dysfunction presented significantly lower mean DPOAE amplitudes at 2002, 3174 and 4004 Hz. In terms of DPOAE slopes, no statistically significant differences were observed at the tested frequencies, except at 3174 Hz. Middle ear pathologies can produce subclinical alterations that are undetectable with traditional pure-tone audiometry. The data from the present study show that reduced amplitude DPOAEs are associated with a previous history of middle ear complications. The corresponding DPOAE slopes were affected at only 1 tested frequency, suggesting that the cochlear non-linearity is preserved. Considering these results, it remains to be elucidated to what degree the DPOAE amplitude attenuation interferes with higher-order auditory tasks.

  17. The sexual history provisions in the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999--a violation of the right to a fair trial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G

    2001-07-01

    In response to the Home Office recommendations contained in Speaking Up for Justice (1998) the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act (YJCEA) 1999 introduced a new regime for the conduct of sexual offence trials. Section 41 of the Act, which came into force on 4 December 2000, brings about dramatic changes to the rules on the admissibility of evidence of complainants' sexual behaviour, severely restricting the discretion of trial judges to introduce such evidence or to allow questioning concerning it. This represents a radical new departure that will fundamentally affect an accused's position at trial. Responses to section 41 have predictably been divided given the extremely sensitive nature of this area of the law of evidence and the complex set of social and political issues which are at stake. Many have greeted it as a long overdue reform of a system premised upon outmoded and sexist beliefs concerning women's sexual behaviour which has routinely functioned to admit prejudicial and irrelevant evidence. Others, predominantly within the legal profession, have expressed serious concerns over whether the new law is workable and the extent to which, by potentially excluding critically relevant evidence, it may infringe upon a defendant's right to a fair trial. The quality of the legislation is soon to be tested. On 26 and 27 March 2001 the House of Lords heard an interlocutory appeal in the case of R v. A and were asked to decide if the new provisions, by excluding previous sexual history evidence between the complainant and the defendant, contravened Article 6 of the European Convention of Human Rights. Their Lordships are, at the time of writing, yet to give judgment and the fate of the defendant in question, and several others whose trials have been postponed pending their decision, hangs in the balance. This article seeks to show that the new Act, despite being well-intentioned, does not adopt a coherent or sustainable approach to the relevance of previous

  18. History of psychosis and previous episodes as potential explanatory factors for neurocognitive impairment in first-treatment bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmo, Christine; Lagerberg, Trine Vik; Aminoff, Sofie R; Hellvin, Tone; Kvitland, Levi R; Simonsen, Carmen; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid; Ueland, Torill

    2016-03-01

    Explanatory factors for the observed neurocognitive impairment in early-stage bipolar I disorder (BD-I) have received little attention. The current study investigated neurocognitive functioning in first-treatment (FT) BD-I compared to FT schizophrenia (SCZ), and healthy controls (HCs), and the effect of history of psychosis and previous episodes in the two clinical groups. A total of 202 FT patients with BD-I (n = 101) and SCZ spectrum disorder (n = 101), in addition to HCs (n = 101), were included. A comprehensive neurocognitive test battery was used to assess verbal learning and memory, executive functioning, processing speed, and attention and working memory. Neurocognitive functioning and the effect of history of psychosis and number of previous episodes were analyzed using separate multivariate analyses of variance and correlation analysis. FT patients with BD-I performed intermediately between FT SCZ spectrum patients and HCs on all measures. Compared to HCs, FT BD-I showed impaired functioning across all neurocognitive domains. No differences in neurocognitive functioning were observed in psychotic versus nonpsychotic FT patients with BD-I. With the exception of an association between number of manic episodes and two measures of executive function in FT BD-I, no associations were found between number of episodes and neurocognitive performance. Neurocognitive impairments were present in FT BD-I, and were not explained by history of psychosis or number of previous psychotic or depressive episodes. There were indications that executive function could be associated with number of previous manic episodes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Relationships between lumbar flexibility, sit-and-reach test, and a previous history of low back discomfort in industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Sylvain G; Russell, Caryl; McGill, Stuart M

    2003-04-01

    The sit-and-reach (S&R) test is often included in standard fitness tests (e.g., Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness and Lifestyle Appraisal [CPAFLA]), justified on the assumption that it is an indicator of low back health. Two issues were examined here: Is low back flexibility linked to having a history of low back disorders? And is the S&R test an indicator of low back flexibility? The relationship between S&R test scores, lumbar range of motion, and having a history of low back discomfort was examined in 72 asymptomatic (at test time) industrial workers (70 M, 2 F; mean age 35 ys; height 1.79 m; mass 84.7 kg). The S&R test, among many collected, was performed according to the CPAFLA guidelines. History of low back discomfort (LBD) was categorized based on whether or not time was lost from work. The S&R test was unable to distinguish between those with a history of LBD and those without. Specific lumbar sagittal range of motion could make this distinction. A moderate correlation (r = 0.42) surfaced between S&R and lumbar flexibility. This study suggests that the value of S&R as an indicator of previous back discomfort is questionable and there may be better indicators for inclusion in the CPAFLA.

  20. A Comparative Investigation of the Previous and New Secondary History Curriculum: The Issues of the Definition of the Aims and Objectives and the Selection of Curriculum Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinc, Erkan

    2011-01-01

    Discussions on history teaching in Turkey indicate that the previous versions of the history curriculum and the pedagogy of history in the country bear many problems and deficiencies. The problems of Turkish history curriculum mainly arise from the perspectives it takes and the selection of its content. Since 2003, there have been extensive…

  1. 77 FR 60922 - Criminal History Check Requirements for AmeriCorps State/National, Senior Companions, Foster...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... National Sex Offender Public Web site (NSOPW); and (2) a search of either (a) the state criminal registry... technical corrections for clarity. a. Definitions and Applicability 1. Definition of ``Program'' (Sec. 2510.20) The SAA amended the NCSA's definition of program to include newly- [[Page 60923

  2. Prevalence of Depression and Associated Factors in Non-institutionalized Older Adults With a Previous History of Falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-García, Begoña; Antón-Solanas, Isabel; Moreno-González, Sergio; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Juárez-Vela, Raúl

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to estimate the prevalence of depression and associated factors in people aged 65 or older with a history of falling in the last 12months. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed involving a random sample of 213 participants from two social centers for older adults in the city of Zaragoza (Spain). The mean age of the participants was 77.3years (SD±7.0). Our findings reveal a prevalence of depression of 28.2% in the study sample, with older adults who were at a high risk of falling being more susceptible to developing depression. In conclusion, one in three elderly people who were at risk of suffering a fall in the 12months prior to data collection had symptoms of depression. This is in agreement with the results from previous studies, which confirm that there is a high prevalence of depression in elderly patients with a previous history of falls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The history and role of the criminal law in anti-FGM campaigns: Is the criminal law what is needed, at least in countries like Great Britain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berer, Marge

    2015-11-01

    The history of campaigns against female genital mutilation (FGM) began in the 1920s. From the beginning, it was recognised that FGM was considered an important rite of passage between childhood and adulthood for girls, based on the importance of controlling female sexuality to maintain chastity and family honour, and to make girls marriageable. How to separate the "cut" from these deeply held norms is a question not yet adequately answered, yet I believe the answer is key to stopping the practice. Since the 1994 ICPD, national and international action against FGM has grown and resolutions have been passed in global forums which define FGM as a form of violence and a violation of children's human rights. These resolutions have contributed to building consensus against FGM and developing national legislation criminalising FGM. Prosecutions or arrests involving FGM have been reported in several African countries and Great Britain, but apart from France, there have been very few. This paper summarises this history and how FGM has been criminalised. It argues that criminalisation may not be the best means of stopping FGM, but can have serious harmful effects itself. It calls for community-led educational information and more support for dialogue within FGM-practising communities, and argues that what is important is addressing the sexual and reproductive health consequences of FGM and gaining the understanding of women who have experienced it and their families as to why they should not make their daughters and grand-daughters go through it too. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Phenomenological Characteristics of Autobiographical Memories: Responsiveness to an Induced Negative Mood State in Those With and Without a Previous History of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew E P

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the relative accessibility of phenomenological characteristics in autobiographical memories of 104 students with and without a previous history of a depression. Participants recalled personal events that were elicited with cue words and then asked to rate these personal events for a number of phenomenological characteristics. The characteristics were typicality, rumination, valence, importance of others, expectancy, desirability, and personal importance. The effects of previous history of depression (without history or with previous history of depression) and self-reported mood (pre- and post-negative mood induction) on autobiographical recall was examined by employing a mixed factor design. Self-reported mood was measured as a manipulation check, before and after Mood Induction Procedure. Typicality, rumination and personal importance showed significant interaction effects in those with a history of depression. Ordinal regression supported the finding that those with a history of depression had a higher chance of typicality and personal importance than those without a history of depression. The results indicate that recall of autobiographical characteristics is in part dependent on induced negative mood state and on previous history of depression. The findings may prompt future research into targeted interventions that reduce individual tendencies for heightened cognitive reactivity in negative mood states for those with a history of depression.

  5. Effect of fasting on 24-h blood pressure values of individuals with no previous history of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Ayse; Demirci, Hakan; Ocakoglu, Gokhan; Aydin, Ufuk; Ucar, Hakan; Yildiz, Gursel; Yaman, Ozen

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to analyze the difference in 24-h blood pressure values during Ramadan of fasting and nonfasting individuals with no previous history of hypertension. This study was planned as a multicenter research study in the cities of Izmit, Zonguldak, Sivas, and Adana. The percentage changes in the blood pressure of the patients were calculated from their blood pressure measurements at 0 h while they were resting. A Food Frequency Questionnaire was filled out by all participants. Forty patients were included in the fasting group and 55 patients were included in the nonfasting group in the study. There was a difference between the two groups in percent changes of systolic measurements performed at the 4th (5% difference and P=0.020), 13th (6% difference and P=0.015), 14th (10% difference and P=0.017), 18th (9% difference and P=0.027), 19th (9% difference and P=0.020), and 20th (6% difference and P=0.014) hours with respect to the baseline measurement at the 0 h. There was a difference between the fasting and nonfasting groups in the Fasting Food Questionnaire results. Meat consumption was significantly higher in the fasting group. A systolic blood pressure increase in fasting patients was observed in measurements at 18:00, 19:00, and 20:00 h. We believe that an increase of more than 10% in blood pressure at the time of iftar is an important result of our study in terms of the meal preferences of the individuals under risk.

  6. Drug Use and Criminal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Ludwig; Hyatt, Murray P.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of addiction and crime is presented. Crimes of violence and sex crimes are contrasted with non-violent criminal behavior when drug-connected. It is suggested that alternative methods of dealing with drug abuse and criminal behavior be explored, and that several previously discarded methods be re-examined. (Author)

  7. Criminal Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Antonella Andretta

    2015-10-01

    The article discusses the concepts of both compliance and criminal compliance, its main components and structure as well as the main rules relating to its global application, and finally his emergence in the Ecuadorian legal system.

  8. Cost effectiveness of paliperidone palmitate versus oral antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia and a history of criminal justice involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muser, Erik; Kozma, Chris M; Benson, Carmela J; Mao, Lian; Starr, H Lynn; Alphs, Larry; Fastenau, John

    2015-01-01

    Conduct a cost effectiveness analysis for the Paliperidone palmitate Research In Demonstrating Effectiveness (PRIDE) trial. PRIDE was a 15 month, prospective, randomized, open-label study in which once monthly paliperidone palmitate significantly delayed the time to first treatment failure (healthcare or criminal justice system [HC/CJS] events) versus oral antipsychotics in recently incarcerated adults with schizophrenia. The present analysis used a state government perspective and HC/CJS event data that were collected on a resource use questionnaire (RUQ) every 3 months. Since cost information was not collected in the trial, cost estimates from published literature and an analysis of multistate Medicaid data for CJS and HC events, respectively, were applied to RUQ event data. Effectiveness and costs were adjusted to 456 days (trial duration). Incremental cost effectiveness was calculated as the adjusted cost difference divided by the adjusted effectiveness difference. Adjusted costs (in US dollars) in the paliperidone palmitate group (n = 198) and the oral antipsychotic group (n = 193), respectively, were: non-drug costs $22,331 and $25,027; drug costs $18,592 and $7833; and total costs $40,923 and $32,860. Adjusted effectiveness differences and corresponding incremental cost effectiveness per event avoided (in parentheses) for paliperidone palmitate versus oral antipsychotics were as follows: 0.33 fewer CJS events ($24,409), 0.13 fewer psychiatric hospitalizations ($60,484), 0.46 fewer psychiatric hospitalizations or CJS events combined ($17,391), and 0.30 fewer incarcerations ($26,754). Costs for HC/CJS events avoided offset 25% of the greater drug cost for the paliperidone palmitate versus oral antipsychotic treatment group in this vulnerable population. Use of a recall-dependent RUQ for event rates and cost estimates instead of actual costs are potential limitations and may make the results conservative from a state government perspective. Indirect

  9. The Natural History of Juvenile or Subacute GM2 Gangliosidosis: 21 New Cases and Literature Review of 134 Previously Reported

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maegawa, Gustavo H. B.; Stockley, Tracy; Tropak, Michael; Banwell, Brenda; Blaser, Susan; Kok, Fernando; Giugliani, Roberto; Mahuran, Don; Clarke, Joe T. R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Juvenile GM2 gangliosidosis is a group of inherited neurodegenerative diseases caused by deficiency of lysosomal β-hexosaminidase resulting in GM2 ganglioside accumulation in brain. The purpose of this study was to delineate the natural history of the condition and identify genotype-phenotype correlations that might be helpful in predicting the course of the disease in individual patients. METHODS A cohort of 21 patients with juvenile GM2 gangliosidosis, 15 with the Tay-Sachs variant and 6 with the Sandhoff variant, was studied prospectively in 2 centers. Our experience was compared with previously published reports on 134 patients. Information about clinical features, β-hexosaminidase enzyme activity, and mutation analysis was collected. RESULTS In our cohort of patients, the mean (±SD) age of onset of symptoms was 5.3 ± 4.1 years, with a mean follow-up time of 8.4 years. The most common symptoms at onset were gait disturbances (66.7%), incoordination (52.4%), speech problems (28.6%), and developmental delay (28.6%). The age of onset of gait disturbances was 7.1 ± 5.6 years. The mean time for progression to becoming wheelchair-bound was 6.2 ± 5.5 years. The mean age of onset of speech problems was 7.0 ± 5.6 years, with a mean time of progression to anarthria of 5.6 ± 5.3 years. Muscle wasting (10.6 ± 7.4 years), proximal weakness (11.1 ± 7.7 years), and incontinence of sphincters (14.6 ± 9.7 years) appeared later in the course of the disease. Psychiatric disturbances and neuropathy were more prevalent in patients with the Sandhoff variant than in those with the Tay-Sachs variant. However, dysphagia, sphincter incontinence, and sleep problems occurred earlier in those with the Tay-Sachs variant. Cerebellar atrophy was the most common finding on brain MRI (52.9%). The median survival time among the studied and reviewed patients was 14.5 years. The genotype-phenotype correlation revealed that in patients with the Tay-Sachs variant, the presence

  10. Analyzing recurrent events when the history of previous episodes is unknown or not taken into account: proceed with caution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Navarro

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: Common-baseline hazard models cannot be recommended when we analyse recurrent events in the presence of event dependence. It is important to have access to the history of prior-episodes per subject, it can permit to obtain better estimations of the effects of the exposures

  11. Binge Drinking and Rape: A Prospective Examination of College Women with a History of Previous Sexual Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study prospectively examined the longitudinal relationships between binge drinking behavior and rape experiences among a multisite sample of college women with a history of prior attempted or completed rape (N = 228). Rates of binge drinking among this high-risk sample were high. Prospective analyses indicated that binge drinking…

  12. Incidence of thyroid cancer in women in relation to previous exposure to radiation therapy and history of thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTiernan, A.M.; Weiss, N.S.; Daling, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Female residents of 13 counties of Western Washington, in whom papillary, follicular, or mixed papillary-follicular thyroid carcinomas had been diagnosed between 1974 and 1979 were interviewed regarding their medical and reproductive histories and past exposure to radiation treatments. For comparison, a random sample of women from the same population was interviewed. Women who had received radiation treatments to the head or neck prior to 5 years before interview were 16.5 times (95% confidence interval . 8.1-33.5) more likely than unexposed women to develop cancer. The relative risk (RR) was highest for papillary cancer (19.4) but also was elevated substantially for follicular and mixed papillary-follicular tumors. Women first irradiated at age 19 years or younger had a much higher RR than did women irradiated at age 20 or older. Regardless of prior radiation exposure, women who ever had had a goiter were at increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. Women who had ever developed a goiter had 17 times the risk of developing follicular cancer and almost 7 times the risk of developing papillary cancer as compared with women who never had had a goiter. Risk of thyroid cancer was elevated even among women who had had a history of goiter many years prior to diagnosis. A history of thyroid nodules was also a risk factor for papillary and mixed thyroid cancer. Neither a history of hypothyroidism nor hyperthyroidism was found to increase the risk of thyroid cancer

  13. Postcode Criminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiett, Sandra; Kushner, Joann

    2013-01-01

    Postcode Criminals was the second phase of an international participatory community arts project challenging negative stereotypes of urban youth. Concerned with the impact of zero tolerance community policing strategies in the UK and USA, artists Joann Kushner and Dread Scott developed an art-based project with a social justice agenda. To give…

  14. Cost-effectiveness of extended release naltrexone to prevent relapse among criminal justice-involved individuals with a history of opioid use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean M; Polsky, Daniel; Lee, Joshua D; Friedmann, Peter D; Kinlock, Timothy W; Nunes, Edward V; Bonnie, Richard J; Gordon, Michael; Chen, Donna T; Boney, Tamara Y; O'Brien, Charles P

    2017-08-01

    Criminal justice-involved individuals are highly susceptible to opioid relapse and overdose-related deaths. In a recent randomized trial, we demonstrated the effectiveness of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX; Vivitrol ® ) in preventing opioid relapse among criminal justice-involved US adults with a history of opioid use disorder. The cost of XR-NTX may be a significant barrier to adoption. Thus, it is important to account for improved quality of life and downstream cost-offsets. Our aims were to (1) estimate the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained for XR-NTX versus treatment as usual (TAU) and evaluate it relative to generally accepted value thresholds; and (2) estimate the incremental cost per additional year of opioid abstinence. Economic evaluation of the aforementioned trial from the taxpayer perspective. Participants were randomized to 25 weeks of XR-NTX injections or TAU; follow-up occurred at 52 and 78 weeks. Five study sites in the US Northeast corridor. A total of 308 participants were randomized to XR-NTX (n = 153) or TAU (n = 155). Incremental costs relative to incremental economic and clinical effectiveness measures, QALYs and abstinent years, respectively. The 25-week cost per QALY and abstinent-year figures were $162 150 and $46 329, respectively. The 78-week figures were $76 400/QALY and $16 371/abstinent year. At 25 weeks, we can be 10% certain that XR-NTX is cost-effective at a value threshold of $100 000/QALY and 62% certain at $200 000/QALY. At 78 weeks, the cost-effectiveness probabilities are 59% at $100 000/QALY and 76% at $200 000/QALY. We can be 95% confident that the intervention would be considered 'good value' at $90 000/abstinent year at 25 weeks and $500/abstinent year at 78 weeks. While extended-release naltrexone appears to be effective in increasing both quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and abstinence, it does not appear to be cost-effective using generally accepted value

  15. High 15-F2t-Isoprostane Levels in Patients with a Previous History of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer: The Effects of Supplementary Antioxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betânia de Jesus e Silva de Almendra Freitas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Phase I of this study was aimed at comparing the profiles of oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with history of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC, previously treated with surgery, to the healthy subjects. Phase II aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementary antioxidant therapy on the levels of biomarkers in the case group. Materials and Methods. In Phase I, oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in blood samples obtained from 24 healthy subjects and 60 patients with history of NMSC previously treated with surgery. In Phase II, the 60 patients with history of NMSC were randomized into two subgroups, one receiving placebo (n=34 and the other (n=26 receiving vitamin C, vitamin E, and zinc supplementation for 8 weeks, followed by reevaluation of biomarkers. Results. In Phase I, patients with history of NMSC showed increased plasma concentrations of all biomarkers, but only 15-F2t-isoprostane was significantly higher than in the healthy subjects. Risk of NMSC increased by 4% for each additional 1 pg/mL increase in 15-F2t-isoprostane. In Phase II, supplementation did not significantly reduce levels of oxidative stress biomarkers. Conclusion. Patients with history of NMSC had significantly high 15-F2t-isoprostane plasma levels; supplementation did not result in significant reduction of oxidative stress biomarkers. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT02248584.

  16. Criminal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.M. da.

    1979-01-01

    Facts concerning the application of atomic energy are presented and those aspects which should be under tutelage, the nature and guilt of the nuclear offenses and the agent's peril are presented. The need of a specific chapter in criminal law with adequate legislation concerning the principles of atomic energy is inferred. The basis for the future elaboration this legislation are fixed. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  17. Rethinking Conceptual Definitions of the Criminal Career and Serial Criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Since Cesare Lombroso's days, criminology seeks to define, explain, and categorize the various types of criminals, their behaviors, and motives. This aim has theoretical as well as policy-related implications. One of the important areas in criminological thinking focuses chiefly on recidivist offenders who perform large numbers of crimes and/or commit the most dangerous crimes in society (rape, murder, arson, and armed robbery). These criminals have been defined as "habitual offenders," "professional criminals," "career criminals," and "serial offenders." The interest in these criminals is a rational one, given the perception that they present a severe threat to society. The main challenge in this area of research is a conceptual problem that has significant effects across the field. To this day, scholars have reused and misused titles to define and explain different concepts. The aim of this article is 3-fold. First, to review the concepts of criminal career, professional crime, habitual offenses, and seriality with a critical attitude on confusing terms. Second, to propose the redefinition of concepts mentioned previously, mainly on the criminal career. Third, to propose a theoretical model to enable a better understanding of, and serve as a basis for, further research in this important area of criminology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Male Psychopaths and Their Criminal Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Robert D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined criminal histories of male psychopaths and nonpsychopaths, exploring time in prison and conviction rates for five-year periods between ages of 16 and 45. Criminal activities of nonpsychopaths were relatively constant over years; activities of psychopaths remained high until around age 40, then declined dramatically. Results are consistent…

  19. Phenomenological Characteristics of Autobiographical Memories: Responsiveness to an Induced Negative Mood State in Those With and Without a Previous History of Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Andrew E. P.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the relative accessibility of phenomenological characteristics in autobiographical memories of 104 students with and without a previous history of a depression. Participants recalled personal events that were elicited with cue words and then asked to rate these personal events for a number of phenomenological characteristics. The characteristics were typicality, rumination, valence, importance of others, expectancy, desirability, and personal importance. The effe...

  20. Child maltreatment and adult criminal behavior: does criminal thinking explain the association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadra, Lorraine E; Jaffe, Anna E; Thomas, Renu; DiLillo, David

    2014-08-01

    Criminal thinking styles were examined as mediational links between different forms of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect) and adult criminal behaviors in 338 recently adjudicated men. Analyses revealed positive associations between child sexual abuse and sexual offenses as an adult, and between child physical abuse/neglect and endorsing proactive and reactive criminal thinking styles. Mediation analyses showed that associations between overall maltreatment history and adult criminal behaviors were accounted for by general criminal thinking styles and both proactive and reactive criminal thinking. These findings suggest a potential psychological pathway to criminal behavior associated with child maltreatment. Limitations of the study as well as research and clinical implications of the results are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and criminal offending among adult offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Angela D; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Koenen, Karestan C; Buka, Stephen L

    2011-01-01

    Background Although a number of previous studies have reported an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSP) and externalising behaviour problems among offspring, it has been suggested that this relationship is spurious due to the failure of these studies to properly account for important confounding factors. Methods The relationship between MSP and adult criminal offending was examined using data from 3766 members of the Providence, Rhode Island, cohort of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Information on MSP and most potential confounders was collected prospectively throughout pregnancy. In 1999–2000 all offspring had reached 33 years of age and an adult criminal record check was performed. Because previous research has been criticised for not properly accounting for confounding influences, our primary aim was to determine whether the MSP–criminal offending relationship held after efficiently adjusting for a wide range of sociodemographic and family background characteristics using propensity score methods. Results The association between MSP and adult criminal offending remained after controlling for propensity scores. Offspring of mothers who smoked heavily during pregnancy (≥20 cigarettes per day) had the greatest odds of an adult arrest record (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.62). Findings also suggest that MSP may be an independent risk factor for adult criminal histories marked by multiple arrests. Lastly, our findings show that the impact of MSP operates similarly across both genders. Conclusion Results from this study provide evidence of an association between heavy MSP and long-term criminal offending. Any causal association is likely to be weak to moderate in strength. PMID:21081311

  2. Influence of Lymphocyte T CD4 Levels on the Neuropsychological Performance of Population A ected by HIV and with a Previous History of Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Vázquez-Justo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The immunological markers help to know if there is a good recovery of the immunological system in patients infected with HIV. Among them, the lymphocyte T CD4 rate is the main indicator of the patient’s immunological state being used for staging HIV infection, evaluating the mortality or comorbidity risk and the vulnerability to certain oportunistic infections. However, its link with the presence of cognitive alterations is not clear. Therefore, the aim of this article is to study if lymphocyte T CD4 levels are connected with the neuropsychological performance of a group of people infected with HIV and with a previous history of substance use. The sample consisted of 80 seropositive males with a previous history of substance use. They were evaluated by means of a neuropsychological battery which assesses the most affected cognitive domains in HIV population. The results showed that the patients having a higher level of immunodeficiency have a poorer performance in terms of attention, visuomotor dexterity, visual memory, visual perception, auditory-verbal learning and inhibition. Therefore, our results show a realtion between the lymphocyte T CD4 rate and the neuropsychological performance in seropositive people with a previsous history of substance use.

  3. Felonious or violent criminal activity that prohibits gun ownership among prior purchasers of handguns: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Mona A; Wintemute, Garen J

    2010-10-01

    Federal law prohibits firearm possession by felons and certain others. Little is known about criminal activity resulting in new ineligibility to possess firearms among persons who have previously purchased them. Cohort study of handgun purchasers ages 21 to 49 in California in 1991, 2,761 with a non-prohibiting criminal history at the time of purchase and 4,495 with no prior criminal record, followed for up to 5 years. The primary outcome measures were the incidence and relative risk of conviction for a felony or violent misdemeanor resulting in ineligibility to possess firearms under (a) California law or (b) federal law. Secondary measures were the incidence and relative risk of conviction for murder, forcible rape, robbery, or aggravated assault; and of arrest for any crime. A new conviction for a felony or violent misdemeanor leading to ineligibility to possess firearms under federal law was identified for 0.9% of subjects with no prior criminal history and 4.5% of those with 1 or more prior convictions (hazard ratio, 5.1; 95% confidence interval, 3.3-7.7). Risk was related inversely to age and directly to the extent of the prior criminal history; incidence rates varied by a factor of 200 or more among subgroups based on these characteristics. Among legal purchasers of handguns, the incidence of new felonious and violent criminal activity resulting in ineligibility to possess firearms is low for those with no prior criminal history but is substantially higher for those with a prior criminal record and is affected by demographic characteristics.

  4. The Context of the History of Mathematics as Previous Organizer O Contexto da História da Matemática como Organizador Prévio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Messildo Viana Nunes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article consists of a reflection on the possibility of using the History of the Mathematics as a pedagogical resource for introduction of mathematical concepts, allied to the David Ausubel’s theory of significant learning. This overlap can help us in the elaboration/organization of didactic sequences that can favor the construction of the mathematical knowledge by the pupil himself. In this case, we use some examples from Euclidean Geometry as a reference to present our conception on how and why we conceive the context of the history of the mathematics as a legitimate previous organizer. Keywords: History of Mathematics. Significant Learning. Previous Organizer.Este artigo consiste em uma reflexão sobre a possibilidade de uso da História da Matemática como recurso pedagógico, para introdução de conceitos matemáticos, aliada à teoria da aprendizagem significativa de David Ausubel. Tal imbricação pode nos auxiliar na elaboração/organização de sequências didáticas que possam favorecer a construção do conhecimento matemático pelo próprio aluno. Nesse caso utilizamos alguns exemplos da Geometria Euclidiana como referência para apresentar nossa concepção sobre como e por que concebemos o contexto da história da matemática como um legítimo organizador prévio. Palavras-chave: História da Matemática. Aprendizagem significativa. Organizador Prévio.

  5. CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMINAL GROUPS

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Romanova

    2013-01-01

    New types of criminal groups are emerging in modern society.  These types have their special criminal subculture. The research objective is to develop new parameters of classification of modern criminal groups, create a new typology of criminal groups and identify some features of their subculture. Research methodology is based on the system approach that includes using the method of analysis of documentary sources (materials of a criminal case), method of conversations with themembers of the...

  6. Criminal Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    resource for criminal lawyers, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, and criminal court judges handling cases connected with Denmark. Academics and researchers, as well as the various international organizations in the field, will welcome this very useful guide, and will appreciate its value in the study......Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds...... to a detailed examination of the grounds for criminal liability, the justification of criminal offences, the defences that diminish or excuse criminal liability, the classification of criminal offences, and the sanctions system. Coverage of criminal procedure focuses on the organization of investigations, pre...

  7. Examining the Impact of Prior Criminal Justice History on 2-Year Recidivism Rates: A Comparison of Drug Court Participants and Program Referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Lisa M; Jackson Jones, Afton; Newell, Jennifer; Neal, Connie

    2018-02-01

    Drug courts seek to break the cycle of substance use and crime by providing a community-based intervention to individuals with criminal justice involvement and substance-related issues. This study examined recidivism over a 2-year follow-up period as well as factors associated with recidivism for a sample of drug court participants (i.e., graduates and terminators) and a non-equivalent comparison group (i.e., individuals referred/assessed for the program who did not enter). In the 2-year follow-up window, fewer drug court graduates had any convictions compared with program terminators and referrals; specifically, fewer drug court graduates had drug trafficking convictions compared with program terminators and referrals. Fewer graduates were arrested and incarcerated in jail and/or prison in the 2-year follow-up; furthermore, graduates had spent less time incarcerated compared with program terminators and referrals. Demographics (i.e., age, race, marital status) and prior criminal justice system involvement were associated with recidivism; however, these factors had differential impacts for the three groups (i.e., graduates, terminators, and referrals). Drug court shows promise as a community-based intervention that helps keep individuals out of the criminal justice system during a 2-year follow-up period.

  8. A genomic and transcriptomic approach for a differential diagnosis between primary and secondary ovarian carcinomas in patients with a previous history of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyniel, Jean-Philippe; Alran, Séverine; Rapinat, Audrey; Gentien, David; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Mignot, Laurent; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Cottu, Paul H; Decraene, Charles; Stern, Marc-Henri; Couturier, Jérôme; Lebigot, Ingrid; Nicolas, André; Weber, Nina; Fourchotte, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    The distinction between primary and secondary ovarian tumors may be challenging for pathologists. The purpose of the present work was to develop genomic and transcriptomic tools to further refine the pathological diagnosis of ovarian tumors after a previous history of breast cancer. Sixteen paired breast-ovary tumors from patients with a former diagnosis of breast cancer were collected. The genomic profiles of paired tumors were analyzed using the Affymetrix GeneChip ® Mapping 50 K Xba Array or Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 (for one pair), and the data were normalized with ITALICS (ITerative and Alternative normaLIzation and Copy number calling for affymetrix Snp arrays) algorithm or Partek Genomic Suite, respectively. The transcriptome of paired samples was analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip ® Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays, and the data were normalized with gc-Robust Multi-array Average (gcRMA) algorithm. A hierarchical clustering of these samples was performed, combined with a dataset of well-identified primary and secondary ovarian tumors. In 12 of the 16 paired tumors analyzed, the comparison of genomic profiles confirmed the pathological diagnosis of primary ovarian tumor (n = 5) or metastasis of breast cancer (n = 7). Among four cases with uncertain pathological diagnosis, genomic profiles were clearly distinct between the ovarian and breast tumors in two pairs, thus indicating primary ovarian carcinomas, and showed common patterns in the two others, indicating metastases from breast cancer. In all pairs, the result of the transcriptomic analysis was concordant with that of the genomic analysis. In patients with ovarian carcinoma and a previous history of breast cancer, SNP array analysis can be used to distinguish primary and secondary ovarian tumors. Transcriptomic analysis may be used when primary breast tissue specimen is not available

  9. High incidence of BRCA1-2 germline mutations, previous breast cancer and familial cancer history in Jewish patients with uterine serous papillary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron-Shental, T; Drucker, L; Altaras, M; Bernheim, J; Fishman, A

    2006-12-01

    To test the carrier status of the three germline founder mutations in Jewish patients with uterine serous papillary carcinoma (USPC) and to evaluate its association to their personal and familial cancer records. Retrospective analysis of histologically confirmed USPC Jewish patients diagnosed between April 1, 1997 and December 31, 2003. All cases were genetically tested for the three BRCA1-2 founder germline mutations (185delAG and 5382insC in BRCA1 and 6174delT in BRCA2). The analysis was performed on genomic DNA extracted from whole blood or paraffin embedded normal tissue of these patients, employing PCR amplification of target sequences and differential digestion with restriction enzymes. The carrier frequency was compared to the known population frequency of these mutations. The study group comprised 22 Jewish patients with USPC diagnosed within this timeframe. The mean age was 71.8 years (range 56-79). FIGO surgical stage distribution revealed 59% at stages III-IV. Seven USPC patients (32%) with a previous diagnosis of breast cancer were identified. Familial cancer history was recorded in 23% of the patients (four with breast cancer and one with ovarian cancer). DNA analysis revealed six BRCA1-2 germline mutation carriers (27%) as follows: three with BRCA2-6174delT, two with BRCA1-185delAG, and one with BRCA1-5382insC mutation. Three of the carriers had a previous diagnosis of breast cancer. Four carriers had familial cancer history in first-degree relative (three with breast cancer and one with ovarian cancer). The high rate of BRCA germline mutations in USPC patients observed in the present study, coupled with the strong personal and familial cancer history as well as the histological and clinical resemblance to the ovarian cancer, may indicate that USPC is a part or an expression of the hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome. This option may have implications in our clinical recommendations for non-affected BRCA1-2 carriers.

  10. THE CRIMINAL CHARGE

    OpenAIRE

    George Octavian NICOLAE; Sebastian Bogdan GAVRILĂ

    2017-01-01

    The process of criminal prosecution against a particular individual is ordered by the prosecutor or law enforcement investigator by ordinance. After the decision to carry on with the criminal investigation, the suspected person, the perpetrator acquires a legal standing which allows a full spectrum of rights and obligations stipulated by law. This project is focused on the link between our national criminal law regulation regarding the criminal investigation and the demands of the European Co...

  11. THE CRIMINAL CHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Octavian NICOLAE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of criminal prosecution against a particular individual is ordered by the prosecutor or law enforcement investigator by ordinance. After the decision to carry on with the criminal investigation, the suspected person, the perpetrator acquires a legal standing which allows a full spectrum of rights and obligations stipulated by law. This project is focused on the link between our national criminal law regulation regarding the criminal investigation and the demands of the European Convention for human rights.

  12. Judicial Functions in the Criminal Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Tănase

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The separation of judicial functions falls, indisputably, in the news gallery of the Romanian criminal trial current rules. The previous Criminal Procedure Code, namely that of 1968, as well as the older ones, hadn‟t enrolled in their content such a principle. However, the doctrine identified, under mentioned legal regulations, the existence of distinct procedural functions and their need to separate, in the idea of genuine criminal justice accomplishment. These procedural functions were: the indictment function (or charges, the defense function the trial function. In the new code, this principle proclaims the existence of four judicial functions that aim the efficiency and speed of the criminal trial, but also guarantee the presumption of innocence, equal opportunity of parties, protection of rights and fundamental freedoms. This research try to explain this principle and its connections with other institutions of the criminal trial.

  13. Case report of right hamate hook fracture in a patient with previous fracture history of left hamate hook: is it hamate bipartite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton Sandra

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hamate hook fracture is a common fracture in golfers and others who play sports that involve rackets or sticks such as tennis or hockey. This patient had a previous hamate fracture in the opposing wrist along with potential features of hamate bipartite. Case presentation A 19 year old male presented with a complaint of right wrist pain on the ulnar side of the wrist with no apparent mechanism of injury. The pain came on gradually one week before being seen in the office and he reported no prior care for the complaint. His history includes traumatic left hamate hook fracture with surgical excision. Conclusion The patient was found to have marked tenderness over the hamate and with a prior fracture to the other wrist, computed tomography of the wrist was ordered revealing a fracture to the hamate hook in the right wrist. He was referred for surgical evaluation and the hook of the hamate was excised. Post-surgically, the patient was able to return to normal activity within eight weeks. This case is indicative of fracture rather than hamate bipartite. This fracture should be considered in a case of ulnar sided wrist pain where marked tenderness is noted over the hamate, especially after participation in club or racket sports.

  14. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder with Suicide Obsessions in a First Responder without Previous Diagnosis of OCD or History of Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachamallu, Vivekananda; Song, Michael M; Liu, Haiying; Giles, Charles L; McMahon, Terry

    2017-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a distressing and often debilitating disorder characterized by obsessions, compulsions, or both that are time-consuming and cause impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. There are many published studies reporting higher risk of suicidality in OCD patients, as well as studies describing increased risk of suicidality in OCD patients with other comorbid psychiatric conditions such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Existing case reports on OCD with suicide as the obsessive component describe patients with long standing diagnosis of OCD with suicidal ideations or previous suicide attempts. This report describes the case of a 28-year-old male, who works as a first responder, who presented with new onset symptoms characteristic of MDD and PTSD, with no past history of OCD or suicidality who developed OCD with suicidal obsessions. Differentiating between suicidal ideation in the context of other psychiatric illnesses and suicidal obsessions in OCD is critical to ensuring accurate diagnosis and timely provision of most appropriate treatment. The combination of exposure and response prevention therapy and pharmacotherapy with sertraline and olanzapine was effective in helping the patient manage the anxiety and distress stemming from the patient's OCD with suicidal obsession.

  15. The Complexity of H-wave Amplitude Fluctuations and Their Bilateral Cross-Covariance Are Modified According to the Previous Fitness History of Young Subjects under Track Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Ceballos-Villegas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Hoffmann reflex (H-wave is produced by alpha-motoneuron activation in the spinal cord. A feature of this electromyography response is that it exhibits fluctuations in amplitude even during repetitive stimulation with the same intensity of current. We herein explore the hypothesis that physical training induces plastic changes in the motor system. Such changes are evaluated with the fractal dimension (FD analysis of the H-wave amplitude-fluctuations (H-wave FD and the cross-covariance (CCV between the bilateral H-wave amplitudes. The aim of this study was to compare the H-wave FD as well as the CCV before and after track training in sedentary individuals and athletes. The training modality in all subjects consisted of running three times per week (for 13 weeks in a concrete road of 5 km. Given the different physical condition of sedentary vs. athletes, the running time between sedentary and athletes was different. After training, the FD was significantly increased in sedentary individuals but significantly reduced in athletes, although there were no changes in spinal excitability in either group of subjects. Moreover, the CCV between bilateral H-waves exhibited a significant increase in athletes but not in sedentary individuals. These differential changes in the FD and CCV indicate that the plastic changes in the complexity of the H-wave amplitude fluctuations as well as the synaptic inputs to the Ia-motoneuron systems of both legs were correlated to the previous fitness history of the subjects. Furthermore, these findings demonstrate that the FD and CCV can be employed as indexes to study plastic changes in the human motor system.

  16. Criminal Attitudes of Ex-Prisoners: the Role of Personality, Anti-Social Friends and Recidivism

    OpenAIRE

    Boduszek, Daniel; McLaughlin, Chris; Hyland, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research suggests that those who enter prison with a low level of criminal attitudes, tend to acquire more deviant attitudes during their sentence due to persistent contact with criminal others, and moreover, presence of criminal personality may be sufficient to develop criminal attitudes.\\ud Aim: To determine which of the independent variables: age, education level, marital status, number of children, location, recidivism, association with criminal friends, and personali...

  17. Violent criminal behavior and perspectives on treatment of criminality in opiate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren M; Gordon, Adam J; Kelly, Mary E; Forman, Steven D

    2005-06-01

    This study describes and compares the characteristics of patients within a VA Opiate Substitution Therapy Program (OSTP) who report arrests for non-violent and violent crimes and describes patients' attitudes and preferences of criminal treatment within an OSTP. An anonymous survey was distributed to all veterans at one VA-OSTP. Analyses were conducted to describe the sample characteristics and their associations with prior violent and non-violent criminal behavior. A majority of participants were Caucasian, male, middle-aged, unemployed, and had a history of injection drug use. Participants reported arrests for violent (44%), non-violent (47%), and unspecified crimes (16%). There were few significant differences on demographic and drug use characteristics between participants who reported arrests for any violent and only non-violent crimes, and no arrests. Slightly fewer than half the subjects were satisfied with their ability to access treatment for past criminal behavior within or outside of the VA treatment settings. More veterans reporting violent arrests were satisfied with services addressing criminal behavior within the VA-OSTP than were veterans reporting only nonviolent arrests. Nearly equal proportions of veterans reporting violent (45%) and non-violent (44%) arrests reported dissatisfaction with such services received outside of the VA-OSTP. Prior violent criminal behavior is common among participants of a VA-OSTP. Many individuals with criminal histories seek treatment for criminality within VA-OSTP.

  18. Psychology and criminal justice

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Joanna R.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is designed to give the reader a flavour of a few areas in which psychology has been applied to criminal justice. It begins by providing some historical context and showing the development of some applications of psychology to criminal justice. The chapter is broadly split into 3 sections: Pre Trial; Trial; and Post Trial. In most of this chapter, the areas considered assess how psychology has had an influence on the law and how psychologists work within criminal justice settings...

  19. Criminal Aspects of Pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Svoboda, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Criminal Aspects of Pornography Summary The main purpose of this thesis is to introduce the phenomenon of pornography in terms of criminal law, to point out flaws in the current relevant criminal legislation in the Czech Republic and to propose a possible solution in a form of potential legislative changes. The thesis is composed of five chapters. The first chapter deals with definition issue of vague legal term of "pornography" and other related terms ("child pornography", "hardcore pornogra...

  20. Relative impact of previous disturbance history on the likelihood of additional disturbance in the Northern United States Forest Service USFS Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Landsat archive is increasingly being used to detect trends in the occurrence of forest disturbance. Beyond information about the amount of area affected, forest managers need to know if and how disturbance regimes change. The National Forest System (NFS) has developed a comprehensive plan for carbon monitoring that requires a detailed temporal mapping of forest disturbances across 75 million hectares. A long-term annual time series that shows the timing, extent, and type of disturbance beginning in 1990 and ending in 2011 has been prepared for several USFS Regions, including the Northern Region. Our mapping starts with an automated detection of annual disturbances using a time series of historical Landsat imagery. Automated detections are meticulously inspected, corrected and labeled using various USFS ancillary datasets. The resulting maps of verified disturbance show the timing and types are fires, harvests, insect activity, disease, and abiotic (wind, drought, avalanche) damage. Also, the magnitude of each change event is modeled in terms of the proportion of canopy cover lost. The sequence of disturbances for every pixel since 1990 has been consistently mapped and is available across the entirety of NFS. Our datasets contain sufficient information to describe the frequency of stand replacement, as well as how often disturbance results in only a partial loss of canopy. This information provides empirical insight into how an initial disturbance may predispose a stand to further disturbance, and it also show a climatic signal in the occurrence of processes such as fire and insect epidemics. Thus, we have the information to model the likelihood of occurrence of certain disturbances after a given event (i.e. if we have a fire in the past what does that do to the likelihood of occurrence of insects in the future). Here, we explore if previous disturbance history is a reliable predictor of additional disturbance in the future and we present results of applying

  1. A Comparative Study of the principle of Penal and Criminal Laws in Islam and Judaism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payman Kamalvand

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the field of religious studies, study of previous religions and orders is important, because divine religions have a one truth and essence; Judaism, Christianity and Islam are relative religions and have a common history. All three are attributed to religion of Abraham, Hence are called the "Abraham religions". All three of them have Semitic origins; therefore they are called the "Semitic religions". All three believe in one God, and for that, they are called "monotheistic religions". Though Islam subscribes the past of Jewish, does not necessarily defends all the Jewish teachings and holy books in its current form. However, these two religions are very similar and that is the value that they have given to religion. So that, none of the major live religions of the world have not such esteem. Many similarities in principles of the two relative religions have provided a suitable ground for comparative studies. In the field of law studies also found many similarities between two religions. The scriptures as a source of laws, criminal law, criminalization and punishments and ... all are of the important law issues that the way of their expression in both religions have many similarities. Since religion has a special place in Judaism and Islam, this research aims to review the principles and elements of criminal as well as some penalty goals in the religious teachings sphere of these two religions. In this regard, verses of The Quran, authentic hadiths (traditions and The Torah should be known as the main sources of recognition of these two religious orders.  Although Torah has been distorted, but this does not mean that everything is distorted in Torah. There are many juridical and ethical rules in Torah that cannot doubt in their divinity. In the other hand, many of the adventures happened to the Moses Prophet and the Israelites have been mentioned with slight variations in The Qur'an which is immune to any distortion. In the juridical

  2. A Comparative Study of the principle of Penal and Criminal Laws in Islam and Judaism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Haji Esmaili

    Full Text Available In the field of religious studies, study of previous religions and orders is important, because divine religions have a one truth and essence; Judaism, Christianity and Islam are relative religions and have a common history. All three are attributed to religion of Abraham, Hence are called the "Abraham religions". All three of them have Semitic origins; therefore they are called the "Semitic religions". All three believe in one God, and for that, they are called "monotheistic religions". Though Islam subscribes the past of Jewish, does not necessarily defends all the Jewish teachings and holy books in its current form. However, these two religions are very similar and that is the value that they have given to religion. So that, none of the major live religions of the world have not such esteem. Many similarities in principles of the two relative religions have provided a suitable ground for comparative studies. In the field of law studies also found many similarities between two religions. The scriptures as a source of laws, criminal law, criminalization and punishments and ... all are of the important law issues that the way of their expression in both religions have many similarities. Since religion has a special place in Judaism and Islam, this research aims to review the principles and elements of criminal as well as some penalty goals in the religious teachings sphere of these two religions. In this regard, verses of The Quran, authentic hadiths (traditions and The Torah should be known as the main sources of recognition of these two religious orders. Although Torah has been distorted, but this does not mean that everything is distorted in Torah. There are many juridical and ethical rules in Torah that cannot doubt in their divinity. In the other hand, many of the adventures happened to the Moses Prophet and the Israelites have been mentioned with slight variations in The Qur'an which is immune to any distortion. In the juridical doctrines

  3. A Comparative Study of the principle of Penal and Criminal Laws in Islam and Judaism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Haji Esmaili

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the field of religious studies, study of previous religions and orders is important, because divine religions have a one truth and essence; Judaism, Christianity and Islam are relative religions and have a common history. All three are attributed to religion of Abraham, Hence are called the "Abraham religions". All three of them have Semitic origins; therefore they are called the "Semitic religions". All three believe in one God, and for that, they are called "monotheistic religions". Though Islam subscribes the past of Jewish, does not necessarily defends all the Jewish teachings and holy books in its current form. However, these two religions are very similar and that is the value that they have given to religion. So that, none of the major live religions of the world have not such esteem. Many similarities in principles of the two relative religions have provided a suitable ground for comparative studies. In the field of law studies also found many similarities between two religions. The scriptures as a source of laws, criminal law, criminalization and punishments and ... all are of the important law issues that the way of their expression in both religions have many similarities. Since religion has a special place in Judaism and Islam, this research aims to review the principles and elements of criminal as well as some penalty goals in the religious teachings sphere of these two religions. In this regard, verses of The Quran, authentic hadiths (traditions and The Torah should be known as the main sources of recognition of these two religious orders.  Although Torah has been distorted, but this does not mean that everything is distorted in Torah. There are many juridical and ethical rules in Torah that cannot doubt in their divinity. In the other hand, many of the adventures happened to the Moses Prophet and the Israelites have been mentioned with slight variations in The Qur'an which is immune to any distortion. In the juridical

  4. Forensic psychiatry and the birth of the criminal insane asylum in modern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the creation of the criminal insane asylum in Italy between unification in 1861 and World War I. The establishment of criminal insane asylums was a triumph of the positivist criminology of Cesare Lombroso, who advocated for an institution to intern insane criminals in his classic work, Criminal Man (1876). As a context for the analysis of the birth of the criminal insane asylum in Italy, this essay also outlines the history of the insanity plea in Italian criminal law and the young discipline of psychiatry during the fifty years after Italian unification. © 2013.

  5. The International Criminal Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity.......This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity....

  6. Criminal Justice in America. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Bill, Ed.

    This book, a comprehensive and interactive introductory text on criminal justice, consists of six units: (1) Crime: covers victims' rights, gangs, violent crime, white-collar crime, elements of crimes, legal defenses, methods for measuring crime, hate crime, computer crime, and a history of crime in the United States; (2) Police: explores local…

  7. An handwritten signature, previous owners and circulation of a copy of Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo’s book ‘About the Natural History of the Indies’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Manuel Rodrigues Costa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research note aims to disclose a copy of Oviedo’s About the natural history of the Indies, also known as Summary of the natural history, published in Toledo in 1526 and currently under the custody of Municipal Library of Porto, Portugal. Special features of this copy are presented: author’s handwritten signature and some ownership marks that allow us to identify previous owners, the connections between them and to track book circulation.

  8. Low-dose aspirin-associated upper gastric and duodenal ulcers in Japanese patients with no previous history of peptic ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, Naohiko; Ito, Yoshitsugu; Sasaki, Makoto; Iida, Akihito; Mizuno, Mari; Ogasawara, Naotaka; Funaki, Yasushi; Kasugai, Kunio

    2013-01-01

    Background Long-term administration of low-dose aspirin (LDA) is associated with a greater risk of adverse events, including gastroduodenal ulcers. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for and assess the role of medication use in the development of peptic ulcer disease in Japanese patients with no history of peptic ulcers. Methods Consecutive outpatients receiving LDA (75?mg/day) who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy between January and December 2010 were enrolled. Cl...

  9. Congress, NRC mull utility access to FBI criminal files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultroska, D.

    1984-01-01

    Experiences at Alabama Power Company and other nuclear utilities have promped a request for institutionalizing security checks of personnel in order to eliminated convicted criminals and drug users. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), which could provide FBI criminal history information by submitting fingerprints, does not do so, and would require new legislation to take on that duty. Believing that current malevolent employees can be managed with existing procedures, NRC allows criminal background checks only on prospective employees in order to avoid a negative social impact on personnel. Legislation to transfer criminal histories to nuclear facilities is now pending, and NRC is leaning toward a request for full disclosure, partly because of terrorist threats and partly to save manpower time and costs in reviewing case histories

  10. Dentistry and criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, B S; Khoury, J N

    2017-09-01

    Criminal law in dentistry, as shaped and moulded by the prevailing views of society, defines what is or is not socially acceptable. It applies in both personal and professional contexts with the intended consequence of protecting the public from unacceptable conduct and potential imbalances of power. At its centre, a patient's consent plays a pivotal role in transforming unlawful conduct into lawful conduct. This literature review considers the current law and the trend of utilizing criminal law in addition to non-criminal law alternatives of reprimanding clinicians for failure to achieve consent in the course of dental practice. Dentists must appreciate this change and the prosecuting authority's increasing willingness to resort to criminal law. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  11. Civil & Criminal Penalties

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — When CPSC is involved in a civil or criminal investigations into violations of the Consumer Products Safety Act the Commission publishes final determinations and...

  12. The influence of mental illness and criminality self-stigmas and racial self-concept on outcomes in a forensic psychiatric sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michelle L; Vayshenker, Beth; Rotter, Merrill; Yanos, Philip T

    2015-06-01

    Research has increasingly explored mental illness self-stigma: when people with mental illness believe that society's negative beliefs are true of them. Self-stigma predicts poorer functional and treatment outcomes. Stigma research has typically investigated the impact of a single stigma on people, without considering the potential effects of multiple stigmatizing labels. People with mental illness and a history of criminal conviction, however, may experience multiple stigmas related to mental illness and criminal history. This study investigated the impact of the combination of multiple stigmatized identities on self-esteem, depression, therapeutic alliance, and treatment adherence in a forensic psychiatric sample. It extended previous research on mental illness self-stigma to a forensic psychiatric sample. Participants (N = 82) were people with mental illness and a history of criminal conviction recruited from their treatment sites. Participants completed self-report questionnaires focused on mental illness and criminality self-stigma, racial self- concept, self-esteem, depression, working alliance, and medication/psychosocial treatment adherence. Researchers confirmed demographics through a chart review and treatment adherence from participants' clinicians. Multiple regression analyses examined the relationship between self-stigma and outcome variables. Mental illness self-stigma, racial self-concept, and to a lesser extent criminality self-stigma were associated with reduced self-esteem (p ≤ .05) and medication adherence (p ≤ .05). Criminality self-stigma also appeared to magnify the effects of racial and mental illness self-stigma on outcomes. This study shows that self-stigma related to involvement in the criminal justice system may further contribute to the impact of mental illness self-stigma on important outcomes. Future research and interventions may tailor self-stigma interventions to a forensic psychiatric population. (c) 2015 APA, all rights

  13. Euthanasia and criminal law

    OpenAIRE

    Ullrichová, Petra

    2008-01-01

    71 8. Summary- Euthanasia and criminal law Euthanasia is often regarded as a controversial topic that is being discussed all around the world. The legislative rules differ among the countries to various extent. The scope of this work is to offer a summary of legal regulations in euthanasia, particulary in the area of criminal law and a several examples of these regulations in Europe, USA and Australia. In the first chapter, the term of euthanasia is defined which is necessary for the purpose ...

  14. Juveniles in criminal procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the importance and role of children in modern society, as well as their position, this article has as its focus juveniles in criminal procedure. The existence of a separate juvenile justice system independent of the criminal law applicable to the adult offenders and general criminal procedure, as well as the periodic changes of the dominant approach in theory and practice reflects the ascendancy of different theoretical perspectives in the juvenile justice. In this paper, the authors scrutinize the models of responding to juvenile crime - justice and welfare model - as two models of the greatest importance in the present reaction of the society to the crimes conducted by the youngest delinquents at the beginning of the new century and millennium. Furthermore, the paper deals with a matter of international legal standards which, to a large extent, give shape to the legal framework for juvenile offenders and provide their rights and position in the criminal procedure. The authors refer to the internationally accepted documents on several levels. From the (almost universally accepted multilateral conventions on human rights, through the field of recommendations, rules and guidelines which are obeyed and enforced in practice of the juvenile justice although they are of non-binding nature, via the regional European legislative to the national provisions in a particular number of countries. On all the levels mentioned above the rights of the juveniles are regulated having in mind their possible role in the criminal procedure as a perpetrator of a criminal act, as a victim or as a witness. This paper also analyzes the criminal procedure with respect to juvenile perpetrators of the criminal acts in the Republic of Serbia and compliance of the provisions currently in vigor with the international legal standards contained in the international conventions and other internationally accepted and recognized instruments.

  15. Low-dose aspirin-associated upper gastric and duodenal ulcers in Japanese patients with no previous history of peptic ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Naohiko; Ito, Yoshitsugu; Sasaki, Makoto; Iida, Akihito; Mizuno, Mari; Ogasawara, Naotaka; Funaki, Yasushi; Kasugai, Kunio

    2013-11-12

    Long-term administration of low-dose aspirin (LDA) is associated with a greater risk of adverse events, including gastroduodenal ulcers. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for and assess the role of medication use in the development of peptic ulcer disease in Japanese patients with no history of peptic ulcers. Consecutive outpatients receiving LDA (75 mg/day) who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy between January and December 2010 were enrolled. Clinical parameters, peptic ulcer history, concomitant drugs, the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection, reason for endoscopy, and endoscopic findings were analysed. Of 226 total patients, 14 (6.2%) were endoscopically diagnosed with peptic ulcer. Age, sex, current smoking status, current alcohol consumption, endoscopic gastric mucosal atrophy, and abdominal symptoms were not significantly associated with peptic ulcers. Diabetes mellitus was more frequent (42.9% vs. 16.5%; P = 0.024) in patients with peptic ulcers than in those without peptic ulcers. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, co-treatment with anticoagulants or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) was significantly associated with increased and decreased risk for peptic ulcer, respectively (odds ratio [OR], 5.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19 - 28.99; P = 0.03 and OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.02 - 0.73; P = 0.02, respectively). Co-treatment with additional antiplatelet agents, H2-receptor antagonists, angiotensin II Type 1 receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was not associated with peptic ulcer development. The use of PPIs reduces the risk of developing gastric or duodenal ulcers in Japanese patients taking LDA without pre-existing gastroduodenal ulcers. However, this risk is significantly increased in both patients ingesting anticoagulants and patients with diabetes. These results may help identify

  16. Low glycaemic index diets improve glucose tolerance and body weight in women with previous history of gestational diabetes: a six months randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Sangeetha; Arshad, Fatimah; Abdul Ghani, Rohana; Wahab, Norasyikin A; Safii, Nik Shanita; Nisak, Mohd Yusof Barakatun; Chinna, Karuthan; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi

    2013-05-24

    Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) increases risks for type 2 diabetes and weight management is recommended to reduce the risk. Conventional dietary recommendations (energy-restricted, low fat) have limited success in women with previous GDM. The effect of lowering Glycaemic Index (GI) in managing glycaemic variables and body weight in women post-GDM is unknown. To evaluate the effects of conventional dietary recommendations administered with and without additional low-GI education, in the management of glucose tolerance and body weight in Asian women with previous GDM. Seventy seven Asian, non-diabetic women with previous GDM, between 20- 40y were randomised into Conventional healthy dietary recommendation (CHDR) and low GI (LGI) groups. CHDR received conventional dietary recommendations only (energy restricted, low in fat and refined sugars, high-fibre). LGI group received advice on lowering GI in addition. Fasting and 2-h post-load blood glucose after 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (2HPP) were measured at baseline and 6 months after intervention. Anthropometry and dietary intake were assessed at baseline, three and six months after intervention. The study is registered at the Malaysian National Medical Research Register (NMRR) with Research ID: 5183. After 6 months, significant reductions in body weight, BMI and waist-to-hip ratio were observed only in LGI group (Pweight loss ≥5% in LGI compared to CHDR group (33% vs. 8%, P=0.01). Changes in 2HPP were significantly different between groups (LGI vs. CHDR: median (IQR): -0.2(2.8) vs. +0.8 (2.0) mmol/L, P=0.025). Subjects with baseline fasting insulin≥2 μIU/ml had greater 2HPP reductions in LGI group compared to those in the CHDR group (-1.9±0.42 vs. +1.31±1.4 mmol/L, Pweight reduction as compared to conventional low-fat diets with similar energy prescription.

  17. Recidivism and rehabilitation of criminal offenders: a carrot and stick evolutionary game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Berenji

    Full Text Available Motivated by recent efforts by the criminal justice system to treat and rehabilitate nonviolent offenders rather than focusing solely on their punishment, we introduce an evolutionary game theoretic model to study the effects of "carrot and stick" intervention programs on criminal recidivism. We use stochastic simulations to study the evolution of a population where individuals may commit crimes depending on their past history, surrounding environment and, in the case of recidivists, on any counseling, educational or training programs available to them after being punished for their previous crimes. These sociological factors are embodied by effective parameters that determine the decision making probabilities. Players may decide to permanently reform or continue engaging in criminal activity, eventually reaching a state where they are considered incorrigible. Depending on parameter choices, the outcome of the game is a society with a majority of virtuous, rehabilitated citizens or incorrigibles. Since total resources may be limited, we constrain the combined punishment and rehabilitation costs per crime to be fixed, so that increasing one effort will necessarily decrease the other. We find that the most successful strategy in reducing crime is to optimally allocate resources so that after being punished, criminals experience impactful intervention programs, especially during the first stages of their return to society. Excessively harsh or lenient punishments are less effective. We also develop a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with memory effects to give a qualitative description of our simulated societal dynamics. We discuss our findings and sociological implications.

  18. Association of criminal convictions between family members : effects of siblings, fathers and mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakt, M. van de; Nieuwbeerta, P.; Apel, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Crime runs in families. Previous research has shown the existence of intergenerational transmission of criminal behaviour. Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which variation in criminal convictions may be explained by the criminality of siblings and by the

  19. 78 FR 27341 - Restrictions on Legal Assistance With Respect to Criminal Proceedings in Tribal Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... sufficient legal training to preside over criminal proceedings; affording the defendant the right to... 45 CFR Part 1614 Restrictions on Legal Assistance With Respect to Criminal Proceedings in Tribal... represent eligible persons in any and all criminal proceedings in tribal courts. Previously, the LSC Act and...

  20. Factors Influencing Clinical Follow-Up for Individuals with a Personal History of Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer and Previous Uninformative BRCA1 and BRCA2 Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwell, Sarah E; He, Hua; Knapke, Sara; Lewis, Jaime; Sisson, Rebecca; Hopper, Jennifer

    2018-03-17

    Genetic testing for inherited cancer risk has recently improved through the advent of multi-gene panels and the addition of deletion and duplication analysis of the BRCA genes. The primary aim of this study was to determine which factors influence the intent of individuals with a personal history of breast and/or ovarian cancer and negative or uncertain BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing to return to a hereditary cancer program for additional genetic risk assessment, counseling, and testing. Surveys were sent to 1197 individuals and 257 were returned. Of those participants who were planning to return to clinic, most cited having family members who could benefit from the test result as the primary motivation to return. Many participants who were not planning to return to clinic cited the cost of testing as a barrier to return. Cost of testing and concerns about insurance coverage were the most commonly cited barriers for the group of participants who were undecided about returning to clinic. Results from this study may be used to guide re-contact efforts by clinicians to increase patient uptake to return to clinic for up-to-date genetic risk assessment, counseling, and testing.

  1. Affect and criminal responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drakić Dragiša S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author deals with an issue of relationship between the affect and criminal responsibility. In order to provide a multi-angle approach to analysis of this issue the author resorted to multidisciplinary - criminal law and psychiatric-psychological approach. Although the topic covered by this article is significant and complex, it appears to be of virtually no interest in the literature. For that reason the author's endeavor to research this topic should not go unmentioned. In the first part of the article the author tried to provide answers to some preliminary questions without which it would be impossible to understand the relationship between the affect and criminal responsibility. Those are the following questions: what are affects, what is their nature and intensity, how long they last and how they influence psychological functions of a person acting in affect? Central part of the article is dedicated to examining the importance of the affect as a phenomenon in criminal law dogma and in judicial rulings, as well as its effect on criminal responsibility. The author finds that acting in affect may be considered as a mitigating circumstance in the sentencing, but can also be a basis for mitigation of the sentence or even suspension of the sentence, as part of some general criminal law norms. Also, for certain offenses it may be considered as a favorable condition that renders that offence to be less grave. Finally, the affect may be considered as a psychological basis diminished, or even lack of, mental capacity. The last above mentioned issue receives special attention of the author, and claims that only the affect that is 'of extreme proportions' may lead to mental incapacity. Such affect is the one that 'demolishes restrains and removes reasonable and target-oriented actions'. In further analysis the author proposes criteria and methodology for assessment of person's sanity in criminal law and criminal procedure. Further

  2. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and adult male criminal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, P A; Grekin, E R; Mednick, S A

    1999-03-01

    Perinatal risk factors are related to persistent and violent criminal outcomes. Prenatal maternal smoking may represent an additional perinatal risk factor for adult criminal outcomes. Our study examines maternal smoking during pregnancy as a predictor of offspring crime in the context of a prospective, longitudinal design. Subjects were a birth cohort of 4169 males born between September 1959 and December 1961 in Copenhagen, Denmark. During the third trimester of pregnancy, mothers self-reported the number of cigarettes smoked daily. When the male offspring were 34 years of age, their arrest histories were checked in the Danish National Criminal Register. Additional data were collected concerning maternal rejection, socioeconomic status, maternal age, pregnancy and delivery complications, use of drugs during pregnancy, paternal criminal history, and parental psychiatric hospitalization. Results indicate a dose-response relationship between amount of maternal prenatal smoking and arrests for nonviolent and violent crimes. Maternal prenatal smoking was particularly related to persistent criminal behavior rather than to arrests confined to adolescence. These relationships remained significant after potential demographic, parental, and perinatal risk confounds were controlled for. Maternal prenatal smoking predicts persistent criminal outcome in male offspring. This relationship has not been accounted for by related parental characteristics or perinatal problems. Potential physiologic or central nervous system mediators between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring criminal outcomes need further study.

  3. Legal access to alcohol and criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Benjamin; Waddell, Glen R

    2017-08-14

    Previous research has found strong evidence that legal access to alcohol is associated with sizable increases in criminality. We revisit this relationship using the census of judicial records on criminal charges filed in Oregon Courts, the ability to separately track crimes involving firearms, and to track individuals over time. We find that crime increases at age 21, with increases mostly due to assaults that lack premeditation, and alcohol-related nuisance crimes. We find no evident increases in rape or robbery. Among those with no prior criminal records, increases in crime are 50% larger-still larger for the most socially costly crimes of assault and drunk driving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gambling and Impulsivity Traits: A Recipe for Criminal Behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Gemma Mestre-Bach; Gemma Mestre-Bach; Trevor Steward; Trevor Steward; Roser Granero; Roser Granero; Fernando Fernández-Aranda; Fernando Fernández-Aranda; Fernando Fernández-Aranda; María Teresa Talón-Navarro; Àngel Cuquerella; Marta Baño; Laura Moragas; Amparo del Pino-Gutiérrez; Neus Aymamí

    2018-01-01

    Gambling disorder (GD) is a psychiatric condition that was recently recategorized as a non-substance-related addiction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders. Criminal activity is commonly associated with gambling; however, few empirical studies to date have examined sociodemographic and psychological variables in this population. In this study, we explored criminal behavior history in a sample of consecutively recruited treatment-seeking gamblers (n = 382) and co...

  5. Can Education Reform Canada's Criminals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D. K.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the development of the existing correctional programs in Canada's prisons, some theories of criminality, and two competing views on the best way to reform criminals today. Also gives a short review of penitentiary education programs. (RK)

  6. Competing for Criminal Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rawlings, G.; Unger, B.

    2005-01-01

    To compete for criminal money by means of low bank secrecy seems a tempting strategy for countries in order to attract additional funds. We show in a model that this “Seychelles-strategy” can increase national output, in particular if a country takes a (Stackelberg ) leadership in the competition

  7. Criminal Justice Curriculum Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, Richard C.; Alm, Mary

    This report outlines three new curriculum models for criminal justice developed as part of the North Carolina Community College System's Curriculum Improvement Project (CIP): the "Generalist"; "Generalist-with-Options" for a Law Enforcement Specialty, Corrections Specialty, or Protective Services Specialty; and "Generalist…

  8. Criminal Justice Web Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates 15 criminal justice Web sites that have been selected according to the following criteria: authority, currency, purpose, objectivity, and potential usefulness to researchers. The sites provide narrative and statistical information concerning crime, law enforcement, the judicial system, and corrections. Searching techniques are also…

  9. Hyubris as a factor of individual criminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Surkov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Criminal personality for thousands of years is the object of philosophical research. For philosophical anthropology, in particular, it is important to understand which components of human nature can be regarded as criminal. The term “hubris” that appears in ancient Greek culture, today received its second wind. It is widely used (especially in the West to refer to the human outlook, which provokes too arrogant, defiant behavior, which is a public danger. The term “hubris” is often used in criticism of certain politicians. However, we propose to expand the scope of its application also in other spheres of public life. Іn the history of criminology there are many examples of people with hubris, especially among dangerous criminals. Therefore hubris can be considered as criminogenic factor that requires research and limitations of the society. In another case, there is a situation, by analogy with the term “intoxication of power”, can be called “intoxication of impunity”. This thesis is confirmed by authoritative theories developed in criminology, sociology, psychology too. It is also consistent with some modern philosophical views on the nature of the criminal personality. Analysis of factors that stimulate the emergence and growth of hubris, suggest that most are present in a mass society. It generates anomie (loss of values that щаеут manifests as hubris that can act as criminogenic factor. Therefore, hubris reducing requires changes in the organization of social life.

  10. The relationship of antisocial personality disorder and history of conduct disorder with crime incidence in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Maghsoodloo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commission of crime and hostility and their forensic consequences in a patient with schizophrenia can worsen the patient′s condition and disturb his family, society, and even the psychiatrist. Based on previous research, patients with schizophrenia are at a higher risk for crime. It is not clear whether this is due to the nature of schizophrenia, comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder, or the history of conduct disorder in childhood. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 30 criminal and 30 non-criminal patients with schizophrenia, who had been referred by the court to the Forensic Medicine Center of Isfahan, were evaluated for antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and psychopathy checklist-revise (PCL-R score. Results: Frequency distribution of antisocial personality disorder (73.3%, history of conduct disorder in childhood (86.7%, and score of PCL-R ≥25 (indicating high probability of hostility in patients (40% were significantly higher in criminal patients than in non-criminals (10%, 30% and 0%, respectively; P < 0.001. Conclusions: More prevalence of antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and high score of PCL-R (≥25 in criminal schizophrenic patients may indicate that in order to control the hostility and for prevention of crime, besides treating acute symptoms of psychosis, patients might receive treatment and rehabilitation for comorbidities too.

  11. The relationship of antisocial personality disorder and history of conduct disorder with crime incidence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoodloo, Safa; Ghodousi, Arash; Karimzadeh, Taghi

    2012-06-01

    Commission of crime and hostility and their forensic consequences in a patient with schizophrenia can worsen the patient's condition and disturb his family, society, and even the psychiatrist. Based on previous research, patients with schizophrenia are at a higher risk for crime. It is not clear whether this is due to the nature of schizophrenia, comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder, or the history of conduct disorder in childhood. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis. In this case-control study, 30 criminal and 30 non-criminal patients with schizophrenia, who had been referred by the court to the Forensic Medicine Center of Isfahan, were evaluated for antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and psychopathy checklist-revise (PCL-R) score. Frequency distribution of antisocial personality disorder (73.3%), history of conduct disorder in childhood (86.7%), and score of PCL-R ≥25 (indicating high probability of hostility) in patients (40%) were significantly higher in criminal patients than in non-criminals (10%, 30% and 0%, respectively; P antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and high score of PCL-R (≥25) in criminal schizophrenic patients may indicate that in order to control the hostility and for prevention of crime, besides treating acute symptoms of psychosis, patients might receive treatment and rehabilitation for comorbidities too.

  12. Criminal behavior among persons with schizophrenia in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Chen, Peng-Yu; Liao, Zhi-Gang; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Tang, Cui-Ping; Mao, Wen-Jun; Lamberti, J Steven; Conwell, Yeates

    2010-09-01

    This study is to explore the prevalence and risk factors for self-reported criminal behavior among persons with schizophrenia in rural China. We used data from a 14-year prospective follow-up study (1994-2008) of criminal behavior among a cohort (N=510) of persons with schizophrenia in Xinjin County, China. The rate of criminal behavior was 10.0% among persons with schizophrenia in a rural community during the follow-up period. Bivariate analyses showed that the risk of criminal behavior was significantly associated with being male, unmarried, previous violent behavior, homelessness, no family caregivers, and high scores on measures of total symptoms of illness. In multivariate logistic regression analyses being male and previous violent behavior were identified as independent predictors of increased criminal behavior in persons with schizophrenia in the follow-up period. Criminal behavior is a common phenomenon among patients with schizophrenia in rural China. The findings of the risk factors for criminal behavior should be considered in planning mental health interventions for high-risk patients and their families. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Predicting criminality from child maltreatment typologies and posttraumatic stress symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie

    2013-01-01

    The associations between childhood abuse and subsequent criminality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well known. However, a major limitation of research related to childhood abuse and its effects is the focus on one particular type of abuse at the expense of others. Recent work has...... was constructed to include an oversampling of child protection cases. Building on a previous latent class analysis of four types of childhood maltreatment, three maltreatment typologies were used in the current analyses. A criminality scale was constructed based on seven types of criminal behavior. PTSD symptoms...

  14. The unique predisposition to criminal violations in frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Mario F

    2010-01-01

    Brain disorders can lead to criminal violations. Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are particularly prone to sociopathic behavior while retaining knowledge of their acts and of moral and conventional rules. This report describes four FTD patients who committed criminal violations in the presence of clear consciousness and sufficiently intact cognition. They understood the nature of their acts and the potential consequences, but did not feel sufficiently concerned to be deterred. FTD involves a unique pathologic combination affecting the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, with altered moral feelings, right anterior temporal loss of emotional empathy, and orbitofrontal changes with disinhibited, compulsive behavior. These case histories and the literature indicate that those with right temporal FTD retain the capacity to tell right from wrong but have the slow and insidious loss of the capacity for moral rationality. Patients with early FTD present a challenge to the criminal justice system to consider alterations in moral cognition before ascribing criminal responsibility.

  15. Criminal behavior and victimization among homeless individuals with severe mental illness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Laurence; Crocker, Anne G; Nicholls, Tonia L; Latimer, Eric A; Ayllon, Andrea Reyes

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of the systematic review were to estimate the prevalence and correlates of criminal behavior, contacts with the criminal justice system, and victimization among homeless adults with severe mental illness. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Web of Science were searched for published empirical investigations of prevalence and correlates of criminal behavior, contacts with the justice system, and episodes of victimization in the target population. The search yielded 21 studies. Fifteen examined prevalence of contacts with the criminal justice system; lifetime arrest rates ranged between 62.9% and 90.0%, lifetime conviction rates ranged between 28.1% and 80.0%, and lifetime incarceration rates ranged between 48.0% and 67.0%. Four studies examined self-reported criminal behavior, with 12-month rates ranging from 17.0% to 32.0%. Six studies examined the prevalence of victimization, with lifetime rates ranging between 73.7% and 87.0%. Significant correlates of criminal behavior and contacts with the justice system included criminal history, high perceived need for medical services, high intensity of mental health service use, young age, male gender, substance use, protracted homelessness, type of homelessness (street or shelter), and history of conduct disorder. Significant correlates of victimization included female gender, history of child abuse, and depression. Rates of criminal behavior, contacts with the criminal justice system, and victimization among homeless adults with severe mental illness are higher than among housed adults with severe mental illness.

  16. Intravenous intralipid therapy is not beneficial in having a live delivery in women aged 40-42 years with a previous history of miscarriage or failure to conceive despite embryo transfer undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, J H; Check, D L

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of intralipid intravenous infusion in achieving a live pregnancy following IVF--embryo transfer in women of advanced reproductive age (40-42 years). A matched control was performed. Women aged 40-42 with a previous history of miscarriage or who failed to conceive despite previous embryo transfer who entered an IVF program were offered intravenous intralipid therapy (four ml of 20% liposyn II in 100 ml normal saline over one hour) during the mid-follicular phase. Clinical pregnancy rates (eight weeks with viable gestation) and live delivered pregnancy rates were then determined and compared. The results were evaluated after ten matched cycles. There were no clinical pregnancies in those receiving intralipid vs. a 40% clinical and a 30% live delivered pregnancy rate in the untreated controls (p = 0.087, Fisher's exact test). The study was terminated because of these preliminary data. In the test tube, adding intralipid to natural killer cells can inhibit their cytolytic action. However, the use of intravenous intralipid to suppress natural killer cell activity does not seem to improve the chance of a live delivery in women aged 40-42 years with a previous history of miscarriage. In fact this therapy may actually be detrimental in this age group. Since efficacy of this therapy was not found in a group of advanced reproductive age, it is not clear why this should be effective for a younger population. A controlled study for the younger group is needed. Perhaps such a study could be limited to only those with miscarriage rather than also concluding failure to conceive despite embryo transfer. Intralipid failed to improve live delivered pregnancy rates in women with prior miscarriage or previous failure with embryo transfer.

  17. Pathological gambling and criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folino, Jorge Oscar; Abait, Patricia Estela

    2009-09-01

    To review research results on the relationship between pathological gambling and criminality, published in 2007 and 2008, in English and in Spanish. An important association between pathological gambling and criminality was confirmed in populations of anonymous gamblers, helpline callers and substance abusers. Helplines provide a timely service to gamblers who have not reached the maximum stages in the development of a pathological gambling pattern. Pathological gambling is associated with violence in couples and dysfunctional families. Inversely, violence is also an antecedent promoting vulnerability toward pathological gambling. Impulsiveness shows diverse relationships with pathological gambling and violence as well. A pathological gambler's involvement in crime is exceptionally considered without responsibility by justice, but it may be an indicator of the disorder severity and the need for special therapeutic tactics. While reviewing the present study, research work was published that contributed to a better understanding of the association between pathological gambling and criminality and went further into their complex relationship and the formulation of explanatory models related to impulsiveness.

  18. Criminal insanity in 19th-century Ireland, Europe and the United States: cases, contexts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2009-01-01

    The insanity defence has a lengthy, complex history. This article provides a concise, comparative background to the evolution of criminal insanity legislation and institutions for the mentally ill in the nineteenth century, with particular reference to Ireland and the United States. Three key themes are identified and explored: (a) the emergence of the insanity defence in the nineteenth century (e.g. the McNaughtan Rules); (b) conditions in nineteenth-century asylums and institutions for the 'criminally insane' (with particular reference to overcrowding, physical illness and asylum deaths); and (c) nineteenth-century considerations of criminal responsibility in women with mental illness (with particular reference to medical and judicial views of the relevance of menstruation, pregnancy and child-birth). These themes are explored through review of historical literature (with particular reference to the work of Dr. Isaac Ray, founding father of forensic psychiatry in the United States) and examination of previously unpublished archival material from the Central Criminal Lunatic Asylum, Dublin.

  19. An Outline of the New Norwegian Criminal Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørn Jacobsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of the new criminal code, its background and content. It maps out the code’s background, the legislative process and central ideas. Furthermore, the article gives an outline of the general criteria for criminal responsibility according to the code, the offences and forms of punishment and other reactions. The article emphasises the most important changes from the previous code of 1902. To some degree, strengths and weaknesses of the new code are addressed.

  20. Effect of Marriage and Spousal Criminality on Recidivism

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Signe Hald; Andersen, Lars H?jsgaard; Skov, Peer Ebbesen

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965?1985 (N?=?102,839). The results showed that marriage reduced recidivism compared to nonmarriage only when the spouse had no criminal record. Similarly, marriage to a nonconvicted spouse reduced recidivism significantly more tha...

  1. Preventing Criminal Recidivism Through Mental Health and Criminal Justice Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, J Steven

    2016-11-01

    Criminal justice system involvement is common among persons with serious mental illness in community treatment settings. Various intervention strategies are used to prevent criminal recidivism among justice-involved individuals, including mental health courts, specialty probation, and conditional release programs. Despite differences in these approaches, most involve the use of legal leverage to promote treatment adherence. Evidence supporting the effectiveness of leverage-based interventions at preventing criminal recidivism is mixed, however, with some studies suggesting that involving criminal justice authorities in mental health treatment can increase recidivism rates. The effectiveness of interventions that utilize legal leverage is likely to depend on several factors, including the ability of mental health and criminal justice staff to work together. Collaboration is widely acknowledged as essential in managing justice-involved individuals, yet fundamental differences in goals, values, and methods exist between mental health and criminal justice professionals. This article presents a six-step conceptual framework for optimal mental health-criminal justice collaboration to prevent criminal recidivism among individuals with serious mental illness who are under criminal justice supervision in the community. Combining best practices from each field, the stepwise process includes engagement, assessment, planning and treatment, monitoring, problem solving, and transition. Rationale and opportunities for collaboration at each step are discussed.

  2. Criminal milieu and criminal phenomenon: Criminology and criminalistics aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors goal in this work is to present a more innovative concept of research of criminal milieu and criminal phenomenon. He writes about achieved classification in the field of criminal milieu and criminal phenomenon, which are tightly connected with the corpus of criminal activities, or even, as some the opticians say, with crime, criminal organizations and criminal profit. Conceptual findings are disclosed, with special attention/accent to the complexity of criminal milieu and phenomena in it. Besides the classification, the paper also contains the elements which constitute/build certain types of criminal milieu, it's layering, structure of criminal phenomenon and how the structure of criminal milieu is sustained. It seems to the author that actual trends in criminal milieu research, within these borders, are still not promoted and presented enough in domestic literature, and the fact that the criminal milieu is the lifeline of criminal activities is a reason strong enough to encourage research in this unexplored field. Deciding to write for the first time, within these borders, an article about the criminal under world and crime, shows that I had no ide how much torment it would cause me. While writing, I met with difficulties interms of contextualization and conceptual definitions. It turns out that the identification and isolation of these institutes in criminology and criminological scientific thought, within these borders, to me is unexpectedly challenging and too complex theoretical demand for this work scope. However, I'm neither the first norther only one with this kind of problem. Every attempt of theoretical contribution to better understanding the concept of crime- and criminological thought is faced with a multitude of difficult questions. This however, does not mean that the attempts of scientific thinking and research of these complex institutes and attempts to determine them, are theoretically meaningless or impossible. The

  3. 25 CFR 11.406 - Criminal coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criminal coercion. 11.406 Section 11.406 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.406 Criminal coercion. (a) A person is guilty of criminal coercion if... withhold action as an official, or cause an official to take or withhold action. (b) Criminal coercion is...

  4. Criminal Insurgency in the Americas and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    no previous relationship with the paramilitaries who joined criminal groups to profit from drug trafficking. Venezuela. Hugo Chávez was elected...destinations. In 2008, the U.S. Treasury Department indicted two senior Venezuelan officials, Hugo Armando Carvajal Barrios, director of Venezuela’s...available at <www.state.gov/p/inl/rls/nrcrpt/2009/index.htm>. 21 Jorge Fernandez Menendez and Victor Ronquillo, De Los Maras a Los Zetas: Los secretos del

  5. Gambling and Impulsivity Traits: A Recipe for Criminal Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Talón-Navarro, María Teresa; Cuquerella, Àngel; Baño, Marta; Moragas, Laura; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Vintró-Alcaraz, Cristina; Magaña, Pablo; Menchón, José Manuel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2018-01-01

    Gambling disorder (GD) is a psychiatric condition that was recently recategorized as a non-substance-related addiction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders. Criminal activity is commonly associated with gambling; however, few empirical studies to date have examined sociodemographic and psychological variables in this population. In this study, we explored criminal behavior history in a sample of consecutively recruited treatment-seeking gamblers ( n  = 382) and compared subjects with a history of illegal acts ( n  = 103, 26.9%) to those with no criminal record ( n  = 279, 73.1%). Impulsivity and personality traits were specifically explored, along with other gambling-related severity factors. We found that gamblers who engaged in illegal activity were more likely to endorse high levels of urgency (i.e., the tendency to act out when experiencing heightened emotional states) and increased lack of premeditation. Gamblers with a history of criminal behavior also had greater GD severity levels and gambling-related debts. Additionally, these gamblers reported lower levels of self-directedness, which is characterized by difficulty in establishing and redirecting behavior toward one's goals. Likewise, gamblers who had conducted criminal acts showed a tendency to engage in greater risk-taking behavior. These results shed new light on this understudied population and provide insights for developing targeted harm-prevention interventions and treatment protocols.

  6. Gambling and Impulsivity Traits: A Recipe for Criminal Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Mestre-Bach

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gambling disorder (GD is a psychiatric condition that was recently recategorized as a non-substance-related addiction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders. Criminal activity is commonly associated with gambling; however, few empirical studies to date have examined sociodemographic and psychological variables in this population. In this study, we explored criminal behavior history in a sample of consecutively recruited treatment-seeking gamblers (n = 382 and compared subjects with a history of illegal acts (n = 103, 26.9% to those with no criminal record (n = 279, 73.1%. Impulsivity and personality traits were specifically explored, along with other gambling-related severity factors. We found that gamblers who engaged in illegal activity were more likely to endorse high levels of urgency (i.e., the tendency to act out when experiencing heightened emotional states and increased lack of premeditation. Gamblers with a history of criminal behavior also had greater GD severity levels and gambling-related debts. Additionally, these gamblers reported lower levels of self-directedness, which is characterized by difficulty in establishing and redirecting behavior toward one’s goals. Likewise, gamblers who had conducted criminal acts showed a tendency to engage in greater risk-taking behavior. These results shed new light on this understudied population and provide insights for developing targeted harm-prevention interventions and treatment protocols.

  7. International Criminal Law & Its Paradoxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2017-01-01

    This article challenges international criminal tribunals' (ICTs) capacity to perform the socially constitutive work of transitional justice. Highlighting paradigmatic ICT jurisprudence, it shows both the "progress" and "justice" constructs central to the work and legitimacy of international...... criminal law are unrealizable under current ICT practice. This is due to international criminal law's foundational, legitimizing basis in natural law, rather than political liberalism. The article calls for a revision of ICT institutional accountability structures....

  8. Organization of preparatory criminal proceedings

    OpenAIRE

    Lukić Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    Our criminal law has been developing in the direction of democratization and respect of the minimum legal standards as a condition for an objective assessment of criminal offenses and the protection of human rights and the law does, more or less, like all social phenomena resist the rapid and radical change. The investigation, as part of criminal proceedings is undoubtedly the most important and also the most delicate part of the proceedings. The issue of different organization of the concept...

  9. Criminal Protection Of The Criminal Legal Proceedings Lawful Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Selina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the problem of criminal code provisions on crimes against justice and changes which happened in the procedure of justice for criminal cases implementation since the beginning of judicial reform discrepancy is researched. In spite of the fact that in the considered segment the last changes were made rather recently (Federal Law of December 28, 2013 No. 432-FZ, in general this sphere of regulation is not complete. Due to the corpus delicti "Attraction of the obviously innocent to criminal liability" the concept of criminal prosecution is analyzed. In regard to this author characterize that only court can make a decision that person is guilty for the crime. The concept of legal responsibility as a need to undergo deprivations or at least condemnation for made (if authentically established offense corresponds to it. Author outlines that it is only possible to release one from of responsibility only if one is subject to responsibility. Today it is possible to included cases when consent of the person with the termination of criminal case and prosecution exists. It is proven that in the meaning of the article 299 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation criminal prosecution is told as attraction for being accused. But other forms of criminal prosecution are not considered in full. Author analyze contradictions between the title and disposition of the article 307 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation concerning punishability for criminal acts: title covers the conclusion and disposition – only indications. Elimination of this contradiction lies in the plane of the criminal procedure form of obtaining conclusion and indications development and gnoseological nature of the new type of proofs study.

  10. Criminal Law Study Guide (Revision)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... While exhaustive of neither topics discussed nor references cited, It does address fundamental concepts of criminal liability, Defenses, and pleading, as well as offenses most commonly encountered...

  11. Criminal behavior in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljegren, Madeleine; Naasan, Georges; Temlett, Julia; Perry, David C; Rankin, Katherine P; Merrilees, Jennifer; Grinberg, Lea T; Seeley, William W; Englund, Elisabet; Miller, Bruce L

    2015-03-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases can cause dysfunction of neural structures involved in judgment, executive function, emotional processing, sexual behavior, violence, and self-awareness. Such dysfunctions can lead to antisocial and criminal behavior that appears for the first time in the adult or middle-aged individual or even later in life. To investigate the frequency and type of criminal behavior among patients with a diagnosed dementing disorder. We conducted a retrospective medical record review of 2397 patients who were seen at the University of California, San Francisco, Memory and Aging Center between 1999 and 2012, including 545 patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), 171 patients with behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 89 patients with semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia, and 30 patients with Huntington disease. Patient notes containing specific keywords denoting criminal behavior were reviewed. Data were stratified by criminal behavior type and diagnostic groups. Frequencies of criminal behavior and χ² statistics were calculated. Of the 2397 patients studied, 204 (8.5%) had a history of criminal behavior that emerged during their illness. Of the major diagnostic groups, 42 of 545 patients (7.7%) with AD, 64 of 171 patients (37.4%) with bvFTD, 24 of 89 patients (27.0%) with semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia, and 6 of 30 patients (20%) with Huntington disease exhibited criminal behavior. A total of 14% of patients with bvFTD were statistically significantly more likely to present with criminal behavior compared with 2% of patients with AD (P criminal behavior in the bvFTD group included theft, traffic violations, sexual advances, trespassing, and public urination in contrast with those in the AD group, who commonly committed traffic violations, often related to cognitive impairment. Criminal behavior is more common in patients with bvFTD and semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia than in those with AD and

  12. Prison as a Criminal School:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorinas, Cedric; Damm, Anna Piil

    We investigate peer effects on crime-specific recidivism using register data for the entire Danish prison population. We find that inmates strengthen criminal capital in prison due to exposure to offenders with the same field of specialisation (reinforcing peer effects). Our results accord...... are especially strong due to exposure to more experienced criminals and dropouts....

  13. Racial Profiling and Criminal Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    According to the main argument in favour of the practice of racial profiling as a low enforcement tactic, the use of race as a targeting factor helps the police to apprehend more criminals. In the following, this argument is challenged. It is argued that, given the assumption that criminals are c...

  14. Defendants' Rights in Criminal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ralph C., II; Keeley, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the protections afforded by the Constitution for defendants in criminal trials. These include the right to a jury trial (in cases of possible incarceration), an impartial jury, and the requirement of a unanimous verdict. Defends the use of plea bargaining as essential to an efficient criminal justice system. (MJP)

  15. Recommendations for breast imaging follow-up of women with a previous history of breast cancer: position paper from the Italian Group for Mammography Screening (GISMa) and the Italian College of Breast Radiologists (ICBR) by SIRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchi, Lauro; Belli, Paolo; Benelli, Eva; Bernardi, Daniela; Brancato, Beniamino; Calabrese, Massimo; Carbonaro, Luca A; Caumo, Francesca; Cavallo-Marincola, Beatrice; Clauser, Paola; Fedato, Chiara; Frigerio, Alfonso; Galli, Vania; Giordano, Livia; Golinelli, Paola; Mariscotti, Giovanna; Martincich, Laura; Montemezzi, Stefania; Morrone, Doralba; Naldoni, Carlo; Paduos, Adriana; Panizza, Pietro; Pediconi, Federica; Querci, Fiammetta; Rizzo, Antonio; Saguatti, Gianni; Tagliafico, Alberto; Trimboli, Rubina M; Zuiani, Chiara; Sardanelli, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    Women who were previously treated for breast cancer (BC) are an important particular subgroup of women at intermediate BC risk. Their breast follow-up should be planned taking in consideration a 1.0-1.5 % annual rate of loco-regional recurrences and new ipsilateral or contralateral BCs during 15-20 years, and be based on a regional/district invitation system. This activity should be carried out by a Department of Radiology integrating screening and diagnostics in the context of a Breast Unit. We recommend the adoption of protocols dedicated to women previously treated for BC, with a clear definition of responsibilities, methods for invitation, site(s) of visits, methods for clinical and radiological evaluation, follow-up duration, role and function of family doctors and specialists. These women will be invited to get a mammogram in dedicated sessions starting from the year after the end of treatment. The planned follow-up duration will be at least 10 years and will be defined on the basis of patient's age and preferences, taking into consideration organizational matters. Special agreements can be defined in the case of women who have their follow-up planned at other qualified centers. Dedicated screening sessions should include: evaluation of familial/personal history (if previously not done) for identifying high-risk conditions which could indicate a different screening strategy; immediate evaluation of mammograms by one or, when possible, two breast radiologists with possible addition of supplemental mammographic views, digital breast tomosynthesis, clinical breast examination, breast ultrasound; and prompt planning of possible further workup. Results of these screening sessions should be set apart from those of general female population screening and presented in dedicated reports. The following research issues are suggested: further risk stratification and effectiveness of follow-up protocols differentiated also for BC pathologic subtype and molecular

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Vorapaxar With and Without a Thienopyridine for Secondary Prevention in Patients With Previous Myocardial Infarction and No History of Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack: Results from TRA 2°P-TIMI 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohula, Erin A; Aylward, Philip E; Bonaca, Marc P; Corbalan, Ramon L; Kiss, Robert G; Murphy, Sabina A; Scirica, Benjamin M; White, Harvey; Braunwald, Eugene; Morrow, David A

    2015-11-17

    Vorapaxar antagonizes protease-activated receptor 1, the primary receptor for thrombin on human platelets, and reduces recurrent thrombotic events in stable patients with a previous myocardial infarction (MI). We wished to determine whether the efficacy and safety of antiplatelet therapy with vorapaxar was modified by concurrent thienopyridine use. The Thrombin Receptor Antagonist in Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Ischemic Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 50 (TRA 2°P-TIMI 50) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vorapaxar in 26,449 patients with previous atherothrombosis. This prespecified analysis included 16,897 patients who qualified with a MI in the preceding 2 weeks to 12 months and was restricted to patients without a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack given its contraindication in that population. Randomization was stratified on the basis of planned thienopyridine use. Thienopyridine was planned at randomization in 12,410 (73%). Vorapaxar significantly reduced the composite of cardiovascular death, MI, and stroke in comparison with placebo regardless of planned thienopyridine therapy (planned thienopyridine, hazard ratio, 0.80, 0.70-0.91, PGlobal Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) moderate or severe bleeding risk was increased with vorapaxar and was not significantly altered by planned thienopyridine (planned, hazard ratio, 1.50; 1.18-1.89, Phistory of previous MI, whether treated concomitantly with a thienopyridine or not. The relative risk of moderate or severe bleeding was similarly increased irrespective of thienopyridine use. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00526474. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. CONCEPTUAL AGGREGATION OF CRIMINAL OFFENCES SEPARATION FROM COLLISION OF THE CRIMINAL LAW NORMS

    OpenAIRE

    Persidskis, Ainārs

    2017-01-01

    The topic of the paper is the conceptual aggregation of criminal offences separation from collision of the Criminal Law norms. The conceptual aggregation of criminal offences is the most difficult type of all multiplicity types of criminal offences. This research paper provides an overview of the conceptual aggregation of criminal offences separation from collision of the Criminal Law norms. In the paper is given analyses of conceptual aggregation of criminal offences separation from collisio...

  18. The European sourcebook of crime and criminal justice statistics: Importance of comparative statistics, Serbia and the data on crime and criminal justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper points out the importance of comparative statistics and their role in the enhancement of the national system of criminal justice statistics, and the national criminal justice system in general. The central part of the paper is about history, significance, methodology and content of the European Sourcebook of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics. It indicates the key problems in the process of collection of comparable data on crime at the European level, and the problems which Serbia faced in the process of preparation of inputs for the fifth edition of the aforementioned Sourcebook. Given that the European Sourcebook of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics contains information on six equally important areas of the criminal justice system (police, public prosecution, courts, penal institutions, probation service and victimization, the paper includes recommendations for the improvement of the data collection in some of these areas in Serbia.

  19. CRIMINAL PROTECTION OF PRIVATE LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU SLAVOIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is meant, first of all, to analyze the incriminations that the new Romanian Criminal Code sets for the protection of a person’s private life as a social value of maximum significance both for the human being and for any democratic society as a whole.There are two criminal offences treated in this study that are not to be found in the current criminal legislation: violation of private life and criminal trespassing of a legal person’s property. Likewise, the study will bring forth the novelties and the differences regarding the offences of criminal trespassing of a natural person’s property, disclosure of professional secret, violation of secret correspondence, illegal access to computerized system and illegal interception of electronic data transfer – acts that when, directly or indirectly, committed can cause harm to the intimacy of a person’s life.As an expression of the interdisciplinary nature of this subject, the study also sets out, as a subsidiary aspect, an evaluation of the circumstances under which the new criminal proceeding legislation allows public authorities to interfere with an individual’s private life. Thus, the emphasis is on the analysis of the circumstances under which special surveillance and investigation techniques can be used as evidence proceedings regulated by the new Romanian Criminal Procedure Code.

  20. International Criminalization of International Terrorizm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Grigoryevich Volevodz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and studying of the terrorism in all its facets is a complex entangled problem with less clear legal regulation that it might seem at first glance, especially after its transformation from local phenomenon into a world threat. Hitherto terrorism and actions connected to it have been criminalized by the majority of states. There are in modern criminal law whole systems of rules on criminal liability for terrorism which differs considerably from country to country. Terrorism has been criminalized in numerous international regional and universal antiterrorist legal instruments. The author notes that differences in definitions that are enshrined in them hinders international cooperation in criminal matters with respect to terrorist cases. Difficulties reside in the necessity to meet the dual criminality requirement and in the political offense exception. These difficulties can only be overcome through elaboration of a universally recognized definition of the notion of international terrorism and making it legally binding via its inclusion into a universal convention. The issue of definition of international terrorism is an important part of an efficient mutual assistance among states in fight against this crime. In this article the author accounts of actual ways of tackling by the international community of the issue of criminalization of international terrorism and of factors influencing them.

  1. Environmental criminal offences - victimless crimes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrićević Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological criminal offences, the most serious forms of harming and threatening of environment or its integral parts, represents a global phenomenon of great social hazard. They are often connected with organized transnational criminality, criminal offences against life and bodily integrity, corruption, tax evasion and discrimination. Disputable nature of the subject these incriminations protect imposes a question: “Who are the victims of ecological criminal offences - individuals, social groups, entire society or environment as value per se?” Perceiving ecological criminal offences as victimless crimes diminishes their importance and the circle of subjects interested to unveil, prove, prevent, suppress and impose punishments for these offences. Therefore, the author discusses the sustainability of the traditional, anthropocentrically defined term of victim in the context of biocentrism and its growing influence on criminal law, criminology and victimology. Attempting to determine whether ecological criminal offences represent victimless crimes, the author analyzes their term, characteristics and significance. Starting from the traditional definition of victim, she analyzes the term of “victimless crimes“ and its (unsustainability in the context of environmental crime, focusing on its most frequent victims and the necessity of their protection.

  2. Constitutional collisions of criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey M. Inshakov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify and resolve conflicts between the norms of constitutional and criminal law which regulate the issue of legal liability of senior officials of the state. Methods formallogical systematic comparativelegal. Results the article analyzes the embodiment of the principle of citizensrsquo equality under the law regarding the criminal responsibility of the President of the Russian Federation as one of the segments of the elite right other criminal and legal conflicts are considered associated with the creation of conditions for derogation from the principle of equality. Basing on this analysis the means of overcoming collisions between the norms of constitutional and criminal law are formulated. Scientific novelty in the article for the first time it has been shown that in the Russian criminal law there are exceptions to the principle of citizensrsquo equality under the law relating to the President of the Russian Federation the conflicts are identified between the norms of constitutional and criminal law regulating the issue of legal liability of senior officials of the state ways of overcoming conflicts are suggested. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and teaching in the consideration of issues of senior state officialsrsquo criminal liability.

  3. Social Support Among Substance Using Women with Criminal Justice Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer, John M.; Salina, Doreen D.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Social support types (abstinence, appraisal, belonging, tangible) were analyzed among a sample of women with criminal justice involvement and substance use disorders (n = 200). Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine social support types in relation to changes in abstinence self-efficacy while controlling for incarceration histories. Only abstinence social support and tangible social support predicted significant increases in abstinence self-efficacy, with tangible support accounting for more variance in the analytic model. Findings suggest women with criminal justice involvement who have substance use disorders have basic needs that if met would have an indirect effect on their recovery. Implications for treatment and research are discussed. PMID:26949443

  4. Predicting criminality from child maltreatment typologies and posttraumatic stress symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ask Elklit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The associations between childhood abuse and subsequent criminality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are well known. However, a major limitation of research related to childhood abuse and its effects is the focus on one particular type of abuse at the expense of others. Recent work has established that childhood abuse rarely occurs as a unidimensional phenomenon. Therefore, a number of studies have investigated the existence of abuse typologies. Methods: The study is based on a Danish stratified random probability survey including 2980 interviews of 24-year-old people. The sample was constructed to include an oversampling of child protection cases. Building on a previous latent class analysis of four types of childhood maltreatment, three maltreatment typologies were used in the current analyses. A criminality scale was constructed based on seven types of criminal behavior. PTSD symptoms were assessed by the PC-PTSD Screen. Results: Significant differences were found between the two genders with males reporting heightened rates of criminality. Furthermore, all three maltreatment typologies were associated with criminal behavior with odds ratios (ORs from 2.90 to 5.32. Female gender had an OR of 0.53 and possible PTSD an OR of 1.84. Conclusion: The independent association of participants at risk for PTSD and three types of maltreatment with criminality should be studied to determine if it can be replicated, and considered in social policy and prevention and rehabilitation interventions.

  5. Predicting criminality from child maltreatment typologies and posttraumatic stress symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie; Feddern, Dagmar; Christoffersen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Background The associations between childhood abuse and subsequent criminality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well known. However, a major limitation of research related to childhood abuse and its effects is the focus on one particular type of abuse at the expense of others. Recent work has established that childhood abuse rarely occurs as a unidimensional phenomenon. Therefore, a number of studies have investigated the existence of abuse typologies. Methods The study is based on a Danish stratified random probability survey including 2980 interviews of 24-year-old people. The sample was constructed to include an oversampling of child protection cases. Building on a previous latent class analysis of four types of childhood maltreatment, three maltreatment typologies were used in the current analyses. A criminality scale was constructed based on seven types of criminal behavior. PTSD symptoms were assessed by the PC-PTSD Screen. Results Significant differences were found between the two genders with males reporting heightened rates of criminality. Furthermore, all three maltreatment typologies were associated with criminal behavior with odds ratios (ORs) from 2.90 to 5.32. Female gender had an OR of 0.53 and possible PTSD an OR of 1.84. Conclusion The independent association of participants at risk for PTSD and three types of maltreatment with criminality should be studied to determine if it can be replicated, and considered in social policy and prevention and rehabilitation interventions. PMID:23626869

  6. The association between psychopathology of first-episode psychosis patients within the schizophrenia spectrum and previous offending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality. The aim was to describe possible psychopathological differences between schizophrenia spectrum patients with and without a criminal career before first-episode psychosis. In a multi-centre study, 16 psychiatric...... were linked with data concerning criminal and psychiatric history. No key characteristics were found to assist the early detection of criminal persons before first psychiatric hospital contact for a psychotic incident. However, when adjusted for sex, age, abuse, living conditions, marital status......, employment status and education, a primarily positive symptomatology was associated with a prior criminal career. The premorbid level of functioning and several function parameters were also significantly associated with criminal history. There are significant differences in psychopathology between...

  7. Effect of Administration of Single Dose GnRH Agonist in Luteal Phase on Outcome of ICSI-ET Cycles in Women with Previous History of IVF/ICSI Failure: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafardoust, Simin; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Kamali, Koroush; Mokhtar, Sara; Badehnoosh, Bita; Arjmand-Teymouri, Fatemeh; Fatemi, Farnaz; Mohammadzadeh, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background GnRH agonist administration in the luteal phase has been suggested to beneficially affect the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryo transfer (ET) cycles. This blind randomized controlled study evaluates the effect of GnRH (Gonadotropine Releasing Hormone) agonist administration on ICSI outcome in GnRH antagonist ovarian stimulation protocol in women with 2 or more previous IVF/ICSI-ET failures. Methods One hundred IVF failure women who underwent ICSI cycles and stimulated with GnRH antagonist ovarian stimulation protocol, were included in the study. Women were randomly assigned to intervention (received a single dose injection of GnRH agonist (0.1 mg of Decapeptil) subcutaneously 6 days after oocyte retrieval) and control (did not receive GnRH agonist) groups. Implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were the primary outcome measures. Results Although the age of women, the number of embryos transferred in the current cycle and the quality of the transferred embryos were similar in the two groups, there was a significantly higher rate of implantation (Mann Whitney test, p = 0.041) and pregnancy (32.6% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.030, OR = 3.3, 95%CI, 1.08 to 10.4) in the intervention group. Conclusion Our results suggested that, in addition to routine luteal phase support using progesterone, administration of 0.1 mg of Decapeptil 6 days after oocyte retrieval in women with previous history of 2 or more IVF/ICSI failures led to a significant improvement in implantation and pregnancy rates after ICSI following ovarian stimulation with GnRH antagonist protocol. PMID:25927026

  8. Objective Truth Institution in Criminal Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltornist O. A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the category of objective truth in criminal procedure, its importance for correct determination of criminal court procedure aims. The author analyzes also the bill draft offered by the RF Committee of Inquiry “On amending in the RF Criminal Procedure Code due to the implementation ofobjective truth institution in criminal procedure”

  9. Criminal Law of the Enemy X Criminal Law Citizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déa Carla Pereira Nery

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the Criminal Law of the Enemy opposed to criminal law in the Citizen, emphasizing the need for the state to recognize the author of the fact tortious as an enemy that must be destroyed, but as an individual who presented a behavior that hurt the norm, not yet lost its status as citizens and their right to reintegrate into society.

  10. Restricting Access to ART on the Basis of Criminal Record : An Ethical Analysis of a State-Enforced "Presumption Against Treatment" With Regard to Assisted Reproductive Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kara; McDougall, Rosalind

    2015-09-01

    As assisted reproductive technologies (ART) become increasingly popular, debate has intensified over the ethical justification for restricting access to ART based on various medical and non-medical factors. In 2010, the Australian state of Victoria enacted world-first legislation that denies access to ART for all patients with certain criminal or child protection histories. Patients and their partners are identified via a compulsory police and child protection check prior to commencing ART and, if found to have a previous relevant conviction or child protection order, are given a "presumption against treatment." This article reviews the legislation and identifies arguments that may be used to justify restricting access to ART for various reasons. The arguments reviewed include limitations of reproductive rights, inheriting undesirable genetic traits, distributive justice, and the welfare of the future child. We show that none of these arguments justifies restricting access to ART in the context of past criminal history. We show that a "presumption against treatment" is an unjustified infringement on reproductive freedom and that it creates various inconsistencies in current social, medical, and legal policy. We argue that a state-enforced policy of restricting access to ART based on the non-medical factor of past criminal history is an example of unjust discrimination and cannot be ethically justified, with one important exception: in cases where ART treatment may be considered futile on the basis that the parents are not expected to raise the resulting child.

  11. Effect of Marriage and Spousal Criminality on Recidivism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Signe Hald; Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Skov, Peer Ebbesen

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965–1985 (N = 102,839). The res......The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965–1985 (N = 102......,839). The results showed that marriage reduced recidivism compared to nonmarriage only when the spouse had no criminal record. Similarly, marriage to a nonconvicted spouse reduced recidivism significantly more than marriage to a convicted spouse. These findings not only underline how important marriage...... is for social integration but also stress the heterogeneous nature of the protective effects of marriage....

  12. Criminal Law Study Guide (Revision)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Correct application of principles of military criminal law. This study guide is the is the primary text for students in the course and may be also useful to practicing judge advocates as a starting point for research...

  13. Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmanová, Leona

    2016-01-01

    Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion This diploma thesis deals with the issue of artificial abortion, especially its criminal aspects. Legal aspects are not the most important aspects of artificial abortion. Social, ethical or ideological aspects are of the same importance but this diploma thesis cannot analyse all of them. The main issue with artificial abortion is whether it is possible to force a pregnant woman to carry a child and give birth to a child when she cannot or does not want ...

  14. Domestic violence and the criminal justice system: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erez, Edna

    2002-01-01

    It is only recently that domestic violence has been considered a violation of the law. Although men have battered, abused and mistreated their wives or intimate partners for a long time, historically, wife or partner abuse has been viewed as a "normal" part of marriage or intimate relationships. Only towards the end of the twentieth century, in the 1970 s, has domestic violence been defined a crime, justifying intervention by the criminal justice system. This article surveys the history of domestic violence as a criminal offense, and the justice system response to woman battering incidents. It first discusses the definition of the offense including debates around the offense definition, and the prevalence and reported frequency of the behavior termed woman battering. It then reviews the legal and social changes over time that have altered the criminal justice system s approach to domestic violence. Next it outlines the responses of the police, and the prosecution of domestic violence. The article also discusses research findings related to domestic violence and the criminal justice system, along with current controversies concerning the justice approach to domestic violence, its law enforcement, and related unfolding trends in the movement to address domestic violence through the criminal justice system.

  15. Review of a monograph by P. N. Panchenko «State-legal regularities in the history and theory of state and law and criminal law». Moscow: «Jurisprudence» Publishers, 2014. 518 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy N. Gorshenkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the problem of legislation imperfection in the sphere of normative legal acts adoption as it is studied in the reviewed monograph. The imperfection consists of ignoring the state and legal regularities. The author39s position is discussed that the normativelegal acts should meet not the legislatorsrsquo ambitions but the legitimate interests of citizens and the state. The author emphasizes the practical benefit of those legal measures that are proposed to stabilize the economy. The idea is developed of creating a general theory of crime and the author39s attitude to modern criminology. The author39s attempt is assessed to adjust the criminal law for the strategic challenges facing Russia in different spheres of life. nbsp

  16. 'Insane criminals' and the 'criminally insane': criminal asylums in Norway, 1895-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Hilde

    2017-06-01

    This article looks into the establishment and development of two criminal asylums in Norway. Influenced by international psychiatry and a European reorientation of penal law, the country chose to institutionalize insane criminals and criminally insane in separate asylums. Norway's first criminal asylum was opened in 1895, and a second in 1923, both in Trondheim. Both asylums quickly filled up with patients who often stayed for many years, and some for their entire lives. The official aim of these asylums was to confine and treat dangerous and disruptive lunatics. Goffman postulates that total institutions typically fall short of their official aims. This study examines records of the patients who were admitted to the two Trondheim asylums, in order to see if the official aims were achieved.

  17. Pathways to violent and non-violent criminality in an adolescent psychiatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelsberg, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    In a Norwegian follow-up study of former adolescent psychiatric in-patients 222 patients who had committed violent crimes were compared to 287 patients who had committed non-violent crimes only. There were numerous significant differences between the criminal careers of violent and non-violent criminals. Individuals with a history of violent criminality only were uncommon and uncharacteristic of violent criminals in general. Regression analyses identified several strong and independent correlates of violent criminality. The study supported a division of antisocial behavior into violent and non-violent sub-groups, thus paralleling a concept of overt and covert pathways to delinquent behavior. The overt pathway seemed to be imbedded in the covert pathway.

  18. Comparative review of the investigation and confiscation of criminal assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajić Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In introduction author points to the necessity of adopting the institute of confiscation of criminal assets, supported by international experience, primarily due to the weakness of previously known institute confiscation of the proceeds of crime (for which the offender is being tried, showed in front of the phenomenon of organized crime. In doing so, he analyzes the modalities of confiscation of criminal origin present in modern legal systems and emphasizes the required standard of proof, as one of the key factors of their particularity. The following is a comparative review of the system for investigating and confiscation of criminal assets in Italy, Great Britain, Ireland, the Netherlands, Germany, France and the United States. There are emphasized the normative elements which affect to scope of application of this institute, especially in light of its connection to the criminal proceedings, as well as jurisdiction to realization of the investigation process and procedure of confiscation. In the final part, the author concludes that appropriate social and institutional responses are very important for the effective fight against crime, every time if there is a suspicion about illegally acquired wealth. In doing so, particular attention arouses organized crime, particularly in the light of contemporary global trends, which, unfortunately, significantly affect the possibility of the development of organized crime, and development and/or covering up its financial component. In this sense, the author emphasizes that the basic characteristics of the system for investigation and confiscation of criminal assets connected to the criminal proceedings, which are used in developed European countries and the United States: (1 changed the rules of evidence, which means less convenient role of suspects, (2 the application of this mechanism to a limited number of crimes, which often includes drug trafficking and other serious crimes or organized crime, and

  19. When Crime Pays: Capital, Competence, and Criminal Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bill; Hagan, John

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of data from a panel study of homeless youth in Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, found that various elements of human and social capital previously associated with conventional business success also played important roles in criminal success. Predictors included desire for wealth, propensity for risk taking, willingness to cooperate, and…

  20. Effect of Marriage and Spousal Criminality on Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Signe Hald; Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Skov, Peer Ebbesen

    2015-04-01

    The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965-1985 (N = 102,839). The results showed that marriage reduced recidivism compared to nonmarriage only when the spouse had no criminal record. Similarly, marriage to a nonconvicted spouse reduced recidivism significantly more than marriage to a convicted spouse. These findings not only underline how important marriage is for social integration but also stress the heterogeneous nature of the protective effects of marriage.

  1. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  2. A análise seminal deve ser requisitada para homens com histórico de fertilidade prévia? Should semen analysis be requested for men with a history of previous fertility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Bedin Pasqualotto

    2006-11-01

    ão devem presumir que um paciente possui uma análise seminal normal, baseados no fato de este possuir história de estabelecimento de uma gravidez no passado.PURPOSE: to determine if the previous fertility history can predict current fertility status of a patient examined for couple’s infertility. METHODS: retrospective study involving semen analyses from 183 consecutive subfertile patients evaluated from September 2002 to March 2004. We excluded those patients who had undergone radio or chemotherapy, orchiectomy or vasectomy. Mean values of all analyses were used for patients with multiple semen analysis. Patients with more than 20x10(6 sperm/mL, motility higher than 50% and with normal strict sperm morphology higher than 14% were considered normal. Patients were divided into two groups, according to the fertility status: primary infertility (118 patients and secondary infertility (65 patients. Data were analyzed according to the chi2 test and the Student t-test. RESULTS: no differences were detected in the mean age between patients with primary infertility, 37.3±6.3, and secondary infertility, 38.1±5.9; p=0.08. In the group of patients with primary infertility, 51.9% (61 patients had a normal sperm concentration, 70.3% (83 patients had normal sperm motility and 26.3% (31 patients had normal sperm morphology. In the group of patients with secondary infertility, 53.8% (35 patients had normal sperm concentration, 75.4% (49 patients had normal sperm motility and 32.3% (21 patients had normal sperm morphology. No significant differences were detected in sperm concentration (21.3x10(6/mL versus 23.1x10(6/mL; p=0.07, motility (45.2 versus 48.1%; p=0.08 and morphology (6.1 versus 6.4%; p=0.09 between groups of patients with primary and secondary infertility. CONCLUSIONS: semen analysis should be requested even in cases of prior male fertility. Physicians should not presume a patient to have a normal semen analysis based on his previous history of initiating a pregnancy.

  3. Criminal Liability for Human Abduction​

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav N. Voronin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Author considers the quality of the construction of the criminal law provision which is stipulated in article 126 of the Criminal Code of Russian Federation (Kidnapping. The Author signifies some application problems of the concerned article, researches judicial interpretations of the elements of crime characteristics and opinions of contemporary scientists who propose to redraft the article. The Author also analyses the law of Armenia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Latvia. On the basis of the research the Author concludes that a primitive disposition which doesn’t include elements of a criminal conduct doesn’t meet the requirements of legality and legal certainty, and, because of the above-mentioned reason, the Author proposes his own definition of the disposition of kidnapping.

  4. Neurologic disorder and criminal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Sufferers from neurologic and psychiatric disorders are not uncommonly defendants in criminal trials. This chapter surveys a variety of different ways in which neurologic disorder bears on criminal responsibility. It discusses the way in which a neurologic disorder might bear on the questions of whether or not the defendant acted voluntarily; whether or not he or she was in the mental state that is required for guilt for the crime; and whether or not he or she is deserving of an insanity defense. The discussion demonstrates that a just determination of whether a sufferer from a neurologic disorder is diminished in his or her criminal responsibility for harmful conduct requires equal appreciation of the nature of the relevant disorder and its impact on behavior, on the one hand, and of the legal import of facts about the psychologic mechanisms through which behavior is generated, on the other. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Complicity in International Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksenova, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Complicity is a criminal law doctrine that attributes responsibility to those who do not physically perpetrate the crime. It is an essential mode of liability for core international crimes because it reaches out to senior political and military leadership. These persons do not usually engage...... in direct offending, yet in the context of mass atrocities they are often more culpable than foot soldiers. The Statutes of the ad hoc tribunals, hybrid courts and the International Criminal Court expressly provide for different forms of complicity, and domestic legal systems recognize it in one form...... or another. This is in contrast with alternative modes of liability implied from the Statutes to address the situations with multiple accused removed from the scene of the crime / (in)direct co-perpetration, extended perpetration and the joint criminal enterprise....

  6. The European Union and National Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Vagn

    1995-01-01

    Beware of Punishment. Annika Snare (ed.) Beware of Punishment. On the Utility and Futility of Criminal Law......Beware of Punishment. Annika Snare (ed.) Beware of Punishment. On the Utility and Futility of Criminal Law...

  7. International Criminal Procedure: Principles and Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluiter, G.; Friman, H.; Linton, S; Vasiliev, S.V.; Zappalà, S.

    2013-01-01

    Identifies and crystallizes the rules and principles of international criminal procedure, based on painstaking analysis of existing case law and practice Provides a comprehensive overview of the procedural law of international criminal tribunals from Nuremberg to the recently established Cambodian

  8. Polymorphisms in dopaminergic system genes; association with criminal behavior and self-reported aggression in violent prison inmates from Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Qadeer

    Full Text Available Genetic factors contribute to antisocial and criminal behavior. Dopamine transporter DAT-1 (SLC6A3 and DRD2 gene for the dopamine-2 receptor are dopaminergic system genes that regulate dopamine reuptake and signaling, and may be part of the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders including antisocial behaviors and traits. No previous studies have analyzed DAT-1 and DRD2 polymorphisms in convicted murderers, particularly from Indian subcontinent. In this study we investigated the association of 40 bp VNTR polymorphism of DAT-1 and Taq1 variant of DRD2 gene (rs1800479 with criminal behavior and self-reported aggression in 729 subjects, including 370 men in Pakistani prisons convicted of first degree murder(s and 359 control men without any history of violence or criminal tendency. The 9R allele of DAT-1 VNTR polymorphism was more prevalent in convicted murderers compared with control samples, for either one or two risk alleles (OR = 1.49 and 3.99 respectively, P = 0.003. This potential association of DAT-1 9R allele polymorphism with murderer phenotype was confirmed assuming different genetic models of inheritance. However, no genetic association was found for DRD2 Taq1 polymorphism. In addition, a combined haplotype (9R-A2 of DAT-1 and DRD2 genes was associated with this murderer phenotype. Further, 9R allele of DAT-1 was also associated with response to verbal abuse and parental marital complications, but not with other measures pertinent to self-reported aggression. These results suggest that 9R allele, which may influence levels of intra-synaptic dopamine in the brain, may contribute to criminal tendency in this sample of violent murderers of Pakistani origin. Future studies are needed to replicate this finding in other populations of murderers and see if this finding extends to other forms of violence and lesser degrees of aggression.

  9. Mentally disordered criminal offenders in the Swedish criminal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svennerlind, Christer; Nilsson, Thomas; Kerekes, Nóra; Andiné, Peter; Lagerkvist, Margareta; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Malmgren, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the Swedish criminal justice system conformed to other Western penal law systems, exempting severely mentally disordered offenders considered to be unaccountable. However, in 1965 Sweden enforced a radical penal law abolishing exceptions based on unaccountability. Mentally disordered offenders have since then been subjected to various forms of sanctions motivated by the offender's need for care and aimed at general prevention. Until 2008, a prison sentence was not allowed for offenders found to have committed a crime under the influence of a severe mental disorder, leaving forensic psychiatric care the most common sanction in this group. Such offenders are nevertheless held criminally responsible, liable for damages, and encumbered with a criminal record. In most cases, such offenders must not be discharged without the approval of an administrative court. Two essentially modern principles may be discerned behind the "Swedish model": first, an attempted abolishment of moral responsibility, omitting concepts such as guilt, accountability, atonement, and retribution, and, second, the integration of psychiatric care into the societal reaction and control systems. The model has been much criticized, and several governmental committees have suggested a re-introduction of a system involving the concept of accountability. This review describes the Swedish special criminal justice provisions on mentally disordered offenders including the legislative changes in 1965 along with current proposals to return to a pre-1965 system, presents current Swedish forensic psychiatric practice and research, and discusses some of the ethical, political, and metaphysical presumptions that underlie the current system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Defence counsel in international criminal law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temminck Tuinstra, J.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The field of international criminal law is relatively new and rapidly developing. This dissertation examines whether international criminal courts enable defence counsel to conduct an effective defence. When the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda (the ad hoc

  11. 32 CFR 1801.52 - Criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Prohibitions § 1801.52 Criminal penalties. (a) Unauthorized disclosure. Criminal penalties may be imposed against any officer or employee of NACIC who, by virtue of... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal penalties. 1801.52 Section 1801.52...

  12. International criminal trials: A normative theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasiliev, S.

    2014-01-01

    Among the numerous works on international criminal procedure, there has been no study focusing on the international criminal trial as a socio-legal phenomenon and a phase of international criminal proceedings. This book seeks to cover this gap by systematically examining and analyzing the nature and

  13. Professionalism Among Criminal Justice Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoli, Robert M.; Miracle, Andrew W., Jr.

    Professionalism and its relationship to scholarly productivity was studied. Specific areas of analysis were the degree of professionalism of criminal justice educators, rankings of a series of selected publications, and the relationship between professionalism level and journal productivity. Data were derived from responses by 1,028 of 1,274…

  14. Cultural Cleavage and Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingold, Stuart A.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews major theories of criminal justice, proposes an alternative analytic framework which focuses on cultural factors, applies this framework to several cases, and discusses implications of a cultural perspective for rule of law values. Journal available from Office of Publication, Department of Political Science, University of Florida,…

  15. Kidnapping: a criminal profile of persons convicted 1979-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soothill, Keith; Francis, Brian; Ackerley, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Kidnapping has been a neglected crime in criminological research. In fact, there has been a dramatic increase in the yearly numbers of police recorded kidnapping offences in England and Wales in the last 25 years, but this has not been matched by a similar increase in convictions. This study focuses on the official criminal histories of the 7042 males and 545 females who were convicted at least once for kidnapping between 1979 and 2001. Of these, 3.9% of the males and 2.6% of the females had convictions for kidnapping on more than one occasion. We examined two subgroups to ensure long observation periods for prior and subsequent convictions. Of those convicted of kidnapping in 2001, around one-half (51.1%) of the males and around one-third (36.6%) of the females had previous convictions. The previous convictions consist of a wide range of offences, with the most common being theft and violent offences. A 20-year follow-up of those convicted in 1979-81 showed that three in five males and one in three females are subsequently convicted on at least one more occasion for a standard-list offence. An examination of convictions for other offences brought to court at the same time as the kidnap offence enabled a typology of kidnaps to be proposed. Those kidnaps with co-convictions of an acquisitive nature declined over the period, whereas other types, including sexual and violent, showed rises. Changing shifts in the nature of kidnaps have important policy implications.

  16. Criminal characteristics of a group of primary criminals diagnosed with aspd: approach to criminal recidivis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Larrotta-Castillo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD is commonly associated with the risk of criminal recidivism. Knowing more about the factors associated with this pattern of behaviour can help with the design of effective prevention strategies. The purpose of this article is to establish if there are differences in socio-criminogenic variables of a group of criminals sentenced for the first time and with APSD compared to another group of first-time offenders who do not present this disorder. Materials and methods: Analytical observation study of 70 men classified into 2 groups according to the presence of ASPD TPA (n=47; age: 29.98±7.8 years or absence of ASPD (n=23; age: 32.35±8.7 years. Results: The inmates with ASPD showed higher frequencies of current consumption of psychoactive substances (31.9%, criminal associations and simultaneous use of psychoactive substances (70.2%, having committed the crime under the effects of a psychoactive substance (55.3%, not having the possibility of distancing themselves from criminal associations (83% and a lack of legal resources for proceedings for defence and release (76.6%. Discussion: This sample contains a group of variables called dynamic that are more commonly present amongst first time offenders with ASPD; said variables have been associated as major predictors of recidivism. Given that they are regarded as dynamic, they may well be modifiable.

  17. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  18. Evaluation of childhood trauma with respect to criminal behavior, dissociative experiences, adverse family experiences and psychiatric backgrounds among prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Merih; Bilici, Mustafa

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate childhood trauma in relation to criminal behavior, dissociative experiences, adverse family experiences during childhood and psychiatric backgrounds among prison inmates. In total, 200 prison inmates were included in this questionnaire-based study. Data on demographic characteristics, adverse family experiences during childhood and psychiatric backgrounds were collected via face-to-face interviews, and a psychometric evaluation was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28) and Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Several historical items were more common in females than in males including family history of psychiatric disease (23.0% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.048), a personal history of psychiatric disease (51.0% vs. 29.0%, p first crime (24.9 ± 8.9 years vs. 30.3 ± 9.2 years, p first offense (β = 0.772, p first offense. In conclusion, our findings revealed a high prevalence of and significant associations among childhood trauma, dissociative experiences, adverse family experiences and psychiatric problems in a cohort of incarcerated females and males. A psychiatric background, childhood trauma characterized by sexual abuse and violent crimes were found to be predominant in female prison inmates, whereas a criminal background with a younger age at first offense and frequent previous convictions, substance use and sexual crimes were more prevalent among male prison inmates. Our findings indicate a potential link between childhood traumatization and criminal behavior in terms of subsequent offending but not in terms of severity of the subsequent offense. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Terrorist Criminal Pipelines and Criminalized States: Emerging Alliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    the state in fact has a virtual monopoly on power and the use of force, but turns the state into a functioning criminal enterprise for the benefit...is clear is that Iran has greatly increased its diplomatic, economic, and intel- ligence presence in Latin America, an area where it has virtually ...Guerras Asimétricas y de Cuarta Generación Dentro Del Penasmiento Venezolano en Materia de Seguridad y Defensa [Asymmetrical and Fourth Generation Warfare

  20. Understanding criminal behavior: Empathic impairment in criminal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Melania; Pino, Maria Chiara; Peretti, Sara; Valenti, Marco; Mazza, Monica

    2017-08-01

    Criminal offenders (CO) are characterized by antisocial and impulsive lifestyles and reduced empathy competence. According to Zaki and Ochsner, empathy is a process that can be divided into three components: mentalizing, emotional sharing and prosocial concern. The aim of our study was to evaluate these competences in 74 criminal subjects compared to 65 controls. The CO group demonstrated a lower ability in measures of mentalizing and sharing, especially in recognizing the mental and emotional states of other people by observing their eyes and sharing other people's emotions. Conversely, CO subjects showed better abilities in prosocial concern measures, such as judging and predicting the emotions and behavior of other people, but they were not able to evaluate the gravity of violations of social rules as well as the control group. In addition, logistic regression results show that the higher the deficits in the mentalizing component are, the higher the probability of committing a crime against another person. Taken together, our results suggest that criminal subjects are able to judge and recognize other people's behavior as right or wrong in a social context, but they are not able to recognize and share the suffering of other people.

  1. Medication Assisted Treatment Research with Criminal Justice Populations: Challenges of Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael S.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Miller, Patrice M.

    2011-01-01

    Creating, implementing and evaluating substance abuse interventions, especially medication-assisted treatments, for prisoners, parolees, and probationers with histories of heroin addiction is an especially challenging endeavor because of the difficulty in coordinating and achieving cooperation among diverse criminal justice, substance abuse treatment, research, and social service agencies, each with its own priorities and agenda. In addition, there are special rules that must be followed when conducting research with criminal justice-involved populations, particularly prisoners. The following case studies will explore the authors’ experience of over 10 years conducting pharmacotherapy research using methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone with criminal justice populations. The major obstacles and how they were overcome are presented. Finally, recommendations are provided with regard to implementing and conducting research with criminal justice populations. PMID:22086665

  2. Medication-assisted treatment research with criminal justice populations: challenges of implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael S; Kinlock, Timothy W; Miller, Patrice M

    2011-01-01

    Creating, implementing and evaluating substance abuse interventions, especially medication-assisted treatments, for prisoners, parolees, and probationers with histories of heroin addiction is an especially challenging endeavor because of the difficulty in coordinating and achieving cooperation among diverse criminal justice, substance abuse treatment, research, and social service agencies, each with its own priorities and agenda. In addition, there are special rules that must be followed when conducting research with criminal justice-involved populations, particularly prisoners. The following case studies will explore the authors' experience of over 10 years conducting pharmacotherapy research using methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone with criminal justice populations. The major obstacles and how they were overcome are presented. Finally, recommendations are provided with regard to implementing and conducting research with criminal justice populations. 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Criminality and Asbestos in Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Barry

    2017-02-01

    Criminal prosecutions of individuals in the asbestos industry are reviewed, particularly the case of asbestos owner-executive Stephan Schmidheiny. Italian courts sentenced Schmidheiny to sixteen to eighteen years in jail for creating an environmental disaster causing three thousand deaths. The convictions were overturned on a technicality, and a murder case against Schmidheiny has started. His firm, Eternit, made asbestos-cement building products in many countries. Schmidheiny directed a cover-up that the Italian Court of Appeal blamed for delaying the ban of asbestos in Italy by ten years. Today, the asbestos industry is a criminal industry, profiting only by minimizing its costs for the prevention and compensation of occupational and environmental illness. The asbestos industry should only be consulted by governments for the purpose of closing it and dealing with the legacy of in-place asbestos.

  4. Emotional intelligence and criminal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megreya, Ahmed M

    2015-01-01

    A large body of research links criminality to cognitive intelligence and personality traits. This study examined the link between emotional intelligence (EI) and criminal behavior. One hundred Egyptian adult male offenders who have been sentenced for theft, drug dealing or murder and 100 nonoffenders were administered the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). The offenders had lower levels of EI than the nonoffenders. In addition, EI varied as a function of the types of offenses. Namely, it decreased in magnitude with crime severity (lowest for murder, higher for drug dealing, and highest for theft). These results converged with the direct/ indirect aggression theory suggesting that indirect aggression requires more social intelligence than physical aggression. Forensic intervention programs should therefore include EI training, especially when violence is involved. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Is the Current System of Criminal Procedure of Iran Efficient?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Fazli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study about the efficiency of the criminal system designed in the new Criminal Procedure Code of Iran, that came into effect on June 22, 2015. Notwithstanding the notable legislator’s efforts, infrastructural and structural reforms have not been carried out. Accordingly, it is not expected to be as efficient as the previous laws due to the lack of fundamental reforms; reforms caused the improvement in “low-level efficiency” (saving resources in the economic sense rather than in the “high-level” one (saving resources plus developing more justice. The analysis of the efficiency of the Code and proposal of fundamental reforms for having a high-level efficient Criminal Law in Iran are the main objectives of this paper. After an introduction (Chapters I and II, we made a historical approach of the Iranian system in this matter (Chapter III. Then, we analyze three types of efficiency (Chapter IV, attending to some infrastructural elements, some structural factors and other procedural aspects. At last, we synthetize four conclusions (Chapter V. Main conclusion is that efficiency in the system of criminal procedure would be only on low-level.

  6. Cultural considerations in the criminal law: the sentencing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnlein, James K; Schaefer, Michele N; Bloom, Joseph D

    2005-01-01

    In forensic psychiatry, there is increasing recognition of the importance of culture and ethnicity in the criminal justice process as the population becomes more culturally diverse. However, there has been little consideration of the role of cultural factors in the trial process for criminal defendants, particularly in the sentencing phase of trial. Using a capital murder case study, this article explores the role of cultural forensic psychiatric consultation, focusing on the sentencing phase of trial as the place where the full scope and power of a cultural evaluation can be brought most effectively to the attention of the court. Cultural psychiatric perspectives can enrich a core forensic evaluation and be maximally helpful to the court, by exploring family dynamics and psychological health influenced by cultural history, immigrant and refugee experiences, and sociocultural environment. Specific recommendations and cautions for effective cultural consultation in forensic psychiatry are discussed.

  7. Consequences of Criminals in Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban Sulejmani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The criminal in all its forms is not an occurrence which is connected to a particular country, territory, religion or civilization; however the truth witnessed by events in every moment is that the occurrence of criminal activities does not have a nation, confession, religious beliefs or identity. They are initiated by the hands of the individual who plans it, especially emphasizing the ones who finance it and input ‘rented’ elements with the initial intention to destroy, damage and ruin the economy and kill and shed blood as well, followed by the intention to deceit people through focusing on specific religious beliefs sometimes, as well as human rights some other time. Thus, every problem can be observed through collecting a number of important elements which are presented below: - Manifestation of the topic of the problem, which involves the type of activity around which the problem is developing, in order to stop its progress and development and finally, to end the efforts which are being spent for it; - Manifestation of the size of the problem, which involves highlighting the fields affected by the problem, starting from the economic, social, political and other dangers that it involves; - Manifestation of the direct consequence of criminal activities problem, observing it from an objective point of view.

  8. Born criminal? Differences in structural, functional and behavioural lateralization between criminals and noncriminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savopoulos, Priscilla; Lindell, Annukka K

    2018-02-15

    Over 100 years ago Lombroso [(1876/2006). Criminal man. Durham: Duke University Press] proposed a biological basis for criminality. Based on inspection of criminals' skulls he theorized that an imbalance of the cerebral hemispheres was amongst 18 distinguishing features of the criminal brain. Specifically, criminals were less lateralized than noncriminals. As the advent of neuroscientific techniques makes more fine-grained inspection of differences in brain structure and function possible, we review criminals' and noncriminals' structural, functional, and behavioural lateralization to evaluate the merits of Lombroso's thesis and investigate the evidence for the biological underpinning of criminal behaviour. Although the body of research is presently small, it appears consistent with Lombroso's proposal: criminal psychopaths' brains show atypical structural asymmetries, with reduced right hemisphere grey and white matter volumes, and abnormal interhemispheric connectivity. Functional asymmetries are also atypical, with criminal psychopaths showing a less lateralized cortical response than noncriminals across verbal, visuo-spatial, and emotional tasks. Finally, the incidence of non-right-handedness is higher in criminal than non-criminal populations, consistent with reduced cortical lateralization. Thus despite Lombroso's comparatively primitive and inferential research methods, his conclusion that criminals' lateralization differs from that of noncriminals is borne out by the neuroscientific research. How atypical cortical asymmetries predispose criminal behaviour remains to be determined.

  9. The debate on expanding criminal law towards upper class criminality and minimal criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Montáñez-Ruiz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hoy en día el debate sobre la pregunta de cuáles conflictos sociales deben ser castigados desde la óptica de la política criminal aún continúa. La batalla para imponer un particular discurso de criminalidad está relacionada con el hecho de que el marco de la criminalización depende del legislador que refleja la expansión punitiva. El propósito de este artículo es discutir sobre la lucha entre modelos de criminalización, los cuales, de una parte, tienden a la aplicación del sistema criminal persiguiendo a la criminalidad de las clases poderosas y, de otra, buscan el criterio de intervención mínima para prevenir la excesiva intervención del derecho penal.

  10. Association and Centrality in Criminal Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenqvist

    Network-based techniques are widely used in criminal investigations because patterns of association are actionable and understandable. Existing network models with nodes as first class entities and their related measures (e.g., social networks and centrality measures) are unable to capture and an...... three of these associations and extend and test two centrality measures using CrimeFighter Investigator, a novel tool for criminal network investigation. Our findings show that the extended centrality measures offer new insights into criminal networks....

  11. Quality of criminal responsibility reports submitted to the Hawaii judiciary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuger, Kristen D; Acklin, Marvin W; Nguyen, Annie H; Ignacio, Lawrie A; Gowensmith, W Neil

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series of research reports on quality of forensic mental health evaluations submitted to the Hawaii judiciary. Previous studies examined quality of reports assessing competency to stand trial (CST) and post-acquittal conditional release, in felony defendants undergoing court-ordered examinations. Utilizing a 44-item quality coding instrument, this study examined quality of criminal responsibility reports in a sample of 150 forensic mental health evaluations conducted between 2006 and 2010 by court-appointed panels. Raters attained high levels of agreement in training and quality coding. Similar to the previous studies, overall quality of reports was mediocre, falling below the .80 quality criterion score for report elements, regardless of evaluator professional identification or employment status. Level of agreement between evaluators and judicial sanity determinations was "fair" using Cicchetti's (1994) standards for interpretation of intra-class correlations. Level of agreement was lower than previously published findings for CST reports and better than conditional release reports. Reasons for mediocre report quality and "fair" inter-rater agreement are discussed, including the fact that criminal responsibility evaluations are complex, retrospective in nature, and involve significant degrees of inference. In contrast to CST evaluations, assessment of criminal responsibility involves a mental state at the time of the offense evaluation. Threats to reliability in forensic reports are discussed. Suggestions for improvement of report quality are proffered, including standardization of procedures and report format and use of forensic assessment instruments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Guarantee of Criminal Policy as Limited to Criminal Decisionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Bonilla Albán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay explains how the inclusion of the security of public policy in the 2008 Constitution of Ecuador as part of the constitutional state of law and justice or “guarantor state” can become a substantial limit for criminal decisionism, which is usually behind the penal policy in Latin America. Thus, the function of this collateral is to eliminate the huge space of discretion in the management of the most sensitive policy of modern state penal policy. However, the guarantee of public policy is not clear in determining the limits of punitive power; therefore, this paper seeks to explore some of the international human rights.

  13. Guarantee of Criminal Policy as Limited to Criminal Decisionism

    OpenAIRE

    María Belén Bonilla Albán

    2016-01-01

    The essay explains how the inclusion of the security of public policy in the 2008 Constitution of Ecuador as part of the constitutional state of law and justice or “guarantor state” can become a substantial limit for criminal decisionism, which is usually behind the penal policy in Latin America. Thus, the function of this collateral is to eliminate the huge space of discretion in the management of the most sensitive policy of modern state penal policy. However, the guarantee of public policy...

  14. Attitudes toward hiring applicants with mental illness and criminal justice involvement: the impact of education and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batastini, Ashley B; Bolanos, Angelea D; Morgan, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with mental health diagnoses, as well as those involved in the criminal justice system, experience a number of barriers in the recovery and reintegration progress, including access to stable, prosocial employment opportunities. Employment for these populations is important for establishing financial security, reducing unstructured leisure time, increasing self-worth, and improving interpersonal skills. However, research has demonstrated that individuals with psychiatric and/or criminal backgrounds may experience stigmatizing attitudes from employers that impede their ability to find adequate work. This study aimed to evaluate stigmatizing beliefs toward hypothetical applicants who indicated a mental health history, a criminal history, or both, as well as the effectiveness of psychoeducation in reducing stigma. Participants consisted of 465 individuals recruited from a large university who completed a series of online questions about a given applicant. Results of this study varied somewhat across measures of employability, but were largely consistent with extant research suggesting that mental illness and criminal justice involvement serve as deterrents when making hiring decisions. Overall, psychoeducation appeared to reduce stigma for hiring decisions when the applicant presented with a criminal history. Unfortunately, similar findings were not revealed when applicants presented with a psychiatric or a psychiatric and criminal history. Implications and limitations of these findings are presented, along with suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ‘The Very Foundations of Any System of Criminal Justice’: Criminal Responsibility in the Australian Model Criminal Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlie Loughnan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Model Criminal Code (MCC was intended to be a Code for all Australian jurisdictions. It represents a high point of faith in the value and possibility of systematising, rationalising and modernising criminal law. The core of the MCC is Chapter 2, the ‘general principles of criminal responsibility’, which outlines the ‘physical’ and ‘fault’ elements of criminal offences, and defines concepts such as recklessness. This paper assesses the MCC as a criminal law reform project and explores questions of how the MCC came into being, and why it took shape in certain ways at a particular point in time. The paper tackles these questions from two different perspectives—‘external’ and ‘internal’ (looking at the MCC from the ‘outside’ and the ‘inside’. I make two main arguments. First, I argue that, driven by a ‘top down’ law reform process, the MCC came into being at a time when changes in crime and criminal justice were occurring, and that it may be understood as an attempt to achieve stability in a time of change. Second, I argue that the significance of the principles of criminal responsibility, which formed the central pivot of the MCC, lies on the conceptual level—in relation to the language through which the criminal law is thought about, organised and reformed.

  16. The association between psychopathology of first-episode psychosis patients within the schizophrenia spectrum and previous offending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    treatment centres included and rated 477 patients with first-episode psychosis over a 2-year period on socio-demography, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, OPerational CRITeria checklist, Global Assessment of Functioning, Premorbid Adjustment Scale and Self-report Insight Scale for psychosis. Data...... were linked with data concerning criminal and psychiatric history. No key characteristics were found to assist the early detection of criminal persons before first psychiatric hospital contact for a psychotic incident. However, when adjusted for sex, age, abuse, living conditions, marital status......, employment status and education, a primarily positive symptomatology was associated with a prior criminal career. The premorbid level of functioning and several function parameters were also significantly associated with criminal history. There are significant differences in psychopathology between...

  17. Reducing the age of criminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Gonçalves

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Article 228 of the Constitution provides that children under 18 can not be treated as criminals. In 1993 he was presented a draft Constitutional Amendment (PEC to allow the penalty to 16 years. Increasing violence among teenagers and the controversy over whether the topic should be of constitutional fact has led to the presentation of seven PEC's, ongoing in the House and Senate. Among the population and the media the issue gained momentum especially after the rebellions in Febem in 1999.

  18. The effect of accent evaluation and evidence on a suspect's perceived guilt and criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, John A; Mahoney, Berenice

    2004-02-01

    The authors investigated the effect of accent evaluation, evidence, and crime type on participants' perceptions of guilt and criminality. British student raters (n = 199) listened to a tape-recorded exchange between a male criminal suspect and a male policeman. The authors manipulated this exchange to produce a 2 (accent type: English regional or standard) x 2 (evidence type: strong or weak) x 2 (crime type: blue collar or white collar) factorial design. Dependent measures consisted of participants' ratings of the suspect's guilt and criminality. Contrary to previous research, accent did not significantly influence attributions of guilt either as a main effect or in interaction with the contextual variables. However, independent of evidence presented and crime type, the regional-accented suspect was evaluated as more typically criminal and more likely to be reaccused of a crime than the standard-accented suspect.

  19. Psycho-Sociological Review of Criminal Thinking Style

    OpenAIRE

    Boduszek, Daniel; Hyland, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Criminal thinking has been long established as a very important predictor of criminal behaviour, however far less research effort has been undertaken to understand what variables can predict the emergence of criminal thinking. Considering the importance of criminal thinking, we feel it necessary to conduct a systematic review of the literature on criminal thinking in order to bring together what is currently known regarding the factors that relate to, and predict, habitual criminal thinking s...

  20. Dogmatic Analysis of The Constitucional Criminalizing Commandments and of the Constitutional Criminal Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Jorge Correia de Barros Lima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Federal Constitution throws inflows directed to all of the fields of the Law, including the Criminal Law, which must comply the constitutional rules, that conditions the legislator’s and the judge’s work, since the public force holds the power-duty to punish the transgressors of the law. The Constitutional Criminal Law, therefore, provides content levies both to the making and to the enforcement of the Criminal Laws, through the implicit or explicit constitutional principles and the constitutional criminalizing commandments, of hindering and prescriptive content. Both must be taken in consideration, in the Criminal Law of the Democratic State of Law.

  1. Genetic Characterization of a Novel HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF74_01B) Identified among Intravenous Drug Users in Malaysia: Recombination History and Phylogenetic Linkage with Previously Defined Recombinant Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Hui Ting; Chow, Wei Zhen; Takebe, Yutaka; Chook, Jack Bee; Chan, Kok Gan; Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Koh, Clayton; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2015-01-01

    In many parts of Southeast Asia, the HIV-1 epidemic has been driven by the sharing of needles and equipment among intravenous drug users (IDUs). Over the last few decades, many studies have proven time and again that the diversity of HIV-1 epidemics can often be linked to the route of infection transmission. That said, the diversity and complexity of HIV-1 molecular epidemics in the region have been increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to the high tendency of the viral RNA to recombine. This scenario was exemplified by the discovery of numerous circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), especially in Thailand and Malaysia. In this study, we characterized a novel CRF designated CRF74_01B, which was identified in six epidemiologically unlinked IDUs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The near-full length genomes were composed of CRF01_AE and subtype B', with eight breakpoints dispersed in the gag-pol and nef regions. Remarkably, this CRF shared four and two recombination hotspots with the previously described CRF33_01B and the less prevalent CRF53_01B, respectively. Genealogy-based Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of CRF74_01B genomic regions showed that it is closely related to both CRF33_01B and CRF53_01B. This observation suggests that CRF74_01B was probably a direct descendent from specific lineages of CRF33_01B, CRF53_01B and subtype B' that could have emerged in the mid-1990s. Additionally, it illustrated the active recombination processes between prevalent HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants in Malaysia. In summary, we report a novel HIV-1 genotype designated CRF74_01B among IDUs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The characterization of the novel CRF74_01B is of considerable significance towards the understanding of the genetic diversity and population dynamics of HIV-1 circulating in the region.

  2. Substance abuse and criminal thinking: testing the countervailing, mediation, and specificity hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (a) which of 2 dimensions of criminal thinking (proactive and/or reactive) correlates with prior substance abuse; (b) whether criminal thinking mediates the relationship between prior substance abuse and recidivism; (c) if a direct relationship exists between specific drugs of abuse and specific criminal thinking styles. First, the reconstructed Proactive (Prc) and Reactive (Rrc) Criminal Thinking scores from the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS; Walters, 1995) were correlated with a dichotomous measure of prior substance abuse and a continuous measure of the number of substances abused in a sample of 2877 male federal prisoners (age: M = 34.96, SD = 9.89, range = 18-84; race: 63.6% Black, 17.3% White, 17.6% Hispanic, 1.4% other). The results indicated that only the Rrc score correlated significantly with prior substance abuse when the effect of the alternative measure (Prc in the case of Rrc and Rrc in the case of the Prc) was controlled through partial correlations. Second, reactive criminal thinking was found to mediate the relationship between a history of prior substance abuse and subsequent recidivism in a subsample of 1101 inmates who were released from prison during a 1- to 76-month follow-up. Third, both specific (alcohol with cutoff; marijuana with cognitive indolence) and global (heroin, cocaine, and amphetamine with cutoff, cognitive indolence, and discontinuity) drug-criminal thinking correlations were obtained. These results suggest that reactive criminal thinking plays a potentially important role in the drug-crime relationship.

  3. Criminal Misdemeanor: Novels of the Russian Criminal Legislation and Questions of Its Improvement​

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Irina A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of legally securing in the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation the concept of a criminal misdemeanor. On the basis of doctrinal provisions, Russian and foreign criminal legislation, the concept of a criminal misdemeanor is investigated, its relation to an insignificant act is analyzed, and the category of administrative prejudice is analyzed. The Author justifies the position according to which criminal misdemeanor cannot be a kind of crime of little gravity. It is concluded that a group of crimes with administrative prejudice, regardless of their category, should be classified as a criminal misdemeanor. With regard to this type of socially dangerous acts, the criminal law proposes to use the term “criminal misdemeanor”. An approach is presented to the establishment in the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation of a preferential criminal law regime for criminal misdemeanor: the unpunishable assassination and complicity in such a crime, the absence of aggregate and relapse, if one of the crimes is small, the reduction of the statute of limitations, the recognition of the person who committed such an act is unacceptable.

  4. Criminal sanctions: does imprisonment strategy reduce crimes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Careful reading of the literature on psychology of criminal conduct and of prior reviews of studies of treatment effects suggested that neither criminal sanctioning without provision of rehabilitative treatment will succeed in reducing recidivism. What works, in our views, is the delivery of appropriate correctional treatment, and ...

  5. critical assessment of nigeria criminal justice system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    This study therefore assessed the Nigeria criminal justice system and the problem of awaiting trial in Port Harcourt Maximum Prison, Rivers State. Three research questions were raised to guide the study. The study adopted the survey research design. An 18-item questionnaire captioned. “Questionnaire on Nigeria criminal ...

  6. Criminal Trajectories of White-collar Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Onna, J.; van der Geest, V.R.; Huisman, W.; Denkers, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:This article analyzes the criminal development and sociodemographic and criminal profile of a sample of prosecuted white-collar offenders. It identifies trajectory groups and describes their profiles based on crime, sociodemographic, and selection offence characteristics.Methods:The

  7. 10 CFR 60.183 - Criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 60.183 Section 60.183 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Violations § 60.183 Criminal penalties. (a) Section 223 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended...

  8. 31 CFR 103.59 - Criminal penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal penalty. 103.59 Section 103.59 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.59 Criminal penalty. (a) Any person...

  9. 10 CFR 75.53 - Criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 75.53 Section 75.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Enforcement § 75.53 Criminal penalties. (a) Section 223 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides...

  10. 10 CFR 150.33 - Criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 150.33 Section 150.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED REGULATORY AUTHORITY IN AGREEMENT STATES AND IN OFFSHORE WATERS UNDER SECTION 274 Enforcement § 150.33 Criminal penalties. (a) Section 223 of the Atomic...

  11. The Relative Ineffectiveness of Criminal Network Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijn, Paul A. C.; Kashirin, Victor; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers, policymakers and law enforcement agencies across the globe struggle to find effective strategies to control criminal networks. The effectiveness of disruption strategies is known to depend on both network topology and network resilience. However, as these criminal networks operate in secrecy, data-driven knowledge concerning the effectiveness of different criminal network disruption strategies is very limited. By combining computational modeling and social network analysis with unique criminal network intelligence data from the Dutch Police, we discovered, in contrast to common belief, that criminal networks might even become ‘stronger’, after targeted attacks. On the other hand increased efficiency within criminal networks decreases its internal security, thus offering opportunities for law enforcement agencies to target these networks more deliberately. Our results emphasize the importance of criminal network interventions at an early stage, before the network gets a chance to (re-)organize to maximum resilience. In the end disruption strategies force criminal networks to become more exposed, which causes successful network disruption to become a long-term effort. PMID:24577374

  12. Partial agonist therapy in schizophrenia: relevance to diminished criminal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaudan, Gilles; Magalon, David; Cohen, Julien; Lançon, Christophe; Léonetti, Georges; Pélissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure

    2010-11-01

    Pathological gambling (PG), classified in the DSM-IV among impulse control disorders, is defined as inappropriate, persistent gaming for money with serious personal, family, and social consequences. Offenses are frequently committed to obtain money for gambling. Pathological gambling, a planned and structured behavioral disorder, has often been described as a complication of dopamine agonist treatment in patients with Parkinson's disease. It has never been described in patients with schizophrenia receiving dopamine agonists. We present two patients with schizophrenia, previously treated with antipsychotic drugs without any suggestion of PG, who a short time after starting aripiprazole, a dopamine partial agonist, developed PG and criminal behavior, which totally resolved when aripiprazole was discontinued. Based on recent advances in research on PG and adverse drug reactions to dopamine agonists in Parkinson's disease, we postulate a link between aripiprazole and PG in both our patients with schizophrenia and raise the question of criminal responsibility. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Crime and Criminal Policy Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Juan Sanabria Landazábal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically the construction of legitimacy or border crime is admitted as a dynamic cultural result, able to feed off itself and with temporal and geographical boundaries. In this paper it is argued that the problem of criminal policy or design that marks the boundary between legal and illegal cannot circumscribe the penal and criminal procedure code, but requires: understanding crime as an illegitimate market keeping close relations with the legitimate as both exist in the communications space and the social construction of civilization and this is a result of cultural dynamics. Methodologically proceeded with: a theoretical discussion of these issues and statistical modeling and reports from different agencies working in this field in Bogotá, DC management. The contrasting theory and evidence shed light on the problem is complex, the assumptions of economic motivations theories, among others are not met and is not easily solvable in a linear relationship expressed in the trinomial crime - delinquent - penalty. Your solution may be the anthropological and schemes proposed as solution game theory.

  14. The Organization of Facilities and Systems for a Criminal Justice Resource Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Daryl Gene

    A case history is presented of the development and initial operation of the special library at the Criminal Justice Training and Education Center, Toledo, Ohio, during an internship for the Community Information Specialist Program at The University of Toledo. Description is given of efforts in organizing an existing collection of books, documents,…

  15. The Vocational Goals and Career Development of Criminally Involved Youth: Experiences That Help and Hinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer; Domene, José F.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the career development of youth with a history of criminal activity and the factors that influence their career development. The ability to secure employment is important in predicting successful outcomes for this population, but unfortunately youth who have been involved in crime are likely to face a myriad of obstacles to…

  16. What Defines an International Criminal Court?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard-Pedersen, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Since the post-World War II tribunals, only few scholars have attempted to draw a definitional distinction between international and national criminal courts. Remarkable exceptions include Robert Woetzel, who in 1962 categorized criminal courts according to ‘the involvement of the international...... community’, and Sarah Williams, who 50 years later relied on the same factor in her definitions of ‘hybrid’ and ‘internationalized’ criminal tribunals. Through examples of rulings by the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, this article will demonstrate...... that only criminal tribunals deriving their authority from international law should be labelled ‘international’, while the term ‘national criminal court’ should apply to tribunals set up under national law. This terminology would underline that issues concerning jurisdiction and applicable law must...

  17. Intoxication and criminal responsibility in Dutch criminal Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kalmthout, A

    1998-09-01

    This article deals with the question in how far an offence committed in the Netherlands under the influence of alcohol or other drugs can be imputed to the offender. Unlike many other countries the Dutch Penal Code does not contain specific provisions with respect to the criminal liability of addicted or intoxicated offenders. In principle, they are held responsible for their offences, even when the dolus or culpa is absent at the moment they commit their offence. Doctrine and jurisprudence found this liability on the principle of 'culpa/dolus in causa', by accepting an anterior dolus or culpa, which is situated at the moment the offender takes alcohol or other drugs. As is shown in this article, the - nondogmatic - interpretation of this culpa in causa doctrine leaves hardly any space for a claim to impunity.

  18. A Swedish national adoption study of criminality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K. S.; Lönn, S. Larsson; Morris, N. A.; Sundquist, J.; Långström, N.; Sundquist, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background To clarify the role of genetic and environmental factors in criminal behavior (CB), we examined all CB and violent and non-violent subtypes (VCB and NVCB, respectively) in a Swedish national sample of adoptees and their relatives. Method CB was defined by a conviction in the Swedish Crime Register with standard definitions for VCB and NVCB subtypes. We examined adoptees born 1950–1991 (n=18070) and their biological (n=79206) and adoptive (n=47311) relatives. Results The risk for all CB was significantly elevated in the adopted-away offspring of biological parents of which at least one had CB [odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–1.6] and in the biological full and half-siblings of CB adoptees (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.6 and OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.3, respectively). A genetic risk index (including biological parental/sibling history of CB and alcohol abuse) and an environmental risk index (including adoptive parental and sibling CB and a history of adoptive parental divorce, death, and medical illness) both strongly predicted probability of CB. These genetic and environmental risk indices acted additively on adoptee risk for CB. Moderate specificity was seen in the transmission of genetic risk for VCB and NVCB between biological parents and siblings and adoptees. Conclusions CB is etiologically complex and influenced by a range of genetic risk factors including a specific liability to CB and a vulnerability to broader externalizing behaviors, and by features of the adoptive environment including parental CB, divorce and death. Genetic risk factors for VCB and NVCB may be at least partially distinct. PMID:24180693

  19. Personality correlates of criminals: A comparative study between normal controls and criminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sudhinta

    2016-01-01

    Personality is a major factor in many kinds of behavior, one of which is criminal behavior. To determine what makes a criminal "a criminal," we must understand his/her personality. This study tries to identify different personality traits which link criminals to their personality. In the present study, 37 male criminals of district jail of Dhanbad (Jharkhand) and 36 normal controls were included on a purposive sampling basis. Each criminal was given a personal datasheet and Cattel's 16 personality factors (PFs) scale for assessing their sociodemographic variables and different personality traits. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between personality traits and criminal behavior, and to determine whether such factors are predictive of future recidivism. Results indicated high scores on intelligence, impulsiveness, suspicion, self-sufficient, spontaneity, self-concept control factors, and very low scores on emotionally less stable on Cattel's 16 PFs scale in criminals as compared with normal. Criminals differ from general population or non criminals in terms of personality traits.

  20. Personality correlates of criminals: A comparative study between normal controls and criminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhinta Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personality is a major factor in many kinds of behavior, one of which is criminal behavior. To determine what makes a criminal “a criminal,” we must understand his/her personality. This study tries to identify different personality traits which link criminals to their personality. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 37 male criminals of district jail of Dhanbad (Jharkhand and 36 normal controls were included on a purposive sampling basis. Each criminal was given a personal datasheet and Cattel's 16 personality factors (PFs scale for assessing their sociodemographic variables and different personality traits. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the relation between personality traits and criminal behavior, and to determine whether such factors are predictive of future recidivism. Results: Results indicated high scores on intelligence, impulsiveness, suspicion, self-sufficient, spontaneity, self-concept control factors, and very low scores on emotionally less stable on Cattel's 16 PFs scale in criminals as compared with normal. Conclusion: Criminals differ from general population or non criminals in terms of personality traits.

  1. Personality correlates of criminals: A comparative study between normal controls and criminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sudhinta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Personality is a major factor in many kinds of behavior, one of which is criminal behavior. To determine what makes a criminal “a criminal,” we must understand his/her personality. This study tries to identify different personality traits which link criminals to their personality. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 37 male criminals of district jail of Dhanbad (Jharkhand) and 36 normal controls were included on a purposive sampling basis. Each criminal was given a personal datasheet and Cattel's 16 personality factors (PFs) scale for assessing their sociodemographic variables and different personality traits. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the relation between personality traits and criminal behavior, and to determine whether such factors are predictive of future recidivism. Results: Results indicated high scores on intelligence, impulsiveness, suspicion, self-sufficient, spontaneity, self-concept control factors, and very low scores on emotionally less stable on Cattel's 16 PFs scale in criminals as compared with normal. Conclusion: Criminals differ from general population or non criminals in terms of personality traits. PMID:28163407

  2. Rehabilitation and Re-socialization of Criminals in Iranian Criminal Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaei, Mohammad; Ghayoomzadeh, Mahmood; Mirkhalili, Seyed Mahmoud

    2018-02-08

    One of the concerns that always remain for the repentant criminal is the condition for his return to society. This concern may be so strong and effective that the criminal may seclude from the society due to the fear of its consequences and may return to crime. Therefore, paying attention to eliminating the social effect of the criminal conviction of criminals can return security to society and return the repentant criminals to normal life. So, all military and social institutions are effective in the re-socialization, in such a way that the re-socialization of criminals requires the provision of social platforms that starts with their own family and expands to society. The main concern of this research is how we can provide the favorable conditions for the re-socialization of repentant criminals that effectively realize the socialization goals. The Islamic Penal Code initiatives in 2013, despite the gaps in this regard, partly help to achieve such goals, but they are not enough. Therefore, the present article focused on the criminals' re-socialization and tried to raise the criminals' re-socialization both socially and criminally. The method was descriptive analytical. The result showed that the Islamic Penal Code, adopted in 2013 on the period of the subsequent effects, needs to be reformed, and the effective social institutions should be raised orderly in such a case.

  3. Criminal tendencies and psychological testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobchik L. N.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Methods of psychological diagnostics closer to the psychology main research areas, which involve measuring the accuracy and statistical reliability. A set of methods that includes questionnaires should be complemented with projective tests in which the stimulus material is verbal in nature. The article presents the results of surveys of different groups of persons in conflict with the law, as well as screening tests contingent of youth groups and adolescents. High performance, spontaneously manifested aggressiveness, traits, emotional immaturity, low self-control and primitive-the requirement of the hierarchy of values at statistically significant level are identified in the data psychodiagnostic study, thus allowing to allocate the risk of wrongful conduct and to develop preventive measures of psycho-pedagogical and social nature. Psychological testing is an effective tool in the study of criminal predisposici and gives the key to a science-based approach in the development of preventive measures aimed at reducing crime.

  4. Protecting Children Rights under International Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erinda Duraj (Male

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children are a central concern of international criminal justice. International crimes and other forms of violence and the abuse of children are disturbing daily realities in today’s world. Children and young persons are increasingly being targeted for the purposes of murder, rape, abduction, mutilation, recruitment as child soldiers, trafficking, sexual exploitation and other abuses. Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Colombia, and many others illustrate this. The participation of children in international criminal justice and other accountability mechanisms is now one of the major issues facing criminal justice today. In this sense, this paper presents a short overview on the issue of children and their participation in international criminal justice. The paper thus focuses on giving a definition of “child/children” according to international norms, which are the key principles of children’s rights, their participation in the criminal justice system, the different international crimes committed by them or against them etc. Also, this paper briefly addresses the main contours of the normative framework regarding the criminal responsibility of children for their alleged participation in international crimes. It reviews international norms regarding children who may be accused of having participated in the commission of such crimes themselves (as child soldiers and identifies their criminal responsibility for such acts. Finally, this paper acknowledges the obligations of states under international law to prosecute persons accused of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, torture and enforced disappearances, specifically focusing on crimes against children.

  5. Involvement in the US criminal justice system and cost implications for persons treated for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faries Douglas E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with schizophrenia may have a higher risk of encounters with the criminal justice system than the general population, but there are limited data on such encounters and their attendant costs. This study assessed the prevalence of encounters with the criminal justice system, encounter types, and the estimated cost attributable to these encounters in the one-year treatment of persons with schizophrenia. Methods This post-hoc analysis used data from a prospective one-year cost-effectiveness study of persons treated with antipsychotics for schizophrenia and related disorders in the United States. Criminal justice system involvement was assessed using the Schizophrenia Patients Outcome Research Team (PORT client survey and the victimization subscale of the Lehman Quality of Life Interview (QOLI. Direct cost of criminal justice system involvement was estimated using previously reported costs per type of encounter. Patients with and without involvement were compared on baseline characteristics and direct annual health care and criminal justice system-related costs. Results Overall, 278 (46% of 609 participants reported at least 1 criminal justice system encounter. They were more likely to be substance users and less adherent to antipsychotics compared to participants without involvement. The 2 most prevalent types of encounters were being a victim of a crime (67% and being on parole or probation (26%. The mean annual per-patient cost of involvement was $1,429, translating to 6% of total annual direct health care costs for those with involvement (11% when excluding crime victims. Conclusions Criminal justice system involvement appears to be prevalent and costly for persons treated for schizophrenia in the United States. Findings highlight the need to better understand the interface between the mental health and the criminal justice systems and the related costs, in personal, societal, and economic terms.

  6. Involvement in the US criminal justice system and cost implications for persons treated for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher-Svanum, Haya; Nyhuis, Allen W; Faries, Douglas E; Ball, Daniel E; Kinon, Bruce J

    2010-01-28

    Individuals with schizophrenia may have a higher risk of encounters with the criminal justice system than the general population, but there are limited data on such encounters and their attendant costs. This study assessed the prevalence of encounters with the criminal justice system, encounter types, and the estimated cost attributable to these encounters in the one-year treatment of persons with schizophrenia. This post-hoc analysis used data from a prospective one-year cost-effectiveness study of persons treated with antipsychotics for schizophrenia and related disorders in the United States. Criminal justice system involvement was assessed using the Schizophrenia Patients Outcome Research Team (PORT) client survey and the victimization subscale of the Lehman Quality of Life Interview (QOLI). Direct cost of criminal justice system involvement was estimated using previously reported costs per type of encounter. Patients with and without involvement were compared on baseline characteristics and direct annual health care and criminal justice system-related costs. Overall, 278 (46%) of 609 participants reported at least 1 criminal justice system encounter. They were more likely to be substance users and less adherent to antipsychotics compared to participants without involvement. The 2 most prevalent types of encounters were being a victim of a crime (67%) and being on parole or probation (26%). The mean annual per-patient cost of involvement was $1,429, translating to 6% of total annual direct health care costs for those with involvement (11% when excluding crime victims). Criminal justice system involvement appears to be prevalent and costly for persons treated for schizophrenia in the United States. Findings highlight the need to better understand the interface between the mental health and the criminal justice systems and the related costs, in personal, societal, and economic terms.

  7. Drug use history and criminal behavior among 133 incarcerated men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouri, E M; Pope, H G; Powell, K F; Oliva, P S; Campbell, C

    1997-08-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between crime and substance abuse in a sample of 133 consecutively evaluated male prisoners. Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, we assessed the prevalence of various forms of substance abuse in this population and attempted to judge whether substance abuse played a role in the index crime which has led to the present incarceration. In addition, we assessed whether there was a relationship between the nature of substance dependence and the type of crime committed, whether sexual, violent, or non-violent. Among the 133 prisoners, 95% obtained a diagnosis of dependence on one or more substances. Fifty-eight percent of the inmates reported that they were acutely intoxicated with one or more substances at the time they committed the index crime and an additional 6% were withdrawing from a substance at the time of the crime. There was no significant correlation between the type of substance abuse diagnosis and the type of crime committed. Similarly, there was no significant correlation between the number of individuals who reported they were intoxicated at the time of the offense and the type of crime committed.

  8. International Criminal Responsibility After Katanga: Old Challenges, New Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Kucher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On March 7, 2014, the International Criminal Court delivered its most recent judgment convicting Mr. Katanga as an accessory of crime against humanity in the form of murder and four counts of war crimes within the meaning of Art. 25(3(d of the Rome Statute. This decision along with its previous final decisions in the Lubanga and Ngudjolo cases has raised similar concerns about individual criminal responsibility regarding, inter alia, application of control over a crime doctrine as evidenced from the dissenting / separate opinions to them. This doctrine has already firmly settled within the ICC jurisprudence and yet some judges doubt if its application is justified, especially given the peculiarities of national origin irrelevant in the realm of the Rome Statute. The other raised concern is a potential application of the legality principle, since both Ngudjolo and Katanga judgments have investigated the same situations and come to the completely different results.While the Rome Statute contains the most complete provision determining the modes of individual responsibility, Art. 25 thus appears to be far from being out of debates. To dispel some of them, this article analyzes practical application of Art. 25(3(a and (d by the ICC and different approaches in this regard as well as general grounds for raising question on the necessity for individual criminal responsibility. 

  9. The suspended sentence in French Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law has provided different criminal sanctions as measures of social control. These coercive measures are imposed on the criminal offender by the competent court and aimed at limitting the offender's rights and freedoms or depriving the offender of certain rights and freedoms. These sanctions are applied to the natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and injure or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values, criminal legislations in all countries predict a number of criminal sanctions. These are: 1 imprisonment, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juveniles, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Apart and instead of punishment, warning measures have a significant role in the jurisprudence. Since they emerged in the early 20th century in the system of criminal sanctions, there has been an increase in their application to criminal offenders, especially when it comes to first-time offenders who committed a negligent or accidental criminal act. Warnings are applied in case of crimes that do not have serious consequences, and whose perpetrators are not hardened and incorrigible criminals. All contemporary criminal legislations (including the French legilation provide a warning measure of suspended sentence. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person does not commit another criminal offense and fulfills other obligations. This sanction applies if the following two conditions are fulfilled: a forma! -which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b material -which is the court assessment that the application of this sanction is justified and necessary in a particular case. In many modern criminal legislations, there are two different types of suspended (conditional sentence: 1 ordinary (classical suspended

  10. Neurotechnological Behavioural Treatment of Criminal Offenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper; Petersen, Thomas Søbirk

    2013-01-01

    Whether it is morally acceptable to offer rehabilitation by CNS-intervention to criminals as a condition for early release constitutes an important neuroethical question. Bomann-Larsen has recently suggested that such interventions are unacceptable if the offered treatment is not narrowly targeted...... at the behaviour for which the criminal is convicted. In this article it is argued that Bomann-Larsen's analysis of the morality of offers does not provide a solid base for this conclusion and that, even if the analysis is assumed to be correct, it still does not follow that voluntary rehabilitation schemes...... targeting behaviour beyond the act for which a criminal is convicted are inappropriate....

  11. Mentally Disordered Non-Psychotic Criminal Offenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm; Kørner, Alex

    2013-01-01

    as sanctions in criminal cases, the court will request a psychiatric report. They may furthermore ask a medical expert consultation board, the Danish Medico-Legal Council, for an opinion on the mental status of the defendant. Aims: To describe a sample of offenders falling under §69 and the use of the section...... and the final verdicts on socio-demographic, health and criminal items, and the data were computerized. Results: The sample was characterized by severe criminality and mental disorder. Forty-six percent (138/298) were sentenced by the court to a psychiatric measure instead of punishment. Conclusions...

  12. Justifying genetics as a possible legal defence to criminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, jurisprudence of many criminal cases tends to question whether a person's inherited genes predispose him to violence and further determine his criminal responsibility in law. Under the Nigerian criminal law, the legal test of criminal responsibility is mainly whether the accused person intends the consequence of ...

  13. Methods and manners of interpretation of criminal norms | Assefa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The criminal justice system is constituted of criminal norms, institutions and methods, among others. Interpretation of the criminal law is a process that transforms the text of the law into reality. The process is influenced by various factors, such as, the courts' conception of the criminal law, the concept and practice of ...

  14. 32 CFR 26.625 - Criminal drug statute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal drug statute. 26.625 Section 26.625 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT... Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means a Federal or non-Federal criminal statute involving the...

  15. Crime victims in the criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative social reaction and inadequate reaction of the agencies of the formal control on the primary victimization is leading to the so called secondary victimization that can be a source of trauma and frustration as much as the primary victimization. Due to that, relation of the police and the judiciary towards the crime victims is of a great importance regarding victims’ willingness to report the victimization, their confidence in these agencies, and cooperation during clearing up the crime. In order to realize the victim’s position in the criminal justice system, this paper contains an overview of how the police, prosecutor’s office and courts are functioning. The paper is based on the interviews made with the representatives of these state agencies, as well as on the previous knowledge and realized surveys concerning this topic. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the position and the role of the victim support service in the system of the state intervention, based upon the obtained data, as well as to give some basic information on how victims could report the crime, what are their rights and duties, what can they expect from the competent agencies.

  16. The Value Of Justice In Child Criminal Justice System A Review Of Indonesian Criminal Law

    OpenAIRE

    Andi Sofyan

    2015-01-01

    The value of justice in Act No. 11 of 2012 concerns the Child Criminal Justice System Act No. SPPA confirms the Restorative Justice Approach as a method of disputes resolution. The method of research used was normative-legal research with philosophical approach. The results showed that the value of restorative justice through diversion contained in Act SPPA but the diversion limit for certain types of criminal acts and threats of punishment under seven 7 years and not a repetition criminal re...

  17. Criminal procedure code and charter of criminal proceedings in terrorism investigation: learning from the past

    OpenAIRE

    Makarov M.A.; Smakhtin E.V.

    2014-01-01

    Basic procedural institutions of terrorism investigation are studied by comparing the provisions of the Charter of criminal proceedings of the Russian Empire in 1864 and the current procedural law. The comparative solutions to the following investigation problems by Charter and the Code are shown: 1) terrorists confess to less serious crimes, representing themselves as accomplices (articles 208, 222 of the RF Criminal Code) to avoid punishment for terrorism (article 205 of the RF Criminal Cod...

  18. Language impairments in youths with traumatic brain injury: implications for participation in criminal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wszalek, Joseph A; Turkstra, Lyn S

    2015-01-01

    As many as 30% of incarcerated juveniles have a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Moderate or severe TBI is associated with a high risk of impairment in language comprehension and expression, which may have profound effects on juveniles' ability to understand and express themselves in criminal proceedings. In this article, we review common language impairments in youths with TBI and discuss potential effects of these impairments on 3 stages of US criminal proceedings: (1) initial encounter with law enforcement; (2) interrogation and Miranda rights; and (3) competence to undergo trial proceedings. We then describe language assessment tools and procedures that may be helpful in legal contexts. Our aim was to inform clinicians and legal staff working with juvenile defendants with TBI, with the long-term goal of developing empirically based guidelines to ensure that juvenile defendants with TBI can fully and effectively participate in criminal proceedings.

  19. Criminal systematic and limits of Proposals Functionalists ( Weightings About Warranties , Citizenship and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Augusto Forte de Negreiros Deodat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Make a critique of functionalism means looking at the history of the construction of the penal systems. It is observed that the rigor of analysis is something that is imposed when we have a system as a tool work. It is essential for that what now arises in legal and criminal terms sees as the study of criminal law should be increasingly precise and also closer to the idea of human dignity. It will also be built a criticism for the two doctrines that have changed the face of the first systematic, designed in the nineteenth, which will allow us to see more accurately what can, or even should, be changed. One cannot help but praise the normativism, especially what received the indelible strengthening of the cultivators of criminal science of the past half century.

  20. Criminal behaviour and violent crimes in former inpatients with affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graz, Christian; Etschel, Eva; Schoech, Heinz; Soyka, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Several studies have reported criminal and violent behaviour in people with schizophrenia but few have investigated the association between affective disorders and violent behaviour. We reviewed the national crime register for records of criminal offences committed by 1561 patients with affective disorders treated between 1990 and 1995 in the Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Munich. The sample was divided into patients with bipolar I disorder, manic disorder and major depressive disorder. Sociodemographic and other risk factors for non-violent and violent criminal behaviour were analysed. Sixty-five (4.16%) patients had been convicted in the 7 to 12 years after discharge (307 cases). The rate of criminal behaviour and violent crimes was highest in the manic disorder group: 15.7% (14 of 89) were listed in the national crime register and 5.6% (5 of 89) were convicted of physical injury offences. Violence and criminality were comparatively rare in patients with major depressive disorder: only 1.42% (10 of 702) committed violent crimes. Male gender was a substantial risk factor for non-violent and especially violent behaviour: the rate of violent crimes was six times higher than in females. Marital status appeared to influence the prevalence of later delinquency: separated, divorced and widowed patients committed offences more frequently. A history of substance use problems before clinical treatment was reported by 21.2% (329 of 1561) of the sample. A wide range of different crimes were committed, with defalcation, theft and fraud being the most frequent. Twenty-one cases of physical assault and one case of later homicide were recorded. In contrast to other forensic studies, we did not find a significant effect of substance abuse on the risk of later delinquent behaviour. The frequency of criminal behaviour and violent crimes in individuals with affective disorder depends on much more than just the diagnosis. This study may stimulate further research to

  1. Original article Latent classes of criminal intent associated with criminal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Boduszek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background This study aimed to examine the number of latent classes of criminal intent that exist among prisoners and to look at the associations with recidivism, number of police arrests, type of offending (robbery, violent offences, murder, and multiple offences, and age. Participants and procedure Latent class analysis was used to identify homogeneous subgroups of prisoners based on their responses to the 10 questions reflecting criminal intent. Participants were 309 male recidivistic prisoners incarcerated in a maximum security prison. Multinomial logistic regression was used to interpret the nature of the latent classes, or groups, by estimating the association between recidivism and latent classes of criminal intent while controlling for offence type (robbery, violent offences, murder, and multiple offences, number of arrests, and age. Results The best fitting latent class model was a three-class solution: ‘High criminal intent’ (49.3%, ‘Intermediate criminal intent’ (41.3%, and ‘Low criminal intent’ (9.4%. The latent classes were differentially related to the external variables (recidivism, violent offences, and age. Conclusions Criminal intent is best explained by three homogeneous classes that appear to represent an underlying continuum. Future work is needed to identify whether these distinct classes of criminal intent may predict engagement in various types of criminal behaviour.

  2. Dynamical analysis of a model of social behavior: Criminal vs non-criminal population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Syed; Tripathi, Jai Prakash; Neha, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new social model of interaction between criminal and non-criminal population is proposed • The effect of law enforcement is studied • Many real life situations are analyzed • List of open problems is given for future work. - Abstract: In this paper, we construct a model motivated by the well known predator-prey model to study the interaction between criminal population and non-criminal population. Our aim is to study various possibilities of interactions between them. First we model it using simple predator-prey model, then we modify it by considering the logistic growth of non-criminal population. We clearly deduce that the model with logistic growth is better than classical one. More precisely, the role of carrying capacity on the dynamics of criminal minded population is discussed. Further, we incorporate law enforcement term in the model and study its effect. The result obtained suggest that by incorporating enforcement law, the criminal population reduces from the very beginning, which resembles with real life situation. Our result indicates that the criminal minded population exist as long as coefficient of enforcement l c does not cross a threshold value and after this value the criminal minded population extinct. In addition, we also discuss the occurrence of saddle-node bifurcation in case of model system with law enforcement. Numerical examples and simulations are presented to illustrate the obtained results.

  3. Mapping the criminal mind: idiographic assessment of criminal belief systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2005-02-01

    An idiographic procedure designed to assess the belief systems of criminal offenders is described, investigated, and clarified. This measure, the Cognitive Map of Major Belief Systems (CMMBS), assesses the five belief systems (self-view, world-view, past-view, present-view, future-view) held to occupy the higher echelons of human cognition. Modest to moderate test-retest reliability was achieved when 19 inmates, enrolled in one of three drug-counseling groups, completed the CMMBS on two separate occasions, 2 weeks apart. It was also ascertained that the drug treatment specialist who served as therapist for all three groups "blindly" matched the 19 CMMBS records to the inmates who produced them. A case study of one of the 19 participants was used to illustrate how the CMMBS is employed with individual offenders and how belief systems interact with major schematic subnetworks such as attributions, outcome expectancies, efficacy expectancies, goals, values, and thinking styles to create crime-supporting lifestyles.

  4. A Framework for visualization of criminal networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasheed, Amer

    This Ph.D. thesis describes research concerning the application of criminal network visualization in the field of investigative analysis. There are number of way with which the investigative analysis can locate the hidden motive behind any criminal activity. Firstly, the investigative analyst must...... have the ability to understand the criminal plot since a comprehensive plot is a pre-requisite to conduct an organized crime. Secondly, the investigator should understand the organization and structure of criminal network. The knowledge about these two aspects is vital in conducting an investigative...... visualization is to let the users put less effort into recognizing the requirements, preferably within a short instance of time. In this way, the investigator focuses on his/her cause rather than using resources on irrelevant details. Much research is being conducted in visual analytics, dynamics in social...

  5. Expert Evidence and International Criminal Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appazov, Artur

    The book is a comprehensive narration of the use of expertise in international criminal trials offering reflection on standards concerning the quality and presentation of expert evidence. It analyzes and critiques the rules governing expert evidence in international criminal trials...... and the strategies employed by counsel and courts relying upon expert evidence and challenges that courts face determining its reliability. In particular, the author considers how the procedural and evidentiary architecture of international criminal courts and tribunals influences the courts' ability to meaningfully...... incorporate expert evidence into the rational fact-finding process. The book provides analysis of the unique properties of expert evidence as compared with other forms of evidence and the challenges that these properties present for fact-finding in international criminal trials. It draws conclusions about...

  6. Criminal Network Investigation: Processes, Tools, and Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenqvist

    important challenge for criminal network investigation, despite the massive attention it receives from research and media. Challenges such as the investigation process, the context of the investigation, human factors such as thinking and creativity, and political decisions and legal laws are all challenges......Criminal network investigations such as police investigations, intelligence analysis, and investigative journalism involve a range of complex knowledge management processes and tasks. Criminal network investigators collect, process, and analyze information related to a specific target to create...... that could mean the success or failure of criminal network investigations. % include commission reports as indications of process related problems .. to "play a little politics" !! Information, process, and human factors, are challenges we find to be addressable by software system support. Based on those...

  7. The Phenomenology of Specialization of Criminal Suspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumminello, Michele; Edling, Christofer; Liljeros, Fredrik; Mantegna, Rosario N.; Sarnecki, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    A criminal career can be either general, with the criminal committing different types of crimes, or specialized, with the criminal committing a specific type of crime. A central problem in the study of crime specialization is to determine, from the perspective of the criminal, which crimes should be considered similar and which crimes should be considered distinct. We study a large set of Swedish suspects to empirically investigate generalist and specialist behavior in crime. We show that there is a large group of suspects who can be described as generalists. At the same time, we observe a non-trivial pattern of specialization across age and gender of suspects. Women are less prone to commit crimes of certain types, and, for instance, are more prone to specialize in crimes related to fraud. We also find evidence of temporal specialization of suspects. Older persons are more specialized than younger ones, and some crime types are preferentially committed by suspects of different ages. PMID:23691257

  8. Employers liability to the international criminal court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenifer Yiseth Suárez Díaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The constant changes in the social dynamics due to economic and technological development has brought along the need to dispose of a High Court, with competence over International Crimes. The above was the reason to establish the International Criminal Court, destined to prosecute and punish the maximum responsible for crimes of its jurisdiction. Nonetheless, despite the existence of individual criminal responsibility as an accomplice in the case of entrepreneurs who contribute to the crime, there is not an actual investigation or conviction as such in the Court fase for those individuals. Through a criminological study, the actions in the frame of the criminal policy in international law, in order to hold individual criminal responsibility towards entrepreneurs for international crimes, will be evaluated, from the dogmatic categories established in the international guidelines as well as from international doctrine.

  9. Approaching Career Criminals With An Intelligence Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    adventures. The expected time remaining is a criminal career is five years for active offenders in their late teens while the expected time remaining...intelligence community tool—the intelligence cycle—to deal with career criminals effectively? This thesis studies serious- offender programs and the...use of the intelligence cycle by American intelligence agencies in order to create a model merging serious offender programs and intelligence cycles

  10. Criminal law and psychology: Connection points

    OpenAIRE

    Drakić Dragiša

    2014-01-01

    In the paper the author discovers and analyzes areas which represent points of connection between criminal law and psychology, the areas in which cooperation between these two fields of science is possible and desirable. This article is divided into several sections. Firstly, the author talks about the emergence of psychology as a science and its definition. In the sections that follow the author offers analysis of initial contact between ways of thinking in primeval criminal law and psycholo...

  11. Mental Health Treatment and Criminal Justice Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Frank; Thomas G. McGuire

    2010-01-01

    Are many prisoners in jail or prison because of their mental illness? And if so, is mental health treatment a cost-effective way to reduce crime and lower criminal justice costs? This paper reviews and evaluates the evidence assessing the potential of expansion of mental health services for reducing crime. Mental illness and symptoms of mental illness are highly prevalent among adult and child criminal justice populations. The association between serious mental illness and violence and arrest...

  12. Status of Forces and Criminal Jurisdiction

    OpenAIRE

    Voetelink, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the legal status of armed forces present in friendly foreign territory with a special focus on criminal jurisdiction. Traditionally, this issue has been considered from the perspective of public international law in which immunities play an important role. However, this perspective does not fully cover the criminal jurisdiction provisions in the international agreements dealing with the status of visiting forces (Status of Forces Agreements). This article introduces mili...

  13. Violent and Non-Violent Criminal Behavior among Young Chinese Drug Users: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liu; Chui, Wing Hong; Chen, Ye

    2018-03-02

    Young drug users are found to be increasingly involved in criminal justice issues. This exploratory and descriptive study aims to analyze the criminal behaviors among young Chinese drug users through a mixed methods research design. Quantitative analysis indicates that young drug users with and without a history of criminality show significant differences in terms of several features. Male drug users, particularly, those who are older, with religious beliefs, and initiated into drug use at younger age were most likely to commit crimes. Among drug users with criminal experiences, those who committed crimes prior to drug initiation have a greater likelihood of committing violent crimes. Furthermore, young drug users with severe depression are more likely to commit crimes, especially violent ones. Qualitative analysis further illustrates that young male drug users often get involved in criminal conduct of the youth gang nature with propensity for engaging in violent crimes as compared to their female counterparts who are more likely to turn into drug dealers and traffickers, in addition to engaging in larceny. The research findings are consistent with developmental theories and "victim to offender cycle". Integrated mental health and substance use services are suggested for crime prevention among young Chinese drug users.

  14. Violent and Non-Violent Criminal Behavior among Young Chinese Drug Users: A Mixed Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Young drug users are found to be increasingly involved in criminal justice issues. This exploratory and descriptive study aims to analyze the criminal behaviors among young Chinese drug users through a mixed methods research design. Quantitative analysis indicates that young drug users with and without a history of criminality show significant differences in terms of several features. Male drug users, particularly, those who are older, with religious beliefs, and initiated into drug use at younger age were most likely to commit crimes. Among drug users with criminal experiences, those who committed crimes prior to drug initiation have a greater likelihood of committing violent crimes. Furthermore, young drug users with severe depression are more likely to commit crimes, especially violent ones. Qualitative analysis further illustrates that young male drug users often get involved in criminal conduct of the youth gang nature with propensity for engaging in violent crimes as compared to their female counterparts who are more likely to turn into drug dealers and traffickers, in addition to engaging in larceny. The research findings are consistent with developmental theories and “victim to offender cycle”. Integrated mental health and substance use services are suggested for crime prevention among young Chinese drug users.

  15. Does early onset of criminal behavior differentiate for whom serious mental illness has a direct or indirect effect on recidivism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejkowski, Jason; Conrad, Aaron; Ostermann, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The involvement of people with serious mental illness (SMI) with the justice system may be a direct result of their disruptive/unsafe expression of psychiatric symptoms being responded to by law enforcement. SMI may also indirectly contribute to justice involvement, through exposure to environmental and social learning processes that place people with SMI at risk for criminal behavior. This study addresses the question: For whom does SMI directly or indirectly relate to criminal behavior? Mediation and conditional effects testing were used to examine the potential of early onset of criminal behavior to distinguish those groups for whom SMI displays a direct effect or an indirect effect on criminal recidivism. This study utilized a disproportionate random sample of 379 inmates released from New Jersey Department of Corrections; 190 of whom had SMI and 189 of whom did not have SMI. Data were collected from clinical and administrative records. Results indicate that criminal risk mediated the relationship between SMI and recidivism. This indirect effect was conditioned by whether the individual had a juvenile conviction. Specifically, for early start offenders, criminal risk was positively related to recidivism while this relationship was not observed for late start offenders. Juvenile criminal onset did not condition the direct effects of SMI on recidivism. A juvenile history of criminal involvement may signal the presence of heightened criminogenic need among adults with SMI. This simple indicator could function to differentiate for clinicians those adults who are good candidates for exploring further, and targeting for amelioration, criminogenic needs to reduce further criminal involvement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Criminal sanctions for legal enties: An instrument of crime control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although contemporary criminal law accepts the system of subjective criminal liability for a committed crime, numerous European legal documents as well as criminal laws, especially those that have been adopted lately, envisage exceptions from this system. Thus, a new form of criminal liability is being introduced: objective liability based on the causation. One of the forms of objective liability is the criminal liability of legal entities, which has been considered disputable for a long time. Obviously, legal entities cannot be held accountable for all types of criminal offences. They cannot be held liable on the grounds of legal provisions regarding mental competence and culpability (as the elements of subjective criminal liability, nor can they be imposed all types of criminal sanctions recognized in criminal legislation in general. In their new or revised criminal legislation, many countries have recognized and inagurated the objective criminal liability of legal persons for committed criminal offences alongside with the predominant system of subjective liability (based on the perpetrator's mental competence and culpability. It is indisputable that some legal entities (such as state authorities cannot be prosecuted and held liable in criminal proceedings; consequently, there are some exemptions from criminal liability (particularly when it comes to the state and state bodies, but it does not exclude criminal liability of responsible officials (natural persons for causing the consequences of a criminal offence. Due to the specific character of legal and contractual capacity of legal entities, law in general and criminal legislations in particular prescribe special legal grounds for establishing criminal liability of legal entities, which differ from the subjective liability of a natural person (perceived as a conscious and reasonable human being acting on his/her own free will where the consequence of a criminal offence is a result of one

  17. Impunity or Criminal Selection? The Subjetivity to Differentiate the Drug User and Drug Dealer in the City of Vitoria/ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Cardozo Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article objetives annalyze the subjectivity of paragraph 2o of the article 28 of brazilian Drug Law and the criminal system in state of Espirito Santo. It was proceeded a bibliographic study about the history of drug criminalization in Brazil. Subsequently, the data of criminal Judgments by Rio de Janeiro Court and the Federal District Court relating to drug traffic were analyzed. Then, a statistical summary of the Fourth Criminal Court of Vitória / ES, former Private Drug Court, was conducted to analyze how they are being applied present the subjective criteria to differentiate the user figures and drug dealer in the city. Finally, based on the research conducted, it was noted if exists economic interest implicit in the criminalization of drugs, and the difference in treatment agent involved with drugs as their socioeconomic conditions.

  18. Administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhat Akhnafovich Yunusov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective basing on the research of formation and development of the administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law and comparativelegal analysis of this institution as well as the longterm experience in crime investigation to trace the problems and trends of administrative prejudgment and prove the necessity to introduce or to be more precise legalize the administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law. Methods the research is based on the general dialectic method of cognition comparative historical formaljuridical methods as well as special and privatelegal methods of research. Results analysis of the main problems and collisions of administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law the doctrine and the practice of implementation of this institution can become the basis for legalization of the administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law and implementing it for the crimes stipulated in the Special part of the Russian Criminal Code if they are of low or middle gravity and committed intentionally those most often occurred. The article studies the institution of the administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law since 1922 until present. Various researchersrsquo opinions are given for and against returning of this institution. Taking into account the criminological indicators the authors express their own opinion on legalization of the administrative prejudgment. Scientific novelty having abandoned the formal approach to the institution of the administrative prejudgment both in the Russian criminal law and in the foreign laws the authors believe that the criminal personality should be the central factor of the administrative prejudgment legalization. In this context the authors state the direct connection between the personal features of a criminal including their inclination to immoral and illegal behavior and the crime committed by them. Practical value the theoretical conclusions formulated in the research

  19. The suspended sentence in German criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law in all countries has provided different criminal sanctions as social control measures. These are court-imposed coercive measures that take away or limit certain rights and freedoms of criminal offenders. Sanctions are applied to natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and cause damage or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values jeopardized by the commission of crime, state legislations prescribe several kinds of criminal sanctions: 1 penalties, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juvenile offenders, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Penalties are the basic, the oldest and the most important type of criminal sanctions. They are prescribed for the largest number of criminal offences. Imposed instead of or alongside with penalties, warning measures have particularly important role in jurisprudence. Since they were introduced in the system of criminal sanctions in the early 20th century, there has been a notable increase in the application of these measures, particularly in cases involving negligent and accidental offences, and minor offences that do not cause serious consequences, whose perpetrators are not persons with criminal characteristics. Warning measures (suspended sentence are envisaged in all contemporary criminal legislations, including the German legislation. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of the sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person fulfills the imposed obligations and does not commit another criminal offense. Two conditions must be fulfilled for the application of these sanctions: a the formal requirement, which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b the substantive requirement, which implies the court assessment that the application of these sanctions is justified and necessary in a particular case. Many

  20. Sociodemographic and psychopathological predictors of criminal behavior in women with gambling disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Talón-Navarro, María Teresa; Cuquerella, Àngel; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Mena-Moreno, Teresa; Vintró-Alcaraz, Cristina; Baño, Marta; Moragas, Laura; Magaña, Pablo; Menchón, José Manuel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2018-05-01

    Women have been underrepresented in the empirical research of gambling disorder (GD), a psychiatric condition included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM-5). More specifically, no studies to date have been carried out exploring the clinical phenotype of women with GD who have committed gambling-related illegal acts. In this study, we sought to delineate the clinical, personality and psychopathological differences between treatment-seeking women with GD, with and without a criminal record. Furthermore, we aimed to identify the variables that best predict the presence of illegal acts in this clinical group. Data corresponded to n=273 treatment-seeking women who met criteria for GD. Two groups were compared: women with a history of criminal behavior (n=61, 22.34%) to those who did not (n=212, 77.66%) taking psychopathology, clinical and personality data into account. Women who engaged in criminal acts were younger and endorsed higher psychopathology, GD severity, and novelty seeking levels than the other clinical group. Regarding the predictive model, women with higher levels of novelty seeking and lower levels of reward dependence were at higher risk of having a criminal record. DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE AND/OR POLICY: Our findings uphold that women with GD and a history of illegal acts are especially vulnerable in terms of comorbid psychopathology and dysfunctional personality traits. Therefore, this population could potentially benefit from public policies that target their mental health needs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Economic Criminal Acts according to Criminal Code of Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Bajram Ukaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the criminal offences against economy in the Criminal Code of Kosovo, which are increasingly becoming an important object of study, both at national and international levels. The criminal offences against economy are in principle blanket nature offences, guiding nature, since the vast majority of such norms are further delineated in other bylaws, while the criminal code provisions provide on criminal offences, thereby guiding towards another legal or sub-legal provision. Economic and financial crimes in Kosovo are already making a remarkable increase, as proven by statistical records of state authorities. The increased rate of economic crimes is a result of many factors and circumstances present in Kosovo, which may be different from regional countries. The inefficient fight and prevention of organized crime and corruption in the period between 1999-2010 was stimulated and favoured by several specific factors that are elaborated in this article.

  2. Pre- and Post-Trial Equality in Criminal Justice in the Context of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The previous Westminster criminal justice system entailed a different kind of separation of powers insofar as it concerns the role of state prosecutors. In the Westminster system prosecutors are part of the executive branch, whereas they were a split-off from the judiciary in constitutional states and function like a de facto ...

  3. Parental Criminality, Family Violence and Intergenerational Transmission of Crime Within a Birth Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, Marianne; Greene, J.; Schipper, R.; Hesper, F.; Estourgie, V.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies documented that crime is heavily concentrated in families. However, many studies relied on relatively small samples, often males and information on criminal involvement was self-reported. The present study investigates: (1) the prevalence of arrests in three generations; (2) the

  4. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  5. The Impact of an Indiana (United States Drug Court on Criminal Recidivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Gallagher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated a drug court located in a metropolitan area of Indiana (United States, focusing specifically on identifying variables that predicted recidivism among drug court participants and comparing criminal recidivism patterns among drug court and probation participants. Drug court participants were most likely to recidivate if they were younger, had a violation within the first 30 days of the program, had a previous criminal record, and were terminated unsuccessfully from the program. Furthermore, drug court participants were less likely to recidivate than probationers who had similar offense and demographic characteristics. Implications for drug court practice, policy advocacy, and future research are discussed.

  6. Intelligence as evidence in criminal proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The fight against modern forms of crime such as organized crime, terrorism and other very serious crimes caused not only modification of procedural principles and procedural rules, but also the necessity of re-examination of evidence in terms of introducing new evidence in criminal proceedings. Given that the prevention, detection and proving in cases of mentioned offenses represent the systemic issue and that the efficiency is caused by cohesion of preventive and repressive mechanisms in each strategy of preventing and combating serious crimes, the more often raised question, aroused from the practice, is the issue of the use of information gathered by the police or security services as evidence in criminal proceedings. In addition, there is the issue of use of illegal evidence, the ways in which these evidence are defined in some jurisdictions and which are the legal consequences of their use in judicial decision, whether it is based only on them, or on some other evidence beside them. The author addresses the issues of necessity and justification for use of information of security services as evidence in criminal proceedings, their definition and difference with respect to data, experiences and practices in other countries and of course their use as evidence in criminal proceedings of Serbia. Also, the paper addresses the Criminal Intelligence Analytics, exchange of information between the competent authorities at national and international level.

  7. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  8. Conflicts of Jurisdiction in Criminal Proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Silviu Pocora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will consider the practical settlement of conflicts of jurisdiction both in relation to the forum for prosecution and transfer of proceedings. The corollary of free movement of people is free movement of judgments, sentences and related powers of investigation and prosecution. Cross border crime requires to be addressed by equipping law enforcement and prosecution authorities with mechanisms to ensure the public interest in the investigation and prosecution of crime is met. The starting point for any consideration is the place where the criminal conduct took place. Sometimes the crime is such that criminal jurisdiction will be fixed - such as theft of property, crimes of violence - where others have an impact or criminal conduct in more than one jurisdiction - drug importation, major transnational drug dealing, human trafficking, terrorism.

  9. BRIEF CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING MEDIATION IN CRIMINAL MATTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUMINITA DRAGNE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediation is an alternative means of conflict resolution, is designed as a flexible procedure whose utility was observed in contrast to the deficiencies of the judiciary system. In the field of criminal law, mediation is part of the larger concept of the restorative justice whose aim is restoring the main victim in its rights. From this perspective, to the criminal process is intended, in principal, repairing of the victim's prejudice and, subsequently, to encourage the delinquent in taking responsibility and to acknowledge his guilt, and also to determine him to actively participate in repairing the damage caused. The ultimate goal of the process is giving back the delinquent to society and consequently, reducing the relapse. Romanian legislator has not taken this concept, and how it is regulated mediation in criminal matters is hesitant, cautious and ultimately ineffective. Specifically, in situations that will actually occur, victim-delinquent mediation will only take the form of "assisted reconciliation."

  10. The psychiatric defence and international criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, John

    2007-01-01

    Following the development of the International Criminal Court (ICC) the mental state of the perpetrators of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes will become a more important issue in regard to defence and mitigating factors. This article examines how the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in particular has dealt with the mental illness defence to date, and how its judgements can serve as guidance for the ICC as it becomes the major international court of the future. The absence of a mental health defence in the Statutes of the ICTY and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda has led to a reliance on the Rules of Procedure and Evidence of the two tribunals. There are major difficulties in using the mental health defence as it is defined in the Statutes of the ICC because of a requirement for the destruction of mental capacity as a valid defence. Fitness to plead and the defence of intoxication are also examined.

  11. A cross-sectional study on expression of anger and factors associated with criminal recidivism in prisoners with prior offences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corapçioğlu, Aytül; Erdoğan, Sarper

    2004-03-10

    The purpose of this study is to determine demographical characteristics leading to crime recidivism and define anger levels and anger expression manners for those who re-commit crime. All the literate inmates in Izmit Closed Penitentiary were included in this cross-sectional study. The prisoners were asked to respond to State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. Their socio-demographic data were collected and a questionnaire was given to them to determine their state of imprisonment, sentence, nature of the crime in which they were involved, their criminal history, their relationship with inmates and prison staff and substance and alcohol use. Of the 438 prisoners, 302 (68.9%) responded to the questionnaires. Crime recidivism among the study cohort was observed to be 37.4%. Mean trait anger, anger out and anger in scores were significantly higher in prisoners with criminal recidivism in comparison with those who did not have prior criminal records. However, mean anger control scores for prisoners with or without criminal recidivism were similar. Unemployment, education level completed at secondary school or below, having committed a crime under the influence of alcohol or narcotics, having been involved in prison fights, having resisted police officers, caused damage in their vicinity when angry and violent crimes were all found to be possible causes of criminal recidivism. Educational level completed at secondary school or below, getting into fights with other prisoners, unemployment and resisting police officers were determined to be the strongest indicators to predict criminal recidivism when all variables were considered according to a logistic regression model. It can be proposed that those who have problems with officials or hostile towards others constitute a risk group for criminal recidivism. If prisoners with criminal recidivism can be helped to identify and control their anger, their risk of committing a new crime can be minimised.

  12. Criminal aspect of injuries in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandarić Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the concept of sports ethics is defined and attention is directed to kinds of behavior which are not considered as fair play, the general conception of criminal offence as well as the elements of general idea of criminal act, unlawfulness and guilt with special attention paid to the basis on which unlawfulness and delict, and with them, the criminal offence itself are excluded. Consent of the injured party as basis for excluding unlawfulness has been carefully considered, with emphasis on the fact that with accepting to participate is a certain sport an athlete does not consent to be hurt outside the frame which rules of a particular sport imply. The attitude is accepted that with his consent an athlete consented to the possibility for his integrity be endangered, which still does not mean that he consented to be injured indeed, i.e. a difference is recognized between the consequence of endangering and the consequence of injuring protected assets. After that, rules which are applied in certain sports are explained and connected with the acceptance of the injured party, and the stand is taken that acceptance of the injured party excludes existence of criminal deed only in a situation when an injury occurred within the rules of a particular sport. If the injury occurred by breaking the rules of the sport, it would be considered as a criminal act. In conclusion, the stand is taken that it is necessary to fight against all harmful occurrences in sports, including the injuries which occurred due to severe violation of rules which should be applied in a particular sport. It is concluded that consent of the injured party must not be an excuse for not applying criminal justice, if the injury occurred by violation of the rules of a particular sport.

  13. International Criminal Justice and the Politics of Compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    International Criminal Justice and the Politics of Compliance provides a comprehensive study of compliance with legal obligations derived from the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia's (ICTY) Statute and integrates theoretical debates on compliance into international justice

  14. 76 FR 44757 - Blocking Property of Transnational Criminal Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Property of Transnational Criminal Organizations By the authority vested in me as President by the... America, find that the activities of significant transnational criminal organizations, such as those... of international political and economic systems. Such organizations are becoming increasingly...

  15. Diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder and criminal responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, M.; Barendregt, M.; Haan, B.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Beurs, E. de

    2011-01-01

    The present study empirically investigates whether personality disorders and psychopathic traits in criminal suspects are reasons for diminished criminal responsibility or enforced treatment in high security hospitals. Recently, the tenability of the claim that individuals with personality disorders

  16. Criminal Procedural Agreements in China and England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Pei (Wei)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The past decades have witnessed a marked convergence of various practices alongside conventional criminal proceedings containing negotiations and resulting in agreements between suspects or defendants and criminal justice authorities. These agreements, under the

  17. Criminalization of Homosexuality and Sex Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Sexual activities between consenting adults of the same sex are still criminalized in more than one third of the countries in the world despite a global wave of decriminalization in the past sixty years. This paper empirically investigates the effect of sex ratios, i.e. relative number of men to women, on the criminalization of same-sex sexual conducts. At the individual level, people in high sex ratio countries are found to be more hostile against homosexuality and the homosexuals than their...

  18. SECRECY IN THE SPANISH CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenno Gimenes Cesca

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the secrecy in the Spanish Criminal Procedure, explaining, first, its constitutional matrix. Due to the amplitude of the subject, it was decided to focus on specific issues. So, at first, it was studied the secrecy in the criminal procedure phases (sumario and juicio oral, referring also to secrecy in judicial decisions. After, it was researched the secrecy as protection to witnesses and experts. Then, the secrecy in evidence collection means, such as search and seizure; mailing and telephone calls interceptions; undercover agent. Finally, the professional secrecy

  19. Criminal and legal responsibilities in Tourette's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullucayir, Sibel; Asirdizer, Mahmut; Yavuz, M Sunay; Zeyfeoglu, Yildiray; Ulucay, Tarik

    2009-01-01

    Tourette's Syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychological disorder characterized by the presence of multiple involuntary motor tics accompanied by one or more vocal tics. Articles about TS and criminal responsibility and the restriction of civil rights are limited. A person with TS was evaluated to consider his criminal responsibility after swearing at a referee during a football game. He was also evaluated as to whether or not he was capable of professionally driving a service bus. Additionally, medico-legal situations regarding military service, obtaining a shotgun license and marriages of patients with TS were considered.

  20. Criminal Policy Movements and Legal Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thula Rafaela de Oliveira Pires

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article's intention is to make an analyse of the emerging criminal policy movements in Brazil, especially after the 1980 decade, and their influence on legal education. Based on empirical research in Law Course UNIFESO (Teresópolis- Rio de Janeiro, it is sought to identify the political and criminal discourses prevalent in positions of hegemonic power among the Law scholars. Beyond the necessity of interdisciplinary approach, it is defended a more radical critique of the knowledge production process, with the affiliation of decolonial perspective, fundamental for the deconstruction of punitive normalization standards adopted by the modern States, of colonial slave matrix.

  1. Digital forensics digital evidence in criminal investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Angus McKenzie

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of modern criminal investigations involve some element of digital evidence, from mobile phones, computers, CCTV and other devices. Digital Forensics: Digital Evidence in Criminal Investigations provides the reader with a better understanding of how digital evidence complements "traditional" scientific evidence and examines how it can be used more effectively and efficiently in a range of investigations. Taking a new approach to the topic, this book presents digital evidence as an adjunct to other types of evidence and discusses how it can be deployed effectively in s

  2. The Value Of Justice In Child Criminal Justice System A Review Of Indonesian Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sofyan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The value of justice in Act No. 11 of 2012 concerns the Child Criminal Justice System Act No. SPPA confirms the Restorative Justice Approach as a method of disputes resolution. The method of research used was normative-legal research with philosophical approach. The results showed that the value of restorative justice through diversion contained in Act SPPA but the diversion limit for certain types of criminal acts and threats of punishment under seven 7 years and not a repetition criminal recidivists. This indicates that Act SPPA still contained a retributive justice not promote the interests of protection for child.

  3. Criminal Drug Policy: The Role of Public Defense and Criminal Selectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Thiago Fernandes Dias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to analyze the importance of the Public Defender's Office in the defense of persons accused of drug trafficking and the study of criminal selectivity in the current Criminal Drug Policy in Brazil. For the clientele of the penal system is usually composed of people belonging to the lowest social levels and these are precisely those assisted by the Public Defender, since they are part of this process of selective and unequal criminalization of people within the total population and are the main targets Of the stereotype pursued as drug trafficker.

  4. Criminal recidivism of incarcerated male nonviolent offenders in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Lo, T Wing; Zhong, Lena Y; Chui, Wing Hong

    2015-02-01

    Criminal recidivism of the incarcerated population in Hong Kong has rarely been studied. The purpose of this study is to explore the recidivism rates and to identify significant predictors of reoffending among incarcerated male offenders convicted of a nonviolent offense in Hong Kong. Using a self-reported methodological design, 278 offenders were sampled. These offenders' immediate past incarceration is used as the benchmark for this recidivism study. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year recidivism rates are 21%, 68%, and 87%, respectively. The findings denote that offending history, psychological attributes, interpersonal relationships, and environmental influences are significant reoffending risk factors. These findings, especially the alarming failure rates, highlight the need to seriously assess the effectiveness of intervention strategies used by the Hong Kong correctional system in preventing future offending. Implications for intervention strategies with emphasis on the risk factors for recidivism are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Criminality and Sexual Behaviours in Substance Dependents Seeking Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Alessandra; Pillon, Sandra Cristina; Dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Rassool, G Hussein; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the link between violence, crime, and sexual behavior among patients with substance-related disorder admitted to a specialized inpatient care unit. This was a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, drug of choice (DOC), questions about sexual behavior, and instruments to evaluate the severity of dependence (SADD, DAST, FTND), level of impulsivity (BIS-11), and a screening sex addiction scale. The sample consisted of 587 adult subjects, of which 82.3% were men, 66.4% had used cocaine (sniffed and smoked) as their DOC, 24.4% had a history with the criminal justice system, 26.8% had committed crimes, 19.3% had engaged in violent behavior, and 12.2% had been involved in drug trafficking. In this sample, crime was strongly associated with various sexual behaviors and the severity of substance dependence.

  6. The role of marriage in criminal recidivism: a longitudinal and co-relative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Lönn, S L; Sundquist, J; Sundquist, K

    2017-12-01

    Marriage is associated with a reduced rate of criminal recidivism, but the underlying mechanisms have only partly been elucidated. We seek to clarify the nature of the association between marriage and recidivism and how that relationship may be moderated as a function of gender, deviance of spouse, a history of violence and familial risk. We utilise a longitudinal cohort design consisting of Swedish men (n = 239 328) and women (n = 72 280), born between 1958 and 1986, who were convicted of at least one crime before age 20 and were not married prior to age 20. The analyses used Cox regression with marriage as a time-dependent covariate. We also perform co-relative analyses in sibling and first cousin pairs. Marriage after a first crime substantially reduces risk of recidivism in both males (hazard ratio (HR) with key covariates and 95% confidence intervals 0.55, 0.53-0.57) and females (HR = 0.38, 0.34-0.42), although the effect is stronger in females. Marriage to a deviant spouse increases recidivism rates in males. In males, a history of violent criminality and high familial risk, respectively, decrease and increase sensitivity to the protective effect of marriage on recidivism. Consistent with a causal effect of marriage on recidivism, marriage was associated with a decline in risk for criminal relapse comparable with that in the population in both male-male sibling pairs (raw HR = 0.53, 0.45-0.62) and cousin pairs (HR = 0.55, 0.47, 0.65) concordant for prior convictions. The protective effect of marriage on risk for criminal recidivism is likely largely causal and is of importance in both males and females. Those at high familial risk for criminal behaviour are more sensitive to the protective effects of marriage.

  7. A Study of personality profile and criminal behavior in substance abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Aggarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the personality characteristics and criminal behavior in the substance abusers. The role of various sociodemographic variables in substance abusers, which affected their criminal behavior was also studied. Moreover, in the present study, the personality profile of substance users and nonusers was compared using psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism (PEN inventory. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 consecutive subjects diagnosed as per International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria for substance abuse, fulfilling the inclusive and exclusive criteria were taken. A well-matched control was also assessed to compare the studied subject using a well-designed semi-structured proforma and PEN inventory. Results: Most of the substance abusers were Hindus, married, belonged to 21-30 age group and urban domicile, and were presently unemployed, educated up to middle class, and belonged to lower socioeconomic status. Family history of substance use was significant in the subjects, and the chief substance of use was opioids. Scores for psychoticism and neuroticism, as well as the criminal behavior was significantly higher in studied subjects. Conclusion: Thus, conclusions drawn were that personality characteristics of the substance abusers differed significantly from the control group and second, the number of variables including occupational status, socioeconomic status, family history of substance use, and type of substance of abuse significantly correlated with the criminal behavior in the substance abusers. Identifying these variables can be the first step in the intervention in substance abusers in order to reduce their future criminal behavior.

  8. Ultima Ratio in European Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakari Melander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultima ratio principle is one of the most well known traditional principles of criminal law. The principle has emphasized the repressive nature of the criminal justice system and positioned it as the last resort of the legislator. The principle has been developed mainly in legal scholarship with a national undertone, while criminal law has traditionally been seen as a pronouncedly national branch of law. However, criminal law has recently been strongly internationalized and Europeanized. This development necessarily needs to affect the principles that legitimate the use of the criminal justice system. There is a need for developing principles that could legitimate criminal law (cooperation that surpasses the national level. The article, thus, examines whether there is a role for the ultima ratio principle in European criminal law. The main focus is on EU criminal law. The article suggests that there are several signs of recognizing the ultima ratio principle in EU criminal law. The principle is recognizable in the principle of subsidiarity, within which ultima ratio may have a federal dimension. Most of all, the principle of proportionality shares several similarities with the ultima ratio principle. If these dimensions were fully examined and utilized, there is a possibility that legitimizing principles for EU criminal law could be formulated at considerable depth. El principio de ultima ratio es uno de los principios tradicionales más conocidos del derecho penal. El principio ha puesto en relieve el carácter represivo del sistema de justicia penal y se ha convertido en el último recurso del legislador. El principio se ha desarrollado principalmente en la comunidad académica legal con un trasfondo nacional, mientras que el derecho penal se ha concebido tradicionalmente como una rama marcadamente nacional del derecho. En los últimos años, sin embargo, el derecho penal se ha internacionalizado y europeizado en gran medida. Esta evoluci

  9. Intelligence, previous convictions and interrogative suggestibility: a path analysis of alleged false-confession cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, R; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and previous convictions among 108 defendants in criminal trials, using a path analysis technique. It was hypothesized that previous convictions, which may provide defendants with interrogative experiences, would correlate negatively with 'shift' as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (Gudjonsson, 1984a), after intelligence and memory had been controlled for. The hypothesis was partially confirmed and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  10. Childhood and Adolescent Predictors of Late Onset Criminal Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Georgia; Farrington, David P.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the emergence of a criminal career in adulthood. The main hypothesis tested is that late criminal onset (at age 21 or later) is influenced by early factors that delay antisocial manifestations. The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD) was used to examine early determinants of criminal behavior. 400 Inner London…

  11. Criminal adjudication by state courts under the FDRE constitution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the one hand, the dualism of the court structure presupposes that the federal courts adjudicate federal criminal matters, where as state courts adjudicate state criminal matters. This principle is accompanied by an exception that the state courts adjudicate federal criminal matters by delegation power. On the other hand, ...

  12. The Criminal Personality: A Dialogue with Stanton Samenow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, George A.

    1984-01-01

    Interviews Stanton Samenow who explains his belief that environmental conditions and mental illness do not cause criminal behavior, and defends the clinical approach used in his work. Describes his recent book "Inside the Criminal Mind" and its recommendations for change of government policy toward criminals. (LLL)

  13. 33 CFR 1.07-90 - Criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal penalties. 1.07-90... GENERAL PROVISIONS Enforcement; Civil and Criminal Penalty Proceedings § 1.07-90 Criminal penalties. (a... death. (2) Marine Boards (46 CFR part 4). (3) Violations of port security regulations (33 CFR parts 6...

  14. The Productivity of Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeZee, Matthew R.

    The scholarly productivity of criminology and criminal justice faculty and programs was investigated. The methodologies that were used to rate journals that publish articles in the criminology/criminal justice field and to select 71 schools with graduate programs in criminology or criminal justice are described. Primary interest focused on…

  15. On the Issue of the Concept "Coercive Criminality"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pestereva Y. S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the actual problems relating to the concept of coercive criminality. Here is determined the lexical scope of the concept "coercion"; the philosophical and criminal law contents of the researched term are compared; the types of the coercive criminality are determined.

  16. Fair Press or Trial Prejudice?: Perceptions of Criminal Defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherard, Regina Ganelle

    1987-01-01

    Examines criminal defendants' perceptions of the free press/fair trial issue with respect to perceived influences of media coverage on the disposition of criminal cases and the outcome of criminal trials. Concludes that the press' influence on trials is generally perceived as minimal and fair. (MM)

  17. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., an investigation by the military police, U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC) or other... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Records Administration § 635.5 Police...

  18. Civilisation of Criminal Justice: Restorative Justice amongst other strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. Blad (John)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be explained? Could Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be explained? Could Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be

  19. The criminal sanctions of commercial deceptions in Ethiopia: Could ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been contended that criminalization of commercial wrongs would chill economic activities due to the over-deterrence effect of criminal sanctions. However, a growing amount of legal literature has emerged in this area and it has indicated that deceptive commercial behaviors deserve criminal sanctions since they ...

  20. The right to a fair appeal in international criminal law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djukic, Drazan

    2017-01-01

    The Right to a Fair Appeal in International Criminal Law – Layman’s Summary A criminal trial does not end after the first judgment of a court. A person is only finally found guilty or innocent after one or more appeals. Appeals thus have an important place in the criminal justice system. However,

  1. 46 CFR 5.69 - Evidence of criminal liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INVESTIGATION REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Statement of Policy and Interpretation § 5.69 Evidence of criminal liability. Evidence of criminal liability discovered during an investigation or hearing conducted pursuant... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence of criminal liability. 5.69 Section 5.69...

  2. 21 CFR 1405.625 - Criminal drug statute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criminal drug statute. 1405.625 Section 1405.625 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.625 Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means a...

  3. Page | 14 STATES' CRIMINAL JURISDICTION UNDER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Over the past few years, the extent to which international law allows States to exercise their jurisdiction .... International law also permits States to exercise criminal jurisdiction over crimes committed on foreign ..... Kourula, 'Universal Jurisdiction for Core International Crimes' in Bergsmo and Yan (eds) State Sovereignty.

  4. Page | 14 STATES' CRIMINAL JURISDICTION UNDER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Abstract. Over the past few years, the extent to which international law allows States to exercise their jurisdiction in criminal matters has been a subject of diplomatic tensions between States. The purpose of this paper is to shed some light, on the question as to what extent a State, powerful or weak, has a right under.

  5. CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY IN SPAIN: PRESENT AND FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis González

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of legal psychology, as it is understood in Spain, we can distinguish between the applications of psychology in the different steps of the judicial process: in police stations during criminal investigations, in court when the perpetrators have already been identified and arrested, and in prisons where they are eventually sent after being convicted. This paper argues that when psychology assists the criminal investigation in the first step of the judicial process - the police activities-, we are talking about criminal psychology, at two levels: the operational level (mostly pertaining to criminal psychology and the strategic level (shared with other areas of expertise. After describing its peculiarities and specific areas, in analogy with the support provided by other forensic sciences, we explain that in Spain this specialty is carried out professionally from within our own police forces, with a profile that is very different from the more traditional police psychology, and in close collaboration with the academic environment with regard to the scientific development of techniques and procedures.

  6. Cyber Forensics Ontology for Cyber Criminal Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heum; Cho, Sunho; Kwon, Hyuk-Chul

    We developed Cyber Forensics Ontology for the criminal investigation in cyber space. Cyber crime is classified into cyber terror and general cyber crime, and those two classes are connected with each other. The investigation of cyber terror requires high technology, system environment and experts, and general cyber crime is connected with general crime by evidence from digital data and cyber space. Accordingly, it is difficult to determine relational crime types and collect evidence. Therefore, we considered the classifications of cyber crime, the collection of evidence in cyber space and the application of laws to cyber crime. In order to efficiently investigate cyber crime, it is necessary to integrate those concepts for each cyber crime-case. Thus, we constructed a cyber forensics domain ontology for criminal investigation in cyber space, according to the categories of cyber crime, laws, evidence and information of criminals. This ontology can be used in the process of investigating of cyber crime-cases, and for data mining of cyber crime; classification, clustering, association and detection of crime types, crime cases, evidences and criminals.

  7. Mapping Criminal Governance in African Cities | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Institute for Security Studies (ISS), through its Organized Crime and Money Laundering Programme (OCML), to explore the causal links between weak state authority and the emergence of criminal governance structures in two cities: Cape Town, South Africa, and Dakar, Sénégal. Researchers will ...

  8. 28 JURISDICTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    a result of hard negotiations, it was agreed that the Rome Statute prohibits the criminal responsibility of persons for ... a given court has the power to determine a jurisdictional question is itself a jurisdictional question. ... Legally defined, jurisdiction is the power of a court to adjudicate cases and issue orders. Traditionally, an ...

  9. 22 CFR 1101.16 - Criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Criminal penalties. 1101.16 Section 1101.16 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES... public notice of a system of records as required by 5 U.S.C. 552a(e)(4). ...

  10. The Hispanic Experience of Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissons, Peter L.

    This monograph explores the Hispanic experience of the criminal justice system by examining statistics provided by Federal, State, and local agencies. A review of the literature provides a theoretical perspective from which to view the data. Examination of the first set of data begins with a description of the experiences of Puerto Ricans in the…

  11. Criminal Justice Research Is about People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, John P.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that the Golden Age of criminal justice research has ended with an impending era of austerity. Reviews the work done in the past forty years and recommends a return to the people-oriented research that characterized the Chicago School of the early '20s rather than systems research. (Author/JAC)

  12. Asset Freezing: Smart Sanction or Criminal Charge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa van den Broek

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article the question is asked whether asset freezing can be qualified as a criminal charge within the meaning of Article6 ECHR and if yes, what effects this qualification may have on the legislative framework on so called smart sanctions. Byanalysing Community and EU law and case law of the European Court of Human Rights, General Court of Instance andCourt of Justice of the European Communities the authors give an overview of the notion and possible qualification of assetfreezing as a criminal charge. The article further focusses on the consequenses of qualifying asset freezing as a criminal chargeunder ECHR and EC/EU law and concludes by answering the aforementioned question.This article is a rewrite of a research paper written under supervision of prof. dr. J.A.E. Vervaele and prof. dr. C.H. Brants(Willem Pompe Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology, Utrecht University School of Law, whom the authors wouldlike to thank for their useful comments and supervision.

  13. Media-Cultivated Perceptions of Criminal Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogles, Robert M.

    Many television viewers construct their social reality from media content as well as from sensory and interpersonally communicated information. One aspect of this media-influenced social reality is television viewers' estimates of crime in society, or their fear of criminal victimization. Several media-effects studies have demonstrated the…

  14. 25 CFR 41.13 - Criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION GRANTS TO TRIBALLY CONTROLLED COMMUNITY COLLEGES AND NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.13 Criminal penalties. Persons..., report, or other document, upon which the provision of Federal financial assistance or any other payment...

  15. 25 CFR 41.28 - Criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION GRANTS TO TRIBALLY CONTROLLED COMMUNITY COLLEGES AND NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Navajo Community College § 41.28 Criminal penalties. Persons submitting or... other document, upon which the provision of the Federal financial assistance, or any other payment of...

  16. JUDICIAL COOPERATION IN THE CRIMINAL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Karceva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of crime throughout the eras has increased at an alarming rate. It has expanded, evolved and gone through many different forms and stages. With the formation of the EU and the expulsion of internal borders, as well as the insurance of greater liberty and freedom of movement, acts of crime and the number of criminals have drastically increased. Its enormous growth and expansion, especially in the form of crime betwixt country borders (within EU territory, has desperately called for change and development within the norms of criminal law. However, with the view that criminal law in most EU nations has its own specific and varied markings, and since a supranational criminal law does not exist, there has arisen a dire need for cooperation within this sphere. The globalization of transnational organized crime and its entry within the legal sector of these member countries has been the reason for the development of court cooperation within Europe. Cooperation between the courts was achieved through a tight collaboration between the court services and other regulatory organs/authorities of the member countries. This court cooperation is conducted through very varied activities carried out by the different countries, which are in turn guaranteed through different conventions, bilateral and multilateral agreements/treaties. There exist many other kinds of legal support when viewing court cooperation that one member country can provide to another member country, for which information will be provided further in the text.

  17. Status of Forces and Criminal Jurisdiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joop Voetelink

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the legal status of armed forces present in friendly foreign territory with a special focus on criminal jurisdiction. Traditionally, this issue has been considered from the perspective of public international law in which immunities play an important role. However, this

  18. Russian criminal corporate victimology: notion, subject, prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Kabanov, P.

    2012-01-01

    The article grounds the necessity to elaborate the modern field of victimilogy the Russian criminal corporate victimology, gives its criminological definition, describes the basic structural elements of the suggested scientific field, and marks the prospective directions of its development in the nearest future.

  19. White Collar Criminality: A Prediction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    social disorganization, and conflict; sociological criminology takes a critical stance toward the society itself as generator of criminal conduct (Hagan...According to the theory, the environment contaminates the individual by promoting the internalization of criminalistic patterns, or by failing to...cited in Buikhuisen & Mednick, 1988, p. 9). 3 Psychology can contribute to criminology research by the application of its theories, both the

  20. Women, criminality and multifocal empowerment responses: some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... women constitute a growing subset of the entire prison population whose needs are different from those of men. whereas factors that draw women to criminal activities may not differ markedly for men and women, women's crime is a reaction to the special circumstances of their prolonged victimization and dispossession.

  1. The Offense of Homicide by the Victim’s Request according to the Romanian Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora-Ioana RUSU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have examined the offense of homicide by the request of the victim, newly introduced in the Romanian Criminal Law. As it results from its legal content this incrimination envisages the exceptional situation of the person, suffering from an incurable illness or a permanent medically certified disability, causing permanent and unbearable sufferings, and in this situation, the person asks someone to end their life in order to put an end to the unbearable sufferings. The justification for sanctioning such acts is motivated also by the provisions of article 22 paragraph (2 Criminal Code, according to which the consent of the injured person does not take effect for the crimes against life and when the law excludes its justifying effect. We also appreciate that this act, due to its marginal title homicide at the request of the victim and not at murder at the request of the victim, it cannot be in the history of the person who committed the act in the case of qualified murder provided for in article 189 paragraph (1, letter e of the Criminal Code. The paper continues further examination carried out in connection to the offenses under the New Criminal Code. Given the novelty in the Romanian law, the study may be useful both to theorists and practitioners.

  2. Controversies Concerning the Canadian Not Criminally Responsible Reform Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Robert; O'Shaughnessy, Roy; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2017-03-01

    In Canada, individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder are subject to the disposition recommendations of the Provincial or Territorial Review Board of the jurisdiction where the offense was committed. Bill C-14, known as "The Not Criminally Responsible Reform Act" made changes to the postverdict disposition process of these individuals. This legislation was consistent with a broader "tough-on-crime" agenda of the previous federal government. The legislative changes codify that Review Boards take public safety as the "paramount consideration" in making their recommendations. The legislation also creates a new "high-risk" category for certain offenders and imposes limitations on their liberty. Further, Bill C-14 seeks to enhance victim involvement in the disposition process. The passage of this legislation has generated significant controversy in the medical and legal fields. Critics have stated that there is an absence of empirical evidence on which to base the amendments, that the legislation was an overreaction to high-profile cases, and that Bill C-14 is in questionable compliance with the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. In this review, we explore the potential catalysts involved in the creation of Bill C-14, the controversy surrounding the legislation, and the potential future impact on practicing forensic psychiatrists and on the forensic mental health system in Canada. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  3. The Special Criminal Courts and Criminal Transaction: The Unnecessary Freedom of Private Penalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidysson José Brito de Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the historical circumstances that led to the emergence of the Special Criminal Courts as well as the institutes introduced by Law No. 9,099 / 95, it emphasizes the criminal transaction. It can be notice that the inclusion of a new systematic procedural came from the need to give a better response to the petty crime. For this purpose, the paternal legislator inserted in the parental order some institutes, if they do not reformulate, which it aims to grant new possibilities to the criminal justice system, especially the criminal transaction, innovation which privilege the principle of no need deprivation of liberty. This way the composition of civil damages, the conditional suspension of the proceedings and the criminal transaction emerged as a way to introduce a thought turned to the consensual resolution of criminal claims, based on decriminalization. It was used bibliographical research as methodology. It aims to understand the historical moment that they gave the news, as well as the reason that led the legislator to choose this issue.

  4. Specific deterrence, community context, and drunk driving: an event history analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Bae; Teske, Raymond H C

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies about recidivism of offenders have focused primarily on the nature of the sanctions and factors specific to the individual offender. This study addressed both individual and community factors, using a cohort of felony-level, driving while intoxicated (DWI) probationers (N = 370) charged in Harris County, Texas. The study investigated specific deterrent effects of sanctions on success or failure of probationers while controlling for the community contexts to observe how informal social control processes contextualize individual-level predictors. Results of a series of event history analyses tracking probationers for a period of 8 years indicated that severity of punishment, swiftness of punishment, criminal history, and completion of DWI education programs significantly affected the probationer's survival time, whereas no significant influence of community contexts on survival time or success was observed. Reducing the felony charge to a misdemeanor, a shorter period of probation, and past criminal history, combined with an almost immediate guilty plea, were significantly associated with short-term failure on probation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Personality-related determinants of criminal recidivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to explore personality-related determinants of recidivism, with recidivism being defined as a the number of lawful sentences a person had (criminal legal recidivism, and b the number of prison sentences pronounced (penal recidivism. The study was carried out in two independent samples: a convicts from the Correctional Institution of Belgrade - Penitentiary of Padinska Skela (N=113, and b convicts from the Special Prison Hospital in Belgrade (N =112. The variables of the Five-Factor Model of Personality (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were measured, together with two additional basic personality traits: Disintegration (a broad dimension of psychosis-proneness, and Amorality (three factors representing a disposition to amoral forms of behavior. In addition, psychopathy (Manipulative and Antisocial tendencies - a psychological entity expected to most successfully predict criminal recidivism - was measured as well. The efficiency of prediction of the two criteria of recidivism was assessed separately in each of those two samples. The results revealed differences in the orchestration of predictors depending on the kind of recidivism as the criterion and the severity of offense. The most important predictors of both forms of recidivism in the sample of convicts with lower intensity of criminal behavior were psychopathic traits. However, in the sample of convicts with higher intensity and variety of criminal behavior, the most important predictors of the number of sentences were Antisociality and Amorality Induced by Frustration, while the most important predictors of the number of prison sanctions were Amorality Induced by Brutality and Disintegration. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47011: Criminality in Serbia: Phenomenology, Risks and Possibilities of Social Prevention i br. 179018: Identification, Measurement and Development of Cognitive and Emotional

  6. Criminal proceedings involving children in conflict with the law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolocan-Holban Augustina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available At each stage of criminal procedure involving children (juveniles in conflict with the law, it is important to be ensured the fundamental rights provided by international standards, as well by national criminal legislation. Starting with the first contact of the child with criminal justice system until the pronunciation of the decision by the Court, including the enforcement of the punishment, the juvenile must be supervised by qualified professionals from criminal justice system, who could intervene in each moment with a purpose of providing pertinent information to criminal investigative body and to the Court, in order to establish a proportionate and equitable punishment.

  7. Protection provided by criminal law against hazards of nuclear energy and the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Also a survey of the history of definition of offences against the atomic energy law and radiation protection law in the Federal Republic of Germany. Der strafrechtliche Schutz vor den Gefahren der Kernenergie und den schaedlichen Wirkungen ionisierender Strahlen. Zugleich eine Darstellung der historischen Entwicklung der Kernenergie- und Strahlendelikte in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, M.

    1989-01-01

    The subjects, principles and purpose of the atomic energy law and the radiation protection law are set out, and criminal offences under atomic energy law are outlined explaining the legal terminology applied. The peaceful uses of nuclear energy and radioactive materials are briefly discussed, primarily looking at the hazards involved and the protective role of criminal law principles that have been developed in connection with the atomic energy law and its application in practice. The draft version of the 16th criminal law amendment act - Act to combat environmental delinquency - is discussed, which aims at adoption of all criminal offences under atomic energy law by the Criminal Code. The book furthermore presents considerations about basic features of delinquency under atomic energy and radiation protection law, revealing elements and facts of offences defined, and particular problems resulting thereof. The question arises, e.g., whether an incorporation of the provisions into the Special Annex to the Criminal Code, in sections 27 and 28, is a wise and suitable decision. The book finally discusses the development of definition of criminal offences by a de lege feranda approach, referring to (1) the Chernobyl reactor accident, (2) the Nuclear Safeguards agreements, and (3) the definition of maximum permissible radiation dose. (HP).

  8. Criminal thinking styles and emotional intelligence in Egyptian offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megreya, Ahmed M

    2013-02-01

    The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) has been applied extensively to the study of criminal behaviour and cognition. Increasingly growing evidence indicates that criminal thinking styles vary considerably among individuals, and these individual variations appear to be crucial for a full understanding of criminal behaviour. This study aimed to examine individual differences in criminal thinking as a function of emotional intelligence. A group of 56 Egyptian male prisoners completed the PICTS and Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). The correlations between these assessments were examined using a series of Pearson correlations coefficients, with Bonferroni correction. General criminal thinking, reactive criminal thinking and five criminal thinking styles (mollification, cutoff, power orientation, cognitive indolence and discontinuity) negatively correlated with emotional intelligence. On the other hand, proactive criminal thinking and three criminal thinking styles (entitlement, superoptimism and sentimentality) did not associate with emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is an important correlate of individual differences in criminal thinking, especially its reactive aspects. Practical implications of this suggestion were discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Do Demographic Factors Moderate How Well Criminal Thinking Predicts Recidivism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Johanna B; Stuewig, Jeffrey B; Blasko, Brandy L; Caudy, Michael; Martinez, Andres G; Maass, Stephanie; Taxman, Faye S; Tangney, June P

    2017-02-01

    Is the relationship between criminal thinking and recidivism the same for criminal justice-involved individuals from varying demographic backgrounds? Relying on two independent samples of offenders and two measures of criminal thinking, the current studies examined whether four demographic factors-gender, race, age, and education-moderated the relationship between criminal thinking and recidivism. Study 1 consisted of 226 drug-involved probationers enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. Study 2 consisted of 346 jail inmates from a longitudinal study. Logistic regression models suggested that the strength of the relationship between criminal thinking and subsequent recidivism did not vary based on participant demographics, regardless of justice system setting or measure of criminal thinking. Criminal thinking predicts recidivism similarly for people who are male, female, Black, White, older, younger, and more or less educated.

  10. Making Immigrants into Criminals: Legal Processes of Criminalization in the Post-IIRIRA Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leisy Abrego

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During a post-election TV interview that aired mid-November 2016, then President-Elect Donald Trump claimed that there are millions of so-called “criminal aliens” living in the United States: “What we are going to do is get the people that are criminal and have criminal records, gang members, drug dealers, we have a lot of these people, probably two million, it could be even three million, we are getting them out of our country or we are going to incarcerate.” This claim is a blatant misrepresentation of the facts. A recent report by the Migration Policy Institute suggests that just over 800,000 (or 7 percent of the 11 million undocumented individuals in the United States have criminal records. Of this population, 300,000 individuals are felony offenders and 390,000 are serious misdemeanor offenders — tallies which exclude more than 93 percent of the resident undocumented population (Rosenblum 2015, 22-24.[1] Moreover, the Congressional Research Service found that 140,000 undocumented migrants — or slightly more than 1 percent of the undocumented population — are currently serving time in prison in the United States (Kandel 2016. The facts, therefore, are closer to what Doris Meissner, former Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS Commissioner, argues: that the number of “criminal aliens” arrested as a percentage of all fugitive immigration cases is “modest” (Meissner et al. 2013, 102-03. The facts notwithstanding, President Trump’s fictional tally is important to consider because it conveys an intent to produce at least this many people who — through discourse and policy — can be criminalized and incarcerated or deported as “criminal aliens.” In this article, we critically review the literature on immigrant criminalization and trace the specific laws that first linked and then solidified the association between undocumented immigrants and criminality. To move beyond a legal, abstract context, we also draw on

  11. Several criminal, phenomenological and etiological features of criminal offences of counterfeiting money in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Milot Krasniqi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Kosovo is making efforts as a young state to strengthen rule of law and efficiently combat criminality in general, and specifically organized crime, as a condition for its journey towards European integration perspectives.  For a normal functioning of the economic system, the safety and protection of controlled circulation of money are of vital importance. In this direction, the state takes actions and measures to ensure that manufacturing and emissions of banknotes and bonds are undertaken by competent authorities, such as the Central Bank, and render impossible the counterfeiting of money. In Kosovo, money counterfeiting is not widely studied. Consequently, there are no recent research papers over the time when these offences have marked rather high records. This circumstance, and especially the fact that these offences are rather frequent in Kosovo, made me enter the research of this type of criminality.    Apart from principles and rules stipulated by special laws of the field of economy, protection of the economic system is also helped by the Criminal Code, which incriminates the act of counterfeit money as a criminal offence against the economic system, thereby ensuring general prevention of potential offenders, and repressive measures against confirmed offenders. Protection of economic and monetary systems is also provided upon by numerous international acts.  The paper is permeated by conclusions, analysis and independent recommendations, which I believe will contribute de lege ferrenda to criminal policies in preventing and combating this type of crime. In researching the criminal offences of counterfeiting money, I have used the method of historical materialism, dogmatic law method, statistical methods, surveys and interviews, and studies of individual cases.    From the research of this type of crime, I have concluded that these criminal offences are a serious type of crime, which may result in major individual

  12. The influence of anogenital injury on women's willingness to engage with the criminal justice process after rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Bonnie Sue; Kaplan, Alyssa; Budescu, Mia; Fargo, Jamison; Tiller, Deborah; Everett, Janine; Sommers, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Medical-legal-social science research has documented that nongenital and/or anogenital injuries play a significant role throughout the criminal justice system from victims reporting to judges determining the length of a sentence. What remains an open question is whether the documentation of anogenital injury influences women's willingness to engage in the criminal justice system. A sample of women age 21 years and older residing in an urban area were asked about willingness to report to police, file charges, and work with the courts to prosecute after rape. Questions were framed with a qualifying statement about the forensic examination being able to detect injury related to forced sexual intercourse. Results show that women had a high willingness to act if the examination could detect anogenital injury and women with and without a history of forced sexual intercourse had significant differences in their responses to these questions. Implications for health care, criminal justice system, and future research are discussed.

  13. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  14. Military experience helps setting reasonable personality characteristics but does not alter the criminal behavior-related impression of negative parental experience and alcoholism in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongyu; Ye, Yuqin; Zhang, Xuesi; Hao, Yelu; Shi, Fei; Yuan, Guohao; Wu, Yan; Fei, Zhou; He, Xiaosheng

    2016-10-30

    Personalities are determined by convergent factors, including physical environment, culture, special experience, and heredity. It has been shown that abuse of substance and alcohol among individuals with personality disorders predict criminality (Glenn and Raine, 2014; Hernandez-Avila et al., 2000). Thus, it is important to clarify the relationship between psychological characteristics and valence of criminal practice, even in the population without substance abuse. Here, we focused on a population with military experience in Shaanxi province of China to screen the psychological characteristics and correlate these characteristics to criminal behaviors. The study population included incarcerated veterans, incarcerated civilians, and three groups of military troops with different lengths of active duty history (criminal behavior of incarcerated veterans seem to be unrelated to their military service per se as evidenced by the control groups. Conversely, military service may benefit the personnel characteristics even in the incarcerated veteran population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Forensic mycology: the use of fungi in criminal investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawksworth, David L; Wiltshire, Patricia E J

    2011-03-20

    This is the first overview to be published of the whole field of forensic mycology. It is based on all available information located in the literature, together with 13 examples from recent casework. Background information on fungi is given, and this is followed by an outline of the value, and potentially wide application, of mycology in criminal investigation. Applications include roles in: providing trace evidence; estimating time since death (post-mortem interval); ascertaining time of deposition; investigating cause of death, hallucinations, or poisonings; locating buried corpses; and biological warfare. Previous work has been critically evaluated, with particular attention to its evidential value, and suitability for presentation in a court of law. The situations where mycology might assist an investigation are summarised, and issues relating to the further development of the subject are presented. A comprehensive bibliography with 120 citations is provided. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection measures in real-life criminal guilty knowledge tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaad, E; Ginton, A; Jungman, N

    1992-10-01

    The present study provides a first attempt to compare the validity of the respiration line length (RLL) and skin resistance response (SRR) amplitude in real-life criminal guilty knowledge tests (GKTs). GKT records of 40 innocent and 40 guilty Ss, for whom actual truth was established by confession, were assessed for their accuracy. When a predefined decision rule was used and inconclusive decisions were excluded, 97.4% of the innocent Ss and 53.3% of the guilty Ss were correctly classified with the SRR measure. For the RLL measure, the respective results were 97.2% and 53.1%. The combination of both measures improved detection of guilty Ss to 75.8% and decreased detection of innocent Ss to 94.1%. The combined measure seems to be a more useful means of identifying guilty suspects than each physiological measure alone. The results elaborate and extend those obtained in a previous field study conducted by Elaad (1990).

  17. Modeling Criminal Activity in Urban Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantingham, Patricia; Glässer, Uwe; Jackson, Piper; Vajihollahi, Mona

    Computational and mathematical methods arguably have an enormous potential for serving practical needs in crime analysis and prevention by offering novel tools for crime investigations and experimental platforms for evidence-based policy making. We present a comprehensive formal framework and tool support for mathematical and computational modeling of criminal behavior to facilitate systematic experimental studies of a wide range of criminal activities in urban environments. The focus is on spatial and temporal aspects of different forms of crime, including opportunistic and serial violent crimes. However, the proposed framework provides a basis to push beyond conventional empirical research and engage the use of computational thinking and social simulations in the analysis of terrorism and counter-terrorism.

  18. The interaction of criminal procedure and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxminarayan, Malini; Pemberton, Antony

    2014-01-01

    Procedural quality is an important aspect of crime victims' experiences in criminal proceedings and consists of different dimensions. Two of these dimensions are procedural justice (voice) and interpersonal justice (respectful treatment). Social psychological research has suggested that both voice and respectful treatment are moderated by the impact of outcomes of justice procedures on individuals' reactions. To add to this research, we extend this assertion to the criminal justice context, examining the interaction between the assessment of procedural quality and outcome favorability with victim's trust in the legal system and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses reveal that voice, respectful treatment and outcome favorability are predictive of trust in the legal system and self-esteem. Further investigation reveals that being treated with respect is only related to trust in the legal system when outcome favorability is high. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Crime and criminal justice in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ghiringhelli de Azevedo

    Full Text Available After a presentation of indicators that allow assessing the degree of democratization of the criminal justice system in the context of democratization process in Latin America, this article points out the discrepancy existing in that domain, in the several instances that make up the justice system, from criminal legislation to the prison system. Examining the specific situation of Brazil and Argentina, problems in the functioning of institutions responsible by crime as well as the increase in crime control are pointed out as factors that cause a growing loss of legitimacy for the system, which is unable to justify its high degree of selectivity and authoritarianism. Some efforts under way to approach that phenomenon are listed. Finally, a few alternatives for institutional improvement are presented, among which the action of social scientists by producing research and analyses, as a crucial instrument to enlarge institutional ability to deal with current social conflict on democratic bases.

  20. A Framework for visualization of criminal networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasheed, Amer

    analysis. Thirdly, the investigator should perform a certain set of rules for conducting the investigative analysis. Finally, the investigator ought to think at an abstract level and view the details from an angle, overlooked by others. Visualization comes handy in this situation. The purpose of doing......This Ph.D. thesis describes research concerning the application of criminal network visualization in the field of investigative analysis. There are number of way with which the investigative analysis can locate the hidden motive behind any criminal activity. Firstly, the investigative analyst must...... visualization is to let the users put less effort into recognizing the requirements, preferably within a short instance of time. In this way, the investigator focuses on his/her cause rather than using resources on irrelevant details. Much research is being conducted in visual analytics, dynamics in social...

  1. Keeping Pace with Criminals: An Extended Study of Designing Patrol Allocation against Adaptive Opportunistic Criminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Game theoretic approaches have recently been used to model the deterrence effect of patrol officers’ assignments on opportunistic crimes in urban areas. One major challenge in this domain is modeling the behavior of opportunistic criminals. Compared to strategic attackers (such as terrorists who execute a well-laid out plan, opportunistic criminals are less strategic in planning attacks and more flexible in executing well-laid plans based on their knowledge of patrol officers’ assignments. In this paper, we aim to design an optimal police patrolling strategy against opportunistic criminals in urban areas. Our approach is comprised by two major parts: learning a model of the opportunistic criminal (and how he or she responds to patrols and then planning optimal patrols against this learned model. The planning part, by using information about how criminals responds to patrols, takes into account the strategic game interaction between the police and criminals. In more detail, first, we propose two categories of models for modeling opportunistic crimes. The first category of models learns the relationship between defender strategy and crime distribution as a Markov chain. The second category of models represents the interaction of criminals and patrol officers as a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN with the number of criminals as the unobserved hidden states. To this end, we: (i apply standard algorithms, such as Expectation Maximization (EM, to learn the parameters of the DBN; (ii modify the DBN representation that allows for a compact representation of the model, resulting in better learning accuracy and the increased speed of learning of the EM algorithm when used for the modified DBN. These modifications exploit the structure of the problem and use independence assumptions to factorize the large joint probability distributions. Next, we propose an iterative learning and planning mechanism that periodically updates the adversary model. We

  2. Crime and Criminals in Trabzon: Reflections on a Consular Repor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edip ÖNCÜ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Especially since 1960s social and economic history began to challenge the long-contested supremacy of political history in history studies. Trending social and economic historians who based their explanations of Ottoman history and Modern Turkey mostly on structuralism and Marxist theory, tried to seek the causes of the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire in certain social and economic factors giving the same universal results. This approach, while useful, had its weakness in it as it cannot answer why certain conditions do not produce the same results in different cultures and places. This study, although it delves into legal and political issues connected to social and economic conditions in an Ottoman province in fin de siecle, refrains from sticking to a single theory. Instead, this short paper aims at interpreting the concepts of “crime” and “the criminal” in respect to the perception of social justice cross-referencing several disciplines such as social psychology, law and economy with reflections on the Republican Turkey. The essay first analyses the etiology of crime and criminal in the conceptual framework of human nature and moral conscience without falling into the trap of historical determinism. Then, it proceeds into a historical context where a certain British consul, Alfred Biliotti reported his reflections in an integral province of the Ottoman Empire, Trabzon right after the legal reforms of 1879. His invaluable and insightful reports provide the connection with the first part of the essay to demonstrate the real reasons behind increasing crime rates that endured right into the Republican times. The study has its limitations in terms of the primary documents used. Among numerous reports of Biliotti investigated, only the ones that directly deals with the conceptual framework is used. Same concern was in effect when keeping the sociological and legal definitions conscise.

  3. Criminal procedure code and charter of criminal proceedings in terrorism investigation: learning from the past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarov M.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Basic procedural institutions of terrorism investigation are studied by comparing the provisions of the Charter of criminal proceedings of the Russian Empire in 1864 and the current procedural law. The comparative solutions to the following investigation problems by Charter and the Code are shown: 1 terrorists confess to less serious crimes, representing themselves as accomplices (articles 208, 222 of the RF Criminal Code to avoid punishment for terrorism (article 205 of the RF Criminal Code; 2 mass absence of prosecution witnesses at the hearing, giving reason to doubt the objectivity and the admissibility of evidence; 3 low efficiency of overt procedural activities, the need for covert operations based not on the particular fact, but on crime detection actions against terrorist organizations members; 4 the use of force during the arrest, causing the terrorists death, excludes the achievement of criminal law and criminal justice goals and also leads to the loss of evidence (to prove the guilt of the survived terrorists; 5 a significant amount of time passes between the alleged crime and passing the sentence, the minimum time of the terrorism investigation is 12 months, as a result higher courts stop the prosecution (changing the sentence for terrorists Atgeriev, Alkhazurov, Gaysumov in April 2002 by the RF Supreme Court due to the fact that more than five years have passed from the day of committing crimes till passing the sentence. The authors come to the paradoxical conclusion that the procedural law of the XIX century was much more effective than modern one.

  4. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  5. Protecting Children Rights under International Criminal Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Erinda Duraj (Male)

    2015-01-01

    Children are a central concern of international criminal justice. International crimes and other forms of violence and the abuse of children are disturbing daily realities in today’s world. Children and young persons are increasingly being targeted for the purposes of murder, rape, abduction, mutilation, recruitment as child soldiers, trafficking, sexual exploitation and other abuses. Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Colombia, and many others illustrate this. The partic...

  6. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of corruption is an old challenge of both academics and the policy community, due to the absence of an unanimously agreed upon definition and the widespread (although inaccurate) belief that owing to its informal and hidden nature, corruption is an unobservable phenomenon. The articles in this issue challenge this belief. This is a special issue of the European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research.

  7. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes in relat...... than imprison, individuals with schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that greater alertness is needed in the judicial system for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia....

  8. 12 CFR 1403.11 - Criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 1403.11 Criminal penalties. Section 552a(i)(3) of the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a(i)(3)) makes it a misdemeanor, subject to a... from an agency under false pretenses. Sections 552a(i) (1) and (2) of the Act (5 U.S.C. 552a(i) (1), (2...

  9. GST – the idea and recommendations for the prevention of criminal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Agnew

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a presentation of the main assumptions of the General Strain Theory (GST and the possibility to put theory into practice in the field of prevention of criminal behaviour. The GST was created in the ‘90s by Robert Agnew as a continuation of previous structural theories (Merton, Cloward – Ohlin, Cohen. Up to this day it has been widely verified empirically and along with other criminology theories (the theory of social learning/theory of different relations, theory of social control, theories of interaction is both a fundamental but also alternative ground for interpreting social behaviour. Due to its universal assumptions, GST is now being developed also by Polish researchers. In the article are presented the fundamental strategies of prevention of criminal behaviour based on GST and examples of particular programs being carried out in the US and Poland. Pilot studies on building in Poland a pioneer local system of prevention, based on GST, are presented. In the conclusions the authors stress the importance of GST in the genesis of criminal behaviour. The content of this article is therefore a result of an American-Polish cooperation in the field of prevention of criminal behaviour. It seems that international and based on mutual partnership approach is the hallmark of the current stage of the Polish resocialization system development.

  10. CRIMINALITY AT MINORS WITH MENTAL DEFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Kitkanj

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present, from penological aspect, the involvement and structure of recidivism at minors with mental deficiency within the whole area of juvenile criminality in Macedonia. The research covers 62 subjects who pay the penalty in juvenile penitentiary or institutional measure directing to correctional institution for minors. Of the total number of minors who hold one of the above-mentioned sanctions, minors with lower average IQ are presented with 56.4%. The shown involvement is in penological terms (refers to minors who hold institutional measure correctional institution for minors or penalty - juvenile penitentiary which does not mean that this category of juvenile delinquents participate in such percent in the total number of reported, accused and convicted minors. According to the research results it can be concluded that falling behind in intellectual development is an indicator for delinquent behavior but in no case it can be crucial or the most important factor for criminality. Of the total number of juvenile delinquents with intellectual deficit, 80% are repeat offenders in criminal legal sense. It is of great concern that 56% of the under average juvenile delinquents defied the law for the first time before the age of 14 years that is as children.

  11. The reaction to femicide in criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrićević Ana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Misogynous and sexist violence against women, which often results in death, represents a global problem. Numerous international and national legal instruments are dedicated to the prevention and sanctioning of violence against women. However, the reality implies that existing mechanisms of penal reaction to femicide, as its most extreme and brutal form, should be re-examined. Having in mind the frequency and severe consequences of this criminal offence and the discriminatory character of the message that the state sends by tolerating it or inadequately punishing its perpetrators, the author attempts to define femicide, to present basic forms of state reaction to femicide in comparative law as well as to analyze the features of femicide as an independent criminal offence. Arguing for the incrimination of femicide as an independent criminal offence, or as a special form of aggravated murder, the author points out that such solution could contribute to more precise observation of this form of crime, to a better estimation of the quality of the state‘ s reaction to it and to its more efficient suppression.

  12. The Relevant Physical Trace in Criminal Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durdica Hazard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A criminal investigation requires the forensic scientist to search and to interpret vestiges of a criminal act that happened in the past. The forensic scientist is one of the many stakeholders who take part in the information quest within the criminal justice system. She reads the investigation scene in search of physical traces that should enable her to tell the story of the offense/crime that allegedly occurred. The challenge for any investigator is to detect and recognize relevant physical traces in order to provide clues for investigation and intelligence purposes, and that will constitute sound and relevant evidence for the court. This article shows how important it is to consider the relevancy of physical traces from the beginning of the investigation and what might influence the evaluation process. The exchange and management of information between the investigation stakeholders are important. Relevancy is a dimension that needs to be understood from the standpoints of law enforcement personnel and forensic scientists with the aim of strengthening investigation and ultimately the overall judicial process.

  13. Criminal law aspects of assisted human reproduction in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous shortcomings of the Law on Infertility Treatment by Biomedically Assisted Fertilization culminate in provisions defining criminal offences. A question is raised regarding the possibility and results of the application of such criminal provisions due to the legislative technique used in the process of their creation, language, qualified forms of the offences, span of criminal sanctions, as well as having in mind the overlapping of such criminal offences with some of the misdemeanors punishable by the same Law. A possibility to provide for a criminal law protection in this highly sensitive area is put into question due to a very courageous action of the legislator reflected in the attempt to introduce criminal offences, punishable by long prison sentences.

  14. Problems of the Use of Administrative Prejudice in Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii N. Khomenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article some problems of implementation into the criminal law of the elements of crimes with administrative prejudice are analyzed. The Author conducted a theoretical qualification of the interaction of criminal and administrative law taking into account the amendments, introduced into the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation on July 15, 2016. On the basis of the examination of the opposite points of view on the existence in the criminal law of compositions of crime with administrative prejudice, the Author comes to the conclusion that the construction of data of compositions in the Russian criminal legislation is possible, but only after the clear study of the new concept of criminal-law legislation.

  15. The irresponsible criminal in Norwegian medico-legal discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skålevåg, Svein Atle

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses discourses on criminal responsibility in Norway in the 19th and 20th centuries, in light of Michel Foucault's regimes of power and knowledge: the apparatuses of law, discipline and security. The passing of two criminal codes, in 1842 and 1902 marks a development from neo-classical law to a law influenced by positivist criminology. In these consecutive ways of thinking law, the figure of the irresponsible criminal constituted a contentious issue. From being a figure marking the limits of the law, the irresponsible criminal became an object to be disciplined and a security threat. This redefinition of criminal responsibility created or was created by new groups of experts speaking from positions increasingly close to the criminals. The most important professional group was of course the psychiatrists, that emerged in Norway as a distinct professional group in the second half of the 19th century, and whose influence in the legislative process culminated in the 1920s. © 2013.

  16. Economic Analysis of Criminal Law and Liberal Criminal Law: Confluences and Forks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego H. Goldman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Not all economic analysis necessarily lead to a maximalist criminal law that threatens the fundamental rights, but on the contrary, can be found in economic science approaches perfectly compatible with the most liberal thought currents. This paper aims to make a critical study of economic theory usually associated with the Criminal EAL, its practical implications and its teleological budgets. Criticism will leave an openly liberal view, which defends the ideas and values that over the centuries have expressed such diverse thinkers as Adam Smith, Friedrich von Hayek, Robert Nozick or Juan Bautista Alberdi.

  17. On the Issue of Age Diminished Responsibility in Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova I. A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of standards of the criminal law regulating questions of age diminished responsibility is presented in article. The points of view of scientists in the field of criminal law and criminology are analysed. The problem question of a ratio of provisions of Art. 20 and Art. 22 of the criminal code of Russian Federation is designated. The option of permission of a problem question is offered

  18. Tendencies of the development of the Lithuanian criminal procedure law

    OpenAIRE

    Ažubalytė, Rima

    2010-01-01

    The tendencies of the development of the Lithuanian criminal procedure within the recent twenty years, after Lithuania has regained its independence, are analyzed in the present article. The main factors which influence lawmaking in the sphere of criminal procedure as well as in the application of the criminal procedure norms are discussed. The constitutional imperatives and the human rights, fixed in international and the European Union agreements as the main factors determining the evolutio...

  19. Criminal Procedural Agreements in China and England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The past decades have witnessed a marked convergence of various practices alongside conventional criminal proceedings containing negotiations and resulting in agreements between suspects or defendants and criminal justice authorities. These agreements, under the heading of ‘criminal procedural agreements’ (CPAs), are the objective of this study. CPA refers to various types of agreement reached between suspects, defendants or offenders (hereinafter ‘offender’ in ge...

  20. Is the high mortality risk in sentenced offenders independent of previous imprisonment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelsberg, Ellen; Laake, Petter

    2010-04-01

    The mortality in prisoners is high. However, our knowledge about the mortality in convicted offenders, irrespective of incarceration history, is limited. Our aim was to investigate possible predictors for over-all and cause specific mortality in a nation-wide study of convicted offenders with and without previous imprisonment. This case-control study drew random samples of deceased and living offenders (N = 1,112) from four complete cohorts of convicted offenders, two male (born 1967 and 1977, respectively), and two female (born 1967-70 and 1977-80, respectively). All criminal records were systematized and information about date and cause of death was collected on those deceased. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that age at first court conviction (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.84-0.93), drug related crimes (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.23-3.22), and crime diversity (1.51, 95% CI = 1.07-2.13) were significant predictors of premature death in males. In females, age at first court conviction (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.88-0.97), drug related crimes (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.37-3.69) and belonging to the oldest cohort (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.35-3.26) were significant predictors of premature death. Age at first court conviction remained a significant predictor for death in all cause specific multivariable mortality analyses. In addition, having committed drug related crimes and high crime diversity were strong predictors for substance related deaths. Males did more often die in accidents or commit suicide. Somatic deaths were most often encountered in the oldest cohort. Incarceration did not remain a significant predictor for premature death in any of the multivariable analyses. Measures intended to prevent premature death in convicted offenders should target wider populations than hitherto acknowledged.

  1. História prévia de realização de teste de Papanicolaou e câncer do colo do útero: estudo caso-controle na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Previous history of Pap smears and cervical cancer: a case-control study in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel do Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caso-controle hospitalar foi realizado de 2007 a 2010 para estimar a associação de história prévia de colpocitologia e câncer do colo do útero na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A amostra consistiu de 152 casos histologicamente confirmados e 169 controles selecionados no mesmo hospital dos casos. A análise foi feita de acordo com um modelo em três níveis hierárquicos; considerando as variáveis sociodemográficas (nível distal, sexual/reprodutivas e de estilo de vida (nível intermediário e a história prévia de colpocitologia (nível proximal. Odds ratios (OR e respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95% foram calculados pela regressão logística não condicional. Ter história prévia de três ou mais colpocitologias conferiu uma proteção de 84% (OR = 0,16; IC95%: 0,074; 0,384 após ajuste pelas variáveis selecionadas. Os resultados acentuam a importância do exame preventivo ginecológico no risco desse câncer e fortalecem a necessidade de aumentar a aderência às normas do programa brasileiro, bem como de identificar e capturar mulheres relutantes para o rastreamento da doença.This hospital-based case-control study (2007-2010 aimed to estimate the association between previous Pap smear and cervical cancer diagnosis in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 152 histologically confirmed cases and 169 controls from the same hospital as the cases. The analysis was conducted according to a model in three hierarchical levels considering sociodemographic characteristics (distal, sexual/reproductive and lifestyle factors (intermediate, and previous Pap smear (proximal. Odds ratios (OR and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. History of three or more Pap smears was associated with an 84% reduction in cervical cancer risk (OR = 0.16; 95%CI: 0.074; 0.384 after adjusting for selected variables. The

  2. Biological and Chemical Weapons: Criminal Sanctions and Federal Regulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    .... In accordance with these obligations, the United States has enacted various federal requirements and criminal sanctions applying to biological and chemical weapons, Re cent anti4errorisrn legislation...

  3. Innovation Defects of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I. Chekmezova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the entry into force the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation is subject to constant changes which are associated with both decriminalization and criminalization of acts. This process is due to the obligation of the State to protect law-abiding citizens from criminal offences and, thereby, implement the articles of the Constitution, taking into account the realities of criminology. Replenishment of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, with new articles requires a systematic approach of the legislator. Analysis of some new norms allows us to conclude that they initially contain defects that would adversely affect the formation of a single vector judicial practice.

  4. Potential criminal adversaries of nuclear programs: a portrait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, B.M.

    1980-07-01

    This paper examines the possibility that terrorists or other kinds of criminals might attempt to seize or sabotage a nuclear facility, steal nuclear material, or carry out other criminal activities in the nuclear domain which has created special problems for the security of nuclear programs. This paper analyzes the potential threat. Our tasks was to describe the potential criminal adversary, or rather the spectrum of potential adversaries who conceivably might carry out malevolent criminal actions against nuclear programs and facilities. We were concerned with both the motivations as well as the material and operational capabilities likely to be displayed by various categories of potential nuclear adversaries.

  5. EUTHANASIA STIPULATED BY ROMANIAN CRIMINAL LAW, MITIGATING CIRCUMSTANCES VS. OFFENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA POCORA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to be a scientific approach to the issue of euthanasia, bringing into the debate current and future controversies raised by euthanasia, as a result of the introduction into the Romanian penal law of the criminal offence of homicide by request of the victim. The study represents an approach to moral, religious, constitutional, civil, criminal procedure debates and last but not least to criminal debates regarding the legalization of the euthanasia, as the most difficult task lies with the criminal law.

  6. Issues of remedial development of forms in criminal proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsyganenko Sergey, S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the main issues of the modern concept of the criminal proceeding differentiation in terms of new methodological and theoretical approaches - models of criminal justice and the theory of criminal procedural strategy. This draws attention to a trend to expand the scope of application in criminal proceedings, along with production and procedural forms of justice and law and technology. In connection with what is considered their place in the structure of modern criminal procedure, the application conditions and development prospects. For a long time in the theory of criminal systemology a key element in the process acted as a procedural form of normative-functional complex stages and phases of activity in the pre-trial and judicial parts of the criminal justice system. Its mission has been focused on the achievement of major milestones in the implementation of justice, which, ultimately, are expressed in establishing the truth in the case. Thus, there was a two-element mechanism consisting of pre-trial proceedings, due to the need to solve the crime and bringing charges and proceedings, consisting primarily of the trial based on the principles of justice. This order, established regulations, is unified - it is equally applied to all categories of criminal cases and with all the procedural authorities. Modern criminal procedure is a differentiated form in which, along with established procedural steps and process of production, and has been actively used legal procedural technology.

  7. Different Pathways to Juvenile Delinquency: Characteristics of Early and Late Starters in a Sample of Previously Incarcerated Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alltucker, Kevin W.; Bullis, Michael; Close, Daniel; Yovanoff, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We examined the differences between early and late start juvenile delinquents in a sample of 531 previously incarcerated youth in Oregon's juvenile justice system. Data were analyzed with logistic regression to predict early start delinquency based on four explanatory variables: foster care experience, family criminality, special education…

  8. The right to information in criminal proceedings in the light of proposed changes of the Criminal Law Codification Commission

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzejewska, Marzena

    2013-01-01

    The article addresses the issue of the right to information from the point of view of the participants of criminal proceedings. The execution of the right contributes to the principle of equality between the parties, secure execution of the adversarial principle, transparency and to creating the image of law-abidingness and transparent jurisdiction in the mindset of society. Particular attention has been paid to the draft amendment to the Criminal Procedure Code, prepared by the Criminal Law ...

  9. [Influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haoran; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Yingfang; Wu, Beisheng; Peng, Chao

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation. A retrospective analysis of 3 283 cases of gynecological diseases by laparoscopic operation patients in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 January to 2012 December, among them, 719 (21.90%) patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery history (study Group), 2 564 (78.10%)patients have no history of abdominopelvic surgery (control group). Study group 719 patients, previous operation times: one time in 525 cases, 194 cases were multiple; previous operation: 185 cases of gynecological surgery, 305 cases of obstetric surgery, 108 cases of general surgery, and 121 complex surgery (include at least two kinds of surgery); previous operative approach: 650 cases laparotomy and 69 cases laparoscopy. Compared two groups of patients with abdominopelvic adhesion and the gynecologic laparoscopic operation situation, analyzed the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on abdominopelvic adhesion on and gynecological laparoscopic operation. The incidence of abdominopelvic adhesion in the patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery was 51.2% (368/719), which was significantly higher than that of 8.2% (211/2 564)in patients without previous abdominopelvic surgery (P surgery (23.1%, 166/719) was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.3% , 85/2 564;P laparotomy was 0.6% (4/719) significantly more than the control groups (0.1%, 2/2 564; P = 0.023). Compared with other groups, patients with gynecological or complex surgery or multiple operation history presented more severe abdominopelvic adhesion both in the score and degree (P laparotomy showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The laparoscopic operation could be carried out successfully and safely in patients with a history of various abdominopelvic operations, but the conversion rate increases, for patients with a history of multiple operation because of pelvic adhesion

  10. THE MANIFESTO ON EUROPEAN CRIMINAL PROCEDURE LAW – FOUNDATION FOR CREATING A COMMON SPACE OF EUROPEAN CRIMINAL JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica PANAINTE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose to analyze the content of the Manifesto on European Criminal Procedure Law of 2013, and how this document can represent a foundation for the legal cooperation of the European states, and also for creating a unique, common space of European criminal justice. Elaborated by the European Criminal Policy Initiative and launched on November 2013, the Manifesto on European Criminal Procedure Law contains the principles and the rules that should be followed by the European penal legislator when gives shape to the laws in the field of Criminal Procedure. This document represents a natural following of the first Manifesto, in the field of substantive criminal law of 2009. The Manifesto concerns mainly the rules and the principles of criminal procedure because, as its authors affirm, this kind of rules have increasingly been shaped lately in European regulations, and also because the regulations in this field must reflect and respect the highest standards of the rule of law, as they must continuously and without exception guarantee the fundamental rights. In this study, we propose to focus upon the legal solutions found out by the authors of the Manifesto in order to attain, during the criminal proceedings, an equilibrium between the interest of the state and even of the Union to realize an effective criminal proceedings, and the individual human rights that are affected, and also an equilibrium between the actual legal order and the traditions of the member states.

  11. Legal Uncertainty in Criminal Cases Termination Institute Enforcement in Connection with Reconciliation of the Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabuga E. E.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the judicial application practice of the RF Criminal Code, Art. 76, of the RF Criminal Procedure Code (in criminal cases involving crimes small and moderate, Art. 25; some procedural problems are designated.

  12. 78 FR 2443 - Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's Declaration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's... Criminal Justice IRRS Supplier's Declaration of Conformity Requirements 3. Draft Criminal Justice IRRS...

  13. The Law and Practice of Criminal Asset Forfeiture in South African Criminal Procedure: A Constitutional Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinesh Basdeo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The deprivation of the proceeds of crime has been a feature of criminal law for many years. The original rationale for the confiscation of criminal assets at international level was the fight against organised crime, a feature of society described by the European Court of Human Rights as a "scourge" so that the draconian powers which are a feature of confiscation regimes around the world have been approved in circumstances which otherwise might have caused governments considerable difficulties before the international human rights tribunals. The primary objective of this article is to determine if the asset forfeiture measures employed in the South African criminal justice system are in need of any reform and/or augmentation in accordance with the "spirit, purport and object" of the South African Constitution. This article attempts to answer three questions. Firstly, why is criminal asset forfeiture important to law enforcement? Secondly, in which circumstances can property be forfeited and what types of property are subject to forfeiture? Thirdly, how is forfeiture accomplished, and what are its constitutional ramifications?

  14. Criminality and family formation: Effects of marriage and parenthood on criminal behaviour for men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoutewelle-Terovan, M.V.; van der Geest, V.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Bijleveld, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors study the effects of family formation on criminal careers for 540 high-risk men and women in the Netherlands. In a prospective design, spanning 21 years, the authors analyzed complete data on offending, marriage, parenthood, and a large set of background information.

  15. Criminality and family formation: Effects of marriage and parenthood on criminal behavior for men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoutewelle-Terovan, M.V.; van der Geest, V.R.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors study the effects of family formation on criminal careers for 540 high-risk men and women in the Netherlands. In a prospective design, spanning 21 years, the authors analyzed complete data on offending, marriage, parenthood, and a large set of background information.

  16. Brain abnormalities in high-risk violent offenders and their association with psychopathic traits and criminal recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutgeb, V; Leitner, M; Wabnegger, A; Klug, D; Scharmüller, W; Zussner, T; Schienle, A

    2015-11-12

    Measures of psychopathy have been proved to be valuable for risk assessment in violent criminals. However, the neuronal basis of psychopathy and its contribution to the prediction of criminal recidivism is still poorly understood. We compared structural imaging data from 40 male high-risk violent offenders and 37 non-delinquent healthy controls via voxel-based morphometry. Psychopathic traits and risk of violence recidivism were correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) of regions of interest previously shown relevant for criminal behavior. Relative to controls, criminals showed less GMV in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and more GMV in cerebellar regions and basal ganglia structures. Within criminals, we found a negative correlation between prefrontal GMV and psychopathy. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between cerebellar GMV and psychopathy as well as risk of recidivism for violence. Moreover, GMVs of the basal ganglia and supplementary motor area (SMA) were positively correlated with anti-sociality. GMV of the amygdala was negatively correlated with dynamic risk for violence recidivism. In contrast, GMV of (para)limbic areas (orbitofrontal cortex, insula) was positively correlated with anti-sociality and risk of violence recidivism. The current investigation revealed that in violent offenders deviations in GMV of the PFC as well as areas involved in the motor component of impulse control (cerebellum, basal ganglia, SMA) are differentially related to psychopathic traits and the risk of violence recidivism. The results might be valuable for improving existing risk assessment tools. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ENFORCED DISAPPEARANCE OF PERSONS UNDER INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW: THE CASE “GUERRILHA DO ARAGUAIA” IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Pires Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The case “Guerrilha do Araguaia” is well known in Brazil in the view of the disappearances of opponents to the military regime occurred between 1972 and 1974, in the region known as Araguaia. Despite the efforts made by the families of the victims to seek responsibility and redress, few progress has been done. In 1995, Brazil recognized its responsibilities for the deaths and established a Commission to provide compensation to the families of the victims. The Amnesty Law prevented the State to initiate the criminal proceedings related to the responsibilities of those involved in the disappearances, torture and killings. On December 2010, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights decided that Brazil is responsible for the enforced disappearances in the Araguaia's region and, following its previous jurisprudence, determined that the State initiate adequate investigation and criminal proceedings related to the facts that amount to crimes against the humanity. In the view of the determination of criminal responsibilities on the “Guerrilha do Araguaia”'s case, this article will examine the grounds of criminal liability of the alleged offenders under the international criminal law as well as under the Brazilian domestic law, analysing the limitations that arise from both jurisdictions.

  18. "Symptoms of something all around us": Mental health, Inuit culture, and criminal justice in Arctic communities in Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzi, Priscilla; Krupa, Terry

    2016-09-01

    Rehabilitation-oriented criminal court mental health initiatives to reduce the number of people with mental illness caught in the criminal justice system exist in many North American cities and elsewhere but not in the mainly Inuit Canadian Arctic territory of Nunavut. This study explores whether the therapeutic aims of these resource-intensive, mainly urban initiatives can be achieved in criminal courts in Nunavut's resource constrained, culturally distinct and geographically remote communities. A qualitative multiple-case study in the communities of Iqaluit, Arviat and Qikiqtarjuaq involved 55 semi-structured interviews and three focus groups with participants representing four sectors essential to these initiatives: justice, health, community organizations and community members. These interviews explored whether the therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) principles that guide criminal court mental health initiatives and the component objectives of these principles could be used to improve the criminal court response to people with mental illness in Nunavut. Interviews revealed 13 themes reflecting perceptions of Inuit culture's influence on the identification of people with mental illness, treatment, and collaboration between the court and others. These themes include cultural differences in defining mental illness, differences in traditional and contemporary treatment models, and the importance of mutual cultural respect. The findings suggest Inuit culture, including its recent history of cultural disruption and change, affects the vulnerability of Nunavut communities to the potential moral and legal pitfalls associated with TJ and criminal court mental health initiatives. These pitfalls include the dominance of biomedical approaches when identifying a target population, the medicalization of behaviour and culture, the risk of "paternalism" in therapeutic interventions, and shortcomings in interdisciplinary collaboration that limit considerations of Inuit culture. The

  19. The prediction of violent and nonviolent criminal behavior in a methadone maintenance population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovasso, Gregory B; Alterman, Arthur I; Cacciola, John S; Rutherford, Megan J

    2002-08-01

    The utility of traits associated with Antisocial Personality Disorder in making risk assessments of violent and nonviolent crimes was examined in 254 subjects sampled from a methadone maintenance population. A factor analysis of a number of baseline measures resulted in five factors measuring hostility, insecure attachment, impaired reality testing, antisocial personality, and empathy. These factors were used in logistic regression analysis to predict charges for violent and nonviolent crimes over a 2-year period. Individuals with high scores on the antisocial personality factor had an increased risk of both violent and nonviolent criminal charges. Individuals with low scores on the empathy factor were at high risk for violent crimes. In an analysis using the factor components rather than the factors, the measures of perspective-taking and a socialization were associated with violent criminal charges, and the measure of psychopathy, but not antisocial behavior, was associated with nonviolent criminal charges. The results support the use of measures of personality traits in addition to measures of a history of antisocial behavior in making violence risk assessments in substance-dependent patients. The DSM construct and diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder may be enhanced by greater emphasis on personality traits associated with antisocial behavior.

  20. Procedural and legal status of the injured party according to the new criminal procedure code of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubač Momčilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author is critically analyzing certain solutions of the new Criminal Procedure Code of the Republic of Serbia from 2011 which consider the injured party and their rights in the criminal proceeding. He states that unlike the previous ones, this Code does not improve the status of the injured party but makes it even worse. The author particularly claims that the legislator yet again failed to establish the right of the injured party to be efficiently compensated in the event of a serious offense from a special fund and immediately after the crime has been committed, but prior to the end of the criminal proceeding. In the provision of the Code which states that the injured party may take over the prosecution and become a prosecutor replacing the Public Prosecutor (subsidiary prosecutor only if the Public Prosecutor withdraws after having confirmed the indictment, however not in the cases of rejection of criminal charges or withdrawal from the prosecution in the previous proceeding, the author sees not only the limitation of the rights of the injured party, but also jeopardy of the public interest. This is due to the fact that, freed from a threat of the subsidiary accusation by the injured party, the Public Prosecutor has gained an absolute and uncontrolled monopoly over the initiation of criminal proceeding. According to the author, the subject of the proceedings will not have any substantial use from some rights which the new Code assigns to the injured party (for example the right to appeal against the judgment on the adjudicated property claim. In conclusion, the author stresses out that in spite of his objections against certain provisions in the Code, the legal status of the injured party is more favorable in the criminal law of Serbia then in many other countries.

  1. Harmony, Law and Criminal Reconciliation in China: A Historical Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Pei (Wei)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn 2012, China revised its Criminal Procedure Law (2012 CPL). One of the major changes is its official approval of the use of victim-offender reconciliation, or ‘criminal reconciliation’ in certain public prosecution cases. This change, on the one hand, echoes the Confucian doctrine that

  2. Withdrawal from the International Criminal Court: Does Africa have ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Momentum was regained in 1989, following Trinidad and. Tobago's motion to combat drugs and trafficking through the establishment of an International Criminal Court, when the United Nations General. Assembly sanctioned the International Law Commission to develop a draft statute for an International Criminal Court ...

  3. Multilateral versus unilateral exercises of universal criminal jurisdiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.

    2010-01-01

    This Article draws a distinction between two types of exercise of universal criminal jurisdiction with a view to demonstrating that one of them is deeply detrimental to domestic IHL enforcement mechanisms, and especially zeroes in on contemporary unilateral exercises of universal criminal

  4. Will the real social worker please stand up?: Defining criminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fundamental objective of this article is to urge a change in the conventional paradigms used to define the practice of social work in the field of criminal justice, and to set in motion a conversion to a unified paradigm of criminal justice social work. A unified paradigm is used here to refer to the multidimensional and ...

  5. Paraphilia and sex offending - A South African criminal law perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Pieter; Stevens, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the link between sexual deviance and criminality has been described and documented, asserted by psychiatry, and manifested in law. Laws that have regulated sexual behaviour have referred to terms such as 'sexual deviation', 'sexual perversion' or even archaic moral terms such as 'unnatural acts and unspeakable crimes against nature'. A possible link between sexual perversion, psychopathy, and criminality, specifically manifesting in sexual homicide, has been the subject of remarkable research in forensic psychiatry. This contribution examines the phenomenon of paraphilia with specific reference to its definition, diagnostic classification and characteristics, as well as a few selections of incidences of paraphilia in South African criminal case law. A brief assessment is made of how South African criminal courts have dealt with paraphilia. In this regard, an analysis is made of the criminal liability of the paraphiliac. The South African response to sexual deviation as addressed in the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007 will also be addressed with reference to its efficacy in addressing paraphilia within South African criminal law. The interface between criminal law and medical ethics within the context of this theme will also be canvassed. In conclusion, recommendations for possible reform are canvassed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. An Examination of Criminal Behavior among the Homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarz, Andrea

    Homelessness is a significant social problem in the United States, with an estimated 2.5 million homeless people in this country today. While criminal activity may become a means for the homeless to obtain resources needed for basic survival, little is known about the level of criminal activity among the homeless or about the types of crimnal…

  7. Debt as a Criminal Risk Factor in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    and informal punishment, as unintended consequences of indebtedness, were still poorly explored. This research indicates that legal regulation and informal punishment based on indebtedness may serve as an argument for considering debt as a criminal risk factor which has made the preventive factors less...... effective and has driven ex-prisoners farther from legitimate socio-economic advantaged affiliations and invited criminal behaviour....

  8. International Criminal Justice, Peace and Reconciliation in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2015. (ISSN 0850-3907). International Criminal Justice, Peace and. Reconciliation in Africa: Re-imagining an. Agenda Beyond the ICC. Chidi Anselm Odinkalu*. Abstract. The system established by the statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC).

  9. Rescuing 'defenseless selves': tasking the Nigeria Criminal Justice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rescuing 'defenseless selves': tasking the Nigeria Criminal Justice System on capital punishment in the 21st century. ... African Research Review ... Moreover, it will reduce the spate of capital crime in the county, as well as economic loss due to amnesty bargains between governments and suspected criminals or due to ...

  10. Commentary (Victim Participation in the International Criminal Court)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchuk, Iryna

    2014-01-01

    Victim participation is one of the most innovative aspects introduced in the legal framework of the International Criminal Court (hereinafter – ICC), which has not featured in the practices of other international criminal courts and tribunals. The approach of the ad hoc tribunals to victims...

  11. Critical assessment of Nigeria criminal justice system and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study therefore assessed the Nigeria criminal justice system and the problem of awaiting trial in Port Harcourt Maximum Prison, Rivers State. Three research questions were raised to guide the study. The study adopted the survey research design. An 18-item questionnaire captioned “Questionnaire on Nigeria criminal ...

  12. The principle of equality of arms in international criminal proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedorova, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    This book studies the interpretation and application of the principle of equality of arms in proceedings before several international criminal courts. The coming of age of these institutions merits an evaluation of the application of one of the fundamental principles underlying a criminal procedure.

  13. Criminalization of 'Possession of Unexplained Property' and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite countervailing arguments, there is a growing national and global trend of criminalization of 'possession of unexplained property'. Since the end of the 20th century, many national, regional and global instruments that deal with corruption have criminalized possession of unexplained property (illicit enrichment).

  14. Highlight: The need for victim support services in India's Criminal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Agnes spoke about the concerns and challenges faced by victims within the Indian criminal justice system. Over the years, Majlis has been working on sexual assault of women and girls with the state machinery (courts, police, lawyers and jurists) and within the criminal justice system. Drawing from their body of work, Agnes ...

  15. Criminality in men with Klinefelter's syndrome and XYY syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Bojesen, Anders; Jensen, Anne Skakkebæk

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the criminal pattern in men between 15 and 70 years of age diagnosed with 47,XXY (Klinefelter's syndrome (KS)) or 47,XYY compared to the general population.......To investigate the criminal pattern in men between 15 and 70 years of age diagnosed with 47,XXY (Klinefelter's syndrome (KS)) or 47,XYY compared to the general population....

  16. Admissibility of hearsay evidence in criminal trials: an appraisal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admissibility of hearsay evidence in criminal trials: an appraisal of the Ethiopian legal framework. ... Haramaya Law Review ... Despite Ethiopia following a common law approach regarding evidentiary principles, rules and procedural safeguards in criminal trials, the country does not have a codified and compiled evidence ...

  17. Theories on Criminality and Mental Retardation Project CAMIO, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    This historical review of theories on criminality and mental retardation is part of Project CAMIO (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the mentally retarded (MR) and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which affect the prosecution and…

  18. Criminal Conduct: A Cause for Discipline of Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larke, Patricia J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews factors considered by courts in judicial decisions concerning teachers involved in criminal offenses relating to alcohol and drug violations, larceny, theft, shoplifting, gambling, and manslaughter. The courts have held that when criminal conduct shows a connection between the offense and the teacher's effectiveness then cause exists for…

  19. 8 CFR 1003.41 - Evidence of criminal conviction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... repository of criminal justice records, that indicates the following: The charge or section of law violated... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of criminal conviction. 1003.41 Section 1003.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  20. Cinema Verite and the Criminal Element: A Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Explores the contrast between white-collar financial crime and crime as seen on shows like "Cops." Argues that conservative politicians tend to equate lower class with "true" criminals (typically with little education), whereas white-collar criminals (usually well-educated) simply made a mistake, and that this picture of crime…

  1. The International Criminal Court and conflict transformation in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Criminal Court and conflict transformation in Uganda: Views from the field. ... The International Criminal Court (ICC) commenced investigation of the armed conflict in Uganda in 2004. In 2005 it issued arrest warrants ... victims' rights. Keywords: ICC, conflict transformation, Uganda, international justice, LRA ...

  2. Childhood Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Violent Criminality: A Sibling Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Sebastian; Forsman, Mats; Larsson, Henrik; Kerekes, Nora; Serlachius, Eva; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The longitudinal relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and violent criminality has been extensively documented, while long-term effects of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), tic disorders (TDs), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) on criminality have been scarcely studied. Using population-based registers of all…

  3. Criminal Policy Debate as an Active Learning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellgren, Caroline; Ivert, Anna-Karin

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges for criminal justice educators is to deal with the strongly held opinions and preconceived notions about criminal justice issues among students. It often takes the form of students being reluctant to accept certain premises that does not comply with their own experience of the issue. The general tendency to reject…

  4. 75 FR 9613 - Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (NIJ) Docket No. 1512] Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, DOJ. ACTION: Notice of Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice and Certification Program...

  5. Forgiveness in Criminal Law through Incorporating Restorative Mediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    In this monograph, the author argues for the integration of the concept of forgiveness into criminal law through incorporating restorative justice practices such as victim-offender mediation. Although forgiveness is not a purpose in itself nor can it be enforced, criminal law should provide room for

  6. Editorial dossier "Criminal evidence: epistemological and juridical foundations"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Badaró

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducing the exposition on the subject of the dossier "Criminal Evidence: epistemological and juridical foundations", this editorial exposes some premises on the judgment of evidences and its epistemological character in the criminal procedure, addressing questions such as the search for the truth, the criteria of valuation, the admissibility of scientific evidence and theories about probability judgments in statistical valuation.

  7. mens rea principle and criminal jurisprudence in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    Our study discovers that the relevant provisions of the Criminal Code are exhaustive for considering and deciphering the criminal intent, if any, of an accused in view of conviction and sentencing. This paper agrees totally with the principle that once local statutes contain sufficient provisions for a consideration of any relevant ...

  8. 240 THE RELEVANCE OF THE DEFENCE OF ALIBI IN CRIMINAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    EWULUM: The Relevance of the Defence of Alibi in Criminal Trials in Nigeria. Page | 240 ... Abstract. Criminal trials in Nigeria usually require that the defendant will raise a defence on his behalf. There .... pursuance of the original agreement to kill, it seems to me that the five who took no active part in the killing are yet ...

  9. 10 CFR Section 140.89 - Criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 140.89 Section 140.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Violations § 140.89 Criminal penalties. (a) Section 223 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides for...

  10. The ICC, International Criminal Justice and International Politics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Criminal Court (ICC) came into being as a result of a desire by the international community to establish a permanent body to deliver criminal justice instead of the formula of ad hoc tribunals that had become the norm. The coming into force of the Rome Statute in 2002 was greeted with euphoria as it ...

  11. Criminal Liability of Political Decision-Makers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelhoed, Willem; Zimmermann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Dutch criminal law does not provide for criminal liability for a political decision-maker who decides to build a bridge, if thereafter the project runs out of control or the bridge appears not to justify the funds spent on the project. This is most probably even the case if the decision-maker knew

  12. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal justice policy coordination. 0.85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal Bureau...

  13. Jury Toughness: The Impact of Conservatism on Criminal Court Verdicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, James P.

    1983-01-01

    Compared criminal court verdicts after trials with and without juries. A study of 58,336 trials of persons charged with felonies showed that juries convict substantially more often than judges trying cases alone. Jury toughness is seen as a response to the growth of popular conservatism on criminal justice issues. (JAC)

  14. The Person of Suspect in Criminal Procedure: Legal Historical Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemlyanitsin E. I.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the historical path of the emergence and development of the legal rules governing the procedural status of a suspect in the criminal procedure. The author puts forward the proposal to amend the Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation.

  15. Criminal defense in Chinese courtrooms: an empirical inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bin; He, Ni Phil

    2014-10-01

    Scholars in the field of Chinese criminal procedure law study have long decried the meager legal protection afforded to criminal defendants on trial and the hapless status of Chinese criminal defense attorneys in the courtroom. Unfortunately, very little empirical evidence was available to shed light on how criminal defense was carried out in Chinese courtrooms. Based on observations of 325 actual criminal trials from 55 District People's Courts in J province, this study provides an opportunity to understand the mundane work performed by Chinese criminal defense attorneys. In particular, this study describes how criminal defense attorneys prepare and present their cases (as measured in terms of bail request, overall trial preparation, examination of defendants and witnesses, presentation of evidence, and overall defense strategy), and analyzes the outcomes of their performance. In addition, this study examines the discernible impact of criminal defense work due to types of legal representation utilized (legal aid vs. privately retained attorneys), numbers of attorneys representing the client, and the gender composition of the attorneys. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Psychosocial characteristics of criminals committing incest and other sex offenses: a survey in a Taiwanese prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, For-Wey; Huang, Shu-Fen

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychosocial characteristics of criminals who had committed incest or other sexual offenses. The participants, 240 criminals serving sentences for sex offenses in a Taiwanese prison, were divided into two groups: incest offenders (20.4%) and other sex offenders (79.6%). The psychosocial characteristics taken into consideration included age, parental survival, education, marital status, previous crime records, drug and alcohol abuse, diagnosed mental disorders, and victim abuse at the time of the offense. After an analysis of the data, the authors concluded that even though incest offenders showed fewer mental disorders, they needed psychiatric treatment and that this treatment should be focused not only on their mental disorder and related symptoms but especially to correct their abnormal behavior. Also, attention should be given to their psychosocial characteristics.

  17. New environmental criminal law, effects and enforcement in practice; Neues Umweltstrafrecht und betriebliche Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knopp, L.

    1994-11-20

    Since the November 1, 1994 a more comprehensive and clearly tighter environmental criminal law is in force. With the amendment of the law defects and gaps of the previous environmental criminal administrative offence law are to be closed in order to imporve also the efficient flight against behaviour or measures which are detrimental or harmful to the environment. The author explains the most important new regulations and shows the effects of the enforcement of the law in practice. (orig.) [Deutsch] Seit 1.11.1994 gilt ein erweitertes und deutlich verschaerftes Umweltstrafrecht. Mit der Gesetzesnovelle sollen Luecken und Maengel des bislang geltenden Umweltstraf- und Ordnungswidrigkeitenrechts beseitigt werden, um damit zugleich eine wirksamere Bekaempfung umweltschaedlicher und umweltgefaehrlicher Handlungen zu verbessern. Der Autor gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die wichtigsten Neuregelungen und zeigt die Auswirkungen fuer die betriebliche Praxis auf. (orig.)

  18. Ménager la victime ? Ménager le coupable ? Jugement, révision et histoire devant le Tribunal pénal pour l’ex-Yougoslavie Protect the victim or the accused? Judgment, revision and history at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Claverie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Vojislav Seselj, ultranationaliste serbe, accusé pour crime de guerre et crimes contre l’humanité par le Tribunal pénal international de La Haye a décidé de se défendre seul, sans avocat, devant cette Cour. Cette décision modifie le cours des audiences, et place, notamment, les témoins en grande difficulté au moment de leur contre-interrogatoire, voulu par la procédure dite à « armes égales » par cet accusé-avocat engagé dans une « défense de rupture ». Les difficultés du dispositif et les contradictions qu’il génère ont amené à une suspension d’un procès engagé depuis six ans. La Cour est en effet engagée désormais dans une procédure d’outrage contre Seselj.Vojislav Seselj, a Serbian ultranationalist, accused for war crimes and crimes against Humanity by the International Criminal Tribunal in The Hague has decided to defend himself. So the accused stands as a “lawyer”. This situation changes the course of hearings and puts the witnesses in great difficulty. The difficulties are such that the trial has been suspended by the Court which has engaged a plaint for outrage against Seselj.

  19. Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufkin, Jana L; Luttrell, Vickie R

    2005-04-01

    With the availability of new functional and structural neuroimaging techniques, researchers have begun to localize brain areas that may be dysfunctional in offenders who are aggressive and violent. Our review of 17 neuroimaging studies reveals that the areas associated with aggressive and/or violent behavioral histories, particularly impulsive acts, are located in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal regions. These findings are explained in the context of negative emotion regulation, and suggestions are provided concerning how such findings may affect future theoretical frameworks in criminology, crime prevention efforts, and the functioning of the criminal justice system.

  20. Childhood neurodevelopmental disorders and violent criminality: a sibling control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Sebastian; Forsman, Mats; Larsson, Henrik; Kerekes, Nora; Serlachius, Eva; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-11-01

    The longitudinal relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and violent criminality has been extensively documented, while long-term effects of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), tic disorders (TDs), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) on criminality have been scarcely studied. Using population-based registers of all child and adolescent mental health services in Stockholm, we identified 3,391 children, born 1984-1994, with neurodevelopmental disorders, and compared their risk for subsequent violent criminality with matched controls. Individuals with ADHD or TDs were at elevated risk of committing violent crimes, no such association could be seen for ASDs or OCD. ADHD and TDs are risk factors for subsequent violent criminality, while ASDs and OCD are not associated with violent criminality.

  1. Religiosity, criminality and types of offences of Jewish male prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, S; Weller, L

    1995-01-01

    The study examined whether the percentage of religious criminals was lower than the percentage of religious people in the population and whether the types of crimes committed by religious prison inmates differed from those committed by non-religious inmates. The 193 religious criminals studied consisted of all the religious male prisoners in the men's prisons in Israel. The percentage of religious criminals (3.7%) was found to be far below the percentage of religious people in the population (about 20%). In general both groups committed the same types of crimes. The exceptions were that religious criminals committed more sex and white-collar crimes and less security crimes than non-religious criminals.

  2. Relation of affect control theory to the sentencing of criminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoudis, O

    2000-08-01

    Past researchers (A. Blumstein, J. Cohen, S. E. Martin, & M. H. Tonry, 1983; A. Von Hirsch & H. Gross, 1981) have explored legal variables and demonstrated the significance of various criteria (e.g., criminal's prior record, seriousness of offense, influence of victim) on the sentencing of criminals. Affect control theory (D. R. Heise, 1979) focuses on inferences about the identity of the criminal. In the present study, the author examined the influence of the foregoing legal variables and affect control theory in sentencing decisions by using U.S. undergraduates' reactions to statements of criminals and of victims. Results of a 2 (criminal's emotion: sad vs. unconcerned) x 2 (victim's emotion: sad vs. unconcerned) x 2 (prior record: none vs. auto theft) factorial design supported affect control theory and demonstrated the significance of the victim's perceived identity in sentencing decisions, even when information about the prior record was provided.

  3. BRST Quantisation of Histories Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Noltingk, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of earlier work where a classical history theory of pure electrodynamics was developed in which the the history fields have \\emph{five} components. The extra component is associated with an extra constraint, thus enlarging the gauge group of histories electrodynamics. In this paper we quantise the classical theory developed previously by two methods. Firstly we quantise the reduced classical history space, to obtain a reduced quantum history theory. Secondly we qu...

  4. Criminal Prosecution of Officials: Tendency to Avoid Criminal Responsibility Under Articles 285 and 286 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Demyankov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the modern state a lot of attention is paid to the problem of criminal prosecution of officials, growth of malfeasance and the most acute problem of avoiding criminal responsibility of officials. Problem of the official powers abuse (Article 285 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, as well as abuse of authority (Article 286 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation is far from new to Russian civil society as a whole. Urgency of fight against such crimes is determined by their tendency to constant growth, widespread in all spheres of society, an increasingly organized system and the presence of a professional nature of their commission. Unfortunately over a thousand crimes are made by official all over the world every day, often many of them are of rather large scale, however, due to the specifics of the high latency of this type of crime, as well as the imperfection of criminal legislation, persons who violate the law do not always bear criminal responsibility. It can be concluded that the problem has not been fully resolved and is unlikely to be resolved in the near future, which in turn confirms the relevance of this topic and the need for its future research.

  5. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  6. Standin' tall: (De) criminalization and acts of resistance among boys of color in an elementary after school STEM program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Vincent

    The United States current incarcerates more citizens than any other country in history, by disproportionately targeting men and boys of color through mechanisms such as the school to prison pipeline. In better understanding the processes that fuel the school to prison pipeline such as criminalizing practices and the ways boys of color resist them, we can begin to identify teaching practices and perspectives which work to disrupt those processes. Examining criminalization and acts of resistance in STEM education is particularly salient because of the high social and economic status STEM knowledge bears in dominant U.S. culture, and the ways access to STEM learning functions as gateways in our education system. Through a longitudinal study in a multi-site elementary after-school STEM program, I examined what criminalization and acts of resistance look like, the ways they interact, and how staff in the program work to disrupt those cycles. I found that criminalization and acts of resistance are normal and ordinary occurrences, frequently interacting in response to each other in escalating patterns. I also found that staff engaged in multiple categories of decriminalizing practices based on highly respectful interactions and viewing boys of color as brilliant students who engage in acts of resistance as a healthy response to oppressive measures.

  7. One Country, Two Cultures: Are Hong Kong Mock Jurors "Mainlandized" by the Predominant Chinese Criminal Justice Concept of Confession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Cora Y T; Lo, T Wing

    2015-09-01

    Over-reliance on confession has had a long history in the Chinese criminal justice system. Recent high-profile wrongful conviction cases have raised public awareness of the coercive and torturous methods used to extract confessions. Despite the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty, Hong Kong remains a common law jurisdiction and the most serious criminal offences are tried by a jury. The present study empirically examines the relative impact of DNA evidence, confession, eyewitness testimony, and victim testimony in a Hong Kong-Chinese mock juror sample. The results show that the participants placed greater value on DNA evidence than on confession, and placed the lowest value on testimonial evidence. It is argued that the situation of "one country, two cultures" remains strong: Whereas participants are still influenced by the Chinese criminal justice concept of confession, their judgment is still predominately influenced by the scientific evidence as commonly practiced in the West. Thus, no solid evidence has been found to confirm the emergence of mainlandization in Hong Kong's criminal justice system. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. El fleteo: "la abstracción de un riesgo criminal". Una experiencia de inteligencia criminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Alfredo Amaya Cristancho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Problema. El fleteo se percibe como un peligro, porque no se dispone de un esquema racional y contingente para la toma de decisiones en materia de seguridad pública. Metodología. Ante tal situación, se hizo necesario identificar las características del fleteo como riesgo criminal contra la seguridad pública, mediante las teorías de la sociología del riesgo y la construcción social de la realidad. Para ello, se usó la metodología de los tipos ideales como guía para la recolección y análisis de información, por lo que se aplicaron diversas técnicas, como consulta documental, entrevistas, encuesta, grupos focales, análisis de caso y mentefacto conceptual. Resultados. Esto permitió distinguir y caracterizar el fleteo como riesgo criminal, fragmento de la realidad del que se ocupa la inteligencia criminal, y finalmente se identificaron algunos daños contra la seguridad pública. Conclusiones. La teoría del riesgo por lo general no se concibe aplicada a la seguridad pública. Por ello, se presenta la inteligencia criminal como una disciplina que se ocupa de anticipar los riesgos criminales contra la seguridad pública. Esto permitiría disminuir la incertidumbre durante la toma de decisiones y calcular los daños contra la seguridad pública, que se pretende prevenir.

  9. Several criminal, phenomenological and etiological features of criminal offences of counterfeiting money in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    MSc. Milot Krasniqi

    2012-01-01

    The Republic of Kosovo is making efforts as a young state to strengthen rule of law and efficiently combat criminality in general, and specifically organized crime, as a condition for its journey towards European integration perspectives.  For a normal functioning of the economic system, the safety and protection of controlled circulation of money are of vital importance. In this direction, the state takes actions and measures to ensure that manufacturing and emissions of banknotes and bo...

  10. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes...... in relation to the different periods in the patients' lives: not yet known to the psychiatric hospital system, known to the system but not yet diagnosed with schizophrenia, and after being diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: Information from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register was correlated...... with data from the Danish National Crime Register. RESULTS: One of the more prominent findings was that 16% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia receive a prison sentence or a suspended prison sentence, despite the fact that Denmark is a co-signatory of the European Prison Rules and should treat, rather...

  11. Readiness to change criminal women and men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Biel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The readiness of offenders to social rehabilitation is a new category in our country. Meanwhile, the research conducted in many countries indicates its usefulness in the diagnosis and selection of participants of rehabilitation programmes. This entails more effective interaction with convicted persons and greater responsibility on the part of convicted people for their own social rehabilitation process. The aim of this article is to present the main assumptions and models of readiness for change and their usefulness in social rehabilitation practice and to present pilot studies of readiness for change among criminal women and men in Kraków. Application of the Polish adaptation of the CVTRQ questionnaire made it possible to determine the level of convicted persons’ readiness, taking into account deficits in particular scales of the questionnaire and variables differentiating the group of ready and not ready people. At the end, guidelines for further research will be presented.

  12. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben; Kramp, Peter

    2009-11-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes in relation to the different periods in the patients' lives: not yet known to the psychiatric hospital system, known to the system but not yet diagnosed with schizophrenia, and after being diagnosed with schizophrenia. Information from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register was correlated with data from the Danish National Crime Register. One of the more prominent findings was that 16% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia receive a prison sentence or a suspended prison sentence, despite the fact that Denmark is a co-signatory of the European Prison Rules and should treat, rather than imprison, individuals with schizophrenia. The findings suggest that greater alertness is needed in the judicial system for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia.

  13. Legal and Jurisprudential Bases of Marital Rape Criminalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    سید علیرضا میرکمالی

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Women are, due to their physical, psychological and social nature, most exposed to crime and are thus fragile against criminals. Moreover, they may be forced by their husbands and in the context of marriage to unusual sexual intercourses in environments such as home. Couples are free in having sexual intercourse, but his freedom should not be detrimental to one another. For this reason, the differential criminal protection of women through special criminalization of some behaviors is one of the ways to support women and reduce the likelihood of the commitment of crimes against them. Under the Iranian penal law, this practice has not been criminalized, while it seems that principles of Islamic jurisprudence and criminal law can help to criminalize it. This behavior along with moral values and social norms lead to persecution and harassment of the wife as well; and since Islam forbids committing the unlawful act and its perpetrator could be punished, therefore it is necessary that this immoral and aberrant behavior considered to be criminal.

  14. Mental health services costs within the Alberta criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Philip; Moffatt, Jessica; Dewa, Carolyn S; Nguyen, Thanh; Zhang, Ting; Lesage, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Mental illness has been widely cited as a driver of costs in the criminal justice system. The objective of this paper is to estimate the additional mental health service costs incurred within the criminal justice system that are incurred because of people with mental illnesses who go through the system. Our focus is on costs in Alberta. We set up a model of the flow of all persons through the criminal justice system, including police, court, and corrections components, and for mental health diversion, review, and forensic services. We estimate the transitional probabilities and costs that accrue as persons who have been charged move through the system. Costs are estimated for the Alberta criminal justice system as a whole, and for the mental illness component. Public expenditures for each person diverted or charged in Alberta in the criminal justice system, including mental health costs, were $16,138. The 95% range of this estimate was from $14,530 to $19,580. Of these costs, 87% were for criminal justice services and 13% were for mental illness-related services. Hospitalization for people with mental illness who were reviewed represented the greatest additional cost associated with mental illnesses. Treatment costs stemming from mental illnesses directly add about 13% onto those in the criminal justice system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mexico On A Criminal Traffic Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Moloeznik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the problem of organized crime in modern Mexico. It addresses the activities of criminal clans, which profoundly evolved since the 1930s. The USMexican extensive border length and the stable demand for drugs in the United States leads to the continuous flow of illegal migrants and drugs from Mexico to the US and American firearms back to Mexico. First, the authors address the issue of interconnectedness of crime in the neighboring countries. Second, they describe the geographical distribution of crime activity. It shows the influence of organized crime on the political life oin Mexico and ways of its adaptation to law enforcement pressure, namely division and disaggregation. The authors state that the fight against organized crime was ineffective in Mexico in 2006-2012, because it ignored political and cultural realities, it used exclusively force and almost did not involve civil society. In addition, it only increased the level of violence in the country and contributed to the growth of corruption in the ranks of law enforcement. Moreover, it increased the level of violence in the country and contributed to the growth of corruption in the ranks of law enforcement. Many of its components had a pronounced «pre-election» character, aimed at attracting the voter with the promise of an «early and decisive victory» over criminals. The article proposes new approach to the problem of organized crime in Mexico. To start with, government should refuse to use unilateral, as well as politicized and opportunistic actions. The involvement of civic society is of ultimate importance.

  16. Suspects in criminal investigations of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Darko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of sexual assaults mostly focus on victims and their credibility, which may cause lack of firm evidence in relation to suspects. Given the fact that the criminal offence of rape is characterised by a high incidence of false reports and accusations, frequently indicating specific persons as the perpetrators, certain caution is necessary in the investigation in order to avoid false accusations and/or convictions. As regards the personality of the rapist and motives for committing a forcible sexual act, certain types or rather certain categories of perpetrators can be distinguished, although it should be noted that a large number of rapists do not belong to one category only, but rather combine characteristics of several different types. During a criminal investigation it is of vital importance to differentiate between a rape as a surprise attack and a rape as abuse of trust, as they are compatible with the nature of the suspect's defence. The suspect shall be subjected to a forensic examination in the course of the investigation in order to find traces which prove vaginal, anal or oral penetration, coerced sexual intercourse and identity of the rapist. While conducting an interrogation of a suspected rapist, a crime investigating officer shall use either factual or emotional approach to his interviewee, depending on his psychological and motivational characteristics. In this regard, the factual approach is believed to be more efficient with anger rapists and sadistic rapists, whereas the compassionate approach gives good results with the gentlemen-rapists and partly with the power asserting rapists.

  17. Building Knowledge of Consumer Participation in Criminal Justice in Australia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie De'Ath

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study investigates the various factors to be considered when developing and implementing consumer participation in community-based criminal justice settings. The study uses the Victorian Association for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders (VACRO, based in Melbourne, Australia, as its case study site as this organisation is in the process of formally introducing consumer participation. The study is informed by previous research in key areas related to criminal justice, focusing on the perspectives of various stakeholders: staff, volunteers, and consumers. A mixed method approach offered a range of opportunities for participants to engage with the research. Thematic analysis identified multi-layered issues need to be considered when implementing consumer participation. Poor individual understanding was noted as a barrier, alongside a limited shared vision of the concept. These were seen to be influenced by practical issues such as high staff turnover and conceptual challenges, notably the existing discourse around offenders. The implications of these findings for further research on consumer participation in the criminal justice setting are explored.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of criminal victimization among new admissions to outpatient mental health services in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisanti, Annette S; Frueh, B Christopher; Archambeau, Olga; Steffen, John J; Wolff, Nancy

    2014-04-01

    Adults with serious mental illness (SMI) experience criminal victimization at rates higher than the general population whether they reside in the community or correctional settings. This study examines the past-six month prevalence and correlates of criminal victimization among a large community sample (N = 2,209) of consumers with SMI newly admitted to outpatient mental health services during 2005 through 2008. A cross-sectional design was used with self-report and clinical data collected from administrative records. Victimization was determined by responses to direct questions about experiences in the previous 6 months with respect to victimization of a non-violent and/or violent crime. Socio-demographic, clinical and criminal correlates of victimization were abstracted from a quality of life survey and clinical assessment interview conducted at admission. Overall, 25.4 % of consumers reported being a victim of any crime (violent or non-violent) in the past 6 months, with 20.3 % reporting non-violent and 12.3 % violent victimization. The risk of victimization was elevated for those who were female, White, not taking atypical psychotropic medication, not feeling safe in their living arrangement, and were arrested or homeless in the six-months prior to engaging in mental health outpatient treatment. Policy and practice implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Limited criminal jurisdiction on investigation and judgement of High-ranking government officials. Procedural issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Gómez Pavajeau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution of Colombia provides that certain senior officials, because of their position, should be investigated and tried by the Supreme Court (members of Congress or by the same Court upon indictment by the General Attorney (art. 235 n. 4. The Constitution provides that the President, the judges of the high courts and the prosecutor also have a special status, as the investigation and prosecution is allocated in the Senate, previous accusation in the House of Representatives, and in the Supreme Court for the common crimes. The criminal and disciplinary jurisdiction of investigation and prosecution has generated countless controversies at the doctrinal and jurisprudential level, related to the exclusive competence of the Prosecutor General’s Office and the judges of the Supreme Court to advance the investigation. In particular, the impossibility of delegating the commission of evidence and proceedings related to jurisdiction in such processes; the courts and their relationship with the position or function; the retention or recovery of competition by the criminal court room after renouncing the jurisdiction in the parapolitics processes; the notion tenure as a basis for criminal jurisdiction in the case of the governors in charge; a second hearing as a minimum guarantee derived from international standards on human rights and the issue related to jurisdiction and impunity on the subject of political or “impeachment” judgments.

  20. The Impact of Criminal Anthropology in Britain (1880-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Davie

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Only one book devoted entirely to the theories of Cesare Lombroso was published in Britain in the period 1880-1918, and that is The Criminal, by Havelock Ellis. In his book, Ellis noted the paradox of the British reaction to criminal anthropology. While researching the book, he had canvassed opinion among criminal justice professionals on the subject, hoping to garner home-grown reactions to the impassioned criminological debates taking place at the time on the Continent. Ellis was familiar w...

  1. Pervasive developmental disorders and criminal behaviour - A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and pattern of criminal behaviour in a population of 313 former child psychiatric in-patients with pervasive developmental disorders were studied. The patients were divided into three subgroups and compared with 933 matched controls from the general population. Age at follow......-up was between 25 years and 59 years. An account of convictions in the nationwide Danish Register of Criminality was used as a measure of criminal behaviour. Among 113 cases with childhood autism, .9% had been convicted. In atypical autism (n = 86) and Asperger's syndrome (n = 114) the percentages were 8...

  2. Criminal behavior among persons with schizophrenia in rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, CLW; Chen, PY; Liao, ZG; Tang, CP; Mao, WJ; Lamberti, JS; Conwell, Y; Ran, MS; Chen, EYH

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study is to explore the prevalence and risk factors for self-reported criminal behavior among persons with schizophrenia in rural China. Methods: We used data from a 14-year prospective follow-up study (1994-2008) of criminal behavior among a cohort (N= 510) of persons with schizophrenia in Xinjin County, China. Results: The rate of criminal behavior was 10.0% among persons with schizophrenia in a rural community during the follow-up period. Bivariate analyses showed that the ...

  3. THE RELATION BETWEEN THE CRIMINAL ACTION AND THE CIVIL ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN FLORIN MICU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the free access to the law is considered a fundamental human right, enriched by the Constitution itself. In practice, the committing of an illegal act may cause prejudice, being described as a civil offense, but at the same time may create a report of criminal law, attracting the criminal liability, in which case it is called offense. This is how we find in the jurisprudence, both civil action and criminal action, so that, in this study we try to present some singularities of these two types of actions, and of the relation between them.

  4. Francisco de Vitoria and the root of the criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Brandão

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The penal enlightenment was forged as the culmination of a process of bankruptcy paradigms. This is much due to the forward positions that were built before its claims, especially those of natural law rationalists who were based on legal thought of the modern age. In this context, the criminal ideas of Francisco de Vitoria gain considerable importance for understanding the matrix of the criminal law of these days, because they are linked to the enlightenment. Such ideas break the paradigm of the middle ages and replaced in theocentrism by anthropocentrism in the criminal field.

  5. The Influence of Beccaria in Modern Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alberto Leyva Estupiñán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available “On Crimes and Punishments” by Cesar Beccaria is a fundamental work for modern Criminal Law. The ideas of liberal Criminal Law are presented throughout the book and the basis of philosophy used as a criteria, clearly reappears in Western thought by the middle of the 18th Century. Beccaria is one of the first authors that actually criticize the inquisitive system and canonical law from a philosophical and Criminal Law point of view. The author criticizes capital punishment, tortures to the accused and concludes that prevention should be the final objective of punishment.

  6. The Criminal Justice System and Ordeal of Victims of Crime in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Law is important and indeed indispensable for the continued existence of human society. The criminal justice system is entrusted with the responsibility of controlling criminal behaviour and punishing criminals or offenders. Compared to civil law, criminal law focuses more on the benefit of the state and political community ...

  7. New solutions in the juvenile criminal law in the light of the restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available New criminal legislation got into force in Serbia at the beginning of 2006. In that way, Serbia got unique Criminal Code which includes all provisions of material criminal law except provisions related to the criminal position of juveniles. System of criminal sanctions for juvenile off enders, procedure for their imposition and the way, procedure and terms for their execution are regulated by the provisions of the separate law - the Law on juvenile off enders and criminal protection of juveniles. Some of the most important novelties introduced by new juvenile criminal law are system of diversion, i.e. system of diversion orders, which aim at excluding the imposition of criminal sanctions in the cases when criminal sanction is not necessary from the perspective of crime suppression. Bearing that in mind, this paper is dedicated to forms of diversion orders as a form of measures that lead to more efficient system of restorative justice within our new juvenile criminal legislation. .

  8. The Evolution of the Social Criminal Law on an International Wide Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Razvan Popescu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Brought to maturity, the labor criminal law represents a real branch of the criminal law, as well as the business criminal law, fiscal criminal law or the environment criminal law. Notwithstanding labor criminal law cannot be considered merely as an accessory part of the corporate criminal law, but having an essential part such as an exhibit test, in order to determine new legal mechanisms, such as the ones regarding criminal liability of the legal persons. In the Romanian legislation, the labor criminal law, as an interference zone between the criminal law and labor law, has to be regarded from the internal social realities governing the labor aspects, as well from the comparative law's point of view.

  9. Applications of neuroscience in criminal law: legal and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, John B

    2015-01-01

    The use of neuroscience in criminal law applications is an increasingly discussed topic among legal and psychological scholars. Over the past 5 years, several prominent federal criminal cases have referenced neuroscience studies and made admissibility determinations regarding neuroscience evidence. Despite this growth, the field is exceptionally young, and no one knows for sure how significant of a contribution neuroscience will make to criminal law. This article focuses on three major subfields: (1) neuroscience-based credibility assessment, which seeks to detect lies or knowledge associated with a crime; (2) application of neuroscience to aid in assessments of brain capacity for culpability, especially among adolescents; and (3) neuroscience-based prediction of future recidivism. The article briefly reviews these fields as applied to criminal law and makes recommendations for future research, calling for the increased use of individual-level data and increased realism in laboratory studies.

  10. Access to sign language interpreters in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K R

    2001-10-01

    Historically, the provision of sign language interpreters to deaf suspects, defendants, and offenders has been a problematic issue in the criminal justice system. Inconsistency in the provision of interpreter services results largely from the ignorance of criminal justice professionals regarding deaf people's communication needs and accommodation options. Through analysis of 22 post-Americans with Disabilities Act cases and a survey of 46 professional sign language interpreters working in criminal justice settings, the present study considered access issues concerning sign language interpreters in law enforcement, courtrooms, and correctional settings. Recommendations to increase the accessibility of interpreting services include providing ongoing awareness training to criminal justice personnel, developing training programs for deaf legal advocates, and continuing access studies.

  11. Theft of Debris from the Space Shuttle Columbia: Criminal Penalties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murnane, Andrew W; Eig, Larry

    2003-01-01

    .... This report briefly describes possible criminal penalties for conversion of government property, and does not address issues related to the personal property of the Columbia's crew. This report will be updated as warranted.

  12. 22 CFR 40.22 - Multiple criminal convictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Certain Crimes § 40.22 Multiple criminal convictions. (a) Conviction(s) for crime(s) committed under age... time juvenile courts existed within the jurisdiction of the conviction. (b) Conviction in absentia. A...

  13. Coherence in international criminal justice : A victimological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pemberton, A.; Letschert, R.M.; de Brouwer, A.L.M.; Haveman, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    This article develops a victimological perspective on international criminal justice, based on a review of the main victimological characteristics of international crimes: the complicity of government agencies, the large numbers of victims involved and the peculiar position of victims of

  14. Public attitudes toward legally coerced biological treatments of criminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryessa, Colleen M; Chandler, Jennifer A; Reiner, Peter

    2016-12-01

    How does the public view the offer of a biological treatment in lieu of prison for criminal offenders? Using the contrastive vignette technique, we explored this issue, using mixed-methods analysis to measure concerns regarding changing the criminal's personality, the coercive nature of the offer, and the safety of the proposed treatment. Overall, we found that of the three variables, the safety of the pill had the strongest effect on public acceptance of a biological intervention. Indeed, it was notable that the public was relatively sanguine about coercive offers of biological agents, as well as changing the personality of criminals. While respondents did not fully endorse such coercive offers, neither were they outraged by the use of biological treatments of criminals in lieu of incarceration. These results are discussed in the context of the retributive and rehabilitative sentiments of the public, and legal jurisprudence in the arena of human rights law.

  15. Beyond poverty and criminalization: Splintering youth groups and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . In Ghana the upsurge, scale and scope of such violence in major cities are becoming worrying, making it imperative to examine the nexus between poverty, splintering youth groups, and crime. Typically, youth criminal and antisocial ...

  16. Ontario: prostitution-related provisions of Criminal Code struck down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sandra Ka Hon

    2011-04-01

    In September 2010, the Ontario Superior Court of Justice held that three provisions of the Criminal Code dealing with prostitution violated sex workers' constitutional rights, were not in accordance with the principles of fundamental justice and must be struck down.

  17. 22 CFR 505.12 - Civil remedies and criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pretenses. The Act makes it a criminal offense to knowingly and willfully request or gain access to a record about an individual under false pretenses. Any person found guilty of such an offense may be fined not...

  18. The International Criminal Court: Considerations for the Joint Force Commander

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutton, Michael

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of the issues and remedies a Joint Force Commander should be concerned about because of the relationship between the United States and the newly-created International Criminal Court (ICC...

  19. The Criminal Liability of a Republic’s President

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crina Mihaela Verga

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to make a comparative analysis of the criminal liability of thehead of state in parliamentary republics and in semi presidential republics. The paper introduces theconcepts of “non-responsability” and “inviolability” of the President and is based on recent researchesin Comparative Law which regard the criminal liability of the head of state. The approach was basedon a comparative study and on observing how to apply in practice the constitutional provisionsconcerning the criminal liability of the President. As a result of using these methods we can establishthe precise and obvious rules concerning the institution analyzed. The implications of this study referto a better knowledge of the regulation of the criminal liability in certain states which allow anefficient reception and enforcement of the constitutional provisions on the matter. The consistencyand universality of certain solutions provide great legitimacy to the comparative law in the field underinvestigation.

  20. Complaints against Measures and Acts of Criminal Prosecution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    The complaints against measures and acts of prosecution represent a judicial instrument andalso the way an interested person starts a reviewing action concerning the legality and the groundsof some criminal prosecution acts and measures.

  1. Administrative Subpoenas in Criminal Investigations: A Brief Legal Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doyle, Charles

    2006-01-01

    .... Several statutes at least arguably authorize the use of administrative subpoenas primarily or exclusively for use in a criminal investigation in cases involving health care fraud, child abuse, Secret...

  2. The victims within the reformed criminal justice system

    OpenAIRE

    Pásara Pazos, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the negative impact of the reforms within the criminal systems in Latin America, both for those who suffer a crime, and those who are accused of having committed such crime. Supprted by empirical data, the author warns how the innovations of the reformed criminal proceedings (for example, the simplified court proceeding or the active role played by prosecutors), by enrolling into an authoritative legalculture, become in practice contrary to their likely design. El pre...

  3. The Evidentiary Value of DNA Fingerprint as Criminal Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussa Masoud Irhouma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of criminal evidence is considered to be one of the greatest challenges that face authorities concerned with fighting crime at all levels. Due to this, authorities try to benefit as much as possible from scientific evidence due to the important role it plays in revealing the identity of criminals or victims in present or past criminal cases against unknown people through the physical traces that are found at the scene of an event, which include biological traces. DNA is one of these scientific evidences which can be benefited from in the field of crime investigation. Despite the importance of DNA technology in this area of work, there is still some debate surrounding its acceptance as criminal evidence. Some experts believe it to be of great importance whereas others cast doubt on its evidentiary value. They attribute this to a number of factors including the experts who are entrusted to examine DNA samples, the laboratories in which DNA analysis takes place, as well as the fact that resorting to DNA as a criminal evidence raises some legal complexities related to the permissibility of using it and the conditions and scope of its use. This paper sheds light on DNA and its evidentiary value among the judiciary in criminal cases by answering a number of questions such as the possibility of forcing a person to undergo DNA analysis or not to do so and to what extent it is to be relied upon as criminal evidence. This paper concluded the importance of DNA and its role in the field of criminal evidence. Despite this, even if the DNA evidence is sufficient in proving the innocence of the accused, it is only an indication that must not be solely relied upon and treated as a single conclusive evidence, particularly in cases that involve prescribed Islamic or retributive punishments.

  4. Clinical correlates of later violence and criminal offences in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyka, Michael; Graz, Christian; Bottlender, Ronald; Dirschedl, Peter; Schoech, Heinz

    2007-08-01

    Violence and criminality in patients with schizophrenia has been described in several studies but prediction of later criminal behavior is difficult. We reviewed the national crime register for records of criminal offences committed by 1662 patients with schizophrenia treated between 1990 and 1995 in the Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Munich. Analyses were performed to determine predictors of later criminal behavior, and the psychopathological syndrome scales in the Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry (AMDP) system were used to establish possible psychopathological characteristics for such behavior. One hundred and sixty nine (10.2%) of the 1662 patients had been convicted in the 7-12 years after discharge, whereby male patients (117 of 685, 17.1%) outnumbered female patients ( 52 of 977, 5.3%) by more than 3 to 1. The rate of violent crimes was especially high: 62 (3.7%) patients were convicted for physical injury offences. Five cases of manslaughter or murder were recorded. AMDP syndrome scales were found to be predictive for later criminal offences. Significantly higher rates of criminal conviction and recidivism were found for patients with lack of insight at discharge. Analyses also showed a significantly higher risk of non-violent and violent crimes in patients with a hostility syndrome at admission and discharge. There was a significantly lower incidence of criminal behavior in subjects with a depressive syndrome. Data indicate a significant rate of minor and serious physical injury offences in former inpatients with schizophrenia. Moreover, results identify risk factors for future non-violent and violent criminal behavior in patients with schizophrenia.

  5. On the Effectiveness of Criminal Investigation Related to Armed Conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Arsen A. Danelyan

    2016-01-01

    This article examines legal problems of arranging effective criminal investigation related to armed conflicts. Modern technologies are increasingly relied on in order to ensure the integrity, objectiveness, and reliability of result of special expert procedures. Consideration is given to the possibility of implementing the so-called “offensive approach” in criminal investigation. The author also examines legal relationships this approach and the active position of civil society in the process...

  6. The development of the penal system in Serbian criminal law

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    Jakšić Dušan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous development of the penal system in Serbia is reflected in significant changes within the criminal legislative solutions. The most important legal document of the medieval Serbia, 'Dušan's Code' was characterized by harsh corporal and death punishments taken from the Byzantine law. During the Ottoman period 'Dušan's Code' was no longer in use, and with the beginning of the First Serbian Uprising, the adoption of individual legislations began. The Criminal Code of the Principality of Serbia, adopted in 1860, introduced a novelty of major and minor penalties, including, most importantly, several types of detention. The Criminal Code of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was adopted in 1929 and it predicted different types of sanctions other than fines. The main feature of the Criminal Code of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was permanent abolition of the corporal punishment. After the Second World War, the newly formed government adopted new criminal codes and new forms of punishment, which remained unchanged from the Novel in 1959 up until the dissolution of the SFRY. Contemporary criminal legislation of the Republic of Serbia is characterized by the abolition of the death penalty, seizure of property and the introduction of new penalties, which should, instead of short prison sentences, serve as an alternative. Throughout its statehood, from the Middle Ages up until today, Serbia has always had a continuity of the penal system development parallel with its development, primarily in Europe.

  7. An inappropriate tool: criminal law and HIV in Asia.

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    Csete, Joanne; Dube, Siddharth

    2010-09-01

    Asian countries have applied criminal sanctions widely in areas directly relevant to national HIV programmes and policies, including criminalization of HIV transmission, sex work, homosexuality and drug injection. This criminalization may impede universal access to HIV prevention and treatment services in Asia and undermine vulnerable people's ability to be part of the HIV response. To review the status of application of criminal law in key HIV-related areas in Asia and analyze its impact. Review of literature and application of human rights norms to analysis of criminal law measures. Criminal laws in the areas considered here and their enforcement, while intended to reduce HIV transmission, are inappropriate and counterproductive with respect to health and human rights. Governments should remove punitive laws that impede the HIV response and should ensure meaningful participation of people living with HIV, people who use illicit drugs, sex workers and men who have sex with men in combating stigma and discrimination and developing rights-centered approaches to HIV.

  8. Student criminal background checks in colleges of allied health.

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    Wyatt, Diane; Aziz, Hassan; Mahoney, Sherry; Gilman, Frances H

    2008-01-01

    The demand that criminal background checks be performed for students in allied health schools and programs has soared in recent years. The need for criminal background checks on students entering the health care professions has emerged as a critical issue largely due to requirements by clinical affiliate training sites. The Joint Commission published a standard stating, "for staff, students and volunteers who work in the same capacity as staff who provide care, treatment, and services, at Elements of Performance 5 states criminal background checks are verified when required by law and regulation and organization policy." More simply stated, this means that criminal background check records must be verifiable if required by some authoritative entity such as state law. However, whether by misinterpretation of the standard or through conscious decision by organization policy makers, many health care organizations suddenly began to require criminal background checks as part of their affiliation agreements with health related schools or programs. The focus of this study was to identify current practices of allied health institutions regarding their conduct of criminal background checks on students entering the allied health professions.

  9. Prosecutor In The Criminal Trial (Conceptual, Organizational And Functional Aspects

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    Elena V. Selina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author in detail analyzes point 1 and 2 of the part 2 of the article 37 of the Criminal Procedural Code of the Russian Federation, devoted to the powers of the execution of the provision of federal law check, registration of messages on crimes commission and making motivated decree on direction of corresponding materials to the investigative body or law-enforcement body for the solution of the question of criminal prosecution on the facts of the criminal legislation violations revealed by the prosecutor. Explanation connecting them in one norm made in the point 1.3. of the Order of the State Office of Public Prosecutor of the Russian Federation of June. 02, 2011 No. 162 "On the organization of public prosecutor's supervision over the procedural activity of the preliminary investigation bodies". Author explains that from the point of the legal decision legitimacy, an explanation of the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation correspond to the principles of criminal trial and functional concept of the prosecutor participation. Discrepancy of the legal grounds provided in the point 1 and 2 of the part 2 of the article 37 of the Criminal Procedural Code of the Russian Federation for ensuring of powers stated in the point 1 of this article of the Code and its parts. In fact, analogy of the law is applied. In the conclusion author in addition to the Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation is offered.

  10. The perfect match: Do criminal stereotypes bias forensic evidence analysis?

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    Smalarz, Laura; Madon, Stephanie; Yang, Yueran; Guyll, Max; Buck, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    This research provided the first empirical test of the hypothesis that stereotypes bias evaluations of forensic evidence. A pilot study (N = 107) assessed the content and consensus of 20 criminal stereotypes by identifying perpetrator characteristics (e.g., sex, race, age, religion) that are stereotypically associated with specific crimes. In the main experiment (N = 225), participants read a mock police incident report involving either a stereotyped crime (child molestation) or a nonstereotyped crime (identity theft) and judged whether a suspect's fingerprint matched a fingerprint recovered at the crime scene. Accompanying the suspect's fingerprint was personal information about the suspect of the type that is routinely available to fingerprint analysts (e.g., race, sex) and which could activate a stereotype. Participants most often perceived the fingerprints to match when the suspect fit the criminal stereotype, even though the prints did not actually match. Moreover, participants appeared to be unaware of the extent to which a criminal stereotype had biased their evaluations. These findings demonstrate that criminal stereotypes are a potential source of bias in forensic evidence analysis and suggest that suspects who fit criminal stereotypes may be disadvantaged over the course of the criminal justice process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Incidence of previously undetected disease in routine paediatric otolaryngology admissions.

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    Zeitoun, H; Robinson, P

    1996-06-01

    The process of clerking routine pre-operative admissions involves the house officer taking a full medical history and performing a full physical examination. The diagnostic yield is thought to be low, and the educational value to the house officer is also small. This study addresses the question as to whether routine physical examination is always indicated. One hundred and nine children admitted for routine Otolaryngology procedures were prospectively studied to identify the importance of examination in the pre-operative assessment of patients. The results showed that 51 per cent of the children admitted had risk factors. The medical history was sufficient to identify these risk factors in all patients with the exception of one cardiac condition. This study concludes that a suitable alternative to the current process of clerking such as a standardized nurse history could be safely and efficiently undertaken. Eliminating the tiny percentage of previously unrecognized disease would be a prerequisite for such a change.

  12. Notes Punishment of Law: A Cyclical Analysis of the Inquisition to Jakobiana Ideology of the Criminal Law of the Enemy

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    Rayana Pereira Sotão Arraes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In today's society, markedly complex and violent by uneven it is, the Law of Punishment has become increasingly incompatible day with the assumptions of the Constitutional rule of law. Throughout history the Criminal Law, the Law of Punishment crossed the denial of rights to the accused, observed the Inquisition, reaching fundamental guarantees the rights of man. However, what is observed today, with the crisis of the welfare state and the lack of confidence in the system is the frequent relativism guarantees and selectivity of the subject of rights which must be dealt with by criminal law and to be treated as an enemy of society, similar to the treatment of medieval heretics. This work was used the bibliographical research methodology.

  13. The Criminal Offense of Credit/Debit Card Fraud and the Implementation of Its Sanction on Indonesian Criminal Law

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    Antonius Maria Laot Kian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study are to determine the legal arrangements and the application of criminal sanctions against the crime of credit/debit card fraud in Indonesia. The type of study was a normative research by classifying the provisions relevant to the crime of credit/debit card fraud is based on Law No. 11 Year 2008 concerning Information and Electronic Transactions; otherwise it is used also Convention on Cyber crime 2001. Analysis of legal materials made through a law (statue approach to create an ius constituendum regarding the application of criminal sanctions against crime credit/debit card fraud. The results of the research indicated that the legal arrangements and criminal sanctions against the crime of credit/debit card fraud in Indonesia is still relatively minimal. First, not integrated article that directly regulates computer related fraud. Second, not arranged in the form of criminal sanctions for actions that are restitution culprit.

  14. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE EFFICIENCY OF THE ROMANIAN NEW CRIMINAL CODE IN COMBATTING CYBERCRIME

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    MAXIM DOBRINOIU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The New Criminal Code addresses in an adequate way the challenges of the cyberspace, being a useful tool in the hands of law enforcement agencies involved in combating a large spectrum of communications and cyberrelated offences. From a broad perspective, one could state that the changes made to the previous legislation are pertinent considering the real need of indictment outlined by the analysis of the judicial practice, while the new issues essentially contribute to the creation of a modern legal framework, capable of safeguarding the social values which will come up in the near future from the interaction of people with a booming information technology.

  15. Effect of previous induced abortions on postabortion contraception selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Melissa; Roston, Alicia; Keith, Louis; Patel, Ashlesha

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to compare contraceptive method selection in women undergoing their first pregnancy termination versus women undergoing repeat pregnancy termination in an urban abortion clinic. We hypothesized that women undergoing repeat abortions will select highly effective contraceptives (intrauterine device, subdermal implant, tubal ligation) more often than patients undergoing their first abortion. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion at John H. Stroger, Jr., Hospital of Cook County from October 1, 2009, to October 31, 2011. We compared contraceptive method selection in the postabortion period after receipt of contraceptive counseling for 7466 women, stratifying women by history of no prior abortion versus one or more abortions. Of the 7466 women, 48.6% (3625) had no history of previous abortion. After controlling for age, race and number of living children, women with a history of abortion were more likely to select a highly effective method [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.33]. Most significantly, having living children was the strongest predictor of a highly effective method with an OR of 3.17 (95% CI 2.69-3.75). In women having a first-trimester abortion, the factors most predictive of selecting a highly effective method for postabortion contraception include history of previous abortion and having living children. The latter holds true independent of abortion history. This paper is unique in its ability to demonstrate the high interest in highly effective contraceptive selection in high-risk, low-income women with prior abortion history. Efforts to integrate provision of highly effective methods of contraception for postabortion care are essential for the reduction of future unintended pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Criminal code and assisted human reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés Bechiarelli, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    The Spanish Criminal Code punishes in the article 161 the crime of assisted reproduction of the woman without her assent as a form of crime relative to the genetic manipulation. The crime protects a specific area of the freedom of decision of the woman, which is the one that she has dealing with the right to the procreation at the moment of being fertilized. The sentence would include the damages to the health provoked by the birth or the abortion. The crime is a common one--everyone can commit it--and it is not required a result of pregnancy, but it is consumed by the mere intervention on the body of the woman, and its interpretation is contained on the Law 14/2006, of may 26, on technologies of human assisted reproduction. The aim of the work is to propose to consider valid the assent given by the sixteen-year-old women (and older) in coherence with the Project of Law about sexual and reproductive health and voluntary interruption of the pregnancy that is studied at this moment, in Spain, in order to harmonize the legal systems.

  17. Remembering a criminal conversation: beyond eyewitness testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Laura; Alonso-Quecuty, María L

    2006-01-01

    Unlike the important body of work on eyewitness memory, little research has been done on the accuracy and completeness of "earwitness" memory for conversations. The present research examined the effects of mode of presentation (audiovisual/ auditory-only) on witnesses' free recall for utterances in a criminal conversation at different retention intervals (immediate/delayed) within a single experiment. Different forms of correct recall (verbatim/gist) of the verbal information as well as different types of errors (distortions/fabrications) were also examined. It was predicted that participants in the audiovisual modality would provide more correct information, and fewer errors than participants in the auditory-only modality. Participants' recall was predicted to be impaired over time, dropping to a greater extent after a delay in the auditory-only modality. Results confirmed these hypotheses. Interpretations of the overall findings are offered within the context of dual-coding theory, and within the theoretical frameworks of source monitoring and fuzzy-trace theory.

  18. Recurrent criminal behavior and executive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Barbosa, Manuel Fernando; Coelho Monteiro, Luis Manuel

    2008-05-01

    To experimentally test the hypothesis that people who repeatedly participate in forms of non-violent crime exhibit an executive deficit detected in tests of high ecological validity, having changes in prefrontal functioning as neurophysiologic basis. A batteiy to assess executive dysfunction was administered--the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS)--to an experimental group of 30 inmates convicted of crimes against property (mean age = 39.3, SD = 9.98), and a control group of 30 (mean age = 32.7, SD = 11.8), all male. The group of recurrent inmates performed significantly worse than the control group in their global scores on the battery, as well as in the majority of subscales. Without removing from consideration the fact that sample size was not very large and, primarily, alerting ourselves to the dangerous hypothesis of a "frontal criminogenesis," the authors interpret criminal recurrence and resistance to penal measures in terms of the scarcity of control that individuals from the experimental group have over their behavior and its respective consequences.

  19. THE CRIMINAL PROTECTION OF THE FETUS AND A NEWBORN CHILD IN THE ACTUAL AND NEW CRIMINAL CODE

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    LAVINIA MIHAELA VLADILA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the way in which is achieved the criminal protection of the fetus and the newborn child, especially using the means of incriminating abortion and infanticide. The study emphasizes the lack of real protection for the intrauterine life, as a promise for life, which is trying to be remedied, in accordance with other European legislations, through the new Criminal Code.

  20. Delivery outcomes at term after one previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y

    2007-12-01

    To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.