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Sample records for previous consistent sunscreen

  1. Sunscreens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Godić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreens importantly contribute to photoprotection. Their efficacy in reducing photocarcinogenesis and photoaging is widely documented. Although there are concerns regarding longterm sunscreen safety, their advantages greatly outweigh potential risks. The review article presents a UV-induced skin damage prevention strategy, characteristics and safety of UV filters, andnew technological improvements of sunscreens.

  2. Sunscreens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, Marianna; Klit, A; Jensen, Martin Blomberg

    2012-01-01

    against melanoma skin cancer is less conclusive. Three important observations prompted us to review the animal data and human studies on possible side effects of selected chemical UV-filters in cosmetics. (1) the utilization of sunscreens with UV-filters is increasing worldwide; (2) the incidence...... samples in the US and several UV-filters in 85% of Swiss breast milk samples. It seems pertinent to evaluate whether exposure to UV-filters contribute to possible adverse effects on the developing organs of foetuses and children....

  3. Sunscreen use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodén, M; Beitner, H; Gonzalez, H

    2011-01-01

    for the development of cosmetics. Future debates on sunscreens are likely to focus on nanoparticles and environmental issues, along with motivation campaigns to persuade consumers to protect their skin. However, more efficient sunscreen use will also continue to raise questions on the benefit in preventing vitamin D...

  4. Best Sunscreen: Understand Sunscreen Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the shade as much as possible. Use sunscreen year-round, but don't let any product lull you ... logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. © 1998-2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical ...

  5. Protetores solares Sunscreens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Flor

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Health problems related to UV radiation can be minimized by the appropriate use of sunscreens. Different kinds of sunscreens are reported in the literature, even though there is a misleading denomination among them and few discussions are presented about how they work. This paper describes some important aspects in order to understand sunscreen phenomena such as: solar radiation effect, type of solar filters, protection mechanism, formulations and solar protection factor (SPF. Moreover the importance of Chemistry and the interdisciplinary studies related to sunscreens and cosmetic researches are emphasized.

  6. Photoprotection by sunscreen depends on time spent on application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerfordt, Ida M; Torsnes, Linnea R; Philipsen, Peter A; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2018-03-01

    To be effective, sunscreens must be applied in a sufficient quantity and reapplication is recommended. No previous study has investigated whether time spent on sunscreen application is important for the achieved photoprotection. To determine whether time spent on sunscreen application is related to the amount of sunscreen used during a first and second application. Thirty-one volunteers wearing swimwear applied sunscreen twice in a laboratory environment. Time spent and the amount of sunscreen used during each application was measured. Subjects' body surface area accessible for sunscreen application (BSA) was estimated from their height, weight and swimwear worn. The average applied quantity of sunscreen after each application was calculated. Subjects spent on average 4 minutes and 15 seconds on the first application and approximately 85% of that time on the second application. There was a linear relationship between time spent on application and amount of sunscreen used during both the first and the second application (P applications. After the first application, subjects had applied a mean quantity of sunscreen of 0.71 mg/cm 2 on the BSA, and after the second application, a mean total quantity of 1.27 mg/cm 2 had been applied. We found that participants applied a constant amount of sunscreen per minute during both a first and a second application. Measurement of time spent on application of sunscreen on different body sites may be useful in investigating the distribution of sunscreen in real-life settings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Are sunscreens luxury products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, Emmanuel; Beauchet, Alain; de Maleissye, Marie-Florence; Saiag, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    The incidence of skin cancers is rapidly increasing in Western countries. One of the main sun-protection measures advocated is application of sunscreen. Some studies report a failure to comply with sunscreen application guidance. One explanation is their cost. To evaluate the true cost of sunscreen in two situations: a 4-member family spending 1 week at the beach and a transplant patient respecting all the sun protection recommendations. We performed an analysis of prices of sunscreens sold via Internet drugstores in Europe and North America. Standard sunscreen application recommendations were followed. We tested the recommended amount of sunscreen to be applied (ie, 2 mg/cm(2)). Six hundred seven sunscreens from 17 drugstores in 7 countries were evaluated. Median price of sunscreen was $1.7 US per 10 grams. The price decreased with the size of the bottle. The median price for a family varied from $178.2 per week to $238.4 per week. The price decreased by 33% if the family wore UV-protective T-shirts and by 41% if large-volume bottles were used. The median price for a transplant patient varied from $245.3 per year to $292.3 per year. Anti-UVA activity and topical properties were not evaluated. We tested the recommended amount (2 mg/cm(2)) rather than the amount actually used (1 mg/cm(2)). Under acute sun exposure conditions (a week at the beach), the cost of sun protection appears acceptable if sun protective clothing is worn and large-format bottles and low-cost sunscreens are used. Conversely, in a sun-sensitive population requiring year-round protection, the annual budget is relatively high and patients may require financial assistance to be compliant with sun protection guidelines. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Screening sunscreens: protecting the biomechanical barrier function of skin from solar ultraviolet radiation damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkey, C; Biniek, K; Dauskardt, R H

    2017-06-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is ubiquitous in human life and well known to cause skin damage that can lead to harmful conditions such as erythema. Although sunscreen is a popular form of protection for some of these conditions, it is unclear whether sunscreen can maintain the mechanical barrier properties of skin. The objective of this study was to determine whether in vitro thin-film mechanical analysis techniques adapted for biological tissue are able to characterize the efficacy of commonly used UV inhibitors and commercial sunscreens to protect the biomechanical barrier properties of stratum corneum (SC) from UV exposure. The biomechanical properties of SC samples were assayed through measurements of the SC's drying stress profile and delamination energy. The drying stresses within SC were characterized from the curvature of a borosilicate glass substrate onto which SC had been adhered. Delamination energies were characterized using a double-cantilever beam (DCB) cohesion testing method. Successive DCB specimens were prepared from previously separated specimens by adhering new substrates onto each side of the already tested specimen to probe delamination energies deeper into the SC. These properties of the SC were measured before and after UV exposure, both with and without sunscreens applied, to determine the role of sunscreen in preserving the barrier function of SC. The drying stress in SC starts increasing sooner and rises to a higher plateau stress value after UVA exposure as compared to non-UV-exposed control specimens. For specimens that had sunscreen applied, the UVA-exposed and non-UV-exposed SC had similar drying stress profiles. Additionally, specimens exposed to UVB without protection from sunscreen exhibited significantly lower delamination energies than non-UV-exposed controls. With commercial sunscreen applied, the delamination energy for UV-exposed and non-UV-exposed tissue was consistent, even up to large doses of UVB. In vitro thin

  9. Sand resistance of sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Michael; Wood, Caryl; Martinez, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Like water resistance in sunscreens, sand resistance in sunscreens is the ability of the sunscreen to retain its effectiveness while undergoing sand treatment. The influence of the type of sand on the sand resistance of sunscreens has not been described. The sand resistance of a control standard sunscreen, P2, and data on three grades of Quickrete commercial grade sand, #1961, #1962, and #1152, are described. These sands represent a fine sand, a medium sand, and an all-purpose sand. Using the methodology described in the 2007 proposed amendment of the Final Monograph (1) with one exception, we obtained an SPF of 16.5 (1.6) for the control standard, compared to the expected SPF of 16.3 (3.4). After a five-minute treatment of sand #1961, #1962, or #1151, the SPF of the control standard was 18.3 (1.6), 18.4 (2.0), and 17.5 (2.2), respectively. Thus, all three sands exhibited a similar sand-resistance response. Thus, there was no significant difference in the average SPF with and without sand. The medium grade sand, Quickrete commercial grade #1962, was preferred for sand-resistance testing because the fine sand was difficult to remove from the subject's backs and the coarse sand was unpleasant to the subjects.

  10. Application of sunscreen--theory and reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    We present research on sunscreen use with possible pitfalls and discuss theory vs. reality. A literature review in PubMed was conducted using the terms 'sunscreen application', 'sunscreen use' and 'sun protection factor'. The sun protection factor (SPF) of sunscreens are tested using a thickness...... considerably. Current sunscreen labelling overrates the protective effect of a given sunscreen when the reality of sunscreen use is taken into account. This may possibly mislead consumers to feel it is safe to extend sun exposure. Alternatively to educating people to use large amounts of sunscreen, we suggest...... for the discrepancy between the amounts of sunscreen applied during testing and in reality, and that sunscreen application can be improved by education of consumers. Missing areas and ultraviolet radiation exposure before sunscreen application are other pitfalls that reduce the protective effect of sunscreens...

  11. DNA photoprotection conveyed by sunscreen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaven, Charlene; Hayden, Patrick J; Armento, Alexander; Oldach, Jonathan

    2014-06-01

    Skin photoaging is the consequence of solar UV exposure, and DNA damage is an important part of this process. The objective of the current work was to demonstrate that in vitro skin models can be utilized to confirm that DNA damage protection is provided by sunscreens. Skin equivalents were exposed to full-spectrum UV light administered with a standard research solar simulator with and without pre-application of sunscreen. Cyclopyrimidine dimer (CPD) and sunburn cell (SBC) formation as well as CPD quantitation were evaluated to determine DNA damage protection provided by the sunscreen. Marked decreases in both CPDs and SBCs were observed when sunscreen was applied prior to UV exposure. Sunscreen application prior to full-spectrum solar UV exposure protects DNA from photodamage measured by CPD and SBC formation. This can be expected to lessen the risk of photoaging and malignant transformation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Application of sunscreen--theory and reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    considerably. Current sunscreen labelling overrates the protective effect of a given sunscreen when the reality of sunscreen use is taken into account. This may possibly mislead consumers to feel it is safe to extend sun exposure. Alternatively to educating people to use large amounts of sunscreen, we suggest...

  13. Sunscreens: safety, efficacy and appropriate use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Fergal J; Collins, Sinead; Murphy, Gillian M

    2002-01-01

    Promoting sunscreen use is an integral part of prevention programmes aimed at reducing ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin damage and skin cancers. Protection against both UVB and UVA radiation is advocated. Most sunscreens combine chemical UV absorbing sunscreens and physical inorganic sunscreens, which reflect UV, to provide broad-spectrum protection. Newer triazole and camphor-derivative based sunscreens, also provide broad-spectrum protection and are more cosmetically acceptable than many traditional agents. Currently licensed sunscreen ingredients in common use rarely cause allergic or photoallergic reactions. Vitamin D levels are not significantly affected by regular use of a sunscreen. Sunscreen use reduces both the development of precancerous solar keratosis and the recurrence of squamous cell carcinomas. Sunscreen use early in life may be important in prevention of basal cell carcinomas. Increased melanoma risk is influenced by the behaviour patterns of regular sunscreen users, as opposed to any direct effect of sunscreens. Sun protection factor (SPF) is affected by application density, water resistance and other factors. An adequate SPF for an individual should be balanced to skin phenotype and exposure habits. The correct use of sunscreens should be combined with the avoidance of midday sun and the wearing of protective clothing and glasses, as part of an overall sun protection regimen.

  14. The development of efficient sunscreens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Moyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin exposure to acute or repetitive ultraviolet light induces risks which are now well identified. An efficient photoprotection is thus required for both UVB and UVA radiation. In particular, increasing evidence of the detrimental effects of UVA on skin has led to the development of a new generation of sunscreens that provide effective protection throughout the whole UV radiation spectrum. Many new UV filters have been introduced in the last decade, particularly UVA filters, with improved efficacy and safety. Sunscreen filters must be carefully combined to achieve esthetically pleasing products offering photostable and well-balanced photoprotection.

  15. Safety of nanoparticles in sunscreens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Sunscreens may contain ZnO or TiO2 nanoparticles to absorb UV radiation. Available data do not allow for precisely establishing risk associated with these nanoparticles. However, there is substantial evidence that the hazard of TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles probably comes from their ability to generate

  16. In vitro measurements of sunscreen protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, Joseph; Osterwalder, Uli; Herzog, Bernd

    2010-04-01

    The ultimate goal of in vitro measurements of sunscreen protection is replacement of invasive tests on human volunteer subjects. This requires validation of methods against a measurable in vivo benchmark, such as SPF. SPF is measured in the laboratory using artificial light sources that do not completely simulate sunlight. Once a method for in vitro measurements is validated, sunscreen protection against measured solar spectra may be achieved. Critical aspects of in vitro measurements of sun protection include the ability of substrates to emulate human skin, performance of instrumentation and use of correct algorithms to account for changes in sunscreen absorbance during irradiation. We have developed a dose-response model that accounts for changes in absorbance and facilitates evaluation of broad spectrum protection, as well as SPF, and provides an index of sunscreen photostability.

  17. DNA Dosimetry Assessment for Sunscreen Genotoxic Photoprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Schuch, André Passaglia; Lago, Juliana Carvalhães; Yagura, Teiti; Menck, Carlos Frederico Martins

    2012-01-01

    Background: Due to the increase of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) incidence over the last few decades, the use of sunscreen has been widely adopted for skin protection. However, considering the high efficiency of sunlight-induced DNA lesions, it is critical to improve upon the current approaches that are used to evaluate protection factors. An alternative approach to evaluate the photoprotection provided by sunscreens against daily UV radiation-induced DNA damage is provided by the systemat...

  18. The use of botanical products and vitamins in sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monico, Gabriela; Leo, Micheal; Ma, Brian; Johal, Ritika S; Ma, Thomas; Sivamani, Raja K

    2015-11-18

    The use of botanical products and vitamins in skin care creams and sunscreens is prevalent. Herein we conduct an evaluation of sunscreens to quantitatively assess how often sunscreens incorporate botanically derived products and vitamins. The most commonly used botanicals products and vitamins are identified and stratified based on the sunscreen sun protection factor (SPF). The overall prevalence for the use of botanical agents and vitamins was 62% and 79%, respectively. Aloe vera and licorice root extracts were the most common botanical agents used in sunscreens. Retinyl palmitate was the most common vitamin derivative utilized in sunscreens. The prices of sunscreens significantly increased when more than one botanical product was added. Botanical products and vitamins are widely utilized in sunscreens and more research is needed to assess how their inclusion may enhance or alter the function of sunscreens.

  19. DNA dosimetry assessment for sunscreen genotoxic photoprotection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Passaglia Schuch

    Full Text Available Due to the increase of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV incidence over the last few decades, the use of sunscreen has been widely adopted for skin protection. However, considering the high efficiency of sunlight-induced DNA lesions, it is critical to improve upon the current approaches that are used to evaluate protection factors. An alternative approach to evaluate the photoprotection provided by sunscreens against daily UV radiation-induced DNA damage is provided by the systematic use of a DNA dosimeter.The Sun Protection Factor for DNA (DNA-SPF is calculated by using specific DNA repair enzymes, and it is defined as the capacity for inhibiting the generation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD and oxidised DNA bases compared with unprotected control samples. Five different commercial brands of sunscreen were initially evaluated, and further studies extended the analysis to include 17 other products representing various formulations and Sun Protection Factors (SPF. Overall, all of the commercial brands of SPF 30 sunscreens provided sufficient protection against simulated sunlight genotoxicity. In addition, this DNA biosensor was useful for rapidly screening the biological protection properties of the various sunscreen formulations.The application of the DNA dosimeter is demonstrated as an alternative, complementary, and reliable method for the quantification of sunscreen photoprotection at the level of DNA damage.

  20. DNA dosimetry assessment for sunscreen genotoxic photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, André Passaglia; Lago, Juliana Carvalhães; Yagura, Teiti; Menck, Carlos Frederico Martins

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increase of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) incidence over the last few decades, the use of sunscreen has been widely adopted for skin protection. However, considering the high efficiency of sunlight-induced DNA lesions, it is critical to improve upon the current approaches that are used to evaluate protection factors. An alternative approach to evaluate the photoprotection provided by sunscreens against daily UV radiation-induced DNA damage is provided by the systematic use of a DNA dosimeter. The Sun Protection Factor for DNA (DNA-SPF) is calculated by using specific DNA repair enzymes, and it is defined as the capacity for inhibiting the generation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and oxidised DNA bases compared with unprotected control samples. Five different commercial brands of sunscreen were initially evaluated, and further studies extended the analysis to include 17 other products representing various formulations and Sun Protection Factors (SPF). Overall, all of the commercial brands of SPF 30 sunscreens provided sufficient protection against simulated sunlight genotoxicity. In addition, this DNA biosensor was useful for rapidly screening the biological protection properties of the various sunscreen formulations. The application of the DNA dosimeter is demonstrated as an alternative, complementary, and reliable method for the quantification of sunscreen photoprotection at the level of DNA damage.

  1. DNA Dosimetry Assessment for Sunscreen Genotoxic Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, André Passaglia; Lago, Juliana Carvalhães; Yagura, Teiti; Menck, Carlos Frederico Martins

    2012-01-01

    Background Due to the increase of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) incidence over the last few decades, the use of sunscreen has been widely adopted for skin protection. However, considering the high efficiency of sunlight-induced DNA lesions, it is critical to improve upon the current approaches that are used to evaluate protection factors. An alternative approach to evaluate the photoprotection provided by sunscreens against daily UV radiation-induced DNA damage is provided by the systematic use of a DNA dosimeter. Methodology/Principal Findings The Sun Protection Factor for DNA (DNA-SPF) is calculated by using specific DNA repair enzymes, and it is defined as the capacity for inhibiting the generation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and oxidised DNA bases compared with unprotected control samples. Five different commercial brands of sunscreen were initially evaluated, and further studies extended the analysis to include 17 other products representing various formulations and Sun Protection Factors (SPF). Overall, all of the commercial brands of SPF 30 sunscreens provided sufficient protection against simulated sunlight genotoxicity. In addition, this DNA biosensor was useful for rapidly screening the biological protection properties of the various sunscreen formulations. Conclusions/Significance The application of the DNA dosimeter is demonstrated as an alternative, complementary, and reliable method for the quantification of sunscreen photoprotection at the level of DNA damage. PMID:22768281

  2. Accumulation of sunscreen in human skin after daily applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Akerström, Ulf; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sunscreen applied to the skin provides a considerable sun protection factor (SPF) even after 8 h. Sunscreen use for consecutive days may therefore result in an accumulation of the product. This study investigated the consequences of accumulation for SPF....

  3. 21 CFR 352.52 - Labeling of sunscreen drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...] Labeling § 352.52 Labeling of sunscreen drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the... protective clothing, and using sunscreens may reduce the risks of skin aging, skin cancer, and other harmful...

  4. The Spectrophotometric Analysis and Modeling of Sunscreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Christina; Keeney, Allen; Wigal, Carl T.; Johnston, Cynthia R.; Cornelius, Richard D.

    1997-01-01

    Sunscreens and their SPF (Sun Protection Factor) values are the focus of this experiment that includes spectrophotometric measurements and molecular modeling. Students suspend weighed amounts of sunscreen lotions graded SPF 4, 6, 8, 15, 30, and 45 in water and dissolve aliquots of the aqueous suspensions in propanol. The expected relationship of absorbance proportional to log10(SPF) applies at 312 nm where a maximum in absorbance occurs for the sunscreen solutions. Results at 330 nm give similar results and are more accessible using spectrometers routinely available in the introductory laboratory. Sunscreens constitute a suitable class of compounds to use for modeling electronic spectra, and using the computer for the active ingredients ethylhexyl para-methoxycinnamate, oxybenzone, 2-ethylhexyl salicylate, and octocrylene found in commercially available formulations typically predicts the absorption maxima within 10 nm. This experiment lets students explore which compounds have the potential to function as sunscreen agents and thereby see the importance of a knowledge of chemistry to the formulation of household items.

  5. Comparison of dermal absorption of zinc from different sunscreen formulations and differing UV exposure based on stable isotope tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, Brian; Wong, Herbert; Korsch, Michael; Gomez, Laura; Casey, Philip; McCall, Maxine; McCulloch, Malcolm; Trotter, Julie; Stauber, Jenny; Greenoak, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    In a pilot study to determine if zinc (Zn) from zinc oxide nanoparticles in sunscreen can penetrate human skin in vivo, nanoparticles (∼ 30 nm) of a stable isotope (52% 68 Zn enrichment) were incorporated into an essentially phytochemical-based formulation and applied to the backs of 3 human subjects twice daily for 5 days during the Southern Hemisphere winter. Blood and urine were collected prior to application and at regular intervals and up to 50 days. As observed in a larger outdoor trial following this pilot study but with a different formulation and with UV exposure: values of 68 Zn in blood continued to increase beyond the 5 day application phase with the highest measurement at 14 days after the first application; variable amounts of the 68 Zn tracer were observed in urine; and the amounts of extra Zn added to blood were small and indicate very low levels of absorption (minimal estimate < 0.01% of the applied dose) through the skin. Reasons for differences in absorption detected in the stable isotope trials and previous investigations include: the sensitivity of the stable isotope method; the duration of the investigations; the number of applications of sunscreen formulation; in vitro methods with excised skin; lack of measurement of blood and urine; no skin flexing; and lack of UV exposure. - Highlights: ► A pilot study to test feasibility of using stable Zn isotopes in sunscreens. ► Three volunteers tested over 5 days with minimal UV exposure. ► Small amount of 68Zn from ZnO absorbed through skin. ► Results consistent with larger outdoor trial.

  6. Comparison of dermal absorption of zinc from different sunscreen formulations and differing UV exposure based on stable isotope tracing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Wong, Herbert [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); Korsch, Michael [CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Gomez, Laura [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); Casey, Philip [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Clayton VIC 3168 (Australia); McCall, Maxine [CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); McCulloch, Malcolm; Trotter, Julie [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Stauber, Jenny [CSIRO Land and Water, Lucas Heights, Menai, NSW, 2232 (Australia); Greenoak, Gavin [Australian Photobiology Testing Facility, Sydney University, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2012-03-15

    In a pilot study to determine if zinc (Zn) from zinc oxide nanoparticles in sunscreen can penetrate human skin in vivo, nanoparticles ({approx} 30 nm) of a stable isotope (52% {sup 68}Zn enrichment) were incorporated into an essentially phytochemical-based formulation and applied to the backs of 3 human subjects twice daily for 5 days during the Southern Hemisphere winter. Blood and urine were collected prior to application and at regular intervals and up to 50 days. As observed in a larger outdoor trial following this pilot study but with a different formulation and with UV exposure: values of {sup 68}Zn in blood continued to increase beyond the 5 day application phase with the highest measurement at 14 days after the first application; variable amounts of the {sup 68}Zn tracer were observed in urine; and the amounts of extra Zn added to blood were small and indicate very low levels of absorption (minimal estimate < 0.01% of the applied dose) through the skin. Reasons for differences in absorption detected in the stable isotope trials and previous investigations include: the sensitivity of the stable isotope method; the duration of the investigations; the number of applications of sunscreen formulation; in vitro methods with excised skin; lack of measurement of blood and urine; no skin flexing; and lack of UV exposure. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A pilot study to test feasibility of using stable Zn isotopes in sunscreens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three volunteers tested over 5 days with minimal UV exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small amount of 68Zn from ZnO absorbed through skin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results consistent with larger outdoor trial.

  7. Effectiveness of Nivea Sunscreen under Ultraviolet Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piset Virachunya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between a sunscreen’s SPF and its absorbance for UV light of wavelength 240 to 320 was investigated. The investigation was conducted by diluting sunscreens with SPFs of 20, 30 and 50 and placing the solution in a spectrophotometer where the absorbance was measured under UVA, UVB and UVC light. It was shown that the sunscreen was effective over the whole range of wavelengths, with increased effectiveness at wavelengths 240 and 300. The results also show that as the SPF increased, the absorbance increased proportionally.

  8. Effectiveness of Nivea Sunscreen under Ultraviolet Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piset Virachunya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between a sunscreen’s SPF and its absorbance for UV light of wavelength 240 to 320 was investigated. The investigation was conducted by diluting sunscreens with SPF's of 20, 30 and 50 and placing the solution in a spectrophotometer where the absorbance was measured under UVA, UVB and UVC light. It was shown that the sunscreen was effective over the whole range of wavelengths, with increased effectiveness at wavelengths 240 and 300. The results also show that as the SPF increased, the absorbance increased proportionally.

  9. The use of suction blisters to measure sunscreen protection against UVR-induced DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josse, Gwendal; Douki, Thierry; Le Digabel, Jimmy; Gravier, Eleonore; Questel, Emmanuel

    2018-02-01

    The formation of DNA photoproducts caused by solar UVR exposure needs to be investigated in-vivo and in particular in order to assess sunscreens' level of protection against solar genotoxicity. The study's purposes were: i) to evaluate if the roof of suction blisters is an appropriate sampling method for measuring photoproducts, and ii) to measure in-vivo sunscreen protection against cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. Skin areas on the interior forearms of eight healthy volunteers were exposed in-vivo to 2 MED of simulated solar radiation (SSR) and to 15 MED on a sunscreen protected area. After irradiation, six suction blisters were induced and the blister roofs were collected. Analysis of SSR-induced CPDs was performed by two independent methods: a chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS) approach and a 3D-imaging of CPD immunostaining by multiphoton microscopy on floating epidermal sheets. HPLC-MS/MS analyses showed that SSR-unexposed skin presented no CPD dimers, whereas 2 MED SSR-exposed skin showed a significant number of TT-CPD. The sunscreen covered skin exposed to 15 MED appeared highly protected from DNA damage, as the amount of CPD-dimers remained below the detection limit. The multiphoton-immunostaining analysis consistently showed that no CPD staining was observed on the non-SSR-exposed skin. A significant increase of CPD staining intensity and number of CPD-positive cells were observed on the 2 MED SSR-exposed skin. Sunscreen protected skin presented a very low staining intensity and the number of CPD-positive cells remained very close to non-SSR-exposed skin. This study showed that suction blister samples are very appropriate for measuring CPD dimers in-vivo, and that sunscreens provide high protection against UVR-induced DNA damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term exposure to commercially available sunscreens containing nanoparticles of TiO2 and ZnO revealed no biological impact in a hairless mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmond-McLeod, Megan J; Oytam, Yalchin; Rowe, Anthony; Sobhanmanesh, Fariborz; Greenoak, Gavin; Kirby, Jason; McInnes, Elizabeth F; McCall, Maxine J

    2016-08-17

    The application of sunscreen is a critical component of a sun-safe strategy, however the possibility of unexpected, adverse outcomes resulting from long-term use of sunscreens containing nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) has not yet been examined. Here, immune-competent hairless mice were exposed over a 36-week period to weekly topical applications of sunscreens containing nanoparticles of ZnO or TiO2, or no metal oxide nanoparticles, with or without subsequent exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Control groups received no sunscreen applications, with or without UVR. Mice exposed to UVR in the absence of sunscreen developed statistically significant incidences of histologically-diagnosed malignant and benign skin neoplasms, whereas no statistically significant adverse biological outcomes were found in mice treated with the sunscreens containing ZnO or TiO2 nanoparticles. Elevated levels of Ti were detected in the livers of mice treated with sunscreen containing TiO2 nanoparticles compared to untreated control, but total Zn concentrations did not significantly alter in any major organs except for the skin of mice treated with ZnO sunscreen. Exposure to UVR did not have a significant impact on examined tissue concentrations of Zn or Ti. Few to no transcriptional changes were found in ZnO or TiO2-treated groups, but mice treated with the sunscreen containing only organic filters showed substantial gene disregulation. Taken together with previous work, this long-term study provided no basis to avoid the use of sunscreens containing metal oxide nanoparticles.

  11. Evaporation of Sunscreen Films: How the UV Protection Properties Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Brown, Jonathan; Fletcher, Paul D I; Johnson, Andrew J; Marinopoulos, Ioannis; Crowther, Jonathan M; Thompson, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the evaporation of thin sunscreen films and how the light absorption and the derived sun protection factor (SPF) change. For films consisting of solutions of common UV filters in propylene glycol (PG) as solvent, we show how evaporation generally causes three effects. First, the film area can decrease by dewetting leading to a transient increase in the average film thickness. Second, the film thins by evaporative loss of the solvent. Third, precipitation of the UV filter occurs when solvent loss causes the solubility limit to be reached. These evaporation-induced changes cause the UV absorbance of the film to decrease with resultant loss of SPF over the time scale of the evaporation. We derive an approximate model which accounts semiquantitatively for the variation of SPF with evaporation. Experimental results for solutions of different UV filters on quartz, different skin mimicking substrates, films with added nanoparticles, films with an added polymer and films with fast-evaporating decane as solvent (instead of slow evaporating PG) are discussed and compared with model calculations. Addition of either nanoparticles or polymer suppress film dewetting. Overall, it is hoped that the understanding gained about the mechanisms whereby film evaporation affects the SPF will provide useful guidance for the formulation of more effective sunscreens.

  12. Sunscreen ingredients inhibit inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS): a possible biochemical explanation for the sunscreen melanoma controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Thomas M; Sayre, Robert M; Dowdy, John C; Wilkin, Nathaniel K; Rosenberg, E William

    2005-02-01

    Sunscreen products are rated upon their ability to inhibit visible redness of the skin 24 h after measured doses of ultraviolet (UV) exposure (Sun Protection Factor, SPF). Although sunscreens prevent UV-induced redness, their ability to protect against melanoma or the development of moles is less clear. UV-induced redness occurs in part by the action of nitric oxide (NO), synthesized in the skin. NO is also an important immunoregulatory molecule in the induction of the cell-mediated tumour immune response. In this study, various sunscreen ingredients were tested for their ability to inhibit the production of NO. Four of the five sunscreens tested directly inhibited the conversion of arginine to citrulline by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in vitro. These findings suggest that sunscreens may prevent redness partly by UV absorption and partly by inhibition of the skin's inflammatory response. As such, sunscreens might promote instead of protect against melanoma.

  13. Dermal absorption and short-term biological impact in hairless mice from sunscreens containing zinc oxide nano- or larger particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmond-McLeod, Megan J; Oytam, Yalchin; Kirby, Jason K; Gomez-Fernandez, Laura; Baxter, Brent; McCall, Maxine J

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have shown no, or very limited, skin penetration of metal oxide nanoparticles following topical application of sunscreens, yet concerns remain about their safety compared to larger particles. Here, we assessed the comparative dermal absorption of a traceable form of Zn ((68)Zn) from (68)ZnO nano-sized and larger particles in sunscreens. Sunscreens were applied to the backs of virgin or pregnant hairless mice over four days. Control groups received topical applications of the sunscreen formulation containing no ZnO particles, or no treatment. Major organs were assessed for changes in (68)Zn/(64)Zn ratios, (68)Zn tracer and total Zn concentrations. Short-term biological impact was assessed by measuring levels of serum amyloid A in blood, and by performing whole-genome transcriptional profiling on livers from each group. Increased concentrations of (68)Zn tracer were detected in internal organs of mice receiving topical applications of (68)ZnO (nano-sized and larger particles), as well as in fetal livers from treated dams, compared with controls. Furthermore, concentrations of (68)Zn in organs of virgin mice treated with sunscreen containing (68)ZnO nanoparticles were found to be significantly higher than in mice treated with sunscreen containing larger (68)ZnO particles. However, no ZnO-mediated change in total Zn concentration in any of the major organs was observed. Thus, despite (68)Zn absorption, which may have been in the form of soluble (68)Zn species or (68)ZnO particles (not known), Zn homeostasis was largely maintained, and the presence of ZnO particles in sunscreen did not elicit an adverse biological response in the mice following short-term topical applications.

  14. Evaporation of Particle-Stabilized Emulsion Sunscreen Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Johnson, Andrew J; Marinopoulos, Ioannis; Crowther, Jonathan M; Thompson, Michael A

    2016-08-24

    We recently showed (Binks et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2016, DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b02696) how evaporation of sunscreen films consisting of solutions of molecular UV filters leads to loss of UV light absorption and derived sun protection factor (SPF). In the present work, we investigate evaporation-induced effects for sunscreen films consisting of particle-stabilized emulsions containing a dissolved UV filter. The emulsions contained either droplets of propylene glycol (PG) in squalane (SQ), droplets of SQ in PG or droplets of decane in PG. In these different emulsion types, the SQ is involatile and shows no evaporation, the PG is volatile and evaporates relatively slowly, whereas the decane is relatively very volatile and evaporates quickly. We have measured the film mass and area, optical micrographs of the film structure, and the UV absorbance spectra during evaporation. For emulsion films containing the involatile SQ, evaporation of the PG causes collapse of the emulsion structure with some loss of specular UV absorbance due to light scattering. However, for these emulsions with droplets much larger than the wavelength of light, the light is scattered only at small forward angles so does not contribute to the diffuse absorbance and the film SPF. The UV filter remains soluble throughout the evaporation and thus the UV absorption by the filter and the SPF remain approximately constant. Both PG-in-SQ and SQ-in-PG films behave similarly and do not show area shrinkage by dewetting. In contrast, the decane-in-PG film shows rapid evaporative loss of the decane, followed by slower loss of the PG resulting in precipitation of the UV filter and film area shrinkage by dewetting which cause the UV absorbance and derived SPF to decrease. Measured UV spectra during evaporation are in reasonable agreement with spectra calculated using models discussed here.

  15. Potential risks of TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles released from sunscreens into outdoor swimming pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Soo-kyung; Kim, Eun-ju; Lee, Jaesang; Lee, Seunghak

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanoparticles from sunscreen products can be released into public pools. • Nanoparticles and organic ingredients can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). • A negative impact of ROS should not be significant in swimming pool. - Abstract: The potential risks of nanoparticles (NPs) in sunscreens being released into swimming water were evaluated by a series of laboratory experiments simulating the fate and transport of NPs in outdoor swimming pools. NPs released from sunscreen-applied skin were estimated using pig skins covered with five different commercial sunscreens containing TiO 2 , ZnO, or both at various concentrations. Assuming that the swimming water treatment processes consisted of filtration, UV irradiation, heating, and chlorination, possible removal of the released NPs by each process was estimated. Generation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) by the NPs under sunlight and after UV photochemical treatment were measured, and the H 2 O 2 concentration possibly present in the swimming pool was calculated based on some specific scenarios of operating an outdoor swimming pool. It was found that a significant amount of the NPs in sunscreens could be released into the swimming water, and accumulate during circulation through the treatment system. However, the concentration of H 2 O 2 possibly present in the swimming pool should be below the level at which an adverse effect to bathers is concerned.

  16. Potential risks of TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanoparticles released from sunscreens into outdoor swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Soo-kyung [Center for Water Resource Cycle, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Energy Environment Policy and Technology, Green School, Korea University (KU)-Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-ju [Center for Water Resource Cycle, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaesang [Energy Environment Policy and Technology, Green School, Korea University (KU)-Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seunghak, E-mail: seunglee@kist.re.kr [Center for Water Resource Cycle, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Energy Environment Policy and Technology, Green School, Korea University (KU)-Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Nanoparticles from sunscreen products can be released into public pools. • Nanoparticles and organic ingredients can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). • A negative impact of ROS should not be significant in swimming pool. - Abstract: The potential risks of nanoparticles (NPs) in sunscreens being released into swimming water were evaluated by a series of laboratory experiments simulating the fate and transport of NPs in outdoor swimming pools. NPs released from sunscreen-applied skin were estimated using pig skins covered with five different commercial sunscreens containing TiO{sub 2}, ZnO, or both at various concentrations. Assuming that the swimming water treatment processes consisted of filtration, UV irradiation, heating, and chlorination, possible removal of the released NPs by each process was estimated. Generation of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) by the NPs under sunlight and after UV photochemical treatment were measured, and the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration possibly present in the swimming pool was calculated based on some specific scenarios of operating an outdoor swimming pool. It was found that a significant amount of the NPs in sunscreens could be released into the swimming water, and accumulate during circulation through the treatment system. However, the concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} possibly present in the swimming pool should be below the level at which an adverse effect to bathers is concerned.

  17. Grey goo on the skin? Nanotechnology, cosmetic and sunscreen safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Lademann, Jürgen; Ribaud, Christele; Roberts, Michael S

    2007-03-01

    Many modern cosmetic or sunscreen products contain nano-sized components. Nanoemulsions are transparent and have unique tactile and texture properties; nanocapsule, nanosome, noisome, or liposome formulations contain small vesicles (range: 50 to 5000 nm) consisting of traditional cosmetic materials that protect light-or oxygen-sensitive cosmetic ingredients. Transdermal delivery and cosmetic research suggests that vesicle materials may penetrate the stratum corneum (SC) of the human skin, but not into living skin. Depending on the physical/chemical properties of the ingredient and the formulation, nano-sized formulations may enhance or reduce skin penetration, albeit at a limited rate. Modern sunscreens contain insoluble titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) or zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NP), which are colorless and reflect/scatter ultraviolet (UV) more efficiently than larger particles. Most available theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that insoluble NP do not penetrate into or through normal as well as compromised human skin. Oral and topical toxicity data suggest that TiO(2) and ZnO NP have low systemic toxicity and are well tolerated on the skin. In vitro cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and photogenotoxicity studies on TiO(2) or other insoluble NP reporting uptake by cells, oxidative cell damage, or genotoxicity should be interpreted with caution, since such toxicities may be secondary to phagocytosis of mammalian cells exposed to high concentrations of insoluble particles. Caution needs to be exercised concerning topical exposure to other NP that either have characteristics enabling some skin penetration and/or have inherently toxic constituents. Studies on wear debris particles from surgical implants and other toxicity studies on insoluble particles support the traditional toxicology view that the hazard of small particles is mainly defined by the intrinsic toxicity of particles, as distinct from their particle size. There is little evidence supporting the

  18. Temporal framing and persuasion to adopt preventive health behavior: moderating effects of individual differences in consideration of future consequences on sunscreen use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbell, Sheina; Kyriakaki, Maria

    2008-11-01

    Previous work on temporal framing of health communications has focused upon detection behaviors that possess an inherent immediate risk of negative consequences. The present studies evaluate the role of temporal frame for a preventive behavior, using sunscreen. Two experimental field studies manipulated the temporal frame in which positive and negative consequences of using sunscreen were presented. Cognitive responses, intention, and behavior (experiment 2). Consistent with hypotheses, Experiment 1 showed that individual differences in consideration of future consequences (CFC; A. Strathman, F. Gleicher, D. S. Boninger, & C. S. Edwards, 1994) moderated (a) the processing of long- versus short-term consequences and (b) the persuasive impact of the different temporal frames on behavioral intentions. In Experiment 2, the balance of positive versus negative thoughts generated by reading the persuasive communications was shown to mediate the effects of the Temporal Frame x CFC interaction on a behavioral measure. Findings extend previous work by demonstrating the importance of individual differences in CFC to the processing of health communication about a preventive health behavior and to a behavioral outcome.

  19. The relation between sunscreen layer thickness and vitamin D production after ultraviolet B exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, A; Beyer, D M; Schmedes, A

    2012-01-01

    Sunscreens absorb ultraviolet B (UVB) and it is a major concern that sunscreen use may lead to vitamin D deficiency.......Sunscreens absorb ultraviolet B (UVB) and it is a major concern that sunscreen use may lead to vitamin D deficiency....

  20. Conventional sunscreen application does not lead to sufficient body coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Z; Schornstein, T; Sutor, A; Neufang, G; Hagens, R

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to assess sunscreen application habits and relative body coverage after single whole body application. Fifty-two healthy volunteers were asked to use the test product once, following their usual sunscreen application routine. Standardized UV photographs, which were evaluated by Image Analysis, were conducted before and immediately after product application to evaluate relative body coverage. In addition to these procedures, the volunteers completed an online self-assessment questionnaire to assess sunscreen usage habits. After product application, the front side showed significantly less non-covered skin (4.35%) than the backside (17.27%) (P = 0.0000). Females showed overall significantly less non-covered skin (8.98%) than males (13.16%) (P = 0.0381). On the backside, females showed significantly less non-covered skin (13.57%) (P = 0.0045) than males (21.94%), while on the front side, this difference between females (4.14%) and males (4.53%) was not significant. In most cases, the usual sunscreen application routine does not provide complete body coverage even though an extra light sunscreen with good absorption properties was used. On average, 11% of the body surface was not covered by sunscreen at all. Therefore, appropriate consumer education is required to improve sunscreen application and to warrant effective sun protection. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  1. Sunscreen effects in skin analyzed by photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos, Fernanda H.; Rompe, Paula C. B.; Batista, Roberta R.; Martin, Airton A.; Mansanares, Antonio M.; da Silva, Edson C.; Acosta-Avalos, Daniel; Barja, Paulo R.

    2004-06-01

    In the photoacoustic technique, the signal is proportional to the heat produced in a sample as a consequence of modulated light absorption. This technique allows the spectroscopic characterization of multilayer systems: as the thermal diffusion length varies with the light modulation frequency, one can obtain the depth profile of the sample by analyzing the frequency-dependence of the signal. As the photoacoustic signal depends on thermal and optical properties of the sample, structural changes in the system under analysis account for signal variations in time. In this work, photoacoustic spectroscopy was used to characterize samples of sunscreen and the system formed by sunscreen plus skin. We used photoacoustic spectroscopy to monitor the absorption kinetics of sunscreen applied to samples of human skin, characterizing alterations in the human skin after application of sunscreen. Measurements used 250W Xe arc lamp as light source, for wavelengths between 240nm and 400nm. This range corresponds to most of the UV radiation that reaches Earth. Skin samples were about 0,5cm diameter. The absorption spectra of sunscreen was obtained. Finally, photoacoustics was employed to monitor the absorption kinetics of the sunscreen applied to skin samples. This was done by applying sunscreen in a skin sample and recording the photoacoustic spectra in regular time intervals, up to 90 minutes after application. According to measurements, light absorption by the system sunscreen plus skin stabilizes between 25 and 45 minutes after sunscreen application. Results show that this technique can be utilized to monitor drug delivery and farmacokinetics in skin samples.

  2. Influence of particle size on appearance and in vitro efficacy of sunscreens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Granemann e Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology applies to diverse sectors of science. In cosmetic area, investments have strengthened the idea that nanoproducts provide innumerable benefits to consumers. Extreme exposition to solar light can cause undesirable effects, thus, adding UV filters in cosmetic products are often used as prevention. Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate and benzophenone-3 are UV filters widely used in sunscreen formulations, this UV filters absorb UVB and UVA radiation, respectively. In this study, sunscreen formulations were developed as nano and macroemulsion, but composed by the same raw material. Nanoemulsion was obtained by phase inversion temperature method (PIT. Physical and functional properties were evaluated by visual analysis, particle size distribution and by diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry. Achieved nanoemulsion showed bluish brightness aspect, less apparent consistency than macroemulsion, stability longer than 48 hours (22.0 ± 2.0 °C and bimodal particle size distribution with average (mean sizes around 10 nm (61% and 4.5 µm (39%. Macroemulsion showed milky aspect, higher consistency than nanoemulsion, instability after 48 hours (22.0 ± 2.0 °C and bimodal particle size distribution with average (mean size around 202 nm (9% and 10.4 µm (91%. Effectiveness profile of sunscreen formulations remained apparently similar, based on achieved results of in vitro SPF, UVA/UVB ratio and critical wavelength assays.

  3. Dose-dependent progressive sunscreens. A new strategy for photoprotection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Adaya; Teixidó, Jordi; Miralles, Ricardo; Raga, Manuel; Guglietta, Antonio; Marquillas, Francisco; Sallarès, Joan; Nonell, Santi

    2010-04-01

    A new generation of UV filters has been developed that act by limiting the dose of radiation rather than by blocking a fraction of the solar irradiance on the skin surface. Such progressive sunscreens are based on the photochemical transformation of suitable precursors upon exposure to sunlight. Broadband sunscreens are thus generated "on demand", affording protection when, where, and to the extent that it is needed, providing higher protection to more exposed areas, and increasing the UV blocking capacity as the radiation dose increases. Encapsulation in silica particles isolates the precursors and transformation products, further improving the efficacy, safety, and environmental impact of the use of sunscreens.

  4. Clothing reduces the sun protection factor of sunscreens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Haedersdal, M

    2010-01-01

    Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF)....

  5. Assessing the Current Market of Sunscreen: A Cross-Sectional Study of Sunscreen Availability in Three Metropolitan Counties in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle T. Amber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreen use is recommended for the prevention of sunburn and skin cancer. Little is known regarding sunscreen availability in high versus low income communities. We analyzed sunscreen availability in three large metropolitan counties to determine the relationship between availability and community demographics. We included sun care products in all pharmacies and supermarkets open as of July 2013 in representative high and low income zip codes in Cook County, Illinois, Miami-Dade County, Florida, and San Diego County, California. We recorded the percentage of tanning oil, sunscreens with a sun protection factor (SPF  15, physical sunscreens, spray sunscreens, mean price per ounce (PPO, and mean SPF. Of the total products assessed, 11.0% were tanning oils, with physical sunscreens accounting for only 3.4% of the available sunscreens and 46.2% of sunscreens being spray-on. A comparison between higher and lower income zip codes demonstrated a significantly increased percentage of sunscreens with SPF  15 and higher PPO, even when taking into account SPF. Further studies of sunscreen usage patterns in different populations must take into account sunscreen availability and price, as these significantly differ based on the community demographic.

  6. Clothing reduces the sun protection factor of sunscreens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Haedersdal, M

    2010-01-01

    Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF).......Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF)....

  7. Evaluation of seven sunscreens on hairless mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of seven sunscreens to protect against ultraviolet (UV)--induced inhibition of epidermal DNA synthesis was evaluated in vivo using a hairless mouse model. There were statistically significant differences among sunscreens in their ability to prevent UV-B (290 to 320 nm) inhibition of DNA synthesis. The protective factor (PF) of a sunscreen was arbitrarily defined as the ratio of the dose required to inhibit DNA synthesis by 50% with and without a sunscreen. The following PF values were determined: Coppertone 4, 4.4; Sundown Extra Protection, 8.4; Supershade 15, 21.0; Eclipse 15, 22.2; Blockout 15, 22.4; and Bain de Soleil 15, 27.6. Zinc oxide ointment protected against any significant suppression of DNA synthesis at all UV-B doses used. There was a relatively good correlation between the PF and the sun protection factor (SPF) claimed for each sunscreen by the manufacturer. However, the PF values determined in mouse skin were generally higher than the SPF values measured in human skin. Further studies are needed to determine if sunscreen substantivity (resistance to removal by water) can be evaluated by this technique

  8. Sunscreen compliance with regional clinical practice guidelines and product labeling standards in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporer, Matthias E; Mathy, Joanna E; Kenealy, John; Mathy, Jon A

    2016-03-01

    INTRODUCTION For general practitioners, practice nurses and community pharmacists in New Zealand, a core duty is to educate patients about sun protection. We aimed to evaluate compliance of locally available sunscreens with regional clinical practice guidelines and sunscreen labelling standards, to assist clinicians in advising consumers on sunscreen selection. METHODS We audited all sunscreens available at two Auckland stores for three New Zealand sunscreen retailers. We then assessed compliance with accepted regional clinical practice guidelines for sun protection from the New Zealand Guidelines Group. We further assessed compliance with regional Australia/New Zealand consumer standards for sunscreen labelling. RESULTS All sunscreens satisfied clinical guidelines for broad-spectrum protection, and 99% of sunscreens met or exceeded clinical guidelines for minimal Sun Protection Factor. Compliance with regional standardized labelling guidelines is voluntary in New Zealand and 27% of audited sunscreens were not fully compliant with SPF labelling standards. DISCUSSION Sunscreens were generally compliant with clinical guidelines for minimal sun protection. However there was substantial noncompliance with regional recommendations for standardized sunscreen labelling. Primary health care clinicians should be aware that this labelling noncompliance may mislead patients into thinking some sunscreens offer more sun protection than they do. Mandatory compliance with the latest regional labelling standards would simplify sunscreen selection by New Zealand consumers. KEYWORDS Sunscreen; Sun Protection Factor; SPF; Skin Neoplasms; Melanoma; Skin Cancer Prevention.

  9. Photophysics of sunscreen molecules in the gas phase: a stepwise approach towards understanding and developing next-generation sunscreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Natércia D. N.; Staniforth, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and skin cancer urges the need for extra photoprotection, which is presently provided by widespread commercially available sunscreen lotions. Apart from having a large absorption cross section in the UVA and UVB regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, the chemical absorbers in these photoprotective products should also be able to dissipate the excess energy in a safe way, i.e. without releasing photoproducts or inducing any further, harmful, photochemistry. While sunscreens are tested for both their photoprotective capability and dermatological compatibility, phenomena occurring at the molecular level upon absorption of UV radiation are largely overlooked. To date, there is only a limited amount of information regarding the photochemistry and photophysics of these sunscreen molecules. However, a thorough understanding of the intrinsic mechanisms by which popular sunscreen molecular constituents dissipate excess energy has the potential to aid in the design of more efficient, safer sunscreens. In this review, we explore the potential of using gas-phase frequency- and time-resolved spectroscopies in an effort to better understand the photoinduced excited-state dynamics, or photodynamics, of sunscreen molecules. Complementary computational studies are also briefly discussed. Finally, the future outlook of expanding these gas-phase studies into the solution phase is considered. PMID:27956888

  10. Size characterization of metal oxide nanoparticles in commercial sunscreen products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairi, Venu Gopal; Lim, Jin-Hee; Fong, Andrew; Linder, Sean W.

    2017-07-01

    There is an increase in the usage of engineered metal oxide (TiO2 and ZnO) nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens due to their pleasing esthetics and greater sun protection efficiency. A number of studies have been done concerning the safety of nanoparticles in sunscreen products. In order to do the safety assessment, it is pertinent to develop novel analytical techniques to analyze these nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens. This study is focused on developing analytical techniques that can efficiently determine particle size of metal oxides present in the commercial sunscreens. To isolate the mineral UV filters from the organic matrices, specific procedures such as solvent extraction were identified. In addition, several solvents (hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane, and tetrahydrofuran) have been investigated. The solvent extraction using tetrahydrofuran worked well for all the samples investigated. The isolated nanoparticles were characterized by using several different techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, differential centrifugal sedimentation, and x-ray diffraction. Elemental analysis mapping studies were performed to obtain individual chemical and morphological identities of the nanoparticles. Results from the electron microscopy techniques were compared against the bulk particle sizing techniques. All of the sunscreen products tested in this study were found to contain nanosized (≤100 nm) metal oxide particles with varied shapes and aspect ratios, and four among the 11 products were showed to have anatase TiO2.

  11. Benefits of Anti-Aging Actives in Sunscreens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Lintner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreens are functional, utilitarian, cosmetic products. The criteria of purchase are different from those for skin care and make-up. Companies are trying to add glamour and value to basic sunscreens by incorporating “active” ingredients (other than UV filters into these formulas and by communicating about the additional benefits, be they anti-aging, moisturizing, firming, anti-wrinkle, etc. While some of these ideas of additional ingredients make sense as supplementary skin protection, some others do not afford much benefit in view of the infrequent application and short period of usage. The present article reviews some of these ideas and presents a few active ingredients that might be of value in such a context, even if substantiation of such additional claims in sunscreens is often lacking.

  12. Sunscreen Use and Sweat Production in Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Aburto Corona, Jorge Alberto; Aragón Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Context: Sunscreen lotions are important to protect the skin during outdoor exercise, but they may interfere with sweating. Objective: To measure the effect of two different water-resistant sunscreen products on local sweat production in men and women exercising in the heat, and to compare it with the expected inhibition resulting from the use of an antiperspirant. Design: Randomized Crossover Study Design. Setting: Exercise in the heat (30.2 ± 0.4°C d.b. and 58 ± 4.3% r.h, mean ± ...

  13. Formulation of sunscreens with enhancement sun protection factor response based on solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesseem, D

    2011-02-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) was regarded as new topical delivery systems for pharmaceutical and cosmetic active ingredients. The purpose of this study is to develop carrier systems for organic and inorganic sunscreens based on a matrix composed of carnauba wax and decyl oleate. Formulae (F1-F7) were prepared using butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and octyl methoxycinnamate as organic components, and titanium dioxide (TiO(2) ) was used as inorganic component. Both types of sunscreens were incorporated into SLN formulations using classical method of preparation. To evaluate the effect of the pigments on the nanoparticles, particle size was measured using Mastersizer particle size analyser. UV-protection abilities of formulations were investigated by the in vitro sun protection factor test (SPF). Further parameters determined were spreadability as well as viscosity. The rheological behaviour of the formulations was also carried out. From the plot of log of shear stress vs. log of shear rate, the slope of the plot representing flow index and ontology of the y-intercept indicating consistency index was calculated. The formulae showed a flow index of 0.2074-0.4005 indicating pseudoplastic flow behaviour. Significant increases in SPF values up to about 50 were reported after the encapsulation by using organic and inorganic filters in Canada wax and decyl oleate. So, SLN could be appropriate vehicles to carry organic and inorganic sunscreens. The rational combination of cinnamates, titanium dioxide and Zinc oxide has shown a synergistic effect to improve the SPF of cosmetic preparations. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation. © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Social Cognitive Correlates of Young Adult Sport Competitors' Sunscreen Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Nadine C.; O'Riordan, David L.; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville

    2011-01-01

    Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis…

  15. Determination of Titanium Dioxide in Commercial Sunscreens by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple, fast and reliable analytical method for the determination of TiO2 in commercial sunscreen products by inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was developed and validated. The limits of detection and quantitation were found to be 0.018 and 0.062 μg mL–1, respectively. The average ...

  16. Hydrolyzed collagen interferes with in vitro photoprotective effectiveness of sunscreens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela D'Almeida Peres

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The chronological skin aging is a progressive and natural process with genetic and physiological changes. However, ultraviolet (UV radiation may accelerate the oxidative stress, generating carcinogenesis and photoaging. Natural compounds and their applications are considered a trend in the cosmetic market. The protein-based film-forming compounds play an important role, once it collaborates for the better distribution of sunscreens on the skin. Here we investigated the in vitro photoprotective effectiveness of sunscreens containing the hydrolyzed collagen associated with UVA, UVB and/or inorganic filters. Sunscreens were developed with octocrylene (7.5%, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (avobenzone (3.0% and/or titanium dioxide (5.0%, associated or not with the hydrolyzed collagen (3.0%. In vitro photoprotective effectiveness was determined in a Labsphere(r UV2000S by the establishment of the sun protection factor (SPF and critical wavelength (nm values. Physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics were also assayed. The hydrolyzed collagen subjectively improved the formulation sensory characteristics. However, this bioactive compound led to a decrease of the SPF values of the photoprotective formulations containing octocrylene alone and octocrylene + butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane + TiO2. This inadequate interaction may be considered during the development of new sunscreens intended to contain protein-based components.

  17. 21 CFR 352.10 - Sunscreen active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sunscreen active ingredients. 352.10 Section 352.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... until further notice. For the convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 352...

  18. Quantifying the visual appearance of sunscreens applied to the skin using indirect computer image colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, Vincent; Kharazmi, Pegah; Lee, Tim K; Kalia, Sunil; Lui, Harvey

    2017-10-28

    There is no accepted method to objectively assess the visual appearance of sunscreens on the skin. We present a method for sunscreen application, digital photography, and computer analysis to quantify the appearance of the skin after sunscreen application. Four sunscreen lotions were applied randomly at densities of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/cm 2 to areas of the back of 29 subjects. Each application site had a matched contralateral control area. High-resolution standardized photographs including a color card were taken after sunscreen application. After color balance correction, CIE L*a*b* color values were extracted from paired sites. Differences in skin appearance attributed to sunscreen were represented by ΔE, which in turn was calculated from the linear Euclidean distance within the L*a*b* color space between the paired sites. Sunscreen visibility as measured by median ΔE varied across different products and application densities and ranged between 1.2 and 12.1. The visibility of sunscreens varied according to product SPF, composition (organic vs inorganic), presence of tint, and baseline b* of skin (P < .05 for all). Standardized sunscreen application followed by digital photography and indirect computer-based colorimetry represents a potential method to objectively quantify visibility of sunscreen on the skin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Sunscreening fungal pigments influence the vertical gradient of pendulous lichens in boreal forest canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färber, Leonie; Sølhaug, Knut Asbjorn; Esseen, Per-Anders; Bilger, Wolfgang; Gauslaa, Yngvar

    2014-06-01

    Pendulous lichens dominate canopies of boreal forests, with dark Bryoria species in the upper canopy vs. light Alectoria and Usnea species in lower canopy. These genera offer important ecosystem services such as winter forage for reindeer and caribou. The mechanism behind this niche separation is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that species-specific sunscreening fungal pigments protect underlying symbiotic algae differently against high light, and thus shape the vertical canopy gradient of epiphytes. Three pale species with the reflecting pigment usnic acid (Alectoria sarmentosa, Usnea dasypoga, U. longissima) and three with dark, absorbing melanins (Bryoria capillaris, B. fremontii, B. fuscescens) were compared. We subjected the lichens to desiccation stress with and without light, and assessed their performance with chlorophyll fluorescence. Desiccation alone only affected U. longissima. By contrast, light in combination with desiccation caused photoinhibitory damage in all species. Usnic lichens were significantly more susceptible to light during desiccation than melanic ones. Thus, melanin is a more efficient light-screening pigment than usnic acid. Thereby, the vertical gradient of pendulous lichens in forest canopies is consistent with a shift in type and functioning of sunscreening pigments, from high-light-tolerant Bryoria in the upper to susceptible Alectoria and Usnea in the lower canopy.

  20. Skin nonpenetrating sunscreens for cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, Elka; Godin, Biana

    2008-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation produces harmful effects on the skin including sunburn, local immunosuppression, skin photoaging, and cutaneous malignancies. Although application of sunscreens is the "gold standard" for protecting the skin from UV radiation, studies have shown that currently used sunscreens can cause adverse skin and systemic reactions, owing to their penetration into the viable cutaneous strata and to transdermal absorption. This paper presents new nonpermeating sunscreens (NPSUN) suitable for use in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. The basic idea behind the design of the new photoprotectors was to immobilize UV-absorbing moieties in the Jojoba oil chemical backbone. The physicochemical characteristics of NPSUNs allow these derivatives to remain confined to the upper stratum corneum where the sunscreen molecule acts, with no further clearance to deeper dermal strata or systemic circulation. As an example, no permeation across the skin of methoxycinnamate-NPSUN was observed during 24-hour in vitro experiments, after topical application of either unformulated substances or of methoxycinnamate-NPSUNs formulated in oil-in-water cream, in water-in-oil cream, or in Jojoba oil. Another approach to increase the photoprotective effect against the UV radiation is targeting the delivery of alpha tocopherol into the deeper skin layers and across the cell membranes. This is necessary for optimal photoprotection and prevention of malignant processes. For this purpose, ethosomal vitamin E compositions were designed, characterized, and tested. Efficient intracellular and dermal accumulation of vitamin E from ethosomes was demonstrated. A good clinical strategy could be the use of NPSUNs during direct UV exposure followed by the application of alpha-tocopherol compositions after short- or long-term solar radiation.

  1. Photocatalytic Reaction of Gas-Phase Naphthalene on Paint- and Sunscreen-Coated Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley, Nicholas A.; McBride, Noelle; Krumholt, Jason; Baker, Breeana; Valsaraj, Kalliat T.

    2012-01-01

    The uses of metal oxide nanoparticles in modern paint and sunscreen formulations are widespread. Through materials characterization and kinetic experiments, it is demonstrated that fresh surface coatings of paint and sunscreen photocatalytically degrade gaseous naphthalene. The primary metal oxides are TiO2 in the form of the rutile phase in paint and as anatase in sunscreen formulations. Other metal oxides present are Al2O3 and ZnO. Several organic fillers that are photochemically active are...

  2. Phosphates nanoparticles doped with zinc and manganese for sunscreens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, T.S. de; Souza, S.O. de; Miyakawa, W.; Sousa, E.M.B. de

    2010-01-01

    The crescent number of skin cancer worldwide gives impulse to the development of sunscreen that can both prevent skin cancer and also permit gradual tanning. In this work, the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate nanocrystalline powders was investigated in order to obtain materials with optical properties and appropriate size for sunscreen. Pure, Zn 2+ -doped and Mn 2+ -doped hydroxyapatite (HAP) and tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) were produced by the wet precipitation process using diammonium phosphate, calcium nitrate, ammonium hydroxide, zinc nitrate and manganese nitrate as reagents. The pure and doped HAP precipitates were calcined at 500 deg. C for 1 h, while the β-TCP (pure and doped) were calcined at 800 deg. C for 2 h. The powder samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet (UV)-vis spectroscopy. XRD and EDX showed the formation of the expected materials (HAP and β-TCP) without toxic components. AFM micrographs showed aggregated ellipsoidal particles with dimensions smaller than 120 nm. Optical absorption spectra showed that the calcium phosphate produced in this work absorbs in the UV region. The obtained materials presented structural, morphological and optical properties that allow their use as the active centers in sunscreens.

  3. In Vivo Human Skin Penetration Study of Sunscreens by Confocal Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippavajhala, Vamshi Krishna; de Oliveira Mendes, Thiago; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2018-02-01

    This research work mainly deals with the application of confocal Raman spectroscopic technique to study in vivo human skin penetration of sunscreen products, as there are a lot of controversies associated with their skin penetration. Healthy human volunteers were tested for penetration of two commercial sunscreen products into their volar forearm skin for a period of 2 h. Measurements were taken before and after application of these sunscreen products. All the confocal Raman spectra were pre-processed and then subjected to multivariate two-dimensional principal component analysis and classical least squares analysis to determine the skin penetration of these sunscreens in comparison to the "sunscreen product spectrum" which was considered as the control. Score plots of principal component analysis of confocal Raman spectra indicated clear separation between the spectra before and after application of sunscreen products. Loading plots showed the maximum differences in the spectral region from 1590 to 1626 cm -1 where the characteristic peak of the pure sunscreen products was observed. Classical least squares analysis has shown a significant penetration to a depth of 10 μm in the volar forearm skin of healthy human volunteers for both these sunscreen products. The results confirm that the penetration of these tested sunscreen products was restricted to stratum corneum and also prove that confocal Raman spectroscopy is a simple, fast, nondestructive, and noninvasive semi-quantitative analytical technique for these studies.

  4. The children and sunscreen study: a crossover trial investigating children's sunscreen application thickness and the influence of age and dispenser type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Abbey; Neale, Rachel E; Kimlin, Michael G; Jones, Lee; Janda, Monika

    2012-05-01

    To measure the thickness at which primary schoolchildren apply sunscreen on school day mornings and to compare it with the thickness (2.00 mg/cm(2)) at which sunscreen is tested during product development, as well as to investigate how application thickness was influenced by age of the child (school grades 1-7) and by dispenser type (500-mL pump, 125-mL squeeze bottle, or 50-mL roll-on). A crossover quasiexperimental study design comparing 3 sunscreen dispenser types. Children aged 5 to 12 years from public primary schools (grades 1-7) in Queensland, Australia. Children (n=87) and their parents randomly recruited from the enrollment lists of 7 primary schools. Each child provided up to 3 observations (n=258). Children applied sunscreen during 3 consecutive school weeks (Monday through Friday) for the first application of the day using a different dispenser each week. Thickness of sunscreen application (in milligrams per square centimeter). The dispensers were weighed before and after use to calculate the weight of sunscreen applied. This was divided by the coverage area of application (in square centimeters), which was calculated by multiplying the children's body surface area by the percentage of the body covered with sunscreen. Children applied their sunscreen at a median thickness of 0.48 mg/cm(2). Children applied significantly more sunscreen when using the pump (0.75 mg/cm(2)) and the squeeze bottle (0.57 mg/cm(2)) compared with the roll-on (0.22 mg/cm(2)) (Pdispensers seem to facilitate thicker application than others.

  5. Sunscreen use and failures--on site observations on a sun-holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Datta, Pameli; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2013-01-01

    With this observation study we aimed to determine how and when sunscreen was used. 20 sun seekers were observed during a one-week sun holiday in Hurghada, Egypt. The sunscreen application thickness was related to part of body, time outdoors, exposure to ultraviolet radiation and to sunburning. Skin...

  6. Association of UV Index and Sunscreen Use among White High School Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett Jones, Sherry; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; Michael, Shannon L.; Saraiya, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Background: When used appropriately, sunscreen decreases the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure to the skin and is recommended to prevent skin cancer. This study examined the association between annual average UV index and sunscreen use among White, non-Hispanic youth. Methods: The 2007 and 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey…

  7. SPF measurement and cytotoxicity of sunscreen agents in cosmetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.Y. [Cheiljedang, Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, S.W. [Han Nam University, Tae-Jeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    Consumers have recently preferred to purchase extensive UV intercepting products, which are waterproof and free from side effects on skin. During the testing of cytotoxicity (in-vitro) in neutral red (NR) method, cell survival ratio of UV-B interceptors decreased to just above 0.08 w/v%, and it was observed that the UV-A interceptors the ratio also decreased to just above 0.06 w/v%. In addition patch-tests of inorganic UV interceptors resulted in no skin irritation even below 10.0 and 11.25. In absorption curves, UV-B was most suitable for octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) and UV-A for butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane (BMDM). For this reason, Nylonpoly{sup TM} UVA/UVB the material of OMC and BMDM coated with Nylon and polyethylene, was used as the organic UV interceptor. Zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) was used as inorganic UV interceptors. The appropriate mixture ratio of ZnO and TiO{sub 2} was 6 to 4:6% of ZnO, 4% of TiO{sub 2} and 5% of Nylonpoly{sup TM} UVA/UVB were all combined and added to our sunscreen cream. The SPF value of in-vitro was 38.9. In practical application, each sun protection factor (SPF) duration of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion and water-in-silicone (W/S) emulsion containing sunscreen cream of the same content shoed that W/S type of sunscreen cream was 5 times as durable as the other. Therefore, this product is fit for use in swimming, climbing or skiing. This research is to minimize skin trouble caused by UV interceptors and to make one with proper softness, skin safety and UV intercepting efficiency.

  8. A new biocompatible nanocomposite as a promising constituent of sunscreens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Rehab M., E-mail: rehabamin@niles.edu.eg [Department of Laser Applications in Photochemistry, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University (Egypt); Elfeky, Souad A. [Department of Laser Applications in Photochemistry, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University (Egypt); University of Bath, Department of Chemistry, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Verwanger, Thomas; Krammer, Barbara [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

    2016-06-01

    Skin naturally uses antioxidants to protect itself from the damaging effects of sunlight. If this is not sufficient, other measures have to be taken. Like this, hydroxyapatite has the potential to be applied as an active constituent of sunscreens since calcium phosphate absorbs in the ultraviolet region (UV). The objective of the present work was to synthesize a hydroxyapatite–ascorbic acid nanocomposite (HAp/AA-NC) as a new biocompatible constituent of sunscreens and to test its efficiency with skin cell models. The synthesized HAp/AA-NC was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, absorption spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction analysis. The protective effect of the construct was tested with respect to viability and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of primary human dermal fibroblasts (SKIN) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). Both cell lines were irradiated with UV light, λ{sub max} = 254 nm with a fluence of 25 mJ cm{sup −2} to mimic the effect of UV radiation of sunlight on the skin. Results showed that HAp/AA-NC had a stimulating effect on the cell viability of both, HaCaT and SKIN cells, relative to the irradiated control. Intracellular ROS significantly decreased in UV irradiated cells when treated with HAp/AA-NC. We conclude that the synthesized HAp/AA-NC have been validated in vitro as a skin protector against the harmful effect of UV-induced ROS. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite–ascorbic acid nanocomposites were synthesized and characterized. • The prepared composites had a stimulating effect on the skin cell viability. • Reactive oxygen species decreased in UV-irradiated nanocomposite treated cells. • Hydroxyapatite–ascorbic acid nanocomposites could be used in sunscreens.

  9. A new biocompatible nanocomposite as a promising constituent of sunscreens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Rehab M.; Elfeky, Souad A.; Verwanger, Thomas; Krammer, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Skin naturally uses antioxidants to protect itself from the damaging effects of sunlight. If this is not sufficient, other measures have to be taken. Like this, hydroxyapatite has the potential to be applied as an active constituent of sunscreens since calcium phosphate absorbs in the ultraviolet region (UV). The objective of the present work was to synthesize a hydroxyapatite–ascorbic acid nanocomposite (HAp/AA-NC) as a new biocompatible constituent of sunscreens and to test its efficiency with skin cell models. The synthesized HAp/AA-NC was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, absorption spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction analysis. The protective effect of the construct was tested with respect to viability and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of primary human dermal fibroblasts (SKIN) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). Both cell lines were irradiated with UV light, λ max = 254 nm with a fluence of 25 mJ cm −2 to mimic the effect of UV radiation of sunlight on the skin. Results showed that HAp/AA-NC had a stimulating effect on the cell viability of both, HaCaT and SKIN cells, relative to the irradiated control. Intracellular ROS significantly decreased in UV irradiated cells when treated with HAp/AA-NC. We conclude that the synthesized HAp/AA-NC have been validated in vitro as a skin protector against the harmful effect of UV-induced ROS. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite–ascorbic acid nanocomposites were synthesized and characterized. • The prepared composites had a stimulating effect on the skin cell viability. • Reactive oxygen species decreased in UV-irradiated nanocomposite treated cells. • Hydroxyapatite–ascorbic acid nanocomposites could be used in sunscreens.

  10. Nano-sized cosmetic formulations or solid nanoparticles in sunscreens: a risk to human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Dufour, Eric K

    2012-07-01

    Personal care products (PCP) often contain micron- or nano-sized formulation components, such as nanoemulsions or microscopic vesicles. A large number of studies suggest that such vesicles do not penetrate human skin beyond the superficial layers of the stratum corneum. Nano-sized PCP formulations may enhance or reduce skin absorption of ingredients, albeit at a limited scale. Modern sunscreens contain insoluble titanium dioxide (TiO₂) or zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NP), which are efficient filters of UV light. A large number of studies suggest that insoluble NP do not penetrate into or through human skin. A number of in vivo toxicity tests, including in vivo intravenous studies, showed that TiO₂ and ZnO NP are non-toxic and have an excellent skin tolerance. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, photo-genotoxicity, general toxicity and carcinogenicity studies on TiO₂ and ZnO NP found no difference in the safety profile of micro- or nano-sized materials, all of which were found to be non-toxic. Although some published in vitro studies on insoluble nano- or micron-sized particles suggested cell uptake, oxidative cell damage or genotoxicity, these data are consistent with those from micron-sized particles and should be interpreted with caution. Data on insoluble NP, such as surgical implant-derived wear debris particles or intravenously administered magnetic resonance contrast agents suggest that toxicity of small particles is generally related to their chemistry rather than their particle size. Overall, the weight of scientific evidence suggests that insoluble NP used in sunscreens pose no or negligible risk to human health, but offer large health benefits, such as the protection of human skin against UV-induced skin ageing and cancer.

  11. Are sunscreens a new environmental risk associated with coastal tourism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quiles, David; Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The world coastal-zone population and coastal tourism are expected to grow during this century. Associated with that, there will be an increase in the use of sunscreens and cosmetics with UV-filters in their formulation, which will make coastal regions worldwide susceptible to the impact of these cosmetics. Recent investigations indicate that organic and inorganic UV-filters, as well as many other components that are constituents of the sunscreens, reach the marine environment--directly as a consequence of water recreational activities and/or indirectly from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) effluents. Toxicity of organic and inorganic UV filters has been demonstrated in aquatic organism. UV-filters inhibit growth in marine phytoplankton and tend to bioaccumulate in the food webs. These findings together with coastal tourism data records highlight the potential risk that the increasing use of these cosmetics would have in coastal marine areas. Nevertheless, future investigations into distribution, residence time, aging, partitioning and speciation of their main components and by-products in the water column, persistence, accumulation and toxicity in the trophic chain, are needed to understand the magnitude and real impact of these emerging pollutants in the marine system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of sunscreen active ingredients mediated by nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Vazquez, Loraine

    Water scarcity and pollution are environmental issues with terrible consequences. In recent years several pharmaceutical and personal care products, such as sunscreen active ingredients, have been detected in different water matrices. Its recalcitrant behavior in the environment has caused controversies and generated countless questions about its safety. During this research, we employed an advanced oxidation process (photocatalysis) to degrade sunscreen active ingredients. For this study, we used a 3x3 system, evaluating three photocatalysts and three different contaminants. From the three catalysts employed, two of them were synthesized. ZnO nanoparticles were obtained using zinc acetate dihydrated as the precursor, and TiO2 nanowires were synthesized from titanium tetrachloride precursor. The third catalyst employed (namely, P25) was obtained commercially. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized in terms of the morphology, elemental composition, crystalline structure, elemental oxidation states, vibrational modes and surface area, using SEM-EDS, XRD, XPS, Raman spectroscopy and BET measurements, respectively. The photocatalysts were employed during the study of the degradation of p-aminobenzoic acid, phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid, and benzophenone-4. In all the cases, at least 50% degradation was achieved. P25 showed degradation efficiencies above 90%, and from the nine systems, 7 of them degraded at least 86%.

  13. Comparative efficacy of sunscreen reapplication regimens in children exposed to ambient sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odio, M R; Veres, D A; Goodman, J J; Irwin, C; Robinson, L R; Martínez, J; Kraus, A L

    1994-06-01

    Undercompliance with sunscreen reapplication recommendations is a probable factor in suboptimal childhood ultraviolet radiation (UVR) protection. However, improving on the ability of sunscreens to absorb UVR without requiring frequent reapplication is difficult because the models most frequently used to develop and evaluate photoprotectants have only a limited ability to incorporate behavioral and environmental variables that are primarily responsible for loss of sunscreen efficacy. Hence, the objective of the present work was to develop a method to evaluate the efficacy of various regimens of sunscreen reapplication in children, under conditions of unrestricted behavior and exposure to ambient sunlight. Ninety-eight children, ages 7-12, Fitzpatrick skin types I-III, were divided between two study groups. The majority were types I-II, and all types were approximately equally represented between the groups. The children received single or multiple applications of a sun protection factor 25 sunscreen to preassigned lateral halves of the body and engaged in unrestricted activities throughout a 6- (group I) or 8-h (group II) period of sun exposure at a seaside location. The end measurement for these studies was incidence and severity of erythema 18 to 22 h after peak UV exposure. The results obtained showed that 1 or 4 sunscreen applications yielded comparable erythema protection after a 6-hour sun exposure, totaling 13 minimal erythema doses (MED). However, after an 8-h, 21 MED exposure, incidence and severity of erythema was greater at body sites treated with 1 compared with 5 sunscreen applications.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Water-resistant sunscreens for skin protection: an in vivo approach to the two sources of sunscreen failure to maintain UV protection on consumer skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccetti, G

    2015-12-01

    The water resistance of sunscreen products has taken more importance for the UV protection of consumers involved in water activities and sports. The present work introduces a new in vivo approach to measure the water resistance of sunscreens on the actual skin of subjects, which can be easily applied to salt, chlorine and tap waters. The stress sources of sunscreen films on skin originate from two phenomena: high surface tension stress as the skin transits through the air/water interface and water diffusion into the film immersed in bulk water. The water resistance of sunscreen products is measured on the forearms of subjects by means of a new layered water bath approach that physically separates both stresses. Tape strips are subsequently taken and analysed for UV-A and UV-B optical densities via (1) imaging for remaining filters and (2) in vitro SPF absorption spectra. Water-resistant sunscreens generally perform well when immersed in bulk water even subjected to agitation, but they show a wide range of performances when considering their behaviour at the air/water interface. The differences are more pronounced in salt water than tap water. The results confirm 2 stress origins in sunscreen exposure to water: interfacial surface tension and bulk water diffusion. Polymers bring improvements to the resistance of sunscreens to bulk water but show wide latitude in performances when subject to the water surface tension stress. Globally, a higher loss of filters is observed in the UV-A than in the UV-B, which is attributed to more UV-A filter loss or degradation and thus resulting in a decreased protection in the UV-A. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  16. Cyanobacterial Sunscreen Scytonemin: Role in Photoprotection and Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Rajesh Prasad; Sonani, Ravi Raghav; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-07-01

    Cyanobacteria are the most promising group of photosynthetic microorganisms capable of producing an array of natural products of industrial importance. Scytonemin is a small hydrophobic alkaloid pigment molecules present in the extracellular sheath of several cyanobacteria as a protective mechanism against short wavelength solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It has great efficacy to minimize the production of reactive oxygen species and formation of DNA lesions. The biosynthesis of scytonemin is regulated by different physico-chemical stressors. Scytonemin display multiple roles, functioning as a potent UV sunscreen and antioxidant molecules, and can be exploited in cosmetic and other industries for the development of new cosmeceuticals. Herein, we review the occurrence, biosynthesis, and potential application of scytonemin in photoprotection, pharmaceuticals, and biomedical research.

  17. Determination of UV-filters in sunscreens by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisvert, A; Pascual-Martí, M C; Salvador, A

    2001-04-01

    Simultaneous determination of six internationally authorised organic UV-filters in sunscreen formulations was performed by HPLC with UV spectrophotometric detection. The filters determined were: sulisobenzone, oxybenzone, octyl dimethyl PABA, octyl methoxycinnamate, octyl salicylate and homosalate. A C18 stationary phase and a mobile phase of ethanol water acetic acid (70:29.5:0.5) were used with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. UV measurements were carried out at 313 nm. The time required for the analysis was 25 min and the limits of detection were between 0.2 and 2 mg/L, except for sulisobenzone, which gave a limit of detection of 20 mg/L. The procedure proposed provides an accurate, fast and green analytical method, that does not involve toxic organic solvents.

  18. De novo synthesis of a sunscreen compound in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Andrew R; Almabruk, Khaled H; Holzwarth, Garrett; Asamizu, Shumpei; LaDu, Jane; Kean, Kelsey M; Karplus, P Andrew; Tanguay, Robert L; Bakalinsky, Alan T; Mahmud, Taifo

    2015-05-12

    Ultraviolet-protective compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and related gadusols produced by some bacteria, fungi, algae, and marine invertebrates, are critical for the survival of reef-building corals and other marine organisms exposed to high-solar irradiance. These compounds have also been found in marine fish, where their accumulation is thought to be of dietary or symbiont origin. In this study, we report the unexpected discovery that fish can synthesize gadusol de novo and that the analogous pathways are also present in amphibians, reptiles, and birds. Furthermore, we demonstrate that engineered yeast containing the fish genes can produce and secrete gadusol. The discovery of the gadusol pathway in vertebrates provides a platform for understanding its role in these animals, and the possibility of engineering yeast to efficiently produce a natural sunscreen and antioxidant presents an avenue for its large-scale production for possible use in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.

  19. Development of a HPLC method for determination of four UV filters in sunscreen and its application to skin penetration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carla; Maia Campos, Patrícia M B G

    2017-12-01

    This study describes the development, validation and application of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of the in vitro skin penetration profile of four UV filters on porcine skin. Experiments were carried out on a gel-cream formulation containing the following UV filters: diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DHHB), bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine (BEMT), methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol (MBBT) and ethylhexyl triazone (EHT). The HPLC method demonstrated suitable selectivity, linearity (10.0-50.0 μg/mL), precision, accuracy and recovery from porcine skin and sunscreen formulation. The in vitro skin penetration profile was evaluated using Franz vertical diffusion cells for 24 h after application on porcine ear skin. None of the UV filters penetrated the porcine skin. Most of them stayed on the skin surface (>90%) and only BEMT, EHT and DHHB reached the dermis plus epidermis layer. These results are in agreement with previous results in the literature. Therefore, the analytical method was useful to evaluate the in vitro skin penetration of the UV filters and may help the development of safer and effective sunscreen products. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Detecting free radicals in sunscreens exposed to UVA radiation using chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millington, Keith R; Osmond, Megan J; McCall, Maxine J

    2014-04-05

    One of the current concerns with the application of nanoparticles in sunscreens, and in particular nano-TiO2 and ZnO, is their potential to photogenerate free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) when they absorb ultraviolet wavelengths from sunlight. Free radicals and ROS are known to be associated with UV-induced skin damage and oxidative stress, from which sunscreens are expected to offer significant protection. Here we describe a simple method, based on chemiluminescence emission, for detecting free radicals generated in commercial sunscreens alone, and when applied to various substrates, following exposure to UVA (320-400nm) radiation. This photo-induced chemiluminescence (PICL) technique could be used to optimise sunscreen formulations so as to minimise free radical photogeneration during exposure to sunlight. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rational Design and Synthesis of Efficient Sunscreens To Boost the Solar Protection Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losantos, Raúl; Funes-Ardoiz, Ignacio; Aguilera, José; Herrera-Ceballos, Enrique; García-Iriepa, Cristina; Campos, Pedro J; Sampedro, Diego

    2017-03-01

    Skin cancer incidence has been increasing in the last decades, but most of the commercial formulations used as sunscreens are designed to protect only against solar erythema. Many of the active components present in sunscreens show critical weaknesses, such as low stability and toxicity. Thus, the development of more efficient components is an urgent health necessity and an attractive industrial target. We have rationally designed core moieties with increased photoprotective capacities and a new energy dissipation mechanism. Using these scaffolds, we have synthesized a series of compounds with tunable properties suitable for their use in sunscreens, and enhanced properties in terms of stability, light energy dissipation, and toxicity. Moreover, some representative compounds were included in final sunscreen formulations and a relevant solar protection factor boost was measured. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Association of Socioeconomic and Geographic Factors With Google Trends for Tanning and Sunscreen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Divya; Gittleman, Haley; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Bordeaux, Jeremy S

    2018-02-01

    Internet search trends are used to track both infectious diseases and noncommunicable conditions. The authors sought to characterize Google Trends search volume index (SVI) for the terms "sunscreen" and tanning ("tanning salon" and "tanning bed") in the United States from 2010 to 2015 and analyze association with educational attainment, average income, and percent white data by state. SVI is search frequency data relative to total search volume. Analysis of variance, univariate, and multivariate analyses were performed to assess seasonal variations in SVI and the association of state-level SVI with state latitudes and census data. Hawaii had the highest SVI for sunscreen searches, whereas Alaska had the lowest. West Virginia had the highest SVI for tanning searches, whereas Hawaii had the lowest. There were significant differences between seasonal SVI for sunscreen and tanning searches (p trends for sunscreen and tanning are influenced by socioeconomic factors, and could be a tool for skin-related public health.

  3. The spectral stability of several sunscreening agents on stratum corneum sheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammeyer, A.; Westerhof, W.; Bolhuis, P. A.; Ris, A. J.; Hische, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    Synopsis Film layers of seventeen commercially available sunscreen products and sixteen active ingredients on stratum corneum sheets were spectrophotometrically monitored before and after simulated solar irradiation. Fixed irradiation doses were given within the daily terrestrial limits. From the

  4. Synergistic effect of broad-spectrum Sunscreens and antihistamines in the control of idiopathic solar urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, A.; Wulf, Hans Chr.

    2008-01-01

    Background: It can be difficult to provide patients with idiopathic solar urticaria adequate protection from sunlight. In a nonrandomized controlled trial, we used a standardized phototest procedure to determine the effects of using sunscreen and antihistamine to control idiopathic solar urticaria....... The patients were then treated with a high-protection, broad-spectrum sunscreen and a nonsedative antihistamine alone and in combination and underwent similar phototesting. The use of sunscreen allowed the patients to tolerate much higher doses of UV radiation (32-38 times the MUD on untreated skin......). Antihistamine use did not increase the patients' MUD but did suppress wheal formation and itch, and only immediate erythema sharply located in the irradiated areas occurred. The combination of sunscreen and antihistamine acted synergistically and increased the tolerance to UV radiation markedly (80-267 times...

  5. Evaluation of an economical sunlamp that emits a near solar UV power spectrum for conducting photoimmunological and sunscreen immune protection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, D.G.; Roberts, L.K.; Beard, J.; Stanfield, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Unlike FS-type UVB sunlamps, which have a significant amount of effective immunosuppressive non-solar UV energy at wavelengths below 295 nm, the immunosuppression effectiveness spectrum of UVA-340 sunlamps was nearly identical to that of a solar simulator. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this sunlamp for conducting photoimmunological and sunscreen immune protection studies. Groups of C3H mice were exposed to a range of UVA-340 sunlamp doses (0.25 kJ/m 2 to 20.0 kJ/m 2 ) to establish a dose-response curve and determine the minimum immune suppression dose (MISD) for induction of local-type suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CH). The MISD, defined as the lowest UV dose given to produce ∼ 50% suppression of the CH response in mice, was determined to be 1.0 kJ/m 2 for UVA-340 sunlamps. Immune protection tests on four marketed sunscreen lotions (sun protection factors [SPF] 4, 8, 15 and 30) were then conducted with UVA-340 sunlamps using MISD as the endpoint. The immune protection factors for these sunscreens were equivalent to the level of protection predicted by their labeled SPF. These results are similar to those we have previously obtained using a solar simulator. (author)

  6. Neurotoxic effect of active ingredients in sunscreen products, a contemporary review

    OpenAIRE

    Ruszkiewicz, Joanna A.; Pinkas, Adi; Ferrer, Beatriz; Peres, Tanara V.; Tsatsakis, Aristides; Aschner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Sunscreen application is the main strategy used to prevent the maladies inflicted by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Despite the continuously increasing frequency of sunscreen use worldwide, the prevalence of certain sun exposure-related pathologies, mainly malignant melanoma, is also on the rise. In the past century, a variety of protective agents against UV exposure have been developed. Physical filters scatter and reflect UV rays and chemical filters absorb those rays. Alongside the evidence f...

  7. New Approach to Develop Optimized Sunscreens that Enable Cutaneous Vitamin D Formation with Minimal Erythema Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Kockott

    Full Text Available Sunscreens protect the skin against erythemal radiation (Eer. But at the same time they reduce the effective radiation dose (EVD responsible for the formation of previtamin D in the skin. The paper describes a calculation method for optimizing the ratio EVD/Eer behind sunscreens e.g. with SPF 5, 15 and 30 respectively. Taking into account that a majority of people in industrialized countries suffer from a shortage in vitamin D even in summer time, the ratio Evd/Eer is a new and important criterion for the quality of sunscreens. Furthermore the exposure time tvd needed per day for forming the equivalent of the recommended amount of 2000 IU of vitamin D per day for skin type 2 is estimated when sunscreens with different filter compositions are used. In vitro experiments show a significant increase of the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC to previtamin D when exposed to artificial solar radiation behind an experimental sunscreen optimized for previtamin D production compared to a commercial sunscreen having the same SPF.

  8. Sunscreens can increase dermal penetration of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, R M; Spalding, M; Mueller, C

    2002-01-01

    Agricultural workers are encouraged to wear sunscreen to reduce their risk of skin cancer. These workers are also exposed to herbicides during the course of their day. The skin is the major source of chemical exposure in agriculture. The purpose of this work is to determine the effect of sunscreen use on the transdermal absorption of a model herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Hairless mouse skin was pretreated with one of nine commercially available sunscreens purchased at a local drug store. The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was placed on top of the epidermis in an in vitro diffusion chamber for 24 hours. The total penetrating through the skin in 24 hours ranged from 39.1 +/- 1.7% for the no sunscreen control to 81.0 +/- 2.8% for Neutrogena Oil Free Sunscreen. Of the nine sunscreens tested, six led to a significant enhancement of total 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid penetration as compared to the control (p exposure.

  9. A potential role for endogenous proteins as sacrificial sunscreens and antioxidants in human tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Hibbert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR exposure of the skin is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Although both exogenous sunscreens and endogenous tissue components (including melanins and tryptophan-derived compounds reduce UVR penetration, the role of endogenous proteins in absorbing environmental UV wavelengths is poorly defined. Having previously demonstrated that proteins which are rich in UVR-absorbing amino acid residues are readily degraded by broadband UVB-radiation (containing UVA, UVB and UVC wavelengths here we hypothesised that UV chromophore (Cys, Trp and Tyr content can predict the susceptibility of structural proteins in skin and the eye to damage by physiologically relevant doses (up to 15.4 J/cm2 of solar UVR (95% UVA, 5% UVB. We show that: i purified suspensions of UV-chromophore-rich fibronectin dimers, fibrillin microfibrils and β- and γ-lens crystallins undergo solar simulated radiation (SSR-induced aggregation and/or decomposition and ii exposure to identical doses of SSR has minimal effect on the size or ultrastructure of UV chromophore-poor tropoelastin, collagen I, collagen VI microfibrils and α-crystallin. If UV chromophore content is a factor in determining protein stability in vivo, we would expect that the tissue distribution of Cys, Trp and Tyr-rich proteins would correlate with regional UVR exposure. From bioinformatic analysis of 244 key structural proteins we identified several biochemically distinct, yet UV chromophore-rich, protein families. The majority of these putative UV-absorbing proteins (including the late cornified envelope proteins, keratin associated proteins, elastic fibre-associated components and β- and γ-crystallins are localised and/or particularly abundant in tissues that are exposed to the highest doses of environmental UVR, specifically the stratum corneum, hair, papillary dermis and lens. We therefore propose that UV chromophore-rich proteins are localised in regions of high UVR

  10. A novel research model for evaluating sunscreen protection in the UV-A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Sônia Aparecida; de Moraes, Dayane Cristina; Vilela, Fernanda Maria Pinto; de Faria, Amanda Natalina; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Fonseca, Maria José Vieira

    2018-01-01

    The use of a broad spectrum sunscreen is considered one of the main and most popular measures for preventing the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on the skin. In this study we have developed a novel in vitro method to assess sunscreens efficacy to protect calcineurin enzyme activity, a skin cell marker. The photoprotective efficacy of sunscreen products was assessed by measuring the UV-A1 radiation-induced depletion of calcineurin (Cn) enzyme activity in primary neonatal human dermal fibroblast (HDFn) cell lysates. After exposure to 24J/cm 2 UV-A1 radiation, the sunscreens containing larger amounts of UV-A1 filters (brand B), the astaxanthin (UV-A1 absorber) and the Tinosorb® M (UV-A1 absorber) were capable of preventing loss of Cn activity when compared to the sunscreens formulations of brand A (low concentration of UV-A1 filters), with the Garcinia brasiliensis extract (UV-B absorber) and with the unprotected cell lysate and exposed to irradiation (Irradiated Control - IC). The Cn activity assay is a reproducible, accurate and selective technique for evaluating the effectiveness of sunscreens against the effects of UV-A1 radiation. The developed method showed that calcineurin activity have the potential to act as a biological indicator of UV-A1 radiation-induced damages in skin and the assay might be used to assess the efficacy of sunscreens agents and plant extracts prior to in vivo tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Arabidopsis mutants lacking phenolic sunscreens exhibit enhanced ultraviolet-B injury and oxidative damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landry, L.G.; Last, R.L.; Chapple, C.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    We have assessed ultraviolet-B (UV-B)-induced injury in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and two mutants with altered aromatic secondary product biosynthesis. Arabidopsis mutants defective in the ability to synthesize UV-B-absorbing compounds (flavonoids in transparent testa 5 [tt5] and sinapate esters in ferulic acid hydroxylase 1 [fah 1]) are more sensitive to UV-B than is the wild-type Landsberg erecta. Despite its ability to accumulate UV-absorptive flavonoid compounds, the ferulic acid hydroxylase mutant fah1 exhibits more physiological injury (growth inhibition and foliar lesions) than either wild type or tt5. The extreme UV-B sensitivity of fah1 demonstrates the importance of hydroxycinnamate esters as UV-B protectants. Consistent with the whole-plant response, the highest levels of lipid and protein oxidation products were seen in fah1. Ascorbate peroxidase enzyme activity was also increased in the leaves of UV-B-treated plants in a dose- and genotype-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that, in A. thaliana, hydryoxycinnamates are more effective UV-B protectants than flavonoids. The data also indicate that A. thaliana responds to UV-B as an oxidative stress, and sunscreen compounds reduce the oxidative damage caused by UV-B. 36 refs., 6 figs

  12. Stability and efficacy of sunscreens containing inorganic filters and quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah de Oliveira Nishikawa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to the sun can have health benefits, however, excess exposure can cause skin damage, such as skin cancer. Photoprotection can be used as a preventive method against the harmful effects of the ultraviolet (UV radiation and Brazilian biodiversity is a fertile field for research in this area. Therefore, the aim of this study was the development of sunscreens containing quercetin (bioactive compound and inorganic filters (titanium dioxide and zinc oxide with further characterization of the formulae and evaluation of stability. Formulations containing the bioactive compound, isolated or in association with the inorganic filters, presented: pH values biocompatible with the skin; apparent viscosity between 10550 and 23600 cP; sun protection factor (SPF between 2.1 and 22.5; and broad spectrum protection, with critical wavelengths above 379 nm. It was found that the association of quercetin with inorganic filters was not adequate due to the negative interactions that occurred between the bioactive compound and the metals, which were only identified during the stability study. However, considering the in vitro estimated efficacy of the isolated flavonoid, its use can still be explored as an alternative substitute to classic UVfilters.

  13. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles in sunscreens: focus on their safety and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smijs TG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Threes G Smijs1–3, Stanislav Pavel4 1Faculty of Science, Open University in The Netherlands, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 2University of Leiden, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden, The Netherlands; 3Erasmus MC, Center for Optical Diagnostics and Therapy, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 4Charles University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Pilsen, Czech Republic Abstract: Sunscreens are used to provide protection against adverse effects of ultraviolet (UVB (290–320 nm and UVA (320–400 nm radiation. According to the United States Food and Drug Administration, the protection factor against UVA should be at least one-third of the overall sun protection factor. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 and zinc oxide (ZnO minerals are frequently employed in sunscreens as inorganic physical sun blockers. As TiO2 is more effective in UVB and ZnO in the UVA range, the combination of these particles assures a broad-band UV protection. However, to solve the cosmetic drawback of these opaque sunscreens, microsized TiO2 and ZnO have been increasingly replaced by TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs (<100 nm. This review focuses on significant effects on the UV attenuation of sunscreens when microsized TiO2 and ZnO particles are replaced by NPs and evaluates physicochemical aspects that affect effectiveness and safety of NP sunscreens. With the use of TiO2 and ZnO NPs, the undesired opaqueness disappears but the required balance between UVA and UVB protection can be altered. Utilization of mixtures of micro- and nanosized ZnO dispersions and nanosized TiO2 particles may improve this situation. Skin exposure to NP-containing sunscreens leads to incorporation of TiO2 and ZnO NPs in the stratum corneum, which can alter specific NP attenuation properties due to particle–particle, particle–skin, and skin–particle–light physicochemical interactions. Both sunscreen NPs induce (photocyto- and genotoxicity and have been sporadically observed in viable

  14. Liposomogenic UV Absorbers are Water-Resistant on Pig Skin-A Model Study With Relevance for Sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Bernd; Hüglin, Dietmar; Luther, Helmut

    2017-02-01

    An important property of sunscreens is their water resistance after the application on human skin. In this work, the hypothesis that UV absorber molecules which are able to form liposomes, so-called liposomogenic UV absorbers, show better water resistance on a pig skin model than UV-absorbing molecules lacking this ability was tested. The assumption behind is that molecules which can form liposomes are able to integrate into the stratum corneum lipids of the skin. Three different liposomogenic UV absorbers were synthesized and their behavior investigated, leading to the confirmation of the hypothesis. With one of the liposomogenic UV absorbers, it was possible to show the integration of the UV absorber molecules into the bilayers of another liposome consisting of phosphatidylcholine, supporting the assumption that liposomogenic UV absorbers exhibit improved water resistance because they integrate into the skin lipids. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of the photoprotection properties of sunscreens by chromatographic measurement of DNA damage in skin explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouret, Stéphane; Bogdanowicz, Patrick; Haure, Marie-José; Castex-Rizzi, Nathalie; Cadet, Jean; Favier, Alain; Douki, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the photoprotection provided by sunscreens is performed either through the induction of erythema and expressed as the sun protection factor (SPF), or by the UVA-mediated persistent pigment darkening (PPD). None of these two endpoints has a link with skin cancer, the most deleterious consequence of excess exposure to solar UV radiation. We thus set up a complementary approach to evaluate the protection provided by sunscreens to the genome of human skin. This is based on the quantification of the thymine cyclobutane dimer (TT-CPD), the main DNA lesion induced by both UVB and UVA radiations. Irradiations were performed ex vivo on human skin explants and the level of TT-CPD in DNA was determined by HPLC associated with tandem mass spectrometry. The technique was first optimized and validated with three standard sunscreens. The study was then extended to the evaluation of a commercial high SPF sunscreen exhibiting efficient UVA photoprotection. The DNA protecting factor was found to reflect the ratio between UVB and UVA photoprotection, although the absolute values of the genomic protection were, as a general trend, lower than either SPF or PPD. These data show the usefulness of the proposed approach for the evaluation of the genoprotection afforded by sunscreens. © 2010 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2010 The American Society of Photobiology.

  16. Cutaneous Permeation and Penetration of Sunscreens: Formulation Strategies and In Vitro Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tampucci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreens are the most common products used for skin protection against the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. However, as frequent application is recommended, the use of large amount of sunscreens could reflect in possible systemic absorption and since these preparations are often applied on large skin areas, even low penetration rates can cause a significant amount of sunscreen to enter the body. An ideal sunscreen should have a high substantivity and should neither penetrate the viable epidermis, the dermis and the systemic circulation, nor in hair follicle. The research of methods to assess the degree of penetration of solar filters into the skin is nowadays even more important than in the past, due to the widespread use of nanomaterials and the new discoveries in cosmetic formulation technology. In the present paper, different in vitro studies, published in the last five years, have been reviewed, in order to focus the attention on the different methodological approaches employed to effectively assess the skin permeation and retention of sunscreens.

  17. Chemical characterization of sunscreens composition and its related potential adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallad, Karim N

    2017-09-01

    Although the sun is very beneficial and essential for life, exposing ourselves too much to sunlight might lead to detrimental health effects such as skin cancer. Eight percent of the total different electromagnetic radiation that regularly irradiates the earth is classified as ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The ozone layer absorbs the most energetic UV rays; consequently, UV-A and UV-B reach the earth surface. UV-A rays heavily contribute to both premature skin aging and skin cancer, while UV-B rays cause sunburn. Hence, the use of sunscreen is strongly encouraged by many healthcare practitioners in order to minimize or possibly eradicate the harmful effects of UV rays on our skin, keeping in mind, that about 90% of all skin cancers are associated with exposure to the sun's harmful radiation. Unfortunately, inaccurate information is currently roaming the media and the Internet regarding the safety, toxicity, and acute side effects of the active ingredients currently used in sunscreens, therefore discouraging people from using sunscreens. In this review article, it is concluded based on the scientific published literature that the sunscreen ingredients are safe and there are no related potential hazardous health risks associated with their use. In addition, at present, sunscreens are very useful in preventing sunburn and probably skin cancer and photoaging and their regular use can have a positive and a significant impact on public health as means or instruments implemented to reduce exposure to UV radiation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Nanostructured polymer and lipid carriers for sunscreen. Biological effects and skin permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, P D; Caverzan, J; Rossi-Bergmann, B; Pinto, E F; Machado, D; Silva, R A; Justo, G Z; Ferreira, C V; Durán, N

    2011-03-01

    The interest in developing new sunscreens is increasing due to the harmful effects of UV radiation on the skin, such as erythema, accelerated skin ageing (photoageing) and the induction of skin cancer. However, many molecular sunscreens penetrate into the skin causing photoallergies, phototoxic reactions and skin irritation. Thus, the aim of this work was the preparation and characterization of polymeric and solid lipid nanoparticles to act carriers of benzophenone-3 (BZ3), aiming to improve the safety of sunscreen products by increasing the sun protection factor (SPF), decreasing BZ3 skin penetration and decreasing BZ3 concentration in sunscreen formulation. BZ3 was encapsulated in poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles by the nanoprecipitation method and in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) by the hot high pressure homogenization method. The particles were stable for 40 days. The BZ3 encapsulated in PCL nanoparticles was released faster than BZ3 encapsulated in SLN. The sun protection factor increased when BZ3 was encapsulated in both nanostructures. However, BZ3 encapsulated in PCL nanoparticles decreased its skin permeation more than SLN-BZ3. Furthermore, BZ3 encapsulated in SLN did not exhibit cytotoxic or phototoxic effects in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) and BABL/c 3T3 fibroblasts, whereas PCL nanoparticles with BZ3 showed phototoxic potential in HaCaT cells. Nevertheless, BZ3 free and encapsulated in PCL nanoparticles or in SLN did not show allergic reactions in mice. Our results suggest that these nanostructures are interesting carriers for sunscreen.

  19. Integrating Elemental Analysis and Chromatography Techniques by Analyzing Metal Oxide and Organic UV Absorbers in Commercial Sunscreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quin~ones, Rosalynn; Bayline, Jennifer Logan; Polvani, Deborah A.; Neff, David; Westfall, Tamara D.; Hijazi, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    A series of undergraduate laboratory experiments that utilize reversed-phase HPLC separation, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) are described for the analysis of commercial sunscreens. The active ingredients of many sunscreen brands include zinc or titanium…

  20. 76 FR 35619 - Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ...-AF43 Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use AGENCY... Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 201, 310, and 352 Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Final Rules and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 117 / Friday, June 17, 2011...

  1. Synergistic effect of broad-spectrum Sunscreens and antihistamines in the control of idiopathic solar urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, A.; Wulf, Hans Chr.

    2008-01-01

    . Observations: Three patients with idiopathic solar urticaria underwent phototesting with UV-B and UV-A radiation. The minimal urticarial dose (MUD) was determined 15 minutes after irradiation. The patients were subsequently tested with 5 times the MUD, and the reaction was graded every minute for 15 minutes....... The patients were then treated with a high-protection, broad-spectrum sunscreen and a nonsedative antihistamine alone and in combination and underwent similar phototesting. The use of sunscreen allowed the patients to tolerate much higher doses of UV radiation (32-38 times the MUD on untreated skin......). Antihistamine use did not increase the patients' MUD but did suppress wheal formation and itch, and only immediate erythema sharply located in the irradiated areas occurred. The combination of sunscreen and antihistamine acted synergistically and increased the tolerance to UV radiation markedly (80-267 times...

  2. Does chronic sunscreen use reduce vitamin D production to insufficient levels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norval, M.; Wulf, Hans Chr.

    2009-01-01

    decrease in solar-induced previtamin D-3 in the skin, resulting in a vitamin D level which is considered insufficient for protection against a wide range of diseases. In this article the published evidence to support and to question this view is presented. It is concluded that, although sunscreens can......Exposure to ultraviolet B radiation in sunlight provides the mechanism for more than 90% of the vitamin D production in most individuals. Concern has been expressed in recent years that the widespread use of sunscreens, particularly those with high sun protection factors, may lead to a significant...

  3. Diurnal adjustment in ultraviolet sunscreen protection is widespread among higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Tobler, Mark A; Ryel, Ronald J

    2016-05-01

    The accumulation of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (flavonoids and related phenylpropanoids) in the epidermis of higher plants reduces the penetration of solar UV radiation to underlying tissues and is a primary mechanism of acclimation to changing UV conditions resulting from ozone depletion and climate change. Previously we reported that several herbaceous plant species were capable of rapid, diurnal adjustments in epidermal UV transmittance (T UV), but how widespread this phenomenon is among plants has been unknown. In the present study, we tested the generality of this response by screening 37 species of various cultivated and wild plants growing in four locations spanning a gradient of ambient solar UV and climate (Hawaii, Utah, Idaho and Louisiana). Non-destructive measurements of adaxial T UV indicated that statistically significant midday decreases in T UV occurred in 49 % of the species tested, including both herbaceous and woody growth forms, and there was substantial interspecific variation in the magnitude of these changes. In general, plants in Louisiana exhibited larger diurnal changes in T UV than those in the other locations. Moreover, across all taxa, the magnitude of these changes was positively correlated with minimum daily air temperatures but not daily UV irradiances. Results indicate that diurnal changes in UV shielding are widespread among higher plants, vary both within and among species and tend to be greatest in herbaceous plants growing in warm environments. These findings suggest that plant species differ in their UV protection "strategies" though the functional and ecological significance of this variation in UV sunscreen protection remains unclear at present.

  4. Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of C-methylcalix[4]resorcinaryl octacinnamate as the Sunscreen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiana I Gusti M. Ngurah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and in vitro test of C-methylcalix[4]resorcinaryl octacinnamate as the sunscreen has been conducted. The C-methylcalix[4]resorcinaryl octacinnamate was synthesized in 2 steps. They were synthesis of C-methylcalix[4]resorcinarene via acid catalyzed condensation of resorcinol and acetaldehyde, followed by estherification using cinnamoyl chloride and pyridine catalyst. The characterization of the target molecule was performed by infra red spectrophotometer, proton-NMR, carbon-NMR and mass spectromether. The sunscreen activity test was conducted by spectroscopic method and MTT-assay. Spectroscopic analysis (UV showed that the target molecule absorbed the dangerous ultraviolet radiation between 280 and 320 nm (UV B wave length with the maximum absorption at 290 nm (ε = 31.535 M-1 cm-1. The MTT-assay indicated that the IC50 of C-methylcalix[4]resorcinaryl octacinnamate is 12.006 ppm. The sunscreen activity of C-methylcalix[4]resorcinaryl octacinnamate is stronger than commercial sunscreen Intersun (IC50 = 18.235 ppm.

  5. Excited-State Dynamics of Isolated and Microsolvated Cinnamate-Based UV-B Sunscreens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.M.M.; Hilbers, M.; Buma, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    Sunscreens are aimed at providing protection from solar UV radiation. However, the same mechanism that underlies this protection (absorption of UV radiation) is also responsible for their light-induced adverse effects. Here, high-resolution spectroscopic methods are applied to one of the most

  6. Assessment of in vitro Sun Protection Factor (SPF and rheological profile of commercial infant sunscreens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Daud Sarruf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the measurement of spectral transmittance using an integrating sphere to estimate the Sun Protection Factor (SPF of commercial sunscreens oriented for child use. Commercially available SPF 30 sunscreens (A, B and C were selected and assessed by the following methodology: pH measurement; rheological profile analysis; and in vitro SPF estimation by spectroscopy. Samples A, B and C exhibited, respectively, pH values of 7.8, 7.4 and 7.0. The rheological profile identified the systems as pseudoplastic nonNewtonian semisolids with hysteresis loops. The t-test (p < 0.05 was used to confront the claimed SPF (SPF = 30 with that estimated by spectroscopy. In vitro tests are considered of utmost importance in the cosmetic field, since their results may be used to validate submission to subsequent in vivo efficacy experiments. According to our results, sunscreens A, B and C generated SPF values without any significant difference from those claimed on the commercial sunscreen labels. The measurement of spectral transmittance with an integrating sphere proved to be a convenient, fast and reproducible method for SPF estimation.

  7. DETERMINATION OF SUN PROTECTION FACTOR OF SUNSCREENS BY TWO DIFFERENT IN-VITRO METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M GHARAVI SEYED

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sunscreens usually protect the skin against harmful effects of sunlight. These products contain two effective physical and chemical components, which protects the skin from sunlight. Sun protection factor (S.P.F is a critical factor indicating the effect of sunscreen against sunlight. Methods. To measure S.P.F of sunscreens, various in-vivo and in-vitro methods have been established. In this study, two in-vitro methods were used. In 'Transpore tape' method, sunscreen product was dispersed uniformly on the substrate to obtain a surface coverage of 2mg/cm2 of the product. Transmittance measured spectrophotometerically, and then S.P.F was calculated. In the second method (solvent method different concentrations of test products were prepared in methanol. The sample's transmittance were measured to evaluate S.P.F. Results. Results of the first method indicated a good linear relationship between measured S.P.F and the labled S.P.F (r=0.97. Results of the second method indicated that relatively a good relationship exisit between log of measured S.P.F and labled S.P.F (r=0.88. Discussion. The transport tape method is fairly simple, feasible and importantly the surface of the tape is similar to that of the skin. Although, transport method is not time consuming, it is less accurate than in-vivo methods.

  8. An Investigation of Optimum NLC-Sunscreen Formulation Using Taguchi Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao Chi Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used three kinds of wax and three kinds of oil, with fixed mixture ratio including UV-blocking materials of ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, oxybenzone, and avobenzone, and applied hot high-pressure homogenization process to prepare nanolipid sunscreen formulations. The measured particle size of the sunscreen formulations was 100~300 nm around PDI of 0.2 having a moderate polydisperse system. The distribution of zeta potential was −50 mV to −35 mV, showing a stable system. The UV light-absorbing range of 9 groups of sunscreen formulations was 275 nm~380 nm ranging within UVA and UVB. The rheological analysis found that the viscosity change is shear, thinning exhibiting colloid behavior. Taguchi analysis found that the optimum combinations are the carnauba wax and the blackcurrant oil combination for crystallinity and the beeswax and CPG oil for UV absorption. In addition, UV-blocking ability shows that the SPF was 51.5 and PFA was three stars for SU9 formulation. Finally, the effect of temperature on the properties of sunscreen formulations was also explored.

  9. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen (Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen. This report is a starting point to determine what is known and what needs to be known about selected nanomaterials as par...

  10. Neurotoxic effect of active ingredients in sunscreen products, a contemporary review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna A. Ruszkiewicz

    Full Text Available Sunscreen application is the main strategy used to prevent the maladies inflicted by ultraviolet (UV radiation. Despite the continuously increasing frequency of sunscreen use worldwide, the prevalence of certain sun exposure-related pathologies, mainly malignant melanoma, is also on the rise. In the past century, a variety of protective agents against UV exposure have been developed. Physical filters scatter and reflect UV rays and chemical filters absorb those rays. Alongside the evidence for increasing levels of these agents in the environment, which leads to indirect exposure of wildlife and humans, recent studies suggest a toxicological nature for some of these agents. Reviews on the role of these agents in developmental and endocrine impairments (both pathology and related mechanisms are based on both animal and human studies, yet information regarding the potential neurotoxicity of these agents is scant. In this review, data regarding the neurotoxicity of several organic filters: octyl methoxycinnamate, benzophenone-3 and −4, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 3-benzylidene camphor and octocrylene, and two allowed inorganic filters: zinc oxide and titanium dioxide, is presented and discussed. Taken together, this review advocates revisiting the current safety and regulation of specific sunscreens and investing in alternative UV protection technologies. Keywords: Neurotoxicity, Sunscreen, Zinc oxide, Titanium dioxide, Octyl methoxycinnamate, Benzophenone-3, 4-Methylbenzylidene camphor, Octocrylene

  11. Sunscreens in human plasma and urine after repeated whole-body topical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, N.R.; Kongshoj, B.; Andersson, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background The three chemical ultraviolet absorbers benzophenone-3 (BP-3), octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC) and 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC) are commercially used in sunscreens worldwide. Apart from sun protection, they may possess endocrine-disrupting effects in animals and in vitro...

  12. Sunscreens in human plasma and urine after repeated whole-body topical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, N R; Kongshoj, B; Andersson, A-M

    2008-01-01

    The three chemical ultraviolet absorbers benzophenone-3 (BP-3), octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC) and 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC) are commercially used in sunscreens worldwide. Apart from sun protection, they may possess endocrine-disrupting effects in animals and in vitro. For all three...

  13. Radical-Scavenging Activity of a Sunscreen Enriched by Antioxidants Providing Protection in the Whole Solar Spectral Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carla; Maia Campos, Patrícia; Schanzer, Sabine; Albrecht, Stephanie; Lohan, Silke B; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E; Meinke, Martina C

    2017-01-01

    The main reason for extrinsic skin aging is the negative action of free radicals. The formation of free radicals in the skin has been associated with ultraviolet (UV) exposure and also to visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) irradiations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a sunscreen in the whole solar range. The radical-scavenging activity of a sunscreen in the UV, VIS, and NIR ranges was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Ex vivo penetration profiles were determined using confocal Raman microscopy on porcine ear skin at different time points after application. Compared to the untreated skin, the sunscreen decreased the skin radical formation in the UV and VIS regions. Additional protection in the VIS and NIR ranges was observed for the sunscreen containing antioxidants (AO). The penetration depth of the cream was less than 11.2 ± 3.0 µm for all time points. A sunscreen containing AO improved the photoprotection in the VIS and NIR ranges. The sunscreen was retained in the stratum corneum. Therefore, these results show the possibility of the development of effective and safer sunscreen products. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Effects of video-based, online education on behavioral and knowledge outcomes in sunscreen use: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Idriss, Nayla Z; Kim, Randie H

    2011-05-01

    To compare online video and pamphlet education at improving patient comprehension and adherence to sunscreen use, and to assess patient satisfaction with the two educational approaches. In a randomized controlled trial, 94 participants received either online, video-based education or pamphlet-based education that described the importance and proper use of sunscreen. Sun protective knowledge and sunscreen application behaviors were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks after group-specific intervention. Participants in both groups had similar levels of baseline sunscreen knowledge. Post-study analysis revealed significantly greater improvement in the knowledge scores from video group members compared to the pamphlet group (p=0.003). More importantly, video group participants reported greater sunscreen adherence (peducation vehicle more useful and appealing than the pamphlet group (peducational tool for teaching sun protective knowledge and encouraging sunscreen use than written materials. More effective patient educational methods to encourage sun protection activities, such as regular sunscreen use, have the potential to increase awareness and foster positive, preventative health behaviors against skin cancers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Repartition of oil miscible and water soluble UV filters in an applied sunscreen film determined by confocal Raman microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Myriam; Buehler, Theodor; Imanidis, Georgios

    2016-07-06

    Photoprotection provided by topical sunscreens is expressed by the sun protection factor (SPF) which depends primarily on the UV filters contained in the product and the applied sunscreen amount. Recently, the vehicle was shown to significantly impact film thickness distribution of an applied sunscreen and sunscreen efficacy. In the present work, repartition of the UV filters within the sunscreen film upon application is investigated for its role to affect sun protection efficacy. The spatial repartition of an oil-miscible and a water-soluble UV filter within the sunscreen film was studied using confocal Raman microspectroscopy. Epidermis of pig ear skin was used as substrate for application of three different sunscreen formulations, an oil-in-water emulsion, a water-in-oil emulsion, and a clear lipo-alcoholic spray (CAS) and SPF in vitro was measured. Considerable differences in the repartition of the UV filters upon application and evaporation of volatile ingredients were found between the tested formulations. A nearly continuous phase of lipid-miscible UV filter was formed only for the WO formulation with dispersed aggregates of water-soluble UV filter. OW emulsion and CAS exhibited interspersed patches of the two UV filters, whereas the segregated UV filter domains of the latter formulation were by comparison of a much larger scale and spanned the entire thickness of the sunscreen film. CAS therefore differed markedly from the other two formulations with respect to filter repartition. This difference should be reflected in SPF when the absorption spectra of the employed UV filters are not the same. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy was shown to be a powerful technique for studying this mechanism of sun protection performance of sunscreens.

  16. Sunscreens: are they beneficial for health? An overview of endocrine disrupting properties of UV-filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, M; Klit, A; Blomberg Jensen, M; Søeborg, T; Frederiksen, H; Schlumpf, M; Lichtensteiger, W; Skakkebaek, N E; Drzewiecki, K T

    2012-06-01

    Today, topical application of sunscreens, containing ultraviolet-filters (UV-filters), is preferred protection against adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation. Evidently, use of sunscreens is effective in prevention of sunburns in various models. However, evidence for their protective effects against melanoma skin cancer is less conclusive. Three important observations prompted us to review the animal data and human studies on possible side effects of selected chemical UV-filters in cosmetics. (1) the utilization of sunscreens with UV-filters is increasing worldwide; (2) the incidence of the malignant disorder for which sunscreens should protect, malignant melanoma, is rapidly increasing and (3) an increasing number of experimental studies indicating that several UV-filters might have endocrine disruptive effects. The selected UV-filters we review in this article are benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC), 3-(4-methyl-benzylidene) camphor (4-MBC), 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxy cinnamate (OMC), Homosalate (HMS), 2-ethylhexyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate (OD-PABA) and 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). The potential adverse effects induced by UV-filters in experimental animals include reproductive/developmental toxicity and disturbance of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT). Few human studies have investigated potential side effects of UV-filters, although human exposure is high as UV-filters in sunscreens are rapidly absorbed from the skin. One of the UV-filters, BP-3, has been found in 96% of urine samples in the US and several UV-filters in 85% of Swiss breast milk samples. It seems pertinent to evaluate whether exposure to UV-filters contribute to possible adverse effects on the developing organs of foetuses and children. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2012 European Academy of Andrology.

  17. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  18. Comparison of ultraviolet A light protection standards in the United States and European Union through in vitro measurements of commercially available sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Steven Q; Xu, Haoming; Stanfield, Joseph W; Osterwalder, Uli; Herzog, Bernd

    2017-07-01

    The importance of adequate ultraviolet A light (UVA) protection has become apparent in recent years. The United States and Europe have different standards for assessing UVA protection in sunscreen products. We sought to measure the in vitro critical wavelength (CW) and UVA protection factor (PF) of commercially available US sunscreen products and see if they meet standards set by the United States and the European Union. Twenty sunscreen products with sun protection factors ranging from 15 to 100+ were analyzed. Two in vitro UVA protection tests were conducted in accordance with the 2011 US Food and Drug Administration final rule and the 2012 International Organization for Standardization method for sunscreen effectiveness testing. The CW of the tested sunscreens ranged from 367 to 382 nm, and the UVA PF of the products ranged from 6.1 to 32. Nineteen of 20 sunscreens (95%) met the US requirement of CW >370 nm. Eleven of 20 sunscreens (55%) met the EU desired ratio of UVA PF/SPF > 1:3. The study only evaluated a small number of sunscreen products. The majority of tested sunscreens offered adequate UVA protection according to US Food and Drug Administration guidelines for broad-spectrum status, but almost half of the sunscreens tested did not pass standards set in the European Union. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. From UV Protection to Protection in the Whole Spectral Range of the Solar Radiation: New Aspects of Sunscreen Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastrow, Leonhard; Meinke, Martina C; Albrecht, Stephanie; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    Sunscreens have been constantly improving in the past few years. Today, they provide an efficient protection not only in the UVB but also in the UVA spectral region of the solar radiation. Recently it could be demonstrated that 50% of all free radicals induced in the skin due to solar radiation are formed in the visible and infrared spectral region. The good protective efficacy of sunscreens in the UV region prompts people to stay much longer in the sun than if they had left their skin unprotected. However, as no protection in the visible and infrared spectral region is provided, high amounts of free radicals are induced here that could easily exceed the critical radical concentration. This chapter describes how the effect of sunscreens can be extended to cover also the visible and infrared spectral region of the solar radiation by adding pigments and antioxidants with high radical protection factors to the sunscreen formulations.

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with exposure to sunlight and sunscreen among physical education teachers in Pelotas, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombaldi, Airton José; Canabarro, Lúcio Kerber; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Silva, Marcelo Cozzensa da

    2017-01-01

    Decreasing the time of exposure to the sun and increasing sunscreen use are important actions to prevent skin cancer. This study aimed to verify the prevalence of exposure to the sun and the use of sunscreen, as well as associated factors among physical education teachers of the basic education network from city of Pelotas, southern Brazil. A census type study was conducted with physical education teachers of the basic education network from Pelotas. This study assessed the time of exposure to the sun in the workplace for at least 20 min, between 10am and 4pm, and the use of sunscreen during the workday. 188 teachers answered the questionnaire. The prevalence of exposure to the sun between 10:00am and 4:00pm was 89.2% (95% CI of 83.8% -93.3%), while sunscreen use was 63.3% (95% CI of 56.0% -70.2%). However, when the sample was stratified by sex, women reported a higher rate of sunscreen use (78.5% -95% CI of 72.2-84.3) than men (38.9% -95% CI of 31.8-46.2) (pTeachers with longer work weeks were at greater risk of exposure to the sun. In addition, women, with normal weight and who worked less hours, were more likely to use sunscreen. Cross-sectional study and lack of information on the proper use and frequency of use of sunscreen. Physical education teachers were highly exposed to solar radiation, and less than two-thirds used sunscreen during the workday. Interventions with this professional group are necessary to reduce the risk of skin cancer.

  1. Determination of seven sunscreen agents and two ultraviolet stabilizers in skin care products using ultra-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowell, Aimee; Habel, John; Weiss, Caryn; Parkanzky, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a well-known environmental carcinogen. Protection against UVR exposure has resulted in an increasing number of sunscreen agents being incorporated into a greater variety of cosmetic formulations including moisturizing lotions, color cosmetics, and skin care creams. Meanwhile, global regulation of sun care products is changing. New guidelines for sunscreen efficacy have resulted in a shift in product formulation that requires sunscreen products to provide broad spectrum UV protection. Since not all sunscreen ingredients protect against both UVA and UVB radiation, most sun care products require a combination of sunscreen agents. This article describes a new method for simultaneous separation and quantitation of seven organic sunscreens and two UV stabilizers using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. This method is capable of resolving all nine analytes, and has been validated for selectivity, precision, and accuracy. Because of the use of core-shell column technology, the separation is also achieved at back pressures compatible with conventional high-performance liquid chromatography instrumentation.

  2. Hydrogen bond dynamics governs the effective photoprotection mechanism of plant phenolic sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Du, Likai; Lan, Zhenggang; Gao, Jun

    2017-02-15

    Sinapic acid derivatives are important sunscreen species in natural plants, which could provide protection from solar UV radiation. Using a combination of ultrafast excited state dynamics, together with classical molecular dynamics studies, we demonstrate that there is direct coupling of hydrogen bond motion with excited state photoprotection dynamics as part of the basic mechanism in solution. Beyond the intra-molecular degree of freedom, the inter-molecular motions on all timescales are potentially important for the photochemical or photophysical events, ranging from the ultrafast hydrogen bond motion to solvent rearrangements. This provides not only an enhanced understanding of the anomalous experimental spectroscopic results, but also the key idea in the development of sunscreen agents with improved photo-chemical properties. We suggest that the hydrogen bond dynamics coupled excited state photoprotection mechanism may also be possible in a broad range of bio-related molecules in the condensed phase.

  3. Effectiveness of Sunscreen at Preventing Solar UV-Induced Alterations of Human Stratum Corneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, O.; Dauskardt, R.; Biniek, K.; Novoa, F.

    2012-12-01

    The outermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum, protects the body from harmful environmental conditions by serving as a selective barrier. Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the most common conditions the body encounters and is responsible for many negative skin responses, including compromised barrier function. UV exposure has dramatic effects on stratum corneum cell cohesion and mechanical integrity that are related to its effects on the stratum corneum's intercellular lipids. Hypothesis Sunscreen contains chemicals that absorb UV radiation to prevent the radiation from penetrating the skin. Thus, it is expected that the application of sunscreen on human stratum corneum will reduce UV-induced alterations of human stratum corneum. Procedures/Equipment Human tissue was processed in order to isolate the stratum corneum, the top layer of the epidermis. Double cantilever beam (DCB) testing was used to study the effect of UV radiation on human stratum corneum. Two different types of DCB samples were created: control DCB samples with the application of carrier and UV light to the stratum corneum and DCB samples with the application of sunscreen and UV light to the stratum corneum. For the control sample, one side of the stratum corneum was glued to a polycarbonate beam and carrier was applied. Then, the sample was placed 10 cm away from the UV lamp inside of the environmental chamber and were exposed to UV dosages of about 800 J/cm2. Once this step was complete, a second polycarbonate beam was glued to the other side of the stratum corneum. The steps were similar for the DCB sample that had sunscreen applied and that was exposed to UV light. After gluing one side of the stratum corneum to a polycarbonate beam, Octinoxate sunscreen was applied. The next steps were similar to those of the control sample. All DCB samples were then let out to dry for two hours in a dry box in order for the moisture from the lab to be extracted. Each DCB sample was tested

  4. Influence of natural polymer derived from starch as a sensory modifier in sunscreen formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Rigon, Roberta B. [UNESP; Piffer, Adrielle R.; Lima, Aline A. S.; Bighetti, Aparecida E.; Chorilli, Marlus [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, there has been increased incidence of skin cancer, which is mainly related to increased sun exposure. Although sunscreen products may prevent the appearing of this disease, consumers may not use them due to some factors, including the sensory properties. The Aluminum Starch Octenylsuccinate (Dry-Flo® Pure, Akzo Nobel), an aluminum salt produced by the reaction of anhydride octenylsuccinic with starch, is able to improve the spreadability on the skin and reduce the oiline...

  5. High School Students’ Use of Sunscreen and Tanning Beds

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-20

    This podcast is an interview with Corey Basch, EdD, MPH, assistant professor in the Department of Public Health at William Paterson University. Dr. Basch discusses her study on high school students’ use of sunscreen and tanning beds between 2001 and 2011.  Created: 8/20/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/20/2014.

  6. The photocatalytic and cytotoxic effects of titanium dioxide particles used in sunscreen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampaul, Ashti

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are used in sunscreens to reflect UV radiation from the skin. However, titanium dioxide as anatase and rutile crystal forms is a well-known photocatalyst. The nanoparticles are surface coated with inert inorganic oxides such as silica and alumina or organics such as organosilanes or silicone polymers and more recently, have been doped with manganese oxide. These modifications to the titanium dioxide particles are purported to prevent the production of harmful reactive oxygen species. A range of sunscreens was tested with crystal form and modification type identified via XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, XPS and SSNMR. The particle modification and crystal form determined whether the particles were inert or rapidly degraded methylene blue dye, and killed or protected cultured human epithelium cells. Novel solid state Electron Paramagnetic Resonance analysis showed that the greatest amount of superoxide anions was formed during UVA irradiation of the mixed anatase and rutile crystal forms coated with an organosilane. These particles also degraded methylene blue at a similar rate to Degussa P25, a standard uncoated titanium dioxide powder and produced an increase in UVA induced apoptosis of human keratinocytes. Double Stranded Breaks were observed extensively in cells exposed to UVA irradiated mixed anatase and rutile titanium dioxide with organosilane. A new apoptotic-like cell death mechanism may have been recognised during the UVA irradiation of animal and human cells in the presence of titanium dioxide. This research concludes that mixed anatase and rutile crystal forms of titanium dioxide coated with organosilane or dimethicone may not be safe to use in sunscreen lotions. A less harmful alternative for sunscreen formulations is the manganese doped rutile particles or the alumina coated rutile powders, both of which exhibited a protective effect on cultured epithelial cells.

  7. Bacterial production of sunscreen pigments increase arid land soil surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couradeau, Estelle; Karaoz, Ulas; Lim, HsiaoChien; Nunes da Rocha, Ulisses; Northern, Trent; Brodie, Eoin; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2015-04-01

    Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs) are desert top soils formations built by complex microbial communities and dominated by the filamentous cyanobacterium Microcoleus sp. BSCs cover extensive desert areas where they correspond to millimeters size mantles responsible of soil stability and fertility. Despite their ecological importance, little is known about how these communities will endure climate change. It has been shown in North America that different species of Microcoleus showed distinct temperature preferences and that their continental biogeography may be susceptible to small changes in temperature with unknown consequences for the ecosystem function. Using a combination of physical, biochemical and microbiological analyses to characterize a successional gradient of crust maturity from light to dark BSCs (Moab, Utah) we found that the concentration of scytonemin (a cyanobacterial sunscreen pigment) increased with crust maturity. We also confirmed that scytonemin was by far the major pigment responsible of light absorption in the visible spectrum in BSCs, and is then responsible of the darkening of the BSCs (i.e decrease of albedo) with maturity. We measured the surface temperature and albedo and found, as predicted, a negative linear relationship between these two parameters. The decrease in albedo across the gradient of crust maturity corresponded to an increase in surface temperature up to 10° C. Upon investigation of microbial community composition using SSU rRNA gene analysis, we demonstrate that warmer crust surface temperatures (decreased albedo) are associated with a replacement of the dominant cyanobacterium; the thermosensitive Microcoleus sp. being replaced by a thermotolerant Microcoleus sp. in darker BSCs. This study supports at the local scale a finding previously made at the continental scale, but also sheds light on the importance of scytonemin as a significant warmer of soils with important consequences for BSC composition and function. Based on

  8. Consensus Modeling for Prediction of Estrogenic Activity of Ingredients Commonly Used in Sunscreen Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixiao Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreen products are predominantly regulated as over-the-counter (OTC drugs by the US FDA. The “active” ingredients function as ultraviolet filters. Once a sunscreen product is generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE via an OTC drug review process, new formulations using these ingredients do not require FDA review and approval, however, the majority of ingredients have never been tested to uncover any potential endocrine activity and their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER is unknown, despite the fact that this is a very extensively studied target related to endocrine activity. Consequently, we have developed an in silico model to prioritize single ingredient estrogen receptor activity for use when actual animal data are inadequate, equivocal, or absent. It relies on consensus modeling to qualitatively and quantitatively predict ER binding activity. As proof of concept, the model was applied to ingredients commonly used in sunscreen products worldwide and a few reference chemicals. Of the 32 chemicals with unknown ER binding activity that were evaluated, seven were predicted to be active estrogenic compounds. Five of the seven were confirmed by the published data. Further experimental data is needed to confirm the other two predictions.

  9. The New Sunscreens among Formulation Strategy, Stability Issues, Changing Norms, Safety and Efficacy Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lionetti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The sun-and-skin interactions have controversial sides. Besides important beneficial effects, we need to take into consideration also some serious harmful results. In particular, these are connected to the portion of the solar spectrum traditionally identified as ultraviolet type A and B. The topical application of sunscreens (and the avoidance of extreme exposure to sun rays is worldwide recognized as the best strategy to avoid sunburn and oedema. Moreover, such strategy can efficiently prevent the onset of skin cancer. Therefore, the first aim of sunscreen products is to efficiently minimize all damage of sun exposure, while, at the same time, keeping good skin tolerability, avoiding safety problems and developing pleasant sensorial properties. Sunscreens, i.e., substances able to reflect and/or absorb, at a partial or complete extent, UV radiation are the key actors in skin protection. They are used to implement the level of primary photoprotection against UV rays. This means that when they absorb the radiation energy, their molecules pass to an excited state and successively re-emit energy in other forms (vibrational, rotational, infrared radiation to come back to the ground state.

  10. Photobiology, photodermatology and sunscreens: a comprehensive overview. Part 2: topical and systemic photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celleno, L; Calzavara-Pinton, P; Sala, R; Arisi, M C; Bussoletti, C

    2013-02-01

    Sun exposure of the skin triggers several inflammatory pathways via a multitude of photochemical and photobiological effects. Furthermore, local and systemic immune suppression develops. The main clinical effects of UV exposure can be classified schematically into immediate, including sunburn, tanning, vitamin D production and exacerbation of inherited and acquired photosensitive skin disorders and long-term, including solar ageing and skin cancer. The protection against solar radiation is afforded by a healthy behavior of reasonable sun avoidance and the use of topical sunscreens as well as topical and oral antioxidants. However, users of sunscreen products should be able to choose correctly the most convenient product according to their needs. In Europe, the sun protection factor (SPF) and the UVA-protection factor (UVA-PF) are labeled to indicate the degree of protection against UVB and UVA, respectively. However, dermatologists must be aware that the present knowledge of UV effects on human skin needs to be clarified and several regulatory issues of photo-protection remain to be clarified and standardized. Finally, much work is needed to improve water resistance, spreadability, transparency and homogeneity of the sunscreen agents.

  11. Examination of solar simulators used for the determination of sunscreen UVA efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Robert M; Dowdy, John C

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. FDA recently proposed both in vivo and in vitro UVA efficacy tests for sunscreen products with the lower result used to establish the sunscreen's labeled UVA protection claim. The FDA stated their rationale for dual tests was concern that the in vivo test method overemphasizes UVA-2 (320-340 nm) photoprotection. We attribute FDA's observation to the relative lack, compared to sunlight, of UVA-1 (340-400 nm) radiation in the current JCIA UVA solar simulator specification, allowing the method to generate higher UVA protection factors than sunscreens will provide in sunlight. Our work is based upon comparisons of Air Mass 1.0 sunlight to variously filtered UVA solar simulators. Sources near the JCIA UVA-2/UVA limits (8-20%) had a goodness of fit to solar UVA of only 67-79%. We propose that instead of using ratios of UVA-2 to UVA the standard should be a goodness of fit to the UVA region of an Air Mass 1 solar reference spectrum. As the spectral distribution of solar UVA varies much less than UVB, sunlight of reasonable zenith angles of < or = 60 degrees will have similar spectral shapes and approximate risk spectrum. Goodness of fit to this spectrum will produce UVA protection values predictive to those actually achieved in sunlight of different zenith angles.

  12. Development of hydroxyapatite-chitosan gel sunscreen combating clinical multidrug-resistant bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Reda; Ali, Sameh S.; El-Shetehy, Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    The several harmful effects on infected human skin resulting from exposure to the sun's UV radiation generate an interest in the development of a multifunctional hydroxyapatite-chitosan (HAp-chitosan) gel that works as an antibacterial sunscreen agent for skin care. In this work, HAp-chitosan gel was synthesized via coprecipitation method by dissolving chitosan in phosphoric acid and adding HAp. The characteristics of HAp-chitosan composite were investigated by conventional techniques, such as XRD, FTIR, and SEM techniques, while its sunscreen property was investigated by UV-spectroscopy. In addition to the influence of the gel on bacterial cell morphology, the antibacterial activity of HAp-chitosan gel against clinical multidrug resistant skin pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been studied. The results revealed the formation of HAp-chitosan gel having nanosized particles, which confers protection against UV-radiation. The antibacterial activity records showed that chitosan-HAp gel exhibits a significant effect on the growth and ultrastructure of multi-drug resistant bacterial activities. Therefore, the chitosan-HAp gel is promising for skin health care as an antibacterial sunscreen.

  13. New combination of ultraviolet absorbers in an oily emollient increases sunscreen efficacy and photostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'alloret, Florence; Candau, Didier; Seité, Sophie; Pygmalion, Marie-Jocelyne; Ruiz, Laetitia; Josso, Martin; Meaudre, Hélène; Gauchet, Lydie; Pena, Ana-Maria; Colonna, Anne

    2012-12-01

    It is now recognized that to adequately protect skin from sun damage, sunscreens require a photostable combination of ultraviolet (UV) filters with a suitable level of UVA protection. The total amount of UV filters should be as low as possible to avoid adverse skin reactions, potential environmental impact, and to ensure acceptable texture for better application and usage. A synergistic combination of UV filters was selected to obtain a high sun protection factor (SPF) and UVA protection factor (UVA-PF). An oily vehicle was then added to the formula to improve the solubility and the photostability of the lipophilic UV filters. The combination of filters, i.e., terephthalylidene dicamphor sulfonic acid (TDSA), bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazin (BEMT), and butyl methoxy dibenzoyl methane (BMDM), obtained an elevated SPF as well as a high UVA-PF. Isopropyl lauroyl sarcosinate (ILS), a derivative of a natural amino acid (sarcosine, also known as N-methylglycine) was introduced in this formulation in order to dissolve the oil-soluble UV absorbers and to photostabilize BMDM. The new sunscreen formulation obtained with this combination is photostable and contains a reduced amount of UV filters compared to other sunscreens with the same level of efficacy. This report described the steps resulting in the formulation of a new combination of UV filters in an oily emollient, which presents a high UVA-PF (UVA-PF = 38) and a SPF 50+, is photostable, and offers good protection against UV-induced biological damage.

  14. Photostabilization of sunscreens by incorporation of tea as the external phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Pereira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of isolated ultraviolet (UV filters in photoprotective formulations creates products with limited protection against radiation, emphasising the need to develop formulations containing UVA and UVB filter combinations. However, most of the formulations developed to include both filters are unstable as a result of this combination, as well as by exposure to UV radiation. It is, therefore, crucial to include additives that enable photostabilization. Tea is the second most widely consumed beverage in the world and represents a good source of bioactive compounds, particularly polyphenols, which provide antioxidant activity. In the present work formulations containing green tea or black tea, as well as the sunscreens avobenzone (UVA sunscreen and octilmetoxinamato (UVB sunscreen, were developed and evaluated in order to develop new and effective photostable formulations providing broad spectrum photoprotection. These formulations have been developed with complete replacement of the external phase of the oil in water (O/W emulsion by these teas. The results showed that both teas presented photostabilizing capacity, particularly for green tea in the storage conditions at room temperature and at 5 °C, and black tea for the samples stored at 40 °C.

  15. Neurotoxic effect of active ingredients in sunscreen products, a contemporary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszkiewicz, Joanna A; Pinkas, Adi; Ferrer, Beatriz; Peres, Tanara V; Tsatsakis, Aristides; Aschner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Sunscreen application is the main strategy used to prevent the maladies inflicted by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Despite the continuously increasing frequency of sunscreen use worldwide, the prevalence of certain sun exposure-related pathologies, mainly malignant melanoma, is also on the rise. In the past century, a variety of protective agents against UV exposure have been developed. Physical filters scatter and reflect UV rays and chemical filters absorb those rays. Alongside the evidence for increasing levels of these agents in the environment, which leads to indirect exposure of wildlife and humans, recent studies suggest a toxicological nature for some of these agents. Reviews on the role of these agents in developmental and endocrine impairments (both pathology and related mechanisms) are based on both animal and human studies, yet information regarding the potential neurotoxicity of these agents is scant. In this review, data regarding the neurotoxicity of several organic filters: octyl methoxycinnamate, benzophenone-3 and -4, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 3-benzylidene camphor and octocrylene, and two allowed inorganic filters: zinc oxide and titanium dioxide, is presented and discussed. Taken together, this review advocates revisiting the current safety and regulation of specific sunscreens and investing in alternative UV protection technologies.

  16. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  17. UV imaging reveals facial areas that are prone to skin cancer are disproportionately missed during sunscreen application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troughton, Lee D.; Czanner, Gabriela; Zheng, Yalin; McCormick, Austin G.

    2017-01-01

    Application of sunscreen is a widely used mechanism for protecting skin from the harmful effects of UV light. However, protection can only be achieved through effective application, and areas that are routinely missed are likely at increased risk of UV damage. Here we sought to determine if specific areas of the face are missed during routine sunscreen application, and whether provision of public health information is sufficient to improve coverage. To investigate this, 57 participants were imaged with a UV sensitive camera before and after sunscreen application: first visit; minimal pre-instruction, second visit; provided with a public health information statement. Images were scored using a custom automated image analysis process designed to identify areas of high UV reflectance, i.e. missed during sunscreen application, and analysed for 5% significance. Analyses revealed eyelid and periorbital regions to be disproportionately missed during routine sunscreen application (median 14% missed in eyelid region vs 7% in rest of face, pprotection should be widely promoted such as UV blocking sunglasses. PMID:28968413

  18. UVA-activated synthesis of metalloproteinases 1, 3 and 9 is prevented by a broad-spectrum sunscreen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Christine; Bogdanowicz, Patrick; Haure, Marie-José; Castex-Rizzi, Nathalie; Fournié, Jean-Jacques; Laurent, Guy

    2011-12-01

    Specific sunscreens against ultraviolet (UV) A and B radiations are essential to prevent matrix degradation and the activation of intracellular signaling pathways involved in photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Matrix degradation results from UVA-induced production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and activation of intracellular pathways in fibroblasts and keratinocytes. In particular, in keratinocytes, UVA radiation induces β-catenin nuclear translocation and stimulates MMP gene transcription. Our study was aimed at assessing the efficacy of a specific broad-spectrum sunscreen in preventing β-catenin translocation and MMPs enhanced expression in cultured keratinocytes after UVA irradiation. Sunscreen or the vehicle was spread on quartz sheet. Irradiation of HaCaT cells with 6 J/cm(2) UVA was performed through the sheet, and cells were collected for β-catenin immunostaining then visualization by confocal microscopy, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of MMP-1, -3 and -9 gene expression. As shown by immunostaining and confocal microscopy, the sunscreen abrogated UVA-induced beta-catenin translocation to the nucleus, in comparison with control groups. MMP-1, -3 and -9 mRNA expression was enhanced by 7, 7 and 4 folds (P cells compared to the non-irradiated control. Sunscreen protection of the cells significantly reduced UVA-induced expression of MMP-1, -3 and -9 by 83% (P protect HaCaT keratinocytes from UVA-induced β-catenin translocation to the nucleus and MMPs expression. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Profile consistency on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.M.; Goldston, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Electron heat transport on TFTR and other tokamaks is several orders of magnitude larger than neoclassical calculations predict. Despite considerable effort, there is still no clear theoretical understanding of this anomalous transport. The electron temperature profile, T e (r), has shown a marked consistency on many machines for a wide range of plasma parameters and heating profiles. This could be an important clue as to the process responsible for this enhanced thermal transport. In the first section of the paper the result is presented that TFTR electron temperature profile shapes are even more constrained than previous models of profile consistency suggested. The profile shapes, T e (r)/T e (a/2), are found to be invariant (for r>0.4 a) for a wide range of parameters, including q(a). In the second section, an experiment is discussed which uses a fast current ramp to transiently decouple the current density profile, J(r), and the T e (r) profiles. From this experiment, it has been determined that the J(r) profile can be strongly modified with no measureable effect on the electron temperature profile shape. Thus, while the electron temperature profile is apparently constrained, the current profile is not. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 25 refs, 9 figs

  20. A method to assess the protective efficacy of sunscreens against visible light-induced pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duteil, Luc; Esdaile, Jane; Maubert, Yves; Cathelineau, Anne-Claire; Bouloc, Anne; Queille-Roussel, Catherine; Passeron, Thierry

    2017-09-01

    Until now, photoprotection of human skin has involved the development of sunscreens effective in the ultraviolet (UV) domain. During the last ten years, several studies have shown that besides the well-known damaging effects of UV, visible (400-700 nm) and even infrared light (> 700 nm) can induce damage which contributes to photoaging. Furthermore, many photodermatoses are also known to be triggered by visible light (VL). An in vivo method is proposed to assess the protective efficacy of sunscreens in the VL domain. This method is based on the intensity of pigmentation induced by four repeated daily doses of VL, each equivalent to about one hour of midday sun. Exposures are performed using a solar simulator (xenon lamp) equipped with appropriate filters, and pigmentation is measured both clinically and by chromametry. Three commercially available sunscreens designed to protect in the visible range were evaluated. The results indicate that the VL-induced pigmentation was already significantly detectable visually and by chromametry 24 hours after the first exposure on the unprotected zone. Two products with moderate protective activity could be differentiated from the untreated zone from Day 3 to Day 5 and were also significantly less effective than a third tested product within the same study period. The method is simple, based on a clinical end point of VL-induced skin pigmentation, and can be performed within a 5-day period. It allows discrimination between products of different protective capacities. VL protection factor is also discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. In vitro skin permeation of sunscreen agents from O/W emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, L; Carbone, C; Paolino, D; Drago, R; Stancampiano, A H; Puglisi, G

    2008-02-01

    The effects of different emulsifiers on the in vitro permeation through human skin of two sunscreen agents [octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane (BMBM)] were investigated from O/W emulsions. The test formulations were prepared using the same oil and aqueous phase ingredients and the following emulsifier and coemulsifier systems: Emulgade SE((R)) (ceteareth-12 and ceteareth-20 and cetearyl alcohol and cetyl palmitate) and glycerylmonostearate (emulsion 1); Brij 72((R)) (steareth-2), Brij 721((R)) (steareth-21) and cetearyl alcohol (emulsion 2); Phytocream((R)) (potassium palmitoyl-hydrolysed wheat protein and glyceryl stearate and cetearyl alcohol) and glycerylmonostearate (emulsion 3); Montanov 68((R)) (cetearyl glucoside and cetearyl alcohol) (emulsion 4); Xalifin-15((R)) (C(15-20) acid PEG-8 ester) and cetearyl alcohol (emulsion 5). The cumulative amount of OMC that permeated in vitro through human skin after 22 h from the formulations being tested decreased in the order 3 > 1 congruent with 4 > 5 > 2 and was about nine-fold higher from emulsion 3 compared with that from emulsion 2. As regards BMBM, no significant difference was observed as regards its skin permeation from emulsions 1, 3, 4 and 5, whereas formulation 2 allowed significantly lower amounts of BMBM to permeate the skin. In vitro release experiments of OMC and BMBM from emulsions 1-6 through cellulose acetate membranes showed that only emulsions 4 and 5 provided pseudo-first-order release rates only for OMC. The results of this study suggest that the type of emulsifying systems used to prepare an O/W emulsion may strongly affect sunscreen skin permeation from these formulations. Therefore, the vehicle effects should be carefully considered in the formulation of sunscreen products.

  2. Self-reported sunscreen use and urinary benzophenone-3 concentrations in the United States: NHANES 2003–2006 and 2009–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamoiski, Rachel D.; Cahoon, Elizabeth K.; Michal Freedman, D.; Linet, Martha S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sunscreens protect against skin cancer and other harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Epidemiologic and public health surveys often rely on self-reported sunscreen use to estimate sun exposure and avoidance, but questions remain about the validity of self-reports. Benzophenone-3 (BP-3), a common sunscreen ingredient, can be detected in the urine. Prior studies suggest that BP-3 concentrations increase after application of sunscreen. Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the validity of self-reported frequency of sunscreen use in relation to urinary BP-3 concentrations in a representative sample of the general US population, including in sub-groups defined by age, sex and race/ethnicity. Methods: To assess the relationship between categorical self-reported sunscreen use and creatinine-corrected urinary BP-3 concentrations, we conducted a linear regression adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, six-month time period, body mass index, education, and sun avoidance behaviors. We tested for effect modification by age, sex, ethnicity and time period of measurement using multiplicative interaction terms and a F test. Results: BP-3 was positively associated with self-reported frequency of sunscreen use across all ages, sexes, race/ethnicities, and time periods. Crude and multivariate adjusted models were all statistically significant. R-square was relatively low for all models, ranging from 0.15 to 0.43. Conclusions: Urinary BP-3 is positively associated with self-reported frequency of sunscreen use in the general US population, even in groups with overall low sunscreen use. These results suggest that self-report is a valid, although weak, way of assessing relative frequencies of sunscreen usage in a population-based study. - Highlights: • Urinary benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is a metabolite of a common sunscreen ingredient. • We modeled urinary BP-3 against self-reported sunscreen usage. • We observed a positive association between

  3. One-to-one comparison of sunscreen efficacy, aesthetics and potential nanotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Amanda S.

    2010-04-01

    Numerous reports have described the superior properties of nanoparticles and their diverse range of applications. Issues of toxicity, workplace safety and environmental impact have also been a concern. Here we show a theoretical comparison of how the size of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and their concentration in sunscreens can affect efficacy, aesthetics and potential toxicity from free radical production. The simulation results reveal that, unless very small nanoparticles can be shown to be safe, there is no combination of particle size and concentration that will deliver optimal performance in terms of sun protection and aesthetics. Such a theoretical method complements well the experimental approach for identifying these characteristics.

  4. Development and photoprotective effect of a sunscreen containing the antioxidants Spirulina and dimethylmethoxy chromanol on sun-induced skin damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carla; Campos, Patrícia M B G Maia

    2017-06-15

    The literature claims that incorporation of antioxidants into sunscreens provides additional skin photoprotection by scavenging free radicals formed due to sun radiation, but there are limited in vivo studies that support this hypothesis. This study aims to examine whether addition of antioxidants to a broad-spectrum sunscreen increases its photoprotective effect in real-use conditions. Sunscreen formulations composed of stable UV filters (Tinosorb® S, Tinosorb® M, Uvinul® APlus, and Uvinul® T150) alone or in combination with antioxidants (Spirulina and dimethylmethoxy chromanol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles) were developed and their appearance, odor, rheological behavior, Sun Protection Factor (SPF), and UVA protection were analyzed. Next, it was conducted a 3-month, single-blind clinical study with 44 healthy subjects (30-50years). Before and 28, 54, and 84days after twice-daily self application of the sunscreens on the face, the stratum corneum water content, transepidermal water loss, dermis echogenicity, and skin elasticity and pigmentation were measured. At the end of the study period, the volunteers answered a questionnaire containing terms related to sensory characteristics of the formulations. All formulations were stable and exhibited non-Newtonian and pseudoplastic behavior, in vivo SPF 30, and good UVA protection. Antioxidant supplementation to the sunscreen formulation significantly improved the skin pigmentation, the collagen degradation on the dermis and thereby the skin net elasticity after 84days of treatment compared to the sunscreen alone. Concerning safety, all formulations were considered non-irritant according to the sensorial analyses, whose results agreed with the clinical study findings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Determination of three ultraviolet filters in sunscreen formulations and from skin penetration studies by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maria Pinto Vilela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical procedure to quantify 3-benzophenone, octylmethoxycinnamate and octylsalicylate was validated and employed to assess these ultraviolet filters in sunscreen formulations and from skin penetration studies. The effect of the vehicle on the skin retention of these filters was investigated. HPLC and extraction procedure were found to be reliable when obtaining data for the sunscreen formulations and for evaluation skin penetration. The results demonstrated that a cream gel generated higher epidermal concentrations of these filters than a lotion or cream-based formulation. Additionally, when comparing the skin retentions of each filter using the same formulation, 3-benzophenone showed the highest skin retention.

  6. Sunscreens in human plasma and urine after repeated whole-body topical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, N.R.; Kongshoj, B.; Andersson, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background The three chemical ultraviolet absorbers benzophenone-3 (BP-3), octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC) and 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC) are commercially used in sunscreens worldwide. Apart from sun protection, they may possess endocrine-disrupting effects in animals and in vitro...... the first application, all three sunscreens were detectable in plasma. The maximum median plasma concentrations were 187 ng/mL BP-3, 16 ng/mL 4-MBC and 7 ng/mL OMC for females and 238 ng/mL BP-3, 18 ng/mL 4-MBC and 16 ng/mL OMC for men. In the females, urine levels of 44 ng/mL BP-3 and 4 ng/mL of 4-MBC...... and 6 ng/mL OMC were found, and in the males, urine levels of 81 ng/mL BP-3, 4 ng/mL of 4-MBC and OMC were found. In plasma, the 96-h median concentrations were higher compared with the 24-h concentrations for 4-MBC and OMC in men and for BP-3 and 4-MBC in females Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  7. Reactive oxygen species produced upon photoexcitation of sunscreens containing titanium dioxide (an EPR study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezová, Vlasta; Gabcová, Sona; Dvoranová, Dana; Stasko, Andrej

    2005-05-13

    Commercial sunscreen products containing titanium dioxide were irradiated with lambda>300 nm and the formation of oxygen- (.OH, O2.-/.OOH) and carbon-centered radicals was monitored by EPR spectroscopy and spin trapping technique using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide, alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN), alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin traps, and free nitroxide radical 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine N-oxyl. The photoinduced production of singlet oxygen was shown by 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-piperidine. The generation of reactive oxygen radical species upon irradiation of sunscreens significantly depends on their composition, as the additives present (antioxidants, radical-scavengers, solvents) can transform the reactive radicals formed to less harmful products. The continuous in situ irradiation of titanium dioxide powder, recommended for cosmetic application, investigated in different solvents (water, dimethyl sulfoxide, isopropyl myristate) resulted in the generation of oxygen-centered reactive radical species (superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl and alkoxyl radicals).

  8. Sunscreens: topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against harmful effects of solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    This review deals with topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against the harmful effects of solar radiation. Two concerns about the deleterious effects of sun exposure involve: (1) acute effects (e.g., sunburn and drug-induced phototoxicity) and (2) potential long-term risks of repeated sun exposures leading to development of solar elastosis, keratoses, induction of both nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer, and alteration of immune responses and functions. Action spectra of normal and abnormal reactions of human skin to acute and chronic effects of solar radiation are presented with a view to helping the physician prescribe the appropriate sunscreens. Factors that influence acute effects of sunburn are reviewed. Various artificial methods effective in minimizing or preventing harmful effects of solar radiation, both in normal individuals and in patients with photosensitivity-related problems, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the commercially available chemical sunscreens and their properties. Sun protection factor (SPF) values of several brand-name formulations determined with a solar simulator under indoor conditions (laboratory) and with solar radiation under natural, field conditions are presented. Factors responsible for variations of SPF values observed under indoor and outdoor conditions are reviewed. Systemic photoprotective agents and their limitations are outlined. The photobiology of melanin pigmentation (the tanning reaction) is briefly discussed, with emphasis on the dangers of using quick-tanning lotions for stimulation of the tanning reaction

  9. In vitro photoprotective effects of Marcetia taxifolia ethanolic extract and its potential for sunscreen formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia C.C. Costa

    Full Text Available AbstractThe species Marcetia taxifolia (A. St.-Hil. DC., Melastomataceae, which is endemic of the rupestrian fields of northeastern Brazil, contains a significant amount of flavonoids. In this work, the potential of the ethanolic extract of M. taxifolia as the active principle in a sunscreen photoprotection (UV-A and UV-B formulation was investigated. The Liquid Chromatography High Performance-Diode Array Detector quantification (quercetin, total flavonoid content, antioxidant activity through 2.2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazil method, photoprotective activity against UV-B and UV-A radiation in vitro (spectrophotometric method and potential for eye irritation using the methodology of the hen egg test-chorioallantoic membrane were performed in the extract. After that, the formulations were prepared using different concentrations of active ethanolic extract (5, 10, 20 and 30% and the evaluation of the sun protection factor was carried out using the same methodology used for the crude extract. The crude extract showed UV-A photoprotection and low eye irritation in the hen egg test-chorioallantoic membrane test. All formulations containing M. taxifolia extract had ≥ 6 sun protection factor. Its shows the possibility to use this extracts as a sunscreen in pharmaceutical preparations.

  10. Stability Study of Sunscreens with Free and Encapsulated UV Filters Contained in Plastic Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briasco, Benedetta; Capra, Priscilla; Mannucci, Barbara; Perugini, Paola

    2017-05-31

    Sunscreens play a fundamental role in skin cancer prevention and in protection against photo-aging. UV filters are often photo-unstable, especially in relation to their vehicles and, being lipophilic substances, they are able to interact with plastic packaging. Finally, UV filter stability can be significantly affected by the routine use of the product at high temperatures. This work aims to study the stability of sunscreen formulations in polyethylene packaging. Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and octocrylene, both in a free form and as encapsulated filters were chosen as UV filters. Stability evaluations were performed both in the packaging and on the formulations. Moreover, a further two non-destructive techniques, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and a multiple light scattering technique, were also used to evaluate the stability of the formulation. Results demonstrated clearly that all of the pack underwent significant changes in its elastic/plastic behavior and in external color after solar irradiation. From the evaluation of the extractable profile of untreated and treated packaging material an absorption of 2-phenoxyethanol and octocrylene were shown. In conclusion, the results highlighted clearly that a reduction of the UV filter in the formulation packed in high-density polyethylene/low-density polyethylene (HDPE/LDPE) material can occur over time, reducing the protective effect of the product when applied to the skin.

  11. Stability Study of Sunscreens with Free and Encapsulated UV Filters Contained in Plastic Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Briasco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreens play a fundamental role in skin cancer prevention and in protection against photo-aging. UV filters are often photo-unstable, especially in relation to their vehicles and, being lipophilic substances, they are able to interact with plastic packaging. Finally, UV filter stability can be significantly affected by the routine use of the product at high temperatures. This work aims to study the stability of sunscreen formulations in polyethylene packaging. Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and octocrylene, both in a free form and as encapsulated filters were chosen as UV filters. Stability evaluations were performed both in the packaging and on the formulations. Moreover, a further two non-destructive techniques, near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy and a multiple light scattering technique, were also used to evaluate the stability of the formulation. Results demonstrated clearly that all of the pack underwent significant changes in its elastic/plastic behavior and in external color after solar irradiation. From the evaluation of the extractable profile of untreated and treated packaging material an absorption of 2-phenoxyethanol and octocrylene were shown. In conclusion, the results highlighted clearly that a reduction of the UV filter in the formulation packed in high-density polyethylene/low-density polyethylene (HDPE/LDPE material can occur over time, reducing the protective effect of the product when applied to the skin.

  12. Photodamage to human skin by suberythemal exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation can be attenuated by sunscreens: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seité, S; Fourtanier, A; Moyal, D; Young, A R

    2010-11-01

    The effects of acute or repeated suberythemal solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure on human skin have been insufficiently investigated. Such exposure almost certainly has important long-term consequences that include skin ageing and skin cancer. This review summarizes the published data on the biological effects of suberythemal exposure using a wide range of clinical, cellular and molecular endpoints, some of which may be considered as biomarkers for skin cancer and photoageing. We also include some recent unpublished results from our laboratories. The effects of UVA (320-400 nm), UVB (290-320 nm) and total solar UVR (290-400 nm) are compared. We demonstrate that avoiding sunburn does not prevent many indicators of cutaneous biological damage and that use of low sun protection factor (SPF) sunscreen can inhibit much of the damages induced by suberythemal exposure to UVR. However, even when applied correctly, sunscreen use will result in suberythemal exposure. The degree and spectral quality of such exposure will depend on the SPF and absorption spectrum of the sunscreen, but nonetheless it may contribute to cumulative photodamage. This review may help to determine the level of photoprotection required in sunscreens and daily use products, as well as the ideal ratio of UVB/UVA protection, to improve long-term photoprotection outcomes. © 2010 The Authors. BJD © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Frontal fibrosing alopecia: possible association with leave-on facial skin care products and sunscreens; a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldoori, N; Dobson, K; Holden, C R; McDonagh, A J; Harries, M; Messenger, A G

    2016-10-01

    Since its first description in 1994, frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) has become increasingly common, suggesting that environmental factors are involved in the aetiology. To identify possible causative environmental factors in FFA. A questionnaire enquiring about exposure to a wide range of lifestyle, social and medical factors was completed by 105 women with FFA and 100 age- and sex-matched control subjects. A subcohort of women with FFA was patch tested to an extended British standard series of allergens. The use of sunscreens was significantly greater in the FFA group compared with controls. Subjects with FFA also showed a trend towards more frequent use of facial moisturizers and foundations but, compared with controls, the difference in frequencies just failed to reach statistical significance. The frequency of hair shampooing, oral contraceptive use, hair colouring and facial hair removal were significantly lower in the FFA group than in controls. Thyroid disease was more common in subjects with FFA than controls and there was a high frequency of positive patch tests in women with FFA, mainly to fragrances. Our findings suggest an association between FFA and the use of facial skin care products. The high frequency of sunscreen use in patients with FFA, and the fact that many facial skin care products now contain sunscreens, raises the possibility of a causative role for sunscreen chemicals. The high frequency of positive patch tests in women with FFA and the association with thyroid disease may indicate a predisposition to immune-mediated disease. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. In Vitro Evaluation of Sunscreen Safety: Effects of the Vehicle and Repeated Applications on Skin Permeation from Topical Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Montenegro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of UV-filter in vitro percutaneous absorption allows the estimation of the systemic exposure dose (SED and the margin of safety (MoS of sunscreen products. As both the vehicle and pattern of application may affect sunscreen safety and efficacy, we evaluated in vitro release and skin permeation of two widely used UV-filters, octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC and butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane (BMBM from topical formulations with different features (oil in water (O/W emulsions with different viscosity, water in oil (W/O emulsion, oils with different lipophilicity. To mimic in-use conditions, we carried out experiments repeating sunscreen application on the skin surface for three consecutive days. BMBM release from all these vehicles was very low, thus leading to poor skin permeation. The vehicle composition significantly affected OMC release and skin permeation, and slight increases of OMC permeation were observed after repeated applications. From skin permeation data, SED and MoS values of BMBM and OMC were calculated for all the investigated formulations after a single application and repeated applications. While MoS values of BMBM were always well beyond the accepted safety limit, the safety of sunscreen formulations containing OMC may depend on the vehicle composition and the application pattern.

  15. 76 FR 56682 - Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Request for Data and Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ...-ZA40 Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Request for Data and Information Regarding... notice of proposed rulemaking; request for data and information; extension of comment period. SUMMARY... proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) that published on June 17, 2011. The ANPRM is requesting data and information...

  16. Simultaneous separation and determination of 15 organic UV filters in sunscreen cosmetics by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X; Ma, Q; Bai, H; Wang, Z; Han, C; Wang, C

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive methodology for the simultaneous determination of 15 multiclass organic UV filters in sunscreen cosmetics was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Sunscreen cosmetics of various matrices, such as toning lotion, emulsion, cream and lipstick, were analysed. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was utilized as the extraction technique for sample preparation. The 15 UV filters were chromatographically separated by two groups of mobile phase system on an XBridge C 18 analytical column (150 × 2.1 mm I.D., 3.5 μm particle size) and quantified using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The quantitation was performed using the external calibration method. The established method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, stability, intraday and interday precisions, recovery and matrix effect. The method was also applied for the determination of UV filters in commercial sunscreen cosmetics. The experimental results demonstrated that the developed method was accurate, rapid and sensitive and can be used for the analytical control of sunscreen cosmetics. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. In Vitro Evaluation of Sunscreen Safety: Effects of the Vehicle and Repeated Applications on Skin Permeation from Topical Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Lucia; Turnaturi, Rita; Parenti, Carmela; Pasquinucci, Lorella

    2018-02-27

    The evaluation of UV-filter in vitro percutaneous absorption allows the estimation of the systemic exposure dose (SED) and the margin of safety (MoS) of sunscreen products. As both the vehicle and pattern of application may affect sunscreen safety and efficacy, we evaluated in vitro release and skin permeation of two widely used UV-filters, octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane (BMBM) from topical formulations with different features (oil in water (O/W) emulsions with different viscosity, water in oil (W/O) emulsion, oils with different lipophilicity). To mimic in-use conditions, we carried out experiments repeating sunscreen application on the skin surface for three consecutive days. BMBM release from all these vehicles was very low, thus leading to poor skin permeation. The vehicle composition significantly affected OMC release and skin permeation, and slight increases of OMC permeation were observed after repeated applications. From skin permeation data, SED and MoS values of BMBM and OMC were calculated for all the investigated formulations after a single application and repeated applications. While MoS values of BMBM were always well beyond the accepted safety limit, the safety of sunscreen formulations containing OMC may depend on the vehicle composition and the application pattern.

  18. SYNTHESIS OF 3,4-DIMETHOXY ISOAMYL CINNAMIC AS THE SUNSCREEN COMPOUND FROM CLOVE OIL AND FUSEL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutik Dwi Wahyuningsih

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of sunscreen compound 3,4-dimethoxy isoamyl cinnamic from clove oil and fusel oil has been done. The majoring component of clove oil that is eugenol has been isolated, followed with several chemical processes i.e. isomerization into isoeugenol, oxidation of the product to change into vanillin, then modification vanillin into veratraldehyde. From the fusel oil, we isolate isoamyl alcohol and modified by acetylation into isoamyl acetic. The final product could be produce by Claissen's condensation of isoamyl acetic and veratraldehyde to give 3,4-dimethoxy isoamyl cinnamic. All of the processes are followed with structure characterization using GC, IR, GC-MS and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The result shown that compound has 46.98% purity and potent as the UV-B sunscreen's type (lmax = 313 nm. In-vitro sunscreen's activity of the compound was tested by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and resulting a maximum Sun Protection Factor value (SPFin-vitro at low concentration, 10.25 mg/mL.   Keywords: UV absorber, sunscreen, clove oil, cinnamic esther.

  19. 77 FR 27591 - Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Delay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Delay of Compliance Dates AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; delay of compliance dates; request for comments... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 201 and 310...

  20. 76 FR 38975 - Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 201 [Docket No. FDA-1978-N-0018] (formerly Docket No. 1978N-0038) RIN 0910-AF43 Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use Correction In rule document 2011-14766 appearing on...

  1. Ultraviolet spectral energy differences affect the ability of sunscreen lotions to prevent ultraviolet-radiation-induced immunosuppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, L.K.; Beasley, D.G.; Learn, D.B.; Giddens, L.D.; Beard, J.; Stanfield, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Acute exposure to UV radiation causes immunosuppression of contact hypersensitivity (CH) responses. Past studies conducted with unfiltered sunlamps emitting non-solar spectrum UV power (wavelengths below 295 nm) or using excessive UV doses have suggested sunscreens may not prevent UV-induced immunosuppression in mice. This study was thus designed to evaluate critically the effects of different UV energy spectra on the immune protection capacity of sunscreen lotions. Minimum immune suppression doses (MISD), i.e. the lowest UV dose to cause ∼ 50% suppression of the CH response to dinitrofluorobenzene in C3H mice, were established for three artificial UV sources. The MISD for each UV source was 0.25 kJ/m 2 for unfiltered FS20 sunlamps (FS), 0.90 kJ/m 2 for Kodacel-filtered FS20 sunlamps (KFS), which do not emit UV power at wavelengths 2 for a 1000 W filtered xenon arc lamp solar simulator. Using MISD as baseline, sunscreens with labeled sun protection factors (SPF) of 2, 8, 15 and 30 were tested with each UV source to establish their relative immune protection factors. The immune protection factor of each sunscreen exceeded its labeled SPF in tests conducted with the solar simulator, which has a UV power spectrum (295-400 nm) similar to that of sunlight. Conversely, sunscreen immune protection factors were significantly less than the labeled SPF in tests conducted with FS and KFS. Comparison of the immunosuppression effectiveness spectra showed that relatively small amounts of nonsolar spectrum UV energy, i.e. UVC (200-290 nm) and/or shorter wavelength UVB (between 290 and 295 nm), produced by FS and KFS contributes significantly to the induction of immunosuppression. (Author)

  2. Ultraviolet spectral energy differences affect the ability of sunscreen lotions to prevent ultraviolet-radiation-induced immunosuppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, L.K.; Beasley, D.G.; Learn, D.B.; Giddens, L.D. [Schering-Plough Healthcare Products, Memphis, TN (United States). Advanced Product Research; Beard, J.; Stanfield, J.W. [Schering-Plough Healthcare Products, Memphis, TN (United States). Solar Research Labs.

    1996-06-01

    Acute exposure to UV radiation causes immunosuppression of contact hypersensitivity (CH) responses. Past studies conducted with unfiltered sunlamps emitting non-solar spectrum UV power (wavelengths below 295 nm) or using excessive UV doses have suggested sunscreens may not prevent UV-induced immunosuppression in mice. This study was thus designed to evaluate critically the effects of different UV energy spectra on the immune protection capacity of sunscreen lotions. Minimum immune suppression doses (MISD), i.e. the lowest UV dose to cause {approx} 50% suppression of the CH response to dinitrofluorobenzene in C3H mice, were established for three artificial UV sources. The MISD for each UV source was 0.25 kJ/m{sup 2} for unfiltered FS20 sunlamps (FS), 0.90 kJ/m{sup 2} for Kodacel-filtered FS20 sunlamps (KFS), which do not emit UV power at wavelengths <290 nm, and 1.35 kJ/m{sup 2} for a 1000 W filtered xenon arc lamp solar simulator. Using MISD as baseline, sunscreens with labeled sun protection factors (SPF) of 2, 8, 15 and 30 were tested with each UV source to establish their relative immune protection factors. The immune protection factor of each sunscreen exceeded its labeled SPF in tests conducted with the solar simulator, which has a UV power spectrum (295-400 nm) similar to that of sunlight. Conversely, sunscreen immune protection factors were significantly less than the labeled SPF in tests conducted with FS and KFS. Comparison of the immunosuppression effectiveness spectra showed that relatively small amounts of nonsolar spectrum UV energy, i.e. UVC (200-290 nm) and/or shorter wavelength UVB (between 290 and 295 nm), produced by FS and KFS contributes significantly to the induction of immunosuppression. (Author).

  3. Development and evaluation of sunscreen creams containing morin-encapsulated nanoparticles for enhanced UV radiation protection and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Pallavi Krishna; Venuvanka, Venkatesh; Jagani, Hitesh Vitthal; Chethan, Gejjalagere Honnappa; Ligade, Virendra S; Musmade, Prashant B; Nayak, Usha Y; Reddy, Meka Sreenivasa; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Udupa, Nayanabhirama; Rao, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna; Mutalik, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of present work was to develop novel sunscreen creams containing polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) of morin. Polymeric NPs containing morin were prepared and optimized. The creams containing morin NPs were also prepared and evaluated. Optimized NPs exhibited particle size of 90.6 nm and zeta potential of -31 mV. The entrapment efficiency of morin, within the polymeric NPs, was found to be low (12.27%). Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry studies revealed no interaction between morin and excipients. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed that the NPs were spherical in shape with approximately 100 nm diameter. Optimized NPs showed excellent in vitro free radical scavenging activity. Skin permeation and deposition of morin from its NPs was higher than its plain form. Different sunscreen creams (SC1-SC8) were formulated by incorporating morin NPs along with nano zinc oxide and nano titanium dioxide. SC5 and SC8 creams showed excellent sun protection factor values (≈40). In vitro and in vivo skin permeation studies of sunscreen creams containing morin NPs indicated excellent deposition of morin within the skin. Morin NPs and optimized cream formulations (SC5 and SC8) did not exhibit cytotoxicity in Vero and HaCaT cells. Optimized sunscreen creams showed excellent dermal safety. SC5 and SC8 creams demonstrated exceptional in vivo antioxidant effect (estimation of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione) in UV radiation-exposed rats. The optimized sunscreen creams confirmed outstanding UV radiation protection as well as antioxidant properties.

  4. Sunscreens FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States Department of Health & Human Services and the World Health Organization’s International Agency of Research on Cancer have declared ... 120:1116–1122. 7 Global Solar UV Index. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/uv/publications/en/UVIGuide. ...

  5. Consistent model driven architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  6. Bacteria increase arid-land soil surface temperature through the production of sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couradeau, Estelle; Karaoz, Ulas; Lim, Hsiao Chien; Nunes da Rocha, Ulisses; Northen, Trent; Brodie, Eoin; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2016-01-20

    Soil surface temperature, an important driver of terrestrial biogeochemical processes, depends strongly on soil albedo, which can be significantly modified by factors such as plant cover. In sparsely vegetated lands, the soil surface can be colonized by photosynthetic microbes that build biocrust communities. Here we use concurrent physical, biochemical and microbiological analyses to show that mature biocrusts can increase surface soil temperature by as much as 10 °C through the accumulation of large quantities of a secondary metabolite, the microbial sunscreen scytonemin, produced by a group of late-successional cyanobacteria. Scytonemin accumulation decreases soil albedo significantly. Such localized warming has apparent and immediate consequences for the soil microbiome, inducing the replacement of thermosensitive bacterial species with more thermotolerant forms. These results reveal that not only vegetation but also microorganisms are a factor in modifying terrestrial albedo, potentially impacting biosphere feedbacks on past and future climate, and call for a direct assessment of such effects at larger scales.

  7. Consistent force fields for saccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld

    1999-01-01

    Consistent force fields for carbohydrates were hitherto developed by extensive optimization ofpotential energy function parameters on experimental data and on ab initio results. A wide range of experimental data is used: internal structures obtained from gas phase electron diffraction and from x......-anomeric effects are accounted for without addition of specific terms. The work is done in the framework of the Consistent Force Field which originatedin Israel and was further developed in Denmark. The actual methods and strategies employed havebeen described previously. Extensive testing of the force field...

  8. Development and evaluation of sunscreen creams containing morin-encapsulated nanoparticles for enhanced UV radiation protection and antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty PK

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pallavi Krishna Shetty,1 Venkatesh Venuvanka,1 Hitesh Vitthal Jagani,1 Gejjalagere Honnappa Chethan,1 Virendra S Ligade,1 Prashant B Musmade,1 Usha Y Nayak,1 Meka Sreenivasa Reddy,1 Guruprasad Kalthur,2 Nayanabhirama Udupa,1 Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna Rao,1 Srinivas Mutalik1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Division of Clinical Embryology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India Abstract: The objective of present work was to develop novel sunscreen creams containing polymeric nanoparticles (NPs of morin. Polymeric NPs containing morin were prepared and optimized. The creams containing morin NPs were also prepared and evaluated. Optimized NPs exhibited particle size of 90.6 nm and zeta potential of -31 mV. The entrapment efficiency of morin, within the polymeric NPs, was found to be low (12.27%. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry studies revealed no interaction between morin and excipients. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed that the NPs were spherical in shape with approximately 100 nm diameter. Optimized NPs showed excellent in vitro free radical scavenging activity. Skin permeation and deposition of morin from its NPs was higher than its plain form. Different sunscreen creams (SC1–SC8 were formulated by incorporating morin NPs along with nano zinc oxide and nano titanium dioxide. SC5 and SC8 creams showed excellent sun protection factor values (≈40. In vitro and in vivo skin permeation studies of sunscreen creams containing morin NPs indicated excellent deposition of morin within the skin. Morin NPs and optimized cream formulations (SC5 and SC8 did not exhibit cytotoxicity in Vero and HaCaT cells. Optimized sunscreen creams showed excellent dermal safety. SC5 and SC8 creams demonstrated exceptional in vivo antioxidant effect (estimation of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione in

  9. Measuring sunscreen protection against solar-simulated radiation-induced structural radical damage to skin using ESR/spin trapping: development of an ex vivo test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Rachel; Volkov, Arsen; Andrady, Carima; Sayer, Robert

    2012-03-01

    The in vitro star system used for sunscreen UVA-testing is not an absolute measure of skin protection being a ratio of the total integrated UVA/UVB absorption. The in vivo persistent-pigment-darkening method requires human volunteers. We investigated the use of the ESR-detectable DMPO protein radical-adduct in solar-simulator-irradiated skin substitutes for sunscreen testing. Sunscreens SPF rated 20+ with UVA protection, reduced this adduct by 40-65% when applied at 2 mg/cm(2). SPF 15 Organic UVA-UVB (BMDBM-OMC) and TiO(2)-UVB filters and a novel UVA-TiO(2) filter reduced it by 21, 31 and 70% respectively. Conventional broad-spectrum sunscreens do not fully protect against protein radical-damage in skin due to possible visible-light contributions to damage or UVA-filter degradation. Anisotropic spectra of DMPO-trapped oxygen-centred radicals, proposed intermediates of lipid-oxidation, were detected in irradiated sunscreen and DMPO. Sunscreen protection might be improved by the consideration of visible-light protection and the design of filters to minimise radical leakage and lipid-oxidation.

  10. Need for a well-balanced sunscreen to protect human skin from both Ultraviolet A and Ultraviolet B damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Moyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin exposure to sunlight can cause many adverse effects. It is now recognized that both Ultraviolet A (UVA and UVB wavelengths are responsible for the detrimental effects of solar radiation on skin. With our increasing knowledge on the harmful effects of UVA, the need for effective, well-balanced photoprotection has become more crucial. Numerous clinical studies showed that well-balanced sunscreen, with a SPF/UVAPF ratio ≤ 3, provide the most effective protection against pigmentation (especially on dark skin, DNA damage, UV-induced skin immunosuppression and photodermatoses. The calculation of UVA protection required in Asia revealed its particular importance in India, and gives clear evidence that the SPF value alone is not sufficient to evaluate the efficacy of a sunscreen.

  11. Assessment of the photo-degradation of UV-filters and radical-induced peroxidation in cosmetic sunscreen formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Elisabetta; Astolfi, Paola; Giesinger, Jochen; Ehlis, Thomas; Herzog, Bernd; Greci, Lucedio; Baschong, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Photo-instability of common UV-filters is a well documented phenomenon. This study develops a method for concomitant measurement of photostability and photo-induced ROS generation in cosmetic formulations. Oil-in-water formulations containing three common UV filters (OMC, BMDBM, EHT), individually or combined, were further supplemented with phosphatidylcholine and exposed to UVA. All filters show spectral decrease after UVA exposure. OMC and EHT do not induce significant lipid-peroxidation (as measured by TBARS production) while BMDBM does. In the latter case, this is reduced when BMDBM is combined with OMC but not with EHT. Neither OMC nor EHT stabilize BMDBM with respect to loss of absorbance. ROS-generation assessed via TBARS formation was supported by EPR experiments. The UV-induced changes in UV-filter performance, as monitored in the model formulations and in commercial sunscreens, demonstrate that this is a simple and effective method for stability assessment of sunscreen filters under conditions of use.

  12. Quantification of Sunscreen Ethylhexyl Triazone in Topical Skin-Care Products by Normal-Phase TLC/Densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna W. Sobanska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylhexyl triazone (ET was separated from other sunscreens such as avobenzone, octocrylene, octyl methoxycinnamate, and diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate and from parabens by normal-phase HPTLC on silica gel 60 as stationary phase. Two mobile phases were particularly effective: (A cyclohexane-diethyl ether 1 : 1 (v/v and (B cyclohexane-diethyl ether-acetone 15 : 1 : 2 (v/v/v since apart from ET analysis they facilitated separation and quantification of other sunscreens present in the formulations. Densitometric scanning was performed at 300 nm. Calibration curves for ET were nonlinear (second-degree polynomials, with R > 0.998. For both mobile phases limits of detection (LOD were 0.03 and limits of quantification (LOQ 0.1 μg spot−1. Both methods were validated.

  13. Broad-spectrum sunscreens prevent the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in human keratinocytes exposed to ultraviolet A and phototoxic lomefloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, P.; Cybulski, M.; Miller, S.M.; Ferrarotto, C.; Wilkins, R.; Deslauriers, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The combination of phototoxic drugs and ultraviolet (UV) radiation can trigger the release of proinflammatory cytokines. The present study measured the ability of sunscreens to prevent cytokine secretion in human keratinocytes following cotreatment of these cells with a known photoreactive drug and UVA. Keratinocytes were treated for 1 h with increasing concentrations of lomefloxacin (LOM) or norfloxacin (NOR), exposed to 15 J/cm 2 UVA, and incubated for 24 h. NOR, owing to the absence of a fluorine atom in position 8, was non-phototoxic and used as a negative control. Cell viability and the release of 3 cytokines were assessed, namely interleukin-1α (IL-1α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The measurement of these cytokines may be a useful tool for detecting photoreactive compounds. To measure their ability to prevent cytokine secretion, various sunscreens were inserted between the UVA source and the cells. Treatment with NOR, NOR plus UVA, or LOM had no effect on the cells. LOM plus UVA, however, had an effect on cell viability and on cytokine secretion. IL-1α levels increased with LOM concentration. The release of TNF-α and IL-6 followed the same pattern at lower concentrations of LOM but peaked at 15 μmol/L and decreased at higher concentrations. Sunscreens protected the cells from the effects of LOM plus UVA, as cell viability and levels of cytokines remained the same as in the control cells. In conclusion, the application of broad-spectrum sunscreen by individuals exposed to UVA radiation may prevent phototoxic reactions initiated by drugs such as LOM. (author)

  14. Efficacy of a Model Nano-TiO2 Sunscreen Preparation as a Function of Ingredients Concentration and Ultrasonication Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simzar Hosseinzadeh, Hadi Baharifar, Amir Amani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs which are used in sunscreen formulations are able to block ultraviolet (UV radiation with a higher efficiency compared with micro-scale particles. The concentration of corresponding particles is an important factor in UV attenuation effects as well as cell toxicity profiles. Herein, TiO2 NPs were dispersed using ultrasonication treatment and a sunscreen cream was prepared using TiO2 NPs. Methods: The effect of TiO2 concentration (i.e. a physical barrier and octocrylene (i.e. a chemical UV filter as well as sonication time (i.e. aggregation preventer were studied on UVB blocking efficiency of the preparation by measurement of sun protection factor (SPF. Response surface methodology was employed to investigate the effect of the inputs (independent parameters on the output (dependent parameter. Results: Findings indicated that maximum amount of nano-TiO2 and octocrylene make the preparation most effective. The effect of ultrasonication in breaking the agglomerates was however dominated by the effect of concentration of octocrylene, possibly due to hydrophobic interactions between NPs and octocrylene. Also, TiO2 NPs showed a significant increase in cytotoxicity profile of the preparation. Conclusion: In conclusion, introduction of the nanoparticles, as the dominant factor, to the sunscreen product increased both efficacy and cytotoxicity of the product.

  15. Comparison of sunscreens Containing Titanium Dioxide Alone Or In Association With Cocoa, Murumuru Or Cupuaçu Butters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Marronato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ingredients of natural origin may represent alternatives for formulating sunscreens, without compromising their effectiveness. The literature has shown the antioxidant potential of compounds existing in murumuru (Astrocaryum murmuru, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum and cocoa (Theobroma cacao butters that recommends further investigation. The objectives of this research were: (1 to develop bioactive photoprotective formulations containing cocoa, murmuru or cupuaçu butters in association with a physical sunscreen (titanium dioxide (TiO2 and (2 determine the possible photoprotective activity of butters and their interactions with the sunscreen. Cocoa, cupuaçu and murumuru butter were individually associated to TiO2 in O / W emulsions. The anti-UVA and UVB efficacy in vitro was estimated by diffuse transmittance analysis in a Labsphere® UV2000S, using quartz plates and Transpore® tape to obtain the SPF (sun protection factor and critical wavelength. Photoprotective formulations containing titanium dioxide and bioactive butters were obtained using Aristoflex® AVC and triglycerides of caprylic capric acid (GTCC. The SPF of the samples containing only TiO2 and formulations containing cocoa, murumuru or cupuassu butters associated with TiO2 ranged from 4 to 5. The critical wavelength values for these formulations ranged from 383.0 to 386.7 nm. The results indicated no increase in the SPF value for formulations containing vegetable butters. The critical wavelength values indicated their potential to absorb part of the UVA radiation.

  16. Ultraviolet Type B-Radiation-Induced Hyperplasia and Seborrheic Keratosis is Reduced by Application of Commercial Sunscreens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad K Saeed1*, Snur MA Hassan1 and Nali A Maaruf2

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-six mice were classified into four groups; Group A (control group, n=8, Group B (exposure group, n=16, Group C (n=16 treated with sunscreen 15 minutes before UVB irradiations and group D (n=16 sunscreen treated 60 minutes before UVB exposure. Mice were irradiated 30 minutes 5days/week (12 weeks, and group C-D treated five days/week (12 weeks. Skin samples were taken in the mid and end of the experiment. The result of this study revealed that, epidermal thickness in group A was 7.155µm. At the mid-period of the experiment, severe epidermal hyperplasia was observed in group B with epidermal thickness 118.712µm, while in group C and D mild to moderate epidermal hyperplasia were noted with decreasing epidermal thickness to 64.154 and 90.042µm respectively. At the end of the experiment in Group B epidermal thickness reached to 281.35µm with seborrheic keratosis development, whereas in group C and D totally inhibited the development of seborrheic keratosis and epidermal thickness decreased again into 42.347 and 55.915µm. In conclusion, chronic UVB radiation-led to epidermal hyperplasia and seborrheic keratosis, sunscreen prevented the development of seborrheic keratosis and decreased the UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia.

  17. The structure, composition, and dimensions of TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanomaterials in commercial sunscreens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewicka, Zuzanna A. [Rice University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (United States); Benedetto, Angelo F. [Rice University, Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology (United States); Benoit, Denise N.; Yu, William W.; Fortner, John D.; Colvin, Vicki L., E-mail: colvin@rice.edu [Rice University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2011-09-15

    TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanomaterials are widely used to block ultraviolet radiation in many skin care products, yet product labels do not specify their dimensions, shape, or composition. The absence of this basic information creates a data gap for both researchers and consumers alike. Here, we investigate the structural similarity of pigments derived from actual sunscreen products to nanocrystals which have been the subject of intense scrutiny in the nanotoxicity literature. TiO{sub 2} and ZnO particles were isolated from eight out of nine commercial suncare products using three extraction methods. Their dimension, shape, crystal phase, surface area, and elemental composition were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis, energy dispersive X-ray and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. TiO{sub 2} pigments were generally rutile nanocrystals (dimensions {approx}25 nm) with needle-like or near-spherical shapes. ZnO pigments were wurtzite rods with a short axes less than 40 nm and longer dimensions often in excess of 100 nm. We identify two commercial sources of TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanocrystals whose physical and chemical features are similar to the pigments found in sunscreens. These particular materials would be effective surrogates for the commercial product and could be used in studies of the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials contained in sunscreens.

  18. The structure, composition, and dimensions of TiO2 and ZnO nanomaterials in commercial sunscreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicka, Zuzanna A.; Benedetto, Angelo F.; Benoit, Denise N.; Yu, William W.; Fortner, John D.; Colvin, Vicki L.

    2011-09-01

    TiO2 and ZnO nanomaterials are widely used to block ultraviolet radiation in many skin care products, yet product labels do not specify their dimensions, shape, or composition. The absence of this basic information creates a data gap for both researchers and consumers alike. Here, we investigate the structural similarity of pigments derived from actual sunscreen products to nanocrystals which have been the subject of intense scrutiny in the nanotoxicity literature. TiO2 and ZnO particles were isolated from eight out of nine commercial suncare products using three extraction methods. Their dimension, shape, crystal phase, surface area, and elemental composition were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis, energy dispersive X-ray and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. TiO2 pigments were generally rutile nanocrystals (dimensions 25 nm) with needle-like or near-spherical shapes. ZnO pigments were wurtzite rods with a short axes less than 40 nm and longer dimensions often in excess of 100 nm. We identify two commercial sources of TiO2 and ZnO nanocrystals whose physical and chemical features are similar to the pigments found in sunscreens. These particular materials would be effective surrogates for the commercial product and could be used in studies of the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials contained in sunscreens.

  19. The structure, composition, and dimensions of TiO2 and ZnO nanomaterials in commercial sunscreens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewicka, Zuzanna A.; Benedetto, Angelo F.; Benoit, Denise N.; Yu, William W.; Fortner, John D.; Colvin, Vicki L.

    2011-01-01

    TiO 2 and ZnO nanomaterials are widely used to block ultraviolet radiation in many skin care products, yet product labels do not specify their dimensions, shape, or composition. The absence of this basic information creates a data gap for both researchers and consumers alike. Here, we investigate the structural similarity of pigments derived from actual sunscreen products to nanocrystals which have been the subject of intense scrutiny in the nanotoxicity literature. TiO 2 and ZnO particles were isolated from eight out of nine commercial suncare products using three extraction methods. Their dimension, shape, crystal phase, surface area, and elemental composition were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis, energy dispersive X-ray and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. TiO 2 pigments were generally rutile nanocrystals (dimensions ∼25 nm) with needle-like or near-spherical shapes. ZnO pigments were wurtzite rods with a short axes less than 40 nm and longer dimensions often in excess of 100 nm. We identify two commercial sources of TiO 2 and ZnO nanocrystals whose physical and chemical features are similar to the pigments found in sunscreens. These particular materials would be effective surrogates for the commercial product and could be used in studies of the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials contained in sunscreens.

  20. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  1. Development of methodologies for dimethylaminoethanol glycolate assay in association with sunscreens in dermocosmetic formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Soares Deccache

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available DMAE glycolate (DG and sunscreens have been used associated in anti-aging dermocosmetic formulations. Despite extensive use of these substances, methods for quantification of DG as raw material and in cosmetic formulations, especially when associated, are not described in the literature. RP-HPLC and non-aqueous titration methods, with determination potentiometric end-point (PT, were developed and validated for rapid assay of DG as raw material and in a topic emulsion in association with sunscreens. Both methods are simple, selective, linear, accurate and precise. The PT method was chosen for stability study of DG in the formulation developed. The proposed formulation presented good stability performance as regards aspect, pH, apparent viscosity, and SPF, with less than 5% of DG degradation compared to initial conditions.Glicolato de DMAE (DG e protetores solares têm sido utilizados associados em formulações dermocosméticas antiidade. Apesar da ampla utilização dessas substâncias, métodos de quantificação para DG matéria-prima e em formulações cosméticas, especialmente quando associados, não estão descritos na literatura. Neste trabalho foram desenvolvidas e validadas metodologias por CLAE-FR e titulação em meio não-aquoso, com determinação do ponto final por potenciométrica (TP, para a rápida análise de DG matéria-prima e em emulsão tópica em associação com fotoprotetores. Ambos os métodos são simples, seletivos, lineares, exatos e precisos. O método TP foi escolhido para o estudo da estabilidade do DG na formulação desenvolvida. A formulação proposta apresentou um bom desempenho no que se refere a estabilidade, aspecto, pH, viscosidade aparente e SPF, com menos de 5% degradação do DG comparado as condições iniciais.

  2. The Rucio Consistency Service

    CERN Document Server

    Serfon, Cedric; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenge with Large scale data management system is to ensure the consistency between the global file catalog and what is physically on all storage elements. To tackle this issue, the Rucio software which is used by the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system has been extended to automatically handle lost or unregistered files (aka Dark Data). This system automatically detects these inconsistencies and take actions like recovery or deletion of unneeded files in a central manner. In this talk, we will present this system, explain the internals and give some results.

  3. Reporting consistently on CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christa; Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    2006-01-01

    This chapter first outlines theory and literature on CSR and Stakeholder Relations focusing on the different perspectives and the contextual and dynamic character of the CSR concept. CSR reporting challenges are discussed and a model of analysis is proposed. Next, our paper presents the results...... in the reporting material. By implementing consistent discourse strategies that interact according to a well-defined pattern or order, it is possible to communicate a strong social commitment on the one hand, and to take into consideration the expectations of the shareholders and the other stakeholders...

  4. When is holography consistent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett McInnes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Holographic duality relates two radically different kinds of theory: one with gravity, one without. The very existence of such an equivalence imposes strong consistency conditions which are, in the nature of the case, hard to satisfy. Recently a particularly deep condition of this kind, relating the minimum of a probe brane action to a gravitational bulk action (in a Euclidean formulation, has been recognized; and the question arises as to the circumstances under which it, and its Lorentzian counterpart, is satisfied. We discuss the fact that there are physically interesting situations in which one or both versions might, in principle, not be satisfied. These arise in two distinct circumstances: first, when the bulk is not an Einstein manifold and, second, in the presence of angular momentum. Focusing on the application of holography to the quark–gluon plasma (of the various forms arising in the early Universe and in heavy-ion collisions, we find that these potential violations never actually occur. This suggests that the consistency condition is a “law of physics” expressing a particular aspect of holography.

  5. Fit of fluxes of sunscreens and other compounds from propylene glycol:water (30:70) through human skin and silicone membrane to the Roberts-Sloan equation: the effect of polar vehicle (or water) solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Kenneth B; Devarajan-Ketha, Hemamalini; Synovec, Jennifer; Majumdar, Susruta

    2013-01-01

    It would be useful to develop a surrogate for animal skin, which could be use to predict flux through human skin. The fluxes (and physicochemical properties) of sunscreens and other compounds from propylene glycol (PG):water (AQ), 30:70, through human skin have previously been reported. We measured the fluxes of several of those sunscreens and other compounds from PG:AQ, 30:70, through silicone membrane and fit both sets of data to the Roberts-Sloan (RS) equation to determine any similarities. For both sets of data, the fluxes were directly dependent on their solubilities in a lipid solvent [octanol (OCT), in this case] and in a polar solvent (PG:AQ, 30:70, or AQ in this case) and inversely on their molecular weights. The fit of the experimental (EXP) fluxes through human skin in vivo to RS was excellent: r² = 0.92 if the vehicle (VEH) PG:AQ, 30:70 was the polar solvent (RS¹) or r² = 0.97 if water was the polar solvent (RS²). The fit of the EXP fluxes through silicone membrane to RS was good: r² = 0.80 if the VEH PG:AQ, 30:70, was the polar solvent (RS¹) or r² = 0.81 if water was the polar solvent (RS²). The correlations between their EXP fluxes through human skin in vivo and their EXP fluxes through silicone membrane were good (r² = 0.85). In addition, the correlation between EXP fluxes from PG:AQ, 30:70, through human skin in vivo and their fluxes calculated from the coefficients of the fit of solubilities, molecular weights and fluxes from water through silicone membranes from a previous n = 22 database to RS was even better (r² = 0.94). These results suggest that flux through human skin can be calculated from flux through a silicone membrane.

  6. Skin cell protection against UVA by Sideroxyl, a new antioxidant complementary to sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pygmalion, Marie-Jocelyne; Ruiz, Laetitia; Popovic, Evelyne; Gizard, Julie; Portes, Pascal; Marat, Xavier; Lucet-Levannier, Karine; Muller, Benoit; Galey, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-12-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from photosensitized ROS production in skin is widely accepted as the main contributor to the deleterious effects of UVA exposure. Among the mechanisms known to be involved in UVA-induced oxidative damage, iron plays a central role. UVA radiation of skin cells induces an immediate release of iron, which can then act as a catalyst for uncontrolled oxidation reactions of cell components. Such site-specific damage can scarcely be counteracted by classical antioxidants. In contrast, iron chelators potentially offer an effective way to protect skin against UVA insults. However, iron chelation is very difficult to achieve without disturbing iron homeostasis or inducing iron depletion. A novel compound was developed to avoid these potentially harmful side effects. Sideroxyl was designed to acquire its strong chelating capability only during oxidative stress according to an original process of intramolecular hydroxylation. Herein, we describe in vitro results demonstrating the protective efficiency of Sideroxyl against deleterious effects of UVA at the molecular, cellular, and tissular levels. First, the Sideroxyl diacid form protects a model protein against UVA-induced photosensitized carbonylation. Second, intracellular ROS are dose-dependently decreased in the presence of Sideroxyl in both human cultured fibroblasts and human keratinocytes. Third, Sideroxyl protects normal human fibroblasts against UVA-induced DNA damage as measured by the comet assay and MMP-1 production. Finally, Sideroxyl provides protection against UVA-induced alterations in human reconstructed skin. These results suggest that Sideroxyl may prevent UVA-induced damage in human skin as a complement to sunscreens, especially in the long-wavelength UVA range. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fate of the sunscreen compound oxybenzone in Cyperus alternifolius based hydroponic culture: Uptake, biotransformation and phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feiran; Huber, Christian; Schröder, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Oxybenzone (OBZ), a common ingredient in sunscreens and personal care products, has been frequently detected in effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants and also in surface waters. OBZ is an emerging contaminant due to its adverse impacts on marine/aquatic ecosystems. To investigate the removal and degradation capacity of phytotreatment for OBZ, the common wetland plant species Cyperus alternifolius L. was exposed to this compound at 5, 25 and 50 μM for 120 h, respectively. Continuous uptake by roots and accumulation in plant tissues was observed over the exposure time, and depletion of spiked OBZ from the aqueous medium exceeded 73.9 ± 9.1% after 120 h. Similar to its fate in mammalian cells, OBZ is activated in a phase I reaction resulting in the hydroxylated metabolite 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (DHB). Independently, two phase II metabolites were identified as oxybenzone-glucoside (OBZ-Glu) and oxybenzone-(6-O-malonyl)-glucoside (OBZ-Mal-Glu) by LC-MS/MS. Formation of these metabolites increased over the experimental period. To our knowledge this is the first time that DHB, OBZ-Glu and OBZ-Mal-Glu are shown to be formed in higher plant tissues. Furthermore, plant defense systems-antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, APOX and POX) were found to be elevated to counteract stress caused by exposure to OBZ. This study presents the huge potential of aquatic plants to cope with benzophenone type UV filters in contaminated water bodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Emission of sunscreen salicylic esters from desert vegetation and their contribution to aerosol formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, S. N.; Guenther, A. B.; Potosnak, M. J.; Apel, E. C.

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) produced by plants are known to have an important role in atmospheric chemistry. However, our knowledge of the range of BVOCs produced by different plant processes is still expanding, and there remain poorly understood categories of BVOCs. In this study, emissions of a novel class of BVOC emissions were investigated in a desert region. Our study considered 8 species of common desert plants: blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima), desert willow (Chilopsis linearis), mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), mondel pine (Pinus eldarica), pinyon pine (Pinus monophylla), cottonwood (Populus deltoides), saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) and yucca (Yucca baccata). The measurements focused on BVOCs with relatively high molecular weight (>C15) and/or an oxygenated functional group. Significantly high emission rates of two salicylic esters were found for blackbrush, desert willow and mesquite with emission rates of 3.1, 1.0 and 4.8μgC dwg-1 h-1, respectively (dwg; dry weight of the leaves in gram). The salicylic esters were identified as 2-ethylhexenyl salicylate (2-EHS) and 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexenyl salicylate (homosalate) and are known as effective ultraviolet (UV) absorbers. We propose that the plants derive a protective benefit against UV radiation from the salicylic esters and that the emission process is driven by the physical evaporation of the salicylic esters due to the high ambient temperatures. In addition, the salicylic esters are predicted to be an effective precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) because they probably produce oxidation products that can condense onto the aerosol phase. We estimated the contribution of the sunscreen esters themselves and their oxidation products on the SOA formation for the Las Vegas area using a BVOC emission model. The contribution was estimated to reach 50% of the biogenic terpenoid emission in the landscapes dominated by desert willow and mesquite and 13% in the Las Vegas area. The

  9. Elaboration, characterization, and stability study of a sunscreen emulsion for use as a towelette application in pediatric photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clares, B; Gálvez, P; Gallardo, V; Ruiz, M A

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that as much as 80% of the solar radiation that an adult receives throughout his/her life is received during the first 18 years (1). Skin protection against harmful solar radiation during this early stage of life is therefore a highly important factor in the prevention of future skin-related diseases. In this respect, recent developments in pediatric dermatology and cosmetic technology have led to remarkable improvements in child skin protection products. However, in spite of these scientific breakthroughs, many currently available commercial sunscreen formulations have not been well received by the general public, due to inadequate sensory properties, chemical instability, undesirable side effects, and low effectiveness. These disadvantages are not only attributable to the formulations themselves, active principle, and excipients, but also, to a large extent, galenic aspects. The objective of this work was to develop and characterize a sunscreen emulsion for pediatric use, using a towelette as vehicle, to overcome problems of ineffectiveness and formulation instability, and to improve skin-sensory properties. The composition of the towelette, the emulsion, and the presentation format were selected on the basis of the differences between children's and adult skin. In order to evaluate the chemical stability of the formulation, a study of the organoleptic, physicochemical, microbiological, and rheological characteristics was carried out at 4°, 25°, and 40°C over a period of 30 days. Tests were performed on both the sunscreen emulsion only and the same formulation impregnated within a towel, to test the influence the towel may have on the stability of the emulsion.

  10. Sunscreen synthesis and their immobilisation on polymethylmethacrylate: an integrated project in organic chemistry, polymer chemistry and photochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtinho, Dina Maria B.; Serra, Maria Elisa S.; Pineiro, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Dibenzalacetone and other aldol condensation products are known sunscreens commonly used in cosmetics. This type of compounds can easily be prepared in an Organic Chemistry Lab by reaction of aldehydes with ketones in basic medium. These compounds can be incorporated in poly(methyl methacrylate) and used as UV light absorbers, for example in sunglasses. This project has the advantage of using inexpensive reagents which are readily available in Chemistry Laboratories. This experiment can also be a base starting point for discussions of organic, polymer and photochemistry topics. (author)

  11. Broad-spectrum sunscreens provide better protection from solar ultraviolet-simulated radiation and natural sunlight-induced immunosuppression in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyal, Dominique D; Fourtanier, Anny M

    2008-05-01

    It is well established that ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces immunomodulatory effects that may be involved in skin cancer. Recent studies have shown that UVA (320-400 nm) and UVB (290-320 nm) radiation are immunosuppressive. As a result, sunscreens, which mainly absorb UVB, may be less effective in preventing UV radiation-induced immunosuppression than broad-spectrum products. We sought to study the effects of UVA exposure on human delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response and compare the efficacy of sunscreens having different levels of sun-protection factor (SPF) and UVA protection against both solar-simulated radiation and outdoor real-life sunlight exposure conditions. DTH was assessed using a kit which includes 7 recall antigens that most of the participants encountered during childhood immunization. Evaluation of DTH test response was made 48 hours after test application before and after UV exposure with or without sunscreens. In unprotected participants, the response to DTH tests was significantly reduced irrespective of UV types of exposure (full-spectrum UVA, long UVA, solar-simulated radiation). A UVB sunscreen failed to protect from solar-simulated radiation-induced immunosuppression. In contrast, a broad-spectrum sunscreen with the same SPF but providing a high protection in the UVA range significantly reduced local UV-induced immunosuppression and prevented the distant effects. In the outdoor study, as compared with DTH responses obtained before sun exposure, no alteration of immune response was detected when the skin was protected by a broad-spectrum sunscreen having a high protection level in the UVA (SPF 25, UVA protection factor 14). Conversely a broad-spectrum sunscreen with lower protection against UVA (SPF 25, UVA protection factor 6) failed to prevent UV-impaired response. These results have been obtained after repeated exposure. Additional experiments obtained under acute exposure are in progress. These findings clearly demonstrated the

  12. Inverse supercritical fluid extraction as a sample preparation method for the analysis of the nanoparticle content in sunscreen agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, David; Cattaneo, Stefano; Meier, Florian; Welz, Roland; de Vries, Tjerk; Portugal-Cohen, Meital; Antonio, Diana C; Cascio, Claudia; Calzolai, Luigi; Gilliland, Douglas; de Mello, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate the use of inverse supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) extraction as a novel method of sample preparation for the analysis of complex nanoparticle-containing samples, in our case a model sunscreen agent with titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The sample was prepared for analysis in a simplified process using a lab scale supercritical fluid extraction system. The residual material was easily dispersed in an aqueous solution and analyzed by Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) hyphenated with UV- and Multi-Angle Light Scattering detection. The obtained results allowed an unambiguous determination of the presence of nanoparticles within the sample, with almost no background from the matrix itself, and showed that the size distribution of the nanoparticles is essentially maintained. These results are especially relevant in view of recently introduced regulatory requirements concerning the labeling of nanoparticle-containing products. The novel sample preparation method is potentially applicable to commercial sunscreens or other emulsion-based cosmetic products and has important ecological advantages over currently used sample preparation techniques involving organic solvents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation of TiO₂ nanocrystallite powders coated with 9 mol% ZnO for cosmetic applications in sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Horng-Huey; Chen, Hui-Ting; Yen, Feng-Ling; Lu, Wan-Chen; Kuo, Chih-Wei; Wang, Moo-Chin

    2012-01-01

    The preparation of TiO(2) nanocrystallite powders coated with and without 9 mol% ZnO has been studied for cosmetic applications in sunscreens by a co-precipitation process using TiCl(4) and Zn(NO(3))(2)·6H(2)O as starting materials. XRD results show that the phases of anatase TiO(2) and rutile TiO(2) coexist for precursor powders without added ZnO (T-0Z) and calcined at 523 to 973 K for 2 h. When the T-0Z precursor powders are calcined at 1273 K for 2 h, only the rutile TiO(2) appears. In addition, when the TiO(2) precursor powders contain 9 mol% ZnO (T-9Z) are calcined at 873 to 973 K for 2 h, the crystallized samples are composed of the major phase of rutile TiO(2) and the minor phases of anatase TiO(2) and Zn(2)Ti(3)O(8). The analyses of UV/VIS/NIR spectra reveal that the absorption of the T-9Z precursor powders after being calcined has a red-shift effect in the UV range with increasing calcination temperature. Therefore, the TiO(2) nanocrystallite powders coated with 9 mol% ZnO can be used as the attenuate agent in the UV-A region for cosmetic applications in sunscreens.

  14. [Determination of 11 ultraviolet absorbents in sun-screening cosmetics by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Weixuan; Sun, Xingquan; Ma, Jie

    2013-05-01

    A method of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been established for the simultaneous determination of eleven ultraviolet absorbents in sunscreening cosmetics. The cosmetic sample was extracted by methanol-ethanol-water (80: 10: 10, v/v/v). The extract was separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography on an Eclipse XDB-C18 chromatographic column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid. The analyte was detected by MS/ MS with the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The qualitative analysis was based on the retention time and the relative abundance ratio of the characteristic ions, and quantitative analysis on calibration curve method. The research results showed that the limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) of the eleven ultraviolet absorbents ranged from 200 to 500 mg/kg and the average recoveries ranged from 77. 17% to 98.32% with the relative standard deviations from 2.40% to 11.11%. The method is suitable to detect the eleven ultraviolet absorbents in cream and milky sun-screening cosmetics.

  15. Chemical Composition of Hexane Extract of Different Parts of Anthemis talyschensis and its Potential to Use in Sunscreen Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Motavalizadehkakhky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, both the presence and concentration of some unsaturated compounds in hexane extracts of different parts of Anthemis talyschensis showing absorption at wavelength 280-450 nm were surveyed, with the view of possibly using extracts of this plant in new formulations of sunscreen creams. The hexane extracts of flower, leaf and stem of A. talyschensis, collected from Northwest Iran, were obtained using a Soxhlet apparatus. The fatty acids were derivatized to methyl esters and were determined by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS systems. The chemical analysis resulted in identification of 14, 9 and 29 constituents, comprising about 99.5, 97.1 and 98.2% of the total constituents in hexane extracts of flower, leaf and stem, respectively. The main unsaturated constituents in the hexane extract of A. talyschensis flower were 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid and 6, 9, 12-octadecatrienoic acid; while the leaf's extract contained 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid and 9-octadecenoic acid; no unsaturated compounds were detected in the stem. The ratios of unsaturated fatty acid /saturated fatty acid were 13.6, 9.3 and 0 in extracts of the flower, leaf and stem, respectively, but the total amounts in the leaf were much greater. It can be concluded the leaf extract is more likely to be suitable for producing sunscreens creams than others.

  16. Mediation analysis of decisional balance, sun avoidance and sunscreen use in the precontemplation and preparation stages for sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Velicer, Wayne F; Redding, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Mediation analyses of sun protection were conducted testing structural equation models using longitudinal data with three waves. An effect was said to be mediated if the standardised path between processes of change, decisional balance and sun protection outcomes was significant. Longitudinal models of sun protection using data from individuals in the precontemplation (N = 964) and preparation (N = 463) stages who participated of an expert system intervention. Nine processes of change for sun protection, decisional balance constructs of sun protection (pros and cons), sun avoidance behaviour and sunscreen use. With the exception of two processes in the preparation stage, processes of change predicted the pros (r = .126-.614), and the pros predicted the outcomes (r = .181-.272). Three models with the cons as mediator in the preparation stage, and none in the precontemplation stage, showed a mediated relationship between processes and outcomes. In general, mediation analyses found both the process of change-to-pros and pros-to-behaviour paths significant for both precontemplation and preparation stages, and for both sun avoidance and sunscreen use outcomes. Findings provide support for the importance of assessing the role of underlying risk cognitions in improving sun protection adherence.

  17. Emission of sunscreen salicylic esters from desert vegetation and their contribution to aerosol formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Matsunaga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC produced by plants are known to have an important role in atmospheric chemistry. However, our knowledge of the range of BVOCs produced by different plant processes is still expanding, and there remain poorly understood categories of BVOCs. In this study, emissions of a novel class of BVOC emissions were investigated in a desert region. Our study considered 8 species of common desert plants: blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima, desert willow (Chilopsis linearis, mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa, mondel pine (Pinus eldarica, pinyon pine (Pinus monophylla, cottonwood (Populus deltoides, saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea and yucca (Yucca baccata. The measurements focused on BVOCs with relatively high molecular weight (>C15 and/or an oxygenated functional group. Significantly high emission rates of two salicylic esters were found for blackbrush, desert willow and mesquite with emission rates of 3.1, 1.0 and 4.8μgC dwg−1 h−1, respectively (dwg; dry weight of the leaves in gram. The salicylic esters were identified as 2-ethylhexenyl salicylate (2-EHS and 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexenyl salicylate (homosalate and are known as effective ultraviolet (UV absorbers. We propose that the plants derive a protective benefit against UV radiation from the salicylic esters and that the emission process is driven by the physical evaporation of the salicylic esters due to the high ambient temperatures. In addition, the salicylic esters are predicted to be an effective precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA because they probably produce oxidation products that can condense onto the aerosol phase. We estimated the contribution of the sunscreen esters themselves and their oxidation products on the SOA formation for the Las Vegas area using a BVOC emission model. The contribution was estimated to reach 50% of the biogenic terpenoid

  18. Sunscreen remanence on the skin: a noninvasive real time in vivo spectral analysis assessing the quenching of specular ultraviolet A light reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard, Gérald E; Khazaka, Diana; Khazaka, Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    Under specific light illumination, particularly ultraviolet radiation (UVR), the skin produces both specular light reflectance and, possibly, specific fluorescent emission. A quenching effect of fluorescence is observed following the application of sunscreens active against UVA radiations. To assess noninvasively in a real-time process, the potential sunscreen remanence/substantivity after application on the skin. The Visiopor® device was used in a real-time procedure after application of sunscreens to the skin. A quenching effect of follicular fluorescence due to bacterial porphyrins was evaluated at 30-min intervals. The Visioscan(®) device was used as a distinct UVA emitter in a control procedure of spectral analysis of specular UVR emission and reflectance by dermal fibers. Under UVA-1 irradiations, facial skin produced different patterns of specular UVR reflectance and fluorescent emission as well. The porphyrin-related follicular fluorescence was instantly abated by UVA blockers present in suncare products. The potential sunscreen remanence/substantivity was assessed by the follicular and interfollicular fluorescence recurrence all along the next hours. All UVA blocker-containing suncare products exhibited a similar overall quenching effect on porphyrin-enriched facial hair follicles and dermal fibers. This effect lasted for a few hours. Differences in the fluorescence recovery were likely related to the amount in suncare application and the nature of the formulation components. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Parabens and Sunscreens in the Environment: Determination by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS and Calculation of Phototoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing chemicals are widely used in cosmetics, sunscreens, and plastics to block UV radiation from the sun. Parabens are preservatives and are used extensively in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and foods to prevent microbial growth and preserve a product’s inte...

  20. Efficacy of broad-spectrum sunscreens against the suppression of elicitation of delayed-type hypersensitivity responses in humans depends on the level of ultraviolet A protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyal, D D; Fourtanier, A M

    2003-04-01

    Sunscreens have been designed to protect against sunburn and their efficacy has, therefore, been labeled by the so-called sun protection factor (SPF). Although this value is well determined using a standardized protocol and it affords a good evaluation of the protection against erythema it may be inadequate to provide a relevant measurement of efficacy against other biologic damages. This is particularly true when action spectra and threshold dose are different from those of erythema. In the case of ultraviolet (UV)-induced immune suppression, the action spectrum is not known, so it cannot be asserted that SPF may accurately predict the level of protection against this endpoint. We addressed this issue by measuring in human volunteers the ability of two broad-spectrum SPF 15 sunscreens with different ultraviolet A (UVA) protection levels, to prevent the alteration of the efferent phase of the local delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to recall antigens (Multitest Pasteur/Mérieux, Lyon, France) after acute solar-simulated UV exposure. We first determined the ultraviolet radiation (UVR) dose needed to induce a significant DTH inhibition in several groups of 15 volunteers. Two minimal erythemal doses (2 MED) were found to be the minimal immunosuppressive dose (MISD). As a result, the immune DTH response is reduced in average by 36%. The lower doses tested (0.5 and 1 MED) were ineffective. Sunscreen-treated groups were exposed to either 1 or 2 MED x SPF doses. As expected, no alteration in DTH response was observed in the groups exposed to 1 MED x SPF whatever the sunscreen applied. In contrast, after exposure to 2 MED x SPF, the DTH response remained unaltered in the group pretreated with the sunscreen product with the higher protection in the UVA range but was significantly suppressed by 55.7% in the group pretreated with sunscreen with a much lower protection in the UVA range. These data suggest that SPF may not be sufficient to predict the ability of

  1. Fotoprotetores derivados de produtos naturais: perspectivas de mercado e interações entre o setor produtivo e centros de pesquisa Natural products derived sunscreen: market perspectives and interactions between business and research institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Guaratini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation is the major exogenous mediators of skin damage. To prevent such damage, sunscreen products are used. New research aims at both the elucidation of new sunscreen compounds, as well as new assets for supporting and synergistic action. In this article it is presented a systematic data of innovation for sunscreen and a discussion on prospects for partnership between universities and enterprises, where it is believed that the innovations in cosmetics, driven by the constant demand of the market in new products, may be a stimulus for the interactions between university and company in Brazil.

  2. Evaluation of fungal- and photo-degradation as potential treatments for the removal of sunscreens BP3 and BP1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Olivares, Alba; Piña, Benjamin; Blánquez, Paqui; Vicent, Teresa; Caminal, Gloria; Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Photodecomposition might be regarded as one of the most important abiotic factors affecting the fate of UV absorbing compounds in the environment and photocatalysis has been suggested as an effective method to degrade organic pollutants. However, UV filters transformation appears to be a complex process, barely addressed to date. The white rot fungus Trametes versicolor is considered as a promising alternative to conventional aerobic bacterial degradation, as it is able to metabolise a wide range of xenobiotics. This study focused on both degradation processes of two widely used UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP3) and benzophenone-1 (BP1). Fungal treatment resulted in the degradation of more than 99% for both sunscreens in less than 24 h, whereas photodegradation was very inefficient, especially for BP3, which remained unaltered upon 24 h of simulated sunlight irradiation. Analysis of metabolic compounds generated showed BP1 as a minor by-product of BP3 degradation by T. versicolor while the main intermediate metabolites were glycoconjugate derivatives. BP1 and BP3 showed a weak, but significant estrogenic activity (EC50 values of 0.058 mg/L and 12.5 mg/L, respectively) when tested by recombinant yeast assay (RYA), being BP1 200-folds more estrogenic than BP3. Estrogenic activity was eliminated during T. versicolor degradation of both compounds, showing that none of the resulting metabolites possessed significant estrogenic activity at the concentrations produced. These results demonstrate the suitability of this method to degrade both sunscreen agents and to eliminate estrogenic activity. - Highlights: ► Fungus T. versicolor is able to degrade totally BP3 and BP1 in few hours in a fluidised bed bioreactor. ► BP3 is not degraded under simulated sunlight. ► Glycoconjugates have been identified as the main intermediate metabolites. ► Decrease in endocrine activity was found in both photodegradation and biodegradation.

  3. Effects of aged TiO2 nanomaterial from sunscreen on Daphnia magna exposed by dietary route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouqueray, Manuela; Dufils, Benjamin; Vollat, Bernard; Chaurand, Perrine; Botta, Celine; Abacci, Khedidja; Labille, Jerome; Rose, Jerome; Garric, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of dietary exposure to artificially aged TiO 2 nanomaterial (T-Lite™) used in sunscreen cream was studied on D. magna. Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata cultures were contaminated with TiO 2 -residues, obtained by artificial aging. Significant association of TiO 2 -residues on algae was detected by X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy. A D. magna dietary chronic exposure of these contaminated algae with TiO 2 -residues was performed. X-ray chemical imaging revealed that Ti was localized only in the digestive tract of the daphnia. Chronic exposure of daphnia to by-product of aged TiO 2 nanoparticles brought by food induced low mortality but decreased growth and reproduction which can be partly related to the modification of the digestive physiology of daphnia. This study demonstrated that the assessment of the ecotoxicological impact of nanomaterials in aquatic environment should take into account the aging of these materials which can further influence their bioavailability for aquatic organisms. - Highlights: ► Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were contaminated with artificially aged TiO 2 nanocomposites. ► Contaminated algae were used to fed Daphnia magna in a chronic dietary test. ► Dietary chronic exposure of TiO 2 nano-residues decreased growth and reproduction. ► These effects could be partly related to the modification of the digestive physiology of daphnids. - By-products of aged TiO 2 nanoparticles used in sunscreen cream taken in by food induced significant reproductive effects that could be linked to digestive physiology alteration.

  4. Evaluation of fungal- and photo-degradation as potential treatments for the removal of sunscreens BP3 and BP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.gago@idaea.csic.es [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Badia-Fabregat, Marina, E-mail: marina.badia@uab.cat [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Olivares, Alba, E-mail: esalba.olivares@idaea.csic.es [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Pina, Benjamin, E-mail: benjami.pina@idaea.csic.es [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Blanquez, Paqui, E-mail: paqui.blanquez@uab.cat [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Vicent, Teresa, E-mail: teresa.vicent@uab.cat [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Caminal, Gloria, E-mail: gloria.caminal@uab.cat [Unitat de Biocatalisi Aplicada associada al IQAC (CSIC-UAB). Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Diaz-Cruz, M. Silvia, E-mail: silvia.diaz@idaea.csic.es [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2012-06-15

    Photodecomposition might be regarded as one of the most important abiotic factors affecting the fate of UV absorbing compounds in the environment and photocatalysis has been suggested as an effective method to degrade organic pollutants. However, UV filters transformation appears to be a complex process, barely addressed to date. The white rot fungus Trametes versicolor is considered as a promising alternative to conventional aerobic bacterial degradation, as it is able to metabolise a wide range of xenobiotics. This study focused on both degradation processes of two widely used UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP3) and benzophenone-1 (BP1). Fungal treatment resulted in the degradation of more than 99% for both sunscreens in less than 24 h, whereas photodegradation was very inefficient, especially for BP3, which remained unaltered upon 24 h of simulated sunlight irradiation. Analysis of metabolic compounds generated showed BP1 as a minor by-product of BP3 degradation by T. versicolor while the main intermediate metabolites were glycoconjugate derivatives. BP1 and BP3 showed a weak, but significant estrogenic activity (EC50 values of 0.058 mg/L and 12.5 mg/L, respectively) when tested by recombinant yeast assay (RYA), being BP1 200-folds more estrogenic than BP3. Estrogenic activity was eliminated during T. versicolor degradation of both compounds, showing that none of the resulting metabolites possessed significant estrogenic activity at the concentrations produced. These results demonstrate the suitability of this method to degrade both sunscreen agents and to eliminate estrogenic activity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fungus T. versicolor is able to degrade totally BP3 and BP1 in few hours in a fluidised bed bioreactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BP3 is not degraded under simulated sunlight. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glycoconjugates have been identified as the main intermediate metabolites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease in endocrine activity

  5. SYNTHESIS OF p-METHOXY-CYNNAMIL- p-METOXYCINAMATE FROM ETHYL p-METHOXYCINAMAT WAS ISOLATED FROM DRIED RHIZOME Kaempferia Galanga L AS SUNSCREEN COMPOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titik Taufikkurohmah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of p-methoxy-cynnamil-p-methoxy-cinnamate, (PMS2O from ethyl-p-methoxy-cinnamate (EPMS from dry rhizome of kaempferia galanga L as sunscreen compound have been done. Isolation of EPMS was done by percholation using ethanol 96 % and recrystallitation using methanol to have 2.2 % yield. Hydrolysis of EPMS using alcoholic KOH resulted methoxycinnamic acid (APMS of 90.26 % yield. Reduction EPMS using lithium aluminium hydride in dry ether would give p-methoxycinnamoyl alcohol (PMS-OH of 41.98 % yield. Then reaction of p-methoxycinnamoyl chloride (PMS-Cl and PMS-OH in chloroform would produce p-methoxycinnamoyl p-methoxycinnamate ((PMS2O of 1.77 % yield. All compound were identified by TLC and several spectrometry methodes i.e. U.V Vis, IR, 1H-NMR and GC-MS   Keywords: esther cinnamate, sunscreen, Kaempferia galanga.

  6. Consistency argued students of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viyanti; Cari; Suparmi; Winarti; Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Handika, Jeffry; Widyastuti, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving for physics concepts through consistency arguments can improve thinking skills of students and it is an important thing in science. The study aims to assess the consistency of the material Fluid student argmentation. The population of this study are College students PGRI Madiun, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta and Lampung University. Samples using cluster random sampling, 145 samples obtained by the number of students. The study used a descriptive survey method. Data obtained through multiple-choice test and interview reasoned. Problem fluid modified from [9] and [1]. The results of the study gained an average consistency argmentation for the right consistency, consistency is wrong, and inconsistent respectively 4.85%; 29.93%; and 65.23%. Data from the study have an impact on the lack of understanding of the fluid material which is ideally in full consistency argued affect the expansion of understanding of the concept. The results of the study as a reference in making improvements in future studies is to obtain a positive change in the consistency of argumentations.

  7. Electromagnetic sunscreen model: implementation and comparison between several methods: step-film model, differential method, Mie scattering, and scattering by a set of parallel cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lécureux, Marie; Enoch, Stefan; Deumié, Carole; Tayeb, Gérard

    2014-10-01

    Sunscreens protect from UV radiation, a carcinogen also responsible for sunburns and age-associated dryness. In order to anticipate the transmission of light through UV protection containing scattering particles, we implement electromagnetic models, using numerical methods for solving Maxwell's equations. After having our models validated, we compare several calculation methods: differential method, scattering by a set of parallel cylinders, or Mie scattering. The field of application and benefits of each method are studied and examples using the appropriate method are described.

  8. Coordinating user interfaces for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    In the years since Jakob Nielsen's classic collection on interface consistency first appeared, much has changed, and much has stayed the same. On the one hand, there's been exponential growth in the opportunities for following or disregarding the principles of interface consistency-more computers, more applications, more users, and of course the vast expanse of the Web. On the other, there are the principles themselves, as persistent and as valuable as ever. In these contributed chapters, you'll find details on many methods for seeking and enforcing consistency, along with bottom-line analys

  9. Quality by design (QbD), Process Analytical Technology (PAT), and design of experiment applied to the development of multifunctional sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Daniela D'Almeida; Ariede, Maira Bueno; Candido, Thalita Marcilio; de Almeida, Tania Santos; Lourenço, Felipe Rebello; Consiglieri, Vladi Olga; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Baby, André Rolim

    2017-02-01

    Multifunctional formulations are of great importance to ensure better skin protection from harm caused by ultraviolet radiation (UV). Despite the advantages of Quality by Design and Process Analytical Technology approaches to the development and optimization of new products, we found in the literature only a few studies concerning their applications in cosmetic product industry. Thus, in this research work, we applied the QbD and PAT approaches to the development of multifunctional sunscreens containing bemotrizinol, ethylhexyl triazone, and ferulic acid. In addition, UV transmittance method was applied to assess qualitative and quantitative critical quality attributes of sunscreens using chemometrics analyses. Linear discriminant analysis allowed classifying unknown formulations, which is useful for investigation of counterfeit and adulteration. Simultaneous quantification of ethylhexyl triazone, bemotrizinol, and ferulic acid presented at the formulations was performed using PLS regression. This design allowed us to verify the compounds in isolation and in combination and to prove that the antioxidant action of ferulic acid as well as the sunscreen actions, since the presence of this component increased 90% of antioxidant activity in vitro.

  10. Margin of safety for two UV filters estimated by in vitro permeation studies mimicking consumer habits: Effects of skin shaving and sunscreen reapplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojerová, Jarmila; Peráčková, Zuzana; Beránková, Martina

    2017-05-01

    Sunscreens are intended to work on the skin. To be both efficient and safe, the lowest possible percutaneous permeation of UV filters should occur. The potential for systemic absorption of Benzophenone-3 (BP3, 10%) and Ethylhexyl Triazone (EHT, 5%) in a silicone-based water-in-oil emulsion was assessed in vitro using a full-thickness porcine-ear skin mimicking in-use conditions. The estimated Systemic Exposure Dose (SED) after the sunscreen application at 1.0 mg/cm 2 for 6 h (i) on the face; (ii) on the whole-body skin, was (i) 136 and 30; (ii) 4200 and 933 μg/kg_bw/d for BP3 and EHT, respectively. Reapplication does not mean the double risk; the SED values were only 1.40-1.37-fold greater. Skin shaving increased BP3 and EHT bioavailability 1.38 and 1.80-fold, respectively. Margin of Safety values were estimated according to guidelines applicable for European Union. For three realistic exposure scenarios, MoS of 48, 34 and 34 for BP3 in the sunscreen applied on the whole-body indicate some concerns regarding the safety for consumers (MoSfilters should be focused on their specific physico-chemical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gel Based Sunscreen Containing Surface Modified TiO2 Obtained by Sol-Gel Process: Proposal for a Transparent UV Inorganic Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Paiva Abuçafy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic UV filters, as titanium dioxide (TiO2, have become attractive because of their role in protecting the skin against the damage caused by the continuous exposure to the sun. However, their high refractive index, responsible for a white residue when applied on the skin, has led to the development of alternative inorganic materials, such as TiO2 nanoparticles. Thus, the aim of this study was the development of transparent and stable gel formulations containing surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles for application in sunscreens. Also, the physical and chemical properties of formulations containing TiO2 nanoparticles were evaluated. The UV absorption spectroscopy analyses indicated that the formulations containing TiO2 nanoparticles had a broad protection spectrum. The diffuse reflectance spectroscopy revealed that the use of PTSH surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles improved the transparency of the sunscreen formulations compared to that containing commercial ones. The rheology analyses showed that the amount of nanoparticles incorporated in the formulations influences the gel-like or liquid-like behavior. The results showed that the surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles are a promising innovative UV filter and the formulations containing these nanoparticles are interesting candidates for being used as sunscreen.

  12. Trans-resveratrol and beta-carotene from sunscreens penetrate viable skin layers and reduce cutaneous penetration of UV-filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, J V; Praça, F S G; Bentley, M V L B; Gaspar, L R

    2015-04-30

    Cutaneous permeation is a critical parameter when topical application of sunscreens containing antioxidants is considered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cutaneous penetration of most marketed UV-filters combined with trans-resveratrol (RES) and beta-carotene (BTC) since few studies report skin penetration when such compounds are applied. Formulations containing octocrylene, octyl methoxycinnamate, avobenzone and bemotrizinole were prepared and supplemented or not with BTC, or with RES, or with both compounds in combination. Penetration studies were performed using Franz vertical diffusion cells and porcine ear skin as the biological membrane. The quantification of UV-filters and antioxidants in the stratum corneum (SC), viable epidermis plus dermis and receptor fluid was performed by HPLC. Results suggested that UV-filters and antioxidants did not permeate the skin but were retained for 12h post application. About 90% and 80%, respectively, of the total penetrated amount of UV-filters and antioxidants was found in the SC. Interestingly, it was observed that BTC, alone or combined with RES, reduced the skin retention of UV-filters on average by 63%. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the combination of antioxidants and UV-filters in sunscreens is advantageous for cutaneous penetration, since BTC and BTC+RES improved sunscreen safety by reducing delivery of the four UV-filters in the study into SC and viable epidermis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Consistent Regulatory Policy under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Brennan; Eduardo S. Schwartz

    1982-01-01

    This article is concerned with the effects of regulation on the risk and value of the regulated firm in a dynamic context. Current regulatory practice is shown to be logically deficient, since it ignores the effect of regulatory policy on the cost of capital and therefore on the appropriate allowed rate of return. A notion of consistency in regulatory policy is developed, and it is shown how consistent regulatory policies may be implemented once the valuation problem is solved.

  14. Self-consistent quark bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1979-01-01

    After an introductory overview of the bag model the author uses the self-consistent solution of the coupled Dirac-meson fields to represent a bound state of strongly ineteracting fermions. In this framework he discusses the vivial approach to classical field equations. After a short description of the used numerical methods the properties of bound states of scalar self-consistent Fields and the solutions of a self-coupled Dirac field are considered. (HSI) [de

  15. Time-consistent and market-consistent evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.; Stadje, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from

  16. Market-consistent actuarial valuation

    CERN Document Server

    Wüthrich, Mario V

    2016-01-01

    This is the third edition of this well-received textbook, presenting powerful methods for measuring insurance liabilities and assets in a consistent way, with detailed mathematical frameworks that lead to market-consistent values for liabilities. Topics covered are stochastic discounting with deflators, valuation portfolio in life and non-life insurance, probability distortions, asset and liability management, financial risks, insurance technical risks, and solvency. Including updates on recent developments and regulatory changes under Solvency II, this new edition of Market-Consistent Actuarial Valuation also elaborates on different risk measures, providing a revised definition of solvency based on industry practice, and presents an adapted valuation framework which takes a dynamic view of non-life insurance reserving risk.

  17. Teaching Consistency of UML Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkel, Nicolaas; Daneva, Maia

    2010-01-01

    Consider the situation that you have a data model, a functional model and a process model of a system, perhaps made by different analysts at different times. Are these models consistent with each other? A relevant question in practice – and therefore we think it should also be addressed in our

  18. Dynamically consistent oil import tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, L.; Newbery, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The standard theory of optimal tariffs considers tariffs on perishable goods produced abroad under static conditions, in which tariffs affect prices only in that period. Oil and other exhaustable resources do not fit this model, for current tariffs affect the amount of oil imported, which will affect the remaining stock and hence its future price. The problem of choosing a dynamically consistent oil import tariff when suppliers are competitive but importers have market power is considered. The open-loop Nash tariff is solved for the standard competitive case in which the oil price is arbitraged, and it was found that the resulting tariff rises at the rate of interest. This tariff was found to have an equilibrium that in general is dynamically inconsistent. Nevertheless, it is shown that necessary and sufficient conditions exist under which the tariff satisfies the weaker condition of time consistency. A dynamically consistent tariff is obtained by assuming that all agents condition their current decisions on the remaining stock of the resource, in contrast to open-loop strategies. For the natural case in which all agents choose their actions simultaneously in each period, the dynamically consistent tariff was characterized, and found to differ markedly from the time-inconsistent open-loop tariff. It was shown that if importers do not have overwhelming market power, then the time path of the world price is insensitive to the ability to commit, as is the level of wealth achieved by the importer. 26 refs., 4 figs

  19. Time-consistent actuarial valuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.A.J.; Salahnejhad Ghalehjooghi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Time-consistent valuations (i.e. pricing operators) can be created by backward iteration of one-period valuations. In this paper we investigate the continuous-time limits of well-known actuarial premium principles when such backward iteration procedures are applied. This method is applied to an

  20. Natural Substances for Prevention of Skin Photoaging: Screening Systems in the Development of Sunscreen and Rejuvenation Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuk, Vladimir; Potapovich, Alla; Albuhaydar, Ahmed R; Mayer, Wolfgang; De Luca, Chiara; Korkina, Liudmila

    2018-04-01

    Solar broadband UV irradiation is commonly regarded as a major causative reason for cutaneous photoaging. The pro-aging molecular pathways and cellular targets affected by UVA+UVB light in human skin have been extensively investigated. Notwithstanding growing knowledge in mechanisms of photoaging, research and development of clinically efficient, nontoxic, and sustainable topical preparations providing full physical, chemical, and biological photoprotection still remain a great challenge for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In this study, we are proposing a panel of the in vitro methods for preselection of natural photoprotective substances with high photostability and low phototoxicity able of absorbing a broadband UVA+UVB irradiation (physical sunscreen), reducing UV-related overproduction of free radicals and loss of endogenous antioxidants (chemical protection), and attenuating UV-induced cytotoxicity and immune and metabolic responses (biological protection) in primary human epidermal keratinocytes and immortalized human keratinocyte cultures. Our data showed that secondary metabolites biosynthesized in plant cells in response to UV irradiation, such as phenylpropanoids and their glycosylated metabolites, aglycons and glycosylated flavonoids, and leontopodic acids, hold the best promise for complete natural topical prevention of photoaging and rejuvenation of photoaged skin. Meristem plant cell cultures elicited by solar simulating UV could be the most environmentally sustainable biotechnological source of polyphenols with combined photoprotective and antiaging properties.

  1. Sunscreen-Based Photocages for Topical Drugs: A Photophysical and Photochemical Study of A Diclofenac-Avobenzone Dyad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Aparici-Espert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitization by drugs is a problem of increasing importance in modern life. This phenomenon occurs when a chemical substance in the skin is exposed to sunlight. Photosensitizing drugs are reported to cause severe skin dermatitis, and indeed, it is generally advised to avoid sunbathing and to apply sunscreen. In this context, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID diclofenac is a photosensitive drug, especially when administered in topical form. In this work, efforts have been made to design and study an innovative pro-drug/pro-filter system containing diclofenac and the UVA filter avobenzone in order to develop a safer use of this topical drug. The design is based on the presence of a well-established photoremovable phenacyl group in the avobenzone structure. Steady-state photolysis of the dyad in hydrogen-donor solvents, monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and HPLC, confirms the simultaneous photorelease of diclofenac and avobenzone. Laser flash photolysis and phosphorescence emission experiments allow us to gain insight into the photoactive triplet excited-state properties of the dyad. Finally, it is shown that avobenzone provides partial photoprotection to diclofenac from photocyclization to carbazole derivatives.

  2. Natural Substances for Prevention of Skin Photoaging: Screening Systems in the Development of Sunscreen and Rejuvenation Cosmetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuk, Vladimir; Potapovich, Alla; Albuhaydar, Ahmed R.; Mayer, Wolfgang; De Luca, Chiara

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Solar broadband UV irradiation is commonly regarded as a major causative reason for cutaneous photoaging. The pro-aging molecular pathways and cellular targets affected by UVA+UVB light in human skin have been extensively investigated. Notwithstanding growing knowledge in mechanisms of photoaging, research and development of clinically efficient, nontoxic, and sustainable topical preparations providing full physical, chemical, and biological photoprotection still remain a great challenge for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In this study, we are proposing a panel of the in vitro methods for preselection of natural photoprotective substances with high photostability and low phototoxicity able of absorbing a broadband UVA+UVB irradiation (physical sunscreen), reducing UV-related overproduction of free radicals and loss of endogenous antioxidants (chemical protection), and attenuating UV-induced cytotoxicity and immune and metabolic responses (biological protection) in primary human epidermal keratinocytes and immortalized human keratinocyte cultures. Our data showed that secondary metabolites biosynthesized in plant cells in response to UV irradiation, such as phenylpropanoids and their glycosylated metabolites, aglycons and glycosylated flavonoids, and leontopodic acids, hold the best promise for complete natural topical prevention of photoaging and rejuvenation of photoaged skin. Meristem plant cell cultures elicited by solar simulating UV could be the most environmentally sustainable biotechnological source of polyphenols with combined photoprotective and antiaging properties. PMID:28661208

  3. UV-generated free radicals (FR) in skin: Their prevention by sunscreens and their induction by self-tanning agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, K.; Seifert, M.; Herrling, Th.; Fuchs, J.

    2008-05-01

    In the past few years, the cellular effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induced in skin have become increasingly recognized. Indeed, it is now well known that UV irradiation induces structural and cellular changes in all the compartments of skin tissue. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the first and immediate consequence of UV exposure and therefore the quantitative determination of free radical reactions in the skin during UV radiation is of primary importance for the understanding of dermatological photodamage. The RSF method (radical sun protection factor) herein presented, based on electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR), enables the measurement of free radical reactions in skin biopsies directly during UV radiation. The amount of free radicals varies with UV doses and can be standardized by varying UV irradiance or exposure time. The RSF method allows the determination of the protective effect of UV filters and sunscreens as well as the radical induction capacity of self-tanning agents as dihydroxyacetone (DHA). The reaction of the reducing sugars used in self-tanning products and amino acids in the skin layer (Maillard reaction) leads to the formation of Amadori products that generate free radicals during UV irradiation. Using the RSF method three different self-tanning agents were analyzed and it was found, that in DHA-treated skin more than 180% additional radicals were generated during sun exposure with respect to untreated skin. For this reason the exposure duration in the sun must be shortened when self-tanners are used and photoaging processes are accelerated.

  4. Polyols and UV-sunscreens in the Prasiola-clade (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) as metabolites for stress response and chemotaxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotter, Vivien; Glaser, Karin; Hartmann, Anja; Ganzera, Markus; Karsten, Ulf

    2018-04-01

    In many regions of the world, aeroterrestrial green algae of the Trebouxiophyceae (Chlorophyta) represent very abundant soil microorganisms, and hence their taxonomy is crucial to investigate their physiological performance and ecological importance. Due to a lack in morphological features, taxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Trebouxiophycean algae can be a challenging task. Since chemotaxonomic markers could be a great assistance in this regard, 22 strains of aeroterrestrial Trebouxiophyceae were chemically screened for their polyol-patterns as well as for mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in their aqueous extracts using RP-HPLC and LC-MS. d-sorbitol was exclusively detected in members of the Prasiolaceae family. The novel MAA prasiolin and a related compound ("prasiolin-like") were present in all investigated members of the Prasiola-clade, but missing in all other tested Trebouxiophyceae. While prasiolin could only be detected in field material directly after extraction, the "prasiolin-like" compound present in the other algae was fully converted into prasiolin after 24 h. These findings suggest d-sorbitol and prasiolin-like compounds are suitable chemotaxonomic markers for the Prasiolaceae and Prasiola-clade, respectively. Additional UV-exposure experiments with selected strains show that MAA formation and accumulation can be induced, supporting their role as UV-sunscreen. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Phycology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Phycological Society of America.

  5. Self-consistent radial sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1988-12-01

    The boundary layer arising in the radial vicinity of a tokamak limiter is examined, with special reference to the TEXT tokamak. It is shown that sheath structure depends upon the self-consistent effects of ion guiding-center orbit modification, as well as the radial variation of E /times/ B-induced toroidal rotation. Reasonable agreement with experiment is obtained from an idealized model which, however simplified, preserves such self-consistent effects. It is argued that the radial sheath, which occurs whenever confining magnetic field-lines lie in the plasma boundary surface, is an object of some intrinsic interest. It differs from the more familiar axial sheath because magnetized charges respond very differently to parallel and perpendicular electric fields. 11 refs., 1 fig

  6. Deep Feature Consistent Variational Autoencoder

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xianxu; Shen, Linlin; Sun, Ke; Qiu, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for constructing Variational Autoencoder (VAE). Instead of using pixel-by-pixel loss, we enforce deep feature consistency between the input and the output of a VAE, which ensures the VAE's output to preserve the spatial correlation characteristics of the input, thus leading the output to have a more natural visual appearance and better perceptual quality. Based on recent deep learning works such as style transfer, we employ a pre-trained deep convolutional neural net...

  7. Consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omnes, R.

    1992-01-01

    Within the last decade, significant progress has been made towards a consistent and complete reformulation of the Copenhagen interpretation (an interpretation consisting in a formulation of the experimental aspects of physics in terms of the basic formalism; it is consistent if free from internal contradiction and complete if it provides precise predictions for all experiments). The main steps involved decoherence (the transition from linear superpositions of macroscopic states to a mixing), Griffiths histories describing the evolution of quantum properties, a convenient logical structure for dealing with histories, and also some progress in semiclassical physics, which was made possible by new methods. The main outcome is a theory of phenomena, viz., the classically meaningful properties of a macroscopic system. It shows in particular how and when determinism is valid. This theory can be used to give a deductive form to measurement theory, which now covers some cases that were initially devised as counterexamples against the Copenhagen interpretation. These theories are described, together with their applications to some key experiments and some of their consequences concerning epistemology

  8. Location Privacy with Randomness Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Hao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Location-Based Social Network (LBSN applications that support geo-location-based posting and queries to provide location-relevant information to mobile users are increasingly popular, but pose a location-privacy risk to posts. We investigated existing LBSNs and location privacy mechanisms, and found a powerful potential attack that can accurately locate users with relatively few queries, even when location data is well secured and location noise is applied. Our technique defeats previously proposed solutions including fake-location detection and query rate limits.

  9. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  10. Consistent thermodynamic properties of lipids systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunico, Larissa; Ceriani, Roberta; Sarup, Bent

    Physical and thermodynamic properties of pure components and their mixtures are the basic requirement for process design, simulation, and optimization. In the case of lipids, our previous works[1-3] have indicated a lack of experimental data for pure components and also for their mixtures...... different pressures, with azeotrope behavior observed. Available thermodynamic consistency tests for TPx data were applied before performing parameter regressions for Wilson, NRTL, UNIQUAC and original UNIFAC models. The relevance of enlarging experimental databank of lipids systems data in order to improve...... the performance of predictive thermodynamic models was confirmed in this work by analyzing the calculated values of original UNIFAC model. For solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data, new consistency tests have been developed [2]. Some of the developed tests were based in the quality tests proposed for VLE data...

  11. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  12. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  13. Systemic absorption of the sunscreens benzophenone-3, octyl-methoxycinnamate, and 3-(4-methyl-benzylidene) camphor after whole-body topical application and reproductive hormone levels in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Mogensen, Brian; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2004-01-01

    Recent in vitro and animal studies have reported estrogen-like activity of chemicals used in sunscreen preparations. We investigated whether the three sunscreens benzophenone-3 (BP-3), octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC), and 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC) were absorbed and influenced endogenou...... unchanged but minor differences in testosterone levels were observed between the 2 wk. A minor difference in serum estradiol and inhibin B levels were observed in men only. These differences in hormone levels were not related to sunscreen exposure....... reproductive hormone levels in humans after topical application. In this 2-wk single-blinded study 32 healthy volunteers, 15 young males and 17 postmenopausal females, were assigned to daily whole-body topical application of 2 mg per cm(2) of basic cream formulation without (week 1) and with (week 2) the three...

  14. Decentralized Consistent Updates in SDN

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh Dang

    2017-04-10

    We present ez-Segway, a decentralized mechanism to consistently and quickly update the network state while preventing forwarding anomalies (loops and blackholes) and avoiding link congestion. In our design, the centralized SDN controller only pre-computes information needed by the switches during the update execution. This information is distributed to the switches, which use partial knowledge and direct message passing to efficiently realize the update. This separation of concerns has the key benefit of improving update performance as the communication and computation bottlenecks at the controller are removed. Our evaluations via network emulations and large-scale simulations demonstrate the efficiency of ez-Segway, which compared to a centralized approach, improves network update times by up to 45% and 57% at the median and the 99th percentile, respectively. A deployment of a system prototype in a real OpenFlow switch and an implementation in P4 demonstrate the feasibility and low overhead of implementing simple network update functionality within switches.

  15. THE USE OF THE FURFURAL FROM THE SOLID WASTE OF SUGAR INDUSTRY (BAGASSE TO SYNTHESIZE -(2-FURYL ACRYLIC ACID AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR THE RAW MATERIAL OF SUNSCREEN COMPOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitarlis Mitarlis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research of the usefullness of furfural from bagasse for the production of β-(2-furyl-acrilyc acid as an alternative raw material of sunscreen compound had been done. The research was done on two stages, the first stage was synthesis of furfural from bagasse and the second was synthesis of β-(2-furyl-acrilyc acid that is an analog of cynnamic acid in which some derivatives are known possess activities as sunscreen. Cynnamic acid could be produced from benzaldehyde by Perkin methods using alkali hydrolysis. With the similarity of the main structure, so β-(2-furyl-acrilyc acid can also be synthesized from furfural by Perkin method. The β-(2-furyl-acrilyc acid had been synthesized in this research from furfural isolated from bagasse by NaOH hydrolysis. Synthesis was done by reflux for 2 hr at 140 - 145 oC and 3 hr at 145 - 150 oC. From the spectroscopic data its known that furfural could be produced from bagasse in 11.65 % yield and 33.83% of β-(2-furyl-acrilyc acid from the synthesis on the second process. The UV -Vis spectrophotometer analysis result of β-(2-furyl-acrilyc acids showed λmax at 296.20 nm. It showed that until this step the sunscreen compound can be resulted from furfural isolated from bagasse, especially as a sunscreen that protected skin from eritema (λmax at 290 - 320 nm that is called as sunscreen UV-B. Keywords: Bagasse, furfural, sunscreen, β-(2- furil - acrylic acid.

  16. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  17. Consistency relations in effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munshi, Dipak; Regan, Donough, E-mail: D.Munshi@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: D.Regan@sussex.ac.uk [Astronomy Centre, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    The consistency relations in large scale structure relate the lower-order correlation functions with their higher-order counterparts. They are direct outcome of the underlying symmetries of a dynamical system and can be tested using data from future surveys such as Euclid. Using techniques from standard perturbation theory (SPT), previous studies of consistency relation have concentrated on continuity-momentum (Euler)-Poisson system of an ideal fluid. We investigate the consistency relations in effective field theory (EFT) which adjusts the SPT predictions to account for the departure from the ideal fluid description on small scales. We provide detailed results for the 3D density contrast δ as well as the scaled divergence of velocity θ-bar . Assuming a ΛCDM background cosmology, we find the correction to SPT results becomes important at k ∼> 0.05 h/Mpc and that the suppression from EFT to SPT results that scales as square of the wave number k , can reach 40% of the total at k ≈ 0.25 h/Mpc at z = 0. We have also investigated whether effective field theory corrections to models of primordial non-Gaussianity can alter the squeezed limit behaviour, finding the results to be rather insensitive to these counterterms. In addition, we present the EFT corrections to the squeezed limit of the bispectrum in redshift space which may be of interest for tests of theories of modified gravity.

  18. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  19. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  20. The effect of nitrate, bicarbonate and natural organic matter on the degradation of sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid by simulated solar irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Liang, E-mail: lmao@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Meng, Cui; Zeng, Chao; Ji, Yuefei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yang, Xi, E-mail: yangxi@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Gao, Shixiang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Our experiments revealed that a model sunscreen agent, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), can be effectively transformed through reactions that are mediated by simulated solar irradiation. We systematically explored the effects of nitrate ions, bicarbonate and different types of natural organic matter (NOM) on the degradation of PABA by simulated solar irradiation. Experimental data suggest that these components ubiquitous in nature water have different influence on the rates of the photoinduced removal of PABA. Products were extracted and analyzed using LC/MS and a total of four products probably resulting from {center_dot}OH and {center_dot}NO{sub 2} radicals attack were identified and the possible reaction pathways were proposed. The findings in this study provide useful information for understanding the environmental transformation of sunscreen agent in aquatic system. - Highlights: {yields} In this study, we found that p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) can be removed by simulated solar irradiation from water. {yields} Influence of environmental components on the photodegradation of PABA was further studied. {yields} We verified using LC/MS that PABA was transformed into four compounds. {yields} We proposed the possible reaction pathways probably resulting from {center_dot}OH and {center_dot}NO{sub 2} radicals attack to PABA.

  1. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  2. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  3. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  4. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  5. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  6. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  7. Determination of sun protection factor (SPF of sunscreens by ultraviolet spectrophotometry Determinação do fator de proteção solar (FPS de protetores solares por espectrofotometria no ultravioleta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizângela Abreu Dutra

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the sun protection factor (SPF of sunscreens emulsions containing chemical and physical sunscreens by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Ten different commercially available samples of sunscreen emulsions of various manufactures were evaluated. The SPF labeled values were in the range of 8 to 30. The SPF values of the 30% of the analyzed samples are in close agreement with the labeled SPF, 30% presented SPF values above the labeled amount and 40% presented SPF values under the labeled amount. The proposed spectrophotometric method is simple and rapid for the in vitro determination of SPF values of sunscreens emulsions.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi determinar o Fator de Proteção Solar (FPS de emulsões contendo filtros solares físicos e químicos por espectrofotometria no ultravioleta. Foram analisadas dez amostras comerciais de emulsões de diferentes fabricantes. Os valores de FPS rotulados foram na faixa de 8 a 30. Das emulsões analisadas, 30% apresentaram valores de FPS próximos do valor rotulado, 30% apresentaram valores acima e 40% apresentaram valores abaixo do valor rotulado. O método espectrofotométrico proposto é simples e rápido para determinação preliminar in vitro do FPS de emulsões protetoras solar.

  8. Is Sunscreen Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  9. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  10. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  11. Executive Function in Previously Institutionalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Emily C; Harlé, Katia M; Noble, Kimberly G; McCall, Robert B

    2016-06-01

    In studies of children adopted from institutions, being raised in an institution has been associated consistently with an increased risk of persistent cognitive, academic, and social-emotional problems. These findings raise questions about the neurocognitive mechanisms that contribute to these negative outcomes. Theory and models based on studies of animals indicate that development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and executive function (EF) may be particularly susceptible to environmental influences during early childhood. In this article, we review recent studies of postinstitutionalized children that examined EF components such as inhibitory control, working memory, shifting, and planning. We then describe emerging research on the structure and function of the PFC. Converging evidence suggests both EF difficulties and alterations in development of the PFC following early institutionalization. We conclude by discussing possible explanations for these findings and implications for prevention and intervention, and by offering suggestions for ongoing research.

  12. Determination of the UV filters worldwide authorised in sunscreens by high-performance liquid chromatography. Use of cyclodextrins as mobile phase modifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisvert, A; Pascual-Martí, M C; Salvador, A

    2001-07-06

    Simultaneous determination of organic UV filters worldwide authorised in sunscreen formulations was performed by HPLC with UV spectrophotometric detection. The filters determined were: benzophenone-4, benzophenone-3, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane, octyl dimethyl PABA, octyl methoxycinnamate, homosalate and octyl salicylate. A C18 stationary phase and an isocratic mobile phase of ethanol-water-acetic acid (70:29.5:0.5) containing 65.4 mM of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, were used with a flow-rate of 0.6 ml/min. UV measurements were carried out at 313 nm. The time required for the analysis was 20 min and the limits of detection were between 1.5 and 2.3 mg/l. The procedure proposed provides a green analytical method with a basic instrumental configuration, it is fast and accurate and does not involve highly toxic organic solvents.

  13. Consistently Showing Your Best Side? Intra-individual Consistency in #Selfie Pose Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K.

    2017-01-01

    Painted and photographic portraits of others show an asymmetric bias: people favor their left cheek. Both experimental and database studies confirm that the left cheek bias extends to selfies. To date all such selfie studies have been cross-sectional; whether individual selfie-takers tend to consistently favor the same pose orientation, or switch between multiple poses, remains to be determined. The present study thus examined intra-individual consistency in selfie pose orientations. Two hundred selfie-taking participants (100 male and 100 female) were identified by searching #selfie on Instagram. The most recent 10 single-subject selfies for the each of the participants were selected and coded for type of selfie (normal; mirror) and pose orientation (left, midline, right), resulting in a sample of 2000 selfies. Results indicated that selfie-takers do tend to consistently adopt a preferred pose orientation (α = 0.72), with more participants showing an overall left cheek bias (41%) than would be expected by chance (overall right cheek bias = 31.5%; overall midline bias = 19.5%; no overall bias = 8%). Logistic regression modellng, controlling for the repeated measure of participant identity, indicated that sex did not affect pose orientation. However, selfie type proved a significant predictor when comparing left and right cheek poses, with a stronger left cheek bias for mirror than normal selfies. Overall, these novel findings indicate that selfie-takers show intra-individual consistency in pose orientation, and in addition, replicate the previously reported left cheek bias for selfies and other types of portrait, confirming that the left cheek bias also presents within individuals’ selfie corpora. PMID:28270790

  14. Consistent Design of Dependable Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.

    1996-01-01

    Design of fault handling in control systems is discussed, and a method for consistent design is presented.......Design of fault handling in control systems is discussed, and a method for consistent design is presented....

  15. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  16. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  17. Computer architecture for solving consistent labeling problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, J.R.; Haralick, R.M.; Shapiro, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    Consistent labeling problems are a family of np-complete constraint satisfaction problems such as school timetabling, for which a conventional computer may be too slow. There are a variety of techniques for reducing the elapsed time to find one or all solutions to a consistent labeling problem. The paper discusses and illustrates solutions consisting of special hardware to accomplish the required constraint propagation and an asynchronous network of intercommunicating computers to accomplish the tree search in parallel. 5 references.

  18. 76 FR 35665 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Enforcement Policy for Over-the-Counter Sunscreen Drug Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Register that would, if finalized, limit the maximum labeled sun protection factor (SPF) value for OTC... policy guidance, labeling bearing a previously derived SPF value will have to be discontinued and...

  19. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  20. Translationally invariant self-consistent field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakin, C.M.; Weiss, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    We present a self-consistent field theory which is translationally invariant. The equations obtained go over to the usual Hartree-Fock equations in the limit of large particle number. In addition to deriving the dynamic equations for the self-consistent amplitudes we discuss the calculation of form factors and various other observables

  1. Consistent spectroscopy for a extended gauge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Neto, G. de.

    1990-11-01

    The consistent spectroscopy was obtained with a Lagrangian constructed with vector fields with a U(1) group extended symmetry. As consistent spectroscopy is understood the determination of quantum physical properties described by the model in an manner independent from the possible parametrizations adopted in their description. (L.C.J.A.)

  2. Testing the visual consistency of web sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, Thea; Loorbach, N.R.

    2005-01-01

    Consistency in the visual appearance of Web pages is often checked by experts, such as designers or reviewers. This article reports a card sort study conducted to determine whether users rather than experts could distinguish visual (in-)consistency in Web elements and pages. The users proved to

  3. Consistent-handed individuals are more authoritarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Keith B; Grillo, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Individuals differ in the consistency with which they use one hand over the other to perform everyday activities. Some individuals are very consistent, habitually using a single hand to perform most tasks. Others are relatively inconsistent, and hence make greater use of both hands. More- versus less-consistent individuals have been shown to differ in numerous aspects of personality and cognition. In several respects consistent-handed individuals resemble authoritarian individuals. For example, both consistent-handedness and authoritarianism have been linked to cognitive inflexibility. Therefore we hypothesised that consistent-handedness is an external marker for authoritarianism. Confirming our hypothesis, we found that consistent-handers scored higher than inconsistent-handers on a measure of submission to authority, were more likely to identify with a conservative political party (Republican), and expressed less-positive attitudes towards out-groups. We propose that authoritarianism may be influenced by the degree of interaction between the left and right brain hemispheres, which has been found to differ between consistent- and inconsistent-handed individuals.

  4. Standard Model Vacuum Stability and Weyl Consistency Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antipin, Oleg; Gillioz, Marc; Krog, Jens

    2013-01-01

    At high energy the standard model possesses conformal symmetry at the classical level. This is reflected at the quantum level by relations between the different beta functions of the model. These relations are known as the Weyl consistency conditions. We show that it is possible to satisfy them...... order by order in perturbation theory, provided that a suitable coupling constant counting scheme is used. As a direct phenomenological application, we study the stability of the standard model vacuum at high energies and compare with previous computations violating the Weyl consistency conditions....

  5. Consistency relations in multi-field inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Seo, Min-Seok

    2018-02-01

    We study the consequences of spatial coordinate transformation in multi-field inflation. Among the spontaneously broken de Sitter isometries, only dilatation in the comoving gauge preserves the form of the metric and thus results in quantum-protected Slavnov-Taylor identities. We derive the corresponding consistency relations between correlation functions of cosmological perturbations in two different ways, by the connected and one-particle-irreducible Green's functions. The lowest-order consistency relations are explicitly given, and we find that even in multi-field inflation the consistency relations in the soft limit are independent of the detail of the matter sector.

  6. Study of photo-oxidative reactivity of sunscreening agents based on photo-oxidation of uric acid by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradmand Jalali, Hamed; Bashiri, Hadis; Rasa, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the mechanism of free radical production by light-reflective agents in sunscreens (TiO 2 , ZnO and ZrO 2 ) was obtained by applying kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. The values of the rate constants for each step of the suggested mechanism have been obtained by simulation. The effect of the initial concentration of mineral oxides and uric acid on the rate of uric acid photo-oxidation by irradiation of some sun care agents has been studied. The kinetic Monte Carlo simulation results agree qualitatively with the existing experimental data for the production of free radicals by sun care agents. - Highlights: • The mechanism and kinetics of uric acid photo-oxidation by irradiation of sun care agents has been obtained by simulation. • The mechanism has been used for free radical production of TiO 2 (rutile and anatase), ZnO and ZrO 2 . • The ratios of photo-activity of ZnO to anastase, rutile and ZrO have been obtained. • By doubling the initial concentrations of mineral oxide, the rate of reaction was doubled. • The optimum ratio of initial concentration of mineral oxides to uric acid has been obtained

  7. Study of photo-oxidative reactivity of sunscreening agents based on photo-oxidation of uric acid by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradmand Jalali, Hamed; Bashiri, Hadis, E-mail: hbashiri@kashanu.ac.ir; Rasa, Hossein

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, the mechanism of free radical production by light-reflective agents in sunscreens (TiO{sub 2}, ZnO and ZrO{sub 2}) was obtained by applying kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. The values of the rate constants for each step of the suggested mechanism have been obtained by simulation. The effect of the initial concentration of mineral oxides and uric acid on the rate of uric acid photo-oxidation by irradiation of some sun care agents has been studied. The kinetic Monte Carlo simulation results agree qualitatively with the existing experimental data for the production of free radicals by sun care agents. - Highlights: • The mechanism and kinetics of uric acid photo-oxidation by irradiation of sun care agents has been obtained by simulation. • The mechanism has been used for free radical production of TiO{sub 2} (rutile and anatase), ZnO and ZrO{sub 2}. • The ratios of photo-activity of ZnO to anastase, rutile and ZrO have been obtained. • By doubling the initial concentrations of mineral oxide, the rate of reaction was doubled. • The optimum ratio of initial concentration of mineral oxides to uric acid has been obtained.

  8. Treatment of Multiple Actinic Keratosis and Field of Cancerization with Topical Piroxicam 0.8% and Sunscreen 50+ in Organ Transplant Recipients: A Series of 10 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Garofalo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplant recipient (OTR subjects are at high risk of skin cancer such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. Actinic keratosis (AK is considered the precursor of these non-melanoma skin cancers. Sun protection is mandatory in subjects with AK and this preventive strategy is very important in OTR. Treatment of the field of cancerization is also crucial to reduce the risk of recurrence of skin lesions in AK and non-melanoma skin cancer patients. Activation of cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 enzymes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of skin cancers. Topical application of cyclooxygenase inhibitors such as diclofenac and, more recently, piroxicam has shown to reduce AK lesions in immunocompetent subjects. A medical device containing piroxicam and SPF 50+ sunscreen filters (P+SS has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing AK lesions and improving the field of cancerization. We report the effect of P+SS, applied for 16 weeks, in a case series of 10 OTR subjects with multiple AK lesions. P+SS treatment was associated with a relevant AK lesion reduction (>75% in 7 patients (with a complete clearance in 3 subjects with an improvement in the field of cancerization. This medical device could be considered a promising long-term curative and preventive treatment in OTR patients at high risk of non-melanoma skin cancers.

  9. Consistency in the World Wide Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær

    Tim Berners-Lee envisioned that computers will behave as agents of humans on the World Wide Web, where they will retrieve, extract, and interact with information from the World Wide Web. A step towards this vision is to make computers capable of extracting this information in a reliable...... and consistent way. In this dissertation we study steps towards this vision by showing techniques for the specication, the verication and the evaluation of the consistency of information in the World Wide Web. We show how to detect certain classes of errors in a specication of information, and we show how...... the World Wide Web, in order to help perform consistent evaluations of web extraction techniques. These contributions are steps towards having computers reliable and consistently extract information from the World Wide Web, which in turn are steps towards achieving Tim Berners-Lee's vision. ii...

  10. Consistent histories and operational quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, O.

    1996-01-01

    In this work a generalization of the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics is presented. We first critically review the consistent histories approach to nonrelativistic quantum mechanics in a mathematically rigorous way and give some general comments about it. We investigate to what extent the consistent histories scheme is compatible with the results of the operational formulation of quantum mechanics. According to the operational approach, nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is most generally formulated in terms of effects, states, and operations. We formulate a generalized consistent histories theory using the concepts and the terminology which have proven useful in the operational formulation of quantum mechanics. The logical rule of the logical interpretation of quantum mechanics is generalized to the present context. The algebraic structure of the generalized theory is studied in detail

  11. Consistency of the MLE under mixture models

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiahua

    2016-01-01

    The large-sample properties of likelihood-based statistical inference under mixture models have received much attention from statisticians. Although the consistency of the nonparametric MLE is regarded as a standard conclusion, many researchers ignore the precise conditions required on the mixture model. An incorrect claim of consistency can lead to false conclusions even if the mixture model under investigation seems well behaved. Under a finite normal mixture model, for instance, the consis...

  12. Sticky continuous processes have consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Christian; Pakkanen, Mikko; Sayit, Hasanjan

    Under proportional transaction costs, a price process is said to have a consistent price system, if there is a semimartingale with an equivalent martingale measure that evolves within the bid-ask spread. We show that a continuous, multi-asset price process has a consistent price system, under...... arbitrarily small proportional transaction costs, if it satisfies a natural multi-dimensional generalization of the stickiness condition introduced by Guasoni...

  13. Metabolome Consistency: Additional Parazoanthines from the Mediterranean Zoanthid Parazoanthus Axinellae

    OpenAIRE

    Audoin, Coralie; Cocandeau, Vincent; Thomas, Olivier P.; Bruschini, Adrien; Holderith, Serge; Genta-Jouve, Grégory

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis of the organic extract obtained from the Mediterranean zoanthid Parazoanthus axinellae yielded to the identification of five new parazoanthines F-J. The structures were fully determined by comparison of fragmentation patterns with those of previously isolated parazoathines and MS/MS spectra simulation of in silico predicted compounds according to the metabolome consistency. The absolu...

  14. Regularization by Dimensional Reduction: Consistency, Quantum Action Principle, and Supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckinger, Dominik

    2005-03-01

    It is proven by explicit construction that regularization by dimensional reduction can be formulated in a mathematically consistent way. In this formulation the quantum action principle is shown to hold. This provides an intuitive and elegant relation between the D-dimensional lagrangian and Ward or Slavnov-Taylor identities, and it can be used in particular to study to what extent dimensional reduction preserves supersymmetry. We give several examples of previously unchecked cases.

  15. Spectrally Consistent Satellite Image Fusion with Improved Image Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Aanæs, Henrik; Jensen, Thomas B.S.

    2006-01-01

    Here an improvement to our previous framework for satellite image fusion is presented. A framework purely based on the sensor physics and on prior assumptions on the fused image. The contributions of this paper are two fold. Firstly, a method for ensuring 100% spectrally consistency is proposed......, even when more sophisticated image priors are applied. Secondly, a better image prior is introduced, via data-dependent image smoothing....

  16. Self-consistent asset pricing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malevergne, Y.; Sornette, D.

    2007-08-01

    We discuss the foundations of factor or regression models in the light of the self-consistency condition that the market portfolio (and more generally the risk factors) is (are) constituted of the assets whose returns it is (they are) supposed to explain. As already reported in several articles, self-consistency implies correlations between the return disturbances. As a consequence, the alphas and betas of the factor model are unobservable. Self-consistency leads to renormalized betas with zero effective alphas, which are observable with standard OLS regressions. When the conditions derived from internal consistency are not met, the model is necessarily incomplete, which means that some sources of risk cannot be replicated (or hedged) by a portfolio of stocks traded on the market, even for infinite economies. Analytical derivations and numerical simulations show that, for arbitrary choices of the proxy which are different from the true market portfolio, a modified linear regression holds with a non-zero value αi at the origin between an asset i's return and the proxy's return. Self-consistency also introduces “orthogonality” and “normality” conditions linking the betas, alphas (as well as the residuals) and the weights of the proxy portfolio. Two diagnostics based on these orthogonality and normality conditions are implemented on a basket of 323 assets which have been components of the S&P500 in the period from January 1990 to February 2005. These two diagnostics show interesting departures from dynamical self-consistency starting about 2 years before the end of the Internet bubble. Assuming that the CAPM holds with the self-consistency condition, the OLS method automatically obeys the resulting orthogonality and normality conditions and therefore provides a simple way to self-consistently assess the parameters of the model by using proxy portfolios made only of the assets which are used in the CAPM regressions. Finally, the factor decomposition with the

  17. Measuring consistency of autobiographical memory recall in depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semkovska, Maria

    2012-05-15

    Autobiographical amnesia assessments in depression need to account for normal changes in consistency over time, contribution of mood and type of memories measured. We report herein validation studies of the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form (CAMI-SF), exclusively used in depressed patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) but without previous published report of normative data. The CAMI-SF was administered twice with a 6-month interval to 44 healthy volunteers to obtain normative data for retrieval consistency of its Semantic, Episodic-Extended and Episodic-Specific components and assess their reliability and validity. Healthy volunteers showed significant large decreases in retrieval consistency on all components. The Semantic and Episodic-Specific components demonstrated substantial construct validity. We then assessed CAMI-SF retrieval consistencies over a 2-month interval in 30 severely depressed patients never treated with ECT compared with healthy controls (n=19). On initial assessment, depressed patients produced less episodic-specific memories than controls. Both groups showed equivalent amounts of consistency loss over a 2-month interval on all components. At reassessment, only patients with persisting depressive symptoms were distinguishable from controls on episodic-specific memories retrieved. Research quantifying retrograde amnesia following ECT for depression needs to control for normal loss in consistency over time and contribution of persisting depressive symptoms.

  18. Measuring consistency of autobiographical memory recall in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkovska, Maria; Noone, Martha; Carton, Mary; McLoughlin, Declan M

    2012-05-15

    Autobiographical amnesia assessments in depression need to account for normal changes in consistency over time, contribution of mood and type of memories measured. We report herein validation studies of the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form (CAMI-SF), exclusively used in depressed patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) but without previous published report of normative data. The CAMI-SF was administered twice with a 6-month interval to 44 healthy volunteers to obtain normative data for retrieval consistency of its Semantic, Episodic-Extended and Episodic-Specific components and assess their reliability and validity. Healthy volunteers showed significant large decreases in retrieval consistency on all components. The Semantic and Episodic-Specific components demonstrated substantial construct validity. We then assessed CAMI-SF retrieval consistencies over a 2-month interval in 30 severely depressed patients never treated with ECT compared with healthy controls (n=19). On initial assessment, depressed patients produced less episodic-specific memories than controls. Both groups showed equivalent amounts of consistency loss over a 2-month interval on all components. At reassessment, only patients with persisting depressive symptoms were distinguishable from controls on episodic-specific memories retrieved. Research quantifying retrograde amnesia following ECT for depression needs to control for normal loss in consistency over time and contribution of persisting depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Surgical treatment of breast cancer in previously augmented patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanas, Yvonne L; Leong, Darren S; Da Lio, Andrew; Waldron, Kathleen; Watson, James P; Chang, Helena; Shaw, William W

    2003-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing each year. Concomitantly, cosmetic breast augmentation has become the second most often performed cosmetic surgical procedure. As the augmented patient population ages, an increasing number of breast cancer cases among previously augmented women can be anticipated. The surgical treatment of these patients is controversial, with several questions remaining unanswered. Is breast conservation therapy feasible in this patient population and can these patients retain their implants? A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients with a history of previous augmentation mammaplasty who were treated at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between 1991 and 2001 was performed. During the study period, 58 patients were treated. Thirty patients (52 percent) were treated with a modified radical mastectomy with implant removal. Twenty-eight patients (48 percent) underwent breast conservation therapy, which consisted of lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy. Twenty-two of the patients who underwent breast conservation therapy initially retained their implants. Eleven of those 22 patients (50 percent) ultimately required completion mastectomies with implant removal because of implant complications (two patients), local recurrences (five patients), or the inability to obtain negative margins (four patients). Nine additional patients experienced complications resulting from their implants, including contracture, erosion, pain, and rupture. The data illustrate that breast conservation therapy with maintenance of the implant is not ideal for the majority of augmented patients. Breast conservation therapy with explantation and mastopexy might be appropriate for rare patients with large volumes of native breast tissue. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction might be a more suitable choice for these patients.

  20. The replica consistency problem in data grids

    CERN Document Server

    Pucciani, Gianni; Domenici, Andrea; Dini, Gianluca

    2008-01-01

    Fast and reliable data access is a crucial aspect in distributed computing and is often achieved using data replication techniques. In Grid architectures, data are replicated in many nodes of the Grid, and users usually access the best replica in terms of availability and network latency. When replicas are modifiable, a change made to one replica will break the consistency with the other replicas that, at that point, become stale. Replica synchronisation protocols exist and are applied in several distributed architectures, for example in distributed databases. Grid middleware solutions provide well established support for replicating data. Nevertheless, replicas are still considered read-only, and no support is provided to the user for updating a replica while maintaining the consistency with the other replicas. In this thesis, done in collaboration with the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) and the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), we study the replica consistency problem ...

  1. Toward an Internally Consistent Astronomical Distance Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grijs, Richard; Courbin, Frédéric; Martínez-Vázquez, Clara E.; Monelli, Matteo; Oguri, Masamune; Suyu, Sherry H.

    2017-11-01

    Accurate astronomical distance determination is crucial for all fields in astrophysics, from Galactic to cosmological scales. Despite, or perhaps because of, significant efforts to determine accurate distances, using a wide range of methods, tracers, and techniques, an internally consistent astronomical distance framework has not yet been established. We review current efforts to homogenize the Local Group's distance framework, with particular emphasis on the potential of RR Lyrae stars as distance indicators, and attempt to extend this in an internally consistent manner to cosmological distances. Calibration based on Type Ia supernovae and distance determinations based on gravitational lensing represent particularly promising approaches. We provide a positive outlook to improvements to the status quo expected from future surveys, missions, and facilities. Astronomical distance determination has clearly reached maturity and near-consistency.

  2. Consistency and variability in functional localisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Keith J; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Knierim, Iris; Devlin, Joseph T

    2009-07-15

    A critical assumption underlying the use of functional localiser scans is that the voxels identified as the functional region-of-interest (fROI) are essentially the same as those activated by the main experimental manipulation. Intra-subject variability in the location of the fROI violates this assumption, reducing the sensitivity of the analysis and biasing the results. Here we investigated consistency and variability in fROIs in a set of 45 volunteers. They performed two functional localiser scans to identify word- and object-sensitive regions of ventral and lateral occipito-temporal cortex, respectively. In the main analyses, fROIs were defined as the category-selective voxels in each region and consistency was measured as the spatial overlap between scans. Consistency was greatest when minimally selective thresholds were used to define "active" voxels (pfunctional localiser scans.

  3. Personalized recommendation based on unbiased consistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Zheng; Zhou, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Recently, in physical dynamics, mass-diffusion-based recommendation algorithms on bipartite network provide an efficient solution by automatically pushing possible relevant items to users according to their past preferences. However, traditional mass-diffusion-based algorithms just focus on unidirectional mass diffusion from objects having been collected to those which should be recommended, resulting in a biased causal similarity estimation and not-so-good performance. In this letter, we argue that in many cases, a user's interests are stable, and thus bidirectional mass diffusion abilities, no matter originated from objects having been collected or from those which should be recommended, should be consistently powerful, showing unbiased consistence. We further propose a consistence-based mass diffusion algorithm via bidirectional diffusion against biased causality, outperforming the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in disparate real data sets, including Netflix, MovieLens, Amazon and Rate Your Music.

  4. Consistent integration of geo-information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, T. M.; Cordua, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Probabilistically formulated inverse problems can be seen as an application of data integration. Two types of information are (almost) always available: 1) geophysical data, and 2) information about geology and geologically plausible structures. The inverse problem consists of integrating the information available from geophysical data and geological information. In recent years inversion algorithms have emerged that allow integration of such different information. However such methods only provides useful results if the geological and geophysical information provided are consistent. Using weakly informed prior models and/or sparse uncertain geophysical data typically no problems with consistency arise. However, as data coverage and quality increase and still more complex and detailed prior information can be quantified (using e.g multiple point based statistics) then the risk of problems with consistency increases. Inconsistency between two independent sources of information about the same subsurface model, means that either one or both sources of information must be wrong.We will demonstrate that using cross hole GPR tomographic data, that such consistency problems exist, and that they can dramatically affect inversion results. The problem is two folded: 1) One will typically underestimate the error associated with geophysical data, and 2) Multiple-point based prior models often provide such detailed a priori information that it will not be possible to find a priori acceptable models that lead to a data fit within measurement uncertainties. We demonstrate that if inversion is forced on inconsistent information, then the solution to the inverse problem may be earth models that neither fit the data within their uncertainty, nor represent realistic geologically features. In the worst case such models will show artefacts that appear well resolved, and that can have severe effect on subsequent flow modeling. We will demonstrate how such inconsistencies can be

  5. Orthographic Consistency Affects Spoken Word Recognition at Different Grain-Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dich, Nadya

    2014-01-01

    A number of previous studies found that the consistency of sound-to-spelling mappings (feedback consistency) affects spoken word recognition. In auditory lexical decision experiments, words that can only be spelled one way are recognized faster than words with multiple potential spellings. Previous studies demonstrated this by manipulating…

  6. Guided color consistency optimization for image mosaicking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Renping; Xia, Menghan; Yao, Jian; Li, Li

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of color consistency correction for sequential images with diverse color characteristics. Existing algorithms try to adjust all images to minimize color differences among images under a unified energy framework, however, the results are prone to presenting a consistent but unnatural appearance when the color difference between images is large and diverse. In our approach, this problem is addressed effectively by providing a guided initial solution for the global consistency optimization, which avoids converging to a meaningless integrated solution. First of all, to obtain the reliable intensity correspondences in overlapping regions between image pairs, we creatively propose the histogram extreme point matching algorithm which is robust to image geometrical misalignment to some extents. In the absence of the extra reference information, the guided initial solution is learned from the major tone of the original images by searching some image subset as the reference, whose color characteristics will be transferred to the others via the paths of graph analysis. Thus, the final results via global adjustment will take on a consistent color similar to the appearance of the reference image subset. Several groups of convincing experiments on both the synthetic dataset and the challenging real ones sufficiently demonstrate that the proposed approach can achieve as good or even better results compared with the state-of-the-art approaches.

  7. Consistency in multi-viewpoint architectural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, R.M.; Dijkman, Remco Matthijs

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a framework that aids in preserving consistency in multi-viewpoint designs. In a multi-viewpoint design each stakeholder constructs his own design part. We call each stakeholder’s design part the view of that stakeholder. To construct his view, a stakeholder has a viewpoint.

  8. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Cognitive Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlov, Nikolai E.; Gonzalez E. John

    1973-01-01

    A comparison of cognitive consistency was conducted across two cultural groups. Forty-five American subjects in Southern California and 45 subjects in Northern Greece responded to a questionnaire written in their native language and which contained three classical paradigms for balance theory. It was hypothesized that significant differences in…

  9. On Consistency Maintenance In Service Discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Scholten, Johan

    2005-01-01

    Communication and node failures degrade the ability of a service discovery protocol to ensure Users receive the correct service information when the service changes. We propose that service discovery protocols employ a set of recovery techniques to recover from failures and regain consistency. We

  10. Consistent Stochastic Modelling of Meteocean Design Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Sterndorff, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    Consistent stochastic models of metocean design parameters and their directional dependencies are essential for reliability assessment of offshore structures. In this paper a stochastic model for the annual maximum values of the significant wave height, and the associated wind velocity, current...

  11. Consistent Visual Analyses of Intrasubject Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, SungWoo; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Gutshall, Katharine; Pitts, Steven C.; Kao, Joyce; Girolami, Kelli

    2010-01-01

    Visual inspection of single-case data is the primary method of interpretation of the effects of an independent variable on a dependent variable in applied behavior analysis. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend the results of DeProspero and Cohen (1979) by reexamining the consistency of visual analysis across raters. We…

  12. Surfactant free metal chalcogenides microparticles consisting of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SANYASINAIDU GOTTAPU

    2017-11-11

    Nov 11, 2017 ... Abstract. A versatile methodology for the production of organic surfactant-free metal chalcogenide microparticles consisting of nano crystallites at room temperature in a short time is described. The reaction of various metal sources with LiBH4 in the presence of either S or Se yielded their corresponding ...

  13. Consistency analysis of network traffic repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, Elmer; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    Traffic repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffic that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  14. Consistency of Network Traffic Repositories: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, E.; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    2009-01-01

    Traffc repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffc that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  15. Consistent feeding positions of great tit parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Poelman, E.H.; Mateman, A.C.; Cassey, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    When parent birds arrive at the nest to provision their young, their position on the nest rim may influence which chick or chicks are fed. As a result, the consistency of feeding positions of the individual parents, and the difference in position between the parents, may affect how equitably food is

  16. Proteolysis and consistency of Meshanger cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de L.

    1978-01-01

    Proteolysis in Meshanger cheese, estimated by quantitative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is discussed. The conversion of α s1 -casein was proportional to rennet concentration in the cheese. Changes in consistency, after a maximum, were correlated to breakdown of

  17. Developing consistent pronunciation models for phonemic variants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available from a lexicon containing variants. In this paper we (the authors) address both these issues by creating ‘pseudo-phonemes’ associated with sets of ‘generation restriction rules’ to model those pronunciations that are consistently realised as two or more...

  18. Associated consistency and values for TU games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Theo

    In the framework of the solution theory for cooperative transferable utility games, Hamiache axiomatized the well-known Shapley value as the unique one-point solution verifying the inessential game property, continuity, and associated consistency. The purpose of this paper is to extend Hamiache’s

  19. 'Ionic crystals' consisting of trinuclear macrocations and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Arumuganathan

    'Ionic crystals' consisting of trinuclear macrocations and polyoxometalate anions exhibiting single crystal to single crystal transformation: breathing of crystals. †. T ARUMUGANATHANa, ASHA SIDDIKHAb and SAMAR K DASb,∗. aDepartment of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College, Madurai 625 009, Tamilnadu, India. bSchool ...

  20. Plant sunscreens in the UV-B: ultraviolet spectroscopy of jet-cooled sinapoyl malate, sinapic acid, and sinapate ester derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jacob C; Kusaka, Ryoji; Walsh, Patrick S; Allais, Florent; Zwier, Timothy S

    2014-10-22

    Ultraviolet spectroscopy of sinapoyl malate, an essential UV-B screening agent in plants, was carried out in the cold, isolated environment of a supersonic expansion to explore its intrinsic UV spectral properties in detail. Despite these conditions, sinapoyl malate displays anomalous spectral broadening extending well over 1000 cm(-1) in the UV-B region, presenting the tantalizing prospect that nature's selection of UV-B sunscreen is based in part on the inherent quantum mechanical features of its excited states. Jet-cooling provides an ideal setting in which to explore this topic, where complications from intermolecular interactions are eliminated. In order to better understand the structural causes of this behavior, the UV spectroscopy of a series of sinapate esters was undertaken and compared with ab initio calculations, starting with the simplest sinapate chromophore sinapic acid, and building up the ester side chain to sinapoyl malate. This "deconstruction" approach provided insight into the active mechanism intrinsic to sinapoyl malate, which is tentatively attributed to mixing of the bright V ((1)ππ*) state with an adiabatically lower (1)nπ* state which, according to calculations, shows unique charge-transfer characteristics brought on by the electron-rich malate side chain. All members of the series absorb strongly in the UV-B region, but significant differences emerge in the appearance of the spectrum among the series, with derivatives most closely associated with sinapoyl malate showing characteristic broadening even under jet-cooled conditions. The long vibronic progressions, conformational distribution, and large oscillator strength of the V (ππ*) transition in sinapates makes them ideal candidates for their role as UV-B screening agents in plants.

  1. Board-to-board consistency in initial dental licensure examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2011-10-01

    The consistency between student clinical performance in dental school and performance on initial licensure examinations is known to be weak. A review of the literature failed to identify any reports of the consistency between performance on initial licensure examinations and quality of technical work in practice. This research examines the consistency of performance among candidates who took two initial licensure examinations given by different testing agencies but for the same jurisdiction within a few weeks of each other. Twenty-seven candidates from one dental school took both the California Dental Board examination and the Western Regional Examining Board initial licensure examinations in 2005 and 2006. Their performance on the patient-based amalgam and composite restorations and the root planing tests were compared in these two board settings and with various dental school measures of competence. Consistent with previous findings, school-to-board performance was barely above chance levels. Board-to-board association was also insignificant and accounted for 12 percent of the common variance in the best case. Patient-based initial licensure examinations have yet to demonstrate validity in terms of consistency of performance for candidates from one performance to the next.

  2. Self-Consistent Scattering and Transport Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S. B.; Grabowski, P. E.

    2015-11-01

    An average-atom model with ion correlations provides a compact and complete description of atomic-scale physics in dense, finite-temperature plasmas. The self-consistent ionic and electronic distributions from the model enable calculation of x-ray scattering signals and conductivities for material across a wide range of temperatures and densities. We propose a definition for the bound electronic states that ensures smooth behavior of these measurable properties under pressure ionization and compare the predictions of this model with those of less consistent models for Be, C, Al, and Fe. SNL is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp, for the U.S. DoE NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This work was supported by DoE OFES Early Career grant FWP-14-017426.

  3. Student Effort, Consistency and Online Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Patron

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.

  4. Consistency relation for cosmic magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Sloth, Martin S.

    2012-12-01

    If cosmic magnetic fields are indeed produced during inflation, they are likely to be correlated with the scalar metric perturbations that are responsible for the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and large scale structure. Within an archetypical model of inflationary magnetogenesis, we show that there exists a new simple consistency relation for the non-Gaussian cross correlation function of the scalar metric perturbation with two powers of the magnetic field in the squeezed limit where the momentum of the metric perturbation vanishes. We emphasize that such a consistency relation turns out to be extremely useful to test some recent calculations in the literature. Apart from primordial non-Gaussianity induced by the curvature perturbations, such a cross correlation might provide a new observational probe of inflation and can in principle reveal the primordial nature of cosmic magnetic fields.

  5. Consistent Estimation of Partition Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús E. García

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Partition Markov Model characterizes the process by a partition L of the state space, where the elements in each part of L share the same transition probability to an arbitrary element in the alphabet. This model aims to answer the following questions: what is the minimal number of parameters needed to specify a Markov chain and how to estimate these parameters. In order to answer these questions, we build a consistent strategy for model selection which consist of: giving a size n realization of the process, finding a model within the Partition Markov class, with a minimal number of parts to represent the process law. From the strategy, we derive a measure that establishes a metric in the state space. In addition, we show that if the law of the process is Markovian, then, eventually, when n goes to infinity, L will be retrieved. We show an application to model internet navigation patterns.

  6. Consistent Pauli reduction on group manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguet, A.; Pope, C. N.; Samtleben, H.

    2016-01-01

    We prove an old conjecture by Duff, Nilsson, Pope and Warner asserting that the NSsbnd NS sector of supergravity (and more general the bosonic string) allows for a consistent Pauli reduction on any d-dimensional group manifold G, keeping the full set of gauge bosons of the G × G isometry group of the bi-invariant metric on G. The main tool of the construction is a particular generalised Scherk-Schwarz reduction ansatz in double field theory which we explicitly construct in terms of the group's Killing vectors. Examples include the consistent reduction from ten dimensions on S3 ×S3 and on similar product spaces. The construction is another example of globally geometric non-toroidal compactifications inducing non-geometric fluxes.

  7. Cloud Standardization: Consistent Business Processes and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Daniel ZOTA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing represents one of the latest emerging trends in distributed computing that enables the existence of hardware infrastructure and software applications as services. The present paper offers a general approach to the cloud computing standardization as a mean of improving the speed of adoption for the cloud technologies. Moreover, this study tries to show out how organizations may achieve more consistent business processes while operating with cloud computing technologies.

  8. Consistency and variability in functional localisers

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Keith J.; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Knierim, Iris; Devlin, Joseph T.

    2009-01-01

    A critical assumption underlying the use of functional localiser scans is that the voxels identified as the functional region-of-interest (fROI) are essentially the same as those activated by the main experimental manipulation. Intra-subject variability in the location of the fROI violates this assumption, reducing the sensitivity of the analysis and biasing the results. Here we investigated consistency and variability in MOB in a set of 45 volunteers. They performed two functional localiser ...

  9. Consistency and Comparability of International Property Valuations

    OpenAIRE

    Lynne Michael; Guowei Gu

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates whether international property investors can rely on comparability and consistency in international property valuations.A survey was conducted with further secondary data analysis to investigate the drivers, risks and confounding factors affecting global property valuations. Major risks identified were political instability, a comparative lack of transparency in property markets and inferior property rights including titles, rights to minerals, water and land use. The ...

  10. Consistency of color representation in smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J; Kwan, Benjamin; Wong, Leslie

    2016-03-01

    One of the barriers to the construction of consistent computer-based color vision tests has been the variety of monitors and computers. Consistency of color on a variety of screens has necessitated calibration of each setup individually. Color vision examination with a carefully controlled display has, as a consequence, been a laboratory rather than a clinical activity. Inevitably, smart phones have become a vehicle for color vision tests. They have the advantage that the processor and screen are associated and there are fewer models of smart phones than permutations of computers and monitors. Colorimetric consistency of display within a model may be a given. It may extend across models from the same manufacturer but is unlikely to extend between manufacturers especially where technologies vary. In this study, we measured the same set of colors in a JPEG file displayed on 11 samples of each of four models of smart phone (iPhone 4s, iPhone5, Samsung Galaxy S3, and Samsung Galaxy S4) using a Photo Research PR-730. The iPhones are white LED backlit LCD and the Samsung are OLEDs. The color gamut varies between models and comparison with sRGB space shows 61%, 85%, 117%, and 110%, respectively. The iPhones differ markedly from the Samsungs and from one another. This indicates that model-specific color lookup tables will be needed. Within each model, the primaries were quite consistent (despite the age of phone varying within each sample). The worst case in each model was the blue primary; the 95th percentile limits in the v' coordinate were ±0.008 for the iPhone 4 and ±0.004 for the other three models. The u'v' variation in white points was ±0.004 for the iPhone4 and ±0.002 for the others, although the spread of white points between models was u'v'±0.007. The differences are essentially the same for primaries at low luminance. The variation of colors intermediate between the primaries (e.g., red-purple, orange) mirror the variation in the primaries. The variation in

  11. Sunscreen synthesis and their immobilisation on polymethylmethacrylate: an integrated project in organic chemistry, polymer chemistry and photochemistry; Sintese de fotoprotetores e sua imobilizacao em poli(metacrilato de metilo): um projeto integrado de quimica organica, quimica de polimeros e fotoquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murtinho, Dina Maria B.; Serra, Maria Elisa S.; Pineiro, Marta, E-mail: dmurtinho@ci.uc.p [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia. Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Dibenzalacetone and other aldol condensation products are known sunscreens commonly used in cosmetics. This type of compounds can easily be prepared in an Organic Chemistry Lab by reaction of aldehydes with ketones in basic medium. These compounds can be incorporated in poly(methyl methacrylate) and used as UV light absorbers, for example in sunglasses. This project has the advantage of using inexpensive reagents which are readily available in Chemistry Laboratories. This experiment can also be a base starting point for discussions of organic, polymer and photochemistry topics. (author)

  12. Previously infected chimpanzees are not consistently protected against reinfection or persistent infection after reexposure to the identical hepatitis C virus strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens; Thimme, Robert; Meunier, Jean-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Protective immunity after resolved hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been reported. However, the breadth of this immunity has remained controversial, and the role of neutralizing antibodies has not been well-defined. In the present study, two chimpanzees (CH96A008 and CH1494) with resolved mo...

  13. A new consistent definition of the homogenized diffusion coefficient of a lattice, limitations of the homogenization concept, and discussion of previously defined coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniz, V.C.

    1980-01-01

    The problem concerned with the correct definition of the homogenized diffusion coefficient of a lattice, and the concurrent problem of whether or not a homogenized diffusion equation can be formally set up, is studied by a space-energy-angle dependent treatment for a general lattice cell using an operator notation which applies to any eigen-problem. A new definition of the diffusion coefficient is given, which combines within itself the individual merits of the two definitions of Benoist. The relation between the new coefficient and the ''uncorrected'' Benoist coefficient is discussed by considering continuous-spectrum and multi-group diffusion equations. Other definitions existing in the literature are briefly discussed. It is concluded that a diffusion coefficient should represent only leakage effects. A comparison is made between the homogenization approach and the approach via eigen-coefficients, and brief indications are given of a possible scheme for the latter. (author)

  14. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, Allison K.; Benkwitt, Cassandra E.; Boersma, Kate S.; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B.; Ingeman, Kurt E.; Kindinger, Tye L.; Lindsley, Amy J.; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N.; Rowe, Jennifer C.; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A.; Heppell, Selina S.

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon’s diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  15. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Susan E; Thurman, Lindsey L; Barner, Allison K; Benkwitt, Cassandra E; Boersma, Kate S; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Ingeman, Kurt E; Kindinger, Tye L; Lindsley, Amy J; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N; Rowe, Jennifer C; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A; Heppell, Selina S

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon's diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  16. On the Consistent Migration of Unsplittable Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Förster, Klaus-Tycho

    2017-01-01

    In consistent flow migration, the task is to change the paths the flows take in the network, but without inducing congestion during the  update process. Even though the rise of Software Defined Networks allows for centralized control of path changes, the execution is still performed...... in an inherently asynchronous system, the switches distributed over the network. To this end, a multitude of scheduling systems have been proposed since the initial papers of Reitblatt et al. (Abstractions for Network Update, SIGCOMM ’12) and Hong et al. (SWAN, SIGCOMM ’13). While the the complexity...

  17. Consistency Checking of Web Service Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cambronero, M. Emilia; Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural properties are analyzed for web service contracts formulated in Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) and Choreography Description Language (CDL). The key result reported is an automated technique to check consistency between protocol aspects of the contracts. The contracts...... are abstracted to (timed) automata and from there a simulation is set up, which is checked using automated tools for analyzing networks of finite state processes. Here we use the Concurrency Work Bench. The proposed techniques are illustrated with a case study that include otherwise difficult to analyze fault...

  18. Multitier self-consistent G W +EDMFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, F.; Boehnke, L.; Werner, P.; Aryasetiawan, F.

    2017-09-01

    We discuss a parameter-free and computationally efficient ab initio simulation approach for moderately and strongly correlated materials, the multitier self-consistent G W +EDMFT method. This scheme treats different degrees of freedom, such as high-energy and low-energy bands, or local and nonlocal interactions, within appropriate levels of approximation, and provides a fully self-consistent description of correlation and screening effects in the solid. The ab initio input is provided by a one-shot G0W0 calculation, while the strong-correlation effects originating from narrow bands near the Fermi level are captured by a combined G W plus extended dynamical mean-field (EDMFT) treatment. We present the formalism and technical details of our implementation and discuss some general properties of the effective EDMFT impurity action. In particular, we show that the retarded impurity interactions can have noncausal features, while the physical observables, such as the screened interactions of the lattice system, remain causal. As a first application, we present ab initio simulation results for SrMoO3, which demonstrate the existence of prominent plasmon satellites in the spectral function not obtainable within LDA+DMFT, and provide further support for our recent reinterpretation of the satellite features in the related cubic perovskite SrVO3. We then turn to stretched sodium as a model system to explore the performance of the multitier self-consistent G W +EDMFT method in situations with different degrees of correlation. While the results for the physical lattice spacing a0 show that the scheme is not very accurate for electron-gas-like systems, because nonlocal corrections beyond G W are important, it does provide physically correct results in the intermediate correlation regime, and a Mott transition around a lattice spacing of 1.5 a0 . Remarkably, even though the Wannier functions in the stretched compound are less localized, and hence the bare interaction parameters

  19. Gentzen's centenary the quest for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Rathjen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Gerhard Gentzen has been described as logic’s lost genius, whom Gödel called a better logician than himself. This work comprises articles by leading proof theorists, attesting to Gentzen’s enduring legacy to mathematical logic and beyond. The contributions range from philosophical reflections and re-evaluations of Gentzen’s original consistency proofs to the most recent developments in proof theory. Gentzen founded modern proof theory. His sequent calculus and natural deduction system beautifully explain the deep symmetries of logic. They underlie modern developments in computer science such as automated theorem proving and type theory.

  20. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  1. Subgame consistent cooperation a comprehensive treatise

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, David W K

    2016-01-01

    Strategic behavior in the human and social world has been increasingly recognized in theory and practice. It is well known that non-cooperative behavior could lead to suboptimal or even highly undesirable outcomes. Cooperation suggests the possibility of obtaining socially optimal solutions and the calls for cooperation are prevalent in real-life problems. Dynamic cooperation cannot be sustainable if there is no guarantee that the agreed upon optimality principle at the beginning is maintained throughout the cooperation duration. It is due to the lack of this kind of guarantees that cooperative schemes fail to last till its end or even fail to get started. The property of subgame consistency in cooperative dynamic games and the corresponding solution mechanism resolve this “classic” problem in game theory. This book is a comprehensive treatise on subgame consistent dynamic cooperation covering the up-to-date state of the art analyses in this important topic. It sets out to provide the theory, solution tec...

  2. Consistent mutational paths predict eukaryotic thermostability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Noort Vera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomes of thermophilic prokaryotes have been instrumental in structural biology and successfully exploited in biotechnology, however many proteins required for eukaryotic cell function are absent from bacteria or archaea. With Chaetomium thermophilum, Thielavia terrestris and Thielavia heterothallica three genome sequences of thermophilic eukaryotes have been published. Results Studying the genomes and proteomes of these thermophilic fungi, we found common strategies of thermal adaptation across the different kingdoms of Life, including amino acid biases and a reduced genome size. A phylogenetics-guided comparison of thermophilic proteomes with those of other, mesophilic Sordariomycetes revealed consistent amino acid substitutions associated to thermophily that were also present in an independent lineage of thermophilic fungi. The most consistent pattern is the substitution of lysine by arginine, which we could find in almost all lineages but has not been extensively used in protein stability engineering. By exploiting mutational paths towards the thermophiles, we could predict particular amino acid residues in individual proteins that contribute to thermostability and validated some of them experimentally. By determining the three-dimensional structure of an exemplar protein from C. thermophilum (Arx1, we could also characterise the molecular consequences of some of these mutations. Conclusions The comparative analysis of these three genomes not only enhances our understanding of the evolution of thermophily, but also provides new ways to engineer protein stability.

  3. Topics on dimensional reduction: Solutions and consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Acosta, Rene R.

    2000-10-01

    We exploit the dimensional reduction ideas to interpret several solutions of low dimensional effective theories from the viewpoint of string theory and M-theory. We report that a rectangular three-dimensional lattice of intersecting domain walls in D = 4 dimensions, with arbitrary spacing, emerges naturally as a classical solution of M-theory. We also construct the non-linear Kaluza-Klein ansätze describing the embeddings of the U(1)3, U(1)4 and U(1)2 truncations of D = 5, D = 4 and D = 7 gauged supergravities into the type IIB string and M-theory. We use these general ansätze to embed and interpret the charged AdS5, AdS4 and AdS7 black hole solutions in ten and eleven dimensions. We then elaborate on the consistent truncation of Kaluza- Klein theories to their massless sector while retaining the full gauge symmetry associated with the isometry group G of the internal manifold M. We derive and test in general a consistency condition for Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction for any Einstein space M̂ that is constructed as a U(1) bundle over a product of complex projective base spaces.

  4. Self-consistent model of confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    A model of the large-spatial-distance, zero--three-momentum, limit of QCD is developed from the hypothesis that there is an infrared singularity. Single quarks and gluons do not propagate because they have infinite energy after renormalization. The Hamiltonian formulation of the path integral is used to quantize QCD with physical, nonpropagating fields. Perturbation theory in the infrared limit is simplified by the absence of self-energy insertions and by the suppression of large classes of diagrams due to vanishing propagators. Remaining terms in the perturbation series are resummed to produce a set of nonlinear, renormalizable integral equations which fix both the confining interaction and the physical propagators. Solutions demonstrate the self-consistency of the concepts of an infrared singularity and nonpropagating fields. The Wilson loop is calculated to provide a general proof of confinement. Bethe-Salpeter equations for quark-antiquark pairs and for two gluons have finite-energy solutions in the color-singlet channel. The choice of gauge is addressed in detail. Large classes of corrections to the model are discussed and shown to support self-consistency

  5. Consistency of extreme flood estimation approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Guido; Paquet, Emmanuel; Penot, David; Zischg, Andreas; Weingartner, Rolf

    2017-04-01

    Estimations of low-probability flood events are frequently used for the planning of infrastructure as well as for determining the dimensions of flood protection measures. There are several well-established methodical procedures to estimate low-probability floods. However, a global assessment of the consistency of these methods is difficult to achieve, the "true value" of an extreme flood being not observable. Anyway, a detailed comparison performed on a given case study brings useful information about the statistical and hydrological processes involved in different methods. In this study, the following three different approaches for estimating low-probability floods are compared: a purely statistical approach (ordinary extreme value statistics), a statistical approach based on stochastic rainfall-runoff simulation (SCHADEX method), and a deterministic approach (physically based PMF estimation). These methods are tested for two different Swiss catchments. The results and some intermediate variables are used for assessing potential strengths and weaknesses of each method, as well as for evaluating the consistency of these methods.

  6. On the consistent effect histories approach to quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, O.

    1996-01-01

    A formulation of the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics in terms of generalized observables (POV measures) and effect operators is provided. The usual notion of open-quote open-quote history close-quote close-quote is generalized to the notion of open-quote open-quote effect history.close-quote close-quote The space of effect histories carries the structure of a D-poset. Recent results of J. D. Maitland Wright imply that every decoherence functional defined for ordinary histories can be uniquely extended to a bi-additive decoherence functional on the space of effect histories. Omngrave es close-quote logical interpretation is generalized to the present context. The result of this work considerably generalizes and simplifies the earlier formulation of the consistent effect histories approach to quantum mechanics communicated in a previous work of this author. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. A Self-consistent Model of the Solar Tachocline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, T. S.; Brummell, N. H.

    2018-02-01

    We present a local but fully nonlinear model of the solar tachocline, using three-dimensional direct numerical simulations. The tachocline forms naturally as a statistically steady balance between Coriolis, pressure, buoyancy, and Lorentz forces beneath a turbulent convection zone. Uniform rotation is maintained in the radiation zone by a primordial magnetic field, which is confined by meridional flows in the tachocline and convection zone. Such balanced dynamics has previously been found in idealized laminar models, but never in fully self-consistent numerical simulations.

  8. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  9. Temporal consistency is currency in shifts of transient visual attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arni Kristjánsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Observers respond more accurately to targets in visual search tasks that share properties with previously presented items, and transient attention can learn featural consistencies on a precue, irrespective of its absolute location. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated whether such attentional benefits also apply to temporal consistencies. Would performance on a precued Vernier acuity discrimination task, followed by a mask, improve if the cue-lead times (CLTs; 50, 100, 150 or 200 ms remained constant between trials compared to when they changed? The results showed that if CLTs remained constant for a few trials in a row, Vernier acuity performance gradually improved while changes in CLT from one trial to the next led to worse than average discrimination performance. The results show that transient attention can quickly adjust to temporal regularities, similarly to spatial and featural regularities. Further experiments show that this form of learning is not under voluntary control. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results add to a growing literature showing how consistency in visual presentation improves visual performance, in this case temporal consistency.

  10. Consistent histories: Description of a world with increasing entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Woo

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A distinction is made between two kinds of consistent histories: (1 robust histories consistent by virtue of decoherence, and (2 verifiable histories consistent through the existence of accessible records. It is events in verifiable histories which describe amplified quantum fluctuations. If the consistent-histories formalism is to improve on the Copenhagen interpretation by providing a self-contained quantum representation of the quasi-classical world, the appropriate quantum state must track closely all macroscopic phenomena, and the von Neumann entropy of that quantum state ought to change in the same direction as the statistical entropy of the macro-world. Since the von Neumann entropy tends to decrease under successive branchings, the evolution of an entropy-increasing quasi-classical world is not described by a process of branchings only: mergings of previously separate histories must also occur. As a consequence, the number of possible quasi-classical worlds does not have to grow indefinitely as in the many-world picture.

  11. Consistency of the minimal supersymmetric GUT spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulakh, Charanjit S.

    2005-01-01

    We show that with proper accounting of convention-dependent phases the mass spectra evaluated by us in an earlier paper satisfy the trace, SU(5) reassembly and Goldstone counting consistency checks. Phase accounting shows that the transposition symmetry called Hermiticity will be manifest only if signs arising from the product of six phase factors are reinserted. This uncovers the errors in the claims of others (retracted in subsequent work) concerning the inconsistency of our results. The chiral multiplet spectra of the two calculations are equivalent. However our method also gives all gauge and gauge chiral spectra as well as a decomposition of all SO(10) minimal supersymmetric grand unified theory couplings, for both tensors and spinors, which are unavailable, even in principle, using the methods of the above papers

  12. Non linear self consistency of microtearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.

    1987-01-01

    The self consistency of a microtearing turbulence is studied in non linear regimes where the ergodicity of the flux lines determines the electron response. The current which sustains the magnetic perturbation via the Ampere law results from the combines action of the radial electric field in the frame where the island chains are static and of the thermal electron diamagnetism. Numerical calculations show that at usual values of β pol in Tokamaks the turbulence can create a diffusion coefficient of order ν th p 2 i where p i is the ion larmor radius and ν th the electron ion collision frequency. On the other hand, collisionless regimes involving special profiles of each mode near the resonant surface seem possible

  13. On the consistent use of Constructed Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Trott, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We define "constructed observables" as relating experimental measurements to terms in a Lagrangian while simultaneously making assumptions about possible deviations from the Standard Model (SM), in other Lagrangian terms. Ensuring that the SM effective field theory (EFT) is constrained correctly when using constructed observables requires that their defining conditions are imposed on the EFT in a manner that is consistent with the equations of motion. Failing to do so can result in a "functionally redundant" operator basis and the wrong expectation as to how experimental quantities are related in the EFT. We illustrate the issues involved considering the $\\rm S$ parameter and the off shell triple gauge coupling (TGC) verticies. We show that the relationships between $h \\rightarrow V \\bar{f} \\, f$ decay and the off shell TGC verticies are subject to these subtleties, and how the connections between these observables vanish in the limit of strong bounds due to LEP. The challenge of using constructed observables...

  14. Internal Branding and Employee Brand Consistent Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Employee behaviours conveying brand values, named brand consistent behaviours, affect the overall brand evaluation. Internal branding literature highlights a knowledge gap in terms of communication practices intended to sustain such behaviours. This study contributes to the development of a non......-normative and constitutive approach to internal branding by proposing an enablement-oriented communication approach. The conceptual background presents a holistic model of the inside-out process of brand building. This model adopts a theoretical approach to internal branding as a nonnormative practice that facilitates...... constitutive processes. In particular, the paper places emphasis on the role and kinds of communication practices as a central part of the nonnormative and constitutive internal branding process. The paper also discusses an empirical study based on interviews with 32 Italian and American communication managers...

  15. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of evaporation products

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2017-01-18

    Advances in space-based observations have provided the capacity to develop regional- to global-scale estimates of evaporation, offering insights into this key component of the hydrological cycle. However, the evaluation of large-scale evaporation retrievals is not a straightforward task. While a number of studies have intercompared a range of these evaporation products by examining the variance amongst them, or by comparison of pixel-scale retrievals against ground-based observations, there is a need to explore more appropriate techniques to comprehensively evaluate remote-sensing-based estimates. One possible approach is to establish the level of product agreement between related hydrological components: for instance, how well do evaporation patterns and response match with precipitation or water storage changes? To assess the suitability of this "consistency"-based approach for evaluating evaporation products, we focused our investigation on four globally distributed basins in arid and semi-arid environments, comprising the Colorado River basin, Niger River basin, Aral Sea basin, and Lake Eyre basin. In an effort to assess retrieval quality, three satellite-based global evaporation products based on different methodologies and input data, including CSIRO-PML, the MODIS Global Evapotranspiration product (MOD16), and Global Land Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM), were evaluated against rainfall data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) along with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) water storage anomalies. To ensure a fair comparison, we evaluated consistency using a degree correlation approach after transforming both evaporation and precipitation data into spherical harmonics. Overall we found no persistent hydrological consistency in these dryland environments. Indeed, the degree correlation showed oscillating values between periods of low and high water storage changes, with a phase difference of about 2–3 months

  16. Quantifying consistent individual differences in habitat selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Martin; Vander Wal, Eric; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E; Kindberg, Jonas; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-03-01

    Habitat selection is a fundamental behaviour that links individuals to the resources required for survival and reproduction. Although natural selection acts on an individual's phenotype, research on habitat selection often pools inter-individual patterns to provide inferences on the population scale. Here, we expanded a traditional approach of quantifying habitat selection at the individual level to explore the potential for consistent individual differences of habitat selection. We used random coefficients in resource selection functions (RSFs) and repeatability estimates to test for variability in habitat selection. We applied our method to a detailed dataset of GPS relocations of brown bears (Ursus arctos) taken over a period of 6 years, and assessed whether they displayed repeatable individual differences in habitat selection toward two habitat types: bogs and recent timber-harvest cut blocks. In our analyses, we controlled for the availability of habitat, i.e. the functional response in habitat selection. Repeatability estimates of habitat selection toward bogs and cut blocks were 0.304 and 0.420, respectively. Therefore, 30.4 and 42.0 % of the population-scale habitat selection variability for bogs and cut blocks, respectively, was due to differences among individuals, suggesting that consistent individual variation in habitat selection exists in brown bears. Using simulations, we posit that repeatability values of habitat selection are not related to the value and significance of β estimates in RSFs. Although individual differences in habitat selection could be the results of non-exclusive factors, our results illustrate the evolutionary potential of habitat selection.

  17. Effect of the product type, of the amount of applied sunscreen product and the level of protection in the UVB range on the level of protection achieved in the UVA range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couteau, C; Diarra, H; Coiffard, L

    2016-03-16

    Using a topical product is part of the overall strategy for skin cancer prevention. The level of protection attainable when using commercial products is indicated by the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) value, in use everywhere. This value reflects the level of protection primarily in the UVB range. However, UVA radiation also has deleterious effects on the skin, and it is essential to prevent it, which is why products must offer a wide spectrum of protection. Tests conducted in vivo, before any marketing, are done by applying the studied product at a rate of 2.0 mg cm(-2), while users, in practice, only use 1.0-1.5 mg cm(-2). We now know that this reduction in the amount of applied product greatly affects the SPF. To complete the state of knowledge in this area, we sought to evaluate the effect of a decrease in the amount of applied sunscreen product by studying sunscreen creams and oils on the level of protection attainable in the UVA range. We have shown that the PF-UVA is divided by a factor of 2.2, on average, when the amount of applied product is reduced by half, with differences depending on the product type under consideration (cream or oil) and depending on the SPF of the preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Orthographic consistency affects spoken word recognition at different grain-sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya

    2014-01-01

    A number of previous studies found that the consistency of sound-to-spelling mappings (feedback consistency) affects spoken word recognition. In auditory lexical decision experiments, words that can only be spelled one way are recognized faster than words with multiple potential spellings. Previous.......g., lobe) faster than words with consistent rhymes where the vowel has a less typical spelling (e.g., loaf). The present study extends previous literature by showing that auditory word recognition is affected by orthographic regularities at different grain sizes, just like written word recognition...... and spelling. The theoretical and methodological implications for future research in spoken word recognition are discussed....

  19. Consistency in adult reporting of adverse childhood experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, I; Kingsbury, M; Garad, Y; Zeng, Y; Naicker, K; Patten, S; Jones, P B; Wild, T C; Thompson, A H

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have used retrospective reports to assess the long-term consequences of early life stress. However, current individual characteristics and experiences may bias the recall of these reports. In particular, depressed mood may increase the likelihood of recall of negative experiences. The aim of the study was to assess whether specific factors are associated with consistency in the reporting of childhood adverse experiences. The sample comprised 7466 adults from Canada's National Population Health Survey who had reported on seven childhood adverse experiences in 1994/1995 and 2006/2007. Logistic regression was used to explore differences between those who consistently reported adverse experiences and those whose reports were inconsistent. Among those retrospectively reporting on childhood traumatic experiences in 1994/1995 and 2006/2007, 39% were inconsistent in their reports of these experiences. The development of depression, increasing levels of psychological distress, as well as increasing work and chronic stress were associated with an increasing likelihood of reporting a childhood adverse experience in 2006/2007 that had not been previously reported. Increases in mastery were associated with reduced likelihood of new reporting of a childhood adverse experience in 2006/2007. The development of depression and increases in chronic stress and psychological distress were also associated with reduced likelihood of 'forgetting' a previously reported event. Concurrent mental health factors may influence the reporting of traumatic childhood experiences. Studies that use retrospective reporting to estimate associations between childhood adversity and adult outcomes associated with mental health may be biased.

  20. Robust Object Tracking Based on Motion Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lijun; Qiao, Xiaoya; Wen, Shuai

    2018-01-01

    Object tracking is an important research direction in computer vision and is widely used in video surveillance, security monitoring, video analysis and other fields. Conventional tracking algorithms perform poorly in specific scenes, such as a target with fast motion and occlusion. The candidate samples may lose the true target due to its fast motion. Moreover, the appearance of the target may change with movement. In this paper, we propose an object tracking algorithm based on motion consistency. In the state transition model, candidate samples are obtained by the target state, which is predicted according to the temporal correlation. In the appearance model, we define the position factor to represent the different importance of candidate samples in different positions using the double Gaussian probability model. The candidate sample with highest likelihood is selected as the tracking result by combining the holistic and local responses with the position factor. Moreover, an adaptive template updating scheme is proposed to adapt to the target’s appearance changes, especially those caused by fast motion. The experimental results on a 2013 benchmark dataset demonstrate that the proposed algorithm performs better in scenes with fast motion and partial or full occlusion compared to the state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:29438323

  1. A Consistent Phylogenetic Backbone for the Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersberger, Ingo; de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Kupczok, Anne; Gube, Matthias; Kothe, Erika; Voigt, Kerstin; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2012-01-01

    The kingdom of fungi provides model organisms for biotechnology, cell biology, genetics, and life sciences in general. Only when their phylogenetic relationships are stably resolved, can individual results from fungal research be integrated into a holistic picture of biology. However, and despite recent progress, many deep relationships within the fungi remain unclear. Here, we present the first phylogenomic study of an entire eukaryotic kingdom that uses a consistency criterion to strengthen phylogenetic conclusions. We reason that branches (splits) recovered with independent data and different tree reconstruction methods are likely to reflect true evolutionary relationships. Two complementary phylogenomic data sets based on 99 fungal genomes and 109 fungal expressed sequence tag (EST) sets analyzed with four different tree reconstruction methods shed light from different angles on the fungal tree of life. Eleven additional data sets address specifically the phylogenetic position of Blastocladiomycota, Ustilaginomycotina, and Dothideomycetes, respectively. The combined evidence from the resulting trees supports the deep-level stability of the fungal groups toward a comprehensive natural system of the fungi. In addition, our analysis reveals methodologically interesting aspects. Enrichment for EST encoded data—a common practice in phylogenomic analyses—introduces a strong bias toward slowly evolving and functionally correlated genes. Consequently, the generalization of phylogenomic data sets as collections of randomly selected genes cannot be taken for granted. A thorough characterization of the data to assess possible influences on the tree reconstruction should therefore become a standard in phylogenomic analyses. PMID:22114356

  2. Self consistent field theory of virus assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyu; Orland, Henri; Zandi, Roya

    2018-04-01

    The ground state dominance approximation (GSDA) has been extensively used to study the assembly of viral shells. In this work we employ the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) to investigate the adsorption of RNA onto positively charged spherical viral shells and examine the conditions when GSDA does not apply and SCFT has to be used to obtain a reliable solution. We find that there are two regimes in which GSDA does work. First, when the genomic RNA length is long enough compared to the capsid radius, and second, when the interaction between the genome and capsid is so strong that the genome is basically localized next to the wall. We find that for the case in which RNA is more or less distributed uniformly in the shell, regardless of the length of RNA, GSDA is not a good approximation. We observe that as the polymer–shell interaction becomes stronger, the energy gap between the ground state and first excited state increases and thus GSDA becomes a better approximation. We also present our results corresponding to the genome persistence length obtained through the tangent–tangent correlation length and show that it is zero in case of GSDA but is equal to the inverse of the energy gap when using SCFT.

  3. [Consistent Declarative Memory with Depressive Symptomatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho de Oliveira, Silvia; Flórez, Ruth Natalia Suárez; Caballero, Diego Andrés Vásquez

    2012-12-01

    Some studies have suggested that potentiated remembrance of negative events on people with depressive disorders seems to be an important factor in the etiology, course and maintenance of depression. Evaluate the emotional memory in people with and without depressive symptomatology by means of an audio-visual test. 73 university students were evaluated, male and female, between 18 and 40 years old, distributed in two groups: with depressive symptomatology (32) and without depressive symptomatology (40), using the Scale from the Center of Epidemiologic Studies for Depression (CES-D, English Abbreviation) and a cutting point of 20. There were not meaningful differences between free and voluntary recalls, with and without depressive symptomatology, in spite of the fact that both groups had granted a higher emotional value to the audio-visual test and that they had associated it with emotional sadness. People with depressive symptomatology did not exhibit the effect of mnemonic potentiation generally associated to the content of the emotional version of the test; therefore, the hypothesis of emotional consistency was not validated. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Mining GO annotations for improving annotation consistency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Faria

    Full Text Available Despite the structure and objectivity provided by the Gene Ontology (GO, the annotation of proteins is a complex task that is subject to errors and inconsistencies. Electronically inferred annotations in particular are widely considered unreliable. However, given that manual curation of all GO annotations is unfeasible, it is imperative to improve the quality of electronically inferred annotations. In this work, we analyze the full GO molecular function annotation of UniProtKB proteins, and discuss some of the issues that affect their quality, focusing particularly on the lack of annotation consistency. Based on our analysis, we estimate that 64% of the UniProtKB proteins are incompletely annotated, and that inconsistent annotations affect 83% of the protein functions and at least 23% of the proteins. Additionally, we present and evaluate a data mining algorithm, based on the association rule learning methodology, for identifying implicit relationships between molecular function terms. The goal of this algorithm is to assist GO curators in updating GO and correcting and preventing inconsistent annotations. Our algorithm predicted 501 relationships with an estimated precision of 94%, whereas the basic association rule learning methodology predicted 12,352 relationships with a precision below 9%.

  5. Consistency between GRUAN sondes, LBLRTM and IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Calbet

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiosonde soundings from the GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN data record are shown to be consistent with Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Instrument (IASI-measured radiances via LBLRTM (Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model in the part of the spectrum that is mostly affected by water vapour absorption in the upper troposphere (from 700 hPa up. This result is key for climate data records, since GRUAN, IASI and LBLRTM constitute reference measurements or a reference radiative transfer model in each of their fields. This is specially the case for night-time radiosonde measurements. Although the sample size is small (16 cases, daytime GRUAN radiosonde measurements seem to have a small dry bias of 2.5 % in absolute terms of relative humidity, located mainly in the upper troposphere, with respect to LBLRTM and IASI. Full metrological closure is not yet possible and will not be until collocation uncertainties are better characterized and a full uncertainty covariance matrix is clarified for GRUAN.

  6. A consistent phylogenetic backbone for the fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersberger, Ingo; de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Kupczok, Anne; Gube, Matthias; Kothe, Erika; Voigt, Kerstin; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2012-05-01

    The kingdom of fungi provides model organisms for biotechnology, cell biology, genetics, and life sciences in general. Only when their phylogenetic relationships are stably resolved, can individual results from fungal research be integrated into a holistic picture of biology. However, and despite recent progress, many deep relationships within the fungi remain unclear. Here, we present the first phylogenomic study of an entire eukaryotic kingdom that uses a consistency criterion to strengthen phylogenetic conclusions. We reason that branches (splits) recovered with independent data and different tree reconstruction methods are likely to reflect true evolutionary relationships. Two complementary phylogenomic data sets based on 99 fungal genomes and 109 fungal expressed sequence tag (EST) sets analyzed with four different tree reconstruction methods shed light from different angles on the fungal tree of life. Eleven additional data sets address specifically the phylogenetic position of Blastocladiomycota, Ustilaginomycotina, and Dothideomycetes, respectively. The combined evidence from the resulting trees supports the deep-level stability of the fungal groups toward a comprehensive natural system of the fungi. In addition, our analysis reveals methodologically interesting aspects. Enrichment for EST encoded data-a common practice in phylogenomic analyses-introduces a strong bias toward slowly evolving and functionally correlated genes. Consequently, the generalization of phylogenomic data sets as collections of randomly selected genes cannot be taken for granted. A thorough characterization of the data to assess possible influences on the tree reconstruction should therefore become a standard in phylogenomic analyses.

  7. Generalized arc consistency for global cardinality constraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regin, J.C. [ILOG S.A., Gentilly (France)

    1996-12-31

    A global cardinality constraint (gcc) is specified in terms of a set of variables X = (x{sub 1},..., x{sub p}) which take their values in a subset of V = (v{sub 1},...,v{sub d}). It constrains the number of times a value v{sub i} {epsilon} V is assigned to a variable in X to be in an interval [l{sub i}, c{sub i}]. Cardinality constraints have proved very useful in many real-life problems, such as scheduling, timetabling, or resource allocation. A gcc is more general than a constraint of difference, which requires each interval to be. In this paper, we present an efficient way of implementing generalized arc consistency for a gcc. The algorithm we propose is based on a new theorem of flow theory. Its space complexity is O({vert_bar}X{vert_bar} {times} {vert_bar}V{vert_bar}) and its time complexity is O({vert_bar}X{vert_bar}{sup 2} {times} {vert_bar}V{vert_bar}). We also show how this algorithm can efficiently be combined with other filtering techniques.

  8. Exploring the Consistent behavior of Information Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapidakis Sarantos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer services are normally assumed to work well all the time. This usually happens for crucial services like bank electronic services, but not necessarily so for others, that there is no commercial interest in their operation. In this work we examined the operation and the errors of information services and tried to find clues that will help predicting the consistency of the behavior and the quality of the harvesting, which is harder because of the transient conditions and the many services and the huge amount of harvested information. We found many unexpected situations. The services that always successfully satisfy a request may in fact return part of it. A significant part of the OAI services have ceased working while many other serves occasionally fail to respond. Some services fail in the same way each time, and we pronounce them dead, as we do not see a way to overcome that. Others also always, or sometimes fail, but not in the same way, and we hope that their behavior is affected by temporary factors, that may improve later on. We categorized the services into classes, to study their behavior in more detail.

  9. Self-consistent nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, A.; Fujiie, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A concept of self-consistent energy systems (SCNES) has been proposed as an ultimate goal of the nuclear energy system in the coming centuries. SCNES should realize a stable and unlimited energy supply without endangering the human race and the global environment. It is defined as a system that realizes at least the following four objectives simultaneously: (a) energy generation -attain high efficiency in the utilization of fission energy; (b) fuel production - secure inexhaustible energy source: breeding of fissile material with the breeding ratio greater than one and complete burning of transuranium through recycling; (c) burning of radionuclides - zero release of radionuclides from the system: complete burning of transuranium and elimination of radioactive fission products by neutron capture reactions through recycling; (d) system safety - achieve system safety both for the public and experts: eliminate criticality-related safety issues by using natural laws and simple logic. This paper describes the concept of SCNES and discusses the feasibility of the system. Both ''neutron balance'' and ''energbalance'' of the system are introduced as the necessary conditions to be satisfied at least by SCNES. Evaluations made so far indicate that both the neutron balance and the energy balance can be realized by fast reactors but not by thermal reactors. Concerning the system safety, two safety concepts: ''self controllability'' and ''self-terminability'' are introduced to eliminate the criticality-related safety issues in fast reactors. (author)

  10. Light-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of a Sunscreen Agent, 2-Phenylbenzimidazole in Salmonella typhimurium TA 102 and HaCaT Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Yu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available 2-Phenylbenzimidazole (PBI is an ingredient found in sunscreen agents. PBI can absorb the UV portion of the solar light and undergo a series of light-induced reactions to cause adverse effects in humans. Therefore, chemical and photochemical toxicity of PBI were investigated in the bacteria Salmonella typhimurium TA 102 and human skin keratinocyte cells. There is no appreciable bacteria death due to the exposure to PBI alone, indicating that PBI is not chemically toxic to the bacteria at a dose as high as 625μM. However, exposure to PBI and a solar simulator light (300-W Xe/Hg lamp, 30 min, 18.6 J/cm2, equivalent to 30 min outdoor sunlight causes significant bacteria death: 35% at 25μM and 55% at 625μM PBI. Exposure of the bacteria to light and PBI at doses 5-25μM causes the bacteria to revert, an indication of mutation. In the presence of PBI but without light irradiation, the number of revertant bacteria colonies is around 200 due to spontaneous mutation. Combination of light irradiation and PBI causes the number of revertant TA 102 colonies to increase in a dose dependent manner, reaching a maximum of around 1700 revertant colonies at 25 μM PBI. At higher PBI concentrations, the number of revertant colonies remains constant. This result clearly indicates that PBI is photomutagenic in TA 102. Exposure of the human skin HaCaT keratinocytes in aqueous solution in the presence of PBI causes the cell to lose its viability with or without light irradiation. There is no significant difference in cell viability for the light irradiated or non-irradiated groups, indication PBI is not photocytotoxic. However, exposure of the cells to both PBI and light irradiation causes cellular DNA damage, while exposure to PBI alone does not cause DNA damage.

  11. Long-term use of a new topical formulation containing piroxicam 0.8% and sunscreen: efficacy and tolerability on actinic keratosis. A proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babino, Graziella; Diluvio, Laura; Bianchi, Luca; Orlandi, Augusto; Di Prete, Monia; Chimenti, Sergio; Milani, Massimo; Campione, Elena

    2016-08-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 enzyme up-regulation is involved in the pathogenetic process of actinic keratosis (A.K.) and non-melanoma skin cancers. Diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (N.S.A.I.D.) drug, is used as topical treatment of A.K. Piroxicam is a N.S.A.I.D. characterized by a high COX-1 inhibition activity. We conducted an 18 month exploratory open-label study on A.K., to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a new topical formulation of piroxicam and sunscreen in A.K. Enrolled subjects applied a galenic formulation of piroxicam 0.8%, vehiculated in a topical product containing sun filters with high (50+) and broad spectrum (UVA) actions, twice a day for 6 months. Subjects were then followed up for additional 12 months. Thirty-eight subjects with a total of 69 A.K. lesions participated in the trial. The primary outcome was the evolution of the Actinic Keratosis Erythema Scale Atrophy (A.K.E.S.A) score assessing erythema, scale, and atrophy of a target A.K. lesion. Secondary outcomes were the percentage of treated lesions with complete (100%) or partial (≥75%) clearance and the evaluation skin tolerability. A.K.E.S.A. mean (S.D.) score at baseline was 7.5 (1.2). After 6 months of treatment, A.K.E.S.A. score decreased to 0.9 (1.1), a -88% reduction versus baseline. At the end of follow-up, A.K.E.S.A. score was 0.8 (1.2). A complete response was achieved in 38 of the 69 lesions (55%, 95% C.I.: 43% to 66%) and clearance was maintained 1 year post-treatment. A partial clearance was observed in 57 of 69 treated lesions (83%, 95% C.I.: 73% to 91%). Adverse events were limited to mild local irritation. Our experience suggests that 6 month topical piroxicam 0.8% is efficacious and well tolerated in A.K. Clinical efficacy is maintained 1 year post-treatment. The main limitation of our study is that it was an open label non-controlled trial. Future controlled trials are warranted in order to compare the efficacy and tolerability of this topical

  12. View from Europe: stability, consistency or pragmatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunster, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The last few years of this decade look like a period of reappraisal of radiation protection standards. The revised risk estimates from Japan will be available, and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation will be publishing new reports on biological topics. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has started a review of its basic recommendations, and the new specification for dose equivalent in radiation fields of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) will be coming into use. All this is occurring at a time when some countries are still trying to catch up with committed dose equivalent and the recently recommended change in the value of the quality factor for neutrons. In Europe, the problems of adapting to new ICRP recommendations are considerable. The European Community, including 12 states and nine languages, takes ICRP recommendations as a basis and develops council directives that are binding on member states, which have then to arrange for their own regulatory changes. Any substantial adjustments could take 5 y or more to work through the system. Clearly, the regulatory preference is for stability. Equally clearly, trade unions and public interest groups favor a rapid response to scientific developments (provided that the change is downward). Organizations such as the ICRP have to balance their desire for internal consistency and intellectual purity against the practical problems of their clients in adjusting to change. This paper indicates some of the changes that might be necessary over the next few years and how, given a pragmatic approach, they might be accommodated in Europe without too much regulatory confusion

  13. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...

  14. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...

  15. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.

  16. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  17. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  18. Triple outlet right ventricle: a previously unknown cardiac malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A

    2015-03-01

    We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.

  19. Temporal and contextual consistency of leadership in homing pigeon flocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos D Santos

    Full Text Available Organized flight of homing pigeons (Columba livia was previously shown to rely on simple leadership rules between flock mates, yet the stability of this social structuring over time and across different contexts remains unclear. We quantified the repeatability of leadership-based flock structures within a flight and across multiple flights conducted with the same animals. We compared two contexts of flock composition: flocks of birds of the same age and flight experience; and, flocks of birds of different ages and flight experience. All flocks displayed consistent leadership-based structures over time, showing that individuals have stable roles in the navigational decisions of the flock. However, flocks of balanced age and flight experience exhibited reduced leadership stability, indicating that these factors promote flock structuring. Our study empirically demonstrates that leadership and followership are consistent behaviours in homing pigeon flocks, but such consistency is affected by the heterogeneity of individual flight experiences and/or age. Similar evidence from other species suggests leadership as an important mechanism for coordinated motion in small groups of animals with strong social bonds.

  20. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  1. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  2. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heathcote

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.

  3. Influence of previous participation in physical activity on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda

  4. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  5. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  6. Delivery outcomes at term after one previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y

    2007-12-01

    To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.

  7. [Influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haoran; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Yingfang; Wu, Beisheng; Peng, Chao

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation. A retrospective analysis of 3 283 cases of gynecological diseases by laparoscopic operation patients in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 January to 2012 December, among them, 719 (21.90%) patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery history (study Group), 2 564 (78.10%)patients have no history of abdominopelvic surgery (control group). Study group 719 patients, previous operation times: one time in 525 cases, 194 cases were multiple; previous operation: 185 cases of gynecological surgery, 305 cases of obstetric surgery, 108 cases of general surgery, and 121 complex surgery (include at least two kinds of surgery); previous operative approach: 650 cases laparotomy and 69 cases laparoscopy. Compared two groups of patients with abdominopelvic adhesion and the gynecologic laparoscopic operation situation, analyzed the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on abdominopelvic adhesion on and gynecological laparoscopic operation. The incidence of abdominopelvic adhesion in the patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery was 51.2% (368/719), which was significantly higher than that of 8.2% (211/2 564)in patients without previous abdominopelvic surgery (P surgery (23.1%, 166/719) was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.3% , 85/2 564;P laparotomy was 0.6% (4/719) significantly more than the control groups (0.1%, 2/2 564; P = 0.023). Compared with other groups, patients with gynecological or complex surgery or multiple operation history presented more severe abdominopelvic adhesion both in the score and degree (P laparotomy showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The laparoscopic operation could be carried out successfully and safely in patients with a history of various abdominopelvic operations, but the conversion rate increases, for patients with a history of multiple operation because of pelvic adhesion

  8. Time-Consistent and Market-Consistent Evaluations (Revised version of 2012-086)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadje, M.A.; Pelsser, A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from

  9. Consistent approach to air-cleaning system duct design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.H.; Ornberg, S.C.; Rooney, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear power plant air-cleaning system effectiveness is dependent on the capability of a duct system to safely convey contaminated gas to a filtration unit and subsequently to a point of discharge. This paper presents a logical and consistent design approach for selecting sheet metal ductwork construction to meet applicable criteria. The differences in design engineers' duct construction specifications are acknowledged. Typical duct construction details and suggestions for their effective use are presented. Improvements in duct design sections of ANSI/ASME N509-80 are highlighted. A detailed leakage analysis of a control room HVAC system is undertaken to illustrate the effects of conceptual design variations on duct construction requirements. Shortcomings of previously published analyses and interpretations of a current standard are included

  10. Metabolome Consistency: Additional Parazoanthines from the Mediterranean Zoanthid Parazoanthus Axinellae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Audoin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of the organic extract obtained from the Mediterranean zoanthid Parazoanthus axinellae yielded to the identification of five new parazoanthines F-J. The structures were fully determined by comparison of fragmentation patterns with those of previously isolated parazoathines and MS/MS spectra simulation of in silico predicted compounds according to the metabolome consistency. The absolute configuration of the new compounds has been assigned using on-line electronic circular dichroism (UHPLC-ECD. We thus demonstrated the potential of highly sensitive hyphenated techniques to characterize the structures of a whole family of natural products within the metabolome of a marine species. Minor compounds can be characterized using these techniques thus avoiding long isolation processes that may alter the structure of the natural products. These results are also of interest to identify putative bioactive compounds present at low concentration in a complex mixture.

  11. Metabolome consistency: additional parazoanthines from the mediterranean zoanthid parazoanthus axinellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audoin, Coralie; Cocandeau, Vincent; Thomas, Olivier P; Bruschini, Adrien; Holderith, Serge; Genta-Jouve, Grégory

    2014-05-30

    Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis of the organic extract obtained from the Mediterranean zoanthid Parazoanthus axinellae yielded to the identification of five new parazoanthines F-J. The structures were fully determined by comparison of fragmentation patterns with those of previously isolated parazoathines and MS/MS spectra simulation of in silico predicted compounds according to the metabolome consistency. The absolute configuration of the new compounds has been assigned using on-line electronic circular dichroism (UHPLC-ECD). We thus demonstrated the potential of highly sensitive hyphenated techniques to characterize the structures of a whole family of natural products within the metabolome of a marine species. Minor compounds can be characterized using these techniques thus avoiding long isolation processes that may alter the structure of the natural products. These results are also of interest to identify putative bioactive compounds present at low concentration in a complex mixture.

  12. Formal verification of an oral messages algorithm for interactive consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, John

    1992-01-01

    The formal specification and verification of an algorithm for Interactive Consistency based on the Oral Messages algorithm for Byzantine Agreement is described. We compare our treatment with that of Bevier and Young, who presented a formal specification and verification for a very similar algorithm. Unlike Bevier and Young, who observed that 'the invariant maintained in the recursive subcases of the algorithm is significantly more complicated than is suggested by the published proof' and who found its formal verification 'a fairly difficult exercise in mechanical theorem proving,' our treatment is very close to the previously published analysis of the algorithm, and our formal specification and verification are straightforward. This example illustrates how delicate choices in the formulation of the problem can have significant impact on the readability of its formal specification and on the tractability of its formal verification.

  13. A self-consistent spin-diffusion model for micromagnetics

    KAUST Repository

    Abert, Claas

    2016-12-17

    We propose a three-dimensional micromagnetic model that dynamically solves the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation coupled to the full spin-diffusion equation. In contrast to previous methods, we solve for the magnetization dynamics and the electric potential in a self-consistent fashion. This treatment allows for an accurate description of magnetization dependent resistance changes. Moreover, the presented algorithm describes both spin accumulation due to smooth magnetization transitions and due to material interfaces as in multilayer structures. The model and its finite-element implementation are validated by current driven motion of a magnetic vortex structure. In a second experiment, the resistivity of a magnetic multilayer structure in dependence of the tilting angle of the magnetization in the different layers is investigated. Both examples show good agreement with reference simulations and experiments respectively.

  14. How to Decode Sunscreen Lingo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AAD Contact us Support AAD Media AAD store Advertise Employment Website feedback "); document.write(""); document.write(" Cart "); } ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ...

  15. A new k-epsilon model consistent with Monin-Obukhov similarity theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Laan, Paul; Kelly, Mark C.; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2017-01-01

    A new k-" model is introduced that is consistent with Monin–Obukhov similarity theory (MOST). The proposed k-" model is compared with another k-" model that was developed in an attempt to maintain inlet profiles compatible with MOST. It is shown that the previous k-" model is not consistent with ...

  16. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  17. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  18. Factors affecting the consistent use of barrier methods of contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, L J; Harvey, S M

    1996-09-01

    To discuss the major issues involved in the consistent and effective use of barrier methods of contraception. Major research and review articles on barrier methods published within the last 10 years were considered. One major source of articles was Family Planning Perspectives. This paper is a focused review and integration of recent literature rather than a comprehensive literature review. Only selected articles published since 1986 that are pertinent to the issues raised are included. All barrier methods have common characteristics that influence their patterns of use. The correct and consistent use of such methods is determined by the complex interaction of characteristics of the methods themselves, characteristics of users, and the situational context. Method characteristics include the extent of interference with sexual spontaneity and enjoyment, the amount of partner cooperation required, and the ability of the method to protect against human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted diseases. User characteristics include motivation to avoid unintended pregnancy, ability to plan, comfort with sexuality, and previous contraceptive use. Stage of sexual career, relationship characteristics, and physical and sexual abuse are important situational influences. Even though most barrier methods can be obtained without a prescription from a provider, clinicians have an extremely important role in promoting effective and consistent method use. Four major ways to improve the use of barrier methods currently available include: 1) improve method characteristics and the distribution systems; 2) change consumers' perceptions of method attributes; 3) train consumers to use methods correctly and overcome-perceived negative characteristics of the methods; and 4) change values about the perceived importance of method characteristics. There also is an urgent need for the development of better barrier methods.

  19. Dictionary-based fiber orientation estimation with improved spatial consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chuyang; Prince, Jerry L

    2018-02-01

    Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) has enabled in vivo investigation of white matter tracts. Fiber orientation (FO) estimation is a key step in tract reconstruction and has been a popular research topic in dMRI analysis. In particular, the sparsity assumption has been used in conjunction with a dictionary-based framework to achieve reliable FO estimation with a reduced number of gradient directions. Because image noise can have a deleterious effect on the accuracy of FO estimation, previous works have incorporated spatial consistency of FOs in the dictionary-based framework to improve the estimation. However, because FOs are only indirectly determined from the mixture fractions of dictionary atoms and not modeled as variables in the objective function, these methods do not incorporate FO smoothness directly, and their ability to produce smooth FOs could be limited. In this work, we propose an improvement to Fiber Orientation Reconstruction using Neighborhood Information (FORNI), which we call FORNI+; this method estimates FOs in a dictionary-based framework where FO smoothness is better enforced than in FORNI alone. We describe an objective function that explicitly models the actual FOs and the mixture fractions of dictionary atoms. Specifically, it consists of data fidelity between the observed signals and the signals represented by the dictionary, pairwise FO dissimilarity that encourages FO smoothness, and weighted ℓ 1 -norm terms that ensure the consistency between the actual FOs and the FO configuration suggested by the dictionary representation. The FOs and mixture fractions are then jointly estimated by minimizing the objective function using an iterative alternating optimization strategy. FORNI+ was evaluated on a simulation phantom, a physical phantom, and real brain dMRI data. In particular, in the real brain dMRI experiment, we have qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated the reproducibility of the proposed method. Results demonstrate that

  20. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to...

  1. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  2. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  3. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  4. Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer. Abstract. The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor ...

  5. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  6. Suburethral sling procedures after previous surgery for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compare the outcome of suburethral sling procedures (tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), obturator tape (Ob-tape)) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with previous surgery for SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. A comparative, descriptive, retrospective study was done using information ...

  7. 5 CFR 532.405 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405 Section 532.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... rate may be based upon a rate of pay received during a temporary promotion, so long as the temporary...

  8. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  9. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...

  10. Bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment in a previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, we present a case of an 11‑year‑old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment to highlight that hemoglobinopathy induced orbital infarction should be considered in African children with acute onset proptosis with or without ...

  11. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  12. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Control of feed intake as affected by previous treatment | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with eighteen rumen cannulated sheep fed on a chopped lucerne diet. Previous level of intake significantly influenced the level at which sheep initially established voluntary feed intake. This difference had disappeared after three weeks on an ad lib. intake. Perturbation analysis of the results ...

  14. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  15. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, ...

  16. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  17. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  18. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study on timing of antenatal care booking at public health facilities in ... Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to collect data from 630 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care service at 10 governmental ...

  19. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  20. Mondor's Disease of the Breast in a Nigerian Woman Previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Case Report. How to cite this article: Olarinoye-Akorede SA, Silas BT. Mondor's disease of the breast in a Nigerian woman previously treated for invasive ductal carcinoma in the ... and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints .... malignancy. Financial support and sponsorship.

  1. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities manifested...

  2. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R

    2008-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  3. Heroin Addicts Reporting Previous Heroin Overdoses Also Report Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradvik, Louise; Frank, Arne; Hulenvik, Per; Medvedeo, Alvaro; Berglund, Mats

    2007-01-01

    Nonfatal heroin overdoses and suicide attempts are both common among heroin addicts, but there is limited knowledge about the association between them. The sample in the present study consisted of 149 regular heroin users in Malmo, Sweden. Out of these 98 had taken an unintentional heroin overdose at some time and 51 had made at least one attempt…

  4. Hazard perception in traffic. [previously knows as: Hazard perception.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Hazard perception is an essential part of the driving task. There are clear indications that insufficient skills in perceiving hazards play an important role in the occurrence of crashes, especially those involving novice drivers. Proper hazard perception not only consists of scanning and perceiving

  5. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  6. Nicotine Elicits Methamphetamine-Seeking in Rats Previously Administered Nicotine

    OpenAIRE

    Neugebauer, N. M.; Harrod, S. B.; Bardo, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, ...

  7. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  8. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  9. Event Sequence Variability in Healthy Swallowing: Building on Previous Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired-events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs, which always occurred in a stereotyped order as well as a most-common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigate overall event sequencing and the same four paired-events in a sample of swallows by healthy, young (under 45 years old) volunt...

  10. Prevalence and significance of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Beneventi, Fausta; Ramoni, Véronique; Caporali, Roberto; Locatelli, Elena; Simonetta, Margherita; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Alpini, Claudia; Albonico, Giulia; Prisco, Elena; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the rates of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy and their impact on the pregnancy outcome. Pregnant women in their first trimester were screened using a two-step approach using a self-administered 10-item questionnaire and subsequent testing for rheumatic autoantibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-extractable nuclear antigen, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and evaluation by a rheumatologist. Overall, the complications of pregnancy evaluated included fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, delivery at less than 34 weeks, neonatal resuscitation and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Out of the 2458 women screened, the authors identified 62 (2.5%) women with previously undiagnosed undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and 24 (0.98%) women with previously undiagnosed definite systemic rheumatic disease. The prevalences were seven (0.28%) for systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome, six (0.24%) for rheumatoid arthritis, three (0.12%) for antiphospholipid syndrome and one (0.04%) for systemic sclerosis. In multiple exact logistic regression, after adjustment for potential confounders, the OR of overall complications of pregnancy were 2.81 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.18) in women with UCTD and 4.57 (95% CI 1.57 to 13.57) in those with definite diseases, respectively, compared with asymptomatic controls. In our population approximately 2.5% and 1% of first trimester pregnant women had a previously undiagnosed UCTD and definite systemic rheumatic disease, respectively. These conditions were associated with significant negative effects on the outcome of pregnancy.

  11. Previously infertile couples and the newborn intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, R F; Pruitt, R L; Greenfeld, D

    1989-05-01

    Having a newborn child admitted to a newborn intensive care unit can be a traumatic experience for parents; however, parents who previously have been infertile face unique problems in coping with this situation. The authors discuss the difficulties parents must overcome in resolving their crises and in developing a good relationship with their child, or, in some cases, coming to terms with the child's death or ongoing disability. In addition, the authors offer suggestions for effective social work intervention.

  12. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby

    OpenAIRE

    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla

    2014-01-01

    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  13. Event sequence variability in healthy swallowing: building on previous findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-04-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard, and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs that always occurred in a stereotyped order and a most common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigated overall event sequencing and the same four paired events in a sample of swallows by healthy young (under 45 years old) volunteers. Data were collected during a 16-swallow lateral videofluoroscopy protocol, which included manipulations of bolus volume, barium density, bolus viscosity, and swallow cueing. Our results agreed with previous findings that variable event sequencing is found in healthy swallowing, and, in regard to obligatory sequencing of two paired events, movement of the arytenoids toward the base of the epiglottis begins prior to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening and maximum hyolaryngeal approximation occurs after UES opening. However, our data failed to replicate the previous findings that there is obligatory sequencing of maximum pharyngeal constriction after maximal UES distension and the UES opens before bolus arrival at the UES. The most common observed overall event sequence reported by Kendall et al. was observed in only 4/293 swallows in our dataset. Manipulations of bolus volume, bolus viscosity, barium concentration, swallow cueing, and swallow repetitions could not completely account for the differences observed between the two studies.

  14. Prevalence of Infraumbilical Adhesions in Women With Previous Laparoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lowell; Wong, Herb; Liu, C. Y.; Phelps, John Y.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of intraabdominal adhesions to the umbilicus following gynecologic laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all gynecologic laparoscopic procedures in a private practice setting to identify patients with a repeat laparoscopy who had a history of a previous laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Patients with a history of other surgeries were excluded. All repeat laparoscopies used a left upper quadrant entry technique where the abdominal cavity was surveyed for adhesions. We also reviewed adverse events attributable to the left upper quadrant entry approach. Results: We identified 151 patients who underwent a second laparoscopy and had a previous umbilical scar. Thirty-two of the 151 (21.2%) patients with a history of a laparoscopy had evidence of adhesions to the umbilical undersurface. No adverse events or injuries were attributed to the left upper quadrant entry technique. Conclusions: Adhesions to the umbilical undersurface occur in 21.2% of patients who have undergone a prior laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. For this reason, we recommend an alternate location for entry in patients with an umbilical scar from a previous laparoscopy. PMID:17651555

  15. Self-consistent Pauli corrections in Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braley, R. C.; Ford, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    A scheme is introduced which makes it feasible to make completely self-consistent Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) and renormalized BHF calculations for spherical, closed-shell and axially-symmetric deformed nuclei. The usual requirement or orbital self-consistency has been imposed, as well as self-consistency in the starting energies and occupation probabilities. Previously, only approximate forms were used for the Pauli operator. This approximation is removed and a method for making the necessary Pauli corrections to the reaction matrix during the approach to self-consistency is presented. A discussion of the symmetries which reduce the problem to one of manageable proportions is included.

  16. Further analysis of previously implicated linkage regions for Alzheimer's disease in affected relative pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lannfelt Lars

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide linkage studies for Alzheimer's disease have implicated several chromosomal regions as potential loci for susceptibility genes. Methods In the present study, we have combined a selection of affected relative pairs (ARPs from the UK and the USA included in a previous linkage study by Myers et al. (Am J Med Genet, 2002, with ARPs from Sweden and Washington University. In this total sample collection of 397 ARPs, we have analyzed linkage to chromosomes 1, 9, 10, 12, 19 and 21, implicated in the previous scan. Results The analysis revealed that linkage to chromosome 19q13 close to the APOE locus increased considerably as compared to the earlier scan. However, linkage to chromosome 10q21, which provided the strongest linkage in the previous scan could not be detected. Conclusion The present investigation provides yet further evidence that 19q13 is the only chromosomal region consistently linked to Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Tropical small streams are a consistent source of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihermaa, Leena; Waldron, Susan

    2013-04-01

    To date only a few studies have quantified diffusive methane emissions from headwater streams therefore the magnitude and seasonal variation of these emissions remain poorly understood. Here we present results from two Western Amazonian small streams (first and second order) in Tambopata National Reserve, Peru. Towards the end of wet season, April-May 2012, the streams were sampled using a static floating chamber to accumulate methane. Samples were drawn from the headspace twice daily over period of four days on three separate occasions. The methane concentrations were analysed using a gas chromatograph and the linear part of concentration increase used to calculate the flux rates. The streams were consistently outgassing methane. The seasonally active first order stream outgassed 6 ±2.4 nmol CH4-C m-2 s-1 and the second order stream 20 ±4.0 nmol CH4-C m-2 s-1. The latter flux rate is comparable to fluxes measured from seasonally flooded Amazonian forest in previous studies. The range measured in our streams is comparable to previous results in temperate streams and the lower end of fluxes observed in some peatland streams. The only other study on Amazonian small streams detected methane fluxes that were 100 times greater than those measured here. Depending on the density of small streams in Amazonian basin and the prevalent flux rate, the fluvial methane fluxes may constitute a significant global warming potential. Upscaling to the Amazon basin, assuming small stream density of 0.2 %, as was found at our field site, and the flux rates detected, yields an annual global warming potential equal to approximately 1.5 Mt of CO2 which is of minor importance compared to aquatic CO2-C flux of 500 Mt yr-1 from the basin. However, if the higher fluxes detected in the previous study were prevalent, the basin wide methane flux could become significant. Further studies are needed to establish the stream density in the Amazon basin and typical methane flux rates.

  18. Optimization of hydraulic machinery by exploiting previous successful designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, S A; Giannakoglou, K C [National Technical University of Athens, Parallel CFD and Optimization Unit, PO Box 64069, Athens 15710 (Greece); Weissenberger, S; Grafenberger, P, E-mail: stelios.Kyriacou@gmail.co [Andritz HYDRO, RD, Lunzerstrasse 78, 4031 Linz (Austria)

    2010-08-15

    A design-optimization method for hydraulic machinery is proposed. Optimal designs are obtained using the appropriate CFD evaluation software driven by an evolutionary algorithm which is also assisted by artificial neural networks used as surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. As shown in a previous IAHR paper by the same authors, such an optimization method substantially reduces the CPU cost, since the metamodels can discard numerous non-promising candidate solutions generated during the evolution, at almost negligible CPU cost, without evaluating them by means of the costly CFD tool. The present paper extends the optimization method of the previous paper by making it capable to accommodate and exploit pieces of useful information archived during previous relevant successful designs. So, instead of parameterizing the geometry of the hydraulic machine components, which inevitably leads to many design variables, enough to slow down the design procedure, in the proposed method all new designs are expressed as weighted combinations of the archived ones. The archived designs act as the design space bases. The role of the optimization algorithms is to find the set (or sets, for more than one objectives, where the Pareto front of non-dominated solutions is sought) of weight values, corresponding to the hydraulic machine configuration(s) with optimal performance. Since the number of weights is much less that the number of design variables of the conventional shape parameterization, the design space dimension reduces and the CPU cost of the metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithm is much lower. The design of a Francis runner is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method.

  19. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib......). The causative pathogen was identified as H influenzae serotype f (Hif), and was successfully treated with ceftriaxone. An immunological evaluation revealed transient low levels of immunoglobulins but no apparent immunodeficiency was found 2 years after the clinical insult....

  20. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans

    2015-01-01

    vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions......,400 non-hyperthyroid control individuals (matched for age and sex), all identified from a random 5% sample of the Danish background population (n=339,481). In the second study population, 625 same-sex twin pairs, discordant for hyperthyroidism, were included. For each individual, the degree of co...

  1. Cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with previously undiagnosed HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kenneth; Tee, Shang-Ian; Ho, Madeline S L; Pan, Jiun Yit

    2015-08-01

    Protothecosis is an uncommon condition resulting from infection by achlorophyllous algae of the Prototheca species. Immunocompromised individuals are generally most susceptible to protothecal infection and tend to develop severe and disseminated disease. However, the association between protothecosis and HIV-induced immunosuppression is not clear, with only a handful of cases having been described to date. Here we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis in a Chinese man with previously undiagnosed HIV infection that responded well to oral itraconazole. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  2. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor

    2016-07-26

    Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells. The pan-genome of the genus Vibrio is a potential reservoir of unidentified toxins that can provide insight into how members of this genus have successfully risen as emerging pathogens worldwide. We focused on Vibrio proteolyticus, a marine bacterium that was previously implicated in virulence toward marine animals, and characterized its interaction with eukaryotic cells. We found that this bacterium causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and leads to cell death. Using a

  3. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  4. Fulminant Pneumococcal Pericarditis in a Previously Healthy Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpkov, Cvetan; Nath, Ermin; Moon, Michael; Windram, Jonathan; Graham, Michelle M

    2017-04-01

    Purulent pericarditis is a rare acutely life-threatening condition. Initial symptoms, signs, and investigations can be nonspecific. Echocardiography is invaluable for establishing the diagnosis and initial management. We present a case of a previously healthy patient with purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the absence of a primary focus of infection. The patient deteriorated rapidly with cardiac tamponade and septic shock and was managed successfully by a combined medical and surgical approach. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Is Active Tectonics on Madagascar Consistent with Somalian Plate Kinematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, D. S.; Kreemer, C.; Rajaonarison, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) actively breaks apart the Nubian and Somalian tectonic plates. Madagascar finds itself at the easternmost boundary of the EARS, between the Rovuma block, Lwandle plate, and the Somalian plate. Earthquake focal mechanisms and N-S oriented fault structures on the continental island suggest that Madagascar is experiencing east-west oriented extension. However, some previous plate kinematic studies indicate minor compressional strains across Madagascar. This inconsistency may be due to uncertainties in Somalian plate rotation. Past estimates of the rotation of the Somalian plate suffered from a poor coverage of GPS stations, but some important new stations are now available for a re-evaluation. In this work, we revise the kinematics of the Somalian plate. We first calculate a new GPS velocity solution and perform block kinematic modeling to evaluate the Somalian plate rotation. We then estimate new Somalia-Rovuma and Somalia-Lwandle relative motions across Madagascar and evaluate whether they are consistent with GPS measurements made on the island itself, as well as with other kinematic indicators.

  6. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  7. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  8. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI...... 0.13-1.01) before injections. After an average of 4.7 injections (range 1-15), mean visual acuity remained stable at 0.54 logMAR (95% CI 0.13-0.95) with a mean improvement of 0.03 (p = 0. 45, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.06). In 12 eyes (36%), visual acuity improved 0.1 logMAR or more, in 12 eyes (36%), vision...

  9. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  10. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  11. Efforts to promote vaginal delivery after a previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Yoko; Imanishi, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the results of vaginal delivery in patients with a past history of cesarean section. The type of delivery, interventions during delivery, and the prognoses of the mothers and babies were examined in 145 women with a history of cesarean section over the 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2009. A scheduled cesarean section was performed in 27 cases. Vaginal delivery was recommended in 118 cases and the success rate was 94.9% (112/118). Uterine rupture was observed in one patient who experienced a natural rupture at home and whose previous cesarean section was an inverse T incision. No cases required a blood transfusion or hysterectomy. The prognoses of both mothers and babies were good and the vaginal delivery success rate was 94.9%. Uterine rupture was observed in one case. Vaginal delivery with previous cesarean section should be considered in cases with expectation and informed consent. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Absolute and Relative Time-Consistent Revealed Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    T. DEMUYNCK

    2007-01-01

    We introduce an Absolute (Relative) Time-consistent Axiom of Revealed Preference which characterizes the consistency of a choice function with the property of absolute (relative) time-consistency and impatience. The axiom requires that the absolute (relative) time-consistent and impatient closure of the revealed preference relation does not conflict with the strict revealed preference relation.

  13. Processing of fibre suspensions at ultra-high consistencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Rodney E. Jacobson

    2004-01-01

    Typically the paper physicist considers pulp suspensions greater than 0.5% consistency as high consistency. In our research on cellulose fibre- reinforced engineering plastics we have had to develop a two-step method for the processing of fibers suspensions at ultrahigh consistencies (consistencies greater than 30%).

  14. A Study on the Consistency of Discretization Equation in Unsteady Heat Transfer Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The previous studies on the consistency of discretization equation mainly focused on the finite difference method, but the issue of consistency still remains with several problems far from totally solved in the actual numerical computation. For instance, the consistency problem is involved in the numerical case where the boundary variables are solved explicitly while the variables away from the boundary are solved implicitly. And when the coefficient of discretization equation of nonlinear numerical case is the function of variables, calculating the coefficient explicitly and the variables implicitly might also give rise to consistency problem. Thus the present paper mainly researches the consistency problems involved in the explicit treatment of the second and third boundary conditions and that of thermal conductivity which is the function of temperature. The numerical results indicate that the consistency problem should be paid more attention and not be neglected in the practical computation.

  15. Global Consistency Management Methods Based on Escrow Approaches in Mobile ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Hara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a mobile ad hoc network, consistency management of data operations on replicas is a crucial issue for system performance. In our previous work, we classified several primitive consistency levels according to the requirements from applications and provided protocols to realize them. In this paper, we assume special types of applications in which the instances of each data item can be partitioned and propose two consistency management protocols which are combinations of an escrow method and our previously proposed protocols. We also report simulation results to investigate the characteristics of these protocols in a mobile ad hoc network. From the simulation results, we confirm that the protocols proposed in this paper drastically improve data availability and reduce the traffic for data operations while maintaining the global consistency in the entire network.

  16. Incidence of previously undetected disease in routine paediatric otolaryngology admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, H; Robinson, P

    1996-06-01

    The process of clerking routine pre-operative admissions involves the house officer taking a full medical history and performing a full physical examination. The diagnostic yield is thought to be low, and the educational value to the house officer is also small. This study addresses the question as to whether routine physical examination is always indicated. One hundred and nine children admitted for routine Otolaryngology procedures were prospectively studied to identify the importance of examination in the pre-operative assessment of patients. The results showed that 51 per cent of the children admitted had risk factors. The medical history was sufficient to identify these risk factors in all patients with the exception of one cardiac condition. This study concludes that a suitable alternative to the current process of clerking such as a standardized nurse history could be safely and efficiently undertaken. Eliminating the tiny percentage of previously unrecognized disease would be a prerequisite for such a change.

  17. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  18. Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy in a patient with previous esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, R A; Scott, J S; Unger, S W

    1991-04-01

    Establishment of a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy via direct jejunal puncture was accomplished in a 45-year-old woman five years after a partial esophagectomy with cervical esophagogastrostomy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. The patient had recurrence of the cancer at the anastomotic site with subsequent inability to eat, necessitating a feeding tube for prolonged enteral nutrition. Although percutaneous puncture of the jejunum has been previously described, it has been limited to patients who had undergone partial or complete gastrectomies with Bilroth II anastomoses. This case report of direct endoscopic jejunal tube placement in a patient after esophagectomy further establishes this procedure as a viable alternative to surgically placed feeding tubes in patients with altered gastric anatomy.

  19. Effect of previous induced abortions on postabortion contraception selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Melissa; Roston, Alicia; Keith, Louis; Patel, Ashlesha

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to compare contraceptive method selection in women undergoing their first pregnancy termination versus women undergoing repeat pregnancy termination in an urban abortion clinic. We hypothesized that women undergoing repeat abortions will select highly effective contraceptives (intrauterine device, subdermal implant, tubal ligation) more often than patients undergoing their first abortion. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion at John H. Stroger, Jr., Hospital of Cook County from October 1, 2009, to October 31, 2011. We compared contraceptive method selection in the postabortion period after receipt of contraceptive counseling for 7466 women, stratifying women by history of no prior abortion versus one or more abortions. Of the 7466 women, 48.6% (3625) had no history of previous abortion. After controlling for age, race and number of living children, women with a history of abortion were more likely to select a highly effective method [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.33]. Most significantly, having living children was the strongest predictor of a highly effective method with an OR of 3.17 (95% CI 2.69-3.75). In women having a first-trimester abortion, the factors most predictive of selecting a highly effective method for postabortion contraception include history of previous abortion and having living children. The latter holds true independent of abortion history. This paper is unique in its ability to demonstrate the high interest in highly effective contraceptive selection in high-risk, low-income women with prior abortion history. Efforts to integrate provision of highly effective methods of contraception for postabortion care are essential for the reduction of future unintended pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  1. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  2. Abdominal wall fibromatosis associated with previous laparoscopic hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S B F; MacDuff, E; O'Dwyer, P J

    2013-10-01

    Two cases of desmoid-type fibromatosis developing after laparoscopic hernia repair are described: one in a young male 3 years after laparoscopic umbilical hernia repair and the other in a young female 1 year after laparoscopic incisional hernia repair. The male patient presented with a slowly enlarging non-tender firm abdominal wall mass; the female patient had similar findings. Excision biopsy in the male and core biopsy in the female were consistent with fibromatosis. The young male patient underwent resection of the fibromatosis, and the female patient has been managed conservatively. These are the first documented cases of fibromatosis developing after laparoscopic hernia surgery. Whilst the safety of hernia meshes has been assessed in animal studies, it may be that more detailed study of intraperitoneal placement of these meshes is required.

  3. 18- and 24-month-olds' discrimination of gender-consistent and inconsistent activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sara E; Flom, Ross

    2007-02-01

    18- and 24-month-olds' ability to discriminate gender-stereotyped activities was assessed. Using a preferential looking paradigm, toddlers viewed male and female actors performing masculine and feminine-stereotyped activities. Consistent with our predictions, and previous research, 24-month-olds, but not 18-month-olds, looked longer at the gender-inconsistent activities than the gender-consistent activities. Results are discussed in terms of toddlers emerging gender stereotypes and perception of everyday events.

  4. Towards a robust and consistent middle Eocene astronomical timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, Slah; Vahlenkamp, Maximilian; De Vleeschouwer, David; Laskar, Jacques; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Pälike, Heiko; Kirtland Turner, Sandra; Sexton, Philip F.; Westerhold, Thomas; Röhl, Ursula

    2018-03-01

    present a revision of previous astronomical timescales from the Equatorial and South Atlantic, to overcome the differences between different mid-Eocene astrochronologies. Using our new records from the North Atlantic, combined with existing records from the South Atlantic (ODP Site 1263 and Hole 702B) and Equatorial Atlantic (ODP Site 1260), we revise the durations of magnetic polarity Chrons C18n.1n to C21n, thereby arriving at a robust and self-consistent closure of the middle Eocene astronomical timescale gap.

  5. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  6. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  7. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  8. New Strategies for Cultivation and Detection of Previously Uncultured Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Bradley S.; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Wertz, John T.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Breznak, John A.

    2004-01-01

    An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divisions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection of cells from exogenous peroxides; and inclusion of humic acids or a humic acid analogue (anthraquinone disulfonate) and quorum-signaling compounds (acyl homoserine lactones) in growth media. The bacteria were incubated in the presence of air and in hypoxic (1 to 2% O2 [vol/vol]) and anoxic atmospheres. Some bacteria were incubated with elevated concentrations of CO2 (5% [vol/vol]). Significantly more Acidobacteria were found on isolation plates that had been incubated with 5% CO2. A simple, high-throughput, PCR-based surveillance method (plate wash PCR) was developed. This method greatly facilitated detection and ultimate isolation of target bacteria from as many as 1,000 colonies of nontarget microbes growing on the same agar plates. Results illustrate the power of integrating culture methods with molecular techniques to isolate bacteria from phylogenetic groups underrepresented in culture. PMID:15294811

  9. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85% tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3% tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection.

  10. Multispecies Coevolution Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Previous Search History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid coevolution particle swarm optimization algorithm with dynamic multispecies strategy based on K-means clustering and nonrevisit strategy based on Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree (called MCPSO-PSH is proposed. Previous search history memorized into the Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree can effectively restrain the individuals’ revisit phenomenon. The whole population is partitioned into several subspecies and cooperative coevolution is realized by an information communication mechanism between subspecies, which can enhance the global search ability of particles and avoid premature convergence to local optimum. To demonstrate the power of the method, comparisons between the proposed algorithm and state-of-the-art algorithms are grouped into two categories: 10 basic benchmark functions (10-dimensional and 30-dimensional, 10 CEC2005 benchmark functions (30-dimensional, and a real-world problem (multilevel image segmentation problems. Experimental results show that MCPSO-PSH displays a competitive performance compared to the other swarm-based or evolutionary algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and statistical tests.

  11. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  12. Coronary collateral vessels in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Ozaki, M.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the degree of collateral vessels after myocardial infarction, coronary angiograms, left ventriculograms, and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams of 36 patients with previous myocardial infarction were reviewed. All 36 patients had total occlusion of infarct-related coronary artery and no more than 70% stenosis in other coronary arteries. In 19 of 36 patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group A), good collaterals were observed in 10 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 2 patients. In 17 of 36 patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group B), good collaterals were seen in 2 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 8 patients (p less than 0.025). Left ventricular contractions in the infarcted area were normal or hypokinetic in 10 patients and akinetic or dyskinetic in 9 patients in Group A. In Group B, 1 patient had hypokinetic contraction and 16 patients had akinetic or dyskinetic contraction (p less than 0.005). Thus, patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise had well developed collaterals and preserved left ventricular contraction, compared to those in patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise. These results suggest that the presence of viable myocardium in the infarcted area might be related to the degree of collateral vessels

  13. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  14. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  15. Optimal temperature for malaria transmission is dramaticallylower than previously predicted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Eerin A.; Paaijmans, Krijin P.; Johnson, Leah R.; Balzer, Christian; Ben-Horin, Tal; de Moor, Emily; McNally, Amy; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Smith, Thomas C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of transmission dating back nearly a century. We build a model with more realistic ecological assumptions about the thermal physiology of insects. Our model, which includes empirically derived nonlinear thermal responses, predicts optimal malaria transmission at 25 °C (6 °C lower than previous models). Moreover, the model predicts that transmission decreases dramatically at temperatures > 28 °C, altering predictions about how climate change will affect malaria. A large data set on malaria transmission risk in Africa validates both the 25 °C optimum and the decline above 28 °C. Using these more accurate nonlinear thermal-response models will aid in understanding the effects of current and future temperature regimes on disease transmission.

  16. Central diabetes insipidus: a previously unreported side effect of temozolomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faje, Alexander T; Nachtigall, Lisa; Wexler, Deborah; Miller, Karen K; Klibanski, Anne; Makimura, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent primarily used to treat tumors of the central nervous system. We describe 2 patients with apparent TMZ-induced central diabetes insipidus. Using our institution's Research Patient Database Registry, we identified 3 additional potential cases of TMZ-induced diabetes insipidus among a group of 1545 patients treated with TMZ. A 53-year-old male with an oligoastrocytoma and a 38-year-old male with an oligodendroglioma each developed symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria approximately 2 months after the initiation of TMZ. Laboratory analyses demonstrated hypernatremia and urinary concentrating defects, consistent with the presence of diabetes insipidus, and the patients were successfully treated with desmopressin acetate. Desmopressin acetate was withdrawn after the discontinuation of TMZ, and diabetes insipidus did not recur. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary and hypothalamus was unremarkable apart from the absence of a posterior pituitary bright spot in both of the cases. Anterior pituitary function tests were normal in both cases. Using the Research Patient Database Registry database, we identified the 2 index cases and 3 additional potential cases of diabetes insipidus for an estimated prevalence of 0.3% (5 cases of diabetes insipidus per 1545 patients prescribed TMZ). Central diabetes insipidus is a rare but reversible side effect of treatment with TMZ.

  17. Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) for previously untreated malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Kenji; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Matsushita, Haruo; Takeda, Ken; Takai, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Shogo; Kumabe, Toshihiro

    2002-01-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is one of the methods used to deliver a large single dose to the tumor tissue while reducing the exposure of normal surrounding tissue. However, the usefulness of intraoperative electron therapy for malignant gliomas has not been established. During the period from 1987 to 1997, 32 patients with malignant gliomas were treated with IORT. The histological diagnoses were anaplastic astrocytoma in 11 patients and glioblastoma in 21 patients. Therapy consisted of surgical resection and intraoperative electron therapy using a dose of 12–15 Gy (median, 15 Gy). The patients later underwent postoperative external radiation therapy (EXRT) with a median total dose of 60 Gy. Each of the 32 patients treated with IORT was randomly matched with patients who had been treated with postoperative EXRT alone (control). Patients were matched according to histological grade, age, extent of tumor removal, and tumor location. In the anaplastic astrocytoma group, the one-, two- and five-year survival rates were 81%, 51% and 15%, respectively in the IORT patients and 54%, 43% and 21%, respectively in the control patients. In the glioblastoma group, one-, two- and five-year survival rates were 63%, 26% and 0%, respectively in the IORT patients and 70%, 18% and 6%, respectively in the control patients. There was no significant difference between survival rates in the IORT patients and control patients in either the anaplastic astrocytoma group or glioblastoma group. IORT dose not improve survival of patients with malignant gliomas compared to that of patients who have received EXRT alone

  18. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Characterization of consistent triggers of migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Anne Werner; Kirchmann, Malene; Olesen, Jes

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize perceived consistent triggers of migraine with aura (MA).......The aim of the present study was to characterize perceived consistent triggers of migraine with aura (MA)....

  20. Repeat immigration: A previously unobserved source of heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, Siddartha; Scott, Kirk; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Register data allow for nuanced analyses of heterogeneities between sub-groups which are not observable in other data sources. One heterogeneity for which register data is particularly useful is in identifying unique migration histories of immigrant populations, a group of interest across disciplines. Years since migration is a commonly used measure of integration in studies seeking to understand the outcomes of immigrants. This study constructs detailed migration histories to test whether misclassified migrations may mask important heterogeneities. In doing so, we identify a previously understudied group of migrants called repeat immigrants, and show that they differ systematically from permanent immigrants. In addition, we quantify the degree to which migration information is misreported in the registers. The analysis is carried out in two steps. First, we estimate income trajectories for repeat immigrants and permanent immigrants to understand the degree to which they differ. Second, we test data validity by cross-referencing migration information with changes in income to determine whether there are inconsistencies indicating misreporting. From the first part of the analysis, the results indicate that repeat immigrants systematically differ from permanent immigrants in terms of income trajectories. Furthermore, income trajectories differ based on the way in which years since migration is calculated. The second part of the analysis suggests that misreported migration events, while present, are negligible. Repeat immigrants differ in terms of income trajectories, and may differ in terms of other outcomes as well. Furthermore, this study underlines that Swedish registers provide a reliable data source to analyze groups which are unidentifiable in other data sources.

  1. Serratia liquefaciens Infection of a Previously Excluded Popliteal Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coelho

    Full Text Available : Introduction: Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs are rare in the general population, but they account for nearly 70% of peripheral arterial aneurysms. There are several possible surgical approaches including exclusion of the aneurysm and bypass grafting, or endoaneurysmorrhaphy and interposition of a prosthetic conduit. The outcomes following the first approach are favorable, but persistent blood flow in the aneurysm sac has been documented in up to one third of patients in the early post-operative setting. Complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms include aneurysm enlargement, local compression symptoms, and sac rupture. Notably infection of a previously excluded and bypassed PAA is rare. This is the third reported case of PAA infection after exclusion and bypass grafting and the first due to Serratia liquefaciens. Methods: Relevant medical data were collected from the hospital database. Results: This case report describes a 54 year old male patient, diagnosed with acute limb ischaemia due to a thrombosed PAA, submitted to emergency surgery with exclusion and venous bypass. A below the knee amputation was necessary 3 months later. Patient follow-up was lost until 7 years following surgical repair, when he was diagnosed with aneurysm sac infection with skin fistulisation. He had recently been diagnosed with alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis Child–Pugh Class B. The patient was successfully treated by aneurysm resection, soft tissue debridement and systemic antibiotics. Conclusion: PAA infection is a rare complication after exclusion and bypass procedures but should be considered in any patient with evidence of local or systemic infection. When a PAA infection is diagnosed, aneurysmectomy, local debridement, and intravenous antibiotic therapy are recommended. The “gold standard” method of PAA repair remains controversial. PAA excision or endoaneurysmorrhaphy avoids complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms, but is associated with

  2. Human stool contains a previously unrecognized diversity of novel astroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guoyan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human astroviruses are a leading cause of gastrointestinal disease. Since their discovery in 1975, 8 closely related serotypes have been described in humans, and more recently, two new astrovirus species, astrovirus MLB1 and astrovirus VA1, were identified in diarrhea patients. In this study, we used consensus astrovirus primers targeting the RNA polymerase to define the diversity of astroviruses present in pediatric patients with diarrhea on two continents. From 416 stool specimens comprising two different cohorts from Vellore, India, 35 samples were positive. These positive samples were analyzed further by either sequencing of the ~400 bp amplicon generated by the consensus PCR or by performing additional RT-PCR specific for individual astroviruses. 19 samples contained the classic human astrovirus serotypes 1-8 while 7 samples were positive for the recently described astrovirus MLB1. Strikingly, from samples that were positive in the consensus PCR screen but negative in the specific PCR assays, five samples contained sequences that were highly divergent from all previously described astroviruses. Sequence analysis suggested that three novel astroviruses, tentatively named astroviruses VA2, MLB2 and VA3, were present in these five patient specimens (AstV-VA2 in 2 patients, AstV-MLB2 in 2 patients and AstV-VA3 in one patient. Using the same RT-PCR screening strategy, 13 samples out of 466 tested stool specimens collected in St. Louis, USA were positive. Nine samples were positive for the classic human astroviruses. One sample was positive for AstV-VA2, and 3 samples were positive for AstV-MLB2 demonstrating that these two viruses are globally widespread. Collectively, these findings underscore the tremendous diversity of astroviruses present in fecal specimens from diarrhea patients. Given that a significant fraction of diarrhea etiologies is currently unknown, it is plausible that these or other yet unrecognized astroviruses may be

  3. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Harlak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD: Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS: Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001. With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001, body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible.

  4. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Derman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard Derman1, Joseph D Kohles2, Ann Babbitt31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Christiana Hospital, Newark, DE, USA; 2Roche, Nutley, NJ, USA; 3Greater Portland Bone and Joint Specialists, Portland, ME, USAAbstract: Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire™. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p < 0.001 for both. Most patients reported improvement in GI symptom severity and frequency from baseline at all post-screening assessments (>90% at Month 10. In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.Keywords: ibandronate, osteoporosis, bisphosphonate, gastrointestinal

  5. Generalized contexts and consistent histories in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a restriction of the theory of consistent histories by imposing that a valid description of a physical system must include quantum histories which satisfy the consistency conditions for all states. We prove that these conditions are equivalent to imposing the compatibility conditions of our formalism of generalized contexts. Moreover, we show that the theory of consistent histories with the consistency conditions for all states and the formalism of generalized context are equally useful representing expressions which involve properties at different times

  6. Patellar calcar: MRI appearance of a previously undescribed anatomical entity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Mark S.; Tiegs-Heiden, Christin A. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Stuart, Michael J. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The femoral calcar is a constant anatomical structure within the proximal femur representing a condensation of bone trabeculae. It is our impression that a similar structure is present within the patella. The purpose of this retrospective study was to define the prevalence, appearance, location, and configuration of the patellar calcar on MRI examinations. One hundred consecutive unenhanced knee MRIs were retrospectively reviewed by two readers who were blinded to the clinical indication. The patellar calcar was defined as a dark signaling, linear or curvilinear structure subjacent to the patellar articular surface. If present, the patellar calcar was assigned to a ''well seen,'' ''moderately well seen,'' or ''faintly seen'' category. Location of the calcar within the patella, orientation, configuration, and thickness were recorded. Confounding variables, such as marrow edema, patellar chondromalacia, bipartite patella, or postoperative changes were also recorded. The patellar calcar was visualized in 81 out of 100 (81 %) MRIs. When detected, the calcar was well seen in 20 out of 81 (25 %), moderately well seen in 35 out of 81 (43 %), and faintly seen in 26 out of 81 (32 %). The anteroposterior width of the calcar measured at its thickest segment was: < 1 mm in 43 out of 81 (53 %), 1 mm in 28 out of 81 (35 %), and >1 mm in 10 out of 81 (12 %). The patellar calcar was seen in the majority of knee MRIs and had a consistent imaging appearance. The calcar may be obscured by degenerative arthrosis of the patella and rarely may mimic patellar stress fracture or osteochondritis dissecans. Radiologists and clinicians should be familiar with this normal anatomical structure. (orig.)

  7. Personality consistency analysis in cloned quarantine dog candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent research, personality consistency has become an important characteristic. Diverse traits and human-animal interactions, in particular, are studied in the field of personality consistency in dogs. Here, we investigated the consistency of dominant behaviours in cloned and control groups followed by the modified Puppy Aptitude Test, which consists of ten subtests to ascertain the influence of genetic identity. In this test, puppies are exposed to stranger, restraint, prey-like object, noise, startling object, etc. Six cloned and four control puppies participated and the consistency of responses at ages 7–10 and 16 weeks in the two groups was compared. The two groups showed different consistencies in the subtests. While the average scores of the cloned group were consistent (P = 0.7991, those of the control group were not (P = 0.0089. Scores of Pack Drive and Fight or Flight Drive were consistent in the cloned group, however, those of the control group were not. Scores of Prey Drive were not consistent in either the cloned or the control group. Therefore, it is suggested that consistency of dominant behaviour is affected by genetic identity and some behaviours can be influenced more than others. Our results suggest that cloned dogs could show more consistent traits than non-cloned. This study implies that personality consistency could be one of the ways to analyse traits of puppies.

  8. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration variability over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 7. Consistent seasonal ... Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration, delay days and early melt days of consistent seasonal snow cover at 11 stations spread across different mountain ranges over the WH were analyzed. Mean, maximum and ...

  9. Checking Consistency of Pedigree Information is NP-complete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Hansen, Jens A.; Ingolfsdottir, Anna

    Consistency checking is a fundamental computational problem in genetics. Given a pedigree and information on the genotypes of some of the individuals in it, the aim of consistency checking is to determine whether these data are consistent with the classic Mendelian laws of inheritance. This probl...

  10. New and previously known species of Oenonidae (Polychaeta: Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanol, Joana; Ruta, Christine

    2015-09-18

    The family Oenonidae consists of Eunicida species with prionognath jaws. Its Australian fauna had been reported to comprise six species belonging to Arabella, Drilonereis, and Oenone. This study provides descriptions for four new species, redescriptions for three species (two previously recorded and a new record, Drilonereis cf. logani) and diagnoses for the genera recorded from Australia. Currently, eleven species of oenonids, distributed in three genera, are known for the Australian coast. On Lizard Island, this family shows low abundance (19 specimens collected) and high richness (seven species). Our results suggest that despite the increasing accumulation of information, the biodiversity of the family is still poorly estimated.

  11. Congenital costo-vertebral fibrous band and congenital kyphoscoliosis: a previously unreported combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Tony; Ghostine, Bachir; Kreichaty, Gaby; Daher, Paul; Ghanem, Ismat

    2013-05-01

    Congenital kyphoscoliosis (CKS) results from abnormal vertebral chondrification. Congenital fibrous bands occur in several locations with variable impact on vertebral development. We report a previously unreported case of a female infant with CKS presenting with an L2 hypoplastic vertebra and a costo-vertebral fibrous band extending to the skin in the form of a dimple. We also describe the therapeutic approach, consisting of surgical excision of the fibrous band and postoperative fulltime bracing, with a 7-year follow-up. We recommend a high index of suspicion in any unusual presentation of CKS and insist on case by case management in such cases.

  12. Tubal anastomosis after previous sterilization: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Seeters, Jacoba A H; Chua, Su Jen; Mol, Ben W J; Koks, Carolien A M

    2017-05-01

    Female sterilization is one of the most common contraceptive methods. A small number of women, however, opt for reversal of sterilization procedures after they experience regret. Procedures can be performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy, with or without robotic assistance. Another commonly utilized alternative is IVF. The choice between surgery and IVF is often influenced by reimbursement politics for that particular geographic location. We evaluated the fertility outcomes of different surgical methods available for the reversal of female sterilization, compared these to IVF and assessed the prognostic factors for success. Two search strategies were employed. Firstly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies presenting fertility outcomes of sterilization reversal up to July 2016. Data on the following outcomes were collected: pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, cost of the procedure and operative time. Eligible study designs included prospective or retrospective studies, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and case series. No age restriction was applied. Exclusion criteria were patients suffering from tubal infertility from any other reason (e.g. infection, endometriosis and adhesions from previous surgery) and studies including sterilization reversal procedures were then evaluated: female age, BMI and duration and method of sterilization. Secondly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies that compared reversal of sterilization to IVF and evaluated them for pregnancy outcomes and cost effectiveness. We included 37 studies that investigated a total of 10 689 women. No randomized controlled trials were found. Most studies were retrospective cohort studies of a moderate quality. The pooled pregnancy rate after sterilization reversal was 42-69%, with heterogeneity seen from the different methods utilized. The reported ectopic pregnancy rate was 4-8%. The only prognostic factor affecting the

  13. Desenvolvimento e avaliação da estabilidade física de loções O/A contendo filtros solares Development and evaluation of physical stability from O/ W lotions containing sunscreens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greice Stefani Borghetti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram desenvolver e avaliar a estabilidade física de loções do tipo O/A contendo 6% (p/p do filtro solar octilmetoxicinamato (OMC ou metilbenzilidenocânfora (MBC. As formulações foram armazenadas em temperatura ambiente durante seis meses e durante este período foram avaliadas com relação às suas características macroscópicas, viscosidade, comportamento reológico, índice de óleo, espalhabilidade e Fator de Proteção Solar (FPS. Os resultados demonstram que as formulações foram estáveis por seis meses. Os valores de FPS foram significativamente (P The objectives of this study were to develop and to evaluate the physical stability of O/W lotions containing 6% (w/w of the sunscreen octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC or methyl benzylidene camphor (MBC. The formulations were stored at room temperature, for six months and during this period its macroscopic characteristics, viscosity and rheological behavior, oil indexes, spreading properties and Sun Protection Factor (SPF were evaluated. The results demonstrate that both formulations were stable for six months. The SPF values were significantly (P < 0.05 higher for MBC formulation. On the other hand, the OMC formulation presented significantly (P < 0.05 higher spreading and lower viscosity values during the storage period.

  14. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging detection of prostate cancer in men with previous negative prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Matthew; Frye, Thomas P

    2017-06-01

    Use of transrectal ultrasound guided systematic prostate biopsy has poor diagnostic accuracy for prostate cancer (PCa) detection. Recently multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the prostate and MR/US fusion biopsy has been gaining popularity for men who have previously undergone a negative biopsy. We performed PubMed ® and Web of Science ® searches to identify studies on this subject, particularly focusing on studies consisting of patients who have had at least one previously negative biopsy. Across the literature, when a suspicious lesion is found on mpMRI, MR/US fusion biopsy has consistently demonstrated higher detection rate for any PCa and clinically significant PCa (csPCa) compared to the traditional repeat systematic biopsy (SB) approach. Furthermore, anteriorly located tumors are frequently identified using MR targeted biopsy (TB), suggesting that an MR guided approach allows for increased accuracy for detecting tumors commonly missed by systematic biopsies. We conclude that men with a prior negative biopsy and continued suspicion of PCa should strongly be encouraged to get a prostate mpMRI prior to a repeat biopsy.

  16. Consistent Regulation of Infrastructure Businesses: Some Economic Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio M. Menezes

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines some important economic aspects associated with the notion that consistency in the regulation of infrastructure businesses is a desirable feature. It makes two important points. First, it is not easy to measure consistency. In particular, one cannot simply point to different regulatory parameters as evidence of inconsistent regulatory policy. Second, even if one does observe consistency emerging from decisions made by different regulators, it does not necessarily mean that...

  17. Dimensional reduction, truncations, constraints and the issue of consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, J. M.

    2007-05-01

    A brief overview of dimensional reductions for diffeomorphism invariant theories is given. The distinction between the physical idea of compactification and the mathematical problem of a consistent truncation is discussed, and the typical ingredients of the latter-reduction of spacetime dimensions and the introduction of constraints-are examined. The consistency in the case of of group manifold reductions, when the structure constants satisfy the unimodularity condition, is shown together with the associated reduction of the gauge group. The problem of consistent truncations on coset spaces is also discussed and we comment on examples of some remarkable consistent truncations that have been found in this context.

  18. Bootstrap-Based Inference for Cube Root Consistent Estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Jansson, Michael; Nagasawa, Kenichi

    This note proposes a consistent bootstrap-based distributional approximation for cube root consistent estimators such as the maximum score estimator of Manski (1975) and the isotonic density estimator of Grenander (1956). In both cases, the standard nonparametric bootstrap is known to be inconsis......This note proposes a consistent bootstrap-based distributional approximation for cube root consistent estimators such as the maximum score estimator of Manski (1975) and the isotonic density estimator of Grenander (1956). In both cases, the standard nonparametric bootstrap is known...

  19. The prediction of semantic consistency in self-descriptions: characteristics of persons and of terms that affect the consistency of responses to synonym and antonym pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, L R; Kilkowski, J M

    1985-01-01

    Subjects described themselves, using an alphabetically ordered list of 191 trait adjectives, which included sets of synonyms and antonyms, half of each type more difficult than the other half. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions. In one condition, each adjective was listed with its dictionary definition; in the other condition, only the adjectives were listed. All subjects were administered a battery of demographic, cognitive, and personality measures. We analyzed both the relative consistency elicited by different pairs of terms and the individual differences in semantic consistency displayed by different sorts of subjects. Although the provision of definitions served to increase consistency (especially for the difficult antonyms), it did not decrease the range of consistency values across either synonym or antonym pairs. And, although interpair differences in semantic consistency were as difficult to predict in this study as in previous ones, individual differences were highly predictable. The implications of our many findings are discussed in the context of various hypotheses about semantic inconsistency in self-reports.

  20. Feasibility and safety of laparoscopic nephrectomy for nonfunctioning kidney in patients with previous renal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouralizadeh, Akbar; Azizi, Valiollah; Lashay, Alireza; Amini, Erfan; Ghaed, Mohammad Ali; Ziaee, Seyed Amir Mohsen; Simforoosh, Nasser

    2012-09-01

    Performing laparoscopic nephrectomy in the setting of previous renal surgery may be challenging and associated with a higher complication rate. We conducted this study to assess the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic nephrectomy among patients with a history of ipsilateral renal surgery. We reviewed the chart of 193 patients who underwent transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy for nonfunctioning kidney between April 2007 and March 2011. The study population was divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised 37 patients with a history of ipsilateral renal surgery, and Group 2 consisted of 156 patients with no history of previous renal surgery. Baseline characteristics and preoperative variables were similar in both groups. Mean operative time, complication rate, and hospital stay were comparable between the two groups. A nonstatistically significant trend toward a higher transfusion rate was noted in Group 1 patients. The operation was converted to open nephrectomy in 1 (2.7%) and 3 (1.9%) patients of Groups 1 and 2, respectively (P=.765). Laparoscopic nephrectomy of the nonfunctioning kidney is a feasible and safe procedure in the setting of previous renal surgery and is not associated with a significant increase in operative time and complication rate compared with patients with no prior ipsilateral renal surgery.

  1. Participation in physical activity: perceptions of women with a previous history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graco, Marnie; Garrard, Jan; Jasper, Andrea E

    2009-04-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Regular physical activity plays an important role in preventing T2DM. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of physical activity among women with previous GDM, in the context of preventing T2DM. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women with previous GDM who had not been diagnosed with T2DM. Data were analysed using a modified grounded theory approach. Women perceived diet to be significantly more important for the prevention of T2DM than physical activity. They underestimated the role of physical activity in preventing diabetes, which may have resulted from the lack of information they received following their pregnancy. Women consistently placed the needs of their families before their own, despite acknowledging their future health risks. The most commonly cited constraints on physical activity participation were lack of time, partner support, and appropriate childcare. They identified a need for 'family-friendly' community-based physical activity programs for mothers, more accessible childcare, and more information about the role of physical activity in diabetes prevention. Awareness of the role of physical activity for the prevention of diabetes was low. Physical activity promotion for women with previous GDM needs to be shaped around the opportunities and constraints identified by this population group.

  2. Personality Consistency in Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratkin, Jamie L.; Sinn, David L.; Patall, Erika A.; Gosling, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that ‘puppy tests’ measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., ‘puppy tests’) versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23372787

  3. Personality consistency in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratkin, Jamie L; Sinn, David L; Patall, Erika A; Gosling, Samuel D

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that 'puppy tests' measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., 'puppy tests') versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.

  4. Personality consistency in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Fratkin

    Full Text Available Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that 'puppy tests' measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family. Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43. Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., 'puppy tests' versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.

  5. Consistency and Inconsistency in PhD Thesis Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Allyson; Bourke, Sid; Lovat, Terry; Fairbairn, Hedy

    2008-01-01

    This is a mixed methods investigation of consistency in PhD examination. At its core is the quantification of the content and conceptual analysis of examiner reports for 804 Australian theses. First, the level of consistency between what examiners say in their reports and the recommendation they provide for a thesis is explored, followed by an…

  6. Risk aversion vs. the Omega ratio : Consistency results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balder, Sven; Schweizer, Nikolaus

    This paper clarifies when the Omega ratio and related performance measures are consistent with second order stochastic dominance and when they are not. To avoid consistency problems, the threshold parameter in the ratio should be chosen as the expected return of some benchmark – as is commonly done

  7. Carl Rogers during Initial Interviews: A Moderate and Consistent Therapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, H. P.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed two initial interviews by Carl Rogers in their entirety using the Carkhuff scales, Hill's category system, and a brief grammatical analysis to establish the level and consistency with which Rogers provides facilitative conditions. Results indicated his behavior as counselor was stable and consistent within and across interviews. (Author)

  8. A Preliminary Study toward Consistent Soil Moisture from AMSR2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parinussa, R.M.; Holmes, T.R.H.; Wanders, N.; Dorigo, W.A.; de Jeu, R.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary study toward consistent soil moisture products from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) is presented. Its predecessor, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), has providedEarth scientists with a consistent and continuous global

  9. The Finitistic Consistency of Heck's Predicative Fregean System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Filipe, L.; Ferreira, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Frege's theory is inconsistent (Russell's paradox). However, the predicative version of Frege's system is consistent. This was proved by Richard Heck in 1996 using a model theoretic argument. In this paper, we give a finitistic proof of this consistency result. As a consequence, Heck's predicative...

  10. Factors associated with consistent condom use by employees in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study analysed the determinants of consistent condom use in 710 sexually active men (N = 617) and women (N = 93) recruited from the country's brewery industry. Results showed that only 12% of the employees consistently used a condom. Men who used condoms for all sexual encounters were more likely to ...

  11. Policy consistency and the achievement of Nigeria's foreign policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is an attempt to investigate the policy consistency of Nigeria‟s foreign policy and to understand the basis for this consistency; and also to see whether peacekeeping/peace-enforcement is key instrument in the achievement of Nigeria‟s foreign policy goals. The objective of the study was to examine whether the ...

  12. Self-consistent calculation of atomic structure for mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xujun; Bai Yun; Sun Yongsheng; Zhang Jinglin; Zong Xiaoping

    2000-01-01

    Based on relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater self-consistent average atomic model, atomic structure for mixture is studied by summing up component volumes in mixture. Algorithmic procedure for solving both the group of Thomas-Fermi equations and the self-consistent atomic structure is presented in detail, and, some numerical results are discussed

  13. Decentralized Consistency Checking in Cross-organizational Workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, Andreas

    Service Oriented Architectures facilitate loosely coupled composed services, which are established in a decentralized way. One challenge for such composed services is to guarantee consistency, i.e., deadlock-freeness. This paper presents a decentralized approach to consistency checking, which

  14. Personality and Situation Predictors of Consistent Eating Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uku Vainik

    Full Text Available A consistent eating style might be beneficial to avoid overeating in a food-rich environment. Eating consistency entails maintaining a similar dietary pattern across different eating situations. This construct is relatively under-studied, but the available evidence suggests that eating consistency supports successful weight maintenance and decreases risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Yet, personality and situation predictors of consistency have not been studied.A community-based sample of 164 women completed various personality tests, and 139 of them also reported their eating behaviour 6 times/day over 10 observational days. We focused on observations with meals (breakfast, lunch, or dinner. The participants indicated if their momentary eating patterns were consistent with their own baseline eating patterns in terms of healthiness or size of the meal. Further, participants described various characteristics of each eating situation.Eating consistency was positively predicted by trait self-control. Eating consistency was undermined by eating in the evening, eating with others, eating away from home, having consumed alcohol and having undertaken physical exercise. Interactions emerged between personality traits and situations, including punishment sensitivity, restraint, physical activity and alcohol consumption.Trait self-control and several eating situation variables were related to eating consistency. These findings provide a starting point for targeting interventions to improve consistency, suggesting that a focus on self-control skills, together with addressing contextual factors such as social situations and time of day, may be most promising. This work is a first step to provide people with the tools they need to maintain a consistently healthy lifestyle in a food-rich environment.

  15. Self-consistent geodesic equation and quantum tunneling from charged AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gao-Ming

    2017-12-01

    Some urgent shortcomings in previous derivations of geodesic equations are remedied in this paper. In contrast to the unnatural and awkward treatment in previous works, here we derive the geodesic equations of massive and massless particles in a unified and self- consistent manner. Furthermore, we extend to investigate the Hawking radiation via tunneling from charged black holes in the context of AdS spacetime. Of special interest, the application of the first law of black hole thermodynamics in tunneling integration manifestly simplifies the calculation.

  16. Facial Mimicry and Emotion Consistency: Influences of Memory and Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Alexander J; Hayes, Amy E; Pawling, Ralph; Tipper, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether mimicry of facial emotions is a stable response or can instead be modulated and influenced by memory of the context in which the emotion was initially observed, and therefore the meaning of the expression. The study manipulated emotion consistency implicitly, where a face expressing smiles or frowns was irrelevant and to be ignored while participants categorised target scenes. Some face identities always expressed emotions consistent with the scene (e.g., smiling with a positive scene), whilst others were always inconsistent (e.g., frowning with a positive scene). During this implicit learning of face identity and emotion consistency there was evidence for encoding of face-scene emotion consistency, with slower RTs, a reduction in trust, and inhibited facial EMG for faces expressing incompatible emotions. However, in a later task where the faces were subsequently viewed expressing emotions with no additional context, there was no evidence for retrieval of prior emotion consistency, as mimicry of emotion was similar for consistent and inconsistent individuals. We conclude that facial mimicry can be influenced by current emotion context, but there is little evidence of learning, as subsequent mimicry of emotionally consistent and inconsistent faces is similar.

  17. Facial Mimicry and Emotion Consistency: Influences of Memory and Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Kirkham

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether mimicry of facial emotions is a stable response or can instead be modulated and influenced by memory of the context in which the emotion was initially observed, and therefore the meaning of the expression. The study manipulated emotion consistency implicitly, where a face expressing smiles or frowns was irrelevant and to be ignored while participants categorised target scenes. Some face identities always expressed emotions consistent with the scene (e.g., smiling with a positive scene, whilst others were always inconsistent (e.g., frowning with a positive scene. During this implicit learning of face identity and emotion consistency there was evidence for encoding of face-scene emotion consistency, with slower RTs, a reduction in trust, and inhibited facial EMG for faces expressing incompatible emotions. However, in a later task where the faces were subsequently viewed expressing emotions with no additional context, there was no evidence for retrieval of prior emotion consistency, as mimicry of emotion was similar for consistent and inconsistent individuals. We conclude that facial mimicry can be influenced by current emotion context, but there is little evidence of learning, as subsequent mimicry of emotionally consistent and inconsistent faces is similar.

  18. THE CONSISTENCY OF STATISTICAL ESTIMATES OF THURSTONE-MOSTELLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Bugaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional method of analysis procedures of collective choice involves three different approaches: investigation operator voting against the characteristic conditions, investigation the properties of the function of choice, analysis on the possibility of manipulating (verification the stability of the voting process under the influence of negative impacts from voters or organizer. Research team of the department ITMU VSUET proposed and implemented a fourth approach, which is to research the probabilistic characteristics the results of the procedures (value of the displacement valuation of estimate the usefulness of specific alternative to its true value, the standard deviation of evaluating of estimate the usefulness of alternative from its true value, the probability of correct ranking of alternatives at the output the procedure of choice, etc.. This article is dedicated to the analysis of the consistency of estimates the usefulness to compare alternatives, obtained at the output of the traditional procedure Thurstone-Mosteller and its generalizations, created by the authors of. In the general, the term of consistency of estimator of statistical estimation assumes tending to zero error of estimation by increasing the sample size. However, depending on the interpretation of "calculation errors" in science are the following main types of consistency: the weak consistency of statistical estimation, based on the notion of convergence in probability of the random quantity; the strong consistency, based on the concept of convergence with probability to one; the consistency of statistical estimation in the mean square. The variance of this assessment tends to zero. This article provides a proof of the theorem, according to which the assumptions rather general nature of estimates the usefulness being ranked alternatives obtained using the procedure Thurstone-Mosteller satisfied the consistency of statistical estimation in the mean square. In this

  19. The effect of correct and consistent condom use on chlamydial and gonococcal infection among urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Koumans, Emilia H; Sternberg, Maya; Pierce, Antonya; Papp, John; Unger, Elizabeth R; Sawyer, Mary; Black, Carolyn M; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2005-06-01

    To evaluate the relationship between self-reported correct and consistent condom use and chlamydial and gonococcal infection. Cross-sectional study. An urban adolescent health care clinic. Patients A total of 509 adolescent girls tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection by urine nucleic acid amplification tests. Main Outcome Measure Effect of condom use on infection rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea. Consistent condom use was defined as using condoms for every act of vaginal sex and correct use as consistent use without any of the following: beginning sex without a condom, taking it off before finishing sex, flipping it over, condom breakage, or condom slippage. A total of 95% of the participants were African American, with a mean age of 16.6 years. Chlamydia prevalence was 21% (105/509) and gonorrhea prevalence was 7% (36/509). Condom errors were reported by 316 (71%) of 442 participants who had reported using a condom at least once in the previous 3 months. Consistent use was reported by 176 patients (35%); however, both correct and consistent use was reported by only 80 patients (16%). After adjusting for confounders, correct and consistent use was protective for chlamydia (odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-1.0) and highly protective for gonorrhea (odds ratio, 0.1; 95% confidence interval, 0-0.7). Our findings indicate that assessing both correctness and consistency of use is important for evaluation of condom effectiveness.

  20. Consistency across repeated eyewitness interviews: contrasting police detectives' beliefs with actual eyewitness performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krix, Alana C; Sauerland, Melanie; Lorei, Clemens; Rispens, Imke

    2015-01-01

    In the legal system, inconsistencies in eyewitness accounts are often used to discredit witnesses' credibility. This is at odds with research findings showing that witnesses frequently report reminiscent details (details previously unrecalled) at an accuracy rate that is nearly as high as for consistently recalled information. The present study sought to put the validity of beliefs about recall consistency to a test by directly comparing them with actual memory performance in two recall attempts. All participants watched a film of a staged theft. Subsequently, the memory group (N = 84) provided one statement immediately after the film (either with the Self-Administered Interview or free recall) and one after a one-week delay. The estimation group (N = 81) consisting of experienced police detectives estimated the recall performance of the memory group. The results showed that actual recall performance was consistently underestimated. Also, a sharp decline of memory performance between recall attempts was assumed by the estimation group whereas actual accuracy remained stable. While reminiscent details were almost as accurate as consistent details, they were estimated to be much less accurate than consistent information and as inaccurate as direct contradictions. The police detectives expressed a great concern that reminiscence was the result of suggestive external influences. In conclusion, it seems that experienced police detectives hold many implicit beliefs about recall consistency that do not correspond with actual recall performance. Recommendations for police trainings are provided. These aim at fostering a differentiated view on eyewitness performance and the inclusion of more comprehensive classes on human memory structure.