WorldWideScience

Sample records for previous classification systems

  1. Comparison between different papillary recession classification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ching Chang

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: This study confirmed a significant correlation between the two existing classification methods. The proposed PR classification system characterizes open embrasures in greater detail than previous systems.

  2. Ontologies vs. Classification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    What is an ontology compared to a classification system? Is a taxonomy a kind of classification system or a kind of ontology? These are questions that we meet when working with people from industry and public authorities, who need methods and tools for concept clarification, for developing meta...... data sets or for obtaining advanced search facilities. In this paper we will present an attempt at answering these questions. We will give a presentation of various types of ontologies and briefly introduce terminological ontologies. Furthermore we will argue that classification systems, e.g. product...... classification systems and meta data taxonomies, should be based on ontologies....

  3. Oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnakulasuriya, S; Reibel, J; Bouquot, J

    2008-01-01

    . In this report, we review the oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems. The three classification schemes [oral epithelial dysplasia scoring system, squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and Ljubljana classification] were presented and the Working Group recommended epithelial dysplasia grading for routine...

  4. Faculty Assignment Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatcom Community Coll., Ferndale, WA.

    This document outlines the point-based faculty assignment classification system in effect at Whatcom Community College (Washington). The purpose of the point system is to provide an equitable and flexible means of compensating faculty members based on a system of assigning quantitative values to tasks. Teaching, which includes classroom…

  5. Ontologies vs. Classification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    data sets or for obtaining advanced search facilities. In this paper we will present an attempt at answering these questions. We will give a presentation of various types of ontologies and briefly introduce terminological ontologies. Furthermore we will argue that classification systems, e.g. product...

  6. Neuromuscular disease classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M.; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns.

  7. Bosniak classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Bosniak classification was originally based on computed tomographic (CT) findings. Magnetic resonance (MR) and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) imaging may demonstrate findings that are not depicted at CT, and there may not always be a clear correlation between the findings...... at MR and CEUS imaging and those at CT. PURPOSE: To compare diagnostic accuracy of MR, CEUS, and CT when categorizing complex renal cystic masses according to the Bosniak classification. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From February 2011 to June 2012, 46 complex renal cysts were prospectively evaluated by three...... readers. Each mass was categorized according to the Bosniak classification and CT was chosen as gold standard. Kappa was calculated for diagnostic accuracy and data was compared with pathological results. RESULTS: CT images found 27 BII, six BIIF, seven BIII, and six BIV. Forty-three cysts could...

  8. Classification system: Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    Although people have always classified soils, it is only since the mid 19th century that soil classification emerged as an important topic within soil science. It forced soil scientists to think systematically about soils and its genesis and developed to facilitate communication between soil

  9. Bosniak classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne S; Karstoft, Jens

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Bosniak classification is a diagnostic tool for the differentiation of cystic changes in the kidney. The process of categorizing renal cysts may be challenging, involving a series of decisions that may affect the final diagnosis and clinical outcome such as surgical management. PU...

  10. CLASSIFICATION OF LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. B. Popova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using of information technologies and, in particular, learning management systems, increases opportunities of teachers and students in reaching their goals in education. Such systems provide learning content, help organize and monitor training, collect progress statistics and take into account the individual characteristics of each user. Currently, there is a huge inventory of both paid and free systems are physically located both on college servers and in the cloud, offering different features sets of different licensing scheme and the cost. This creates the problem of choosing the best system. This problem is partly due to the lack of comprehensive classification of such systems. Analysis of more than 30 of the most common now automated learning management systems has shown that a classification of such systems should be carried out according to certain criteria, under which the same type of system can be considered. As classification features offered by the author are: cost, functionality, modularity, keeping the customer’s requirements, the integration of content, the physical location of a system, adaptability training. Considering the learning management system within these classifications and taking into account the current trends of their development, it is possible to identify the main requirements to them: functionality, reliability, ease of use, low cost, support for SCORM standard or Tin Can API, modularity and adaptability. According to the requirements at the Software Department of FITR BNTU under the guidance of the author since 2009 take place the development, the use and continuous improvement of their own learning management system.

  11. INFORMATION SYSTEM SECURITY THREATS CLASSIFICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Gerić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Information systems are exposed to different types of security risks. Theconsequences of information systems security (ISS breaches can vary from e.g. damaging the data base integrity to physical "destruction" of entire information system facilities, and can result with minor disruptions in less important segments of information systems, or with significant interruptions in information systems functionality. The sources of security risks are different, and can origin from inside or outside of information system facility, and can be intentional or unintentional. The precise calculation of loses caused by such incidents is often not possible because a number of small scale ISS incidents are never detected, or detected with a significant time delay, a part of incidents are interpreted as an accidental mistakes, and all that results with an underestimation of ISS risks. This paper addresses the different types and criteria of information system security risks (threats classification and gives an overview of most common classifications used in literature and in practice. We define a common set of criteria that can be used for information system security threats classification, which will enable the comparison and evaluation of different security threats from different security threats classifications.

  12. Multiple Fuzzy Classification Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Rafał

    2012-01-01

    Fuzzy classifiers are important tools in exploratory data analysis, which is a vital set of methods used in various engineering, scientific and business applications. Fuzzy classifiers use fuzzy rules and do not require assumptions common to statistical classification. Rough set theory is useful when data sets are incomplete. It defines a formal approximation of crisp sets by providing the lower and the upper approximation of the original set. Systems based on rough sets have natural ability to work on such data and incomplete vectors do not have to be preprocessed before classification. To achieve better performance than existing machine learning systems, fuzzy classifiers and rough sets can be combined in ensembles. Such ensembles consist of a finite set of learning models, usually weak learners. The present book discusses the three aforementioned fields – fuzzy systems, rough sets and ensemble techniques. As the trained ensemble should represent a single hypothesis, a lot of attention is placed o...

  13. Transposition revisited: New classification and notation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Rai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental transposition is a rare and severe anomaly of eruptive position with varied expression. Previously, tooth transpositions have been classified according to the teeth and jaw involved, or by designating specific terms to the different types of transposition (e.g., complete/incomplete, true/false, partial, simple, coronal, and pseudotransposition. However, there is no comprehensive classification-notation system for transposition in literature that systematically discriminates the condition and presents utmost facts for the same. Materials and Methods: To know all the possible types of tooth transposition, literature was searched in PubMed and Medline library, with the keyword “tooth transposition.” A total of 494 articles were obtained. These articles were read, and all possible types of transposition were noted. The obtained data were analyzed systematically and comparatively to design a new classification-notation system. Result and Conclusion: This classification-notation system is outlined to avoid confusion, to ease communication, and to provide a better understanding of the prevailing anomaly. It is easy to remember and convey maximum information. Further, to make it easy for computer archiving, some abbreviations and symbols are added to this classification-notation system.

  14. Classification of Magnetic Nanoparticle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogren, Sara; Fornara, Andrea; Ludwig, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This study presents classification of different magnetic single- and multi-core particle systems using their measured dynamic magnetic properties together with their nanocrystal and particle sizes. The dynamic magnetic properties are measured with AC (dynamical) susceptometry and magnetorelaxometry...... and the size parameters are determined from electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Using these methods, we also show that the nanocrystal size and particle morphology determines the dynamic magnetic properties for both single- and multi-core particles. The presented results are obtained from...... the four year EU NMP FP7 project, NanoMag, which is focused on standardization of analysis methods for magnetic nanoparticles....

  15. AOSpine subaxial cervical spine injury classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Koerner, John D.; Radcliff, Kris E.; Oner, F. Cumhur; Reinhold, Maximilian; Schnake, Klaus J.; Kandziora, Frank; Fehlings, Michael G.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Kepler, Christopher K.; Vialle, Luiz R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This project describes a morphology-based subaxial cervical spine traumatic injury classification system. Using the same approach as the thoracolumbar system, the goal was to develop a comprehensive yet simple classification system with high intra- and interobserver reliability to be used

  16. Discriminant forest classification method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Barry Y.; Hanley, William G.; Lemmond, Tracy D.; Hiller, Lawrence J.; Knapp, David A.; Mugge, Marshall J.

    2012-11-06

    A hybrid machine learning methodology and system for classification that combines classical random forest (RF) methodology with discriminant analysis (DA) techniques to provide enhanced classification capability. A DA technique which uses feature measurements of an object to predict its class membership, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) or Andersen-Bahadur linear discriminant technique (AB), is used to split the data at each node in each of its classification trees to train and grow the trees and the forest. When training is finished, a set of n DA-based decision trees of a discriminant forest is produced for use in predicting the classification of new samples of unknown class.

  17. Music Genre Classification Systems - A Computational Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrendt, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Automatic music genre classification is the classification of a piece of music into its corresponding genre (such as jazz or rock) by a computer. It is considered to be a cornerstone of the research area Music Information Retrieval (MIR) and closely linked to the other areas in MIR. It is thought...... that MIR will be a key element in the processing, searching and retrieval of digital music in the near future. This dissertation is concerned with music genre classification systems and in particular systems which use the raw audio signal as input to estimate the corresponding genre. This is in contrast...... to systems which use e.g. a symbolic representation or textual information about the music. The approach to music genre classification systems has here been system-oriented. In other words, all the different aspects of the systems have been considered and it is emphasized that the systems should...

  18. Evaluation of classification systems for nonspecific idiopathic orbital inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Ward R.; van 't Hullenaar, Fleur C.; Mourits, Maarten P.; Kalmann, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    To systematically analyze existing classification systems for idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI) and propose and test a new best practice classification system. A systematic literature search was conducted to find all studies that described and applied a classification system for IOI.

  19. QA CLASSIFICATION ANALYSIS OF GROUND SUPPORT SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. W. Gwyn

    1996-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine if the permanent function Ground Support Systems (CI: BABEEOOOO) are quality-affecting items and if so, to establish the appropriate Quality Assurance (QA) classification

  20. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  1. Generating Interpretable Fuzzy Systems for Classification Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Contreras-Montes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method to generate interpretable fuzzy systems from training data to deal with classification problems. The antecedent partition uses triangular sets with 0.5 interpolations avoiding the presence of complex overlapping that happens in another method. Singleton consequents are generated form the projection of the modal values of each triangular membership function into the output space. Least square method is used to adjust the consequents. The proposed method gets a higher average classification accuracy rate than the existing methods with a reduced number of rules andparameters and without sacrificing the fuzzy system interpretability. The proposed approach is applied to two classical classification problems: Iris data and the Wisconsin Breast Cancer classification problem.

  2. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico, Calle 30 no. 502, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: roman.padilla@infomed.sld.cu; Espen, P. van [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Torres, P.P. Godo [Centro de Antropologia, Havana (Cuba)

    2006-02-03

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a {sup 241}Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery.

  3. Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  4. Fission--fusion systems: classification and critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidsky, L.M.

    1974-01-01

    A useful classification scheme for hybrid systems is described and some common features that the scheme makes apparent are pointed out. The early history of fusion-fission systems is reviewed. Some designs are described along with advantages and disadvantages of each. The extension to low and moderate Q devices is noted. (U.S.)

  5. An evaluation of classification systems for stillbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattinson Robert

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Audit and classification of stillbirths is an essential part of clinical practice and a crucial step towards stillbirth prevention. Due to the limitations of the ICD system and lack of an international approach to an acceptable solution, numerous disparate classification systems have emerged. We assessed the performance of six contemporary systems to inform the development of an internationally accepted approach. Methods We evaluated the following systems: Amended Aberdeen, Extended Wigglesworth; PSANZ-PDC, ReCoDe, Tulip and CODAC. Nine teams from 7 countries applied the classification systems to cohorts of stillbirths from their regions using 857 stillbirth cases. The main outcome measures were: the ability to retain the important information about the death using the InfoKeep rating; the ease of use according to the Ease rating (both measures used a five-point scale with a score Results InfoKeep scores were significantly different across the classifications (p ≤ 0.01 due to low scores for Wigglesworth and Aberdeen. CODAC received the highest mean (SD score of 3.40 (0.73 followed by PSANZ-PDC, ReCoDe and Tulip [2.77 (1.00, 2.36 (1.21, 1.92 (1.24 respectively]. Wigglesworth and Aberdeen resulted in a high proportion of unexplained stillbirths and CODAC and Tulip the lowest. While Ease scores were different (p ≤ 0.01, all systems received satisfactory scores; CODAC received the highest score. Aberdeen and Wigglesworth showed poor agreement with kappas of 0.35 and 0.25 respectively. Tulip performed best with a kappa of 0.74. The remainder had good to fair agreement. Conclusion The Extended Wigglesworth and Amended Aberdeen systems cannot be recommended for classification of stillbirths. Overall, CODAC performed best with PSANZ-PDC and ReCoDe performing well. Tulip was shown to have the best agreement and a low proportion of unexplained stillbirths. The virtues of these systems need to be considered in the development of an

  6. Mapping a classification system to architectural education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Anders; Klint, Lars; Rostrup, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent a new classification system, Cuneco Classification System, CCS, proves useful in the education of architects, and to what degree the aim of an architectural education, rather based on an arts and crafts approach than a polytechnic approach, benefits from...... the distinct terminology of the classification system. The method used to examine the relationship between education, practice and the CCS bifurcates in a quantitative and a qualitative exploration: Quantitative comparison of the curriculum with the students’ own descriptions of their studies through...... a questionnaire survey among 88 students in graduate school. Qualitative interviews with a handful of practicing architects, to be able to cross check the relevance of the education with the profession. The examination indicates the need of a new definition, in addition to the CCS’s scale, covering the earliest...

  7. Taxonomies in L1 and L2 Reading Strategies: A Critical Review of Issues Surrounding Strategy-Use Definitions and Classifications in Previous Think-Aloud Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaleefah, Tarek A.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the various classifications of L1 and L2 reading strategies in previous think-aloud studies, the present review aims to provide a comprehensive look into those various taxonomies reported in major L1 and L2 reading studies. The rationale for this review is not only to offer a comprehensive overview of the different classifications in…

  8. Classification System for Mortgage Arrear Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Zhe; Wiering, Marco; Petkov, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    Due to the economic recession in the recent years, more and more mortgage customers default on the payments. This brings tremendous losses to banks and forces their arrear management departments to develop more efficient processes. In this paper, we propose a classification system to predict the

  9. Classification of ERP System Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Sodomka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today the ERP business information systems are an essential tool for organization management, regardless of size and field of activity. Their successful implementation and use is conditioned predominantly by IS/ICT knowledge and managerial skills required for directing their life cycle correctly. Defining and correct setting of the service level is a key requirement and skill, usually provided by a service provider based on an implementation and service contract, or an advisory organization, in particular when presale services concerning analyses and tender documentation processing are provided. The following paper discusses the characteristics of the individual service types and the particulars of their practical use. Moreover, it presents the selected significant results of the long-term research performed by the authors in the Center for inVestigations into Information Systems.

  10. Molecular and morphological data supporting phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae), including a reassessment of previous infrageneric classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chin Cheung; Thomas, Daniel C; Saunders, Richard M K

    2015-09-01

    Data is presented in support of a phylogenetic reconstruction of the species-rich early-divergent angiosperm genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae) (Tang et al., Mol. Phylogenetic Evol., 2015) [1], inferred using chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences. The data includes a list of primers for amplification and sequencing for nine cpDNA regions: atpB-rbcL, matK, ndhF, psbA-trnH, psbM-trnD, rbcL, trnL-F, trnS-G, and ycf1, the voucher information and molecular data (GenBank accession numbers) of 67 ingroup Goniothalamus accessions and 14 outgroup accessions selected from across the tribe Annoneae, and aligned data matrices for each gene region. We also present our Bayesian phylogenetic reconstructions for Goniothalamus, with information on previous infrageneric classifications superimposed to enable an evaluation of monophyly, together with a taxon-character data matrix (with 15 morphological characters scored for 66 Goniothalamus species and seven other species from the tribe Annoneae that are shown to be phylogenetically correlated).

  11. Molecular and morphological data supporting phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae, including a reassessment of previous infrageneric classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Cheung Tang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data is presented in support of a phylogenetic reconstruction of the species-rich early-divergent angiosperm genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae (Tang et al., Mol. Phylogenetic Evol., 2015 [1], inferred using chloroplast DNA (cpDNA sequences. The data includes a list of primers for amplification and sequencing for nine cpDNA regions: atpB-rbcL, matK, ndhF, psbA-trnH, psbM-trnD, rbcL, trnL-F, trnS-G, and ycf1, the voucher information and molecular data (GenBank accession numbers of 67 ingroup Goniothalamus accessions and 14 outgroup accessions selected from across the tribe Annoneae, and aligned data matrices for each gene region. We also present our Bayesian phylogenetic reconstructions for Goniothalamus, with information on previous infrageneric classifications superimposed to enable an evaluation of monophyly, together with a taxon-character data matrix (with 15 morphological characters scored for 66 Goniothalamus species and seven other species from the tribe Annoneae that are shown to be phylogenetically correlated.

  12. A Classification System for Hospital-Based Infection Outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Ganney

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of infection within semi-closed environments such as hospitals, whether inherent in the environment (such as Clostridium difficile (C.Diff or Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA or imported from the wider community (such as Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs, are difficult to manage. As part of our work on modelling such outbreaks, we have developed a classification system to describe the impact of a particular outbreak upon an organization. This classification system may then be used in comparing appropriate computer models to real outbreaks, as well as in comparing different real outbreaks in, for example, the comparison of differing management and containment techniques and strategies. Data from NLV outbreaks in the Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust (the Trust over several previous years are analysed and classified, both for infection within staff (where the end of infection date may not be known and within patients (where it generally is known. A classification system consisting of seven elements is described, along with a goodness-of-fit method for comparing a new classification to previously known ones, for use in evaluating a simulation against history and thereby determining how ‘realistic’ (or otherwise it is.

  13. A classification system for hospital-based infection outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganney, Paul S; Madeo, Maurice; Phillips, Roger

    2010-12-01

    Outbreaks of infection within semi-closed environments such as hospitals, whether inherent in the environment (such as Clostridium difficile (C.Diff) or Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or imported from the wider community (such as Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs)), are difficult to manage. As part of our work on modelling such outbreaks, we have developed a classification system to describe the impact of a particular outbreak upon an organization. This classification system may then be used in comparing appropriate computer models to real outbreaks, as well as in comparing different real outbreaks in, for example, the comparison of differing management and containment techniques and strategies. Data from NLV outbreaks in the Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust (the Trust) over several previous years are analysed and classified, both for infection within staff (where the end of infection date may not be known) and within patients (where it generally is known). A classification system consisting of seven elements is described, along with a goodness-of-fit method for comparing a new classification to previously known ones, for use in evaluating a simulation against history and thereby determining how 'realistic' (or otherwise) it is.

  14. The development of a classification system for inland aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A classification system is described that was developed for inland aquatic ecosystems in South Africa, including wetlands. The six-tiered classification system is based on a top-down, hierarchical classification of aquatic ecosystems, following the functionally-oriented hydrogeomorphic (HGM) approach to classification but ...

  15. Common occupational classification system - revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahlman, E.J.; Lewis, R.E.

    1996-05-01

    Workforce planning has become an increasing concern within the DOE community as the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM or EM) seeks to consolidate and refocus its activities and the Office of Defense Programs (DP) closes production sites. Attempts to manage the growth and skills mix of the EM workforce while retaining the critical skills of the DP workforce have been difficult due to the lack of a consistent set of occupational titles and definitions across the complex. Two reasons for this difficulty may be cited. First, classification systems commonly used in industry often fail to cover in sufficient depth the unique demands of DOE`s nuclear energy and research community. Second, the government practice of contracting the operation of government facilities to the private sector has introduced numerous contractor-specific classification schemes to the DOE complex. As a result, sites/contractors report their workforce needs using unique classification systems. It becomes difficult, therefore, to roll these data up to the national level necessary to support strategic planning and analysis. The Common Occupational Classification System (COCS) is designed to overcome these workforce planning barriers. The COCS is based on earlier workforce planning activities and the input of technical, workforce planning, and human resource managers from across the DOE complex. It provides a set of mutually-exclusive occupation titles and definitions that cover the broad range of activities present in the DOE complex. The COCS is not a required record-keeping or data management guide. Neither is it intended to replace contractor/DOE-specific classification systems. Instead, the system provides a consistent, high- level, functional structure of occupations to which contractors can crosswalk (map) their job titles.

  16. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE OPERATIONS SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site operations system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE EXCAVATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Garrett

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface excavation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  18. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE WATER SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site water system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  19. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR EMERGENCY RESPONSE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeigler, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) emergency response system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  20. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE LAYOUT SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site layout system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE VENTILATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface ventilation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  2. Classification of Dynamic Vehicle Routing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Solomon, Marius M.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses important characteristics seen within dynamic vehicle routing problems. We discuss the differences between the traditional static vehicle routing problems and its dynamic counterparts. We give an in-depth introduction to the degree of dynamism measure which can be used...... to classify dynamic vehicle routing systems. Methods for evaluation of the performance of algorithms that solve on-line routing problems are discussed and we list some of the most important issues to include in the system objective. Finally, we provide a three-echelon classification of dynamic vehicle routing...... systems based on their degree of dynamism and the system objective....

  3. Intelligent Computer Vision System for Automated Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanov, Ivan; Georgieva, Antoniya

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate an Intelligent Computer Vision System applied for recognition and classification of commercially available cork tiles. The system is capable of acquiring and processing gray images using several feature generation and analysis techniques. Its functionality includes image acquisition, feature extraction and preprocessing, and feature classification with neural networks (NN). We also discuss system test and validation results from the recognition and classification tasks. The system investigation also includes statistical feature processing (features number and dimensionality reduction techniques) and classifier design (NN architecture, target coding, learning complexity and performance, and training with our own metaheuristic optimization method). The NNs trained with our genetic low-discrepancy search method (GLPτS) for global optimisation demonstrated very good generalisation abilities. In our view, the reported testing success rate of up to 95% is due to several factors: combination of feature generation techniques; application of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which appeared to be very efficient for preprocessing the data; and use of suitable NN design and learning method.

  4. A comprehensive classification system for lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, E.; Subramaniam, S.; Brown, H.A.; Glass, C.K.; Merrill, A.H.; Murphy, R.C.; Raetz, C.R.H.; Russell, D.W.; Seyama, Y.; Shaw, W.; Shimizu, T.; Spener, F.; van Meer, G.; VanNieuwenhze, M.S.; White, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Lipids are produced, transported, and recognized by the concerted actions of numerous enzymes, binding proteins, and receptors. A comprehensive analysis of lipid molecules, “lipidomics,” in the context of genomics and proteomics is crucial to understanding cellular physiology and pathology; consequently, lipid biology has become a major research target of the postgenomic revolution and systems biology. To facilitate international communication about lipids, a comprehensive classification of l...

  5. Railroad Classification Yard Technology Manual: Volume II : Yard Computer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    This volume (Volume II) of the Railroad Classification Yard Technology Manual documents the railroad classification yard computer systems methodology. The subjects covered are: functional description of process control and inventory computer systems,...

  6. Search techniques in intelligent classification systems

    CERN Document Server

    Savchenko, Andrey V

    2016-01-01

    A unified methodology for categorizing various complex objects is presented in this book. Through probability theory, novel asymptotically minimax criteria suitable for practical applications in imaging and data analysis are examined including the special cases such as the Jensen-Shannon divergence and the probabilistic neural network. An optimal approximate nearest neighbor search algorithm, which allows faster classification of databases is featured. Rough set theory, sequential analysis and granular computing are used to improve performance of the hierarchical classifiers. Practical examples in face identification (including deep neural networks), isolated commands recognition in voice control system and classification of visemes captured by the Kinect depth camera are included. This approach creates fast and accurate search procedures by using exact probability densities of applied dissimilarity measures. This book can be used as a guide for independent study and as supplementary material for a technicall...

  7. Explosives Classifications Tracking System User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genoni, R.P.

    1993-10-01

    The Explosives Classification Tracking System (ECTS) presents information and data for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) explosives classifications of interest to EM-561, Transportation Management Division, other DOE facilities, and contractors. It is intended to be useful to the scientist, engineer, and transportation professional, who needs to classify or transport explosives. This release of the ECTS reflects upgrading of the software which provides the user with an environment that makes comprehensive retrieval of explosives related information quick and easy. Quarterly updates will be provided to the ECTS throughout its development in FY 1993 and thereafter. The ECTS is a stand alone, single user system that contains unclassified, publicly available information, and administrative information (contractor names, product descriptions, transmittal dates, EX-Numbers, etc.) information from many sources for non-decisional engineering and shipping activities. The data is the most up-to-date and accurate available to the knowledge of the system developer. The system is designed to permit easy revision and updating as new information and data become available. These, additions and corrections are welcomed by the developer. This user manual is intended to help the user install, understand, and operate the system so that the desired information may be readily obtained, reviewed, and reported.

  8. Extensions to the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). Part I describes a classification extension to the SDCS to differentiate motor speech disorders from speech delay and to differentiate among three sub-types of motor speech disorders.…

  9. The interobserver reliability of classification systems for radial head fractures: the Hotchkiss modification of the Mason classification and the AO classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheps, David M; Kiefer, Krystina R L; Boorman, Richard S; Donaghy, John; Lalani, Aleem; Walker, Richard; Hildebrand, Kevin A

    2009-08-01

    BACKGROUND: Radial head fractures are common injuries, and there is little information on the reliability of classification systems for such injuries. The purpose of our study was to report the interobserver reliability of 2 commonly used classification systems: the Hotchkiss modification of the Mason classification and the AO classification systems. METHODS: We compiled the radiographs from a cohort series of 43 patients with radial head fractures, and 5 observers classified the radiographs according to both classification systems. Additionally, we collapsed the systems, with types II and III combined for the Hotchkiss classification and the final digit dropped for the AO classification. We calculated percent agreement, the kappa statistic and the associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: The mean percent agreement was 72.3% (95% CI 65.8%-78.9%) for the Hotchkiss classification and 37.7% (95% CI 30.5%-44.9%) for the AO classification. The kappa statistic was 0.585 (0.541-0.661) for the Hotchkiss classification and 0.261 (0.240-0.350) for the AO classification. The mean percent agreement was 89.3% (86.6%-92.0%) for the consolidated Hotchkiss classification and 67.4% (54.6%-80.3%) for the consolidated AO classification. The kappa statistic was 0.760 (0.691-0.805) for the consolidated Hotchkiss classification and 0.455 (0.372-0.521) for the consolidated AO classification. CONCLUSION: The interobserver reliability for the Hotchkiss modification of the Mason classification was moderate, and that for the AO classification was fair according to the criteria of Landis and Koch. Collapsing the Hotchkiss classification improved the reliability to substantial, and collapsing the AO system improved reliability to the lower end of moderate.

  10. Nuclear reactors transients identification and classification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Paulo Henrique

    2008-01-01

    This work describes the study and test of a system capable to identify and classify transients in thermo-hydraulic systems, using a neural network technique of the self-organizing maps (SOM) type, with the objective of implanting it on the new generations of nuclear reactors. The technique developed in this work consists on the use of multiple networks to do the classification and identification of the transient states, being each network a specialist at one respective transient of the system, that compete with each other using the quantization error, that is a measure given by this type of neural network. This technique showed very promising characteristics that allow the development of new functionalities in future projects. One of these characteristics consists on the potential of each network, besides responding what transient is in course, could give additional information about that transient. (author)

  11. A Biochar Classification System and Associated Test Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camps-Arbestain, Marta; Amonette, James E.; Singh, Balwant; Wang, Tao; Schmidt, Hans-Peter

    2015-02-18

    In this chapter, a biochar classification system related to its use as soil amendment is proposed. This document builds upon previous work and constrains its scope to materials with properties that satisfy the criteria for biochar as defined by either the International Biochar Initiative (IBI) Biochar Standards or the European Biochar Community (EBC) Standards, and it is intended to minimise the need for testing in addition to those required according to the above-mentioned standards. The classification system envisions enabling stakeholders and commercial entities to (i) identify the most suitable biochar to fulfil the requirements for a particular soil and/or land-use, and (ii) distinguish the application of biochar for specific niches (e.g., soilless agriculture). It is based on the best current knowledge and the intention is to periodically review and update the document based on new data and knowledge that become available in the scientific literature. The main thrust of this classification system is based on the direct or indirect beneficial effects that biochar provides from its application to soil. We have classified the potential beneficial effects of biochar application to soils into five categories with their corresponding classes, where applicable: (i) carbon (C) storage value, (ii) fertiliser value, (iii) liming value, (iv) particle-size, and (v) use in soil-less agriculture. A summary of recommended test methods is provided at the end of the chapter.

  12. Gynecomastia Classification for Surgical Management: A Systematic Review and Novel Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltho, Daniel; Hatchell, Alexandra; Thoma, Achilleas

    2017-03-01

    Gynecomastia is a common deformity of the male breast, where certain cases warrant surgical management. There are several surgical options, which vary depending on the breast characteristics. To guide surgical management, several classification systems for gynecomastia have been proposed. A systematic review was performed to (1) identify all classification systems for the surgical management of gynecomastia, and (2) determine the adequacy of these classification systems to appropriately categorize the condition for surgical decision-making. The search yielded 1012 articles, and 11 articles were included in the review. Eleven classification systems in total were ascertained, and a total of 10 unique features were identified: (1) breast size, (2) skin redundancy, (3) breast ptosis, (4) tissue predominance, (5) upper abdominal laxity, (6) breast tuberosity, (7) nipple malposition, (8) chest shape, (9) absence of sternal notch, and (10) breast skin elasticity. On average, classification systems included two or three of these features. Breast size and ptosis were the most commonly included features. Based on their review of the current classification systems, the authors believe the ideal classification system should be universal and cater to all causes of gynecomastia; be surgically useful and easy to use; and should include a comprehensive set of clinically appropriate patient-related features, such as breast size, breast ptosis, tissue predominance, and skin redundancy. None of the current classification systems appears to fulfill these criteria.

  13. Development of a Wave Resource Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, S.; Haas, K. A.; Neary, V. S.; Bredin, S.

    2016-12-01

    As the wave energy industry develops, detailed classification systems for wave resource assessments are beneficial for characterizing the wave resource statistics of particular sites and codifying opportunities and risks at these sites. Despite the wide spread availability of wave buoy data for the United States, this is currently insufficient to develop a classification scheme. Therefore, data from the 3rd generation wave model (WWIII) is utilized. Key wave resource statistics for the entire US territorial waters are computed and retained as time-series using a 30-year hindcast (1980-2009) wave spectra including: Annual available energy (AAE), omni-directional wave power, significant wave height, energy period, spectral width, direction of maximum directionally resolved wave power and directionality coefficient. The hindcast data are extensively validated with the available buoy wave measurements using the validation methodology recommended by the IEC standard for wave energy resource assessments (IEC TS 62600-101). As a high level wave classification, the AAE density is the primary indicator of wave energy resources. The AAE is analogous to annual energy production (AEP) without considering the energy conversion process. It can be thought as the theoretical available wave energy resource for any particular location. The AAE is separated into four different classes of ascending energy levels, 0, I, II, and III. Because of the dependence of wave energy devices on wave frequencies, the AAE for the US territorial waters are computed for the full spectrum along with different frequency bands corresponding to wind sea, swell and transitional sea states. The geographic distribution for the different wave classes within each frequency band have been determined. Finally, subclasses based on the extreme wave conditions will also be presented.

  14. Functional classifications for cerebral palsy: correlations between the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS), the manual ability classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagnone, Eliana; Maniglio, Jlenia; Camposeo, Serena; Vespino, Teresa; Losito, Luciana; De Rinaldis, Marta; Gennaro, Leonarda; Trabacca, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate a possible correlation between the gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R), the manual abilities classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS) functional levels in children with cerebral palsy (CP) by CP subtype. It was also geared to verify whether there is a correlation between these classification systems and intellectual functioning (IF) and parental socio-economic status (SES). A total of 87 children (47 males and 40 females, age range 4-18 years, mean age 8.9±4.2) were included in the study. A strong correlation was found between the three classifications: Level V of the GMFCS-E&R corresponds to Level V of the MACS (rs=0.67, p=0.001); the same relationship was found for the CFCS and the MACS (rs=0.73, p<0.001) and for the GMFCS-E&R and the CFCS (rs=0.61, p=0.001). The correlations between the IQ and the global functional disability profile were strong or moderate (GMFCS and IQ: rs=0.66, p=0.001; MACS and IQ: rs=0.58, p=0.001; CFCS and MACS: rs=0.65, p=0.001). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine if there were differences between the GMFCS-E&R, the CFCS and the MACS by CP type. CP types showed different scores for the IQ level (Chi-square=8.59, df=2, p=0.014), the GMFCS-E&R (Chi-square=36.46, df=2, p<0.001), the CFCS (Chi-square=12.87, df=2, p=0.002), and the MACS Level (Chi-square=13.96, df=2, p<0.001) but no significant differences emerged for the SES (Chi-square=1.19, df=2, p=0.554). This study shows how the three functional classifications (GMFCS-E&R, CFCS and MACS) complement each other to provide a better description of the functional profile of CP. The systematic evaluation of the IQ can provide useful information about a possible future outcome for every functional level. The SES does not appear to affect functional profiles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of BCS (biopharmaceutics classification system) and BDDCS (biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system) in drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Leslie Z

    2013-01-01

    Biopharmaceutics Classification System and Biopharmaceutics Drug Distribution Classification System are complimentary, not competing, classification systems that aim to improve, simplify, and speed drug development. Although both systems are based on classifying drugs and new molecular entities into four categories using the same solubility criteria, they differ in the criterion for permeability and have different purposes. Here, the details and applications of both systems are reviewed with particular emphasis of their role in drug development. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A comprehensive classification system for lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Eoin; Subramaniam, Shankar; Brown, H Alex; Glass, Christopher K; Merrill, Alfred H; Murphy, Robert C; Raetz, Christian R H; Russell, David W; Seyama, Yousuke; Shaw, Walter; Shimizu, Takao; Spener, Friedrich; van Meer, Gerrit; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S; White, Stephen H; Witztum, Joseph L; Dennis, Edward A

    2005-05-01

    Lipids are produced, transported, and recognized by the concerted actions of numerous enzymes, binding proteins, and receptors. A comprehensive analysis of lipid molecules, "lipidomics," in the context of genomics and proteomics is crucial to understanding cellular physiology and pathology; consequently, lipid biology has become a major research target of the postgenomic revolution and systems biology. To facilitate international communication about lipids, a comprehensive classification of lipids with a common platform that is compatible with informatics requirements has been developed to deal with the massive amounts of data that will be generated by our lipid community. As an initial step in this development, we divide lipids into eight categories (fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterol lipids, prenol lipids, saccharolipids, and polyketides) containing distinct classes and subclasses of molecules, devise a common manner of representing the chemical structures of individual lipids and their derivatives, and provide a 12 digit identifier for each unique lipid molecule. The lipid classification scheme is chemically based and driven by the distinct hydrophobic and hydrophilic elements that compose the lipid. This structured vocabulary will facilitate the systematization of lipid biology and enable the cataloging of lipids and their properties in a way that is compatible with other macromolecular databases.

  17. Evaluation of the subaxial injury classification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A F Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Study design : Retrospective clinical study of patients treated for subaxial cervical spine trauma (SCST at a tertiary medical center. Purpose : Evaluate the validity of the Subaxial Injury Classification (SLIC system in surgical versus non-surgical decision making for SCST. Inclusion criteria : Age >12 years, presence of SCST with complete clinical and radiological (CT and MRI data. Exclusion criteria : Patients with incomplete radiographic or clinical data, pathological fractures, isolated upper cervical trauma (occiput to C2, isolated transverse process or spinous process fractures, chronic or age indeterminate fractures, isolate MRI findings, and severe systemic trauma with death prior to either surgical or non-surgical treatment. Results : Fourteen patients were treated non-surgically (C, whereas 24 were treated surgically (S. In the C group, the SLIC score ranged from 0 to 5 points (standard deviation [SD] = 1.20 points; mean 1.07; median 1. Just 1 patient had an SLIC score greater than 2 (7.1% of the patients. In the S group, the SLIC score ranged from 1 to 10 points (standard deviation [SD] = 2.03 points; mean 5.6; median 6. Just 2 patients had an SLIC score smaller than 4 (both with 1 point each, 8.3% of the total group. All the other 22 (accounting for 91.6% patients had an SLIC of 4 or more points. Conclusions : Our study suggests that the SLIC classification looks to be a promising system to aid spinal surgeons in the decision-making process of subaxial cervical trauma, but a large prospective cohort study is required.

  18. Functional Classification of the Gut Microbiota: The Key to Cracking the Microbiota Composition Code: Functional classifications of the gut microbiota reveal previously hidden contributions of indigenous gut bacteria to human health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Connor E; Palm, Noah W

    2017-12-01

    The last decade has seen an explosion of research on the gut microbiota-the trillions of microorganisms that colonize the human gut. It is now clear that interindividual diversity in microbiota composition plays an important role in determining susceptibility to a wide variety of diseases. However, identifying the precise changes in microbiota composition that play causal roles has remained a largely unrealized goal. Here, we propose that functional classifications of microbes based on their interactions with and effects on the host-particularly the host immune system-will illuminate the role of the microbiota in shaping human physiology. We outline the benefits of "functional" classification compared to phylogenetic classifications, and review current efforts at functional classification of the microbiota. Finally, we outline a theoretical framework for classifying host-microbiota interactions. Future advances enabling broader functional classifications of the microbiota promise to revolutionize our understanding of the role of gut microbes in health and disease. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A proposed data base system for detection, classification and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A proposed data base system for detection, classification and location of fault on electricity company of Ghana electrical distribution system. Isaac Owusu-Nyarko, Mensah-Ananoo Eugine. Abstract. No Abstract. Keywords: database, classification of fault, power, distribution system, SCADA, ECG. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT ...

  20. Gender and cultural issues in psychiatric nosological classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, Tanya; Suliman, Sharain; Seedat, Soraya

    2016-08-01

    Much has changed since the two dominant mental health nosological systems, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), were first published in 1900 and 1952, respectively. Despite numerous modifications to stay up to date with scientific and cultural changes (eg, exclusion of homosexuality as a disorder) and to improve the cultural sensitivity of psychiatric diagnoses, the ICD and DSM have only recently renewed attempts at harmonization. Previous nosological iterations demonstrate the oscillation in the importance placed on the biological focus, highlighting the tension between a gender- and culture-free nosology (solely biological) and a contextually relevant understanding of mental illness. In light of the release of the DSM 5, future nosological systems, such as the ICD 11, scheduled for release in 2017, and the Research Development Criteria (RDoC), can learn from history and apply critiques. This article aims to critically consider gender and culture in previous editions of the ICD and DSM to inform forthcoming classifications.

  1. A Hybrid Classification System for Heart Disease Diagnosis Based on the RFRS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease is one of the most common diseases in the world. The objective of this study is to aid the diagnosis of heart disease using a hybrid classification system based on the ReliefF and Rough Set (RFRS method. The proposed system contains two subsystems: the RFRS feature selection system and a classification system with an ensemble classifier. The first system includes three stages: (i data discretization, (ii feature extraction using the ReliefF algorithm, and (iii feature reduction using the heuristic Rough Set reduction algorithm that we developed. In the second system, an ensemble classifier is proposed based on the C4.5 classifier. The Statlog (Heart dataset, obtained from the UCI database, was used for experiments. A maximum classification accuracy of 92.59% was achieved according to a jackknife cross-validation scheme. The results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed system is superior to the performances of previously reported classification techniques.

  2. Determination of a radioactive waste classification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.J.; King, W.C.

    1978-03-01

    Several classification systems for radioactive wastes are reviewed and a system is developed that provides guidance on disposition of the waste. The system has three classes: high-level waste (HLW), which requires complete isolation from the biosphere for extended time periods; low-level waste (LLW), which requires containment for shorter periods; and innocuous waste (essentially nonradioactive), which may be disposed of by conventional means. The LLW/innocuous waste interface was not defined in this study. Reasonably conservative analytical scenarios were used to calculate that HLW/LLW interface level which would ensure compliance with the radiological exposure guidelines of 0.5 rem/y maximum exposure for a few isolated individuals and 0.005 rem/y for large population groups. The recommended HLW/LLW interface level for /sup 239/Pu or mixed transuranic waste is 1.0 ..mu..Ci/cm/sup 3/ of waste. Levels for other radionuclides are based upon a risk equivalent to this level. A cost-benefit analysis in accordance with as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) and National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) guidance indicates that further reduction of this HLW/LLL interface level would entail marginal costs greater than $10/sup 8/ per man-rem of dose avoided. The environmental effects considered were limited to those involving human exposure to radioactivity.

  3. Determination of a radioactive waste classification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.J.; King, W.C.

    1978-03-01

    Several classification systems for radioactive wastes are reviewed and a system is developed that provides guidance on disposition of the waste. The system has three classes: high-level waste (HLW), which requires complete isolation from the biosphere for extended time periods; low-level waste (LLW), which requires containment for shorter periods; and innocuous waste (essentially nonradioactive), which may be disposed of by conventional means. The LLW/innocuous waste interface was not defined in this study. Reasonably conservative analytical scenarios were used to calculate that HLW/LLW interface level which would ensure compliance with the radiological exposure guidelines of 0.5 rem/y maximum exposure for a few isolated individuals and 0.005 rem/y for large population groups. The recommended HLW/LLW interface level for 239 Pu or mixed transuranic waste is 1.0 μCi/cm 3 of waste. Levels for other radionuclides are based upon a risk equivalent to this level. A cost-benefit analysis in accordance with as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) and National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) guidance indicates that further reduction of this HLW/LLL interface level would entail marginal costs greater than $10 8 per man-rem of dose avoided. The environmental effects considered were limited to those involving human exposure to radioactivity

  4. Marginalization and Exclusion: Unraveling Systemic Bias in Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens-Erik

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the knowledge organization landscape in which Hope Olson’s numerous contri- butions to the field are situated. The paper first explores some of the foundational conceptual notions within knowledge organization that today are well-accepted. The paper then reviews Hope Olson...... in large library classification has unraveled the systemic bias found in all classifications. The paper calls for stronger engagement between scholarship and practice to ad- dress marginalization and exclusion in further work on classification systems....

  5. Review of international classification systems for uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenyou

    2007-01-01

    The two primary classification systems for uranium resources in common use in the whole world are described. These uranium resource classification systems were developed under two distinct philosophies, it implies two very different processes, criteria, terms and definitions from which the systems evolved and were implemented. However, the two primary systems are all based on two considerations: the degree of geological confidence and the degree of economic attractiveness based on cost of producing the resource. The uranium resource classification methods currently used in most major uranium producing countries have all a bearing on the two aforesaid classification systems. The disparity exists only in the way or practice of classifying and estimating the uranium resources for reasons of different political and economical systems in various countries. The harmonization of these resource classification systems for uranium can be realized with the economic integration on a global scale. (authors)

  6. Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2011-01-01

    A supervised learning task involves constructing a mapping from input data (normally described by several features) to the appropriate outputs. Within supervised learning, one type of task is a classification learning task, in which each output is one or more classes to which the input belongs. In supervised learning, a set of training examples---examples with known output values---is used by a learning algorithm to generate a model. This model is intended to approximate the mapping between the inputs and outputs. This model can be used to generate predicted outputs for inputs that have not been seen before. For example, we may have data consisting of observations of sunspots. In a classification learning task, our goal may be to learn to classify sunspots into one of several types. Each example may correspond to one candidate sunspot with various measurements or just an image. A learning algorithm would use the supplied examples to generate a model that approximates the mapping between each supplied set of measurements and the type of sunspot. This model can then be used to classify previously unseen sunspots based on the candidate's measurements. This chapter discusses methods to perform machine learning, with examples involving astronomy.

  7. Risk-based classification system of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tervonen, Tommi; Linkov, Igor; Figueira, Jose Rui; Steevens, Jeffery; Chappell, Mark; Merad, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    Various stakeholders are increasingly interested in the potential toxicity and other risks associated with nanomaterials throughout the different stages of a product's life cycle (e.g., development, production, use, disposal). Risk assessment methods and tools developed and applied to chemical and biological materials may not be readily adaptable for nanomaterials because of the current uncertainty in identifying the relevant physico-chemical and biological properties that adequately describe the materials. Such uncertainty is further driven by the substantial variations in the properties of the original material due to variable manufacturing processes employed in nanomaterial production. To guide scientists and engineers in nanomaterial research and application as well as to promote the safe handling and use of these materials, we propose a decision support system for classifying nanomaterials into different risk categories. The classification system is based on a set of performance metrics that measure both the toxicity and physico-chemical characteristics of the original materials, as well as the expected environmental impacts through the product life cycle. Stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA-TRI), a formal decision analysis method, was used as the foundation for this task. This method allowed us to cluster various nanomaterials in different ecological risk categories based on our current knowledge of nanomaterial physico-chemical characteristics, variation in produced material, and best professional judgments. SMAA-TRI uses Monte Carlo simulations to explore all feasible values for weights, criteria measurements, and other model parameters to assess the robustness of nanomaterial grouping for risk management purposes.

  8. Classification of parotidectomy: a proposed modification to the European Salivary Gland Society classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai Keat; Shetty, Subhaschandra

    2017-08-01

    Parotidectomy remains the mainstay of treatment for both benign and malignant lesions of the parotid gland. There exists a wide range of possible surgical options in parotidectomy in terms of extent of parotid tissue removed. There is increasing need for uniformity of terminology resulting from growing interest in modifications of the conventional parotidectomy. It is, therefore, of paramount importance for a standardized classification system in describing extent of parotidectomy. Recently, the European Salivary Gland Society (ESGS) proposed a novel classification system for parotidectomy. The aim of this study is to evaluate this system. A classification system proposed by the ESGS was critically re-evaluated and modified to increase its accuracy and its acceptability. Modifications mainly focused on subdividing Levels I and II into IA, IB, IIA, and IIB. From June 2006 to June 2016, 126 patients underwent 130 parotidectomies at our hospital. The classification system was tested in that cohort of patient. While the ESGS classification system is comprehensive, it does not cover all possibilities. The addition of Sublevels IA, IB, IIA, and IIB may help to address some of the clinical situations seen and is clinically relevant. We aim to test the modified classification system for partial parotidectomy to address some of the challenges mentioned.

  9. Classification process in a text document recommender system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan MUNTEANU

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the classification process in a recommender system used for textual documents taken especially from web. The system uses in the classification process a combination of content filters, event filters and collaborative filters and it uses implicit and explicit feedback for evaluating documents.

  10. Designing a Classification System for Internet Offenders: Doing Cognitive Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundersmarck, Steven F.; Durkin, Keith F.; Delong, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    Televised features such as NBC's "To Catch a Predator" have highlighted the growing problem posed by Internet sexual predators. This paper reports on the authors' attempts in designing a classification system for Internet offenders. The classification system was designed based on existing theory, understanding the nature of Internet offenders and…

  11. Classification System of Pathological Voices Using Correntropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluisio I. R. Fontes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of a similarity measure based on information theory called correntropy for the automatic classification of pathological voices. By using correntropy, it is possible to obtain descriptors that aggregate distinct spectral characteristics for healthy and pathological voices. Experiments using computational simulation demonstrate that such descriptors are very efficient in the characterization of vocal dysfunctions, leading to a success rate of 97% in the classification. With this new architecture, the classification process of vocal pathologies becomes much more simple and efficient.

  12. Safety classification of nuclear power plant systems, structures and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Safety Classification principles used for the systems, structures and components of a nuclear power plant are detailed in the guide. For classification, the nuclear power plant is divided into structural and operational units called systems. Every structure and component under control is included into some system. The Safety Classes are 1, 2 and 3 and the Class EYT (non-nuclear). Instructions how to assign each system, structure and component to an appropriate safety class are given in the guide. The guide applies to new nuclear power plants and to the safety classification of systems, structures and components designed for the refitting of old nuclear power plants. The classification principles and procedures applying to the classification document are also given

  13. Grouping Parturients by Parity, Previous-Cesarean, and Mode of Delivery (P-C-MoD Classification) Better Identifies Groups at Risk for Postpartum Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Orna; Gal, Micahel; Sela, Hen Y; Khayyat, Izzat; Emanuel, Michael; Samueloff, Arnon

    2016-10-01

    Objective We aimed to create a clinical classification to better identify parturients at risk for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Method A retrospective cohort, including all women who delivered at a single tertiary care medical center, between 2006 and 2014. Parturients were grouped by parity and history of cesarean delivery (CD): primiparas, multipara, and multipara with previous CD. Each were further subgrouped by mode of delivery (spontaneous vaginal delivery [SVD], operative vaginal delivery [OVD], emergency or elective CD). In all, 12 subgroups, based on parity, previous cesarean, and mode of delivery, formed the P-C-MoD classification. PPH was defined as a decrease of ≥3 gram% hemoglobin from admission and/or transfusion of blood products. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis was performed to assess risk for PPH, controlling for confounders. Results The crude rate of PPH among 126,693 parturients was 7%. The prevalence differed significantly among independent risk factors: primiparity, 14%; multiparity, 4%; OVD, 22%; and CD, 15%. The P-C-MoD classification, segregated better between parturients at risk for PPH. The prevalence of PPH was highest for primiparous undergoing OVD (27%) compared with multiparous with SVD (3%), odds ratio [OR] = 12.8 (95% confidence interval [CI],11.9-13.9). These finding were consistent in the multivariate analysis OR = 13.1 (95% CI,12.1-14.3). Conclusion Employing the P-C-MoD classification more readily identifies parturients at risk for PPH and is superior to estimations based on single risk factors. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. A novel classification system for aging theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Siqueira Trindade

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Theories of lifespan evolution are a source of confusion amongst aging researchers. After a century of aging research the dispute over whether the aging process is active or passive persists and a comprehensive and universally accepted theoretical model remains elusive. Evolutionary aging theories primarily dispute whether the aging process is exclusively adapted to favor the kin or exclusively non-adapted to favor the individual. Interestingly, contradictory data and theories supporting both exclusively programmed and exclusively non-programmed theories continue to grow. However, this is a false dichotomy; natural selection favors traits resulting in efficient reproduction whether they benefit the individual or the kin. Thus, to understand the evolution of aging, first we must understand the environment-dependent balance between the advantages and disadvantages of extended lifespan in the process of spreading genes. As described by distinct theories, different niches and environmental conditions confer on extended lifespan a range of fitness values varying from highly beneficial to highly detrimental. Here, we considered the range of fitness values for extended lifespan and develop a fitness-based framework for categorizing existing theories. We show that all theories can be classified into four basic types: secondary (beneficial, maladaptive (neutral, assisted death (detrimental and senemorphic aging (varying between beneficial to detrimental. We anticipate that this classification system will assist with understanding and interpreting aging/death by providing a way of considering theories as members of one of these classes rather than consideration of their individual details.

  15. Development of a comprehensive radioactive waste classification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Several previous studies have been conducted with the intent of developing a rational system for classification of radioactive wastes. Although none of the proposed systems has gained general acceptance, certain waste classes, specifically high-level waste and low-level waste suitable for shallow land burial have been essentially defined by regulation. Wastes which remain undefined include: those intermediate level wastes which require more restrictive controls than that provided by shallow land burial but not the high degree of isolation needed for high level wastes, and wastes below regulatory concern (BRC) which entail so low a radiological risk that they can be managed according to their nonradiological properties. This study has developed a framework within which the complete spectrum of radioactive wastes can be defined

  16. A fast fault classification technique for power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nouri, H.; Wang, C.; Power Systems, Electronics and Control Research Lab

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a fast fault classification technique using three phase current signals for power systems. Digital Fourier Transform, the ‘Least Square’ method or the Kalman Filtering technique are used to extract fundamental frequency components of three phase fault currents. Fast fault classification can be achieved using the fault probability of three phases. Results from simulation work on EMTP have validated the proposed fault classification technique. The response time of the fault ...

  17. An analysis of 97 previously diagnosed de novo adult acute erythroid leukemia patients following the 2016 revision to World Health Organization classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shaowei; Jiang, Erlie; Wei, Hui; Lin, Dong; Zhang, Guangji; Wei, Shuning; Zhou, Chunlin; Liu, Kaiqi; Wang, Ying; Liu, Bingcheng; Liu, Yuntao; Gong, Benfa; Gong, Xiaoyuan; Feng, Sizhou; Mi, Yingchang; Han, Mingzhe; Wang, Jianxiang

    2017-08-09

    The incidence of acute erythroid leukemia subtype (AEL) is rare, accounting for 5% of cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and the outcome is dismal. However, in 2016 revision to the WHO classification, the subcategory of AEL has been removed. Myeloblasts are redefined as the percentage of total marrow cells, not non-erythroid cells. Therefore, the previously diagnosed AEL cases are currently diagnosed as AML or myelodyspalstic syndrome (MDS) according to new criteria. We respectively reviewed cases of 97 de novo previously diagnosed AEL and all the patients were diagnosed as AML or MDS according to the new classification scheme, and then the clinical characteristics of these two subtypes were compared. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS software version 18.0. The median age was 37 years-old, the two-thirds of previous AEL cases were diagnosed as MDS, and there was no obvious difference between two subtypes except for male/female ratio and age. Cytogenetic, rather than MDS/AML subtypes, can better represent the prognostic factor of previously diagnosed AEL patients. When the cytogenetic risk of patients belonged to MRC intermediate category and age were below 40 years-old in previous AEL cases, the patients who received induction chemotherapy without transplantation had a similar survival compared with the patients who underwent transplantation (3-year OS: 67.2% vs 68.5%). Cytogenetic, rather than MDS/AML subtypes, can better represent the prognostic factor of previously diagnosed AEL patients. Transplantation was a better choice for those whose cytogenetic category was unfavorable.

  18. Update of the LIPID MAPS comprehensive classification system for lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Eoin; Subramaniam, Shankar; Murphy, Robert C; Nishijima, Masahiro; Raetz, Christian R H; Shimizu, Takao; Spener, Friedrich; van Meer, Gerrit; Wakelam, Michael J O; Dennis, Edward A

    2009-04-01

    In 2005, the International Lipid Classification and Nomenclature Committee under the sponsorship of the LIPID MAPS Consortium developed and established a "Comprehensive Classification System for Lipids" based on well-defined chemical and biochemical principles and using an ontology that is extensible, flexible, and scalable. This classification system, which is compatible with contemporary databasing and informatics needs, has now been accepted internationally and widely adopted. In response to considerable attention and requests from lipid researchers from around the globe and in a variety of fields, the comprehensive classification system has undergone significant revisions over the last few years to more fully represent lipid structures from a wider variety of sources and to provide additional levels of detail as necessary. The details of this classification system are reviewed and updated and are presented here, along with revisions to its suggested nomenclature and structure-drawing recommendations for lipids.

  19. New C2 synchondrosal fracture classification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, Jerome A.; Ruess, Lynne [Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Columbus, OH (United States); Daulton, Robert S. [Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Excessive cervical flexion-extension accompanying mild to severe impact injuries can lead to C2 synchondrosal fractures in young children. To characterize and classify C2 synchondrosal fracture patterns. We retrospectively reviewed imaging and medical records of children who were treated for cervical spine fractures at our institution between 1995 and 2014. We reviewed all fractures involving the five central C2 synchondroses with regard to patient demographics, mechanism of injury, fracture pattern, associated fractures and other injuries, treatment plans and outcome. Fourteen children had fractures involving the central C2 synchondroses. There were nine boys and five girls, all younger than 6 years. We found four distinct fracture patterns. Eleven complete fractures were further divided into four subtypes (a, b, c and d) based on degree of anterior displacement of the odontoid segment and presence of distraction. Nine of these 11 children had fractures through both odontoneural synchondroses and the odontocentral synchondrosis; one had fractures involving both neurocentral synchondroses and the odontoneural synchondrosis; one had fractures through bilateral odontoneural and bilateral neurocentral synchondroses. Three children had incomplete fractures, defined as a fracture through a single odontoneural synchondrosis with or without partial extension into either the odontocentral or the adjacent neurocentral synchondroses. All complete fractures were displaced or angulated. Four had associated spinal cord injury, including two contusions (subtype c fractures) and two fatal transections (subtype d fractures). Most children were treated with primary halo stabilization. Subtype c fractures required surgical fixation. We describe four patterns of central C2 synchondrosal fractures, including two unique patterns that have not been reported. We propose a classification system to distinguish these fractures and aid in treatment planning. (orig.)

  20. Calibration of a Plastic Classification System with the Ccw Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcala Riveira, J. M.; Fernandez Marron, J. L.; Alberdi Primicia, J.; Navarrete Marin, J. J.; Oller Gonzalez, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the calibration of a plastic Classification system with the Ccw model (Classification by Quantum's built with Wavelet Coefficients). The method is applied to spectra of plastics usually present in domestic wastes. Obtained results are showed. (Author) 16 refs

  1. A consumer-oriented classification system for home meal replacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, A.I.A.; Dekker, M.; Beumer, R.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces a new definition and classification system for home meal replacements (HMR), based on convenience attributes as viewed by consumers. An overview of other food classifications, focusing on methodological aspects, is also presented. The classifying criteria chosen (shelf-life and

  2. Update of the LIPID MAPS comprehensive classification system for lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahy, E.; Subramaniam, S.; Murphy, R.C.; Nishijima, M.; Raetz, C.R.H.; Shimizu, T.; Spener, F.; van Meer, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068570368; Wakelam, M.J.O.; Dennis, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the International Lipid Classification and Nomenclature Committee under the sponsorship of the LIPID MAPS Consortium developed and established a “Comprehensive Classification System for Lipids” based on well-defined chemical and biochemical principles and using an ontology that is

  3. EPUAP classification system for pressure ulcers: European reliability study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeckman, D.; Schoonhoven, L.; Fletcher, J.; Furtado, K.; Gunningberg, L.; Heyman, H.; Lindholm, C.; Paquay, L.; Verdu, J.; Defloor, T.

    2007-01-01

    AIM: This paper is a report of a study of the inter-observer reliability of the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel pressure ulcer classification system and of the differential diagnosis between moisture lesions and pressure ulcers. BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcer classification is a valuable tool to

  4. Development of a classification system for periodontal diseases and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, G C

    2000-01-01

    Classification systems are necessary in order to provide a framework in which to scientifically study the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of diseases in an orderly fashion. In addition, such systems give clinicians a way to organize the health care needs of their patients. The last time scientists and clinicians in the field of periodontology and related areas agreed upon a classification system for periodontal diseases was in 1989 at the World Workshop in Clinical Periodontics. Subsequently, a simpler classification was agreed upon at the 1st European Workshop in Periodontology. These classification systems have been widely used by clinicians and research scientists throughout the world. Unfortunately, the 1989 classification had many shortcomings, including: (1) considerable overlap in disease categories, (2) absence of a gingival disease component, (3) inappropriate emphasis on age of onset of disease and rates of progression, and (4) inadequate or unclear classification criteria. The 1993 European classification lacked the detail necessary for adequate characterization of the broad spectrum of periodontal diseases encountered in clinical practice. The need for a revised classification system for periodontal diseases was emphasized during the 1996 World Workshop in Periodontics. In 1997 the American Academy of Periodontology responded to this need and formed a committee to plan and organize an international workshop to revise the classification system for periodontal diseases. The proceedings in this volume are the result of this reclassification effort. The process involved development by the Organizing Committee of an outline for a new classification and identification of individuals to write state-of-the-science reviews for each of the items on the outline. The reviewers were encouraged to depart from the preliminary outline if there were data to support any modifications. On October 30-November 2, 1999, the International Workshop for a Classification

  5. Correlation between Gross Motor Function Classification System and Communication Function Classification System in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vindy Margaretha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral Palsy (CP is a group of movement and posture disorder commonly accompanied by comorbidities such as sensation, cognition, communication abnormalities and many more. This study aimed to identify the correlation between gross motor function(measured by Gross Motor Function Classification System, GMFCS and communication function (measured by Communication Function Classification System, CFCS in children with CP. Methods: Thirty six children with CP aged 0–12 years were examined. Samples were taken from Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung on September to October 2015. Patients’ descriptive data, levels of GMFCS and CFCS were collected by the researcher and residents previously standardized. Kendall’s tau b correlation coefficient was used to analyze the inter-relationship between the GMFCS and CFCS. Results: Levels of GMFCS and CFCS in all samples were moderately correlated (r=0.405; p=0.004. In patients with spastic quadripledic type, correlation were found moderate(r=0.495; p=0.014. No significant correlation was found when CP spastic quadriplegic patients were excluded (r=0.048, p=0.829. Conclusions: Levels of GMFCS and CFCS should be described to provide the complete gross motor and communication picture of CP children.Gross motor function in a child with spastic quadriplegic CP might be correctly predicted from his/ her communication function and vice versa.   DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1092

  6. The theory and practice of the Dewey Decimal Classification system

    CERN Document Server

    Satija, M P

    2013-01-01

    The Dewey Decimal Classification system (DDC) is the world's most popular library classification system. The 23rd edition of the DDC was published in 2011. This second edition of The Theory and Practice of the Dewey Decimal Classification System examines the history, management and technical aspects of the DDC up to its latest edition. The book places emphasis on explaining the structure and number building techniques in the DDC and reviews all aspects of subject analysis and number building by the most recent version of the DDC. A history of, and introduction to, the DDC is followed by subjec

  7. Development of a classification system for cup anemometers - CLASSCUP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2003-01-01

    classification system. A classification method for cup anemometers has been developed, which proposes general external operational ranges to be used. Anormal category range connected to ideal sites of the IEC power performance standard was made, and another extended category range for complex terrain...... the objectives to quantify the errors associated with the use of cup anemometers, and to determine the requirements for an optimum design of a cup anemometer, and to develop a classification system forquantification of systematic errors of cup anemometers. The present report describes this proposed...... was proposed. General classification indices were proposed for all types of cup anemometers. As a resultof the classification, the cup anemometer will be assigned to a certain class: 0.5, 1, 2, 3 or 5 with corresponding intrinsic errors (%) as a vector instrument (3D) or as a horizontal instrument (2D...

  8. Cirse Quality Assurance Document and Standards for Classification of Complications: The Cirse Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippiadis, D K; Binkert, C; Pellerin, O; Hoffmann, R T; Krajina, A; Pereira, P L

    2017-08-01

    Interventional radiology provides a wide variety of vascular, nonvascular, musculoskeletal, and oncologic minimally invasive techniques aimed at therapy or palliation of a broad spectrum of pathologic conditions. Outcome data for these techniques are globally evaluated by hospitals, insurance companies, and government agencies targeting in a high-quality health care policy, including reimbursement strategies. To analyze effectively the outcome of a technique, accurate reporting of complications is necessary. Throughout the literature, numerous classification systems for complications grading and classification have been reported. Until now, there has been no method for uniform reporting of complications both in terms of definition and grading. The purpose of this CIRSE guideline is to provide a classification system of complications based on combining outcome and severity of sequelae. The ultimate challenge will be the adoption of this system by practitioners in different countries and health economies within the European Union and beyond.

  9. Classification systems and selection systems: the risks of radical innovation and category spanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnberg, N.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the relations between classification and competition, using the theoretical framework of selection system theory. In a particular competitive arena more than one classification system can be in use. The proportion of classification systems in use by consumers that are also in use

  10. Marginalization and Exclusion: Unraveling Systemic Bias in Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens-Erik

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the knowledge organization landscape in which Hope Olson’s numerous contri- butions to the field are situated. The paper first explores some of the foundational conceptual notions within knowledge organization that today are well-accepted. The paper then reviews Hope Olson’s c...... in large library classification has unraveled the systemic bias found in all classifications. The paper calls for stronger engagement between scholarship and practice to ad- dress marginalization and exclusion in further work on classification systems....

  11. A simplified classification system for partially edentulous spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandari Aruna J, Bhandari Akshay J

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no single universally employed classification system that will specify the exact edentulous situation. Several classification systems exist to group the situation and avoid confusion. Classifications based on edentulous areas, finished restored prostheses, type of direct retainers or fulcrum lines are there. Some are based depending on the placement of the implants. Widely accepted Kennedy Applegate classification does not give any idea about length, span or number of teeth missing. Rule 6 governing the application of Kennedy method states that additional edentulous areas are referred as modification number 1,2 etc. Rule 7 states that extent of the modification is not considered; only the number of edentulous areas is considered. Hence there is a need to modify the Kennedy –Applegate System. Aims: This new classification system is an attempt to modify Kennedy –Applegate System so as to give the exact idea about missing teeth, space, span, side and areas of partially edentulous arches. Methods and Material: This system will provide the information regarding Maxillary or Mandibular partially edentulous arches, Left or Right side, length of the edentulous space, number of teeth missing and whether there will be tooth borne or tooth – tissue borne prosthesis. Conclusions: This classification is easy for application, communication and will also help to design the removable cast partial denture in a better logical and systematic way. Also, this system will give the idea of the edentulous status and the number of missing teeth in fixed, hybrid or implant prosthesis.

  12. Classification System of Pathological Voices Using Correntropy

    OpenAIRE

    Aluisio I. R. Fontes; Pedro T. V. Souza; Adrião D. D. Neto; Allan de M. Martins; Luiz F. Q. Silveira

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of a similarity measure based on information theory called correntropy for the automatic classification of pathological voices. By using correntropy, it is possible to obtain descriptors that aggregate distinct spectral characteristics for healthy and pathological voices. Experiments using computational simulation demonstrate that such descriptors are very efficient in the characterization of vocal dysfunctions, leading to a success rate of 97% in the classificatio...

  13. Formalization of the classification pattern: survey of classification modeling in information systems engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Chris; de Cesare, Sergio; Mitchell, Andrew; Odell, James

    2018-01-01

    Formalization is becoming more common in all stages of the development of information systems, as a better understanding of its benefits emerges. Classification systems are ubiquitous, no more so than in domain modeling. The classification pattern that underlies these systems provides a good case study of the move toward formalization in part because it illustrates some of the barriers to formalization, including the formal complexity of the pattern and the ontological issues surrounding the "one and the many." Powersets are a way of characterizing the (complex) formal structure of the classification pattern, and their formalization has been extensively studied in mathematics since Cantor's work in the late nineteenth century. One can use this formalization to develop a useful benchmark. There are various communities within information systems engineering (ISE) that are gradually working toward a formalization of the classification pattern. However, for most of these communities, this work is incomplete, in that they have not yet arrived at a solution with the expressiveness of the powerset benchmark. This contrasts with the early smooth adoption of powerset by other information systems communities to, for example, formalize relations. One way of understanding the varying rates of adoption is recognizing that the different communities have different historical baggage. Many conceptual modeling communities emerged from work done on database design, and this creates hurdles to the adoption of the high level of expressiveness of powersets. Another relevant factor is that these communities also often feel, particularly in the case of domain modeling, a responsibility to explain the semantics of whatever formal structures they adopt. This paper aims to make sense of the formalization of the classification pattern in ISE and surveys its history through the literature, starting from the relevant theoretical works of the mathematical literature and gradually shifting focus

  14. Language of Czech Medical Reports and Classification Systems in Medicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přečková, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2010), s. 58-65 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : terminology, * synonyms * classification systems * thesaurus * nomenclature * electronic health record * interoperability * semantic interoperability * cardiology * atherosclerosis Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/en/ejbi/article/53-en-language-of-czech-medical-reports- and - classification -systems-in-medicine.html

  15. Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discusses definitions of the term “classification” and the related concepts “Concept/conceptualization,”“categorization,” “ordering,” “taxonomy” and “typology.” It further presents and discusses theories of classification including the influences of Aristotle...... and Wittgenstein. It presents different views on forming classes, including logical division, numerical taxonomy, historical classification, hermeneutical and pragmatic/critical views. Finally, issues related to artificial versus natural classification and taxonomic monism versus taxonomic pluralism are briefly...

  16. Development of an intelligent system for ultrasonic flaw classification in weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung-Jin; Kim, Hak-Joon; Cho, Hyeon

    2002-01-01

    Even though ultrasonic pattern recognition is considered as the most effective and promising approach to flaw classification in weldments, its application to the realistic field inspection is still very limited due to the crucial barriers in cost, time and reliability. To reduce such barriers, previously we have proposed an intelligent system approach that consisted of the following four ingredients: (1) a PC-based ultrasonic testing (PC-UT) system; (2) an effective invariant ultrasonic flaw classification algorithm; (3) an intelligent flaw classification software; and (4) a database with abundant experimental flaw signals. In the present work, for performing the ultrasonic flaw classification in weldments in a real-time fashion in many real word situations, we develop an intelligent system, which is called the 'Intelligent Ultrasonic Evaluation System (IUES)' by the integration of the above four ingredients into a single, unified system. In addition, for the improvement of classification accuracy of flaws, especially slag inclusions, we expand the feature set by adding new informative features, and demonstrate the enhanced performance of the IUES with flaw signals in the database constructed previously. And then, to take care of the increased redundancy in the feature set due to the addition of features, we also propose two efficient schemes for feature selection: the forward selection with trial and error, and the forward selection with criteria of the error probability and the linear correlation coefficients of individual features

  17. STOCHASTIC PARAMETRIC VIBRATIONS OF ELASTIC SYSTEMS WITH REGARD TO THEIR PREVIOUS STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorona Y.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reduced models of stochastic parametric vibrations of elastic systems with regard to their previous states were constructed on the base of the finite element method, generalized coordinates method, asymptotic method and functional approach. Stochastic stability problem was formulated in the average for the moment functions of the first order phase coordinates. The stability of stochastic parametric vibrations of the single degree of freedom system with regard to its previous states was investigated by the 7-stages 5-order continuous Runge-Kutta method and nested formulas Dormand-Prince.

  18. Comparison of five systems of classification of diabetic foot ulcers and predictive factors for amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byung-Joon; Choi, Hwan Jun; Kang, Jin Seok; Tak, Min Sung; Park, Eun Soo

    2017-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder. Among various complications, diabetic neuropathy and peripheral vascular disorders are closely associated with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). Lower extremity ulcers and amputations are ongoing problems among individuals with diabetes. There are several classification systems for DFUs; however, no prognostic system has to date been accepted as the gold standard or the optimum prediction tool for amputations. A retrospective study was designed. Demographic data and baseline laboratory data were gathered and scored or evaluated using five representative DFU classification systems. These included (i) the diabetic ulcer severity score (DUSS); (ii) University of Texas (UT) diabetic wound classification; (iii) Meggitt-Wagner classification; (iv) depth of the ulcer, extent of bacterial colonisation, phase of ulcer and association aetiology (DEPA) scoring system; and (v) site, ischaemia, neuropathy, bacterial infection and depth (SINBAD) score. Finally, a statistical analysis was performed. A total of 137 patients were included in this study. During the follow-up, DFU had healed in 51·1% of subjects and 48·9% of the individuals underwent lower extremity amputations (LEAs). In a univariable logistic regression analysis, history of previous DFU, hypertension, neuropathy, haemoglobin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and ankle-brachial index (ABI) showed a statistically significant difference between the healed group and the LEA group. Moreover, the stages, grades or overall prognostic ability of all five classifications were highly associated with the overall occurrence of LEA. On multivariable logistic regression analysis of the risk of LEA, all classifications showed a significant positive trend with an increased number of amputations. All the five classification systems exhibited high sensitivity, specificity, classification accuracy, positive predictive, negative predictive and area under the curve (AUC) values. They showed

  19. Meta-language for land use classification systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available classification systems Antony K Cooper CSIR acooper@csir.co.za Development of an Interim Framework for the National Land Use Classification Standard, Methodology and Symbology for South Africa Protea Hotel, OR Tambo International Airport, 15 April 2014... on ontologies! • Ontology – the branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being • [Concise Oxford Dictionary, 8th Ed] – One aspect (of many!) of ontology in philosophy is to classify things • For assessing existence, essence, qualities, etc...

  20. Revised Soil Classification System for Coarse-Fine Mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Junghee

    2017-04-17

    Soil classification systems worldwide capture great physical insight and enable geotechnical engineers to anticipate the properties and behavior of soils by grouping them into similar response categories based on their index properties. Yet gravimetric analysis and data trends summarized from published papers reveal critical limitations in soil group boundaries adopted in current systems. In particular, current classification systems fail to capture the dominant role of fines on the mechanical and hydraulic properties of soils. A revised soil classification system (RSCS) for coarse-fine mixtures is proposed herein. Definitions of classification boundaries use low and high void ratios that gravel, sand, and fines may attain. This research adopts emax and emin for gravels and sands, and three distinctive void ratio values for fines: soft eF|10  kPa and stiff eF|1  MPa for mechanical response (at effective stress 10 kPa and 1 MPa, respectively), and viscous λ⋅eF|LL for fluid flow control, where λ=2log(LL−25) and eF|LL is the void ratio at the liquid limit. For classification purposes, these void ratios can be estimated from index properties such as particle shape, the coefficient of uniformity, and the liquid limit. Analytically computed and data-adjusted boundaries are soil-specific, in contrast with the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS). Threshold fractions for mechanical control and for flow control are quite distinct in the proposed system. Therefore, the RSCS uses a two-name nomenclature whereby the first letters identify the component(s) that controls mechanical properties, followed by a letter (shown in parenthesis) that identifies the component that controls fluid flow. Sample charts in this paper and a Microsoft Excel facilitate the implementation of this revised classification system.

  1. Classification system of the mineral reserves and resources of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovinyukov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the system used to classify the resources and reserves of all minerals and fuels in Ukraine. The classification system is part of an official procedure determined by the Ukrainian State Commission on Reserves. Following preparation of resource estimates the results are registered with the State, which maintains an official inventory of all mineral resources. This paper compares the Ukrainian system to, and finds it compatible with the United Nations International Framework of resource classification. The UN system is based on economics of production and mineability. (author)

  2. Blastocyst classification systems used in Latin America: is a consensus possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga-Torres, Tatiana; Blum-Rojas, Xavier; Blum-Narváez, Medardo

    2017-09-01

    To identify different blastocyst classification systems used by embryologists in Latin American countries and evaluate the possibility of establishing a consensus among these countries. An E-mail survey was carried out through the Latin American Network of Assisted Reproduction (REDLARA) aimed at embryologists from assisted reproduction centers in Latin countries. Sixty surveys were collected from 12 Latin American countries, of which 66.7% had >10years of professional practice as embryologists. Seven different blastocyst classification systems were reported, of which 5 have previously been described in the literature. Although the group of embryologists surveyed use different blastocyst classification systems, most in this group consider that the embryo score system should be unified in their countries as well as in the region.

  3. Hierarchical system for content-based audio classification and retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1998-10-01

    A hierarchical system for audio classification and retrieval based on audio content analysis is presented in this paper. The system consists of three stages. The audio recordings are first classical and segmented into speech, music, several types of environmental sounds, and silence, based on morphological and statistical analysis of temporal curves of the energy function, the average zero-crossing rate, and the fundamental frequency of audio signals. The first stage is called the coarse-level audio classification and segmentation. Then, environmental sounds are classified into finer classes such as applause, rain, birds' sound, etc., which is called the fine-level audio classification. The second stage is based on time-frequency analysis of audio signals and the use of the hidden Markov model (HMM) for classification. In the third stage, the query-by-example audio retrieval is implemented where similar sounds can be found according to the input sample audio. The way of modeling audio features with the hidden Markov model, the procedures of audio classification and retrieval, and the experimental results are described. It is shown that, with the proposed new system, audio recordings can be automatically segmented and classified into basic types in real time with an accuracy higher than 90%. Examples of audio fine classification and audio retrieval with the proposed HMM-based method are also provided.

  4. Hormone profile in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus with previous or current amenorrhea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Clovis A.; Deen, Maria E. J.; Febronio, Marilia V.; Oliveira, Sheila K.; Terreri, Maria T.; Sacchetti, Silvana B.; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Marini, Roberto; Quintero, Maria V.; Bica, Blanca E.; Pereira, Rosa M.; Bonfa, Eloisa; Ferriani, Virginia P.; Robazzi, Teresa C.; Magalhaes, Claudia S.; Hilario, Maria O.

    To identify the underlying mechanism of amenorrhea in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients, thirty-five (11.7%) JSLE patients with current or previous amenorrhea were consecutively selected among the 298 post-menarche patients followed in 12 Brazilian pediatric rheumatology centers.

  5. Breast density classification to reduce false positives in CADe systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vállez, Noelia; Bueno, Gloria; Déniz, Oscar; Dorado, Julián; Seoane, José Antonio; Pazos, Alejandro; Pastor, Carlos

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a novel weighted voting tree classification scheme for breast density classification. Breast parenchymal density is an important risk factor in breast cancer. Moreover, it is known that mammogram interpretation is more difficult when dense tissue is involved. Therefore, automated breast density classification may aid in breast lesion detection and analysis. Several classification methods have been compared and a novel hierarchical classification procedure of combined classifiers with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is proposed as the best solution to classify the mammograms into the four BIRADS tissue classes. The classification scheme is based on 298 texture features. Statistical analysis to test the normality and homoscedasticity of the data was carried out for feature selection. Thus, only features that are influenced by the tissue type were considered. The novel classification techniques have been incorporated into a CADe system to drive the detection algorithms and tested with 1459 images. The results obtained on the 322 screen-film mammograms (SFM) of the mini-MIAS dataset show that 99.75% of samples were correctly classified. On the 1137 full-field digital mammograms (FFDM) dataset results show 91.58% agreement. The results of the lesion detection algorithms were obtained from modules integrated within the CADe system developed by the authors and show that using breast tissue classification prior to lesion detection leads to an improvement of the detection results. The tools enhance the detectability of lesions and they are able to distinguish their local attenuation without local tissue density constraints. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey Library classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasscer, R. Scott

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Library classification system has been designed for earth science libraries. It is a tool for assigning call numbers to earth science and allied pure science materials in order to collect these materials into related subject groups on the library shelves and arrange them alphabetically by author and title. The classification can be used as a retrieval system to access materials through the subject and geographic numbers.The classification scheme has been developed over the years since 1904 to meet the ever-changing needs of increased specialization and the development of new areas of research in the earth sciences. The system contains seven schedules: Subject scheduleGeological survey schedule Earth science periodical scheduleGovernment document periodical scheduleGeneral science periodical schedule Earth science map schedule Geographic schedule Introduction provides detailed instructions on the construction of call numbers for works falling into the framework of the classification schedules.The tables following the introduction can be quickly accessed through the use of the newly expanded subject index.The purpose of this publication is to provide the earth science community with a classification and retrieval system for earth science materials, to offer sufficient explanation of its structure and use, and to enable library staff and clientele to classify or access research materials in a library collection.

  7. An intelligent temporal pattern classification system using fuzzy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Classification has been an active area of research for many decades in data mining. Recently, there is ... system has been evaluated using University of California Irvine (UCI) Machine Learning Repos- itory Data Set .... UCI machine learning repository data set: Input to the TFMM-PSO system is referred from the bench mark ...

  8. Fuel Characteristic Classification System version 3.0: technical documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Prichard; David V. Sandberg; Roger D. Ottmar; Ellen Eberhardt; Anne Andreu; Paige Eagle; Kjell. Swedin

    2013-01-01

    The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) is a software module that records wildland fuel characteristics and calculates potential fire behavior and hazard potentials based on input environmental variables. The FCCS 3.0 is housed within the Integrated Fuels Treatment Decision Support System (Joint Fire Science Program 2012). It can also be run from command...

  9. The development of a classification system for inland aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... bles (such as climate and broad-scale geomorphology) to group ..... sification system for application to the National Wetland. Inventory. This classification system is the result of a collaborative research effort between a number of aquatic/wetland .... By the end of the testing period, the project team was.

  10. Should the South African red meat classification system be revised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this review was to determine whether the current South African red meat classification system still needs to be revised and changed or maintained. It also gives insight into the most significant challenges related to meat quality evaluation in this system. Red Meat Research and Development South Africa ...

  11. Towards a regional beef carcass classification system for Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is partly because the current beef carcass grading and classification systems used in the region value inappropriately carcasses from slow-maturing indigenous cattle breeds that are ideally suited to being marketed off natural pasture. The existing systems use carcass yield and quality attributes, but do not predict ...

  12. Classification system for reporting events involving human malfunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Pedersen, O.M.; Mancini, G.

    1981-01-01

    The report describes a set of categories for reporting indus-trial incidents and events involving human malfunction. The classification system aims at ensuring information adequate for improvement of human work situations and man-machine interface systems and for attempts to quantify "human error...

  13. Systems Operation Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems - Classification and Definition of AGT Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    The report describes the development of an AGT classification structure. Five classes are defined based on three system characteristics: service type, minimum travelling unit capacity, and maximum operating velocity. The five classes defined are: Per...

  14. Classification system for reporting events involving human malfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.; Pedersen, O.M.; Mancini, G.; Carnino, A.; Griffon, M.; Gagnolet, P.

    1981-03-01

    The report describes a set of categories for reporting industrial incidents and events involving human malfunction. The classification system aims at ensuring information adequate for improvement of human work situations and man-machine interface systems and for attempts to quantify ''human error'' rates. The classification system has a multifacetted non-hierarchial structure and its compatibility with Ispra's ERDS classification is described. The collection of the information in general and for quantification purposes are discussed. 24 categories, 12 of which being human factors oriented, are listed with their respective subcategories, and comments are given. Underlying models of human data processes and their typical malfunctions and of a human decision sequence are described. (author)

  15. Classification system for reporting events involving human malfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.; Pedersen, O.M.; Mancini, G.

    1981-01-01

    The report describes a set of categories for reporting industrial incidents and events involving human malfunction. The classification system aims at ensuring information adequate for improvement of human work situations and man-machine interface systems and for attempts to quantify ''human error'' rates. The classification system has a multifacetted non-hierarchical structure and its compatibility with Ispra's ERDS classification is described. The collection of the information in general and for quantification purposes are discussed. 24 categories, 12 of which being human factors-oriented, are listed with their respective subcategories, and comments are given. Underlying models of human data process and their typical malfuntions and of a human decision sequence are described. The work reported is a joint contribution to the CSNI Group of Experts on Human Error Data and Assessment

  16. A classification system for tableting behaviors of binary powder mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changquan Calvin Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict tableting properties of a powder mixture from individual components is of both fundamental and practical importance to the efficient formulation development of tablet products. A common tableting classification system (TCS of binary powder mixtures facilitates the systematic development of new knowledge in this direction. Based on the dependence of tablet tensile strength on weight fraction in a binary mixture, three main types of tableting behavior are identified. Each type is further divided to arrive at a total of 15 sub-classes. The proposed classification system lays a framework for a better understanding of powder interactions during compaction. Potential applications and limitations of this classification system are discussed.

  17. Modified Mahalanobis Taguchi System for Imbalance Data Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud El-Banna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MTS is considered one of the most promising binary classification algorithms to handle imbalance data. Unfortunately, MTS lacks a method for determining an efficient threshold for the binary classification. In this paper, a nonlinear optimization model is formulated based on minimizing the distance between MTS Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curve and the theoretical optimal point named Modified Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MMTS. To validate the MMTS classification efficacy, it has been benchmarked with Support Vector Machines (SVMs, Naive Bayes (NB, Probabilistic Mahalanobis Taguchi Systems (PTM, Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique (SMOTE, Adaptive Conformal Transformation (ACT, Kernel Boundary Alignment (KBA, Hidden Naive Bayes (HNB, and other improved Naive Bayes algorithms. MMTS outperforms the benchmarked algorithms especially when the imbalance ratio is greater than 400. A real life case study on manufacturing sector is used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and to compare its performance with Mahalanobis Genetic Algorithm (MGA.

  18. Binary classification of real sequences by discrete-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliski, M. E.; Johnson, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper considers a novel approach to coding or classifying sequences of real numbers through the use of (generally nonlinear) finite-dimensional discrete-time systems. This approach involves a finite-dimensional discrete-time system (which we call a real acceptor) in cascade with a threshold type device (which we call a discriminator). The proposed classification scheme and the exact nature of the classification problem are described, along with two examples illustrating its applicability. Suggested approaches for further research are given.

  19. An approach for classification of hydrogeological systems at the regional scale based on groundwater hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaf, Ezra; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    When assessing hydrogeological conditions at the regional scale, the analyst is often confronted with uncertainty of structures, inputs and processes while having to base inference on scarce and patchy data. Haaf and Barthel (2015) proposed a concept for handling this predicament by developing a groundwater systems classification framework, where information is transferred from similar, but well-explored and better understood to poorly described systems. The concept is based on the central hypothesis that similar systems react similarly to the same inputs and vice versa. It is conceptually related to PUB (Prediction in ungauged basins) where organization of systems and processes by quantitative methods is intended and used to improve understanding and prediction. Furthermore, using the framework it is expected that regional conceptual and numerical models can be checked or enriched by ensemble generated data from neighborhood-based estimators. In a first step, groundwater hydrographs from a large dataset in Southern Germany are compared in an effort to identify structural similarity in groundwater dynamics. A number of approaches to group hydrographs, mostly based on a similarity measure - which have previously only been used in local-scale studies, can be found in the literature. These are tested alongside different global feature extraction techniques. The resulting classifications are then compared to a visual "expert assessment"-based classification which serves as a reference. A ranking of the classification methods is carried out and differences shown. Selected groups from the classifications are related to geological descriptors. Here we present the most promising results from a comparison of classifications based on series correlation, different series distances and series features, such as the coefficients of the discrete Fourier transform and the intrinsic mode functions of empirical mode decomposition. Additionally, we show examples of classes

  20. Evolution and classification of the CRISPR-Cas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Makarova, Kira; H. Haft, Daniel; Barrangou, Rodolphe; J. J. Brouns, Stan; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Horvath, Philippe; Moineau, Sylvain; J. M. Mojica, Francisco; I. Wolf, Yuri; Yakunin, Alexander F.; van der Oost, John; V. Koonin, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The CRISPR–Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats–CRISPR-associated proteins) modules are adaptive immunity systems that are present in many archaea and bacteria. These defence systems are encoded by operons that have an extraordinarily diverse architecture and a high rate of evolution for both the cas genes and the unique spacer content. Here, we provide an updated analysis of the evolutionary relationships between CRISPR–Cas systems and Cas proteins. Three major types of CRISPR–Cas system are delineated, with a further division into several subtypes and a few chimeric variants. Given the complexity of the genomic architectures and the extremely dynamic evolution of the CRISPR–Cas systems, a unified classification of these systems should be based on multiple criteria. Accordingly, we propose a `polythetic' classification that integrates the phylogenies of the most common cas genes, the sequence and organization of the CRISPR repeats and the architecture of the CRISPR–cas loci. PMID:21552286

  1. Intelligence system based classification approach for medical disease diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagir, Abdu Masanawa; Sathasivam, Saratha

    2017-08-01

    The prediction of breast cancer in women who have no signs or symptoms of the disease as well as survivability after undergone certain surgery has been a challenging problem for medical researchers. The decision about presence or absence of diseases depends on the physician's intuition, experience and skill for comparing current indicators with previous one than on knowledge rich data hidden in a database. This measure is a very crucial and challenging task. The goal is to predict patient condition by using an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) pre-processed by grid partitioning. To achieve an accurate diagnosis at this complex stage of symptom analysis, the physician may need efficient diagnosis system. A framework describes methodology for designing and evaluation of classification performances of two discrete ANFIS systems of hybrid learning algorithms least square estimates with Modified Levenberg-Marquardt and Gradient descent algorithms that can be used by physicians to accelerate diagnosis process. The proposed method's performance was evaluated based on training and test datasets with mammographic mass and Haberman's survival Datasets obtained from benchmarked datasets of University of California at Irvine's (UCI) machine learning repository. The robustness of the performance measuring total accuracy, sensitivity and specificity is examined. In comparison, the proposed method achieves superior performance when compared to conventional ANFIS based gradient descent algorithm and some related existing methods. The software used for the implementation is MATLAB R2014a (version 8.3) and executed in PC Intel Pentium IV E7400 processor with 2.80 GHz speed and 2.0 GB of RAM.

  2. Quality assurance: The 10-Group Classification System (Robson classification), induction of labor, and cesarean delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Robson, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Quality assurance in labor and delivery is needed. The method must be simple and consistent, and be of universal value. It needs to be clinically relevant, robust, and prospective, and must incorporate epidemiological variables. The 10-Group Classification System (TGCS) is a simple method providing a common starting point for further detailed analysis within which all perinatal events and outcomes can be measured and compared. The system is demonstrated in the present paper using data for 2013 from the National Maternity Hospital in Dublin, Ireland. Interpretation of the classification can be easily taught. The standard table can provide much insight into the philosophy of care in the population of women studied and also provide information on data quality. With standardization of audit of events and outcomes, any differences in either sizes of groups, events or outcomes can be explained only by poor data collection, significant epidemiological variables, or differences in practice. In April 2015, WHO proposed that the TGCS (also known as the Robson classification) is used as a global standard for assessing, monitoring, and comparing cesarean delivery rates within and between healthcare facilities.

  3. Hotel Classification Systems: A Comparison of International Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Minazzi,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades we have witnessed an increasing interest of scholars andespecially operators in service quality in the lodging business. Firstly, it is important to observe thatthe diverseness of the hospitality industry also affects the classification of hotel quality. We canactually find many programmes, classifications and seals of quality promoted by public authoritiesand private companies that create confusion in the consumer perceptions of hotel quality. Moreover,new electronic distribution channels and their ratings are becoming a new way to gather informationabout a hotel and its quality. Secondly, a point that can cause complications is that different countriesand regions can choose differing approaches depending on the features of the classification (numberof levels, symbols used, etc. and the nature of the programme (public, private. Considering theseassumptions and the recent changes in the Italian hotel classification system, this paper aims toanalyse the situation in Italy, underlining both its positive and negative aspects and comparing it withother European and North American cases. Based on a review of literature and tourism laws as wellas personal interviews with public authorities and exponents of the private sectors, we were able toidentify critical issues and trends in hotel classification systems. The comparison of case studiesshows a heterogeneous situation. Points in common are the scale and the symbol used but, if weanalyse the requirements of each category, we discover very different circumstances, also sometimesin the same country. A future European classification system could be possible only after astandardization of minimum requirements and criteria at a national level. In this situation brands andonline consumers’ feedbacks become even more considered by the customers in the hospitalityindustry.

  4. Standard practice for classification of computed radiology systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the evaluation and classification of a computed radiography (CR) system, a particular phosphor imaging plate (IP), system scanner and software, in combination with specified metal screens for industrial radiography. It is intended to ensure that the evaluation of image quality, as far as this is influenced by the scanner/IP system, meets the needs of users. 1.2 The practice defines system tests to be used to classify the systems of different suppliers and make them comparable for users. 1.3 The CR system performance is described by signal and noise parameters. For film systems, the signal is represented by gradient and the noise by granularity. The signal-to-noise ratio is normalized by the basic spatial resolution of the system and is part of classification. The normalization is given by the scanning aperture of 100 µm diameter for the micro-photometer, which is defined in Test Method E1815 for film system classification. This practice describes how the parameters shall be meas...

  5. Performance of classification confidence measures in dynamic classifier systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štefka, D.; Holeňa, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2013), s. 299-319 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-17187S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : classifier combining * dynamic classifier systems * classification confidence Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.412, year: 2013

  6. Classification system for rain fed wheat grain cultivars using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artificial neural network (ANN) models have found wide applications, including prediction, classification, system modeling and image processing. Image analysis based on texture, morphology and color features of grains is essential for various applications as wheat grain industry and cultivation. In order to classify the rain ...

  7. Developing a consensus classification system for acute renal failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kellum, John A.; Levin, Nathan; Bouman, Catherine; Lameire, Norbert

    2002-01-01

    A biochemical definition and classification system for acute renal dysfunction is long overdue. Its absence has impeded progress in clinical and even basic research concerning a syndrome associated with mortality rates of 30 to 80%. No definition of acute renal dysfunction will be perfect, but the

  8. A Classification System for Recurrent Ameloblastoma of the Jaws ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Classification System for Recurrent Ameloblastoma of the Jaws- Review of 30 Cases in Nigerians. GT Arotiba, AO Effiom, ASO Ayodele, MO Ogundana, MO Gbotolorun, HO Olasoji, O James, AL Ladeinde, VI Ugboko, KC Ndukwe, IC Ikem, RO Braimah ...

  9. Fundamental color classification systems for the digital imaging colorimetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Jaroslav; Hrdý, J.; Hrdý, jr., J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 6 (2006), s. 175-178 ISSN 0447-6441 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : color classification systems * color coordinates * analog and digital imaging colorimetry Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  10. Classification system for rain fed wheat grain cultivars using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... Artificial neural network (ANN) models have found wide applications, including prediction, classification, system modeling and image processing. Image analysis based on texture, morphology and color features of grains is essential for various applications as wheat grain industry and cultivation. In order to ...

  11. Awareness and use of Gross Motor Function Classification System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction The degree of disability in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) can be evaluated with the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), a valid tool which was designed for such purposes. However, there appears to be paucity of data on the awareness and use of the GMFCS particularly in the ...

  12. An intelligent temporal pattern classification system using fuzzy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we propose a new pattern classification system by combining Temporal features with Fuzzy Min–Max (TFMM) neural network based classifier for effective decision support in medical diagnosis. Moreover, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm based rule extractor is also proposed in this work for ...

  13. Towards a regional beef carcass classification system for Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapiye, C, Dr

    2017-05-15

    May 15, 2017 ... abattoir, quality assurance schemes, including carcass grading and classification systems, are used to determine meat .... channel fat, and a liberal distribution of marbling at the point of quartering. .... promotants and beta-agonists, which affect meat tenderness negatively (Strydom et al., 2011; Frylinck et al.,.

  14. 42 CFR 412.513 - Patient classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LTC-DRG classification system provides a LTC-DRG, and an appropriate weighting factor, for those cases....513 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., sex, principal diagnosis (that is, the diagnosis established after study to be chiefly responsible for...

  15. On a production system using default reasoning for pattern classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Lowe, Carlyle M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses an unconventional application of a production system to a problem involving belief specialization. The production system reduces a large quantity of low-level descriptions into just a few higher-level descriptions that encompass the problem space in a more tractable fashion. This classification process utilizes a set of descriptions generated by combining the component hierarchy of a physical system with the semantics of the terminology employed in its operation. The paper describes an application of this process in a program, constructed in C and CLIPS, that classifies signatures of electromechanical system configurations. The program compares two independent classifications, describing the actual and expected system configurations, in order to generate a set of contradictions between the two.

  16. Proposal of a classification system for opportunities to innovate in skin care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, I D da S; Almeida, T L; Takahashi, V P

    2015-10-01

    What are the opportunities to innovate in a skin care product? There are certainly many opportunities and many technologies involved. In this work, we assumed the role of identifying and categorizing these opportunities to develop a comprehensive and intelligible classification system, which could be used as a tool to support decision-making in different professional contexts. Initially, we employed the Delphi method to identify, discuss and standardize the opportunities to innovate in a skin care product. Finally, we used the classification system obtained in the previous phase to label patent applications, therefore, testing the suitability and utility of the system. At the end of the process, we achieved a 10-category classification system for opportunities to innovate in skin care products, and we also illustrated how this system could be used. The resultant classification system offers a normalized terminology for cosmetic scientists interested in dealing with the particularities of incremental and radical innovations in skin care products. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Computer-aided pattern classification system for dermoscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Qaisar; Celebi, M Emre; Fondón, Irene

    2012-08-01

    Computer-aided pattern classification of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions is one of the most important tasks for clinical diagnosis. To differentiate between benign and malignant lesions, the extraction of color, architectural order, symmetry of pattern and homogeneity (CASH) is a challenging task. In this article, a novel pattern classification system (PCS) based on the clinical CASH rule is presented to classify among six classes of patterns. The PCS system consists of the following five steps: transformation to the CIE L*a*b* color space, pre-processing to enhance the tumor region and removal of hairs, tumor-area segmentation, color and texture feature extraction, and finally, classification based on a multiclass support vector machine. The PCS system is tested on a total of 180 dermoscopic images. To test the performance of the PCS diagnostic classifier, the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) is utilized. The proposed classifier achieved a sensitivity of 91.64%, specificity of 94.14%, and AUC of 0.948. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed pattern classifier is highly accurate and classify between benign and malignant lesions into some extend. The PCS method is fully automatic and can accurately detect different patterns from dermoscopy images using color and texture properties. Additional pattern features can be included to investigate the impact of pattern classification based on the CASH rule. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Cheilitis in acne vulgaris patients with no previous use of systemic retinoid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balighi, Kamran; Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Lajevardi, Vahideh; Talebi, Shahin; Azizpour, Arghavan

    2017-08-01

    Isotretinoin is commonly used in the treatment of acne vulgaris. While one of the more common side-effects is cheilitis, we have observed an increased incidence of cheilitis prior to the commencement of systemic isotretinoin. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cheilitis among acne vulgaris patients. A non-interventional cross-sectional study of patients with acne vulgaris. Patients with previous use of systemic retinoids were excluded. The patients were examined for signs and symptoms of cheilitis. Of a total of 400 patients, 134 (34%) had evidence of cheilitis at initial presentation. Two-thirds (63%) were female (P acne excorie, compared with only 8% of patients with no signs of cheilitis. Our findings suggest that cheilitis is quite common among acne vulgaris patients even before treatment with isotretinoin. © 2016 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  19. Morphological pattern classification system for plantar thermography of patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Taketoshi; Nagase, Takashi; Takehara, Kimie; Oe, Makoto; Ohashi, Yumiko; Amemiya, Ayumi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sanada, Hiromi

    2013-09-01

    A plantar temperature distribution can be obtained by thermography; however, the advantage has not been effectively utilized in the past. We previously proposed a classification method based on the angiosome concept, but the method was insufficient because it was too subjective and complicated for clinicians. In this study, we propose a new classification system of plantar forepart thermographic patterns using an image segmentation technique. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted including 32 healthy volunteers and 129 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Individual thermographic variations and trends were evaluated. A comparison was conducted between the patterns obtained by our previous angiosome-based research and the patterns found by the new classification system. The system objectively found wider variations of the plantar forepart thermographic patterns in the patients with DM compared with those in the control subjects. In patients with DM, the system showed that the whole-high pattern was most frequent (46%), followed by the butterfly pattern (12%). In the control group, the butterfly pattern was most frequent (44%), followed by the whole-high pattern (19%). Both ankle and toe brachial indices were higher in feet with high temperature area in the inner side of the plantar. Thermographic patterns found by the new computer-based system were similar to those obtained in our previous subjective work. The classification system found forefoot-low pattern and tiptoe-low pattern objectively. The system based on infrared thermography will be a screening tool to assess circulatory status in daily foot care of patients with DM. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  20. Morphological Pattern Classification System for Plantar Thermography of Patients with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Taketoshi; Nagase, Takashi; Takehara, Kimie; Oe, Makoto; Ohashi, Yumiko; Amemiya, Ayumi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sanada, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Background A plantar temperature distribution can be obtained by thermography; however, the advantage has not been effectively utilized in the past. We previously proposed a classification method based on the angiosome concept, but the method was insufficient because it was too subjective and complicated for clinicians. In this study, we propose a new classification system of plantar forepart thermographic patterns using an image segmentation technique. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted including 32 healthy volunteers and 129 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Individual thermographic variations and trends were evaluated. A comparison was conducted between the patterns obtained by our previous angiosome-based research and the patterns found by the new classification system. Results The system objectively found wider variations of the plantar forepart thermographic patterns in the patients with DM compared with those in the control subjects. In patients with DM, the system showed that the whole-high pattern was most frequent (46%), followed by the butterfly pattern (12%). In the control group, the butterfly pattern was most frequent (44%), followed by the whole-high pattern (19%). Both ankle and toe brachial indices were higher in feet with high temperature area in the inner side of the plantar. Conclusions Thermographic patterns found by the new computer-based system were similar to those obtained in our previous subjective work. The classification system found forefoot-low pattern and tiptoe-low pattern objectively. The system based on infrared thermography will be a screening tool to assess circulatory status in daily foot care of patients with DM. PMID:24124935

  1. Impacts of Current and Previous Land Use on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes for Biofuel Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grosso, S.; Parton, W.; Adler, P.; Ogle, S.; West, T.

    2008-12-01

    Biofuel cropping systems are both a source and sink of greenhouse gases (GHG). Fertilizer and pesticide manufacture and transport, farm machinery operation, and processing of biomass into fuel all lead to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but the largest GHG sources for biofuel systems are often soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and loss of organic carbon as a result of land use change. However, improved land management can increase soil carbon levels and decrease N2O emissions, thus complementing the CO2 sink from displaced fossil fuel combustion. Previously cropped land, grazed land, and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land is being converted to biofuel cropping. We report results for the central US because most of the land used for biofuel cropping is in the central region of the country (corn/soy belt). The primary tool for this analysis is the DAYCENT ecosystem model. The ability of the model to simulate soil GHG fluxes and crop yields is demonstrated and results from simulations of different land management scenarios are presented. Our analyses suggest that conversion of CRP or grazed land to corn ethanol cropping under conventional management leads to a net source of GHG, but that converting these lands to perennial cellulosic biofuel cropping results in a GHG sink. Previously cropped land converted to corn ethanol under conventional management is a small GHG sink, but improved management and conversion to cellulosic based crops can greatly increase this sink strength.

  2. Enhancing accuracy of mental fatigue classification using advanced computational intelligence in an electroencephalography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Rifai; Tran, Yvonne; Craig, Ashley; Ling, Sai Ho; Nguyen, Hung T

    2014-01-01

    A system using electroencephalography (EEG) signals could enhance the detection of mental fatigue while driving a vehicle. This paper examines the classification between fatigue and alert states using an autoregressive (AR) model-based power spectral density (PSD) as the features extraction method and fuzzy particle swarm optimization with cross mutated of artificial neural network (FPSOCM-ANN) as the classification method. Using 32-EEG channels, results indicated an improved overall specificity from 76.99% to 82.02%, an improved sensitivity from 74.92 to 78.99% and an improved accuracy from 75.95% to 80.51% when compared to previous studies. The classification using fewer EEG channels, with eleven frontal sites resulted in 77.52% for specificity, 73.78% for sensitivity and 75.65% accuracy being achieved. For ergonomic reasons, the configuration with fewer EEG channels will enhance capacity to monitor fatigue as there is less set-up time required.

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE GENERATED RADIOLOGICAL WASTE HANDLING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site-generated radiological waste handling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  4. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SURFACE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface environmental monitoring system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  5. Annotation and Classification of CRISPR-Cas Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S; Koonin, Eugene V

    2015-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas (CRISPR-associated proteins) is a prokaryotic adaptive immune system that is represented in most archaea and many bacteria. Among the currently known prokaryotic defense systems, the CRISPR-Cas genomic loci show unprecedented complexity and diversity. Classification of CRISPR-Cas variants that would capture their evolutionary relationships to the maximum possible extent is essential for comparative genomic and functional characterization of this theoretically and practically important system of adaptive immunity. To this end, a multipronged approach has been developed that combines phylogenetic analysis of the conserved Cas proteins with comparison of gene repertoires and arrangements in CRISPR-Cas loci. This approach led to the current classification of CRISPR-Cas systems into three distinct types and ten subtypes for each of which signature genes have been identified. Comparative genomic analysis of the CRISPR-Cas systems in new archaeal and bacterial genomes performed over the 3 years elapsed since the development of this classification makes it clear that new types and subtypes of CRISPR-Cas need to be introduced. Moreover, this classification system captures only part of the complexity of CRISPR-Cas organization and evolution, due to the intrinsic modularity and evolutionary mobility of these immunity systems, resulting in numerous recombinant variants. Moreover, most of the cas genes evolve rapidly, complicating the family assignment for many Cas proteins and the use of family profiles for the recognition of CRISPR-Cas subtype signatures. Further progress in the comparative analysis of CRISPR-Cas systems requires integration of the most sensitive sequence comparison tools, protein structure comparison, and refined approaches for comparison of gene neighborhoods.

  6. A Chinese text classification system based on Naive Bayes algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, aiming at the characteristics of Chinese text classification, using the ICTCLAS(Chinese lexical analysis system of Chinese academy of sciences for document segmentation, and for data cleaning and filtering the Stop words, using the information gain and document frequency feature selection algorithm to document feature selection. Based on this, based on the Naive Bayesian algorithm implemented text classifier , and use Chinese corpus of Fudan University has carried on the experiment and analysis on the system.

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste treatment building ventilation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  8. Annotation and Classification of CRISPR-Cas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2018-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas (CRISPR-associated proteins) is a prokaryotic adaptive immune system that is represented in most archaea and many bacteria. Among the currently known prokaryotic defense systems, the CRISPR-Cas genomic loci show unprecedented complexity and diversity. Classification of CRISPR-Cas variants that would capture their evolutionary relationships to the maximum possible extent is essential for comparative genomic and functional characterization of this theoretically and practically important system of adaptive immunity. To this end, a multipronged approach has been developed that combines phylogenetic analysis of the conserved Cas proteins with comparison of gene repertoires and arrangements in CRISPR-Cas loci. This approach led to the current classification of CRISPR-Cas systems into three distinct types and ten subtypes for each of which signature genes have been identified. Comparative genomic analysis of the CRISPR-Cas systems in new archaeal and bacterial genomes performed over the 3 years elapsed since the development of this classification makes it clear that new types and subtypes of CRISPR-Cas need to be introduced. Moreover, this classification system captures only part of the complexity of CRISPR-Cas organization and evolution, due to the intrinsic modularity and evolutionary mobility of these immunity systems, resulting in numerous recombinant variants. Moreover, most of the cas genes evolve rapidly, complicating the family assignment for many Cas proteins and the use of family profiles for the recognition of CRISPR-Cas subtype signatures. Further progress in the comparative analysis of CRISPR-Cas systems requires integration of the most sensitive sequence comparison tools, protein structure comparison, and refined approaches for comparison of gene neighborhoods. PMID:25981466

  9. A classification system for pressure vessel shell failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrop, L.P.

    1989-01-01

    A system for classifying failures of the shells of pressure vessels is presented. The classification system is based on the way a failure physically manifests itself and not on imputed economic or safety significance. It is believed the described way of classifying the failures is useful for transferring information from one situation to another. In assigning names to types of failure, the intention has been to adopt explicit definitions rather than supposed colloquial usage. (author)

  10. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site compressed air system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  11. The Influence of Spine Surgeons' Experience on the Classification and Intraobserver Reliability of the Novel AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System-An International Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiqi, Said; Oner, F Cumhur; Dvorak, Marcel F; Aarabi, Bizhan; Schroeder, Gregory D; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2015-12-01

    International validation study. To investigate the influence of the spine surgeons' level of experience on the intraobserver reliability of the novel AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification system, and the appropriate classification according to this system. Wide variability has been demonstrated for intraobserver reliability of the AOSpine classification system. The spine surgeons' level of experience may play a crucial role in the appropriate classification of thoracolumbar fractures, and the degree of reproducibility of the same observer on separate occasions. However, this has not been previously investigated. After a training on the classification system, high quality CT images together with clinical data from 25 patients with thoracolumbar fractures were independently assessed by 100 spine surgeons from across the world on 2 different occasions, 1 month apart from each other. The spine surgeons were allocated to a subgroup, according to their years of experience. Intraobserver reliability was calculated for each individual surgeon and for each subgroup, using the Kappa statistics (κ). Descriptive statistics was used to describe any differences between the subgroups. Analysis of any misclassifications was performed by calculating sensitivity and specificity estimates. Almost all surgeons demonstrated at least moderate intraobserver reliability. All surgeon subgroups demonstrated substantial reliability (κ = 0.67-0.69) for fracture subtype grading, and almost all subgroups demonstrated excellent reliability (κ = 0.79-0.83) for fracture morphology type regardless of subtype identified. In general, the fractures were most frequently misclassified by the most experienced surgeons. No major differences were observed among the subgroups when comparing the sensitivity and specificity rates. This international study demonstrated that the spine surgeons' level of experience does not substantially influence the classification and intraobserver

  12. YOUNG PLANETARY NEBULAE: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING AND A NEW MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Villar, Gregory G.; Morris, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Using Hubble Space Telescope images of 119 young planetary nebulae (PNs), most of which have not previously been published, we have devised a comprehensive morphological classification system for these objects. This system generalizes a recently devised system for pre-planetary nebulae, which are the immediate progenitors of PNs. Unlike previous classification studies, we have focused primarily on young PNs rather than all PNs, because the former best show the influences or symmetries imposed on them by the dominant physical processes operating at the first and primary stage of the shaping process. Older PNs develop instabilities, interact with the ambient interstellar medium, and are subject to the passage of photoionization fronts, all of which obscure the underlying symmetries and geometries imposed early on. Our classification system is designed to suffer minimal prejudice regarding the underlying physical causes of the different shapes and structures seen in our PN sample, however, in many cases, physical causes are readily suggested by the geometry, along with the kinematics that have been measured in some systems. Secondary characteristics in our system, such as ansae, indicate the impact of a jet upon a slower-moving, prior wind; a waist is the signature of a strong equatorial concentration of matter, whether it be outflowing or in a bound Keplerian disk, and point symmetry indicates a secular trend, presumably precession, in the orientation of the central driver of a rapid, collimated outflow.

  13. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefévre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles which emphasizes...... an evaluation of four existing knowledge classification schemes with respect to these requirements. This evaluation helped us identify a classification scheme, which we have implemented in the current version of the Wikipedia Recommender System....... feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This exposes the problem that most recommenders are not equally competent in all subject areas. The first WRS prototype did not include an evaluation of the areas of expertise of recommenders, so the trust metric used in the article...

  14. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefevre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles "which emphasizes...... an evaluation of four existing knowledge classification schemes with respect to these requirements. This evaluation helped us identify a classification scheme, which we have implemented in the current version of the Wikipedia Recommender System....... feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This exposes the problem that most recommenders are not equally competent in all subject areas. The first WRS prototype did not include an evaluation of the areas of expertise of recommenders, so the trust metric used in the article...

  15. [Construction of biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wei, Li; Dong, Ling; Zhu, Mei-Ling; Tang, Ming-Min; Zhang, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Based on the characteristics of multicomponent of traditional Chinese medicine and drawing lessons from the concepts, methods and techniques of biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) in chemical field, this study comes up with the science framework of biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica (CMMBCS). Using the different comparison method of multicomponent level and the CMMBCS method of overall traditional Chinese medicine, the study constructs the method process while setting forth academic thoughts and analyzing theory. The basic role of this system is clear to reveal the interaction and the related absorption mechanism of multicomponent in traditional Chinese medicine. It also provides new ideas and methods for improving the quality of Chinese materia medica and the development of new drug research.

  16. Triggering of the lesser toes at a previously undescribed distal pulley system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M G; Masear, V R

    1998-02-01

    We have treated five patients with metatarsalgia and triggering of the lesser toes. This paper describes a mechanism of triggering that involves a previously undescribed flexor pulley system in the toes that is very similar to the pulley system in the fingers. The specific anatomy of the toe flexor pulleys is described based upon the dissections of 50 fresh-frozen cadaver toes. These pulleys were composed of transverse to obliquely oriented fibrous bands within the flexor sheaths from the metatarsal heads to the distal phalanges. We found a system of pulleys in the lesser toes and the great toe, analogous to that found in the hand. Trigger toe is a rare entity and is only briefly described in the literature. We believe it is more common than is now recognized and may be an important underdiagnosed cause of metatarsalgia. The diagnosis is made when active plantarflexion causes the toes to catch in flexion and the patient is then unable to extend them. Nonsurgical therapy consisting of steroid injection, NSAIDs, or changing footwear may be effective, otherwise surgical release of the A1 pulley may be required.

  17. Public and previous consultation on administrative rulemaking in the Colombian legal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gómez Velásquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses the figure of previous and public consultation in administrative rulemaking in the Colombian legal system. Doing that, the article uses a comparative law, a systematic interpretation and a jurisprudential approach to propose some de lege ferenda and de lege data interpretation on the figure. The thesis aims to hold is that from the existing legal framework it is possible to preach the existence of the figure form certain regulations, but also in a generic form in the light of the provisions of Article 8.8 of CPACA. However, due to the imprecise way the consultation was regulated there will be desirable that the legislative branch develop it in more detail manner in the near future or the Consejo de Estado as the Colombian supreme court on this particular issue defining in a unified way the scope of the public consultation. While this occurs, this paper proposes a constitutional interpretation of the institution.

  18. Improvement of the Radiological system of emergency classification in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerez Vegueria, Pablo F.; Yamil Lopez Forteza; Diaz Guerra, Pedro I.

    2003-01-01

    In 1998 the National Center of Nuclear Security (CNSN), on the base of the experience in the one handling of emergencies and the preparation aspects, planning and answer, it perfects and it modernizes, with the approval of the national bigger State of the Civil Defense, the approaches of the Scale of Radiological Events approved from 1992. Given the operational experience of the System of Answer to Emergency of the Ministry Of Science Technology And Environment in the year 2001 the CNSN develops, it perfects and it puts in vigor a more complete System of Classification of Emergency of unique use for all the entities that use sources of radiations ionizations and that it also includes those answer forces that are imbricate in the Plan of Measures Against Catastrophe for cases of Radiological Accidents. The setting in vigor of this Unique System of Classification of Emergencies at national level has allowed to secure the coordination, planning and answer in an effective, quick and effective way. Presently work is exposed the philosophy on which this System of Classification was elaborated, the approaches used to classify the events as much in radioactive facilities as in the practice of the transport of radioactive materials and the activation of the forces of answers in cases of radiological emergencies

  19. Validation of a new classification system for skin tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Kimberly; Baranoski, Sharon; Holloway, Samantha; Langemo, Diane

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to validate and establish reliability of the International Skin Tear classification system. A consensus panel of 12 internationally recognized key opinion leaders convened in 2011 to establish consensus statements on the prevention, prediction, assessment, and treatment of skin tears. Subsequently, a new skin tear classification system was proposed. The system was then tested for interrater and intrarater reliability between the experts before being tested more widely on a sample of 327 individuals from the United States, Canada, and Europe. The results of the study indicated a substantial level of agreement for the expert panel (Fleiss κ = 0.619; 2-month follow-up = 0.653). Intrarater reliability was high (Cohen κ = 0.877). Interrater reliability was moderate (Fleiss κ = 0.555) for healthcare professionals (n = 303) and fair for non-health professionals (Fleiss κ = 0.338; n = 24). This international study established the reliability and validity of a new classification system for skin tears.

  20. The stability of the Manual Ability Classification System over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhrvall, Ann-Marie; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the stability over time of the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) levels. The study group comprised 1267 children with cerebral palsy (746 males, 521 females) who were followed from 2005 to 2010 with two or more registered MACS classifications rated at least 1 year apart. Thirty-five percent of the children (n=445) had four MACS registrations. The children were between 4 and 17 years old at their first rating, The stability over time was also compared between children who were younger (4y of age) or older (≥10y) at the time of their first classification. An excellent stability was found between two ratings at 1-year intervals with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.97 (95% CI 0.97-0.97) and 82% agreement (n=1267). The stability was also excellent for two ratings performed 3 to 5 years apart (ICC 0.96; 95% CI 0.95-0.97) with an agreement of 78% (n=445). Across four ratings, 70% of the children remained at the same level. The results were similar for younger and older children, indicating that stability was not influenced by age. This study provides evidence that MACS levels are stable over time and that the classification has predictive value. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  1. The utility of rat jejunal permeability for biopharmaceutics classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Valizadeh, Hadi; Tajerzadeh, Hosnieh; Islambulchilar, Ziba

    2009-12-01

    The biopharmaceutical classification system has been developed to provide a scientific approach for classifying drug compounds based on their dose/solubility ratio and human intestinal permeability. Therefore in this study a new classification is presented, which is based on a correlation between rat and human intestinal permeability values. In situ technique in rat jejunum was used to determine the effective intestinal permeability of tested drugs. Then three dimensionless parameters--dose number, absorption number, and dissolution number (D(o), A(n), and D(n))--were calculated for each drug. Four classes of drugs were defined, that is, class I, D(0) 5.09 x 10(-5) cm/s; class II, D(o) > 1, P(eff(rat)) > 5.09 x 10( -5) cm/s; class III, D(0) 1, P(eff(rat)) < 4.2 x 10(-5) cm/s. A region of borderline drugs (0.5 < D(o) < 1, 4.2 x 10(-5) < P(eff(rat)) < 5.09 x 10(-5) cm/s) was also defined. According to obtained results and proposed classification for drugs, it is concluded that drugs could be categorized correctly based on dose number and their intestinal permeability values in rat model using single-pass intestinal perfusion technique. This classification enables us to remark defined characteristics for intestinal absorption of all four classes using suitable cutoff points for both dose number and rat effective intestinal permeability values.

  2. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefevre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The Wikipedia is a web-based encyclopedia, written and edited collaboratively by Internet users. The Wikipedia has an extremely open editorial policy that allows anybody, to create or modify articles. This has promoted a broad and detailed coverage of subjects, but also introduced problems relating...... to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles "which emphasizes...... in the Wikipedia. In this paper, we examine different ways to classify the subject area of Wikipedia article according to well established knowledge classification schemes. We identify a number of requirements that a classification scheme must meet in order to be useful in the context of the WRS and present...

  3. Side effects of cancer therapies. International classification and documentation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegenschmiedt, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    The publication presents and explains verified, international classification and documentation systems for side effects induced by cancer treatments, applicable in general and clinical practice and clinical research, and covers in a clearly arranged manner the whole range of treatments, including acute and chronic side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, surgery, or combined therapies. The book fills a long-felt need in tumor documentation and is a major contribution to quality assurance in clinical oncology in German-speaking countries. As most parts of the book are bilingual, presenting German and English texts and terminology, it satisfies the principles of interdisciplinarity and internationality. The tabulated form chosen for presentation of classification systems and criteria facilitate the user's approach as well as application in daily work. (orig./CB) [de

  4. Summary workshop report: bioequivalence, biopharmaceutics classification system, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polli, James E; Abrahamsson, Bertil S I; Yu, Lawrence X; Amidon, Gordon L; Baldoni, John M; Cook, Jack A; Fackler, Paul; Hartauer, Kerry; Johnston, Gordon; Krill, Steve L; Lipper, Robert A; Malick, Waseem A; Shah, Vinod P; Sun, Duxin; Winkle, Helen N; Wu, Yunhui; Zhang, Hua

    2008-06-01

    The workshop "Bioequivalence, Biopharmaceutics Classification System, and Beyond" was held May 21-23, 2007 in North Bethesda, MD, USA. This workshop provided an opportunity for pharmaceutical scientists to discuss the FDA guidance on the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), bioequivalence of oral products, and related FDA initiatives such as the FDA Critical Path Initiative. The objective of this Summary Workshop Report is to document the main points from this workshop. Key highlights of the workshop were (a) the described granting of over a dozen BCS-based biowaivers by the FDA for Class I drugs whose formulations exhibit rapid dissolution, (b) continued scientific support for biowaivers for Class III compounds whose formulations exhibit very rapid dissolution, (c) scientific support for a number of permeability methodologies to assess BCS permeability class, (d) utilization of BCS in pharmaceutical research and development, and (e) scientific progress in in vitro dissolution methods to predict dosage form performance.

  5. Derivation and validation of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Michelle; Orbai, Ana-Maria; Alarcón, Graciela S

    2012-01-01

    The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) group revised and validated the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) classification criteria in order to improve clinical relevance, meet stringent methodology requirements, and incorporate new...

  6. Classification of Transient Phenomena in Distribution System using wavelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Alireza

    2014-05-01

    An efficient procedure for classification of transient phenomena in distribution systems is proposed in this paper. The proposed method has been applied to classify some transient phenomena such as inrush current, load switching, capacitor switching and single phase to ground fault. The new scheme is based on wavelet transform algorithm. All of the events for feature extraction and test are simulated using Electro Magnetic Transient Program (EMTP). Results show high accuracy of proposed method.

  7. London 2012 Paralympic swimming: passive drag and the classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yim-Taek; Burkett, Brendan; Osborough, Conor; Formosa, Danielle; Payton, Carl

    2013-09-01

    The key difference between the Olympic and Paralympic Games is the use of classification systems within Paralympic sports to provide a fair competition for athletes with a range of physical disabilities. In 2009, the International Paralympic Committee mandated the development of new, evidence-based classification systems. This study aims to assess objectively the swimming classification system by determining the relationship between passive drag and level of swimming-specific impairment, as defined by the current swimming class. Data were collected on participants at the London 2012 Paralympic Games. The passive drag force of 113 swimmers (classes 3-14) was measured using an electro-mechanical towing device and load cell. Swimmers were towed on the surface of a swimming pool at 1.5 m/s while holding their most streamlined position. Passive drag ranged from 24.9 to 82.8 N; the normalised drag (drag/mass) ranged from 0.45 to 1.86 N/kg. Significant negative associations were found between drag and the swimming class (τ = -0.41, p < 0.01) and normalised drag and the swimming class (τ = -0.60, p < 0.01). The mean difference in drag between adjacent classes was inconsistent, ranging from 0 N (6 vs 7) to 11.9 N (5 vs 6). Reciprocal Ponderal Index (a measure of slenderness) correlated moderately with normalised drag (r(P) = -0.40, p < 0.01). Although swimmers with the lowest swimming class experienced the highest passive drag and vice versa, the inconsistent difference in mean passive drag between adjacent classes indicates that the current classification system does not always differentiate clearly between swimming groups.

  8. An evaluation of surgical site infections by wound classification system using the ACS-NSQIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Gezzer; Rhee, Daniel S; Papandria, Dominic J; Yang, Jessica; Ibrahim, Andrew M; Shore, Andrew D; Makary, Martin A; Abdullah, Fizan

    2012-05-01

    Surgical wound classification has been the foundation for infectious risk assessment, perioperative protocol development, and surgical decision-making. The wound classification system categorizes all surgeries into: clean, clean/contaminated, contaminated, and dirty, with estimated postoperative rates of surgical site infection (SSI) being 1%-5%, 3%-11%, 10%-17%, and over 27%, respectively. The present study evaluates the associated rates of the SSI by wound classification using a large risk adjusted surgical patient database. A cross-sectional study was performed using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) dataset between 2005 and 2008. All surgical cases that specified a wound class were included in our analysis. Patient demographics, hospital length of stay, preoperative risk factors, co-morbidities, and complication rates were compared across the different wound class categories. Surgical site infection rates for superficial, deep incisional, and organ/space infections were analyzed among the four wound classifications using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 634,426 cases were analyzed. From this sample, 49.7% were classified as clean, 35.0% clean/contaminated, 8.56% contaminated, and 6.7% dirty. When stratifying by wound classification, the clean, clean/contaminated, contaminated, and dirty wound classifications had superficial SSI rates of 1.76%, 3.94%, 4.75%, and 5.16%, respectively. The rates of deep incisional infections were 0.54%, 0.86%, 1.31%, and 2.1%. The rates for organ/space infection were 0.28%, 1.87%, 2.55%, and 4.54%. Using ACS-NSQIP data, the present study demonstrates substantially lower rates of surgical site infections in the contaminated and dirty wound classifications than previously reported in the literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A survey and classification of telecommunication needs in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeyemo, A.A.; Jimoh, A.A.; Munda, J.L.; Oyedapo, O.J. [Tshwane Univ. of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed telecommunications needs for electric power systems. Needs were classified based on their sensitivity to delay, bit errors, and variations of delay. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of new telecommunications technologies. Communication needs in the power industry included security; power system control; asset management; fault detection; metering; and telephony. The use of telecommunications technologies with SCADA system hardware and controllers was discussed. The success of teleprotection systems for preventing short circuits was also discussed. Real time operational communication requirements were studied in addition to administrative operational communication requirements. Voice, data, and video telecommunications systems were compared and evaluated. Metering system components were reviewed. The classification system can be used to accurately assess power systems telecommunications requirements. 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  10. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR CARRIER PREPARATION BUILDING MATERIALS HANDLING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. Ziegler

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) carrier preparation building materials handling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Preclosure Safety and Systems Engineering Section. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 2000). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 2000)

  11. Classification of cognitive systems dedicated to data sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiela, Lidia; Ogiela, Marek R.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper will be presented classification of new cognitive information systems dedicated to cryptographic data splitting and sharing processes. Cognitive processes of semantic data analysis and interpretation, will be used to describe new classes of intelligent information and vision systems. In addition, cryptographic data splitting algorithms and cryptographic threshold schemes will be used to improve processes of secure and efficient information management with application of such cognitive systems. The utility of the proposed cognitive sharing procedures and distributed data sharing algorithms will be also presented. A few possible application of cognitive approaches for visual information management and encryption will be also described.

  12. Automated recognition system for ELM classification in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duro, N.; Dormido, R.; Vega, J.; Dormido-Canto, S.; Farias, G.; Sanchez, J.; Vargas, H.; Murari, A.

    2009-01-01

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) are instabilities occurring in the edge of H-mode plasmas. Considerable efforts are being devoted to understanding the physics behind this non-linear phenomenon. A first characterization of ELMs is usually their identification as type I or type III. An automated pattern recognition system has been developed in JET for off-line ELM recognition and classification. The empirical method presented in this paper analyzes each individual ELM instead of starting from a temporal segment containing many ELM bursts. The ELM recognition and isolation is carried out using three signals: Dα, line integrated electron density and stored diamagnetic energy. A reduced set of characteristics (such as diamagnetic energy drop, ELM period or Dα shape) has been extracted to build supervised and unsupervised learning systems for classification purposes. The former are based on support vector machines (SVM). The latter have been developed with hierarchical and K-means clustering methods. The success rate of the classification systems is about 98% for a database of almost 300 ELMs.

  13. Automated recognition system for ELM classification in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duro, N. [Dpto. de Informatica y Automatica - UNED, C/ Juan del Rosal 16, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: nduro@dia.uned.es; Dormido, R. [Dpto. de Informatica y Automatica - UNED, C/ Juan del Rosal 16, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Dormido-Canto, S.; Farias, G.; Sanchez, J.; Vargas, H. [Dpto. de Informatica y Automatica - UNED, C/ Juan del Rosal 16, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Murari, A. [Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM ENEA per la Fusione, I-35127 Padua (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) are instabilities occurring in the edge of H-mode plasmas. Considerable efforts are being devoted to understanding the physics behind this non-linear phenomenon. A first characterization of ELMs is usually their identification as type I or type III. An automated pattern recognition system has been developed in JET for off-line ELM recognition and classification. The empirical method presented in this paper analyzes each individual ELM instead of starting from a temporal segment containing many ELM bursts. The ELM recognition and isolation is carried out using three signals: D{alpha}, line integrated electron density and stored diamagnetic energy. A reduced set of characteristics (such as diamagnetic energy drop, ELM period or D{alpha} shape) has been extracted to build supervised and unsupervised learning systems for classification purposes. The former are based on support vector machines (SVM). The latter have been developed with hierarchical and K-means clustering methods. The success rate of the classification systems is about 98% for a database of almost 300 ELMs.

  14. A Novel Classification System for Injuries After Electronic Cigarette Explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Scott B; Beckett, Allison R; Lintner, Alicia; Leahey, Carly; Greer, Ashley; Brevard, Sidney B; Simmons, Jon D; Kahn, Steven A

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) contain lithium batteries that have been known to explode and/or cause fires that have resulted in burn injury. The purpose of this article is to present a case study, review injuries caused by e-cigarettes, and present a novel classification system from the newly emerging patterns of burns. A case study was presented and online media reports for e-cigarette burns were queried with search terms "e-cigarette burns" and "electronic cigarette burns." The reports and injury patterns were tabulated. Analysis was then performed to create a novel classification system based on the distinct injury patterns seen in the study. Two patients were seen at our regional burn center after e-cigarette burns. One had an injury to his thigh and penis that required operative intervention after ignition of this device in his pocket. The second had a facial burn and corneal abrasions when the device exploded while he was inhaling vapor. The Internet search and case studies resulted in 26 cases for evaluation. The burn patterns were divided in direct injury from the device igniting and indirect injury when the device caused a house or car fire. A numerical classification was created: direct injury: type 1 (hand injury) 7 cases, type 2 (face injury) 8 cases, type 3 (waist/groin injury) 11 cases, and type 5a (inhalation injury from using device) 2 cases; indirect injury: type 4 (house fire injury) 7 cases and type 5b (inhalation injury from fire started by the device) 4 cases. Multiple e-cigarette injuries are occurring in the United States and distinct patterns of burns are emerging. The classification system developed in this article will aid in further study and future regulation of these dangerous devices.

  15. Classification of Unmanned Aircraft Systems. UAS Classification/Categorization for Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Category, class, and type designations are primary means to identify appropriate aircraft certification basis, operating rules/limitations, and pilot qualifications to operate in the National Airspace System (NAS). The question is whether UAS fit into existing aircraft categories or classes, or are unique enough to justify the creation of a new category/class. In addition, the characteristics or capabilities, which define when an UAS becomes a regulated aircraft, must also be decided. This issue focuses on UAS classification for certification purposes. Several approaches have been considered for classifying UAS. They basically group into either using a weight/mass basis, or a safety risk basis, factoring in the performance of the UAS, including where the UAS would operate. Under existing standards, aircraft must have a Type Certificate and Certificate of Airworthiness, in order to be used for "compensation or hire", a major difference from model aircraft. Newer technologies may make it possible for very small UAS to conduct commercial services, but that is left for a future discussion to extend the regulated aircraft to a lower level. The Access 5 position is that UAS are aircraft and should be regulated above the weight threshold differentiating them from model airplanes. The recommended classification grouping is summarized in a chart.

  16. A new web-based system for unsupervised classification of satellite images from the Google Maps engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrán, Ángel; Bernabé, Sergio; García-Rodríguez, Pablo; Plaza, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we develop a new web-based system for unsupervised classification of satellite images available from the Google Maps engine. The system has been developed using the Google Maps API and incorporates functionalities such as unsupervised classification of image portions selected by the user (at the desired zoom level). For this purpose, we use a processing chain made up of the well-known ISODATA and k-means algorithms, followed by spatial post-processing based on majority voting. The system is currently hosted on a high performance server which performs the execution of classification algorithms and returns the obtained classification results in a very efficient way. The previous functionalities are necessary to use efficient techniques for the classification of images and the incorporation of content-based image retrieval (CBIR). Several experimental validation types of the classification results with the proposed system are performed by comparing the classification accuracy of the proposed chain by means of techniques available in the well-known Environment for Visualizing Images (ENVI) software package. The server has access to a cluster of commodity graphics processing units (GPUs), hence in future work we plan to perform the processing in parallel by taking advantage of the cluster.

  17. The Comprehensive AOCMF Classification System: Midface Fractures - Level 3 Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Audigé, Laurent; Kunz, Christoph; Buitrago-Téllez, Carlos H.; Rudderman, Randal; Prein, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    This tutorial outlines the details of the AOCMF image-based classification system for fractures of the midface at the precision level 3. The topography of the different midface regions (central midface—upper central midface, intermediate central midface, lower central midface—incorporating the naso-orbito-ethmoid region; lateral midface—zygoma and zygomatic arch, palate) is subdivided in much greater detail than in level 2 going beyond the Le Fort fracture types and its analogs. The level 3 midface classification system is presented along with guidelines to precisely delineate the fracture patterns in these specific subregions. It is easy to plot common fracture entities, such as nasal and naso-orbito-ethmoid, and their variants due to the refined structural layout of the subregions. As a key attribute, this focused approach permits to document the occurrence of fragmentation (i.e., single vs. multiple fracture lines), displacement, and bone loss. Moreover, the preinjury dental state and the degree of alveolar atrophy in edentulous maxillary regions can be recorded. On the basis of these individual features, tooth injuries, periodontal trauma, and fracture involvement of the alveolar process can be assessed. Coding rules are given to set up a distinctive formula for typical midface fractures and their combinations. The instructions and illustrations are elucidated by a series of radiographic imaging examples. A critical appraisal of the design of this level 3 midface classification is made. PMID:25489392

  18. An alternative respiratory sounds classification system utilizing artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami J Oweis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computerized lung sound analysis involves recording lung sound via an electronic device, followed by computer analysis and classification based on specific signal characteristics as non-linearity and nonstationarity caused by air turbulence. An automatic analysis is necessary to avoid dependence on expert skills. Methods: This work revolves around exploiting autocorrelation in the feature extraction stage. All process stages were implemented in MATLAB. The classification process was performed comparatively using both artificial neural networks (ANNs and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS toolboxes. The methods have been applied to 10 different respiratory sounds for classification. Results: The ANN was superior to the ANFIS system and returned superior performance parameters. Its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 98.6%, 100%, and 97.8%, respectively. The obtained parameters showed superiority to many recent approaches. Conclusions: The promising proposed method is an efficient fast tool for the intended purpose as manifested in the performance parameters, specifically, accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Furthermore, it may be added that utilizing the autocorrelation function in the feature extraction in such applications results in enhanced performance and avoids undesired computation complexities compared to other techniques.

  19. An alternative respiratory sounds classification system utilizing artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oweis, Rami J; Abdulhay, Enas W; Khayal, Amer; Awad, Areen

    2015-01-01

    Computerized lung sound analysis involves recording lung sound via an electronic device, followed by computer analysis and classification based on specific signal characteristics as non-linearity and nonstationarity caused by air turbulence. An automatic analysis is necessary to avoid dependence on expert skills. This work revolves around exploiting autocorrelation in the feature extraction stage. All process stages were implemented in MATLAB. The classification process was performed comparatively using both artificial neural networks (ANNs) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) toolboxes. The methods have been applied to 10 different respiratory sounds for classification. The ANN was superior to the ANFIS system and returned superior performance parameters. Its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 98.6%, 100%, and 97.8%, respectively. The obtained parameters showed superiority to many recent approaches. The promising proposed method is an efficient fast tool for the intended purpose as manifested in the performance parameters, specifically, accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Furthermore, it may be added that utilizing the autocorrelation function in the feature extraction in such applications results in enhanced performance and avoids undesired computation complexities compared to other techniques.

  20. Reliability and reproducibility analysis of the AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system by Chinese spinal surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Liu, Peng; Sun, Dong; Qin, Tingzheng; Ma, Zikun; Liu, Jingpei

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility of the new AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system in young Chinese orthopedic surgeons with different levels of experience in spinal trauma. Previous reports suggest that the new AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system demonstrates acceptable interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility. However, there are few studies in Asia, especially in China. The AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system was applied to 109 patients with acute, traumatic thoracolumbar spinal injuries by two groups of spinal surgeons with different levels of clinical experience. The Kappa coefficient was used to determine interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility. The overall Kappa coefficient for all cases was 0.362, which represents fair reliability. The Kappa statistic was 0.385 for A-type injuries and 0.292 for B-type injuries, which represents fair reliability, and 0.552 for C-type injuries, which represents moderate reliability. The Kappa coefficient for intraobserver reproducibility was 0.442 for A-type injuries, 0.485 for B-type injuries, and 0.412 for C-type injuries. These values represent moderate reproducibility for all injury types. The raters in Group A provided significantly better interobserver reliability than Group B (P < 0.05). There were no between-group differences in intraobserver reproducibility. This study suggests that the new AO spine injury classification system may be applied in day-to-day clinical practice in China following extensive training of healthcare providers. Further prospective studies in different healthcare providers and clinical settings are essential for validation of this classification system and to assess its utility.

  1. Hepatic resection after rescue cetuximab treatment for colorectal liver metastases previously refractory to conventional systemic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, René; Aloia, Thomas; Lévi, Francis; Wicherts, Dennis A; de Haas, Robbert J; Paule, Bernard; Bralet, Marie-Pierre; Bouchahda, Mohamed; Machover, David; Ducreux, Michel; Castagne, Vincent; Azoulay, Daniel; Castaing, Denis

    2007-10-10

    In patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CLM) resistant to first-line chemotherapy, the impact of cetuximab therapy on resectability is unknown. This study was performed to determine the post-cetuximab resectability rate and to examine postoperative outcomes for these heavily pretreated patients. From February 2004 to April 2006, we evaluated 151 patients with unresectable CLM resistant to initial chemotherapy and subsequently treated with systemic cetuximab. Resectability rates, patient outcomes, and tumoral and nontumoral liver pathology were assessed. A total of 27 patients underwent surgery after a median of six cycles of cetuximab + irinotecan (20 of 27), oxaliplatin (four of 27), or both (one of 27). Eighteen patients (67%) had experienced treatment failure after at least two lines of chemotherapy before cetuximab. Twenty-five of the 27 patients who had surgery underwent hepatectomy: nine of 133 patients who were treated completely at our institution (resectability rate, 7%) and 16 of 18 patients who were referred from other institutions after systemic cetuximab therapy. Postoperative mortality was 3.7% (one of 27), with a complication rate of 50%. Histopathologic liver abnormalities were found in nine patients (36%), without specific lesions attributable to cetuximab. After median follow-up of 16 months, 23 of 25 patients who underwent resection (92%) were alive, and 10 patients (40%) were disease free. Median overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) from initiation of cetuximab therapy were 20 and 13 months, respectively. For CLM refractory to conventional chemotherapy, combination therapy with cetuximab increases resectability rates without increasing operative mortality or liver injury. The median OS and PFS of 20 and 13 months, respectively, suggest that this novel oncosurgical strategy benefits patients with previously refractory disease who respond subsequently to cetuximab.

  2. Thyroid fine-needle aspiration and the bethesda classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Louise Vølund; Egset, Alice Viktoria; Holm, Camilla

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a cornerstone in diagnosing thyroid nodules. For decades, Danish FNA have been categorised into the groups: “FNA not per-formed”, “Inadequate”, “Cystic”, “Inconclusive”, “Benign”, “Suspicious”, “Malignant” and “Information missing”. Internationally......, The Bethesda Classification System (TBCS) is increasingly accepted, especially owing to a detailed specification of FNA suspicious for malignancy. The Danish “Suspicious” group is very broad and includes atypia, follicular neoplasia and FNA suspicious of other malignancies. The purpose of this study...... risk of 36.4%, 13.3%, 17.2%, 16.1%, 55.3% and 88.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The Danish “Suspicious” group contains a broad spectrum of BG with varying malignancy risk. The results indicate a need for standardisation of the Danish FNA classification. A national introduction of the TBCS might secure...

  3. A model for anomaly classification in intrusion detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, V. O.; Galhardi, V. V.; Gonçalves, L. B. L.; Silva, R. C.; Cansian, A. M.

    2015-09-01

    Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are traditionally divided into two types according to the detection methods they employ, namely (i) misuse detection and (ii) anomaly detection. Anomaly detection has been widely used and its main advantage is the ability to detect new attacks. However, the analysis of anomalies generated can become expensive, since they often have no clear information about the malicious events they represent. In this context, this paper presents a model for automated classification of alerts generated by an anomaly based IDS. The main goal is either the classification of the detected anomalies in well-defined taxonomies of attacks or to identify whether it is a false positive misclassified by the IDS. Some common attacks to computer networks were considered and we achieved important results that can equip security analysts with best resources for their analyses.

  4. Promoting consistent use of the communication function classification system (CFCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Barbara Jane; Rosenbaum, Peter; Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley

    2016-01-01

    We developed a Knowledge Translation (KT) intervention to standardize the way speech-language pathologists working in Ontario Canada's Preschool Speech and Language Program (PSLP) used the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS). This tool was being used as part of a provincial program evaluation and standardizing its use was critical for establishing reliability and validity within the provincial dataset. Two theoretical foundations - Diffusion of Innovations and the Communication Persuasion Matrix - were used to develop and disseminate the intervention to standardize use of the CFCS among a cohort speech-language pathologists. A descriptive pre-test/post-test study was used to evaluate the intervention. Fifty-two participants completed an electronic pre-test survey, reviewed intervention materials online, and then immediately completed an electronic post-test survey. The intervention improved clinicians' understanding of how the CFCS should be used, their intentions to use the tool in the standardized way, and their abilities to make correct classifications using the tool. Findings from this work will be shared with representatives of the Ontario PSLP. The intervention may be disseminated to all speech-language pathologists working in the program. This study can be used as a model for developing and disseminating KT interventions for clinicians in paediatric rehabilitation. The Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) is a new tool that allows speech-language pathologists to classify children's skills into five meaningful levels of function. There is uncertainty and inconsistent practice in the field about the methods for using this tool. This study used combined two theoretical frameworks to develop an intervention to standardize use of the CFCS among a cohort of speech-language pathologists. The intervention effectively increased clinicians' understanding of the methods for using the CFCS, ability to make correct classifications, and

  5. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR DISPOSAL CONTAINER HANDLING SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) disposal container handling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-O333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  6. DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capper, David; Jones, David T.W.; Sill, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Accurate pathological diagnosis is crucial for optimal management of patients with cancer. For the approximately 100 known tumour types of the central nervous system, standardization of the diagnostic process has been shown to be particularly challenging - with substantial inter......-observer variability in the histopathological diagnosis of many tumour types. Here we present a comprehensive approach for the DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours across all entities and age groups, and demonstrate its application in a routine diagnostic setting. We show...

  7. Classification of Headache Disorders: Extending to a Multiaxial System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul R

    2016-11-01

    This article argues for extending the International Classification of Headache Disorders to include information that goes beyond diagnosis. The obvious model is a multiaxial system as has been developed for other taxonomies. An axis for recording disability and impact on functioning, and an axis for recording the triggers of headache/migraine, are perhaps the strongest contenders for adding to the system, but there are other possibilities such as lifestyle factors relevant to headache. Extensions such as these would contribute to headache management, provide clear targets for change, and encourage adoption of a biopsychosocial perspective. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  8. Paediatric biopharmaceutics classification system: current status and future decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Hannah

    2014-08-05

    Biopharmaceutical methods are routinely used in the design of medicines to predict in vivo absorption and hence guide the development of new products. Differences in anatomy and physiology of paediatric patients require adaptation of existing biopharmaceutical methods to ensure that in vivo predictions are relevant for this population. The biopharmaceutics classification system is a tool used in drug development to guide formulation selection and manufacture from early clinical studies through to product launch. The applicability of the biopharmaceutics system to paediatric product development has yet to be explored; this note brings together some key issues in direct extrapolation from adults into paediatric populations. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Sub system and component level safety classification evaluation and identification for tank farm safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANICEK, G.P.

    2001-01-01

    This document provides the safety classification, and classification rationale, for all elements of (some) Tank Farm Safety Systems identified in the Tank Farms Final Safety Analyses. It also contains the official Safety Equipment List (SEL) for the safety systems evaluated. The initial issue of this document does not address all Tank Farm safety systems. The remainder will be addressed, and incorporated in this document, in subsequent revisions

  10. A systematic review of definitions and classification systems of adjacent segment pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Paul; Fehlings, Michael G; Hashimoto, Robin; Lee, Michael J; Anderson, Paul A; Chapman, Jens R; Raich, Annie; Norvell, Daniel C

    2012-10-15

    Systematic review. To undertake a systematic review to determine how "adjacent segment degeneration," "adjacent segment disease," or clinical pathological processes that serve as surrogates for adjacent segment pathology are classified and defined in the peer-reviewed literature. Adjacent segment degeneration and adjacent segment disease are terms referring to degenerative changes known to occur after reconstructive spine surgery, most commonly at an immediately adjacent functional spinal unit. These can include disc degeneration, instability, spinal stenosis, facet degeneration, and deformity. The true incidence and clinical impact of degenerative changes at the adjacent segment is unclear because there is lack of a universally accepted classification system that rigorously addresses clinical and radiological issues. A systematic review of the English language literature was undertaken and articles were classified using the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria. RESULTS.: Seven classification systems of spinal degeneration, including degeneration at the adjacent segment, were identified. None have been evaluated for reliability or validity specific to patients with degeneration at the adjacent segment. The ways in which terms related to adjacent segment "degeneration" or "disease" are defined in the peer-reviewed literature are highly variable. On the basis of the systematic review presented in this article, no formal classification system for either cervical or thoracolumbar adjacent segment disorders currently exists. No recommendations regarding the use of current classification of degeneration at any segments can be made based on the available literature. A new comprehensive definition for adjacent segment pathology (ASP, the now preferred terminology) has been proposed in this Focus Issue, which reflects the diverse pathology observed at functional spinal units adjacent to previous spinal reconstruction and balances

  11. Neighborhood Hypergraph Based Classification Algorithm for Incomplete Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of classification in incomplete information system is a hot issue in intelligent information processing. Hypergraph is a new intelligent method for machine learning. However, it is hard to process the incomplete information system by the traditional hypergraph, which is due to two reasons: (1 the hyperedges are generated randomly in traditional hypergraph model; (2 the existing methods are unsuitable to deal with incomplete information system, for the sake of missing values in incomplete information system. In this paper, we propose a novel classification algorithm for incomplete information system based on hypergraph model and rough set theory. Firstly, we initialize the hypergraph. Second, we classify the training set by neighborhood hypergraph. Third, under the guidance of rough set, we replace the poor hyperedges. After that, we can obtain a good classifier. The proposed approach is tested on 15 data sets from UCI machine learning repository. Furthermore, it is compared with some existing methods, such as C4.5, SVM, NavieBayes, and KNN. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance via Precision, Recall, AUC, and F-measure.

  12. Hormone profile in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus with previous or current amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Clovis A; Deen, Maria E J; Febrônio, Marilia V; Oliveira, Sheila K; Terreri, Maria T; Sacchetti, Silvana B; Sztajnbok, Flavio R; Marini, Roberto; Quintero, Maria V; Bica, Blanca E; Pereira, Rosa M; Bonfá, Eloisa; Ferriani, Virginia P; Robazzi, Teresa C; Magalhães, Claudia S; Hilário, Maria O

    2011-08-01

    To identify the underlying mechanism of amenorrhea in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients, thirty-five (11.7%) JSLE patients with current or previous amenorrhea were consecutively selected among the 298 post-menarche patients followed in 12 Brazilian pediatric rheumatology centers. Pituitary gonadotrophins [follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)] and estradiol were evaluated in 32/35 patients, and prolactin and total testosterone in 29/35 patients. Patient's medical records were carefully reviewed according to demographic, clinical and therapeutic findings. The mean duration of amenorrhea was 7.2 ± 3.6 months. Low FSH or LH was observed in 7/32 (22%) JSLE patients and normal FSH or LH in 25 (78%). Remarkably, low levels of FSH or LH were associated with higher frequency of current amenorrhea (57% vs. 0%, P = 0.001), higher median disease activity (SLEDAI) and damage (SLICC/ACR-DI) (18 vs. 4, P = 0.011; 2 vs. 0, P = 0.037, respectively) and higher median current dose of prednisone (60 vs. 10 mg/day, P = 0.0001) compared to normal FSH or LH JSLE patients. None of them had decreased ovarian reserve and premature ovarian failure. Six of 29 (21%) patients had high levels of prolactin, and none had current amenorrhea. No correlations were observed between levels of prolactin and SLEDAI, and levels of prolactin and SLICC/ACR-DI scores (Spearman's coefficient). We have identified that amenorrhea in JSLE is associated with high dose of corticosteroids indicated for active disease due to hypothalamic-pituitary-ovary axis suppression.

  13. Comparison of an automated classification system with an empirical classification of circulation patterns over the Pannonian basin, Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheras, Panagiotis; Tolika, Konstantia; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Anagnostopoulou, Christina; Szpirosz, Klicász; Károssy, Csaba; Makra, László

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study is to compare the performance of the two classification methods, based on the atmospheric circulation types over the Pannonian basin in Central Europe. Moreover, relationships including seasonal occurrences and correlation coefficients, as well as comparative diagrams of the seasonal occurrences of the circulation types of the two classification systems are presented. When comparing of the automated (objective) and empirical (subjective) classification methods, it was found that the frequency of the empirical anticyclonic (cyclonic) types is much higher (lower) than that of the automated anticyclonic (cyclonic) types both on an annual and seasonal basis. The highest and statistically significant correlations between the circulation types of the two classification systems, as well as those between the cumulated seasonal anticyclonic and cyclonic types occur in winter for both classifications, since the weather-influencing effect of the atmospheric circulation in this season is the most prevalent. Precipitation amounts in Budapest display a decreasing trend in accordance with the decrease in the occurrence of the automated cyclonic types. In contrast, the occurrence of the empirical cyclonic types displays an increasing trend. There occur types in a given classification that are usually accompanied by high ratios of certain types in the other classification.

  14. Reporting ureteroscopy complications using the modified clavien classification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Perioperative complications are one of the surrogate indicators of surgical outcomes. However, reporting these complications need a precise grading system. Our aim is to report and grade the complications of semirigid ureteroscopy in ureteral stone management according to the modified Clavien classification system. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study conducted From January 2012 to June 2013. All patients with ureteral stones who were indicated for semirigid URS were evaluated. All procedures were performed by the same surgeon. The data recorded including patient demographics, clinical indication, stone size and location, operative time and complications were classified according to the modified Clavien classification system. The patients were followed for 8 weeks postoperatively. Results: 148 patients included, Stone distribution was: 89 (60.1% lower ureteral, 26 (17.6% mid ureteral, and 33 (22.3% upper ureteral. the mean stone size was 8.6 mm. Urgent URS done in 23% of patient. The overall stone free rate was 88.5%, the individual stone free rate for the upper, middle and lower ureter were 87.9%, 84.6%, and 89.9%, respectively. The mean operative time was 31.9 min (20-50 min.. Complications occurred in 26.35% of patients. Grade I complications occurred in 32 patients (26.1%, grade II in 9 (6.1%, grade IIIa in 7 (4.7%, grade IIIb in 8 (5.4%, grade IVa in two patient (1.35%, and grade IVb in one patient (0.7%. No grade V complication was encountered. Conclusion: Ureteroscopy becomes the vanguard interventional therapy for ureteral stones with well-established efficacy and safety. It is of paramount importance to adopt a precise structured classification system for reporting surgical complications, that should be flexible and comprehensive in order to accommodate the various and rapidly expanding surgical fields.

  15. The influence of spine surgeons' experience on the classification and intraobserver reliability of the novel AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system : an international study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadiqi, Said; Oner, F. Cumhur; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. International validation study. Objective. To investigate the influence of the spine surgeons' level of experience on the intraobserver reliability of the novel AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification system, and the appropriate classification according to this system.

  16. Computer aided decision support system for cervical cancer classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadwati, Rahmadwati; Naghdy, Golshah; Ros, Montserrat; Todd, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Conventional analysis of a cervical histology image, such a pap smear or a biopsy sample, is performed by an expert pathologist manually. This involves inspecting the sample for cellular level abnormalities and determining the spread of the abnormalities. Cancer is graded based on the spread of the abnormal cells. This is a tedious, subjective and time-consuming process with considerable variations in diagnosis between the experts. This paper presents a computer aided decision support system (CADSS) tool to help the pathologists in their examination of the cervical cancer biopsies. The main aim of the proposed CADSS system is to identify abnormalities and quantify cancer grading in a systematic and repeatable manner. The paper proposes three different methods which presents and compares the results using 475 images of cervical biopsies which include normal, three stages of pre cancer, and malignant cases. This paper will explore various components of an effective CADSS; image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, grading and disease identification. Cervical histological images are captured using a digital microscope. The images are captured in sufficient resolution to retain enough information for effective classification. Histology images of cervical biopsies consist of three major sections; background, stroma and squamous epithelium. Most diagnostic information are contained within the epithelium region. This paper will present two levels of segmentations; global (macro) and local (micro). At the global level the squamous epithelium is separated from the background and stroma. At the local or cellular level, the nuclei and cytoplasm are segmented for further analysis. Image features that influence the pathologists' decision during the analysis and classification of a cervical biopsy are the nuclei's shape and spread; the ratio of the areas of nuclei and cytoplasm as well as the texture and spread of the abnormalities

  17. A neuromorphic system for object detection and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Deepak; Chen, Yang; Kim, Kyungnam; Cheng, Shinko Y.; Honda, Alexander L.; Zhang, Lei

    2013-05-01

    Unattended object detection, recognition and tracking on unmanned reconnaissance platforms in battlefields and urban spaces are topics of emerging importance. In this paper, we present an unattended object recognition system that automatically detects objects of interest in videos and classifies them into various categories (e.g., person, car, truck, etc.). Our system is inspired by recent findings in visual neuroscience on feed-forward object detection and recognition pipeline and mirrors that via two main neuromorphic modules (1) A front-end detection module that combines form and motion based visual attention to search for and detect "integrated" object percepts as is hypothesized to occur in the human visual pathways; (2) A back-end recognition module that processes only the detected object percepts through a neuromorphic object classification algorithm based on multi-scale convolutional neural networks, which can be efficiently implemented in COTS hardware. Our neuromorphic system was evaluated using a variety of urban area video data collected from both stationary and moving platforms. The data are quite challenging as it includes targets at long ranges, occurring under variable conditions of illuminations and occlusion with high clutter. The experimental results of our system showed excellent detection and classification performance. In addition, the proposed bio-inspired approach is good for hardware implementation due to its low complexity and mapping to off-the-shelf conventional hardware.

  18. Object Detection and Classification by Decision-Level Fusion for Intelligent Vehicle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Il Oh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand driving environments effectively, it is important to achieve accurate detection and classification of objects detected by sensor-based intelligent vehicle systems, which are significantly important tasks. Object detection is performed for the localization of objects, whereas object classification recognizes object classes from detected object regions. For accurate object detection and classification, fusing multiple sensor information into a key component of the representation and perception processes is necessary. In this paper, we propose a new object-detection and classification method using decision-level fusion. We fuse the classification outputs from independent unary classifiers, such as 3D point clouds and image data using a convolutional neural network (CNN. The unary classifiers for the two sensors are the CNN with five layers, which use more than two pre-trained convolutional layers to consider local to global features as data representation. To represent data using convolutional layers, we apply region of interest (ROI pooling to the outputs of each layer on the object candidate regions generated using object proposal generation to realize color flattening and semantic grouping for charge-coupled device and Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR sensors. We evaluate our proposed method on a KITTI benchmark dataset to detect and classify three object classes: cars, pedestrians and cyclists. The evaluation results show that the proposed method achieves better performance than the previous methods. Our proposed method extracted approximately 500 proposals on a 1226 × 370 image, whereas the original selective search method extracted approximately 10 6 × n proposals. We obtained classification performance with 77.72% mean average precision over the entirety of the classes in the moderate detection level of the KITTI benchmark dataset.

  19. Interobserver reliability of the Schatzker and Luo classification systems for tibial plateau fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellema, Jos J.; Doornberg, Job N.; Molenaars, Rik J.; Ring, David; Kloen, Peter; Babis, George C.; Jeray, Kyle J.; Prayson, Michael J.; Pesantez, Rodrigo; Acacio, Ramos; Verbeek, Diederik O.; Melvanki, Parag; Kreis, Barbara E.; Mehta, Samir; Meylaerts, S.; Wojtek, S.; Yeap, Ewe J.; Haapasalo, Heidi; Kristan, Anž e; Coles, Chad; Marsh, J. Lawrence; Mormino, Matthew; Menon, Matthew; Tyllianakis, Minos; Schandelmaier, Peter; Jenkinson, R. J.; Neuhaus, Valentin; Shahriar, Chegini M. H.; Belangero, William D.; Kannan, S. G.; Leonidovich, Golovakha M.; Davenport, J. H.; Kabir, Koroush; Althausen, Peter L.; Weil, Yoram; Toom, Alar; Sa da Costa, Daniel; Lijoi, F.; Koukoulias, Nikolaos E.; Manidakis, Nikolaos; van den Bogaert, Max; Patczai, Balá zs; Grauls, Anthony; Kurup, Harish; van den Bekerom, Michel P.; Lansdaal, Joris R.; Vale, M.á rio; Ousema, Paul; Barquet, Antonio; Cross, Brian J.; Broekhuyse, Henry; Haverkamp, Daniel; Merchant, Milind; Harvey, Edward; Stojkovska Pemovska, Emilija; Frihagen, Frede; Seibert, Franz J.; Garnavos, Christos; van der Heide, Huub; Villamizar, Harold A.; Harris, Ian; Borris, Lars C.; Brink, Ole; Brink, Peter R. G.; Choudhari, Pradeep; Swiontkowski, Marc; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Tosounidis, Theodoros; van Rensen, Inge; Martinelli, N.; Park, D. H.; Lasanianos, Nikolaos; Vide, J.; Engvall, A.; Zura, R. D.; Jubel, Axel; Kawaguchi, Alan; Goost, Hans; Bishop, Julius; Mica, Ladislav; Pirpiris, Marinis; van Helden, S. H.; Bouaicha, Samy; Schepers, T.; Havlič ek, Tomo; Giordano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Tibial plateau fracture classification systems have limited interobserver reliability and new systems emerge. The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability of the Luo classification and the Schatzker classification for two-dimensional computed tomography (2DCT) and to study the effect of

  20. Classification of time series patterns from complex dynamic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schryver, J.C.; Rao, N.

    1998-07-01

    An increasing availability of high-performance computing and data storage media at decreasing cost is making possible the proliferation of large-scale numerical databases and data warehouses. Numeric warehousing enterprises on the order of hundreds of gigabytes to terabytes are a reality in many fields such as finance, retail sales, process systems monitoring, biomedical monitoring, surveillance and transportation. Large-scale databases are becoming more accessible to larger user communities through the internet, web-based applications and database connectivity. Consequently, most researchers now have access to a variety of massive datasets. This trend will probably only continue to grow over the next several years. Unfortunately, the availability of integrated tools to explore, analyze and understand the data warehoused in these archives is lagging far behind the ability to gain access to the same data. In particular, locating and identifying patterns of interest in numerical time series data is an increasingly important problem for which there are few available techniques. Temporal pattern recognition poses many interesting problems in classification, segmentation, prediction, diagnosis and anomaly detection. This research focuses on the problem of classification or characterization of numerical time series data. Highway vehicles and their drivers are examples of complex dynamic systems (CDS) which are being used by transportation agencies for field testing to generate large-scale time series datasets. Tools for effective analysis of numerical time series in databases generated by highway vehicle systems are not yet available, or have not been adapted to the target problem domain. However, analysis tools from similar domains may be adapted to the problem of classification of numerical time series data.

  1. A complete electrical hazard classification system and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Lloyd B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cartelli, Laura [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, NFPA 70E, and relevant OSHA electrical safety standards evolved to address the hazards of 60-Hz power that are faced primarily by electricians, linemen, and others performing facility and utility work. This leaves a substantial gap in the management of electrical hazards in Research and Development (R&D) and specialized high voltage and high power equipment. Examples include lasers, accelerators, capacitor banks, electroplating systems, induction and dielectric heating systems, etc. Although all such systems are fed by 50/60 Hz alternating current (ac) power, we find substantial use of direct current (dc) electrical energy, and the use of capacitors, inductors, batteries, and radiofrequency (RF) power. The electrical hazards of these forms of electricity and their systems are different than for 50160 Hz power. Over the past 10 years there has been an effort to develop a method of classifying all of the electrical hazards found in all types of R&D and utilization equipment. Examples of the variation of these hazards from NFPA 70E include (a) high voltage can be harmless, if the available current is sufficiently low, (b) low voltage can be harmful if the available current/power is high, (c) high voltage capacitor hazards are unique and include severe reflex action, affects on the heart, and tissue damage, and (d) arc flash hazard analysis for dc and capacitor systems are not provided in existing standards. This work has led to a comprehensive electrical hazard classification system that is based on various research conducted over the past 100 years, on analysis of such systems in R&D, and on decades of experience. Initially, national electrical safety codes required the qualified worker only to know the source voltage to determine the shock hazard. Later, as arc flash hazards were understood, the fault current and clearing time were needed. These items are still insufficient to fully characterize all types of

  2. Fault Tolerant Neural Network for ECG Signal Classification Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERAH, M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to apply a new robust hardware Artificial Neural Network (ANN for ECG classification systems. This ANN includes a penalization criterion which makes the performances in terms of robustness. Specifically, in this method, the ANN weights are normalized using the auto-prune method. Simulations performed on the MIT ? BIH ECG signals, have shown that significant robustness improvements are obtained regarding potential hardware artificial neuron failures. Moreover, we show that the proposed design achieves better generalization performances, compared to the standard back-propagation algorithm.

  3. Classification analysis of organization factors related to system safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huizhen; Zhang Li; Zhang Yuling; Guan Shihua

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the different types of organization factors which influence the system safety. The organization factor can be divided into the interior organization factor and exterior organization factor. The latter includes the factors of political, economical, technical, law, social culture and geographical, and the relationships among different interest groups. The former includes organization culture, communication, decision, training, process, supervision and management and organization structure. This paper focuses on the description of the organization factors. The classification analysis of the organization factors is the early work of quantitative analysis. (authors)

  4. Intra- and Interobserver Reliability of Three Classification Systems for Hallux Rigidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Sarita; Schilero, Christina; Chiang, Sharon; Pham, Peter

    2018-04-18

    There are over ten classification systems currently used in the staging of hallux rigidus. This results in confusion and inconsistency with radiographic interpretation and treatment. The reliability of hallux rigidus classification systems has not yet been tested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate intra- and interobserver reliability using three commonly used classifications for hallux rigidus. Twenty-one plain radiograph sets were presented to ten ACFAS board-certified foot and ankle surgeons. Each physician classified each radiograph based on clinical experience and knowledge according to the Regnauld, Roukis, and Hattrup and Johnson classification systems. The two-way mixed single-measure consistency intraclass correlation was used to calculate intra- and interrater reliability. The intrarater reliability of individual sets for the Roukis and Hattrup and Johnson classification systems was "fair to good" (Roukis, 0.62±0.19; Hattrup and Johnson, 0.62±0.28), whereas the intrarater reliability of individual sets for the Regnauld system bordered between "fair to good" and "poor" (0.43±0.24). The interrater reliability of the mean classification was "excellent" for all three classification systems. Conclusions Reliable and reproducible classification systems are essential for treatment and prognostic implications in hallux rigidus. In our study, Roukis classification system had the best intrarater reliability. Although there are various classification systems for hallux rigidus, our results indicate that all three of these classification systems show reliability and reproducibility.

  5. Changing tides: increasing evidence to embrace a patient classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloch, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    The effective use of a patient classification system (PCS) in a way that provides value to all health care organizations has yet to be realized given the challenging developmental pathway of these systems. As the science and technology of workforce management emerges along with evidence to support the relationships between nurse work and patient care needs, it is no longer appropriate to rely on systems that provide aggregated and minimal data to address the need for safer patient care and retention of nurses. Specificity about patient care needs in a valid and reliable PCS is essential on our pathway to improved resource utilization, improved decision making, integration of nurse cognitive and knowledge work, and management of variances from planned resource use. Advancements with technology, the ability to create and monitor equitable nurse-patient assignments, conceptual clarity, evidence, regulatory requirements, and professional role development point to a new receptiveness for PCSs.

  6. Value of the revised Atlanta classification (RAC) and determinant-based classification (DBC) systems in the evaluation of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Qin, Li; Cao, Jingli

    2017-11-03

    Since increasing acute pancreatitis (AP) severity is significantly associated with mortality, accurate and rapid determination of severity is crucial for effective clinical management. This study investigated the value of the revised Atlanta classification (RAC) and the determinant-based classification (DBC) systems in stratifying severity of acute pancreatitis. This retrospective observational cohort study included 480 AP patients. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were recorded. The primary outcome was mortality, and secondary outcomes were admission to intensive care unit (ICU), duration of ICU stay, and duration of hospital stay. Based on the RAC classification, there were 295 patients with mild AP (MAP), 146 patients with moderate-to-severe AP (MSAP), and 39 patients with severe AP (SAP). Based on the DBC classification, there were 389 patients with MAP, 41 patients with MSAP, 32 patients with SAP, and 18 patients with critical AP (CAP). ROC curve analysis showed that the DBC system had a significantly higher accuracy at predicting organ failure compared to the RAC system (p < .001). Multivariate regression analysis showed that age and ICU stay were independent risk factors of mortality. The DBC system had a higher accuracy at predicting organ failure. Age and ICU stay were significantly associated with risk of death in AP patients. A classification of CAP by the DBC system should warrant close attention, and rapid implementation of effective measures to reduce mortality.

  7. A data-stream classification system for investigating terrorist threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Alexia; Dettman, Joshua; Gottschalk, Jeffrey; Kotson, Michael; Vuksani, Era; Yu, Tamara

    2016-05-01

    The role of cyber forensics in criminal investigations has greatly increased in recent years due to the wealth of data that is collected and available to investigators. Physical forensics has also experienced a data volume and fidelity revolution due to advances in methods for DNA and trace evidence analysis. Key to extracting insight is the ability to correlate across multi-modal data, which depends critically on identifying a touch-point connecting the separate data streams. Separate data sources may be connected because they refer to the same individual, entity or event. In this paper we present a data source classification system tailored to facilitate the investigation of potential terrorist activity. This taxonomy is structured to illuminate the defining characteristics of a particular terrorist effort and designed to guide reporting to decision makers that is complete, concise, and evidence-based. The classification system has been validated and empirically utilized in the forensic analysis of a simulated terrorist activity. Next-generation analysts can use this schema to label and correlate across existing data streams, assess which critical information may be missing from the data, and identify options for collecting additional data streams to fill information gaps.

  8. Tangata whaiora/consumers perspectives on current psychiatric classification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wells Debra

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies have been undertaken with the aim of considering the utility of mental health classification systems from the perspective of a variety of stakeholders. There is a lack of research on how useful consumers/tangata whaiora think these are in assisting them in their recovery. Methods Seventy service users were involved in seven focus groups in order to consider this question. Results and discussion While for clinicians diagnosing someone might be a discrete event and easily forgotten as a moment in a busy schedule, most people in this study remembered the occasion and aftermath very clearly. The overall consensus was that whether being 'diagnosed' was helpful or not, in large part, depended on how the process happened and what resulted from being 'labeled' in the person's life. Conclusion Overall, people thought that in terms of their recovery, the classification systems were tools and their utility depended on how they were used. They suggested that whatever tool was used it needed to help them make sense of their distress and provide them with a variety of supports, not just medication, to assist them to live lives that were meaningful to them.

  9. Derivation and Validation of Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Classification Criteria for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Michelle; Orbai, Ana-Maria; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Gordon, Caroline; Merrill, Joan T.; Fortin, Paul R.; Bruce, Ian N.; Isenberg, David; Wallace, Daniel J.; Nived, Ola; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Hanly, John G.; Sanchez-Guerrero, Jorge; Clarke, Ann; Aranow, Cynthia; Manzi, Susan; Urowitz, Murray; Gladman, Dafna; Kalunian, Kenneth; Costner, Melissa; Werth, Victoria P.; Zoma, Asad; Bernatsky, Sasha; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Khamashta, Munther A.; Jacobsen, Soren; Buyon, Jill P.; Maddison, Peter; Dooley, Mary Anne; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F.; Ginzler, Ellen; Stoll, Thomas; Peschken, Christine; Jorizzo, Joseph L.; Callen, Jeffrey P.; Lim, S. Sam; Fessler, Barri J.; Inanc, Murat; Kamen, Diane L.; Rahman, Anisur; Steinsson, Kristjan; Franks, Andrew G.; Sigler, Lisa; Hameed, Suhail; Fang, Hong; Pham, Ngoc; Brey, Robin; Weisman, Michael H.; McGwin, Gerald; Magder, Laurence S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The Systemic Lupus Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) revised and validated the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) SLE classification criteria in order to improve clinical relevance, meet stringent methodology requirements and incorporate new knowledge in SLE immunology. Methods The classification criteria were derived from a set of 702 expert-rated patient scenarios. Recursive partitioning was used to derive an initial rule that was simplified and refined based on SLICC physician consensus. SLICC validated the classification criteria in a new validation sample of 690 SLE patients and controls. Results Seventeen criteria were identified. The SLICC criteria for SLE classification requires: 1) Fulfillment of at least four criteria, with at least one clinical criterion AND one immunologic criterion OR 2) Lupus nephritis as the sole clinical criterion in the presence of ANA or anti-dsDNA antibodies. In the derivation set, the SLICC classification criteria resulted in fewer misclassifications than the current ACR classification criteria (49 versus 70, p=0.0082), had greater sensitivity (94% versus 86%, p<0.0001) and equal specificity (92% versus 93%, p=0.39). In the validation set, the SLICC Classification criteria resulted in fewer misclassifications (62 versus 74, p=0.24), had greater sensitivity (97% versus 83%, p<0.0001) but less specificity (84% versus 96%, p<0.0001). Conclusions The new SLICC classification criteria performed well on a large set of patient scenarios rated by experts. They require that at least one clinical criterion and one immunologic criterion be present for a classification of SLE. Biopsy confirmed nephritis compatible with lupus (in the presence of SLE autoantibodies) is sufficient for classification. PMID:22553077

  10. A Game Player Expertise Level Classification System Using Electroencephalography (EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Muhammad Anwar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The success and wider adaptability of smart phones has given a new dimension to the gaming industry. Due to the wide spectrum of video games, the success of a particular game depends on how efficiently it is able to capture the end users’ attention. This leads to the need to analyse the cognitive aspects of the end user, that is the game player, during game play. A direct window to see how an end user responds to a stimuli is to look at their brain activity. In this study, electroencephalography (EEG is used to record human brain activity during game play. A commercially available EEG headset is used for this purpose giving fourteen channels of recorded EEG brain activity. The aim is to classify a player as expert or novice using the brain activity as the player indulges in the game play. Three different machine learning classifiers have been used to train and test the system. Among the classifiers, naive Bayes has outperformed others with an accuracy of 88 % , when data from all fourteen EEG channels are used. Furthermore, the activity observed on electrodes is statistically analysed and mapped for brain visualizations. The analysis has shown that out of the available fourteen channels, only four channels in the frontal and occipital brain regions show significant activity. Features of these four channels are then used, and the performance parameters of the four-channel classification are compared to the results of the fourteen-channel classification. It has been observed that support vector machine and the naive Bayes give good classification accuracy and processing time, well suited for real-time applications.

  11. A comparison of the validity and reliability of established bone stock loss classification systems and the proposal of a novel classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Michael C; Whitehouse, Michael R; Mehendale, Sanchit A; Smith, Lindsay K; Webb, Jason C; Spencer, Robert F; Blom, Ashley W

    2010-01-01

    The classification and management of aseptic loosening of total hip arthroplasty remains a distinct challenge to the modern orthopaedic surgeon. The aim of this study was to assess the inter-observer and intra-observer reliability of commonly used classification systems for the assessment of bone stock loss in revision hip surgery. Radiographs of 23 femoral and 32 acetabular components in 30 patients were assessed using the Paprosky, AAOS and Endo-Klinik classification systems. A novel classification system was introduced and also used to assess the radiographs. Assessment was undertaken by 3 surgeons on 2 separate occasions and the inter- and intra- observer reliability calculated. The novel classification system showed a good to very good intra-observer reliability for both femoral and acetabular components (0.77-1.0; pstock loss in revision hip surgery.

  12. A space-based classification system for RF transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, K.R.; Call, D.; Johnson, S.; Payne, T.; Ford, W.; Spencer, K.; Wilkerson, J.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Baumgart, C. [EG and G, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The FORTE (Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events) small satellite is scheduled for launch in mid 1995. The mission is to measure and classify VHF (30--300 MHz) electromagnetic pulses, primarily due to lightning, within a high noise environment dominated by continuous wave carriers such as TV and FM stations. The FORTE Event Classifier will use specialized hardware to implement signal processing and neural network algorithms that perform onboard classification of RF transients and carriers. Lightning events will also be characterized with optical data telemetered to the ground. A primary mission science goal is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the correlation between the optical flash and the VHF emissions from lightning. By combining FORTE measurements with ground measurements and/or active transmitters, other science issues can be addressed. Examples include the correlation of global precipitation rates with lightning flash rates and location, the effects of large scale structures within the ionosphere (such as traveling ionospheric disturbances and horizontal gradients in the total electron content) on the propagation of broad bandwidth RF signals, and various areas of lightning physics. Event classification is a key feature of the FORTE mission. Neural networks are promising candidates for this application. The authors describe the proposed FORTE Event Classifier flight system, which consists of a commercially available digital signal processing board and a custom board, and discuss work on signal processing and neural network algorithms.

  13. A space-based classification system for RF transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, K.R.; Call, D.; Johnson, S.; Payne, T.; Ford, W.; Spencer, K.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Baumgart, C.

    1993-01-01

    The FORTE (Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events) small satellite is scheduled for launch in mid 1995. The mission is to measure and classify VHF (30--300 MHz) electromagnetic pulses, primarily due to lightning, within a high noise environment dominated by continuous wave carriers such as TV and FM stations. The FORTE Event Classifier will use specialized hardware to implement signal processing and neural network algorithms that perform onboard classification of RF transients and carriers. Lightning events will also be characterized with optical data telemetered to the ground. A primary mission science goal is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the correlation between the optical flash and the VHF emissions from lightning. By combining FORTE measurements with ground measurements and/or active transmitters, other science issues can be addressed. Examples include the correlation of global precipitation rates with lightning flash rates and location, the effects of large scale structures within the ionosphere (such as traveling ionospheric disturbances and horizontal gradients in the total electron content) on the propagation of broad bandwidth RF signals, and various areas of lightning physics. Event classification is a key feature of the FORTE mission. Neural networks are promising candidates for this application. The authors describe the proposed FORTE Event Classifier flight system, which consists of a commercially available digital signal processing board and a custom board, and discuss work on signal processing and neural network algorithms

  14. Aneurysms of the superficial venous system: classification and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald G. Bush

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Superficial venous aneurysms are rarely described and they may remain indolent or become the source for pulmonary emboli. A system of classification and treatment protocol according to size and location is proposed. Three hundred thirty patients were evaluated for symptomatic venous disease (C2-C6 over a 2-year period. A proposed designation for venous aneurysm is described. Patients fulfilling this criterion are described in reference to site of involvement, histologic findings, and method of treatment. Five percent of patients met the criteria for venous aneurysm. Nine aneurysms of the greater saphenous vein were identified. Three aneurysms were proximal to the subterminal valve and the rest were distal. Six aneurysms of the anterior accessory greater saphenous vein (AAGSV were identified. Three aneurysms of the AAGSV spontaneously thrombosed. Two patients presented with aneurysms of the small saphenous vein. Histology revealed thickened intima, smooth muscle and adventitia. Aneurysm designation relates to diameter of normal and contiguous vein. All superficial venous aneurysms in close proximity to the junction of the femoral or popliteal vein should be ligated. Classification of venous aneurysms should include the AAGSV, which may present with spontaneous thrombosis.

  15. Pathohistological classification systems in gastric cancer: diagnostic relevance and prognostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlth, Felix; Bollschweiler, Elfriede; Drebber, Uta; Hoelscher, Arnulf H; Moenig, Stefan

    2014-05-21

    Several pathohistological classification systems exist for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Many studies have investigated the correlation between the pathohistological characteristics in gastric cancer and patient characteristics, disease specific criteria and overall outcome. It is still controversial as to which classification system imparts the most reliable information, and therefore, the choice of system may vary in clinical routine. In addition to the most common classification systems, such as the Laurén and the World Health Organization (WHO) classifications, other authors have tried to characterize and classify gastric cancer based on the microscopic morphology and in reference to the clinical outcome of the patients. In more than 50 years of systematic classification of the pathohistological characteristics of gastric cancer, there is no sole classification system that is consistently used worldwide in diagnostics and research. However, several national guidelines for the treatment of gastric cancer refer to the Laurén or the WHO classifications regarding therapeutic decision-making, which underlines the importance of a reliable classification system for gastric cancer. The latest results from gastric cancer studies indicate that it might be useful to integrate DNA- and RNA-based features of gastric cancer into the classification systems to establish prognostic relevance. This article reviews the diagnostic relevance and the prognostic value of different pathohistological classification systems in gastric cancer.

  16. [Monteggia's lesion in childhood--proposal for a new classification system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesl, T; Havránek, P

    2005-01-01

    The former classification systems have failed to provide an exact characterization of Monteggia's lesions (ML) in a growing skeleton. We studied the stability of both ulnar fracture and injury to the radio-humero-ulnar joint and our clinical findings fully warrant the proposal of a new classification system. We carried out a retrospective study of 76 children, aged 2 to 15 years, treated for Monteggia's lesion in our department during 12 years, from 1990 till 2001. X-ray images of all injured limbs were evaluated and each injury was categorized as stable, potentially unstable or unstable. This concerned both ulnar fractures and lesions affecting the radio-humero-ulnar joint. An assessment of the therapeutic method used was also included. The final assessment of each injury involved the category of ulnar fracture and the category of radio-humero-ulnar joint lesion and produced three ML types, namely, stable, potentially unstable and unstable types. A stable ML type was found in 30 (39.5 %) patients and, in most of them, conservative treatment was sufficient. Osteosynthesis was required in only 6.7 % of the cases. A potentially unstable ML type was recorded in 27 (35.3 %) patients. Fifteen of these (55.6 %) underwent osteosynthesis because conservative treatment had failed. An unstable ML type was diagnosed in 19 (25 %) children and nearly all of them (89.5 %) had to undergo osteosynthesis. The previous classification systems have been based on either anatomical aspects (direction of ulnar fragment displacement and proximal radius dislocation) or the type of ulnar fracture. In our view the characterization of each ML type in children involves the stability of ulnar fraction as well as the stability of injury to the radio-humero-ulnar joint. Our classification allows us to predict the stability of each Monteggia's lesion and to choose an appropriate approach to its treatment.

  17. USCS and the USDA Soil Classification System: Development of a Mapping Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Examples of classification systems that follow this approach are the French Soil Reference System, USDA soil taxonomy , and the World Reference Base for...ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 5- 4 UPRM and ERDC Educational and Research Internship Program USCS and the USDA Soil Classification System...acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. UPRM and ERDC Educational and Research Internship Program ERDC/CRREL TR-15-4 March 2015 USCS and the USDA Soil Classification

  18. Risk classification and uncertainty propagation for virtual water distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Jacob M.; Brumbelow, Kelly; Guikema, Seth D.

    2009-01-01

    While the secrecy of real water distribution system data is crucial, it poses difficulty for research as results cannot be publicized. This data includes topological layouts of pipe networks, pump operation schedules, and water demands. Therefore, a library of virtual water distribution systems can be an important research tool for comparative development of analytical methods. A virtual city, 'Micropolis', has been developed, including a comprehensive water distribution system, as a first entry into such a library. This virtual city of 5000 residents is fully described in both geographic information systems (GIS) and EPANet hydraulic model frameworks. A risk classification scheme and Monte Carlo analysis are employed for an attempted water supply contamination attack. Model inputs to be considered include uncertainties in: daily water demand, seasonal demand, initial storage tank levels, the time of day a contamination event is initiated, duration of contamination event, and contaminant quantity. Findings show that reasonable uncertainties in model inputs produce high variability in exposure levels. It is also shown that exposure level distributions experience noticeable sensitivities to population clusters within the contaminant spread area. High uncertainties in exposure patterns lead to greater resources needed for more effective mitigation strategies.

  19. Classification systems in nursing : Formalizing nursing knowledge and implications for nursing information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossen, WTF; Epping, PJMM; Abraham, IL

    The development of nursing information systems (NIS) is often hampered by the fact that nursing lacks a unified nursing terminology and classification system. Currently there exist various initiatives in this area. We address the question as to how current initiatives in the development of nursing

  20. From fault classification to fault tolerance for multi-agent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Potiron, Katia; Taillibert, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Faults are a concern for Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) designers, especially if the MAS are built for industrial or military use because there must be some guarantee of dependability. Some fault classification exists for classical systems, and is used to define faults. When dependability is at stake, such fault classification may be used from the beginning of the system's conception to define fault classes and specify which types of faults are expected. Thus, one may want to use fault classification for MAS; however, From Fault Classification to Fault Tolerance for Multi-Agent Systems argues that

  1. Is the full potential of the biopharmaceutics classification system reached?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Christel A S; Andersson, Sara B E; Fagerberg, Jonas H; Ragnarsson, Gert; Lindahl, Anders

    2014-06-16

    In this paper we analyse how the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) has been used to date. A survey of the literature resulted in a compilation of 242 compounds for which BCS classes were reported. Of these, 183 compounds had been reported to belong to one specific BCS class whereas 59 compounds had been assigned to multiple BCS classes in different papers. Interestingly, a majority of the BCS class 2 compounds had fraction absorbed (FA) values >85%, indicating that they were completely absorbed after oral administration. Solubility was computationally predicted at pH 6.8 for BCS class 2 compounds to explore the impact of the pH of the small intestine, where most of the absorption occurs, on the solubility. In addition, the solubilization capacity of lipid aggregates naturally present in the intestine was studied computationally and experimentally for a subset of 12 compounds. It was found that all acidic compounds with FA>85% were completely dissolved in the pH of the small intestine. Further, lipids at the concentration used in fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) dissolved the complete dose given of the most lipophilic (logD6.5>3) compounds studied. Overall, biorelevant dissolution media (pure buffer of intestinal pH or FaSSIF) identified that for 20 of the 29 BCS class 2 compounds with FA>85% the complete dose given orally would be dissolved. These results indicate that a more relevant pH restriction for acids and/or dissolution medium with lipids present better forecast solubility-limited absorption in vivo than the presently used BCS solubility criterion. The analysis presented herein further strengthens the discussion on the requirement of more physiologically relevant dissolution media for the in vitro solubility classification performed to reach the full potential of the BCS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1993-11-23

    A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system. 5 figures.

  3. System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1993-01-01

    A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system. 5 figures

  4. Accessibility patterns and community integration among previously homeless adults: a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dara V; Gopal, Sucharita; Helfrich, Christine A

    2014-11-01

    Although a desired rehabilitation goal, research continues to document that community integration significantly lags behind housing stability success rates for people of a variety of ages who used to be homeless. While accessibility to resources is an environmental factor that may promote or impede integration activity, there has been little empirical investigation into the impact of proximity of community features on resource use and integration. Using a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach, the current study examines how accessibility or proximity to community features in Boston, United States related to the types of locations used and the size of an individual's "activity space," or spatial presence in the community. Significant findings include an inverse relationship between activity space size and proximity to the number and type of community features in one's immediate area. Specifically, larger activity spaces were associated with neighborhoods with less community features, and smaller activity spaces corresponded with greater availability of resources within one's immediate area. Activity space size also varied, however, based on proximity to different types of resources, namely transportation and health care. Greater community function, or the ability to navigate and use community resources, was associated with better accessibility and feeling part of the community. Finally, proximity to a greater number of individual identified preferred community features was associated with better social integration. The current study suggests the ongoing challenges of successful integration may vary not just based on accessibility to, but relative importance of, specific community features and affinity with one's surroundings. Community integration researchers and housing providers may need to attend to the meaning attached to resources, not just presence or use in the community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Superiority of Classification Tree versus Cluster, Fuzzy and Discriminant Models in a Heartbeat Classification System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vessela Krasteva

    Full Text Available This study presents a 2-stage heartbeat classifier of supraventricular (SVB and ventricular (VB beats. Stage 1 makes computationally-efficient classification of SVB-beats, using simple correlation threshold criterion for finding close match with a predominant normal (reference beat template. The non-matched beats are next subjected to measurement of 20 basic features, tracking the beat and reference template morphology and RR-variability for subsequent refined classification in SVB or VB-class by Stage 2. Four linear classifiers are compared: cluster, fuzzy, linear discriminant analysis (LDA and classification tree (CT, all subjected to iterative training for selection of the optimal feature space among extended 210-sized set, embodying interactive second-order effects between 20 independent features. The optimization process minimizes at equal weight the false positives in SVB-class and false negatives in VB-class. The training with European ST-T, AHA, MIT-BIH Supraventricular Arrhythmia databases found the best performance settings of all classification models: Cluster (30 features, Fuzzy (72 features, LDA (142 coefficients, CT (221 decision nodes with top-3 best scored features: normalized current RR-interval, higher/lower frequency content ratio, beat-to-template correlation. Unbiased test-validation with MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database rates the classifiers in descending order of their specificity for SVB-class: CT (99.9%, LDA (99.6%, Cluster (99.5%, Fuzzy (99.4%; sensitivity for ventricular ectopic beats as part from VB-class (commonly reported in published beat-classification studies: CT (96.7%, Fuzzy (94.4%, LDA (94.2%, Cluster (92.4%; positive predictivity: CT (99.2%, Cluster (93.6%, LDA (93.0%, Fuzzy (92.4%. CT has superior accuracy by 0.3-6.8% points, with the advantage for easy model complexity configuration by pruning the tree consisted of easy interpretable 'if-then' rules.

  6. Superiority of Classification Tree versus Cluster, Fuzzy and Discriminant Models in a Heartbeat Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasteva, Vessela; Jekova, Irena; Leber, Remo; Schmid, Ramun; Abächerli, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a 2-stage heartbeat classifier of supraventricular (SVB) and ventricular (VB) beats. Stage 1 makes computationally-efficient classification of SVB-beats, using simple correlation threshold criterion for finding close match with a predominant normal (reference) beat template. The non-matched beats are next subjected to measurement of 20 basic features, tracking the beat and reference template morphology and RR-variability for subsequent refined classification in SVB or VB-class by Stage 2. Four linear classifiers are compared: cluster, fuzzy, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and classification tree (CT), all subjected to iterative training for selection of the optimal feature space among extended 210-sized set, embodying interactive second-order effects between 20 independent features. The optimization process minimizes at equal weight the false positives in SVB-class and false negatives in VB-class. The training with European ST-T, AHA, MIT-BIH Supraventricular Arrhythmia databases found the best performance settings of all classification models: Cluster (30 features), Fuzzy (72 features), LDA (142 coefficients), CT (221 decision nodes) with top-3 best scored features: normalized current RR-interval, higher/lower frequency content ratio, beat-to-template correlation. Unbiased test-validation with MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database rates the classifiers in descending order of their specificity for SVB-class: CT (99.9%), LDA (99.6%), Cluster (99.5%), Fuzzy (99.4%); sensitivity for ventricular ectopic beats as part from VB-class (commonly reported in published beat-classification studies): CT (96.7%), Fuzzy (94.4%), LDA (94.2%), Cluster (92.4%); positive predictivity: CT (99.2%), Cluster (93.6%), LDA (93.0%), Fuzzy (92.4%). CT has superior accuracy by 0.3-6.8% points, with the advantage for easy model complexity configuration by pruning the tree consisted of easy interpretable 'if-then' rules.

  7. A new methodology for constructing a publication-level classification system of science

    OpenAIRE

    Waltman, Ludo; van Eck, Nees Jan

    2012-01-01

    Classifying journals or publications into research areas is an essential element of many bibliometric analyses. Classification usually takes place at the level of journals, where the Web of Science subject categories are the most popular classification system. However, journal-level classification systems have two important limitations: They offer only a limited amount of detail, and they have difficulties with multidisciplinary journals. To avoid these limitations, we introduce a new methodo...

  8. A Library Book Intelligence Classification System based on Multi-agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengfei, Guo; Liangxian, Du; Junxia, Qi

    This paper introduces the concept of artificial intelligence into the administrative system of the library, and then gives the model of robot system in book classification based on multi-agent. The intelligent robot can recognize books' barcode automatically and here gives the classification algorithm according to the book classification of Chinese library. The algorithm can calculate the concrete position of the books, and relate with all similar books, thus the robot can put all congener books once without turning back.

  9. Update of the LIPID MAPS comprehensive classification system for lipids1

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, Eoin; Subramaniam, Shankar; Murphy, Robert C.; Nishijima, Masahiro; Raetz, Christian R. H.; Shimizu, Takao; Spener, Friedrich; van Meer, Gerrit; Wakelam, Michael J. O.; Dennis, Edward A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the International Lipid Classification and Nomenclature Committee under the sponsorship of the LIPID MAPS Consortium developed and established a “Comprehensive Classification System for Lipids” based on well-defined chemical and biochemical principles and using an ontology that is extensible, flexible, and scalable. This classification system, which is compatible with contemporary databasing and informatics needs, has now been accepted internationally and widely adopted. In response ...

  10. The classification of glomerulonephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weening, Jan J.; D'Agati, Vivette D.; Schwartz, Melvin M.; Seshan, Surya V.; Alpers, Charles E.; Appel, Gerald B.; Balow, James E.; Bruijn, Jan A.; Cook, Terence; Ferrario, Franco; Fogo, Agnes B.; Ginzler, Ellen M.; Hebert, Lee; Hill, Gary; Hill, Prue; Jennette, J. Charles; Kong, Norella C.; Lesavre, Philippe; Lockshin, Michael; Looi, Lai-Meng; Makino, Hirofumi; Moura, Luiz A.; Nagata, Michio

    2004-01-01

    The currently used classification reflects our understanding of the pathogenesis of the various forms of lupus nephritis, but clinicopathologic studies have revealed the need for improved categorization and terminology. Based on the 1982 classification published under the auspices of the World

  11. Simultaneous detection and classification of breast masses in digital mammograms via a deep learning YOLO-based CAD system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Masni, Mohammed A; Al-Antari, Mugahed A; Park, Jeong-Min; Gi, Geon; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Rivera, Patricio; Valarezo, Edwin; Choi, Mun-Taek; Han, Seung-Moo; Kim, Tae-Seong

    2018-04-01

    Automatic detection and classification of the masses in mammograms are still a big challenge and play a crucial role to assist radiologists for accurate diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a novel Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system based on one of the regional deep learning techniques, a ROI-based Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) which is called You Only Look Once (YOLO). Although most previous studies only deal with classification of masses, our proposed YOLO-based CAD system can handle detection and classification simultaneously in one framework. The proposed CAD system contains four main stages: preprocessing of mammograms, feature extraction utilizing deep convolutional networks, mass detection with confidence, and finally mass classification using Fully Connected Neural Networks (FC-NNs). In this study, we utilized original 600 mammograms from Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) and their augmented mammograms of 2,400 with the information of the masses and their types in training and testing our CAD. The trained YOLO-based CAD system detects the masses and then classifies their types into benign or malignant. Our results with five-fold cross validation tests show that the proposed CAD system detects the mass location with an overall accuracy of 99.7%. The system also distinguishes between benign and malignant lesions with an overall accuracy of 97%. Our proposed system even works on some challenging breast cancer cases where the masses exist over the pectoral muscles or dense regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Asynchronous data-driven classification of weapon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Xin; Mukherjee, Kushal; Gupta, Shalabh; Ray, Asok; Phoha, Shashi; Damarla, Thyagaraju

    2009-01-01

    This communication addresses real-time weapon classification by analysis of asynchronous acoustic data, collected from microphones on a sensor network. The weapon classification algorithm consists of two parts: (i) feature extraction from time-series data using symbolic dynamic filtering (SDF), and (ii) pattern classification based on the extracted features using the language measure (LM) and support vector machine (SVM). The proposed algorithm has been tested on field data, generated by firing of two types of rifles. The results of analysis demonstrate high accuracy and fast execution of the pattern classification algorithm with low memory requirements. Potential applications include simultaneous shooter localization and weapon classification with soldier-wearable networked sensors. (rapid communication)

  13. An overview of some historical knowledge organisation systems and classifications with a special emphasy on monastery libraries’ classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Svoljšak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of some most prominent historical turning – points in the field of knowledge organization an2d western European sistematization of science, based on Greek and christian philosophy. Some examples of earlier attempts to unify the systems of knowledge organization and science systematization are presented. Some specific systems of the most prominent European christian religious orders’ library contents arrangement and classification are described in this context.

  14. Impact of Biopharmaceutics Classification System-based biowaivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jack A; Davit, Barbara M; Polli, James E

    2010-10-04

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) is employed to waive in vivo bioequivalence testing (i.e. provide "biowaivers") for new and generic drugs that are BCS class I. Granting biowaivers under systems such as the BCS eliminates unnecessary drug exposures to healthy subjects and provides economic relief, while maintaining the high public health standard for therapeutic equivalence. International scientific consensus suggests class III drugs are also eligible for biowaivers. The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of class I BCS-based biowaivers, along with the economic impact of a potential expansion to BCS class III. Methods consider the distribution of drugs across the four BCS classes, numbers of in vivo bioequivalence studies performed from a five year period, and effects of highly variable drugs (HVDs). Results indicate that 26% of all drugs are class I non-HVDs, 7% are class I HVDs, 27% are class III non-HVDs, and 3% are class III HVDs. An estimated 66 to 76 million dollars can be saved each year in clinical study costs if all class I compounds were granted biowaivers. Between 21 and 24 million dollars of this savings is from HVDs. If BCS class III compounds were also granted waivers, an additional direct savings of 62 to 71 million dollars would be realized, with 9 to 10 million dollars coming from HVDs.

  15. Classification of toddler nutritional status using fuzzy inference system (FIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permatasari, Dian; Azizah, Isnaini Nur; Hadiat, Hanifah Latifah; Abadi, Agus Maman

    2017-08-01

    Nutrition is a major health problem and concern for parents when it is relating with their toddler. The nutritional status is an expression of the state caused by the status of the balance between the number of intake of nutrients and the amount needed by the body for a variety of biological functions. The indicators that often used to determine the nutritional status is the combination of Weight (W) and Height (H) symbolized by W/H, because it describe a sensitive and specific nutritional status. This study aims to apply the Fuzzy Inference System Mamdani method to classify the nutritional status of toddler. The inputs are weight and height of the toddler. There are nine rules that used and the output is nutritional status classification consisting of four criteria: stunting, wasting, normal, and overweight. Fuzzy Inference System that be used is Mamdani method and the defuzzification use Centroid Method. The result of this study is compared with Assessment Anthropometric Standard of Toddler Nutritional Status by Ministry of Health. The accuracy level of this fuzzy model is about 84%.

  16. Drug-induced sedation endoscopy (DISE) classification systems: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijemeni, Esuabom; D'Amone, Gabriele; Gbati, Israel

    2017-12-01

    Drug-induced sedation endoscopy (DISE) classification systems have been used to assess anatomical findings on upper airway obstruction, and decide and plan surgical treatments and act as a predictor for surgical treatment outcome for obstructive sleep apnoea management. The first objective is to identify if there is a universally accepted DISE grading and classification system for analysing DISE findings. The second objective is to identify if there is one DISE grading and classification treatment planning framework for deciding appropriate surgical treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The third objective is to identify if there is one DISE grading and classification treatment outcome framework for determining the likelihood of success for a given OSA surgical intervention. A systematic review was performed to identify new and significantly modified DISE classification systems: concept, advantages and disadvantages. Fourteen studies proposing a new DISE classification system and three studies proposing a significantly modified DISE classification were identified. None of the studies were based on randomised control trials. DISE is an objective method for visualising upper airway obstruction. The classification and assessment of clinical findings based on DISE is highly subjective due to the increasing number of DISE classification systems. Hence, this creates a growing divergence in surgical treatment planning and treatment outcome. Further research on a universally accepted objective DISE assessment is critically needed.

  17. Perceptual and Acoustic Reliability Estimates for the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A companion paper describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). The SDCS uses perceptual and acoustic data reduction methods to obtain information on a speaker's speech, prosody, and voice. The present paper provides reliability estimates for…

  18. Volunteer-Based System for classification of traffic in computer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Balachandran, Kartheepan; Riaz, M. Tahir

    2011-01-01

    To overcome the drawbacks of existing methods for traffic classification (by ports, Deep Packet Inspection, statistical classification) a new system was developed, in which the data are collected from client machines. This paper presents design of the system, implementation, initial runs...

  19. Research and Implementation of a USB Interfaced Real-Time Power Quality Disturbance Classification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOK, M.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the research and implementation of an automatic power quality (PQ recognition system are presented. This system contains a USB interfaced multichannel data acquisition (DAQ device and a graphical user interfaced (GUI application. The DAQ device consists of an analog-to-digital (ADC converter, field programmable gate array (FPGA and a USB first in first out (FIFO buffer interface chip. The application employs Stockwell Transform (ST technique combined with neural network model to build the classifier. Eight basic and two combined PQ disturbances are determined for the classification. Different from the previous studies, the synthetic signals used for neural network training are modified by adding the harmonics detected in the real signal. This approach is used to increase the classifier accuracy against the real line power signal. Also, ST is simplified by using only the frequencies which are required in the feature extraction step to reduce the processing time. Developed application handles the signal processing, the classification, and the database recording tasks by using multi-threaded programming approach under the mean time of 41 ms. The experimental results show that the proposed power quality disturbance detection system is capable of recognizing and reporting power quality faults effectively within the real-time requirements.

  20. Application of the Safety Classification of Structures, Systems and Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    This publication describes how to complete tasks associated with every step of the classification methodology set out in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-30, Safety Classification of Structures, Systems and Components in Nuclear Power Plants. In particular, how to capture all the structures, systems and components (SSCs) of a nuclear power plant to be safety classified. Emphasis is placed on the SSCs that are necessary to limit radiological releases to the public and occupational doses to workers in operational conditions This publication provides information for organizations establishing a comprehensive safety classification of SSCs compliant with IAEA recommendations, and to support regulators in reviewing safety classification submitted by licensees

  1. Biopharmaceutics classification system: importance and inclusion in biowaiver guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Barbosa Arrunátegui

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological therapy is essential in many diseases treatment and it is important that the medicine policy is intended to offering safe and effective treatment with affordable price to the population. One way to achieve this is through biowaiver, defined as the replacement of in vivo bioequivalence studies by in vitro studies. For biowaiver of new immediate release solid oral dosage forms, data such as intestinal permeability and solubility of the drug are required, as well as the product dissolution. The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS is a scientific scheme that divides drugs according to their solubility and permeability and has been used by various guides as a criterion for biowaiver. This paper evaluates biowaiver application, addressing the general concepts and parameters used by BCS, making a historical account of its use, the requirements pertaining to the current legislation, the benefits and risks associated with this decision. The results revealed that the use of BCS as a biowaiver criterion greatly expands the therapeutics options, contributing to greater therapy access of the general population with drug efficacy and safety guaranteed associated to low cost.

  2. Classification System for Individualized Treatment of Adult Buried Penis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausch, Timothy J; Tachibana, Isamu; Siegel, Jordan A; Hoxworth, Ronald; Scott, Jeremy M; Morey, Allen F

    2016-09-01

    The authors present their experience with reconstructive strategies for men with various manifestations of adult buried penis syndrome, and propose a comprehensive anatomical classification system and treatment algorithm based on pathologic changes in the penile skin and involvement of neighboring abdominal and/or scrotal components. The authors reviewed all patients who underwent reconstruction of adult buried penis syndrome at their referral center between 2007 and 2015. Patients were stratified by location and severity of involved anatomical components. Procedures performed, demographics, comorbidities, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. Fifty-six patients underwent reconstruction of buried penis at the authors' center from 2007 to 2015. All procedures began with a ventral penile release. If the uncovered penile skin was determined to be viable, a phalloplasty was performed by anchoring penoscrotal skin to the proximal shaft, and the ventral shaft skin defect was closed with scrotal flaps. In more complex patients with circumferential nonviable penile skin, the penile skin was completely excised and replaced with a split-thickness skin graft. Complex patients with severe abdominal lipodystrophy required adjacent tissue transfer. For cases of genital lymphedema, the procedure involved complete excision of the lymphedematous tissue, and primary closure with or without a split-thickness skin graft, also often involving the scrotum. The authors' overall success rate was 88 percent (49 of 56), defined as resolution of symptoms without the need for additional procedures. Successful correction of adult buried penis often necessitates an interdisciplinary, multimodal approach. Therapeutic, IV.

  3. A novel classification system for evolutionary aging theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Lucas S; Aigaki, Toshiro; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Balduino, Alex; Mânica da Cruz, Ivana B; Heddle, Jonathan G

    2013-01-01

    Theories of lifespan evolution are a source of confusion amongst aging researchers. After a century of aging research the dispute over whether the aging process is active or passive persists and a comprehensive and universally accepted theoretical model remains elusive. Evolutionary aging theories primarily dispute whether the aging process is exclusively adapted to favor the kin or exclusively non-adapted to favor the individual. Interestingly, contradictory data and theories supporting both exclusively programmed and exclusively non-programmed theories continue to grow. However, this is a false dichotomy; natural selection favors traits resulting in efficient reproduction whether they benefit the individual or the kin. Thus, to understand the evolution of aging, first we must understand the environment-dependent balance between the advantages and disadvantages of extended lifespan in the process of spreading genes. As described by distinct theories, different niches and environmental conditions confer on extended lifespan a range of fitness values varying from highly beneficial to highly detrimental. Here, we considered the range of fitness values for extended lifespan and develop a fitness-based framework for categorizing existing theories. We show that all theories can be classified into four basic types: secondary (beneficial), maladaptive (neutral), assisted death (detrimental), and senemorphic aging (varying between beneficial to detrimental). We anticipate that this classification system will assist with understanding and interpreting aging/death by providing a way of considering theories as members of one of these classes rather than consideration of their individual details.

  4. Caco-2 cells, biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and biowaiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanová, Libuse; Stĕtinová, Vĕra; Svoboda, Zbynek; Kvetina, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Almost all orally administered drugs are absorbed across the intestinal mucosa. The Caco-2 monolayers are used as an in vitro model to predict drug absorption in humans and to explore mechanism of drug absorption. The Caco-2 cells are derived from a human colon adenocarcinoma and spontaneously differentiate to form confluent monolayer of polarized cells structurally and functionally resembling the small intestinal epithelium. For studying drug permeability, Caco-2 cells are seeded onto the Transwell inserts with semipermeable membrane and grown to late confluence (21 days). After determination of cell viability, the integrity of monolayer is checked by phenol red permeability and by 14C-mannitol permeability. The transport from apical to basolateral (AP-BL) and basolateral to apical (BL-AP) is studied by adding the diluted drug on the apical or basolateral side and withdrawing the samples from the opposite compartment, respectively, for HPLC analysis or liquid scintillation spectrometry. Ca2+ -free transport medium is used to determine paracellular component of the drug transport. On the basis of permeability and solubility, drugs can be categorized into four classes of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). For certain drugs, the BCS-based biowaiver approach can be used which enables to reduce in vivo bioequivalence studies.

  5. Intra- and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Arnlaug; Tol, Johannes L; Roemer, Frank W; Bahr, Roald; Dijkstra, H Paul; Crema, Michel D; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Guermazi, Ali

    2017-04-01

    To assess and compare the intra- and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injury. Male athletes (n=40) with clinical diagnosis of acute hamstring injury and MRI ≤5days were selected from a prospective cohort. Two radiologists independently evaluated the MRIs using standardised scoring form including the modified Peetrons grading system, the Chan acute muscle strain injury classification and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification. Intra-and interrater reliability was assessed with linear weighted kappa (κ) or unweighted Cohen's κ and percentage agreement was calculated. We observed 'substantial' to 'almost perfect' intra- (κ range 0.65-1.00) and interrater reliability (κ range 0.77-1.00) with percentage agreement 83-100% and 88-100%, respectively, for severity gradings, overall anatomical sites and overall classifications for the three MRI systems. We observed substantial variability (κ range -0.05 to 1.00) for subcategories within the Chan classification and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification, however, the prevalence of positive scorings was low for some subcategories. The modified Peetrons grading system, overall Chan classification and overall British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification demonstrated 'substantial' to 'almost perfect' intra- and interrater reliability when scored by experienced radiologists. The intra- and interrater reliability for the anatomical subcategories within the classifications remains unclear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Toward a common classification approach for biorefinery systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherubini, F.; Jungmeier, G.; Wellisch, M.; Wilke, T.; Skiadas, I.; Ree, van R.; Jong, de E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with a biorefinery classification approach developed within International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 42. Since production of transportation biofuels is seen as the driving force for future biorefinery developments, a selection of the most interesting transportation biofuels

  7. Mining vehicle classifications from the Columbus Metropolitan Freeway Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle classification data are used in many transportation applications, including: pavement design, : environmental impact studies, traffic control, and traffic safety. Ohio has over 200 permanent count stations, : supplemented by many more short-t...

  8. Lie Group Classification of a Generalized Lane-Emden Type System in Two Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlatsi Molati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to perform a complete Lie symmetry classification of a generalized Lane-Emden type system in two dimensions which models many physical phenomena in biological and physical sciences. The classical approach of group classification is employed for classification. We show that several cases arise in classifying the arbitrary parameters, the forms of which include amongst others the power law nonlinearity, and exponential and quadratic forms.

  9. Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification in 51 excised palpable pediatric breast masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Jeffrey L; Davenport, Katherine P; Poole, Patricia S; Kruk, Peter G; Grabowski, Julia E

    2015-10-01

    The American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification was developed to risk stratify breast lesions and guide surgical management based on imaging. Previous studies validating BI-RADS for US do not include pediatric patients. Most pediatric breast masses present as palpable lesions and frequently undergo ultrasound, which is often accompanied with a BI-RADS classification. Our study aimed to correlate BI-RADS with pathology findings to assess applicability of the classification system to pediatric patients. We performed a retrospective review of all patients who underwent excision of a breast mass at a single center from July 2010 to November 2013. We identified all patients who underwent preoperative ultrasound with BI-RADS classification. Demographic data, imaging results, and surgical pathology were analyzed and correlated. A total of 119 palpable masses were excised from 105 pediatric patients during the study period. Of 119 masses, 81 had preoperative ultrasound, and BI-RADS categories were given to 51 masses. Of these 51, all patients were female and the average age was 15.9 years. BI-RADS 4 was given to 25 of 51 masses (49%), and 100% of these lesions had benign pathology, the most common being fibroadenoma. Treatment algorithm based on BI-RADS classification may not be valid in pediatric patients. In this study, all patients with a BI-RADS 4 lesion had benign pathology. BI-RADS classification may overstate the risk of malignancy or need for biopsy in this population. Further validation of BI-RADS classification with large scale studies is needed in pediatric and adolescent patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intra- and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangensteen, Arnlaug; Tol, Johannes L.; Roemer, Frank W.; Bahr, Roald; Dijkstra, H. Paul; Crema, Michel D.; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Guermazi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Three different MRI grading and classification systems for acute hamstring injuries are overall reliable. • Reliability for the subcategories within these MRI grading and classification systems remains, however, unclear. - Abstract: Objective: To assess and compare the intra- and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injury. Methods: Male athletes (n = 40) with clinical diagnosis of acute hamstring injury and MRI ≤5 days were selected from a prospective cohort. Two radiologists independently evaluated the MRIs using standardised scoring form including the modified Peetrons grading system, the Chan acute muscle strain injury classification and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification. Intra-and interrater reliability was assessed with linear weighted kappa (κ) or unweighted Cohen's κ and percentage agreement was calculated. Results: We observed ‘substantial’ to ‘almost perfect’ intra- (κ range 0.65–1.00) and interrater reliability (κ range 0.77–1.00) with percentage agreement 83–100% and 88–100%, respectively, for severity gradings, overall anatomical sites and overall classifications for the three MRI systems. We observed substantial variability (κ range −0.05 to 1.00) for subcategories within the Chan classification and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification, however, the prevalence of positive scorings was low for some subcategories. Conclusions: The modified Peetrons grading system, overall Chan classification and overall British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification demonstrated ‘substantial' to ‘almost perfect' intra- and interrater reliability when scored by experienced radiologists. The intra- and interrater reliability for the anatomical subcategories within the classifications remains unclear.

  11. Intra- and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangensteen, Arnlaug, E-mail: arnlaug.wangensteen@nih.no [Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha (Qatar); Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo (Norway); Tol, Johannes L., E-mail: johannes.tol@aspetar.com [Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha (Qatar); Amsterdam Center for Evidence Sports Medicine, Academic Medical Center (Netherlands); The Sports Physician Group, OLVG, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Roemer, Frank W. [Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Bahr, Roald [Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha (Qatar); Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo (Norway); Dijkstra, H. Paul [Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha (Qatar); Crema, Michel D. [Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Saint-Antoine Hospital, University Paris VI, Paris (France); Farooq, Abdulaziz [Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha (Qatar); Guermazi, Ali [Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Three different MRI grading and classification systems for acute hamstring injuries are overall reliable. • Reliability for the subcategories within these MRI grading and classification systems remains, however, unclear. - Abstract: Objective: To assess and compare the intra- and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injury. Methods: Male athletes (n = 40) with clinical diagnosis of acute hamstring injury and MRI ≤5 days were selected from a prospective cohort. Two radiologists independently evaluated the MRIs using standardised scoring form including the modified Peetrons grading system, the Chan acute muscle strain injury classification and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification. Intra-and interrater reliability was assessed with linear weighted kappa (κ) or unweighted Cohen's κ and percentage agreement was calculated. Results: We observed ‘substantial’ to ‘almost perfect’ intra- (κ range 0.65–1.00) and interrater reliability (κ range 0.77–1.00) with percentage agreement 83–100% and 88–100%, respectively, for severity gradings, overall anatomical sites and overall classifications for the three MRI systems. We observed substantial variability (κ range −0.05 to 1.00) for subcategories within the Chan classification and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification, however, the prevalence of positive scorings was low for some subcategories. Conclusions: The modified Peetrons grading system, overall Chan classification and overall British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification demonstrated ‘substantial' to ‘almost perfect' intra- and interrater reliability when scored by experienced radiologists. The intra- and interrater reliability for the anatomical subcategories within the classifications remains unclear.

  12. Update of the LIPID MAPS comprehensive classification system for lipids1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Eoin; Subramaniam, Shankar; Murphy, Robert C.; Nishijima, Masahiro; Raetz, Christian R. H.; Shimizu, Takao; Spener, Friedrich; van Meer, Gerrit; Wakelam, Michael J. O.; Dennis, Edward A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the International Lipid Classification and Nomenclature Committee under the sponsorship of the LIPID MAPS Consortium developed and established a “Comprehensive Classification System for Lipids” based on well-defined chemical and biochemical principles and using an ontology that is extensible, flexible, and scalable. This classification system, which is compatible with contemporary databasing and informatics needs, has now been accepted internationally and widely adopted. In response to considerable attention and requests from lipid researchers from around the globe and in a variety of fields, the comprehensive classification system has undergone significant revisions over the last few years to more fully represent lipid structures from a wider variety of sources and to provide additional levels of detail as necessary. The details of this classification system are reviewed and updated and are presented here, along with revisions to its suggested nomenclature and structure-drawing recommendations for lipids. PMID:19098281

  13. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  14. Oro-facial pain and temporomandibular disorders classification systems: A critical appraisal and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasser, G D; Manfredini, D; Goulet, J-P; De Laat, A

    2018-03-01

    It is a difficult undertaking to design a classification system for any disease entity, let alone for oro-facial pain (OFP) and more specifically for temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A further complication of this task is that both physical and psychosocial variables must be included. To augment this process, a two-step systematic review, adhering to PRISMA guidelines, of the classification systems published during the last 20 years for OFP and TMD was performed. The first search step identified 190 potential citations which ultimately resulted in only 17 articles being included for in-depth analysis and review. The second step resulted in only 5 articles being selected for inclusion in this review. Five additional articles and four classification guidelines/criteria were also included due to expansion of the search criteria. Thus, in total, 14 documents comprising articles and guidelines/criteria (8 proposals of classification systems for OFP; 6 for TMD) were selected for inclusion in the systematic review. For each, a discussion as to their advantages, strengths and limitations was provided. Suggestions regarding the future direction for improving the classification process with the use of ontological principles rather than taxonomy are discussed. Furthermore, the potential for expanding the scope of axes included in existing classification systems, to include genetic, epigenetic and neurobiological variables, is explored. It is therefore recommended that future classification system proposals be based on combined approaches aiming to provide archetypal treatment-oriented classifications. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Heartbeat classification system based on neural networks and dimensionality reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo de Figueiredo Dalvi

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This paper presents a complete approach for the automatic classification of heartbeats to assist experts in the diagnosis of typical arrhythmias, such as right bundle branch block, left bundle branch block, premature ventricular beats, premature atrial beats and paced beats. Methods A pre-processing step was performed on the electrocardiograms (ECG for baseline removal. Next, a QRS complex detection algorithm was implemented to detect the heartbeats, which contain the primary information that is employed in the classification approach. Next, ECG segmentation was performed, by which a set of features based on the RR interval and the beat waveform morphology were extracted from the ECG signal. The size of the feature vector was reduced by principal component analysis. Finally, the reduced feature vector was employed as the input to an artificial neural network. Results Our approach was tested on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology arrhythmia database. The classification performance on a test set of 18 ECG records of 30 min each achieved an accuracy of 96.97%, a sensitivity of 95.05%, a specificity of 90.88%, a positive predictive value of 95.11%, and a negative predictive value of 92.7%. Conclusion The proposed approach achieved high accuracy for classifying ECG heartbeats and could be used to assist cardiologists in telecardiology services. The main contribution of our classification strategy is in the feature selection step, which reduced classification complexity without major changes in the performance.

  16. Evaluation and suggested improvements of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerholm, Urban

    2007-06-01

    This review has evaluated the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) and improvements have been proposed. The BCS has a very strict solubility/dissolution limit, a generous P(e)-limit (> or = 14-times higher rate constant limit for dissolution than for permeation), and is stricter for drugs with a long half-life (t(1/2)). Available human in-vivo, in-vitro, and in-silico P(e)-methods cannot classify P(e) for moderately to highly permeable substances sufficiently well, and in-vitro data often underpredict the in-vivo dissolution potential and rate. Good in-vivo dissolution and absorption can be expected for most high P(e) drug products. It has not been possible to find a highly permeable product with a Dose number (D(o)) 40 and > 95% dissolved within 30 min and 3 h, respectively); the limit for high P(e) is increased (to >P(e) of metoprolol); accurate P(e)-models or in-vivo fraction absorbed data are used; solubility/dissolution tests are performed using real or validated simulated gastrointestinal fluids; in-vitro/in-vivo dissolution relationships are established; the t(1/2) is considered; and the rate-limiting step for in-vivo absorption is determined. A major change could be to reduce the BCS into two classes: permeation-rate (Class I) or dissolution-rate (Class II) limited absorption. It is believed that this could give a better balance and increase the number of biowaivers.

  17. Refining Time-Activity Classification of Human Subjects Using the Global Positioning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Maogui; Li, Wei; Li, Lianfa; Houston, Douglas; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Detailed spatial location information is important in accurately estimating personal exposure to air pollution. Global Position System (GPS) has been widely used in tracking personal paths and activities. Previous researchers have developed time-activity classification models based on GPS data, most of them were developed for specific regions. An adaptive model for time-location classification can be widely applied to air pollution studies that use GPS to track individual level time-activity patterns. Time-activity data were collected for seven days using GPS loggers and accelerometers from thirteen adult participants from Southern California under free living conditions. We developed an automated model based on random forests to classify major time-activity patterns (i.e. indoor, outdoor-static, outdoor-walking, and in-vehicle travel). Sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the contribution of the accelerometer data and the supplemental spatial data (i.e. roadway and tax parcel data) to the accuracy of time-activity classification. Our model was evaluated using both leave-one-fold-out and leave-one-subject-out methods. Maximum speeds in averaging time intervals of 7 and 5 minutes, and distance to primary highways with limited access were found to be the three most important variables in the classification model. Leave-one-fold-out cross-validation showed an overall accuracy of 99.71%. Sensitivities varied from 84.62% (outdoor walking) to 99.90% (indoor). Specificities varied from 96.33% (indoor) to 99.98% (outdoor static). The exclusion of accelerometer and ambient light sensor variables caused a slight loss in sensitivity for outdoor walking, but little loss in overall accuracy. However, leave-one-subject-out cross-validation showed considerable loss in sensitivity for outdoor static and outdoor walking conditions. The random forests classification model can achieve high accuracy for the four major time-activity categories. The model also performed well

  18. Refining Time-Activity Classification of Human Subjects Using the Global Positioning System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maogui Hu

    Full Text Available Detailed spatial location information is important in accurately estimating personal exposure to air pollution. Global Position System (GPS has been widely used in tracking personal paths and activities. Previous researchers have developed time-activity classification models based on GPS data, most of them were developed for specific regions. An adaptive model for time-location classification can be widely applied to air pollution studies that use GPS to track individual level time-activity patterns.Time-activity data were collected for seven days using GPS loggers and accelerometers from thirteen adult participants from Southern California under free living conditions. We developed an automated model based on random forests to classify major time-activity patterns (i.e. indoor, outdoor-static, outdoor-walking, and in-vehicle travel. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the contribution of the accelerometer data and the supplemental spatial data (i.e. roadway and tax parcel data to the accuracy of time-activity classification. Our model was evaluated using both leave-one-fold-out and leave-one-subject-out methods.Maximum speeds in averaging time intervals of 7 and 5 minutes, and distance to primary highways with limited access were found to be the three most important variables in the classification model. Leave-one-fold-out cross-validation showed an overall accuracy of 99.71%. Sensitivities varied from 84.62% (outdoor walking to 99.90% (indoor. Specificities varied from 96.33% (indoor to 99.98% (outdoor static. The exclusion of accelerometer and ambient light sensor variables caused a slight loss in sensitivity for outdoor walking, but little loss in overall accuracy. However, leave-one-subject-out cross-validation showed considerable loss in sensitivity for outdoor static and outdoor walking conditions.The random forests classification model can achieve high accuracy for the four major time-activity categories. The model also

  19. Review of Medical Image Classification using the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Monireh Sheikh; Zekri, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Image classification is an issue that utilizes image processing, pattern recognition and classification methods. Automatic medical image classification is a progressive area in image classification, and it is expected to be more developed in the future. Because of this fact, automatic diagnosis can assist pathologists by providing second opinions and reducing their workload. This paper reviews the application of the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) as a classifier in medical image classification during the past 16 years. ANFIS is a fuzzy inference system (FIS) implemented in the framework of an adaptive fuzzy neural network. It combines the explicit knowledge representation of an FIS with the learning power of artificial neural networks. The objective of ANFIS is to integrate the best features of fuzzy systems and neural networks. A brief comparison with other classifiers, main advantages and drawbacks of this classifier are investigated.

  20. Improvements to the current classification of salary expenses in the accounting system of the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fylypenko Anna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the existing classification of salary expenses in Ukraine. The analysis of the classifications of such costs in management and accounting is carried out. The article suggests approaches for improvement in the cost-accounting system for the respective enterprise features, which greatly facilitates the management of salary expenses and allows the search of reserves to reduce them.

  1. An ecological classification system for the central hardwoods region: The Hoosier National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Van Kley; George R. Parker

    1993-01-01

    This study, a multifactor ecological classification system, using vegetation, soil characteristics, and physiography, was developed for the landscape of the Hoosier National Forest in Southern Indiana. Measurements of ground flora, saplings, and canopy trees from selected stands older than 80 years were subjected to TWINSPAN classification and DECORANA ordination....

  2. Inter-rater reliability of the EPUAP pressure ulcer classification system using photographs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Defloor, T.; Schoonhoven, L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many classification systems for grading pressure ulcers are discussed in the literature. Correct identification and classification of a pressure ulcer is important for accurate reporting of the magnitude of the problem, and for timely prevention. The reliability of pressure ulcer

  3. A methodology for the automated creation of fuzzy expert systems for ischaemic and arrhythmic beat classification based on a set of rules obtained by a decision tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exarchos, Themis P; Tsipouras, Markos G; Exarchos, Costas P; Papaloukas, Costas; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Michalis, Lampros K

    2007-07-01

    In the current work we propose a methodology for the automated creation of fuzzy expert systems, applied in ischaemic and arrhythmic beat classification. The proposed methodology automatically creates a fuzzy expert system from an initial training dataset. The approach consists of three stages: (a) extraction of a crisp set of rules from a decision tree induced from the training dataset, (b) transformation of the crisp set of rules into a fuzzy model and (c) optimization of the fuzzy model's parameters using global optimization. The above methodology is employed in order to create fuzzy expert systems for ischaemic and arrhythmic beat classification in ECG recordings. The fuzzy expert system for ischaemic beat detection is evaluated in a cardiac beat dataset that was constructed using recordings from the European Society of Cardiology ST-T database. The arrhythmic beat classification fuzzy expert system is evaluated using the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The fuzzy expert system for ischaemic beat classification reported 91% sensitivity and 92% specificity. The arrhythmic beat classification fuzzy expert system reported 96% average sensitivity and 99% average specificity for all categories. The proposed methodology provides high accuracy and the ability to interpret the decisions made. The fuzzy expert systems for ischaemic and arrhythmic beat classification compare well with previously reported results, indicating that they could be part of an overall clinical system for ECG analysis and diagnosis.

  4. STANSORT - Stanford Remote Sensing Laboratory pattern recognition and classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, F. R.; Prelat, A.; Lyon, R. J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The principal barrier to routine use of the ERTS multispectral scanner computer compatible tapes, rather than photointerpretation examination of the images, has been the high computing costs involved due to the large quantity of information (4 Mbytes) contained in a scene. STANSORT, the interactive program package developed at Stanford Remote Sensing Laboratories alleviates this problem, providing an extremely rapid, flexible and low cost tool for data reduction, scene classification, species searches and edge detection. The primary classification procedure, utilizing a search with variable gate widths, for similarities in the normalized, digitized spectra is described along with associated procedures for data refinement and extraction of information. The more rigorous statistical classification procedures are also explained.

  5. Generative topographic mapping-based classification models and their applicability domain: application to the biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Héléna A; Marcou, Gilles; Horvath, Dragos; Arault, Alban; Lozano, Sylvain; Vayer, Philippe; Varnek, Alexandre

    2013-12-23

    Earlier (Kireeva et al. Mol. Inf. 2012, 31, 301-312), we demonstrated that generative topographic mapping (GTM) can be efficiently used both for data visualization and building of classification models in the initial D-dimensional space of molecular descriptors. Here, we describe the modeling in two-dimensional latent space for the four classes of the BioPharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) involving VolSurf descriptors. Three new definitions of the applicability domain (AD) of models have been suggested: one class-independent AD which considers the GTM likelihood and two class-dependent ADs considering respectively, either the predominant class in a given node of the map or informational entropy. The class entropy AD was found to be the most efficient for the BDDCS modeling. The predominant class AD can be directly visualized on GTM maps, which helps the interpretation of the model.

  6. Introduction of the gross motor function classification system in Venezuela--a model for knowledge dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwing, Kristina; Arredondo, Ynes C; Tedroff, Marika; Tedroff, Kristina

    2015-09-04

    A current worldwide common goal is to optimize the health and well-being of children with cerebral palsy (CP). In order to reach that goal, for this heterogeneous group, a common language and classification systems are required to predict development and offer evidence based interventions. In most countries in Africa, South America, Asia and Eastern Europe the classification systems for CP are unfamiliar and rarely used. Education and implementation are required. The specific aims of this study were to examine a model in order to introduce the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS-E&R) in Venezuela, and to examine the validity and the reliability. Children with CP, registered at a National child rehabilitation centre in Venezuela, were invited to participate. The Spanish version of GMFCS-E&R was used. The Wilson mobility scale was translated and used to examine the concurrent validity. A structured questionnaire, comprising aspects of mobility and gross motor function, was constructed. In addition, each child was filmed. A paediatrician in Venezuela received supervised self-education in GMFCS-E&R and the Wilson mobility scale. A Swedish student was educated in GMFCS-E&R and the Wilson mobility scale prior to visiting Venezuela. In Venezuela, all children were classified and scored by the paediatrician and student independently. An experienced paediatric physiotherapist (PT) in Sweden made independent GMFCS-E&R classifications and Wilson mobility scale scorings, accomplished through merging data from the structured questionnaire with observations of the films. Descriptive statistics were used and reliability was presented with weighted Kappa (Kw). Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to explore the concurrent validity between GMFCS-E&R and Wilson mobility scale. Eighty-eight children (56 boys), mean age 10 years (3-18), with CP participated. The inter-rater reliability of GMFCS-E&R between; the paediatrician and the PT was Kw = 0.85 (95% CI

  7. The developability classification system: application of biopharmaceutics concepts to formulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James M; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2010-12-01

    A revised classification system for oral drugs was developed using the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) as a starting point. The revised system is designed to have a greater focus on drug developability. Intestinal solubility, the compensatory nature of solubility and permeability in the small intestine and an estimate of the particle size needed to overcome dissolution rate limited absorption were all considered in the revised system. The system was then validated by comparison with literature on the in vivo performance of a number of test compounds. Observations on the test compounds were consistent with the revised classification, termed the developability classification system (DCS), showing it to be of greater value in predicting what factors are critical to in vivo performance than the widely used BCS. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  8. Iterative Self Organized Data Algorithm for Fault Classification of Mechanical System

    OpenAIRE

    Jayamala K. Patil; P. B. Ghewari; S. S. Nagtilak

    2011-01-01

    The challenging issue for mechanical industry is to develop fast & reliable fault diagnosis systems before total breakdown of machine. Fault diagnosis & classification of faults of mechanical systems is a difficult task. It improves productivity & reduces cost of production. This paper presents an approach for classification of commonly observed faults in gears of mechanical system. These faults include weared gear, gear with one tooth broken & gear with crack on one tooth. The Power Spectral...

  9. Toward a common classification approach for biorefinery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Jungmeier, Gerfried; Wellisch, Maria

    2009-01-01

    until 2020 is based on their characteristics to be mixed with gasoline, diesel and natural gas, reflecting the main advantage of using the already-existing infrastructure for easier market introduction. This classification approach relies on four main features: (1) platforms; (2) products; (3) feedstock...

  10. An intelligent temporal pattern classification system using fuzzy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Temporal fuzzy min–max (TFMM) neural network; particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSOA); pattern classification; rule extraction. 1. Introduction. Data mining is concerned with analysing large volumes of data to automatically discover interesting relationships which in turn lead to better understanding of the underlying ...

  11. Generating Clustered Journal Maps : An Automated System for Hierarchical Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Bornmann, L.; Wagner, C.S.

    2017-01-01

    Journal maps and classifications for 11,359 journals listed in the combined Journal Citation Reports 2015 of the Science and Social Sciences Citation Indexes are provided at https://leydesdorff.github.io/journals/ and http://www.leydesdorff.net/jcr15. A routine using VOSviewer for integrating the

  12. CLASSIFICATION OF SYSTEMS FOR PASSIVE AFTERHEAT REMOVAL FROM REACTOR CONTAINMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WITH WATER-COOLED POWER REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A classification on systems for passive afterheat removal from reactor containment has been developed in the paper.  The classification permits to make a detailed analysis of various concepts pertaining to systems for passive afterheat removal from reactor containment of new generation. The paper considers main classification features of the given systems.

  13. Cause of and factors associated with stillbirth: a systematic review of classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminu, Mamuda; Bar-Zeev, Sarah; van den Broek, Nynke

    2017-05-01

    An estimated 2.6 million stillbirths occur worldwide each year. A standardized classification system setting out possible cause of death and contributing factors is useful to help obtain comparative data across different settings. We undertook a systematic review of stillbirth classification systems to highlight their strengths and weaknesses for practitioners and policymakers. We conducted a systematic search and review of the literature to identify the classification systems used to aggregate information for stillbirth and perinatal deaths. Narrative synthesis was used to compare the range and depth of information required to apply the systems, and the different categories provided for cause of and factors contributing to stillbirth. A total of 118 documents were screened; 31 classification systems were included, of which six were designed specifically for stillbirth, 14 for perinatal death, three systems included neonatal deaths and two included infant deaths. Most (27/31) were developed in and first tested using data obtained from high-income settings. All systems required information from clinical records. One-third of the classification systems (11/31) included information obtained from histology or autopsy. The percentage where cause of death remained unknown ranged from 0.39% using the Nordic-Baltic classification to 46.4% using the Keeling system. Over time, classification systems have become more complex. The success of application is dependent on the availability of detailed clinical information and laboratory investigations. Systems that adopt a layered approach allow for classification of cause of death to a broad as well as to a more detailed level. © 2017 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG).

  14. A review on fault classification methodologies in power transmission systems: Part-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avagaddi Prasad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The countless extent of power systems and applications requires the improvement in suitable techniques for the fault classification in power transmission systems, to increase the efficiency of the systems and to avoid major damages. For this purpose, the technical literature proposes a large number of methods. The paper analyzes the technical literature, summarizing the most important methods that can be applied to fault classification methodologies in power transmission systems.The part 2 of the article is named “A review on fault classification methodologies in power transmission systems”. In this part 2 we discussed the advanced technologies developed by various researchers for fault classification in power transmission systems. Keywords: Transmission line protection, Protective relaying, Soft computing techniques

  15. Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) Munition Classification System enhancements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, O.A.; Huggard, J.C.

    1997-09-18

    Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) is a non-destructive evaluation technology developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This technology has resulted in three generations of instrumentation, funded by the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), specifically designed for field identification of chemical weapon (CW) munitions. Each generation of ARS instrumentation was developed with a specific user in mind. The ARS1OO was built for use by the U.N. Inspection Teams going into Iraq immediately after the Persian Gulf War. The ARS200 was built for use in the US-Russia Bilateral Chemical Weapons Treaty (the primary users for this system are the US Onsite Inspection Agency (OSIA) and their Russian counterparts). The ARS300 was built with the requirements of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in mind. Each successive system is an improved version of the previous system based on learning the weaknesses of each and, coincidentally, on the fact that more time was available to do a requirements analysis and the necessary engineering development. The ARS300 is at a level of development that warrants transferring the technology to a commercial vendor. Since LANL will supply the computer software to the selected vendor, it is possible for LANL to continue to improve the decision algorithms, add features where necessary, and adjust the user interface before the final transfer occurs. This paper describes the current system, ARS system enhancements, and software enhancements. Appendices contain the Operations Manual (software Version 3.01), and two earlier reports on enhancements.

  16. 關於圖書分類法的修訂 Concerning the Revision of Classification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-chin Chen

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available 無For reviewing a classification scheme, we usually look in much detail at its traditional features such as detailed schedules, hospital notation, a supportive index and its adaptability. Yet another desirable feature, a good and financially secure revision programme, is a key point to the success of classification scheme. The author traces the history of revision processes of three successful classification systems (Dewey Decimal Classification, Library of Congress Classification and Universal Decimal Classification , and attempt to recommend the better revision mechanism for Lai's New Classification Scheme for Chinese Libraries ( 中國 圖書分類法in Taiwan

  17. Prevalence of Systemic Sclerosis in Primary Biliary Cholangitis Using the New ACR/EULAR Classification Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Boyang; Vincent, Catherine; Fritzler, Marvin J; Senécal, Jean-Luc; Koenig, Martial; Joyal, France

    2017-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a well-established disease associated with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). However, the original 1980 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria have poor sensitivity, especially for the detection of earlier SSc in previous studies. The objective was to evaluate the prevalence of SSc in patients with PBC using more sensitive 2001 LeRoy and Medsger criteria and the 2013 ACR/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) classification criteria. The secondary objective was to evaluate the frequency of individual clinical features. One hundred consecutive patients with PBC without previously diagnosed SSc were recruited between 2005 and 2007 from a tertiary care gastroenterology clinic. All patients underwent a complete clinical examination, determination of SSc-specific antibodies, and a nailfold capillary microscopy. Fulfillment of the 3 different criteria sets was analyzed, along with individual disease features. Of 100 patients with PBC, 1% met the ACR 1980 criteria, 22% met the 2001 LeRoy and Medsger criteria for early SSc, and 17% the 2013 ACR/EULAR criteria. Raynaud phenomenon, SSc-related antibodies, and SSc capillaroscopic patterns were the most prevalent findings, with the highest sensitivities to help guide future screening. Our data show a high prevalence of SSc in patients with PBC with probable underestimation by previous studies using the original ACR criteria. Comorbid SSc should be actively searched for based on newly described criteria to improve detection and increase benefits of earlier treatment.

  18. Overview of Four Functional Classification Systems Commonly Used in Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Paulson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP is the most common physical disability in childhood. CP comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders that can result in spasticity, dystonia, muscle contractures, weakness and coordination difficulty that ultimately affects the ability to control movements. Traditionally, CP has been classified using a combination of the motor type and the topographical distribution, as well as subjective severity level. Imprecise terms such as these tell very little about what a person is able to do functionally and can impair clear communication between providers. More recently, classification systems have been created employing a simple ordinal grading system of functional performance. These systems allow a more precise discussion between providers, as well as better subject stratification for research. The goal of this review is to describe four common functional classification systems for cerebral palsy: the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS, the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS, the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS, and the Eating and Drinking Ability Classification System (EDACS. These measures are all standardized, reliable, and complementary to one another.

  19. Overview of Four Functional Classification Systems Commonly Used in Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Andrea; Vargus-Adams, Jilda

    2017-04-24

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in childhood. CP comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders that can result in spasticity, dystonia, muscle contractures, weakness and coordination difficulty that ultimately affects the ability to control movements. Traditionally, CP has been classified using a combination of the motor type and the topographical distribution, as well as subjective severity level. Imprecise terms such as these tell very little about what a person is able to do functionally and can impair clear communication between providers. More recently, classification systems have been created employing a simple ordinal grading system of functional performance. These systems allow a more precise discussion between providers, as well as better subject stratification for research. The goal of this review is to describe four common functional classification systems for cerebral palsy: the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS), and the Eating and Drinking Ability Classification System (EDACS). These measures are all standardized, reliable, and complementary to one another.

  20. Osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum: reliability of four classification systems using radiographs and computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessen, Femke M A P; van den Ende, Kimberly I M; Doornberg, Job N; Guitton, Thierry G; Eygendaal, Denise; van den Bekerom, Michel P J

    2015-10-01

    The radiographic appearance of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the humeral capitellum varies according to the stage of the lesion. It is important to evaluate the stage of OCD lesion carefully to guide treatment. We compared the interobserver reliability of currently used classification systems for OCD of the humeral capitellum to identify the most reliable classification system. Thirty-two musculoskeletal radiologists and orthopaedic surgeons specialized in elbow surgery from several countries evaluated anteroposterior and lateral radiographs and corresponding computed tomography (CT) scans of 22 patients to classify the stage of OCD of the humeral capitellum according to the classification systems developed by (1) Minami, (2) Berndt and Harty, (3) Ferkel and Sgaglione, and (4) Anderson on a Web-based study platform including a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine viewer. Magnetic resonance imaging was not evaluated as part of this study. We measured agreement among observers using the Siegel and Castellan multirater κ. All OCD classification systems, except for Berndt and Harty, which had poor agreement among observers (κ = 0.20), had fair interobserver agreement: κ was 0.27 for the Minami, 0.23 for Anderson, and 0.22 for Ferkel and Sgaglione classifications. The Minami Classification was significantly more reliable than the other classifications (P treatment in clinical practice as a result of this fair agreement. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Danish translation and validation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel Skin Tear Classification System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiveren, J; Bermark, S; LeBlanc, K

    2015-01-01

    ) and social and health-care assistants (non-RN) from both primary health care and a Danish university hospital in Copenhagen. Thirty photographs, with equal representation of the three types of skin tears, were selected to test validity. The photographs chosen were those originally used for internal.......443, respectively). CONCLUSION: The ISTAP Skin Tear Classification System was developed with the goal of establishing a global language for describing and documenting skin tears and to raise the health-care community's awareness of skin tears. The Danish translation of the ISTAP classification system supports......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to translate, validate and establish reliability of the International Skin Tear Classification System in Danish. METHOD: Phase 1 of the project involved the translation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel (ISTAP) Skin Tear Classification System...

  2. Human error analysis of commercial aviation accidents using the human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) is a general human error framework : originally developed and tested within the U.S. military as a tool for investigating and analyzing the human : causes of aviation accidents. Based upon ...

  3. Railroad classification yard technology : computer system methodology : case study : Potomac Yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    This report documents the application of the railroad classification yard computer system methodology to Potomac Yard of the Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac Railroad Company (RF&P). This case study entailed evaluation of the yard traffic capaci...

  4. Methodological levels of abductive logic and its application in analyzing knowledge classification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khandan

    2015-05-01

    Originality/Value: Introduces methodological levels of abductive logic and provides LIS professionals with a new and alternative way for analyzing knowledge classification systems as interpretative and semantic social constructions.

  5. Interplay of biopharmaceutics, biopharmaceutics drug disposition and salivary excretion classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idkaidek, Nasir M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this commentary is to investigate the interplay of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) and Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS). BCS first classified drugs based on permeability and solubility for the purpose of predicting oral drug absorption. Then BDDCS linked permeability with hepatic metabolism and classified drugs based on metabolism and solubility for the purpose of predicting oral drug disposition. On the other hand, SECS classified drugs based on permeability and protein binding for the purpose of predicting the salivary excretion of drugs. The role of metabolism, rather than permeability, on salivary excretion is investigated and the results are not in agreement with BDDCS. The proposed Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS) can be used as a guide for drug salivary excretion based on permeability (not metabolism) and protein binding.

  6. EULAR points to consider in the development of classification and diagnostic criteria in systemic vasculitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basu, Neil; Watts, Richard; Bajema, Ingeborg

    2010-01-01

    The systemic vasculitides are multiorgan diseases where early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes. Robust nomenclature reduces diagnostic delay. However, key aspects of current nomenclature are widely perceived to be out of date, these include disease definitions, classific...

  7. Financial Organization Information Security System Development using Modeling, IT assets and Accounts Classification Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sergeevich Zaytsev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with processes of modeling, IT assets and account classification. Key principles of these processes configuration are pointed up. Also a model of Russian Federation banking system organization is developed.

  8. R-parametrization and its role in classification of linear multivariable feedback systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Robert T. N.

    1988-01-01

    A classification of all the compensators that stabilize a given general plant in a linear, time-invariant multi-input, multi-output feedback system is developed. This classification, along with the associated necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the feedback system, is achieved through the introduction of a new parameterization, referred to as R-Parameterization, which is a dual of the familiar Q-Parameterization. The classification is made to the stability conditions of the compensators and the plant by themselves; and necessary and sufficient conditions are based on the stability of Q and R themselves.

  9. Classification of mitral insufficiency and stenosis using MLP neural network and neuro-fuzzy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barýpçý, Necaattin; Ergün, Uçman; Ilkay, Erdoğan; Serhatlýoğlu, Selami; Hardalaç, Firat; Güler, Inan

    2004-10-01

    Cardiac Doppler signals recorded from mitral valve of 60 patients were transferred to a personal computer by using a 16-bit sound card. The power spectral density (PSD) was applied to the recorded signal from each patient. In order to do a good interpretation and rapid diagnosis, PSD values classified using multilayer perceptron (MLP) and neuro-fuzzy system. Our findings demonstrated that 93.33% classification success rate was obtained from MLP, 90% classification success rate was obtained from neuro-fuzzy system. The classification results show that MLP offers best results in the case of diagnosis.

  10. HZI systems for EEG parametrization and classification of psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M; Shapiro, D M; Herrmann, W M; Schulz, W; Morgan, V

    1979-01-01

    The EEG effects of twenty, clinically most frequently used psychotropic drugs and five placebos were studied in 75 male volunteers in five simultaneously designed basic studies. In each of the five studies single oral dosages of five drugs (well known representatives of neuroleptics, antidepressants, anxiolytics and psychostimulants, as well as placebos) were investigated in 15 subjects in a double-blind latin-square research design using the methods of the Quantitative Pharmaco-EEG. The results demonstrated that the therapeutically equivalent effective compounds also have similar effects on human EEG. With a classification rule, based on discriminant function 20, and with a classification rule, based on correlation statistics 19 of 25 compounds could be reclassified into correct clinical-therapeutic psychotropic drug groups. It is suggested that CEEG is an important tool in predicting and describing psychotropic properties of compounds, and should routinely be used in psychotropic drug development.

  11. New Site Coefficients and Site Classification System Used in Recent Building Seismic Code Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobry, R.; Borcherdt, R.D.; Crouse, C.B.; Idriss, I.M.; Joyner, W.B.; Martin, G.R.; Power, M.S.; Rinne, E.E.; Seed, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    Recent code provisions for buildings and other structures (1994 and 1997 NEHRP Provisions, 1997 UBC) have adopted new site amplification factors and a new procedure for site classification. Two amplitude-dependent site amplification factors are specified: Fa for short periods and Fv for longer periods. Previous codes included only a long period factor S and did not provide for a short period amplification factor. The new site classification system is based on definitions of five site classes in terms of a representative average shear wave velocity to a depth of 30 m (V?? s). This definition permits sites to be classified unambiguously. When the shear wave velocity is not available, other soil properties such as standard penetration resistance or undrained shear strength can be used. The new site classes denoted by letters A - E, replace site classes in previous codes denoted by S1 - S4. Site classes A and B correspond to hard rock and rock, Site Class C corresponds to soft rock and very stiff / very dense soil, and Site Classes D and E correspond to stiff soil and soft soil. A sixth site class, F, is defined for soils requiring site-specific evaluations. Both Fa and Fv are functions of the site class, and also of the level of seismic hazard on rock, defined by parameters such as Aa and Av (1994 NEHRP Provisions), Ss and S1 (1997 NEHRP Provisions) or Z (1997 UBC). The values of Fa and Fv decrease as the seismic hazard on rock increases due to soil nonlinearity. The greatest impact of the new factors Fa and Fv as compared with the old S factors occurs in areas of low-to-medium seismic hazard. This paper summarizes the new site provisions, explains the basis for them, and discusses ongoing studies of site amplification in recent earthquakes that may influence future code developments.

  12. EULAR points to consider in the development of classification and diagnostic criteria in systemic vasculitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basu, Neil; Watts, Richard; Bajema, Ingeborg

    2010-01-01

    The systemic vasculitides are multiorgan diseases where early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes. Robust nomenclature reduces diagnostic delay. However, key aspects of current nomenclature are widely perceived to be out of date, these include disease definitions, classific......, classification and diagnostic criteria. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to identify deficiencies and provide contemporary points to consider for the development of future definitions and criteria in systemic vasculitis....

  13. Reliability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory and stability of the MPI classification system in chronic back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verra Martin L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This cross validation study examined the reliability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI and the stability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory Classification System of the empirically derived subgroup classification obtained by cluster analysis in chronic musculoskeletal pain. Reliability of the German Multidimensional Pain Inventory was only examined once in the past in a small sample. Previous international studies mainly involving fibromyalgia patients showed that retest resulted in 33–38% of patients being assigned to a different Multidimensional Pain Inventory subgroup classification. Methods Participants were 204 persons with chronic musculoskeletal pain (82% chronic non-specific back pain. Subgroup classification was conducted by cluster analysis at 4 weeks before entry (=test and at entry into the pain management program (=retest using Multidimensional Pain Inventory scale scores. No therapeutic interventions in this period were conducted. Reliability was quantified by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC and stability by kappa coefficients (κ. Results Reliability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory scales was least with ICC = 0.57 for the scale life control and further ranged from ICC = 0.72 (negative mood to 0.87 (solicitous responses in the other scales. At retest, 82% of the patients in the Multidimensional Pain Inventory cluster interpersonally distressed (κ = 0.69, 80% of the adaptive copers (κ = 0.58, and 75% of the dysfunctional patients (κ = 0.70 did not change classification. In total, 22% of the patients changed Multidimensional Pain Inventory cluster group, mainly into the adaptive copers subgroup. Conclusion Test-retest reliability of the German Multidimensional Pain Inventory was moderate to good and comparable to other language versions. Multidimensional Pain Inventory subgroup classification is substantially stable in chronic back pain patients when compared

  14. Manchester System: time spent on risk classification and priority of care at an emergency medical service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anziliero, Franciele; Dal Soler, Bárbara Elis; Silva, Bárbara Amaral da; Tanccini, Thaíla; Beghetto, Mariur Gomes

    2017-02-23

    To assess the time before and time spent on risk classification, priority of care, and destination of patients within 24 hours after their admission to an emergency medical service. Retrospective cohort study that included adults classified by the Manchester Triage System at the largest emergency medical service in the south of the country in 2012. The data were made available in the form of an electronic sheet and analyzed according to their characteristics and distribution. Of the 139,556 admissions, half of the patients arrived at classification within the time recommended (7; IQR: 2-20 minutes), and were classified within two (IQR: 1-3) minutes. Lower priority classifications and hospital discharges (88.4%) were more frequent than hospitalizations (11.4%) and deaths (0.2%). The time involved in activities that precede the first medical care remained within the recommendation. The proportion of lower priority classifications and hospital discharges within 24 hours after classification was high.

  15. A new classification code is available in the Danish health-care classification system for patients with symptoms related to chemicals and scents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Jesper; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde; Vesterhauge, Søren

    2014-01-01

    From July 2012, a classification code for multiple chemical sensitivity has been available in the Danish healthcare classification system. The overall purpose is to register hospital contacts in Denmark. The diagnostic code is labelled "Symptoms related to chemicals and scents", DR688A1...

  16. Natural fracture systems on planetary surfaces: Genetic classification and pattern randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossbacher, Lisa A.

    1987-01-01

    One method for classifying natural fracture systems is by fracture genesis. This approach involves the physics of the formation process, and it has been used most frequently in attempts to predict subsurface fractures and petroleum reservoir productivity. This classification system can also be applied to larger fracture systems on any planetary surface. One problem in applying this classification system to planetary surfaces is that it was developed for ralatively small-scale fractures that would influence porosity, particularly as observed in a core sample. Planetary studies also require consideration of large-scale fractures. Nevertheless, this system offers some valuable perspectives on fracture systems of any size.

  17. Exposure assessment within a Total Diet Study: a comparison of the use of the pan-European classification system FoodEx-1 with national food classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhandaf, Y; Van Klaveren, J; De Henauw, S; Van Donkersgoed, G; Van Gorcum, T; Papadopoulos, A; Sirot, V; Kennedy, M; Pinchen, H; Ruprich, J; Rehurkova, I; Perelló, G; Sioen, I

    2015-04-01

    A Total Diet Study (TDS) consists of selecting, collecting and preparing commonly consumed foods purchased at retail level and analysing them for harmful and/or beneficial chemical substances. A food classification system is needed to link food consumption data with the contaminant concentration data obtained in the TDS for the exposure assessment. In this study a comparison was made between the use of a national food classification systems and the use of FoodEx-1, developed and recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The work was performed using data of six European countries: Belgium, Czech Republic, France, The Netherlands, Spain and the UK. For each population, exposure to contaminant A (organic compounds) and/or contaminant B (inorganic compound) was assessed by the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) software using the national classification system and FoodEx-1 for food consumption data and for TDS laboratory results. Minimal differences between both approaches were observed. This observation applied for both contaminant A and contaminant B. In general risk assessment will be similar for both approaches; however, this is not guaranteed. FoodEx-1 proved to be a valuable hierarchic classification system in order to harmonise exposure assessment based on existing TDS results throughout Europe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reliability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory and stability of the MPI classification system in chronic back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verra, M.L.; Angst, F.; Staal, J.B.; Brioschi, R.; Lehmann, S.; Aeschlimann, A.; de Bie, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This cross validation study examined the reliability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) and the stability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory Classification System of the empirically derived subgroup classification obtained by cluster analysis in chronic

  19. MRI classification system (MRICS) for children with cerebral palsy: development, reliability, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelmann, Kate; Horber, Veronka; De La Cruz, Javier; Horridge, Karen; Mejaski-Bosnjak, Vlatka; Hollody, Katalin; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg

    2017-01-01

    To develop and evaluate a classification system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of children with cerebral palsy (CP) that can be used in CP registers. The classification system was based on pathogenic patterns occurring in different periods of brain development. The MRI classification system (MRICS) consists of five main groups: maldevelopments, predominant white matter injury, predominant grey matter injury, miscellaneous, and normal findings. A detailed manual for the descriptions of these patterns was developed, including test cases (www.scpenetwork.eu/en/my-scpe/rtm/neuroimaging/cp-neuroimaging/). A literature review was performed and MRICS was compared with other classification systems. An exercise was carried out to check applicability and interrater reliability. Professionals working with children with CP or in CP registers were invited to participate in the exercise and chose to classify either 18 MRIs or MRI reports of children with CP. Classification systems in the literature were compatible with MRICS and harmonization possible. Interrater reliability was found to be good overall (k=0.69; 0.54-0.82) among the 41 participants and very good (k=0.81; 0.74-0.92) using the classification based on imaging reports. Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe (SCPE) proposes the MRICS as a reliable tool. Together with its manual it is simple to apply for CP registers. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  20. A radiographic classification system in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis applied to the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, K.; Paus, A.C.; Laires, K.

    1994-01-01

    A new radiographic grading system for evaluation of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) for the knee is presented. The classification is based on known arthritic criteria in childhood. Joints with erosion are given a higher score than growth disturbances alone. Signs of osteoarthrosis including joint space narrowing were excluded from the classification. The femorotibial and patello-femoral joints are assessed together. Verbal definitions are used for the classification, but, regarding the erosions, standard reference films are used. The intra- and inter-observer variations of the method were low. (P < 0.01) (orig.)

  1. British athletics muscle injury classification: a reliability study for a new grading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, A.; Chakraverty, J.; Pollock, N.; Chakraverty, R.; Suokas, A.K.; James, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To implement and validate the newly proposed British athletics muscle injury classification in the assessment of hamstring injuries in track and field athletes and to analyse the nature and frequency of the discrepancies. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study analysing hamstring injuries in elite British athletes using the proposed classification system. Classification of 65 hamstring injuries in 45 high-level athletes by two radiologists at two time points 4 months apart to determine interrater variability, intrarater variability, and feasibility of the classification system was undertaken. Results: Interrater Kappa values of 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67–0.92; p<0.0001) for Round 1 and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.76–1.00; p<0.0001) for Round 2 of the review were observed. Percentages of agreement were 85% for Round 1 and 91% for Round 2. The intrarater Kappa value for the two reviewers were 0.76 (95% CI: 0.63–0.88; p<0.0001) and 0.65 (95% CI: 0.53–0.76; p<0.0001) and the average was 0.71 suggesting substantial overall agreement. The percentages of agreement were 82% and 72%, respectively. Conclusions: This classification system is straightforward to use and produces both reproducible and consistent results based on interrater and intrarater Kappa values with at least substantial agreement in all groups. Further work is ongoing to investigate whether individual grades within this classification system provide prognostic information and could guide clinical management. - Highlights: • This classification system is based on MRI parameters shown to have prognostic relevance. • It is simple to use, reproducible and clinically relevant which will enhance clinical practice. • Once clinicians are familiar with the classification inter & intrarater reliability will improve.

  2. Semiologic classification of psychogenic non epileptic seizures (PNES) based on video EEG analysis: do we need new classification systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadwekar, Vaibhav; Nair, Pradeep Pankajakshan; Murgai, Aditya; Thirunavukkarasu, Sibi; Thazhath, Harichandrakumar Kottyen

    2014-03-01

    Different studies have described useful signs to diagnose psychogenic non-epileptic seizure (PNES). A few authors have tried to describe the semiologic groups among PNES patients; each group consisting of combination of features. But there is no uniformity of nomenclature among these studies. Our aim was to find out whether the objective classification system proposed by Hubsch et al. was useful and adequate to classify PNES patient population from South India. We retrospectively analyzed medical records and video EEG monitoring data of patients, recorded during 3 year period from June 2010 to July 2013. We observed the semiologic features of each PNES episode and tried to group them strictly adhering to Hubsch et al. classification. Minor modifications were made to include patients who were left unclassified. A total of 65 patients were diagnosed to have PNES during this period, out of which 11 patients were excluded due to inadequate data. We could classify 42(77.77%) patients without modifying the defining criteria of the Hubsch et al. groups. With minor modification we could classify 94.96% patients. The modified groups with patient distribution are as follows: Class 1--dystonic attacks with primitive gestural activities [3(5.6%)]. Class 2 – paucikinetic attacks with or without preserved responsiveness [5(9.3%)]. Class 3--pseudosyncope with or without hyperventilation [21(38.9%)]. Class 4--hyperkinetic prolonged attacks with hyperventilation, involvement of limbs and/or trunk [14(25.9%)]. Class 5--axial dystonic attacks [8(14.8%)]. Class 6--unclassified type [3(5.6%)]. This study demonstrates that the Hubsch's classification with minor modifications is useful and adequate to classify PNES patients from South India. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Systems Approach to Standardisation, Classification and Modelling of Managed Events for Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakulin Tadeja Jere

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The standardisation and classification of managed events provide a legislative basis to distinguish events managed for tourism in their characteristics and quality. The systems approach to standardisation and classification of managed events is a unique, holistic view of event management quality and event organization in tourism. It enables a clear overview of a researched topic and provides adequate support to design and decision-making. In this paper, we explain the meaning of standardisation and classification for Slovenian legislation related to event management. We present the importance of a systems approach methodology for event categorization and classification as it relates to the quality of event management organization, the quality of staff, the quality of the event program and the quality of event services.

  4. Human-interpretable feature pattern classification system using learning classifier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Toktam; Kukenys, Ignas; Browne, Will N; Zhang, Mengjie

    2014-01-01

    Image pattern classification is a challenging task due to the large search space of pixel data. Supervised and subsymbolic approaches have proven accurate in learning a problem's classes. However, in the complex image recognition domain, there is a need for investigation of learning techniques that allow humans to interpret the learned rules in order to gain an insight about the problem. Learning classifier systems (LCSs) are a machine learning technique that have been minimally explored for image classification. This work has developed the feature pattern classification system (FPCS) framework by adopting Haar-like features from the image recognition domain for feature extraction. The FPCS integrates Haar-like features with XCS, which is an accuracy-based LCS. A major contribution of this work is that the developed framework is capable of producing human-interpretable rules. The FPCS system achieved 91 [Formula: see text] 1% accuracy on the unseen test set of the MNIST dataset. In addition, the FPCS is capable of autonomously adjusting the rotation angle in unaligned images. This rotation adjustment raised the accuracy of FPCS to 95%. Although the performance is competitive with equivalent approaches, this was not as accurate as subsymbolic approaches on this dataset. However, the benefit of the interpretability of rules produced by FPCS enabled us to identify the distribution of the learned angles-a normal distribution around [Formula: see text]-which would have been very difficult in subsymbolic approaches. The analyzable nature of FPCS is anticipated to be beneficial in domains such as speed sign recognition, where underlying reasoning and confidence of recognition needs to be human interpretable.

  5. Predictive Ability of the SVS WIfI Classification System Following Infrapopliteal Endovascular Interventions for CLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Jeremy D.; McCallum, John C.; Soden, Peter A.; Meng, Yifan; Wyers, Mark C.; Hamdan, Allen D.; Verhagen, Hence H.J.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) Lower Extremity Guidelines Committee has composed a new threatened lower extremity classification system that reflects the three major factors that impact amputation risk and clinical management: wound, ischemia, and foot infection (WIfI). Our goal was to evaluate the predictive ability of this scale following any infrapopliteal endovascular intervention for critical limb ischemia (CLI). METHODS From 2004 to 2014, a single institution, retrospective chart review was performed at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center for all patients undergoing an infrapopliteal angioplasty for CLI. Throughout these years, 673 limbs underwent an infrapopliteal endovascular intervention for tissue loss (77%), rest pain (13%), stenosis of a previously treated vessel (5%), acute limb ischemia (3%), or claudication (2%). Limbs missing a grade in any WIfI component were excluded. Limbs were stratified into clinical stages 1 to 4 based on the SVS WIfI classification for 1-year amputation risk, as well as a novel WIfI composite score from 0 to 9. Outcomes included patient functional capacity, living status, wound healing, major amputation, major adverse limb events (MALE), RAS events (reintervention, major amputation, or stenosis [>3.5x step-up by duplex]), amputation-free survival (AFS), and mortality. Predictors were identified using Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and Cox regression models. RESULTS Of the 596 limbs with CLI, 551 were classified in all three WIfI domains on a scale of 0 (least severe) to 3 (most severe). Of these 551, 84% were treated for tissue loss and 16% for rest pain. A Cox regression model illustrated that an increase in clinical stage increases the rate of major amputation (Hazard Ratio (HR), 1.6; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.1–2.3). Separate regression models showed that a one-unit increase in the WIfI composite score is associated with a decrease in wound healing (1.2 [1.1–1.4]) and an increase in the

  6. An Expert System for Diagnosis of Sleep Disorder Using Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septem Riza, Lala; Pradini, Mila; Fitrajaya Rahman, Eka; Rasim

    2017-03-01

    Sleep disorder is an anomaly that could cause problems for someone’ sleeping pattern. Nowadays, it becomes an issue since people are getting busy with their own business and have no time to visit the doctors. Therefore, this research aims to develop a system used for diagnosis of sleep disorder using Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification System (FRBCS). FRBCS is a method based on the fuzzy set concepts. It consists of two steps: (i) constructing a model/knowledge involving rulebase and database, and (ii) prediction over new data. In this case, the knowledge is obtained from experts whereas in the prediction stage, we perform fuzzification, inference, and classification. Then, a platform implementing the method is built with a combination between PHP and the R programming language using the “Shiny” package. To validate the system that has been made, some experiments have been done using data from a psychiatric hospital in West Java, Indonesia. Accuracy of the result and computation time are 84.85% and 0.0133 seconds, respectively.

  7. Terminology and classification aspects of the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Semkina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the relevance of Betesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. This article summarizes recent data on the main differences and advantages of new classification system. Application of the Betesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology leads to the increased sensitivity and specificity of FNA.

  8. Classification of natural products as sources of drugs according to the biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system (BDDCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Larregieu, Caroline A; Benet, Leslie Z

    2016-12-01

    Natural products (NPs) are compounds that are derived from natural sources such as plants, animals, and micro-organisms. Therapeutics has benefited from numerous drug classes derived from natural product sources. The Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) was proposed to serve as a basis for predicting the importance of transporters and enzymes in determining drug bioavailability and disposition. It categorizes drugs into one of four biopharmaceutical classes according to their water solubility and extent of metabolism. The present paper reviews 109 drugs from natural product sources: 29% belong to class 1 (high solubility, extensive metabolism), 22% to class 2 (low solubility, extensive metabolism), 40% to class 3 (high solubility, poor metabolism), and 9% to class 4 (low solubility, poor metabolism). Herein we evaluated the characteristics of NPs in terms of BDDCS class for all 109 drugs as wells as for subsets of NPs drugs derived from plant sources as antibiotics. In the 109 NPs drugs, we compiled 32 drugs from plants, 50% (16) of total in class 1, 22% (7) in class 2 and 28% (9) in class 3, none found in class 4; Meantime, the antibiotics were found 5 (16%) in class 2, 22 (71%) in class 3, and 4 (13%) in class 4; no drug was found in class 1. Based on this classification, we anticipate BDDCS to serve as a useful adjunct in evaluating the potential characteristics of new natural products. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Global Stress Classification System for Materials Used in Solar Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamova, Karolina; Schill, Christian; Herrmann, Jan; Datta, Pawan; Chih Wang, Chien

    2016-08-01

    Depending on the geographical location, the individual or combined impact of environmental stress factors and corresponding performance losses for solar applications varies significantly. Therefore, as a strategy to reduce investment risks and operating and maintenance costs, it is necessary to adapt the materials and components of solar energy systems specifically to regional environmental conditions. The project «GloBe Solar» supports this strategy by focusing on the development of a global stress classification system for materials in solar energy applications. The aim of this classification system is to assist in the identification of the individual stress conditions for every location on the earth's surface. The stress classification system could serve as a decision support tool for the industry (manufacturers, investors, lenders and project developers) and help to improve knowledge and services that can provide higher confidence to solar power systems.

  10. Dens invaginatus and treatment options based on a classification system: report of a type II invagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Ø; Nag, O H; Fristad, I

    2008-08-01

    To give an overview of treatment options for dens invaginatus based on a classification system. Dens invaginatus is a dental malformation which may give endodontic complications. Treatment may vary in relation to anatomy, and a classification system for dens invaginatus forms the basis for discussion. A clinical case, classified as a type II invagination (Oehlers' classification), is also presented. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed an invagination penetrating into the apical third of the root canal in tooth number 12. The tooth was immature with an open apex, apical pathosis and a labial fistula. To control the infection, ultrasonic removal of the invagination was necessary, as the invagination prevented complete cleaning and shaping of the root canal. After chemo-mechanical preparation and dressing with calcium hydroxide, an apical plug of MTA was placed, followed by restoration of the tooth with resin-bonded composite. Healing of the lesion with hard tissue formation was confirmed at follow-up. KEY LEARNING POINTS * Knowledge about classification and anatomical variations of teeth with dens invaginatus is important in endodontic decision making. * A classification system may be helpful when treatment options are considered. * Classification of dens invaginatus requires a thorough preoperative radiographic examination.

  11. New classification system of endometrial hyperplasia WHO 2014 and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Sobczuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial hyperplasia (EH is a pathological condition characterised by hyperplastic changes in endometrial glandular and stromal structures lining the uterine cavity. Endometrial hyperplasia, particularly with atypia, is a significant clinical concern because it can be a precursor of endometrial cancer. Accurate diagnosis of precancerous lesions of the endometrium and exclusion of coexisting endometrial carcinomas are absolutely required for the optimal management of patients. The classification of endometrial hyperplasia has had numerous terminology. According to the classification of WHO94, based on glandular complexity and nuclear atypia, EH is divided into four groups: non-atypical endometrial hyperplasia (simple, complex and atypical endometrial hyperplasia (simple, complex. Estimated risk of progression of atypical hyperplasia to endometrial cancer is 8-29%. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and the Society of Gynaecological Oncology states that endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN classification is superior to the World Health Organisation (WHO 94 classification for histology of endometrial hyperplasia. However, the WHO classification system remains the most commonly used and reported in existing literature. The new classification, WHO 2014, accepted by the International Society of Gynaecological Pathologists, divided hyperplasia into two groups: benign hyperplasia and atypical hyperplasia/endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN. The WHO 2014 schema is more likely to successfully identify precancerous lesions than the WHO94 classification.

  12. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming, E-mail: heavenlzm@126.com; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing System Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster–Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  13. Applying inventory classification to a large inventory management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Isaac May

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Inventory classification aims to ensure that business-driving inventory items are efficiently managed in spite of constrained resources. There are numerous single- and multiple-criteria approaches to it. Our objective is to improve resource allocation to focus on items that can lead to high equipment availability. This concern is typical of many service industries such as military logistics, airlines, amusement parks and public works. Our study tests several inventory prioritization techniques and finds that a modified multi-criterion weighted non-linear optimization (WNO technique is a powerful approach for classifying inventory, outperforming traditional techniques of inventory prioritization such as ABC analysis in a variety of performance objectives.

  14. About camel breeds: A reevaluation of current classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler-Rollefson, I

    1993-01-12

    This article revaluates the current dromedary breed classifications based on Leese's (1927) division into hills, riverine and plains camel according to camel breeding zones, and the even earlier distinction by Cross (1917) and Leonard (1894) between baggage and riding camels. It is suggested that these classifications are inappropriate to portray the wide variety of camel breeds actually existing, since they do not accurately reflect the ecological context of camel breeding and also depict incompletely the actual uses to which camels are put in camel pastoral societies. The breeding practices of traditional camel pastoral societies are described and discussed, and it is concluded that these have been conducive to the development of a large number of specialized camel breeds. It is pointed out that many camel breeds are endangered, and that it is imperative to take steps for their documentation. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Kamelrassen: Revision des gegenwärtigen Klassifikationssystems In diesem Artikel werden die heute gebräuchlichen Klassifikationssysteme für Dromedarrassen einer Prüfung unterzogen: Diese beruhen auf der Einteilung von Leese (1927) nach Kamelzuchtgebieten in Berg-, Fluß- und Flachlandkamele und der noch älteren Unterscheidung von Cross (1917) und Leonard (1894) zwischen Reit- und Lastkamelen. Es wird vorgeschlagen, daß diese Einteilungen der tatsächlichen Variabilität zwischen Kamelrassen nicht gerecht werden, weil sie die ökologischen Bedingungen, unter denen Kamelzucht betrieben wird, nicht richtig reflektieren und die tatsächlichen Nutzungsweisen, denen das Kamel in Kamelhirtenkulturen unterzogen wird, nur unvollständig wiedergeben. Die Zuchtmethoden traditioneller Kamelhirten werden beschrieben und diskutiert, und es wird die Schlußfolgerung gezogen, daß diese für die Herausbildung vieler spezialisierter Rassen ideale Vorbedingungen darstellten. Auf die große Gefahr des Verlustes vieler dieser Rassen und die Notwendigkeit diese zu

  15. Classification of transportation packaging and dry spent fuel storage system components according to importance to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyacke, M.J.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Ayers, A.L. Jr.; O'Connor, S.C.; Jankovich, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory prepared a technical report for the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, entitled Classification of Transportation Packaging and Dry Spent Fuel Storage System Components According to Importance to Safety, NUREG/CR-6407. This paper provides the results of that report. It also presents the graded approach for classification of components used in transportation packagings and dry spent fuel storage systems. This approach provides a method for identifying the classification of components according to importance to safety within transportation packagings and dry spent fuel storage systems. Record retention requirements are discussed to identify the documentation necessary to validate that the individual components were fabricated in accordance with their assigned classification. A review of the existing regulations pertaining to transportation packagings and dry storage systems was performed to identify current requirements. The general types of transportation packagings and dry storage systems are identified. The methodology used in this paper is based on Regulatory Guide 7.10, Establishing Quality Assurance Programs for Packaging Used in the Transport of Radioactive Material. This paper also includes a list of generic components for each of the general types of transportation packagings and spent fuel storage systems, with a classification category assigned to each component. Several examples concerning the safety importance of components are presented

  16. Assessing three fuel classification systems and their maps using Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) surface fuel measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Jason M. Herynk; Chris Toney; Shawn P. Urbanski; Duncan C. Lutes; Roger D. Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    Fuel classifications are integral tools in fire management and planning because they are used as inputs to fire behavior and effects simulation models. Fuel Loading Models (FLMs) and Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCSs) fuelbeds are the most popular classifications used throughout wildland fire science and management, but they have yet to be thoroughly...

  17. Classification of Aeronautics System Health and Safety Documents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Most complex aerospace systems have many text reports on safety, maintenance, and associated issues. The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) spans several...

  18. Optimization of Neuro-Fuzzy System Using Genetic Algorithm for Chromosome Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuro-fuzzy system has been shown to provide a good performance on chromosome classification but does not offer a simple method to obtain the accurate parameter values required to yield the best recognition rate. This paper presents a neuro-fuzzy system where its parameters can be automatically adjusted using genetic algorithms. The approach combines the advantages of fuzzy logic theory, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. The structure consists of a four layer feed-forward neural network that uses a GBell membership function as the output function. The proposed methodology has been applied and tested on banded chromosome classification from the Copenhagen Chromosome Database. Simulation result showed that the proposed neuro-fuzzy system optimized by genetic algorithms offers advantages in setting the parameter values, improves the recognition rate significantly and decreases the training/testing time which makes genetic neuro-fuzzy system suitable for chromosome classification.

  19. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability assessment of tibial plateau fracture classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşkesen, Anıl; Demirkale, İsmail; Okkaoğlu, Mustafa Caner; Özdemir, Mahmut; Bilgili, Mustafa Gökhan; Altay, Murat

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to assess the intra- and interobserver reliability of commonly used tibial plateau fracture classification systems. This retrospective cohort study included computed tomography (CT) and plain radiographic images (lateral and anteroposterior X-rays) of 60 patients (40 males, 20 females; mean age 45.9 years; range 18 to 80 years) who presented to two orthopaedic clinics between January 2011 and January 2015 with unilateral tibial plateau fractures. All plain X-rays (XR) and CT images were evaluated by four observers on two separate occasions, 1.5 months apart. All fractures were classified according to the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen-Orthopaedic Trauma Association (AO-OTA), Schatzker, Hohl and Moore, Luo and revised Duparc systems. Intraobserver reliability was measured with Cohen's kappa (κ) coefficient and interobserver reliability with Fleiss' kappa coefficient. When Schatzker classification was performed, interobserver reliability was in moderate level for (κ=0.51) for XR and in substantial level for CT (κ=0.61). When AO/OTA classification was used, interobserver reliability was in moderate level for both methods of diagnosis (κXR=0.43 and κCT=0.54, respectively). In the Hohl and Moore classification, the interobserver reliability was also moderate for both methods of diagnosis (κXR=0.45 and κCT=0.51, respectively). Revised Duparc classification showed the lowest interobserver reliability ranging from fair to moderate level (κXR=0.27-0.55 and κCT=0.44-0.61). Interobserver reliability for Luo classification was κCT=0.47. Intraobserver reliability for CT in Luo classification was in substantial level for observers 1, 2 and 3 (κCT=0.67-0.71) and in perfect level for observer 4 (κCT=0.84). Intraobserver reliability was in substantial level in Schatzker classification and in moderate level at the other classifications. Among the classification systems compared in this study, Schatzker was the most reliable particularly when

  20. Reflecting on the structure of soil classification systems: insights from a proposal for integrating subsoil data into soil information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeyne, Stefaan; Juilleret, Jérôme; Vancampenhout, Karen; Deckers, Jozef; Hissler, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    Classification of soils in both World Reference Base for soil resources (WRB) and Soil Taxonomy hinges on the identification of diagnostic horizons and characteristics. However as these features often occur within the first 100 cm, these classification systems convey little information on subsoil characteristics. An integrated knowledge of the soil, soil-to-substratum and deeper substratum continuum is required when dealing with environmental issues such as vegetation ecology, water quality or the Critical Zone in general. Therefore, we recently proposed a classification system of the subsolum complementing current soil classification systems. By reflecting on the structure of the subsoil classification system which is inspired by WRB, we aim at fostering a discussion on some potential future developments of WRB. For classifying the subsolum we define Regolite, Saprolite, Saprock and Bedrock as four Subsolum Reference Groups each corresponding to different weathering stages of the subsoil. Principal qualifiers can be used to categorize intergrades of these Subsoil Reference Groups while morphologic and lithologic characteristics can be presented with supplementary qualifiers. We argue that adopting a low hierarchical structure - akin to WRB and in contrast to a strong hierarchical structure as in Soil Taxonomy - offers the advantage of having an open classification system avoiding the need for a priori knowledge of all possible combinations which may be encountered in the field. Just as in WRB we also propose to use principal and supplementary qualifiers as a second level of classification. However, in contrast to WRB we propose to reserve the principal qualifiers for intergrades and to regroup the supplementary qualifiers into thematic categories (morphologic or lithologic). Structuring the qualifiers in this manner should facilitate the integration and handling of both soil and subsoil classification units into soil information systems and calls for paying

  1. Proactive Safety Management in Trauma Care: Applying the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Tara N; Cabrera, Jennifer S; Litzinger, Tracy L; Captain, Kevin A; Fabian, Michael A; Miles, Steven G; Reeves, Scott T; Shappell, Scott A; Boquet, Albert J

    2017-06-30

    This article examines the reliability of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) for classifying observational human factors data collected prospectively in a trauma resuscitation center. Three trained human factors analysts individually categorized 1,137 workflow disruptions identified in a previously collected data set involving 65 observed trauma care cases using the HFACS framework. Results revealed that the framework was substantially reliable overall (κ = 0.680); agreement increased when only the preconditions for unsafe acts were investigated (κ = 0.757). Findings of the analysis also revealed that the preconditions for unsafe acts category was most highly populated (91.95%), consisting mainly of failures involving communication, coordination, and planning. This study helps validate the use of HFACS as a tool for classifying observational data in a variety of medical domains. By identifying preconditions for unsafe acts, health care professionals may be able to construct a more robust safety management system that may provide a better understanding of the types of threats that can impact patient safety.

  2. Classification Systems, their Digitization and Consequences for Data-Driven Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Mari-Klara; Newell, Sue; Galliers, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    of such information systems. Based on a multi-site field study, we suggest that representational quality is achieved through four types of negotiations that human actors engage in when confronted with the materiality of a new IS. These negotiations are associated with three broad practices (instantiation, re......-narration and meta-narration), and three different information production/consumption situations. We contribute to the relational theorization of representational quality and extend classification systems research by drawing explicit attention to the importance of ‘materialization’ of classification systems...

  3. Application of information retrieval approaches to case classification in the vaccine adverse event reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsis, Taxiarchis; Woo, Emily Jane; Ball, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Automating the classification of adverse event reports is an important step to improve the efficiency of vaccine safety surveillance. Previously we showed it was possible to classify reports using features extracted from the text of the reports. The aim of this study was to use the information encoded in the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA(®)) in the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to support and evaluate two classification approaches: a multiple information retrieval strategy and a rule-based approach. To evaluate the performance of these approaches, we selected the conditions of anaphylaxis and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We used MedDRA(®) Preferred Terms stored in the VAERS, and two standardized medical terminologies: the Brighton Collaboration (BC) case definitions and Standardized MedDRA(®) Queries (SMQ) to classify two sets of reports for GBS and anaphylaxis. Two approaches were used: (i) the rule-based instruments that are available by the two terminologies (the Automatic Brighton Classification [ABC] tool and the SMQ algorithms); and (ii) the vector space model. We found that the rule-based instruments, particularly the SMQ algorithms, achieved a high degree of specificity; however, there was a cost in terms of sensitivity in all but the narrow GBS SMQ algorithm that outperformed the remaining approaches (sensitivity in the testing set was equal to 99.06 % for this algorithm vs. 93.40 % for the vector space model). In the case of anaphylaxis, the vector space model achieved higher sensitivity compared with the best values of both the ABC tool and the SMQ algorithms in the testing set (86.44 % vs. 64.11 % and 52.54 %, respectively). Our results showed the superiority of the vector space model over the existing rule-based approaches irrespective of the standardized medical knowledge represented by either the SMQ or the BC case definition. The vector space model might make automation of case definitions for

  4. 33 CFR 149.421 - What is the requirement for a previously approved fire detection and alarm system on a deepwater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... previously approved fire detection and alarm system on a deepwater port? 149.421 Section 149.421 Navigation... Requirements § 149.421 What is the requirement for a previously approved fire detection and alarm system on a deepwater port? An existing fire detection and alarm system on a deepwater port need not meet the...

  5. International society of neuropathology-haarlem consensus guidelines for nervous system tumor classification and grading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louis, D.N.; Perry, A.; Burger, P.; Ellison, D.W.; Reifenberger, G.; Deimling, A. Von; Aldape, K.; Brat, D.; Collins, V.P.; Eberhart, C.; Figarella-Branger, D.; Fuller, G.N.; Giangaspero, F.; Giannini, C.; Hawkins, C.; Kleihues, P.; Korshunov, A.; Kros, J.M.; Lopes, M. Beatriz; Ng, H.K.; Ohgaki, H.; Paulus, W.; Pietsch, T.; Rosenblum, M.; Rushing, E.; Soylemezoglu, F.; Wiestler, O.; Wesseling, P.

    2014-01-01

    Major discoveries in the biology of nervous system tumors have raised the question of how non-histological data such as molecular information can be incorporated into the next World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors. To address this question, a meeting of

  6. A vegetation classification system for use in California: its conceptual basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy E. Paysen; Jeanine A. Derby; C. Eugene Conrad

    1982-01-01

    A taxonomic Vegetation Classification System proposed for use in California is designed to simplify interdisciplinary communication about vegetation. The system structure is an aggregative plant community hierarchy at four levels of precision--the Association, Series, Subformation, and Formation. A flexible Phase category links specific resource management concerns to...

  7. The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System: an external agreement validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, J.J. van; Audige, L.; Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Bolger, C.; Deverall, H.; Dhoke, P.; Diekerhof, C.H.; Govaert, G.A.; Guimera, V.; Koller, H.; Morris, S.A.; Setiobudi, T.; Hosman, A.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In 2007, the Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification (SLIC) system was introduced demonstrating moderate reliability in an internal validation study. PURPOSE: To assess the agreement on the SLIC system using clinical data from a spinal trauma population and whether the SLIC

  8. The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System : an external agreement validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Middendorp, Joost J.; Audige, Laurent; Bartels, Ronald H.; Bolger, Ciaran; Deverall, Hamish; Dhoke, Priyesh; Diekerhof, Carel H.; Govaert, Geertje A. M.; Guimera, Vicente; Koller, Heiko; Morris, Stephen A. C.; Setiobudi, Tony; Hosman, Allard J. F.

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In 2007, the Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification (SLIC) system was introduced demonstrating moderate reliability in an internal validation study. PURPOSE: To assess the agreement on the SLIC system using clinical data from a spinal trauma population and whether the SLIC

  9. Characteristics of a global classification system for perinatal deaths : a Delphi consensus study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszek, Aleena M.; Reinebrant, Hanna E.; Leisher, Susannah Hopkins; Allanson, Emma; Coory, Michael; Erwich, Jan Jaap; Froen, J. Frederik; Gardosi, Jason; Gordijn, Sanne; Gulmezoglu, Metin; Heazell, Alexander E. P.; Korteweg, Fleurisca J.; McClure, Elizabeth; Pattinson, Robert; Silver, Robert M.; Smith, Gordon; Teoh, Zheyi; Tuncalp, Ozge; Flenady, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the global burden of perinatal deaths, there is currently no single, globally-acceptable classification system for perinatal deaths. Instead, multiple, disparate systems are in use world-wide. This inconsistency hinders accurate estimates of causes of death and impedes effective

  10. Dengue disease severity in Indonesian children: An evaluation of the World Health Organization classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.E. Setiati (Tatty); A.T.A. Mairuhu; P. Koraka (Penelope); M. Supriatna (Mohamad); M.R. Mac Gillavry (Melvin); D.P.M. Brandjes (Dees); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); J.W.M. van der Meer (Jos); E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric); A. Soemantri (Augustinus)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Dengue disease severity is usually classified using criteria set up by the World Health Organization (WHO). We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the WHO classification system and modifications to this system, and evaluated their potential practical usefulness.

  11. Rock mass classification system : transition from RMR to GSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications is expected to replace the rock mass rating : (RMR) system with the Geological Strength Index (GSI) system for classifying and estimating : engineering properties of rock masses. This transition is motivat...

  12. Recognizing systemic sclerosis: comparative analysis of various sets of classification criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowska-Próchnicka, Katarzyna; Walczyk, Marcela; Olesińska, Marzena

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a complex disease characterized by autoimmunity, vasculopathy and tissue fibrosis. Although most patients present with some degree of skin sclerosis, which is a distinguishing hallmark, the clinical presentation vary greatly complicating the diagnosis. In this regard, new classification criteria were jointly published in 2013 by American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR). A recent major development in the classification criteria is improved sensitivity, particularly for detecting early disease. The new criteria allow more cases to be classified as having systemic sclerosis (SSc), which leads to earlier treatment. Moreover it is clinically beneficial in preventing the disease progression with its irreversible fibrosis and organ damage. The aim of this review is to give insight into new classification criteria and current trends in the diagnosis of systemic sclerosis.

  13. Improved Management of Part Safety Classification System for Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Young; Park, Youn Won; Park, Heung Gyu; Park, Hyo Chan [BEES Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    As, in recent years, many quality assurance (QA) related incidents, such as falsely-certified parts and forged documentation, etc., were reported in association with the supply of structures, systems, components and parts to nuclear power plants, a need for a better management of safety classification system was addressed so that it would be based more on the level of parts . Presently, the Korean nuclear power plants do not develop and apply relevant procedures for safety classifications, but rather the safety classes of parts are determined solely based on the experience of equipment designers. So proposed in this paper is a better management plan for safety equipment classification system with an aim to strengthen the quality management for parts. The plan was developed through the analysis of newly introduced technical criteria to be applied to parts of nuclear power plant.

  14. Real-time expert system and neural network for the classification of remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Nicholas, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The paper examines software techniques for classifying remotely sensed data such that the number of computational steps and the amount of resources are bounded. The combination of both neural network and expert system methodology for classifying these data based on land use/land cover categories is examined. The method involves pipelining images through a neural net for initial classification and then through the expert system which resolves the ambiguous classifications. As with any pipeline, every component must have approximately equivalent run-times or otherwise a bottleneck will occur. If real-time is a requirement, each of the components must execute within a bounded number of steps. Attention is focused on the real-time system technique, which is argued to prevent a bottleneck for this data classification application.

  15. Classification of EEG Signals by Radial Neuro-Fuzzy Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coufal, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2006), s. 415-423 ISSN 1109-2777 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : neuro-fuzzy systems * radial fuzzy systems * data mining * hybrid systems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  16. Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification System for Assessing Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour, Reza Ali; Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Bagheri, Somayeh; Ghaemian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of fuzzy rule-based classification that could noninvasively predict CAD based on myocardial perfusion scan test and clinical-epidemiological variables. This was a cross-sectional study in which the characteristics, the results of myocardial perfusion scan (MPS), and coronary artery angiography of 115 patients, 62 (53.9%) males, in Mazandaran Heart Center in the north of Iran have been collected. We used membership functions for medical variables by reviewing the related literature. To improve the classification performance, we used Ishibuchi et al. and Nozaki et al. methods by adjusting the grade of certainty CF j of each rule. This system includes 144 rules and the antecedent part of all rules has more than one part. The coronary artery disease data used in this paper contained 115 samples. The data was classified into four classes, namely, classes 1 (normal), 2 (stenosis in one single vessel), 3 (stenosis in two vessels), and 4 (stenosis in three vessels) which had 39, 35, 17, and 24 subjects, respectively. The accuracy in the fuzzy classification based on if-then rule was 92.8 percent if classification result was considered based on rule selection by expert, while it was 91.9 when classification result was obtained according to the equation. To increase the classification rate, we deleted the extra rules to reduce the fuzzy rules after introducing the membership functions.

  17. Classification systems of communication for use in epidemiological surveillance of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virella, Daniel; Pennington, Lindsay; Andersen, Guro L; Andrada, Maria da Graça; Greitane, Andra; Himmelmann, Kate; Prasauskiene, Audrone; Rackauskaite, Gija; De La Cruz, Javier; Colver, Allan

    2016-03-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) often experience communication difficulties. We aimed to identify a classification system for communication of children with CP suitable for epidemiological surveillance. Systems to classify the communication of children with CP were identified. The Communication Function Classification System (CFCS), Functional Communication Classification System (FCCS), and Viking Speech Scale (VSS) were chosen for further investigation and translated. They were administered to 155 children aged 4 to 13 years with CP (across all motor severity levels) from eight European countries. Children's parents/carers, speech therapists, and other health professionals applied the systems through direct observation. Other professionals applied them from case notes only. The systems were assessed for agreement, stability, ease, and feasibility of application. Test-retest stability was moderate-to-high for VSS (k=0.66-0.88), CFCS (k=uncomputed-0.91), and FCCS (k=0.52-0.91). Overall interrater agreement was fair to very good for every classification system. VSS achieved the best agreement between parents/carers and speech therapists. VSS was considered the easiest instrument to apply. Because of its ease of use by a range of healthcare professionals, the VSS should be considered for CP registers which intend to survey speech intelligibility. For a wider assessment of communication, the CFCS or FCC should be considered. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  18. Data Processing And Machine Learning Methods For Multi-Modal Operator State Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Tristan A.

    2015-01-01

    This document is intended as an introduction to a set of common signal processing learning methods that may be used in the software portion of a functional crew state monitoring system. This includes overviews of both the theory of the methods involved, as well as examples of implementation. Practical considerations are discussed for implementing modular, flexible, and scalable processing and classification software for a multi-modal, multi-channel monitoring system. Example source code is also given for all of the discussed processing and classification methods.

  19. Comparison and classification of all-optical CDMA systems for future telecommunication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Kay; Hampicke, Dirk

    1995-12-01

    This paper shows the state of the art in fiber optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA). Recent work in this area for both, systems and sequences is reviewed and analyzed. For that purpose a classification of systems, corresponding to the manner of signal processing and a classification of known (0,1)-sequences are presented. It is shown that due to the limits by currently available device technology especially two techniques are promising for implementation in broadband telecommunication networks: spectral encoding with integrated optical filters and CDMA in combination with wavelength multiple access schemes. Further an overview about some important experiments in this field is given.

  20. Gender and classifiers in concurrent systems: Refining the typology of nominal classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Fedden

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Some languages have both gender and classifiers, contrary to what was once believed possible. We use these interesting languages as a unique window onto nominal classification. They provide the impetus for a new typology, based on the degree of orthogonality of the semantic systems and the degree of difference of the forms realizing them. This nine-way typology integrates traditional gender, traditional classifiers and – importantly – the many recently attested phenomena lying between. Besides progress specifically in understanding nominal classification, our approach provides clarity on the wider theoretical issue of single versus concurrent featural systems.

  1. Multiple classifier systems in texton-based approach for the classification of CT images of Lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gangeh, Mehrdad J.; Sørensen, Lauge; Shaker, Saher B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose using texton signatures based on raw pixel representation along with a parallel multiple classifier system for the classification of emphysema in computed tomography images of the lung. The multiple classifier system is composed of support vector machines on the texton...... signatures as base classifiers and combines their decisions using product rule. The proposed approach is tested on 168 annotated regions of interest consisting of normal tissue, centrilobular emphysema, and paraseptal emphysema. Textonbased approach in texture classification mainly has two parameters, i...

  2. Why Build Dewey Numbers? The Remediation of the Dewey Decimal Classification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Brattli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Correct Dewey classification is demanding and time consuming. Many of the challenges with the Dewey system are related to locating and interpreting notes (i.e. classification guidelines, and number building. Today’s Dewey structure is a result of more than 100 years of optimizing a comprehensive classification system to the printed book medium. In order to limit the system into a “manageable” size, facets and facet-like subjects are represented only once and instead referred to from relevant classes for number building. A similar technique is used to reduce the number of notes. With the remediation of Dewey from printed to computer media, space is not limited and there is no need to compress the classification system. Number building can be eliminated, and all relevant notes attached to each class. Despite the fact that the system now has been available in electronic form for almost 20 years, it is still largely a copy of the printed version. This article first investigates how the Dewey system may be presented for users without number building, in order to make it more immediate and user-friendly. We first analyze the Dewey structure, and then look at different representations of the structure suited for computer media. Finally, some ideas for a new presentation without number building are proposed.

  3. Functional Classification of Uncultured "Candidatus Caldiarchaeum subterraneum" Using the Maple System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideto Takami

    Full Text Available In this study, the metabolic and physiological potential evaluator system based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG functional modules was employed to establish a functional classification of archaeal species and to determine the comprehensive functions (functionome of the previously uncultivated thermophile "Candidatus Caldiarchaeum subterraneum" (Ca. C. subterraneum. A phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of proteins common among 142 archaea and 2 bacteria, and among 137 archaea and 13 unicellular eukaryotes suggested that Ca. C. subterraneum is closely related to thaumarchaeotic species. Consistent with the results of the phylogenetic analysis, clustering and principal component analyses based on the completion ratio patterns for all KEGG modules in 79 archaeal species suggested that the overall metabolic and physiological potential of Ca. C. subterraneum is similar to that of thaumarchaeotic species. However, Ca. C. subterraneum possessed almost no genes in the modules required for nitrification and the hydroxypropionate-hydroxybutyrate cycle for carbon fixation, unlike thaumarchaeotic species. However, it possessed all genes in the modules required for central carbohydrate metabolism, such as glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, and the glyoxylate cycle, as well as multiple sets of sugar and branched chain amino acid ABC transporters. These metabolic and physiological features appear to support the predominantly aerobic character of Ca. C. subterraneum, which lives in a subsurface thermophilic microbial mat community with a heterotrophic lifestyle.

  4. Classification between non-multiple fallers and multiple fallers using a triaxial accelerometry-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Redmond, Stephen J; Narayanan, Michael R; Lovell, Nigel H

    2011-01-01

    Falls are a prominent problem facing older adults and a common cause of hospitalized injuries. Accurate falls-risk assessment and classification of falls-risk levels will provide useful information for the prevention of future falls. This study presents a triaxial accelerometer (TA) based two-class classifier, which discriminates between multiple fallers and non-multiple fallers, using a directed-routine (DR) movement test. One-hundred-and-twenty-six features were extracted from the accelerometry signals, recorded during the DR tests using a waist mounted TA, from 68 subjects. A linear multiple regression model was employed to map a subset of these features to an estimate of the number of previous falls experienced in the preceding twelve months. A simple threshold is applied to this estimated number of falls to create a basic linear discriminant classifier to separate multiple from non-multiple fallers. The system attained an accuracy of 71% in classifying the exact number of falls experienced in the last 12 months and 97% in identifying multiple fallers.

  5. Analysis of cesarean delivery at Assiut University Hospital using the Ten Group Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aleem, Hany; Shaaban, Omar M; Hassanin, Ahmed I; Ibraheem, Alaa A

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using the Robson Ten Group Classification System (TGCS) for cesarean delivery (CD) indications at institutional level. Prospective clinical audits of women delivering by CD at Women's Health Hospital, Assiut, Egypt, were conducted in 2008 and 2011. The CD rates overall and in each Robson group were calculated, as was the contribution of each group to the overall CD rate. In addition, the CD indications in each group were analyzed. The CD rate was 32% (443/1357) in 2008 and 38% (626/1628) in 2011. The most common CD indication at both time intervals was a previous CD. Multiparas without uterine scar, a single cephalic term pregnancy, and spontaneous labor (Robson Group 3) comprised the largest group of women undergoing CD, followed by nulliparas with a single cephalic term pregnancy and spontaneous labor (Group 1), and multiparas with a scarred uterus and a single cephalic term pregnancy (Group 5). Group 5 was the largest contributor (30%) to the overall CD rate, followed by Groups 1 and 4 (10% each). The TGCS can be applied at institutional level. It helps in planning strategies for specific subgroups of women to reduce CD rates and improve outcomes. © 2013.

  6. Evolution and classification of the CRISPR-Cas systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makarova, K.S.; Brouns, S.J.J.; Oost, van der J.

    2011-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins) modules are adaptive immunity systems that are present in many archaea and bacteria. These defence systems are encoded by operons that have an extraordinarily diverse architecture and a high rate of

  7. Sensor network based vehicle classification and license plate identification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, Janette Rose [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brennan, Sean M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rosten, Edward J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raby, Eric Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kulathumani, Vinod K [WEST VIRGINIA UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    Typically, for energy efficiency and scalability purposes, sensor networks have been used in the context of environmental and traffic monitoring applications in which operations at the sensor level are not computationally intensive. But increasingly, sensor network applications require data and compute intensive sensors such video cameras and microphones. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of two such systems: a vehicle classifier based on acoustic signals and a license plate identification system using a camera. The systems are implemented in an energy-efficient manner to the extent possible using commercially available hardware, the Mica motes and the Stargate platform. Our experience in designing these systems leads us to consider an alternate more flexible, modular, low-power mote architecture that uses a combination of FPGAs, specialized embedded processing units and sensor data acquisition systems.

  8. COMBINED SYSTEMS OF ENERGY GENERATION – A CHARACTERISATION AND CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gilewski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents issues concerning technical solutions of combined systems of energy generation which can be used primarily in low-level power plants, installed in various types of public utility sites. A detailed description is given of selected ways of powering combined energy generation systems, presenting conceptual outlines of their operation and information on their advantages, disadvantages and applications. The following systems are introduced: gas-steam, back-pressure steam turbine, extraction-condensing steam turbine, gas turbine, gas microturbine, Stirling engine, fuel cells and internal combustion piston engine. Moreover, the study addresses economic aspects of energy generation in combined systems, discussing different methodologies of cost calculation, including the one used by the European Union. The article also gives a detailed review of piston engine combined-system aggregates available in the Polish market. Type series of associated systems designed for low-power appliances are shown, produced by Polish and foreign companies such as Viessmann, Centrum Elektroniki Stosowanej CES, H. Cegielski – Poznań, KWE Technika Energetyczna, TEDOM Poland or the EPS System.

  9. Image-based fall detection and classification of a user with a walking support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghvaei, Sajjad; Kosuge, Kazuhiro

    2017-10-01

    The classification of visual human action is important in the development of systems that interact with humans. This study investigates an image-based classification of the human state while using a walking support system to improve the safety and dependability of these systems.We categorize the possible human behavior while utilizing a walker robot into eight states (i.e., sitting, standing, walking, and five falling types), and propose two different methods, namely, normal distribution and hidden Markov models (HMMs), to detect and recognize these states. The visual feature for the state classification is the centroid position of the upper body, which is extracted from the user's depth images. The first method shows that the centroid position follows a normal distribution while walking, which can be adopted to detect any non-walking state. The second method implements HMMs to detect and recognize these states. We then measure and compare the performance of both methods. The classification results are employed to control the motion of a passive-type walker (called "RT Walker") by activating its brakes in non-walking states. Thus, the system can be used for sit/stand support and fall prevention. The experiments are performed with four subjects, including an experienced physiotherapist. Results show that the algorithm can be adapted to the new user's motion pattern within 40 s, with a fall detection rate of 96.25% and state classification rate of 81.0%. The proposed method can be implemented to other abnormality detection/classification applications that employ depth image-sensing devices.

  10. British athletics muscle injury classification: a reliability study for a new grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, A; Chakraverty, J; Pollock, N; Chakraverty, R; Suokas, A K; James, S L

    2015-12-01

    To implement and validate the newly proposed British athletics muscle injury classification in the assessment of hamstring injuries in track and field athletes and to analyse the nature and frequency of the discrepancies. This was a retrospective study analysing hamstring injuries in elite British athletes using the proposed classification system. Classification of 65 hamstring injuries in 45 high-level athletes by two radiologists at two time points 4 months apart to determine interrater variability, intrarater variability, and feasibility of the classification system was undertaken. Interrater Kappa values of 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67-0.92; p<0.0001) for Round 1 and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.76-1.00; p<0.0001) for Round 2 of the review were observed. Percentages of agreement were 85% for Round 1 and 91% for Round 2. The intrarater Kappa value for the two reviewers were 0.76 (95% CI: 0.63-0.88; p<0.0001) and 0.65 (95% CI: 0.53-0.76; p<0.0001) and the average was 0.71 suggesting substantial overall agreement. The percentages of agreement were 82% and 72%, respectively. This classification system is straightforward to use and produces both reproducible and consistent results based on interrater and intrarater Kappa values with at least substantial agreement in all groups. Further work is ongoing to investigate whether individual grades within this classification system provide prognostic information and could guide clinical management. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The application of rock mass classification systems to limestone mine in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G.; Baek, H.; Kim, D.; Kang, S.; Kang, J.

    2011-12-01

    Rock mass classification procedure is an important part in solving most rock engineering problem. Well known rock mass classification systems include the rock mass rating (RMR) and the Q-system. These systems have been applied for various works, mostly in civil engineering applications rather than mining purposes. To assess the stability of the mine openings in underground limestone mines, RMR and Q values were estimated from 142 locations of 7 underground mine sites in Korea. Unsupported span derived from the estimated RMR and Q values were compared to measured mine opening span. The results showed that the span derived from RMR was more conservative than those from Q values. This difference might have been resulted from different parameters which each classification system uses, and also their sensitivity to the rock behaviors. Although the both rock mass classification systems have been modified and improved continuously, the results vary with site conditions. The critical span curves proposed by Lang(2001), often called as the Mathews' stability graph method, are used to calculate the unsupported span. These curves were modified for underground limestone mines in Korea. It has led to a reasonable conclusion for assessing the stability of wide underground openings in six limestone mines. Nevertheless, additional research seems to be necessary for other mine sites. The database should be required for calculating the unsupported span. To obtain more data, in ten mine sites the survey was conducted. It will be contributed to Limestone Mine Site Characterization Model(LSCM) for Korea.

  12. Arrhythmia Classification Based on Multi-Domain Feature Extraction for an ECG Recognition System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Yuan, Danyang; Wang, Youxi; Cui, Dianyin; Cao, Lu

    2016-10-20

    Automatic recognition of arrhythmias is particularly important in the diagnosis of heart diseases. This study presents an electrocardiogram (ECG) recognition system based on multi-domain feature extraction to classify ECG beats. An improved wavelet threshold method for ECG signal pre-processing is applied to remove noise interference. A novel multi-domain feature extraction method is proposed; this method employs kernel-independent component analysis in nonlinear feature extraction and uses discrete wavelet transform to extract frequency domain features. The proposed system utilises a support vector machine classifier optimized with a genetic algorithm to recognize different types of heartbeats. An ECG acquisition experimental platform, in which ECG beats are collected as ECG data for classification, is constructed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the system in ECG beat classification. The presented system, when applied to the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database, achieves a high classification accuracy of 98.8%. Experimental results based on the ECG acquisition experimental platform show that the system obtains a satisfactory classification accuracy of 97.3% and is able to classify ECG beats efficiently for the automatic identification of cardiac arrhythmias.

  13. Method and System for Controlling a Dexterous Robot Execution Sequence Using State Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Platt, Robert J., Jr. (Inventor); Quillin, Nathaniel (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Pfeiffer, Joseph (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic system includes a dexterous robot and a controller. The robot includes a plurality of robotic joints, actuators for moving the joints, and sensors for measuring a characteristic of the joints, and for transmitting the characteristics as sensor signals. The controller receives the sensor signals, and is configured for executing instructions from memory, classifying the sensor signals into distinct classes via the state classification module, monitoring a system state of the robot using the classes, and controlling the robot in the execution of alternative work tasks based on the system state. A method for controlling the robot in the above system includes receiving the signals via the controller, classifying the signals using the state classification module, monitoring the present system state of the robot using the classes, and controlling the robot in the execution of alternative work tasks based on the present system state.

  14. A Modified Coal Mine Roof Rating Classification System to Design Support Requirements in Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Abbas; Lee, Yongha; Medina, Mario Andres Guardado

    2017-10-01

    The coal mine roof rating (CMRR) classification system has been applied in a number of coal mines worldwide including Australia. However, the current system cannot be used directly to design support measures in underground mines. Two case studies, the Eliza Hill project in Australia and Tabas coal mine in Iran were analyzed to assess the impact of various rock properties and gallery geometry on stability and to modify the CMRR classification system. Having considered the CMRR system as a working classification system, applicable information and related coal mine data were selected from the two case records. The CMRR value was evaluated and analysed by undertaking correlation between CMRR and factor of safety, followed by a parametric study based on various rock properties and gallery geometries. To improve the applicability of the current system, the CMRR system was then modified by adding additional parameters, namely, the width of roof span and the density of overburden rock. Consequently, based on the modified CMRR system (mCMRR) roof support requirements were recommended to select the suitable rock bolting system including length and spacing of rock bolt. Numerical modelling were then undertaken to verify the support requirements recommended. The support requirements recommended by the mCMRR were found to be relatively identical with numerical analysis results. Support systems proposed by mCMRR can assist mining engineers to assess the stability of underground coal mines or verify the results of other design tools.

  15. An intelligent condition monitoring system for on-line classification of machine tool wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Pan; Hope, A.D.; Javed, M. [Systems Engineering Faculty, Southampton Institute (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The development of intelligent tool condition monitoring systems is a necessary requirement for successful automation of manufacturing processes. This presentation introduces a tool wear monitoring system for milling operations. The system utilizes power, force, acoustic emission and vibration sensors to monitor tool condition comprehensively. Features relevant to tool wear are drawn from time and frequency domain signals and a fuzzy pattern recognition technique is applied to combine the multisensor information and provide reliable classification results of tool wear states. (orig.) 10 refs.

  16. An intelligent object recognizer and classification system for astronomical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Andrew P.; Mcgraw, John T.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of an image-processing system based on AI concepts, which allows input images produced by the CCT/Transit Instrument to be compared with a standard-object hierarchylike network of prototypes presented within the computer as 'frames'. Each frame contains information concerning either a standard object or the links among such objects. This method, by comparison to conventional, statistically-based pattern recognition systems, classifies data as an astronomer would and thereby lends credibility to its conclusions; it also furnishes a natural avenue for the machine's serendipitous discovery of new classes of objects.

  17. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability of two classification systems for intra-articular calcaneal fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Anthony J; Inda, David J; Bott, Aaron M; Clare, Michael P; Fitzgibbons, Timothy C; Mormino, Matthew A

    2006-04-01

    For a fracture classification to be useful it must provide prognostic significance, interobserver reliability, and intraobserver reproducibility. Most studies have found reliability and reproducibility to be poor for fracture classification schemes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of the Sanders and Crosby-Fitzgibbons classification systems, two commonly used methods for classifying intra-articular calcaneal fractures. Twenty-five CT scans of intra-articular calcaneal fractures occurring at one trauma center were reviewed. The CT images were presented to eight observers (two orthopaedic surgery chief residents, two foot and ankle fellows, two fellowship-trained orthopaedic trauma surgeons, and two fellowship-trained foot and ankle surgeons) on two separate occasions 8 weeks apart. On each viewing, observers were asked to classify the fractures according to both the Sanders and Crosby-Fitzgibbons systems. Interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility were assessed with computer-generated kappa statistics (SAS software; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina). Total unanimity (eight of eight observers assigned the same fracture classification) was achieved only 24% (six of 25) of the time with the Sanders system and 36% (nine of 25) of the time with the Crosby-Fitzgibbons scheme. Interobserver reliability for the Sanders classification method reached a moderate (kappa = 0.48, 0.50) level of agreement, when the subclasses were included. The agreement level increased but remained in the moderate (kappa = 0.55, 0.55) range when the subclasses were excluded. Interobserver agreement reached a substantial (kappa = 0.63, 0.63) level with the Crosby-Fitzgibbons system. Intraobserver reproducibility was better for both schemes. The Sanders system with subclasses included reached moderate (kappa = 0.57) agreement, while ignoring the subclasses brought agreement into the substantial (kappa = 0.77) range

  18. Development of a definition, classification system, and model for cultural geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lloyd W., III

    The concept for this study is based upon a personal interest by the author, an American Indian, in promoting cultural perspectives in undergraduate college teaching and learning environments. Most academicians recognize that merged fields can enhance undergraduate curricula. However, conflict may occur when instructors attempt to merge social science fields such as history or philosophy with geoscience fields such as mining and geomorphology. For example, ideologies of Earth structures derived from scientific methodologies may conflict with historical and spiritual understandings of Earth structures held by American Indians. Specifically, this study addresses the problem of how to combine cultural studies with the geosciences into a new merged academic discipline called cultural geology. This study further attempts to develop the merged field of cultural geology using an approach consisting of three research foci: a definition, a classification system, and a model. Literature reviews were conducted for all three foci. Additionally, to better understand merged fields, a literature review was conducted specifically for academic fields that merged social and physical sciences. Methodologies concentrated on the three research foci: definition, classification system, and model. The definition was derived via a two-step process. The first step, developing keyword hierarchical ranking structures, was followed by creating and analyzing semantic word meaning lists. The classification system was developed by reviewing 102 classification systems and incorporating selected components into a system framework. The cultural geology model was created also utilizing a two-step process. A literature review of scientific models was conducted. Then, the definition and classification system were incorporated into a model felt to reflect the realm of cultural geology. A course syllabus was then developed that incorporated the resulting definition, classification system, and model. This

  19. Developing and validating the Communication Function Classification System for individuals with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIDECKER, MARY JO COOLEY; PANETH, NIGEL; ROSENBAUM, PETER L; KENT, RAYMOND D; LILLIE, JANET; EULENBERG, JOHN B; CHESTER, KEN; JOHNSON, BRENDA; MICHALSEN, LAUREN; EVATT, MORGAN; TAYLOR, KARA

    2011-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to create and validate a Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) for children with cerebral palsy (CP) that can be used by a wide variety of individuals who are interested in CP. This paper reports the content validity, interrater reliability, and test–retest reliability of the CFCS for children with CP. Method An 11-member development team created comprehensive descriptions of the CFCS levels, and four nominal groups comprising 27 participants critiqued these levels. Within a Delphi survey, 112 participants commented on the clarity and usefulness of the CFCS. Interrater reliability was completed by 61 professionals and 68 parents/relatives who classified 69 children with CP aged 2 to 18 years. Test–retest reliability was completed by 48 professionals who allowed at least 2 weeks between classifications. The participants who assessed the CFCS were all relevant stakeholders: adults with CP, parents of children with CP, educators, occupational therapists, physical therapists, physicians, and speech–language pathologists. Results The interrater reliability of the CFCS was 0.66 between two professionals and 0.49 between a parent and a professional. Professional interrater reliability improved to 0.77 for classification of children older than 4 years. The test–retest reliability was 0.82. Interpretation The CFCS demonstrates content validity and shows very good test–retest reliability, good professional interrater reliability, and moderate parent–professional interrater reliability. Combining the CFCS with the Gross Motor Function Classification System and the Manual Ability Classification System contributes to a functional performance view of daily life for individuals with CP, in accordance with the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. PMID:21707596

  20. Intellectual Disability: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports. Eleventh Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalock, Robert L.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Bradley, Valerie J.; Buntinx, Wil H. E.; Coulter, David L.; Craig, Ellis M.; Gomez, Sharon C.; Lachapelle, Yves; Luckasson, Ruth; Reeve, Alya; Shogren, Karrie A.; Snell, Martha E.; Spreat, Scott; Tasse, Marc J.; Thompson, James R.; Verdugo-Alonso, Miguel A.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Yeager, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    This Manual contains the most current and authoritative information and knowledge on intellectual disability, including best practice guidelines on diagnosing and classifying intellectual disability and developing a system of supports for people living with an intellectual disability. Written by a committee of 18 experts, "Intellectual…

  1. Performance Evaluation of Multimodal Multifeature Authentication System Using KNN Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Rajagopal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a multimodal multifeature biometric system for human recognition using two traits, that is, palmprint and iris. The purpose of this research is to analyse integration of multimodal and multifeature biometric system using feature level fusion to achieve better performance. The main aim of the proposed system is to increase the recognition accuracy using feature level fusion. The features at the feature level fusion are raw biometric data which contains rich information when compared to decision and matching score level fusion. Hence information fused at the feature level is expected to obtain improved recognition accuracy. However, information fused at feature level has the problem of curse in dimensionality; here PCA (principal component analysis is used to diminish the dimensionality of the feature sets as they are high dimensional. The proposed multimodal results were compared with other multimodal and monomodal approaches. Out of these comparisons, the multimodal multifeature palmprint iris fusion offers significant improvements in the accuracy of the suggested multimodal biometric system. The proposed algorithm is tested using created virtual multimodal database using UPOL iris database and PolyU palmprint database.

  2. An updated evolutionary classification of CRISPR-Cas systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makarova, K.S.; Wolf, Y.I.; Alkhnbashi, O.S.; Brouns, S.J.J.; Oost, Van Der John

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of CRISPR-cas loci, which encode adaptive immune systems in archaea and bacteria, involves rapid changes, in particular numerous rearrangements of the locus architecture and horizontal transfer of complete loci or individual modules. These dynamics complicate straightforward

  3. An intelligent temporal pattern classification system using fuzzy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Max neural network based classifier, and then PSO rule extractor is used to minimize the number of features in the extracted rules. We empirically evaluated the effectiveness of the proposed TFMM-PSO system using the UCI Machine Learning ...

  4. Performance Evaluation of Multimodal Multifeature Authentication System Using KNN Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Gayathri; Palaniswamy, Ramamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    This research proposes a multimodal multifeature biometric system for human recognition using two traits, that is, palmprint and iris. The purpose of this research is to analyse integration of multimodal and multifeature biometric system using feature level fusion to achieve better performance. The main aim of the proposed system is to increase the recognition accuracy using feature level fusion. The features at the feature level fusion are raw biometric data which contains rich information when compared to decision and matching score level fusion. Hence information fused at the feature level is expected to obtain improved recognition accuracy. However, information fused at feature level has the problem of curse in dimensionality; here PCA (principal component analysis) is used to diminish the dimensionality of the feature sets as they are high dimensional. The proposed multimodal results were compared with other multimodal and monomodal approaches. Out of these comparisons, the multimodal multifeature palmprint iris fusion offers significant improvements in the accuracy of the suggested multimodal biometric system. The proposed algorithm is tested using created virtual multimodal database using UPOL iris database and PolyU palmprint database.

  5. A classification framework for clinical information system implementation in hospitals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulendijks, A.; Batenburg, R.; Wetering, R. van de

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, many information system (IS) implementations took place in the healthcare organisations. Mainstream reasons for this evolvement are the increase of quality and safety of care, and reducing costs. As in many other sectors IS implementations in healthcare are complex, and

  6. Genetic Programming Based Ensemble System for Microarray Data Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Hong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, more and more machine learning techniques have been applied to microarray data analysis. The aim of this study is to propose a genetic programming (GP based new ensemble system (named GPES, which can be used to effectively classify different types of cancers. Decision trees are deployed as base classifiers in this ensemble framework with three operators: Min, Max, and Average. Each individual of the GP is an ensemble system, and they become more and more accurate in the evolutionary process. The feature selection technique and balanced subsampling technique are applied to increase the diversity in each ensemble system. The final ensemble committee is selected by a forward search algorithm, which is shown to be capable of fitting data automatically. The performance of GPES is evaluated using five binary class and six multiclass microarray datasets, and results show that the algorithm can achieve better results in most cases compared with some other ensemble systems. By using elaborate base classifiers or applying other sampling techniques, the performance of GPES may be further improved.

  7. Reliability assessment of AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system and Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS) for thoracolumbar spine injuries: results of a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Rahul; Chhabra, Harvinder Singh; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Abel, Rainer; Tuli, Sagun; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Das, Kali Dutta; Mohapatra, Bibhudendu; Nanda, Ankur; Sangondimath, Gururaj M; Bansal, Murari Lal; Patel, Nishit

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this multicentre study was to determine whether the recently introduced AOSpine Classification and Injury Severity System has better interrater and intrarater reliability than the already existing Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS) for thoracolumbar spine injuries. Clinical and radiological data of 50 consecutive patients admitted at a single centre with a diagnosis of an acute traumatic thoracolumbar spine injury were distributed to eleven attending spine surgeons from six different institutions in the form of PowerPoint presentation, who classified them according to both classifications. After time span of 6 weeks, cases were randomly rearranged and sent again to same surgeons for re-classification. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability for each component of TLICS and new AOSpine classification were evaluated using Fleiss Kappa coefficient (k value) and Spearman rank order correlation. Moderate interrater and intrarater reliability was seen for grading fracture type and integrity of posterior ligamentous complex (Fracture type: k = 0.43 ± 0.01 and 0.59 ± 0.16, respectively, PLC: k = 0.47 ± 0.01 and 0.55 ± 0.15, respectively), and fair to moderate reliability (k = 0.29 ± 0.01 interobserver and 0.44+/0.10 intraobserver, respectively) for total score according to TLICS. Moderate interrater (k = 0.59 ± 0.01) and substantial intrarater reliability (k = 0.68 ± 0.13) was seen for grading fracture type regardless of subtype according to AOSpine classification. Near perfect interrater and intrarater agreement was seen concerning neurological status for both the classification systems. Recently proposed AOSpine classification has better reliability for identifying fracture morphology than the existing TLICS. Additional studies are clearly necessary concerning the application of these classification systems across multiple physicians at different level of training and trauma centers to evaluate not

  8. The Groningen Laryngomalacia Classification System-Based on Systematic Review and Dynamic Airway Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Martijn; Dikkers, Frederik G.; Halmos, Gyorgy B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Laryngomalacia is the most common cause of dyspnea and stridor in newborn infants. Laryngomalacia is a dynamic change of the upper airway based on abnormally pliable supraglottic structures, which causes upper airway obstruction. In the past, different classification systems have been

  9. A classification system for one Killing vector solutions of Einstein's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenselaers, C.

    1978-01-01

    A double classification system for one Killing vector solutions in terms of the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the Ricci and Bach tensor of the associated three manifold is proposed. The calculations of the Bach tensor are carried out for special cases. (author)

  10. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Structures, Systems, and Components Safety Classification White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pete Jordan

    2010-09-01

    This white paper outlines the relevant regulatory policy and guidance for a risk-informed approach for establishing the safety classification of Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant and sets forth certain facts for review and discussion in order facilitate an effective submittal leading to an NGNP Combined Operating License application under 10 CFR 52.

  11. Soil classification and carbon storage in cacao agroforestry farming systems of Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is...

  12. A method to assess obstetric outcomes using the 10-Group Classification System: a quantitative descriptive study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rossen, Janne

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, the 10-Group Classification System (TGCS) has been used to report caesarean section rates, but analysis of other outcomes is also recommended. We now aim to present the TGCS as a method to assess outcomes of labour and delivery using routine collection of perinatal information.

  13. Quantifying physical characteristics of wildland fuels using the fuel characteristic classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia L. Riccardi; Susan J. Prichard; David V. Sandberg; Roger D. Ottmar

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fuel characteristics are used in many applications of operational fire predictions and to understand fire effects and behaviour. Even so, there is a shortage of information on basic fuel properties and the physical characteristics of wildland fuels. The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) builds and catalogues fuelbed descriptions based on...

  14. A multilayered approach for the analysis of perinatal mortality using different classification systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, Sanne J.; Korteweg, Fleurisca J.; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Holm, Jozien P.; van Diem, Mariet Th.; Bergman, Klasien A.; Timmer, Albertus

    Many classification systems for perinatal mortality are available, all with their own strengths and weaknesses: none of them has been universally accepted. We present a systematic multilayered approach for the analysis of perinatal mortality based on information related to the moment of death, the

  15. FMCW radar system for detection and classification of small vessels in high sea state conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasselin, J.-P.; Mazuel, S.; Itcia, E.; Huizing, A.G.; Theil, A.

    2012-01-01

    The ROCKWELL COLLINS France radar department is currently developing a FMCW radar system for the detection and the classification of small maritime targets in the frame of the SISMARIS, SARGOS & I2C projects. Several test campaigns have been conducted since 2009 to develop a sensor as well as an

  16. 76 FR 51876 - Medical Devices; Ophthalmic Devices; Classification of the Eyelid Thermal Pulsation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... validate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and safety of exposure to non-ionizing radiation; (2) Design... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 886 Medical Devices; Ophthalmic Devices; Classification of the Eyelid Thermal Pulsation System AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final...

  17. Capacities and overlap indexes with an application in fuzzy rule-based classification systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paternain, D.; Bustince, H.; Pagola, M.; Sussner, P.; Kolesárová, A.; Mesiar, Radko

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 305, č. 1 (2016), s. 70-94 ISSN 0165-0114 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Capacity * Overlap index * Overlap function * Choquet integral * Fuzzy rule-based classification systems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/E/mesiar-0465739.pdf

  18. Duel frequency echo data acquisition system for sea-floor classification

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Navelkar, G.S.; Desai, R.G.P.; Chakraborty, B.

    An echo data acquisition system is designed to digitize echo signal from a single beam shipboard echo-sounder for use in sea-floor classification studies using a 12 bit analog to digital (A/D) card with a maximum sampling frequency of 1 MHz. Both 33...

  19. Developing and Validating the Communication Function Classification System for Individuals with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Paneth, Nigel; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Kent, Raymond D.; Lillie, Janet; Eulenberg, John B.; Chester, Ken, Jr.; Johnson, Brenda; Michalsen, Lauren; Evatt, Morgan; Taylor, Kara

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to create and validate the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) for children with cerebral palsy (CP), for use by a wide variety of individuals who are interested in CP. This paper reports the content validity, interrater reliability, and test-retest reliability of the CFCS for children with CP.…

  20. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Galuppi, Barbara E.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2008-01-01

    The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) for cerebral palsy has been widely used internationally for clinical, research, and administrative purposes. This paper recounts the ideas and work behind the creation of the GMFCS, reports on the lessons learned, and identifies some philosophical challenges inherent in trying to develop an…

  1. Prevalence of secondary impairments of adults with cerebral palsy according to gross motor function classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of secondary impairments in adults with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 52 adults with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for physical disabilities in South Korea. [Results] The univariate analysis showed that the Gross Motor Functional Classification System level was a significant predictor of spondylopathies, general pain, arthropathies, and motor ability loss. The prevalence of these impairments at Gross Motor Functional Classification System level I and II was low compared with the prevalence found at Gross Motor Functional Classification System level III-V. The prevalence of secondary impairments among adults with cerebral palsy at Gross Motor Functional Classification System level III-V was high: loss of motor ability, 42.3%; spondylopathies, 38.4%; general pain, 32.7%; and arthropathies, 28.8%. [Conclusion] In this study, adults with severe cerebral palsy showed a high prevalence of motor ability loss, spondylopathies, arthropathies, and pain. It is necessary to develop intervention programs to prevent secondary impairments in adults with cerebral palsy.

  2. A classification system for plasmids from Enterococci and other Gram-positive bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Valenzuela, Antonio Jesus Sanchez

    2010-01-01

    A classification system for plasmids isolated from enterococci and other Gram-positive bacteria was developed based on 111 published plasmid sequences from enterococci and other Gram-positive bacteria; mostly staphylococci. Based on PCR amplification of conserved areas of the replication initiating...

  3. Development of the standard classification system of technical information in the field of RI-biomics and its application to the web system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sol Ah; Kim, Joo Yeon; Park, Tai Jin

    2014-01-01

    RI-Biomics is a new concept that combines radioisotopes (RI) and Biomics. For efficient collection of information, establishment of database for technical information system and its application to the system, there is an increasing need for constructing the standard classification system of technical information by its systematical classification. In this paper, we have summarized the development process of the standard classification system of technical information in the field of RI-Biomics and its application to the system. Constructing the draft version for the standard classification system of technical information was based on that standard classification one in national science and technology in Korea. The final classification system was then derived through the reconstruction and the feedback process based on the consultation from the 7 experts. These results were applied to the database of technical information system after transforming as standard code. Thus, the standard classification system were composed of 5 large classifications and 20 small classifications, and those classification are expected to establish the foundation of information system by achieving the circular structure of collection-analysis-application of information

  4. Technical Evaluation Report 5: Classification of DE Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Belyk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For their optimal use in distance education (DE, online educational applications need to be integrated within a comprehensive course management system (CMS. Such systems are server-based software that supports the development, delivery, administration, and evaluation of online learning environments. The selection of an appropriate CMS should be considered from the multiple perspectives of the student, the course developer, the course instructor/ tutor, the technical support staff, and the DE institution’s administration. The current evaluation of CMS packages was conducted by a team of individuals with experience and contacts in relation to each of these DE user types. The report compares a series of CMS packages in terms of their range of features, and in relation to their satisfaction of international online education standards.

  5. Features, Functions and Components of a Library Classification System in the LIS tradition for the e-Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satija, M.P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes qualities of a library classification system that are commonly discussed in the LIS tradition and literature, and explains such a system’s three main functions, namely knowledge mapping, information retrieval, and shelf arrangement. In this vein, the paper states the functional requirements of bibliographic classifications, which broadly are subject collocation and facilitation of browsing the collection. It explains with details the components of a library classification system and their functions. The major components are schedules, notations, and index. It also states their distinguished features, such as generalia class, form divisions, book numbers, and devices for number synthesis which are not required in a knowledge classification. It illustrates with examples from the WebDewey good examples of added features of an online library classification system. It emphasizes that institutional backup and a revision machinery are essential for a classification to survive and remain relevant in the print and e-environment.

  6. [Study on biopharmaceutics classification system for Chinese materia medica of extract of Huanglian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yin, Xiu-Wen; Wang, Zi-Yu; Li, Xue-Lian; Pan, Meng; Li, Yan-Ping; Dong, Ling

    2017-11-01

    One of the advantages of biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica (CMMBCS) is expanding the classification research level from single ingredient to multi-components of Chinese herb, and from multi-components research to holistic research of the Chinese materia medica. In present paper, the alkaloids of extract of huanglian were chosen as the main research object to explore their change rules in solubility and intestinal permeability of single-component and multi-components, and to determine the biopharmaceutical classification of extract of Huanglian from holistic level. The typical shake-flask method and HPLC were used to detect the solubility of single ingredient of alkaloids from extract of huanglian. The quantitative research of alkaloids in intestinal absorption was measured in single-pass intestinal perfusion experiment while permeability coefficient of extract of huanglian was calculated by self-defined weight coefficient method. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. What should an ideal spinal injury classification system consist of? A methodological review and conceptual proposal for future classifications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, J.J. van; Audige, L.; Hanson, B.; Chapman, J.R.; Hosman, A.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Since Bohler published the first categorization of spinal injuries based on plain radiographic examinations in 1929, numerous classifications have been proposed. Despite all these efforts, however, only a few have been tested for reliability and validity. This methodological, conceptual review

  8. Classification and Regression Tree Analysis of Clinical Patterns that Predict Survival in 127 Chinese Patients with Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Treated by Gefitinib Who Failed to Previous Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziping WANG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that gefitinib produces only 10%-20% tumor regression in heavily pretreated, unselected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients as the second- and third-line setting. Asian, female, nonsmokers and adenocarcinoma are favorable factors; however, it is difficult to find a patient satisfying all the above clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to identify novel predicting factors, and to explore the interactions between clinical variables and their impact on the survival of Chinese patients with advanced NSCLC who were heavily treated with gefitinib in the second- or third-line setting. Methods The clinical and follow-up data of 127 advanced NSCLC patients referred to the Cancer Hospital & Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from March 2005 to March 2010 were analyzed. Multivariate analysis of progression-free survival (PFS was performed using recursive partitioning, which is referred to as the classification and regression tree (CART analysis. Results The median PFS of 127 eligible consecutive advanced NSCLC patients was 8.0 months (95%CI: 5.8-10.2. CART was performed with an initial split on first-line chemotherapy outcomes and a second split on patients’ age. Three terminal subgroups were formed. The median PFS of the three subsets ranged from 1.0 month (95%CI: 0.8-1.2 for those with progressive disease outcome after the first-line chemotherapy subgroup, 10 months (95%CI: 7.0-13.0 in patients with a partial response or stable disease in first-line chemotherapy and age <70, and 22.0 months for patients obtaining a partial response or stable disease in first-line chemotherapy at age 70-81 (95%CI: 3.8-40.1. Conclusion Partial response, stable disease in first-line chemotherapy and age ≥ 70 are closely correlated with long-term survival treated by gefitinib as a second- or third-line setting in advanced NSCLC. CART can be used to identify previously unappreciated patient

  9. Evaluating the Reliability and Reproducibility of the AO and Lauge-Hansen Classification Systems for Ankle Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Meng-Chen; Yuan, Xue-Fei; Ma, Jun-Ming; Xia, Ye; Wang, Tao; Xu, Xiao-Li; Yan, Yin-Jie; Xu, Jin-Hai; Ye, Jie; Tong, Zheng-Yi; Feng, Yan-Qi; Wang, Hong-Bo; Wu, Xue-Qun; Mo, Wen

    2015-07-01

    Ankle injuries are responsible for more than 5 million emergency department visits each year. The AO and Lauge-Hansen classification systems are widely used in the clinical diagnosis of ankle injuries. This study aimed to analyze the intraobserver reliability and interobserver reproducibility of the AO and Lauge-Hansen classification systems. In addition, the authors explored the differences among physicians' classification responses and evaluated the clinical value for diagnosis. Fifty-six patients with an ankle injury with complete clinical and radiologic data were enrolled. The definition of injury type, the index score typing methods, and the specific study criteria were explained in detail. Five observers, who were orthopedic surgeons, determined the classifications according to both the AO and Lauge-Hansen systems. The classification was repeated 1 month later. Cronbach's alpha and Cohen's kappa test were used to determine interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility. The physicians conducted 560 classifications (56 cases × 5 physicians × 2 times per patient). Average inter- and intraobserver kappa values for the AO system were 0.708 and 0.608, respectively. Average inter- and intraobserver kappa values for the Lauge-Hansen system were 0.402 and 0.398, respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 96.7% for the AO system and 76.0% for the Lauge-Hansen system. The Lauge-Hansen classification system is a comprehensive yet cumbersome system. Comparatively, the AO classification system is easier to understand. This study shows that the AO classification system has more reliability and reproducibility, and thus has more value in clinical practice, than the Lauge-Hansen classification system. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Adaptive road crack detection system by pavement classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilán, Miguel; Balcones, David; Marcos, Oscar; Llorca, David F; Sotelo, Miguel A; Parra, Ignacio; Ocaña, Manuel; Aliseda, Pedro; Yarza, Pedro; Amírola, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a road distress detection system involving the phases needed to properly deal with fully automatic road distress assessment. A vehicle equipped with line scan cameras, laser illumination and acquisition HW-SW is used to storage the digital images that will be further processed to identify road cracks. Pre-processing is firstly carried out to both smooth the texture and enhance the linear features. Non-crack features detection is then applied to mask areas of the images with joints, sealed cracks and white painting, that usually generate false positive cracking. A seed-based approach is proposed to deal with road crack detection, combining Multiple Directional Non-Minimum Suppression (MDNMS) with a symmetry check. Seeds are linked by computing the paths with the lowest cost that meet the symmetry restrictions. The whole detection process involves the use of several parameters. A correct setting becomes essential to get optimal results without manual intervention. A fully automatic approach by means of a linear SVM-based classifier ensemble able to distinguish between up to 10 different types of pavement that appear in the Spanish roads is proposed. The optimal feature vector includes different texture-based features. The parameters are then tuned depending on the output provided by the classifier. Regarding non-crack features detection, results show that the introduction of such module reduces the impact of false positives due to non-crack features up to a factor of 2. In addition, the observed performance of the crack detection system is significantly boosted by adapting the parameters to the type of pavement.

  11. Adaptive Road Crack Detection System by Pavement Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Amírola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a road distress detection system involving the phases needed to properly deal with fully automatic road distress assessment. A vehicle equipped with line scan cameras, laser illumination and acquisition HW-SW is used to storage the digital images that will be further processed to identify road cracks. Pre-processing is firstly carried out to both smooth the texture and enhance the linear features. Non-crack features detection is then applied to mask areas of the images with joints, sealed cracks and white painting, that usually generate false positive cracking. A seed-based approach is proposed to deal with road crack detection, combining Multiple Directional Non-Minimum Suppression (MDNMS with a symmetry check. Seeds are linked by computing the paths with the lowest cost that meet the symmetry restrictions. The whole detection process involves the use of several parameters. A correct setting becomes essential to get optimal results without manual intervention. A fully automatic approach by means of a linear SVM-based classifier ensemble able to distinguish between up to 10 different types of pavement that appear in the Spanish roads is proposed. The optimal feature vector includes different texture-based features. The parameters are then tuned depending on the output provided by the classifier. Regarding non-crack features detection, results show that the introduction of such module reduces the impact of false positives due to non-crack features up to a factor of 2. In addition, the observed performance of the crack detection system is significantly boosted by adapting the parameters to the type of pavement.

  12. Architecturally Significant Requirements Identification, Classification and Change Management for Multi-tenant Cloud-Based Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chauhan, Muhammad Aufeef; Probst, Christian W.

    2017-01-01

    identification, classification, and change management challenges. We have explored findings from systematic as well as structured reviews of the literature on quality requirements of the cloud-based systems including but not limited to security, availability, scalability, privacy, and multi-tenancy. We have...... presented a framework for requirements classification and change management focusing on distributed Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS) systems as well as complex software ecosystems that are built using PaaS and SaaS, such as Tools as a Service (TaaS). We have demonstrated......-time status of the tenant-specific architecture quality requirements can be monitored and system configurations can be adjusted accordingly. For the systems that can be used by multiple tenants, the requirements change management framework should consider if the addition or modification (triggered...

  13. Topological Classification of Limit Cycles of Piecewise Smooth Dynamical Systems and Its Associated Non-Standard Bifurcations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Alexander Taborda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel strategy for the synthesis and the classification of nonsmooth limit cycles and its bifurcations (named Non-Standard Bifurcations or Discontinuity Induced Bifurcations or DIBs in n-dimensional piecewise-smooth dynamical systems, particularly Continuous PWS and Discontinuous PWS (or Filippov-type PWS systems. The proposed qualitative approach explicitly includes two main aspects: multiple discontinuity boundaries (DBs in the phase space and multiple intersections between DBs (or corner manifolds—CMs. Previous classifications of DIBs of limit cycles have been restricted to generic cases with a single DB or a single CM. We use the definition of piecewise topological equivalence in order to synthesize all possibilities of nonsmooth limit cycles. Families, groups and subgroups of cycles are defined depending on smoothness zones and discontinuity boundaries (DB involved. The synthesized cycles are used to define bifurcation patterns when the system is perturbed with parametric changes. Four families of DIBs of limit cycles are defined depending on the properties of the cycles involved. Well-known and novel bifurcations can be classified using this approach.

  14. Reliability of the gross motor function classification system and the manual ability classification system in children with cerebral palsy in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscitelli, Daniele; Vercelli, Stefano; Meroni, Roberto; Zagnoni, Giulia; Pellicciari, Leonardo

    2017-07-10

    Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) are broadly studied in high-income countries, but data concerning their functioning are lacking in developing countries. Therefore, we analyzed their reliability and sensitivity to change in children with cerebral palsy in Tanzania. GMFCS and MACS are two ordinal grading systems used to assess motor functions while observing children's performances. Forty-nine children were classified by two independent physiotherapy students at baseline, after one month and after one year. Reliability and sensitivity to change were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), effect size (ES), standard response mean (SRM), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC). Inter- (ICC = 0.97/0.95 for GMFCS/MACS) and intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.98/0.96 GMFCS/MACS) were excellent. Sensitivity to change was small (ES = -0.14/0.11, SRM = -0.24;/0.24 GMFCS/MACS). SEM was 0.2 points, resulting in MDC = 0.5/0.7 for GMFCS/MACS, respectively. GMFCS and MACS demonstrated excellent reliability, but not sensitivity to change.

  15. AO spine injury classification system: a revision proposal for the thoracic and lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, Maximilian; Audigé, Laurent; Schnake, Klaus John; Bellabarba, Carlo; Dai, Li-Yang; Oner, F Cumhur

    2013-10-01

    The AO Spine Classification Group was established to propose a revised AO spine injury classification system. This paper provides details on the rationale, methodology, and results of the initial stage of the revision process for injuries of the thoracic and lumbar (TL) spine. In a structured, iterative process involving five experienced spine trauma surgeons from various parts of the world, consecutive cases with TL injuries were classified independently by members of the classification group, and analyzed for classification reliability using the Kappa coefficient (κ) and for accuracy using latent class analysis. The reasons for disagreements were examined systematically during review meetings. In four successive sessions, the system was revised until consensus and sufficient reproducibility were achieved. The TL spine injury system is based on three main injury categories adapted from the original Magerl AO concept: A (compression), B (tension band), and C (displacement) type injuries. Type-A injuries include four subtypes (wedge-impaction/split-pincer/incomplete burst/complete burst); B-type injuries are divided between purely osseous and osseo-ligamentous disruptions; and C-type injuries are further categorized into three subtypes (hyperextension/translation/separation). There is no subgroup division. The reliability of injury types (A, B, C) was good (κ = 0.77). The surgeons' pairwise Kappa ranged from 0.69 to 0.90. Kappa coefficients κ for reliability of injury subtypes ranged from 0.26 to 0.78. The proposed TL spine injury system is based on clinically relevant parameters. Final evaluation data showed reasonable reliability and accuracy. Further validation of the proposed revised AO Classification requires follow-up evaluation sessions and documentation by more surgeons from different countries and backgrounds and is subject to modification based on clinical parameters during subsequent phases.

  16. Regulatory use the classification security systems of I and C in VVER type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilizastegui Perez, F.

    1998-01-01

    Presently work the author proposes a classification to the system I and C to the VVER 440 type reactor in categories the regulatory control with a view to establishing the degree to the attention that the regulator should pay to these systems, leaving the importance that have the same ones for the security the installation, during the execution the works that are carried out with this equipment in the stages construction, setting in service and exploitation

  17. Medical Devices; Ophthalmic Devices; Classification of the Diurnal Pattern Recorder System. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-31

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the diurnal pattern recorder system into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the diurnal pattern recorder system's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  18. Classification of agricultural systems based on pesticide use intensity and safety

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Rivera, Jose; Mann, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of socio-economic driving forces in crop protection is proposed to improve the implementation of sustainable strategies. The analysis includes: (1) a classification of agricultural systems based on pesticide use intensity and safety, (2) an evaluation of the profitability of farming systems and identification of socio-economic factors that influence pesticide use and (3) formulation of policy recommendations. We find that for cereals and for fruit trees alike, crop yields are much...

  19. Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of the Magnetic Surgical Instrument System. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the Magnetic Surgical Instrument System into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the magnetic surgical instrument system's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  20. A comparison of the reliability and validity of bone stock loss classification systems used for revision hip surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzard, Charles; Blom, Ashley; Taylor, A; Smith, Evert; Learmonth, Ian

    2003-08-01

    Three femoral (Paprosky, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons [AAOS], and Endo-Klinik) and 2 acetabular (Paprosky, AAOS) bone stock loss classification systems were evaluated for reliability. Four observers (2 consultants, 2 registrars) graded the bone loss in 25 patients using preoperative radiographs. Grading was repeated after a minimum of 2 weeks. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability was investigated. The kappa statistic was used to assess levels of agreement. Intraobserver agreement ranged from poor to good. Interobserver agreement ranged from fair to moderate. The validity of the Paprosky classification system was evaluated, comparing preoperative bone stock loss assessment with intraoperative findings. Agreement levels of moderate (femoral classification system) to good (acetabular classification system) were achieved. Bone stock loss classification systems are shown to be inconsistent and unreliable.

  1. Unsupervised classification techniques as components of a data and information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, R. E.; Jayroe, R. R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The phenomenal increase in the amount of data and information being generated by remote sensing systems is stressed. A total system design approach as a solution to this problem is discussed with specific reference to the data and information system needs for Sortie Lab - a multiple use payload for the Shuttle. The development of a multispectral data processing system as a needed component of such a system is reviewed with emphasis on unsupervised multispectral classification techniques developed and presently in use at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  2. Extending an emergency classification expert system to the real-time environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, K.R.; Robinson, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    The process of determining emergency action level (EAL) during real or simulated emergencies at the Trojan nuclear power plant was automated in 1988 with development of the EM-CLASS expert system. This system serves to replace the manual flip-chart method of determining the EAL. While the task of performing the classification is more reliable when using EM-CLASS, it still takes as long to determine the appropriate EAL with EM-CLASS as it does with the flowchart tracing method currently in use. During a plant emergency, an environment will exist where there are not enough resources to complete all of the desired tasks. To change this condition, some tasks must be accomplished with greater efficiency. The EM-CLASS application may be improved by taking advantage of the fact that most of the responses to the questions in the emergency classification procedure, EP-001, are available directly from plant measurements. This information could be passed to the expert system electronically. A prototype demonstration of a real-time emergency classification expert system has been developed. It repetitively performs the consultation, acquiring the necessary data electronically when possible and from the user when electronic data are unavailable. The expert system is being tested with scenarios from the drills and graded exercises that have taken place at the Trojan nuclear power plant. The goal of this project is to install the system on the plant simulator and/or the plant computer

  3. [Globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals (GHS) and its implementation in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Muneyuki

    2010-01-01

    The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is a set of recommendations by the United Nations, first issued in 2003 as a communication tool for the sound management of chemicals, comprising harmonized classification criteria for physical, health and environmental hazards, a unified format for material safety data sheets (MSDS), and labeling elements including pictograms and hazard statements preassigned to each classification category. The GHS has been introduced into Japan and implemented in the regulatory framework for chemical safety. The Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) adopted the GHS, and the GHS-based JIS rules have become the Japanese standards for labels and MSDS. The use of the JIS format for labels and MSDS is recommended by several competent authorities in Japan although mostly on a voluntary basis. In the workplace, however, GHS-based JIS labels and MSDS have become legal requirements by the Industrial Safety and Health Law since 2006; namely, issuing MSDS in such a format is mandatory for the 640 specified chemicals and also labeling for the 99 targeted chemicals*. Although the GHS provides definitions and classification criteria for 10 classes of health hazards (acute toxicity, skin and eye corrosion/irritation, sensitization, germ cell mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, specific target organ toxicity single/repeated exposures, and aspiration hazard), it does not provide actual classification of chemicals, so that competent authorities and industries need to classify a number of chemicals and/or mixtures. Weight-of-evidence judgment and/or expert judgment would be necessary in many cases. In this paper, the outline of the GHS classification is described and problems of the GHS and its implementation are discussed.

  4. An Independent Inter- and Intraobserver Agreement Evaluation of the AOSpine Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Julio; Zamora, Tomas; Yurac, Ratko; Campos, Mauricio; Palma, Joaquin; Mobarec, Sebastian; Prada, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    An agreement study. The aim of this study was to perform an independent interobserver and intraobserver agreement assessment of the AOSpine subaxial cervical spine injury classification system. The AOSpine subaxial cervical spine injury classification system was recently described. It showed substantial inter- and intraobserver agreement in the study describing it; however, an independent evaluation has not been performed. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs, computed tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging of 65 patients with acute traumatic subaxial cervical spine injuries were selected and classified using the morphologic grading of the subaxial cervical spine injury classification system by 6 evaluators (3 spine surgeons and 3 orthopedic surgery residents). After a 6-week interval, the 65 cases were presented to the same evaluators in a random sequence for repeat evaluation. The kappa coefficient (κ) was used to determine the inter- and intraobserver agreement. The interobserver agreement was substantial when considering the fracture main types (A, B, C, or F), with κ = 0.61 (0.57-0.64), but moderate when considering the subtypes: κ = 0.57 (0.54-0.60). The intraobserver agreement was substantial considering the fracture types, with κ = 0.68 (0.62-0.74) and considering subtypes, κ = 0.62 (0.57-0.66). No significant differences were observed between spine surgeons and orthopedic residents in the overall inter- and intraobserver agreement, or in the inter- and intraobserver agreement of specific A, B, C, or F type of injuries. This classification allows adequate agreement among different observers and by the same observer on separate occasions. Future prospective studies should determine whether this classification allows surgeons to decide the best treatment for patients with subaxial cervical spine injuries. 3.

  5. The rise of a novel classification system for endometrial carcinoma; integration of molecular subclasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Jessica; Leon-Castillo, Alicia; Bosse, Tjalling

    2018-04-01

    Endometrial cancer is a clinically heterogeneous disease and it is becoming increasingly clear that this heterogeneity may be a function of the diversity of the underlying molecular alterations. Recent large-scale genomic studies have revealed that endometrial cancer can be divided into at least four distinct molecular subtypes, with well-described underlying genomic aberrations. These subtypes can be reliably delineated and carry significant prognostic as well as predictive information; embracing and incorporating them into clinical practice is thus attractive. The road towards the integration of molecular features into current classification systems is not without obstacles. Collaborative studies engaging research teams from across the world are working to define pragmatic assays, improve risk stratification systems by combining molecular features and traditional clinicopathological parameters, and determine how molecular classification can be optimally utilized to direct patient care. Pathologists and clinicians caring for women with endometrial cancer need to engage with and understand the possibilities and limitations of this new approach, because integration of molecular classification of endometrial cancers is anticipated to become an essential part of gynaecological pathology practice. This review will describe the challenges in current systems of endometrial carcinoma classification, the evolution of new molecular technologies that define prognostically distinct molecular subtypes, and potential applications of molecular classification as a step towards precision medicine and refining care for individuals with the most common gynaecological cancer in the developed world. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. [GRADE system: classification of quality of evidence and strength of recommendation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis; Flores-Pastor, Benito; Soria-Aledo, Víctor

    2014-02-01

    The acquisition and classification of scientific evidence, and subsequent formulation of recommendations constitute the basis for the development of clinical practice guidelines. There are several systems for the classification of evidence and strength of recommendations; the most commonly used nowadays is the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system (GRADE). The GRADE system initially classifies the evidence into high or low, coming from experimental or observational studies; subsequently and following a series of considerations, the evidence is classified into high, moderate, low or very low. The strength of recommendations is based not only on the quality of the evidence, but also on a series of factors such as the risk/benefit balance, values and preferences of the patients and professionals, and the use of resources or costs. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. A probablistic neural network classification system for signal and image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The Acoustical Heart Valve Analysis Package is a system for signal and image processing and classification. It is being developed in both Matlab and C, to provide an interactive, interpreted environment, and has been optimized for large scale matrix operations. It has been used successfully to classify acoustic signals from implanted prosthetic heart valves in human patients, and will be integrated into a commercial Heart Valve Screening Center. The system uses several standard signal processing algorithms, as well as supervised learning techniques using the probabilistic neural network (PNN). Although currently used for the acoustic heart valve application, the algorithms and modular design allow it to be used for other applications, as well. We will describe the signal classification system, and show results from a set of test valves.

  8. [Diversity and classification system of weed community in Harbin City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Shuang; Liang, Hong; Song, Kun; Da, Liang-Jun

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the causes of weed community diversity and their strategies of adaption to the high heterogeneity of urban habitats, weed communities in the central urban area of Harbin, China were studied, and a classification system was established for the weed communities. There were 175 weed species, belonging to 128 genera and 38 families. The heterogeneous urban habitats and species' temporal niche differentiation resulted in the highly diversified weed communities. The high proportions of mono-species dominance and annual species dominance communities were their response to the unstable urban habitats under human disturbances with high intensities and frequencies. A four-level classification system was established in terms of plant species and habitat conditions. Within this system, the identified 1763 weed communities could be categorized into two types of life form, 5 types of dormancy form, 22 community groups, and 119 dominance communities.

  9. A comparative analysis of biopharmaceutics classification system and biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system: a cross-sectional survey with 500 bioequivalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Chiann, Chang; Dressman, Jennifer B; Storpirtis, Silvia

    2013-09-01

    Although policies of waiving bioequivalence studies are part of the legal framework of various regulatory agencies, there is no harmonization with regard to extension of the biowaiver to drugs other than those with high solubility and high permeability, nor is there any consensus or official endorsement of the biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system (BDDCS). To better understand the applicability of the biowaiver, we carried out a cross-sectional survey to estimate the relative risk of obtaining nonbioequivalent (non-BE) or bioinequivalent (BIE) results for drug products containing drugs belonging to each of the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and BDDCS classes. Five hundred bioequivalence studies were randomly sampled from a database of the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). The drugs were classified according to the BCS and BDDCS, to evaluate how characteristics related to drug and dosage form influence the outcome of bioequivalence studies. The relative risk of obtaining a non-BE result was approximately four times lower for drugs in classes 1 and 3 of BCS or BDDCS when compared with class 2 drugs. Thus, it seems that the final outcome of a bioequivalence study is strongly influenced by the solubility of the drug, but not by its intestinal permeability or extent of metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Early warning, warning or alarm systems for natural hazards? A generic classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Early warning, warning and alarm systems have gained popularity in recent years as cost-efficient measures for dangerous natural hazard processes such as floods, storms, rock and snow avalanches, debris flows, rock and ice falls, landslides, flash floods, glacier lake outburst floods, forest fires and even earthquakes. These systems can generate information before an event causes loss of property and life. In this way, they mainly mitigate the overall risk by reducing the presence probability of endangered objects. These systems are typically prototypes tailored to specific project needs. Despite their importance there is no recognised system classification. This contribution classifies warning and alarm systems into three classes: i) threshold systems, ii) expert systems and iii) model-based expert systems. The result is a generic classification, which takes the characteristics of the natural hazard process itself and the related monitoring possibilities into account. The choice of the monitoring parameters directly determines the system's lead time. The classification of 52 active systems moreover revealed typical system characteristics for each system class. i) Threshold systems monitor dynamic process parameters of ongoing events (e.g. water level of a debris flow) and incorporate minor lead times. They have a local geographical coverage and a predefined threshold determines if an alarm is automatically activated to warn endangered objects, authorities and system operators. ii) Expert systems monitor direct changes in the variable disposition (e.g crack opening before a rock avalanche) or trigger events (e.g. heavy rain) at a local scale before the main event starts and thus offer extended lead times. The final alarm decision incorporates human, model and organisational related factors. iii) Model-based expert systems monitor indirect changes in the variable disposition (e.g. snow temperature, height or solar radiation that influence the occurrence probability

  11. A proposed classification system for high-level and other radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Croff, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of the definition of high-level wastes (HLW) in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and previous descriptions of reprocessing wastes, a definition is proposed based on the concept that HLW is any waste which is highly radioactive and requires permanent isolation. This conceptual definition of HLW leads to a two-dimensional waste classification system in which one axis, related to 'highly radioactive', is associated with shorter-term risks from waste management and disposal due to high levels of decay heat and external radiation, and the other axis, related to 'requires permanent isolation', is associated with longer-term risks from waste disposal. Wastes that are highly radioactive are defined quantitatively as wastes with a decay heat (power density) greater than 50 W/m 3 or an external dose-equivalent rate greater than 100 rem/h (1 Sv/h) at a distance of 1 m from the waste, whichever is more restrictive. Wastes that require permanent isolation are defined quantitatively as wastes with concentrations of radionuclides greater than the Class-C limits that are generally acceptable for near-surface land disposal, as obtained from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's 10 CFR Part 61 and its associated methodology. This proposal leads to similar definitions of two other waste classes: transuranic (TRU) waste and equivalent is any waste that requires permanent isolation but is not highly radioactive; and low-level waste (LLW) is any waste that does not require permanent isolation, without regard to whether or not it is highly radioactive. 31 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  12. Hepatic Clearance Predictions from In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation and the Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Christine M; Benet, Leslie Z

    2016-11-01

    Predicting in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters such as clearance from in vitro data is a crucial part of the drug-development process. There is a commonly cited trend that drugs that are highly protein-bound and are substrates for hepatic uptake transporters often yield the worst predictions. Given this information, 11 different data sets using human microsomes and hepatocytes were evaluated to search for trends in accuracy, extent of protein binding, and drug classification based on the Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS), which makes predictions about transporter effects. As previously reported, both in vitro systems (microsomes and hepatocytes) gave a large number of inaccurate results, defined as predictions falling more than 2-fold outside of in vivo values. The weighted average of the percentage of inaccuracy was 66.5%. BDDCS class 2 drugs, which are subject to transporter effects in vivo unlike class 1 compounds, had a higher percentage of inaccurate predictions and often had slightly larger bias. However, since the weighted average of the percentage of inaccuracy was still high in both classes (81.9% for class 2 and 62.3% for class 1), it may be currently hard to use BDDCS class to predict potential accuracy. The results of this study emphasize the need for improved in vitro to in vivo extrapolation experimental methods, as using physiologically based scaling is still not accurate, and BDDCS cannot currently help predict accurate results. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. Impact of epidural analgesia on cesarean and operative vaginal delivery rates classified by the Ten Groups Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucovnik, M; Blajic, I; Verdenik, I; Mirkovic, T; Stopar Pintaric, T

    2018-05-01

    The Ten Group Classification System (TGCS) allows critical analysis according to the obstetric characteristics of women in labor: singleton or multiple pregnancy, nulliparous, multiparous, or multiparous with a previous cesarean delivery, cephalic, breech presentation or other malpresentation, spontaneous or induced labor, and term or preterm births. Labor outcomes associated with epidural analgesia may be different among the different labor classification groups. The aim of this study was to explore associations between epidural analgesia and cesarean delivery, and epidural analgesia and assisted vaginal delivery, in women classified using the TGCS. Slovenian National Perinatal Information System data for the period 2007-2014 were analyzed. All women after spontaneous onset or induction of labor were classified according to the TGCS, within which cesarean and vaginal assisted delivery rates were investigated (P cesarean delivery rates. Women in group 1 (nulliparous term women with singleton fetuses in cephalic presentation in spontaneous labor) with epidural analgesia had a higher cesarean delivery rate. In most TGCS groups women with epidural analgesia had higher assisted vaginal delivery rates. Epidural analgesia is associated with different effects on cesarean delivery and assisted vaginal delivery rates in different TGCS groups. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Classification of manual abilities in children with cerebral palsy under 5 years of age : how reliable is the Manual Ability Classification System?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plasschaert, V. F. P.; Ketelaar, M.; Nijnuis, M. G.; Enkelaar, L.; Gorter, J. W.

    Objective: To assess the interobserver reliability of the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) in young children (age 1-5 years) with cerebral palsy. Design: Interobserver reliability study. Setting: A cross-sectional study of a hospital-based population of children with cerebral palsy.

  15. Evaluation of the safety and reliability of the newly-proposed AO spine injury classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Alexandre Rd; Joaquim, Andrei F; Ghizoni, Enrico; Tedeschi, Helder; Patel, Alpesh A

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and reliability of the new AO Classification, a recent classification system for Thoraco-Lumbar Spine Trauma (TLST). Retrospective study. We applied the new AO system in patients with TLST treated according to the TLICS. Two researchers classified injuries independently. Eight weeks later, the classification was repeated for intra and inter-observer agreement evaluation. To evaluate safety, we correlated the treatment performed based on the TLICS with the newer AO classification obtained. Fifty-four patients were included in this study, with a mean follow-up of 363.8 days. Twenty-three neurologically intact patients were initially treated conservatively. Their mean TLICS was 1.78 (1-4 points). Four patients underwent late surgery. Thirty-one patients were treated surgically. Their average TLICS was 7.22 points (4-10 points). Agreements in the four independent evaluations according to AO groups and subgroups were of 64.8% (35/54) and 55.5% (30/54) respectively. Kappa index for groups A, B and C was 0.75, 0.7 and 0.85 respectively. Kappa index for subgroups ranged from 0.16 to 0.85. Regarding safety, thirty (57.6%) patients with total subgroups agreement were analyzed. All patients with fracture in groups B and C underwent surgical treatment and patients in group A received surgery according to neurological status or failure of conservative treatment. The newer AO spine classification demonstrated good reliability at the level of groups. Subgroups demonstrated worse and varying reliability. Although the safety analysis was limited due to the low level of total concordance among all evaluations, patients from group A can be treated conservatively or surgically, whereas those from groups B and C are treated surgically.

  16. Public administration archives: state of the art of record management and classification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Reale

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is aimed at presenting the state of art related to the records management in the public sector and, more specifically, to the main tools required for managing current records according to the Direction general for Archives and its specific competencies which imply a role for defining and approving classification and preservation plans. The article analyses various projects developed for the public sectors in the last 25 years in connection with the innovation processes for the public administration and the crucial role recognised to the records management. The paper illustrates the work done by working groups for universities, municipalities, regions and provinces but also for health environment, chambers of trade, banks and educational institutions. With reference to the State institutions, a general picture is presented for ministries such as Ministry of Justice and Ministry for cultural heritage. In the last case, the classification system developed and adopted in 2004 in connection with the electronic registry system is discussed in detail. The paper presents also the project supported by the Agenzia dell’Italia digitale (AGID dedicated to the definition of a common classification plan for administrative functions in the public sector. Even if not complete the picture is able to provide elements to evaluate the tools and their critical aspects, to stress the need for cooperation, to update the present systems and study general methodologies. The contribution is also dedicated to the role of professionals with specific experience in the records management systems for the public sector.

  17. Realizing Low-Energy Classification Systems by Implementing Matrix Multiplication Directly Within an ADC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Zhang, Jintao; Verma, Naveen

    2015-12-01

    In wearable and implantable medical-sensor applications, low-energy classification systems are of importance for deriving high-quality inferences locally within the device. Given that sensor instrumentation is typically followed by A-D conversion, this paper presents a system implementation wherein the majority of the computations required for classification are implemented within the ADC. To achieve this, first an algorithmic formulation is presented that combines linear feature extraction and classification into a single matrix transformation. Second, a matrix-multiplying ADC (MMADC) is presented that enables multiplication between an analog input sample and a digital multiplier, with negligible additional energy beyond that required for A-D conversion. Two systems mapped to the MMADC are demonstrated: (1) an ECG-based cardiac arrhythmia detector; and (2) an image-pixel-based facial gender detector. The RMS error over all multiplication performed, normalized to the RMS of ideal multiplication results is 0.018. Further, compared to idealized versions of conventional systems, the energy savings obtained are estimated to be 13× and 29×, respectively, while achieving similar level of performance.

  18. A Development of Group Decision Support System for Strategic Item Classification using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sung Ho; Tae, Jae Woong; Yang, Seung Hyo; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Korea has carried out export controls on nuclear items that reflect the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) guidelines (Notice on Trade of Strategic Item of Foreign Trade Act) since joining the NSG in 1995. Nuclear export control starts with classifications that determine whether export items are relevant to nuclear proliferation or not according to NSG guidelines. However, due to qualitative characteristics of nuclear item definition in the guidelines, classification spends a lot of time and effort to make a consensus. The aim of this study is to provide an analysis of an experts' group decision support system (GDSS) based on an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for the classification of strategic items. The results of this study clearly demonstrated that a GDSS based on an AHP proved positive, systematically providing relative weight among the planning variables and objectives. By using an AHP we can quantify the subjective judgements of reviewers. An order of priority is derived from a numerical value. The verbal and fuzzy measurement of an AHP enables us reach a consensus among reviewers in a GDSS. An AHP sets common weight factors which are a priority of each attribute that represent the views of an entire group. It makes a consistency in decision-making that is important for classification

  19. A practical and user-friendly toxicity classification system with microbiotests for natural waters and wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoone, Guido; Marsalek, Blahoslav; Blinova, Irina; Törökne, Andrea; Zarina, Dzidra; Manusadzianas, Levonas; Nalecz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Tofan, Lucica; Stepanova, Nadejda; Tothova, Livia; Kolar, Boris

    2003-12-01

    Various types of toxicity classification systems have been elaborated by scientists in different countries, with the aim of attributing a hazard score to polluted environments or toxic wastewaters or of ranking them in accordance with increasing levels of toxicity. All these systems are based on batteries of standard acute toxicity tests (several of them including chronic assays as well) and are therefore dependent on the culturing and maintenance of live stocks of test organisms. Most systems require performance of the bioassays on dilution series of the original samples, for subsequent calculation of L(E)C50 or threshold toxicity values. Given the complexity and costs of these toxicity measurements, they can only be applied in well-equipped and highly specialized laboratories, and none of the classification methods so far has found general acceptance at the international level. The development of microbiotests that are independent of continuous culturing of live organisms has stimulated international collaboration. Coordinated at Ghent University, Belgium, collaboration by research groups from 10 countries in central and eastern Europe resulted in an alternative toxicity classification system that was easier to apply and substantially more cost effective than any of the earlier methods. This new system was developed and applied in the framework of a cooperation agreement between the Flemish community in Belgium and central and eastern Europe. The toxicity classification system is based on a battery of (culture-independent) microbiotests and is particularly suited for routine monitoring. It indeed only requires testing on undiluted samples of natural waters or wastewaters discharged into the aquatic environment, except for wastewaters that demonstrate more than 50% effect. The scoring system ranks the waters or wastewaters in 5 classes of increasing hazard/toxicity, with calculation of a weight factor for the concerned hazard/toxicity class. The new classification

  20. Unlocking the full potential of open innovation in the life sciences through a classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Niclas; Minssen, Timo

    2018-01-08

    A common understanding of expectations and requirements is critical for boosting research-driven business opportunities in open innovation (OI) settings. Transparent communication requires common definitions and standards for OI to align the expectations of both parties. Here, we suggest a five-level classification system for OI models, reflecting the degree of openness. The aim of this classification system is to reduce contract negotiation complexity and times between two parties looking to engage in OI. Systematizing definitions and contractual terms for OI in the life sciences helps to reduce entry barriers and boosts collaborative value generation. By providing a contractual framework with predefined rules, science will be allowed to move more freely, thus maximizing the potential of OI. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparing Methodologies for Developing an Early Warning System: Classification and Regression Tree Model versus Logistic Regression. REL 2015-077

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to explicate the use of logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis in the development of early warning systems. It was motivated by state education leaders' interest in maintaining high classification accuracy while simultaneously improving practitioner understanding of the rules by…

  2. Prognostic value of computed tomography classification systems for intra-articular calcaneus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Michael P; Alton, Timothy B; Holt, Sarah; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Shank, John R; Benirschke, Stephen K

    2014-10-01

    There are several published computed tomography (CT) classification systems for calcaneus fractures, each validated by a different standard. The goal of this study was to measure which system would best predict clinical outcomes as measured by a widely used and validated musculoskeletal health status questionnaire. Forty-nine patients with isolated intra-articular joint depression calcaneus fractures more than 2 years after treatment were identified. All had preoperative CT studies and were treated with open reduction and plate fixation using a lateral extensile approach. Four different blinded reviewers classified injuries according to the CT classification systems of Crosby and Fitzgibbons, Eastwood, and Sanders. Functional outcomes evaluated with a Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (MFA). The mean follow-up was 4.3 years. The mean MFA score was 15.7 (SD = 11.6), which is not significantly different from published values for midfoot injuries, hindfoot injuries, or both, 1 year after injury (mean = 22.1, SD = 18.4). The classification systems of Crosby and Fitzgibbons, Eastwood, and Sanders, the number of fragments of the posterior facet, and payer status were not significantly associated with outcome as determined by the MFA. The Sanders classification trended toward significance. Anterior process comminution and surgeon's overall impression of severity were significantly associated with functional outcome. The amount of anterior process comminution was an important determinant of functional outcome with increasing anterior process comminution significantly associated with worsened functional outcome (P = .04). In addition, the surgeon's overall impression of severity of injury was predictive of functional outcome (P = .02), as determined by MFA. Level III, comparative series. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Medical Classification and Terminology Systems in a Secondary Use Context: Challenges and Perils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Hauke; Gerth, Sven; Katus, Hugo A; Fegeler, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of diagnosis-related groups in the German healthcare system, classifying patient diagnosis and procedures with controlled vocabularies have become mandatory and thus creating a large dataset for secondary use in biomedical research. In this paper we present the analysis of an ICD dataset with regards to potentially reimbursement motivated classification and the effects on precision and recall when considering the change history of ICD codes.

  4. Prevalence of secondary impairments of adults with cerebral palsy according to gross motor function classification system

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of secondary impairments in adults with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 52 adults with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for physical disabilities in South Korea. [Results] The univariate analysis showed that the Gross Motor Functional Classification System level was a significant predictor of spondylopathies, general pain, ar...

  5. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  6. Knowledge acquisition from natural language for expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Fernando

    1989-01-01

    It is shown how certain kinds of domain independent expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods can be constructed directly from natural language descriptions by a human expert. The expert knowledge is not translated into production rules. Rather, it is mapped into conceptual structures which are integrated into long-term memory (LTM). The resulting system is one in which problem-solving, retrieval and memory organization are integrated processes. In other words, the same algorithm and knowledge representation structures are shared by these processes. As a result of this, the system can answer questions, solve problems or reorganize LTM.

  7. Evaluating oral epithelial dysplasia classification system by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Gu, Zhi-Yu; Yan, Kai-Xiao; Wen, Zhi-Ning; Zhao, Zhi-He; Li, Long-Jiang; Li, Yi

    2017-09-29

    Until now, the classification system of oral epithelial dysplasia is still based on the architectural and cytological changes, which relies on the observation of pathologists and is relatively subjective. The purpose of present research was to discriminate the oral dysplasia by the near-infrared Raman spectroscope, in order to evaluate the classification system. We collected Raman spectra of normal mucosa, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and dysplasia by near-infrared Raman spectroscope. The biochemical variations between different stages were analyzed by the characteristic peaks in the subtracted mean spectra. Gaussian radial basis function support vector machines (SVM) were used to establish the diagnostic models. At the same time, principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to verify the results of SVM. Raman spectral differences were observed in the range between 730~1913 cm -1 . Compared with normal mucosa, high contents of protein and DNA in oral dysplasia and OSCC were observed. There were no significant or gradual variation of Raman peaks among different dysplastic grades. The accuracies of comparison between mild, moderate, severe dysplasia with OSCC were 100%, 44.44%, 71.15%, which elucidated the low modeling ability of support vector machines, especially for the moderate dysplasia. The analysis by PCA-LDA could not discriminate the stages, either. Combined with support vector machines, near-infrared Raman spectroscopy could detect the biochemical variations in oral normal, OSCC and dysplastic tissues, but could not establish diagnostic model accurately. The classification system needs further improvements.

  8. Movement imagery classification in EMOTIV cap based system by Naïve Bayes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Vinicius N; Balbinot, Alexandre

    2016-08-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) provide means of communications and control, in assistive technology, which do not require motor activity from the user. The goal of this study is to promote classification of two types of imaginary movements, left and right hands, in an EMOTIV cap based system, using the Naïve Bayes classifier. A preliminary analysis with respect to results obtained by other experiments in this field is also conducted. Processing of the electroencephalography (EEG) signals is done applying Common Spatial Pattern filters. The EPOC electrodes cap is used for EEG acquisition, in two test subjects, for two distinct trial formats. The channels picked are FC5, FC6, P7 and P8 of the 10-20 system, and a discussion about the differences of using C3, C4, P3 and P4 positions is proposed. Dataset 3 of the BCI Competition II is also analyzed using the implemented algorithms. The maximum classification results for the proposed experiment and for the BCI Competition dataset were, respectively, 79% and 85% The conclusion of this study is that the picked positions for electrodes may be applied for BCI systems with satisfactory classification rates.

  9. A new classification system for all-ceramic and ceramic-like restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracis, Stefano; Thompson, Van P; Ferencz, Jonathan L; Silva, Nelson R F A; Bonfante, Estevam A

    2015-01-01

    Classification systems for all-ceramic materials are useful for communication and educational purposes and warrant continuous revisions and updates to incorporate new materials. This article proposes a classification system for ceramic and ceramic-like restorative materials in an attempt to systematize and include a new class of materials. This new classification system categorizes ceramic restorative materials into three families: (1) glass-matrix ceramics, (2) polycrystalline ceramics, and (3) resin-matrix ceramics. Subfamilies are described in each group along with their composition, allowing for newly developed materials to be placed into the already existing main families. The criteria used to differentiate ceramic materials are based on the phase or phases present in their chemical composition. Thus, an all-ceramic material is classified according to whether a glass-matrix phase is present (glass-matrix ceramics) or absent (polycrystalline ceramics) or whether the material contains an organic matrix highly filled with ceramic particles (resin-matrix ceramics). Also presented are the manufacturers' clinical indications for the different materials and an overview of the different fabrication methods and whether they are used as framework materials or monolithic solutions. Current developments in ceramic materials not yet available to the dental market are discussed.

  10. Development and reliability of the Functional Communication Classification System for children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Elizabeth; Caynes, Katy; Johnston, Leanne M

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the development, validation, and reliability of the Functional Communication Classification System (FCCS), designed to classify expressive communication skills of children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 4 years and 5 years (between their fourth and sixth birthdays). The Functional Communication Classification System (FCCS) was developed in 2006 using a literature review, client file audit, and expert consultative committee process in order to devise scale content, structure, and check clinical validity and utility. Interrater reliability was examined between speech-language pathologists (SLPs), other allied health professionals (AHPs), and parents of 48 children with CP. The scale was revised and a clinical reasoning prompt sheet added, then trialled again for 42 children. The result was a five-level system with descriptors and decision-making guides for classification of functional expressive communication for children with CP. Overall interrater reliability was excellent for the final FCCS, intraclass correlation coefficient=0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.95 to 0.98). Kappa values were 0.94 between SLPs and AHPs, 0.59 between SLPs and parents, and 0.60 between AHPs and parents. The FCCS is a reliable tool for describing functional communication in young children with CP, appropriate for use by SLPs, other AHPs, and parents of children with CP. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Osteochondritis Dissecans: Validation Study for the ICRS Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellermann, Jutta M; Donald, Bryan; Rohr, Sara; Takahashi, Takashi; Tompkins, Marc; Nelson, Bradley; Crawford, Amanda; Rud, Christopher; Macalena, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    In this retrospective case series, we utilize arthroscopy as the gold standard to determine if magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee can predict osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesion stability, the most important information to guide patient treatment decisions. It is hypothesized that the classification system of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) will allow for improved assessment of lesion grade and stability in OCD. Routine MRI studies of 46 consecutive patients with arthroscopically proven OCD lesions (mean age: 23.7 years; 26 male, 16 female) were assessed by three radiologists who were blinded to arthroscopic results. Arthroscopic images were evaluated by two orthopedic surgeons in consensus. The OCD criteria of the ICRS were applied to arthroscopy and imaging interpretations. Inter-rater correlation statistics and accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR) grading with respect to arthroscopy were determined. Only 56% of the available MR reports assigned a label of stable or unstable to the lesion description. Of these, 58% of the lesions were deemed unstable and 42% were stable. Accuracy was 53% when reports addressed stability. Utilizing the ICRS classification system, for all three readers combined, the respective sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MR imaging to determine lesion stability were 70%, 81%, and 76%. When compared to the original MRI report, the overall accuracy increased from 53% to 76% when readers were given the specific criteria of the OCD ICRS classification. However, inter-reader variability remained high, with Krippendorf's alpha ranging from 0.48 to 0.57. In this paper, we utilize arthroscopy as the gold standard to determine if MRI can predict OCD lesion stability, the most important information to guide patient treatment decisions. To our surprise, the analysis of the existing radiology reports that addressed stability revealed an overall accuracy in defining OCD lesion stability of about 53%. The

  12. The Biopharmaceutics Classification System: subclasses for in vivo predictive dissolution (IPD) methodology and IVIVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Mudie, Deanna M; Langguth, Peter; Amidon, Greg E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2014-06-16

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) has found widespread utility in drug discovery, product development and drug product regulatory sciences. The classification scheme captures the two most significant factors influencing oral drug absorption; solubility and intestinal permeability and it has proven to be a very useful and a widely accepted starting point for drug product development and drug product regulation. The mechanistic base of the BCS approach has, no doubt, contributed to its wide spread acceptance and utility. Nevertheless, underneath the simplicity of BCS are many detailed complexities, both in vitro and in vivo which must be evaluated and investigated for any given drug and drug product. In this manuscript we propose a simple extension of the BCS classes to include sub-specification of acid (a), base (b) and neutral (c) for classes II and IV. Sub-classification for Classes I and III (high solubility drugs as currently defined) is generally not needed except perhaps in border line solubility cases. It is well known that the , pKa physical property of a drug (API) has a significant impact on the aqueous solubility dissolution of drug from the drug product both in vitro and in vivo for BCS Class II and IV acids and bases, and is the basis, we propose for a sub-classification extension of the original BCS classification. This BCS sub-classification is particularly important for in vivo predictive dissolution methodology development due to the complex and variable in vivo environment in the gastrointestinal tract, with its changing pH, buffer capacity, luminal volume, surfactant luminal conditions, permeability profile along the gastrointestinal tract and variable transit and fasted and fed states. We believe this sub-classification is a step toward developing a more science-based mechanistic in vivo predictive dissolution (IPD) methodology. Such a dissolution methodology can be used by development scientists to assess the likelihood of a

  13. Real-time distributed fiber optic sensor for security systems: Performance, event classification and nuisance mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Seedahmed S.; Visagathilagar, Yuvaraja; Katsifolis, Jim

    2012-09-01

    The success of any perimeter intrusion detection system depends on three important performance parameters: the probability of detection (POD), the nuisance alarm rate (NAR), and the false alarm rate (FAR). The most fundamental parameter, POD, is normally related to a number of factors such as the event of interest, the sensitivity of the sensor, the installation quality of the system, and the reliability of the sensing equipment. The suppression of nuisance alarms without degrading sensitivity in fiber optic intrusion detection systems is key to maintaining acceptable performance. Signal processing algorithms that maintain the POD and eliminate nuisance alarms are crucial for achieving this. In this paper, a robust event classification system using supervised neural networks together with a level crossings (LCs) based feature extraction algorithm is presented for the detection and recognition of intrusion and non-intrusion events in a fence-based fiber-optic intrusion detection system. A level crossings algorithm is also used with a dynamic threshold to suppress torrential rain-induced nuisance alarms in a fence system. Results show that rain-induced nuisance alarms can be suppressed for rainfall rates in excess of 100 mm/hr with the simultaneous detection of intrusion events. The use of a level crossing based detection and novel classification algorithm is also presented for a buried pipeline fiber optic intrusion detection system for the suppression of nuisance events and discrimination of intrusion events. The sensor employed for both types of systems is a distributed bidirectional fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer.

  14. A novel processed food classification system applied to Australian food composition databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, S A; Lacy, K E; Grimes, C A; Woods, J; Campbell, K J; Nowson, C A

    2017-08-01

    The extent of food processing can affect the nutritional quality of foodstuffs. Categorising foods by the level of processing emphasises the differences in nutritional quality between foods within the same food group and is likely useful for determining dietary processed food consumption. The present study aimed to categorise foods within Australian food composition databases according to the level of food processing using a processed food classification system, as well as assess the variation in the levels of processing within food groups. A processed foods classification system was applied to food and beverage items contained within Australian Food and Nutrient (AUSNUT) 2007 (n = 3874) and AUSNUT 2011-13 (n = 5740). The proportion of Minimally Processed (MP), Processed Culinary Ingredients (PCI) Processed (P) and Ultra Processed (ULP) by AUSNUT food group and the overall proportion of the four processed food categories across AUSNUT 2007 and AUSNUT 2011-13 were calculated. Across the food composition databases, the overall proportions of foods classified as MP, PCI, P and ULP were 27%, 3%, 26% and 44% for AUSNUT 2007 and 38%, 2%, 24% and 36% for AUSNUT 2011-13. Although there was wide variation in the classifications of food processing within the food groups, approximately one-third of foodstuffs were classified as ULP food items across both the 2007 and 2011-13 AUSNUT databases. This Australian processed food classification system will allow researchers to easily quantify the contribution of processed foods within the Australian food supply to assist in assessing the nutritional quality of the dietary intake of population groups. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  15. Stability of the Gross Motor Function Classification System in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy: a retrospective cohort registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alriksson-Schmidt, Ann; Nordmark, Eva; Czuba, Tomasz; Westbom, Lena

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the stability and to determine factors that affect change in the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) in a sample from the total population with cerebral palsy (CP) in two regions of Sweden. Retrospective cohort registry study based on the follow-up programme for CP. Children with CP and a minimum of two GMFCS ratings were included. Subtype, sex, ages at GMFCS ratings, time between ratings, number of ratings, assessor change, and birth cohort were analysed in relation to initial GMFCS levels, with descriptive statistics and logistic regression models. Ninety-three per cent (n=736) of children with CP born between 1990 and 2007 were included, resulting in 7922 assessments between 1995 and 2014. Fifty-six per cent of the children received the same GMFCS rating at all assessments, with a median of 11 individual GMFCS ratings (range 2-21) and a median of three different assessors (range 1-10). Changes were often transient; downward change (higher performance) was more likely in GMFCS levels II and III than in the other levels. The probability of upward change (lower performance) was lowest in unilateral spastic CP. The results support the stability of the GMFCS shown previously and add new information on the properties of the classification. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  16. Spondylodiscitis severity code: scoring system for the classification and treatment of non-specific spondylodiscitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homagk, L; Homagk, N; Klauss, J R; Roehl, K; Hofmann, G O; Marmelstein, D

    2016-04-01

    Established treatment options of spondylodiscitis, a rare but serious infection of the spine, are immobilization and systemic antibiosis. However, the available data for specific treatment recommendations are very heterogeneous. Our intention was to develop a classification of the severity of spondylodiscitis with appropriate treatment recommendations. From 10/1/1998 until 12/31/2004, 37 cases of spondylodiscitis were examined regarding medical history, gender status, location and extent of spondylodiscitis, type and number of operations. Subsequently, a classification of six grades according to severity has been developed with specific treatment recommendations. The further evaluation of our classification and corresponding treatment modalities from 1/1/2005 to 12/31/2009 including further 132 cases, resulted in a classification of only three grades of severity (the SSC--spondylodiscitis severity code), with a follow-up until 12/31/2011. Between 01/01/2012 and 12/31/2013, a prospective study of 42 cases was carried out. Overall, 296 cases were included in the study. 26 conservatively treated cases were excluded. The main localization of spondylodiscitis was the lumbar spine (55%) followed by the thoracic spine (34%). The classification of patients into 3 grades of severity depends on clinical and laboratory parameters, the morphological vertebral destruction seen in radiological examinations and the current neurological status. Therapies are adapted according to severity and they include a specific surgical management, systemic antibiotic therapy according to culture and sensitivity tests, physiotherapy and initiation of post-hospital follow-up. 40.6% of patients are associated with neurological deficits, classified as severity grade 3 and treated surgically with spinal stabilization and decompression. 46.9% of patients corresponded to severity grade 2, with concomitant vertebral destruction were dorsoventrally stabilized. The 31 patients of severity Grade 1 were

  17. Inter-Relationships of Functional Status in Cerebral Palsy: Analyzing Gross Motor Function, Manual Ability, and Communication Function Classification Systems in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Ho, Nhan Thi; Dodge, Nancy; Hurvitz, Edward A.; Slaughter, Jaime; Workinger, Marilyn Seif; Kent, Ray D.; Rosenbaum, Peter; Lenski, Madeleine; Messaros, Bridget M.; Vanderbeek, Suzette B.; Deroos, Steven; Paneth, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationships among the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Using questionnaires describing each scale, mothers reported GMFCS, MACS, and CFCS levels in 222…

  18. Pattern Classifications Using Grover's and Ventura's Algorithms in a Two-qubits System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manu Pratap; Radhey, Kishori; Rajput, B. S.

    2018-03-01

    Carrying out the classification of patterns in a two-qubit system by separately using Grover's and Ventura's algorithms on different possible superposition, it has been shown that the exclusion superposition and the phase-invariance superposition are the most suitable search states obtained from two-pattern start-states and one-pattern start-states, respectively, for the simultaneous classifications of patterns. The higher effectiveness of Grover's algorithm for large search states has been verified but the higher effectiveness of Ventura's algorithm for smaller data base has been contradicted in two-qubit systems and it has been demonstrated that the unknown patterns (not present in the concerned data-base) are classified more efficiently than the known ones (present in the data-base) in both the algorithms. It has also been demonstrated that different states of Singh-Rajput MES obtained from the corresponding self-single- pattern start states are the most suitable search states for the classification of patterns |00>,|01 >, |10> and |11> respectively on the second iteration of Grover's method or the first operation of Ventura's algorithm.

  19. Distribution of causes of abnormal uterine bleeding using the new FIGO classification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, F.U.; Yusuf, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To categorise all women with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding attending a tertiary care centre according to new classification system by the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional study comprised all non-gravid women of reproductive age with unpredictable, excessive duration, abnormal volume, and/or abnormal frequency of menses for at least 3 months coming to the outpatient department of Lady Willingdon Hospital, Lahore, from August 2010 to July 2011. The subjects underwent structured history, physical examination and pelvic ultrasonography. Endometrium and hysterectomy specimen were obtained for histopathology where applicable. Possible underlying causes were categorised according to the new classification system. Results: A total of 2109 women comprised 19.6% of total of the 10712 woman who visited the gynecological outpatients clinic, 2109(19.6%) had abnormal uterine bleeding. PALM-COEIN categorization done in 991(47%) cases that showed 30(3%) polyp, 15(15%) adenomyosis, 250(25%) leiomyoma, 66(6.6%) malignancy and hyperplasia, 3(0.3%) coagulopathy, 236(24%) ovulatory dysfunction, 48(5%) endometritis, and 53(6%) iatrogenic. The remaining 155(15%) cases were uncategorised. Conclusion: The classification should facilitate multi-institutional investigation into the epidemiology, etiology and treatment of women with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. (author)

  20. Fault detection and classification in electrical power transmission system using artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Majid; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Rajveer

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the detection and classification of the faults on electrical power transmission line using artificial neural networks. The three phase currents and voltages of one end are taken as inputs in the proposed scheme. The feed forward neural network along with back propagation algorithm has been employed for detection and classification of the fault for analysis of each of the three phases involved in the process. A detailed analysis with varying number of hidden layers has been performed to validate the choice of the neural network. The simulation results concluded that the present method based on the neural network is efficient in detecting and classifying the faults on transmission lines with satisfactory performances. The different faults are simulated with different parameters to check the versatility of the method. The proposed method can be extended to the Distribution network of the Power System. The various simulations and analysis of signals is done in the MATLAB(®) environment.

  1. Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Tiffaney Miller

    2017-01-01

    Research results have shown that more than half of aviation, aerospace and aeronautics mishaps incidents are attributed to human error. As a part of Safety within space exploration ground processing operations, the identification and/or classification of underlying contributors and causes of human error must be identified, in order to manage human error. This research provides a framework and methodology using the Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), as an analysis tool to identify contributing factors, their impact on human error events, and predict the Human Error probabilities (HEPs) of future occurrences. This research methodology was applied (retrospectively) to six (6) NASA ground processing operations scenarios and thirty (30) years of Launch Vehicle related mishap data. This modifiable framework can be used and followed by other space and similar complex operations.

  2. Sexual orientation and gender identity: review of concepts, controversies and their relation to psychopathology classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleiro, Carla; Pinto, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Numerous controversies and debates have taken place throughout the history of psychopathology (and its main classification systems) with regards to sexual orientation and gender identity. These are still reflected on present reformulations of gender dysphoria in both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and the International Classification of Diseases, and in more or less subtle micro-aggressions experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans patients in mental health care. The present paper critically reviews this history and current controversies. It reveals that this deeply complex field contributes (i) to the reflection on the very concept of mental illness; (ii) to the focus on subjective distress and person-centered experience of psychopathology; and (iii) to the recognition of stigma and discrimination as significant intervening variables. Finally, it argues that sexual orientation and gender identity have been viewed, in the history of the field of psychopathology, between two poles: gender transgression and gender variance/fluidity.

  3. [Study on property of biopharmaceutics classification system of berberine in Huanglian decoction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Mei-Ling; Dong, Yue-Liu; Dong, Ling; Liu, Yang; Chen, Jiang-Peng; Yin, Xiu-Wen

    2016-04-01

    The study of single component in the multicomponent environment is one of the basic researches for biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica (CMMBCS). That is to say, the classification research shall be based on the respective lift of solubility and permeability in the multicomponent environment, besides solubility and intestinal permeability of the single component. We chose berberine as the main research object to investigate the changes of its solubility and intestinal permeability in Huanglian decoction. Shake-flask and HPLC were used to detect the solubility of berberine in different pH buffer solutions and different concentrations of Huanglian decoction. In situ single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) and intestinal perfusion with venous sampling (IPVS) were carried out to study berberine's intestinal absorption and absorption into blood, respectively. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Comparison of real-time classification systems for arrhythmia detection on Android-based mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutheuser, Heike; Gradl, Stefan; Kugler, Patrick; Anneken, Lars; Arnold, Martin; Achenbach, Stephan; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2014-01-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is a key diagnostic tool in heart disease and may serve to detect ischemia, arrhythmias, and other conditions. Automatic, low cost monitoring of the ECG signal could be used to provide instantaneous analysis in case of symptoms and may trigger the presentation to the emergency department. Currently, since mobile devices (smartphones, tablets) are an integral part of daily life, they could form an ideal basis for automatic and low cost monitoring solution of the ECG signal. In this work, we aim for a realtime classification system for arrhythmia detection that is able to run on Android-based mobile devices. Our analysis is based on 70% of the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia and on 70% of the MIT-BIH Supraventricular Arrhythmia databases. The remaining 30% are reserved for the final evaluation. We detected the R-peaks with a QRS detection algorithm and based on the detected R-peaks, we calculated 16 features (statistical, heartbeat, and template-based). With these features and four different feature subsets we trained 8 classifiers using the Embedded Classification Software Toolbox (ECST) and compared the computational costs for each classification decision and the memory demand for each classifier. We conclude that the C4.5 classifier is best for our two-class classification problem (distinction of normal and abnormal heartbeats) with an accuracy of 91.6%. This classifier still needs a detailed feature selection evaluation. Our next steps are implementing the C4.5 classifier for Android-based mobile devices and evaluating the final system using the remaining 30% of the two used databases.

  5. Electronic Nursing Documentation: Patient Care Continuity Using the Clinical Care Classification System (CCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenburg, Luann; Meetim, Aunchisa

    2016-01-01

    An innovative nursing documentation project conducted at Bumrungrad International Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand demonstrated patient care continuity between nursing patient assessments and nursing Plans of Care using the Clinical Care Classification System (CCC). The project developed a new generation of interactive nursing Plans of Care using the six steps of the American Nurses Association (ANA) Nursing process and the MEDCIN® clinical knowledgebase to present CCC coded concepts as a natural by-product of a nurse's documentation process. The MEDCIN® clinical knowledgebase is a standardized point-of-care terminology intended for use in electronic health record systems. The CCC is an ANA recognized nursing terminology.

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE-GENERATED RADIOLOGICAL WASTE HANDLING SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site-generated radiological waste handling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  7. Medical Devices; Hematology and Pathology Devices; Classification of a Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Test System. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-03

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) test system into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the CIN test system's classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. We believe this action will also enhance patients' access to beneficial innovative devices, in part by reducing regulatory burdens.

  8. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR DEFENSE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTAINER SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) defense high-level waste disposal container system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  9. An early validation of the Society for Vascular Surgery lower extremity threatened limb classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, David L; Manos, Ginger; Hartley, Michael C; Taylor, Spence M; Langan, Eugene M; Eidt, John F; Johnson, Brent L

    2014-12-01

    The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) recently established the Lower Extremity Threatened Limb Classification System, a staging system using Wound characteristic, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) to stratify the risk for limb amputation at 1 year. Although intuitive in nature, this new system has not been validated. The purpose of the following study was to determine whether the WIfI system is predictive of limb amputation and wound healing. Between 2007 and 2010, we prospectively obtained data related to wound characteristics, extent of infection, and degree of postrevascularization ischemia in 139 patients with foot wounds who presented for lower extremity revascularization (158 revascularization procedures). After adapting those data to the WIfI classifications, we analyzed the influence of wound characteristics, extent of infection, and degree of ischemia on time to wound healing; empirical Kaplan-Meier survival curves were compared with theoretical outcomes predicted by WIfI expert consensus opinion. Of the 158 foot wounds, 125 (79%) healed. The median time to wound healing was 2.7 months (range, 1-18 months). Factors associated with wound healing included presence of diabetes mellitus (P = .013), wound location (P = .049), wound size (P = .007), wound depth (P = .004), and degree of ischemia (P WIfI clinical stage was predictive of 1-year limb amputation (stage 1, 3%; stage 2, 10%; stage 3, 23%; stage 4, 40%) and wound nonhealing (stage 1, 8%; stage 2, 10%; stage 3, 23%; stage 4, 40%) and correlated with the theoretical outcome estimated by the SVS expert panel. The theoretical framework for risk stratification among patients with critical limb ischemia provided by the SVS expert panel appears valid. Further validation of the WIfI classification system with multicenter data is justified. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Time Is Right for a New Classification System for Diabetes: Rationale and Implications of the β-Cell-Centric Classification Schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stanley S; Epstein, Solomon; Corkey, Barbara E; Grant, Struan F A; Gavin, James R; Aguilar, Richard B

    2016-02-01

    The current classification system presents challenges to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), in part due to its conflicting and confounding definitions of type 1 DM, type 2 DM, and latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA). The current schema also lacks a foundation that readily incorporates advances in our understanding of the disease and its treatment. For appropriate and coherent therapy, we propose an alternate classification system. The β-cell-centric classification of DM is a new approach that obviates the inherent and unintended confusions of the current system. The β-cell-centric model presupposes that all DM originates from a final common denominator-the abnormal pancreatic β-cell. It recognizes that interactions between genetically predisposed β-cells with a number of factors, including insulin resistance (IR), susceptibility to environmental influences, and immune dysregulation/inflammation, lead to the range of hyperglycemic phenotypes within the spectrum of DM. Individually or in concert, and often self-perpetuating, these factors contribute to β-cell stress, dysfunction, or loss through at least 11 distinct pathways. Available, yet underutilized, treatments provide rational choices for personalized therapies that target the individual mediating pathways of hyperglycemia at work in any given patient, without the risk of drug-related hypoglycemia or weight gain or imposing further burden on the β-cells. This article issues an urgent call for the review of the current DM classification system toward the consensus on a new, more useful system. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  11. ESHRE/ESGE female genital tract anomalies classification system-the potential impact of discarding arcuate uterus on clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, J; Saridogan, E; Van Den Bosch, T; Mavrelos, D; Ambler, G; Jurkovic, D

    2018-03-05

    What would be a potential impact of implementing the new ESHRE/European Society of Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESGE) female genital anomalies classification system on the management of women with previous diagnosis of arcuate uteri based on the modified American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) criteria? A significant number of women with previous diagnosis of arcuate uteri are reclassified as having partial septate uteri according to the new ESHRE/ESGE classification system which may increase the number of remedial surgical procedures. The ESHRE/ESGE classification system has defined measurement techniques, reference points and specific cut-offs to facilitate the differentiation between normal and septate uteri. These criteria have been arbitrarily defined and they rely on the measurement of uterine wall thickness and depth of distortion of uterine fundus. This was a retrospective cohort study. We searched our ultrasound clinic database from January 2011 to December 2014 to identify all women diagnosed with arcuate uterus on three-dimensional ultrasound according to the modified ASRM criteria. For each woman, the ultrasound images were stored in our clinical database and they were re-examined according to ESHRE/ESGE specifications. The presence and location of all acquired uterine anomalies, such as fibroids or adenomyosis was noted. We applied the two diagnostic approaches as specified by the ESHRE/ESGE classification: the main option (MO) and the alternative option (AO). We used the Kappa statistic to quantify the agreement between the two approaches. We also compared the number of previous miscarriages in women with normal and partial septate uteri according to the ESHRE/ESGE classification. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for the analyses and receiver-operating characteristic curves were constructed to assess the predictive values of the calculated uterine distortion indices for the detection of women at risk of suffering

  12. Feature Selection and Parameters Optimization of SVM Using Particle Swarm Optimization for Fault Classification in Power Distribution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Ming-Yuan; Hoang, Thi Thom

    2017-01-01

    Fast and accurate fault classification is essential to power system operations. In this paper, in order to classify electrical faults in radial distribution systems, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) based support vector machine (SVM) classifier has been proposed. The proposed PSO based SVM classifier is able to select appropriate input features and optimize SVM parameters to increase classification accuracy. Further, a time-domain reflectometry (TDR) method with a pseudorandom binary seque...

  13. TO THE PROBLEM OF LEGAL SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION: CIVILIZED APPROACH. TENDENCIES OF LEGAL FAMILIES APPROACHING IN THE CONDITIONS OF GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rasskazov L. P.

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses various criteria for the classification of legal systems. Special attention is drawn to the civilizational approach, which can be effectively used in the classification of legal systems. In accordance with the civilizational approach in the world there are many civilizations, developing according to its own laws (for example, the Scythian civilization, ancient Egyptian, etc.). In accordance with this approach the history of mankind is a history of the development of civi...

  14. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Cree youth of Eeyou Istchee according to three body mass index classification systems

    OpenAIRE

    St-Jean, Audray; Meziou, Salma; Ayotte, Pierre; Lucas, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Background Little is known about the suitability of three commonly used body mass index (BMI) classification systems for Indigenous youth. We estimated overweight and obesity prevalence among Cree youth of Eeyou Istchee according to three BMI classification systems, assessed the level of agreement between them, and evaluated their accuracy through body fat and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods Data on 288 youth (aged 8–17 years) were collected. Overweight and obesity prevalence were estim...

  15. From Molecular Classification to Targeted Therapeutics: The Changing Face of Systemic Therapy in Metastatic Gastroesophageal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Murphy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological classification of adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma for esophageal cancer or using the Lauren classification for intestinal and diffuse type gastric cancer has limited clinical utility in the management of advanced disease. Germline mutations in E-cadherin (CDH1 or mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome were identified many years ago but given their rarity, the identification of these molecular alterations does not substantially impact treatment in the advanced setting. Recent molecular profiling studies of upper GI tumors have added to our knowledge of the underlying biology but have not led to an alternative classification system which can guide clinician’s therapeutic decisions. Recently the Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network has proposed four subtypes of gastric cancer dividing tumors into those positive for Epstein-Barr virus, microsatellite unstable tumors, genomically stable tumors, and tumors with chromosomal instability. Unfortunately to date, many phase III clinical trials involving molecularly targeted agents have failed to meet their survival endpoints due to their use in unselected populations. Future clinical trials should utilize molecular profiling of individual tumors in order to determine the optimal use of targeted therapies in preselected patients.

  16. NOVEL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR COMBINED HAMARTOMA OF THE RETINA AND RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedania, Vaidehi S; Ozgonul, Cem; Zacks, David N; Besirli, Cagri G

    2018-01-01

    To develop an anatomical classification scheme for combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and specify recommendations for follow-up interval. Retrospective review of patients with combined hamartoma of the retina and RPE examined during a 7-year period (2008-2015). The clinical presentation, fundus examination, and optical coherence tomography were analyzed. Lesions were classified based on location, fundus features, and optical coherence tomography findings. Lesion location: macular/peripapillary-Zone 1; mid-periphery-Zone 2; and far periphery-Zone 3. Associated fundus findings: no retinal traction-Stage 1; retinal traction and/or retinoschisis-Stage 2; and retinal detachment-Stage 3. Optical coherence tomography findings: epiretinal component only-A; partial retinal involvement-B; and complete retinal and RPE involvement-C. Complete ophthalmologic evaluation is recommended at least every 6 months for patients younger than 12 years, with more frequent follow-up in patients with: lesions in the macula/peripapillary (Zone 1) or with retinal traction, retinoschisis, or retinal detachment (Stage 2 and 3). Surgical intervention is recommended in patients with vision loss secondary to macular traction or retinal detachment. A new clinical classification system is proposed for evaluating and managing patients with combined hamartoma of the retina and RPE. The zone and stage of combined hamartoma of the retina and RPE lesion will assist in determining follow-up interval and surgical intervention. Application of a uniform classification scheme will facilitate assessment and comparison of findings across different studies.

  17. Validity of the Communication Function Classification System for use with preschool children with communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Cunningham, Barbara Jane; Thomas-Stonell, Nancy; Oddson, Bruce; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate construct and predictive validity of the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) for use with preschool children with a range of speech and language disorders. Seventy-seven preschool children with speech and language disorders (50 males, 27 females; mean 2y 7mo, standard deviation [SD] 1y) participated in this cohort study. Preschool children had speech and language, language-only, or speech-only disorders. Together with parent input, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) completed the CFCS at time 1. Parents and SLPs then independently completed a validated change-detecting functional communication outcome measure, the Focus on the outcomes of Communication Under Six (FOCUS), three times: at assessment (time 1), at the start of treatment (time 2), and at the end of treatment (time 3). There was a significant negative correlation between CFCS classifications and FOCUS scores at all three measurement points for the ratings by both parents and SLPs (correlations ranged from -0.60 to -0.76). As expected, no correlations between CFCS classifications and FOCUS change scores were statistically significant. This study provides evidence of construct and predictive validity of the CFCS, demonstrating its value as a discriminative tool for use with preschool children with a range of speech and language disorders. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  18. Exploring high dimensional data with Butterfly: a novel classification algorithm based on discrete dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Joseph; Dharsee, Moyez; Nuin, Paulo; Haslehurst, Alexandria; Koti, Madhuri; Feilotter, Harriet E; Evans, Ken

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel method for visualizing high dimensional data via a discrete dynamical system. This method provides a 2D representation of the relationship between subjects according to a set of variables without geometric projections, transformed axes or principal components. The algorithm exploits a memory-type mechanism inherent in a certain class of discrete dynamical systems collectively referred to as the chaos game that are closely related to iterative function systems. The goal of the algorithm was to create a human readable representation of high dimensional patient data that was capable of detecting unrevealed subclusters of patients from within anticipated classifications. This provides a mechanism to further pursue a more personalized exploration of pathology when used with medical data. For clustering and classification protocols, the dynamical system portion of the algorithm is designed to come after some feature selection filter and before some model evaluation (e.g. clustering accuracy) protocol. In the version given here, a univariate features selection step is performed (in practice more complex feature selection methods are used), a discrete dynamical system is driven by this reduced set of variables (which results in a set of 2D cluster models), these models are evaluated for their accuracy (according to a user-defined binary classification) and finally a visual representation of the top classification models are returned. Thus, in addition to the visualization component, this methodology can be used for both supervised and unsupervised machine learning as the top performing models are returned in the protocol we describe here. Butterfly, the algorithm we introduce and provide working code for, uses a discrete dynamical system to classify high dimensional data and provide a 2D representation of the relationship between subjects. We report results on three datasets (two in the article; one in the appendix) including a public lung cancer

  19. Stability of the Gross Motor Function Classification System in adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Anna; Brien, Marie; Plourde, Joelle; Wood, Ellen; Rosenbaum, Peter; McLean, Jennifer

    2007-04-01

    To determine the stability of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels between approximately 12 years of age and adulthood (i.e. > 16y) using a matched chart review. Adult health records from the Ottawa Rehabilitation Centre were matched with childhood health records from the Ottawa Children's Treatment Centre (OCTC). Health records were available for 103 adults (52 males, 51 females) with cerebral palsy (CP; age range 17-38y; mean age 22y [SD 4y]) who had also been seen at the OCTC at a mean age of 12 years (SD 1y). GMFCS levels as adults were: Level I, n= 10; Level II, n= 24; Level III, n= 21; Level IV, n= 30; and Level V, n= 18. Adult participants were classified using the GMFCS at the time they were last seen by a rehabilitation specialist, sometime between June 2002 and June 2005. Corresponding paediatric charts were reviewed and classified by two independent raters blinded to the adult GMFCS levels. GMFCS levels around age 12 were: Level I, n= 20; Level II, n= 13; Level III, n= 22; Level IV, n= 35; and Level V, n= 13. Interrater reliability for childhood health records was determined with a quadratic weighted kappa and was 0.978. Stability of GMFCS levels was also assessed using the quadratic weighted kappa and was 0.895. The positive predictive value of the GMFCS at 12 years of age to predict walking without mobility aids by adulthood is 0.88. If the child is a wheelchair user at around age 12 years, the positive predictive value is 0.96 that the individual will still be a wheelchair user as an adult. This study supports previous findings that interrater reliability when using the GMFCS is very high. It also shows that the GMFCS level observed around the age of 12 years is highly predictive of adult motor function. This provides important information for individuals with CP, their families, and care providers as they plan for future care needs and rehabilitation intervention.

  20. An independent assessment of reliability of the Melbourne Cerebral Palsy Hip Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrader, M W; Koenig, A L; Falk, M; Belthur, M; Boan, C

    2017-10-01

    Neuromuscular (NM) hip dysplasia is common in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). Traditionally, migration percentage (MP) has been used to measure the severity of NM hip dysplasia; however, the MP has some limitations. The purpose of this study is to determine the intra- and inter-reliability of the Melbourne Cerebral Palsy Hip Classification System in the typical paediatric population of patients with CP. A total of 65 anteroposterior pelvis radiographs in patients (age range 12 years to 21 years) with CP spanning all grades (I to VI) of the classification system were identified and collected for analysis in this institutional review board approved study. Four paediatric orthopaedic surgeons and one orthopaedic surgical resident classified each radiograph according to the Melbourne system. Then, at least four weeks later, the raters repeated the process with a re-randomised order of radiographs. Statistical analysis was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) where 0.8 indicates almost perfect agreement. The interobserver reliability was found to be excellent with the ICC of 0.853 (0.813 to 0.887) and 0.839 (0.795 to 0.877). The intraobserver reliability was also found to be excellent with the ICC in the range of 0.838 to 0.933 among the raters. Subgroup analysis indicated no differences in the reliability of observers based on clinical experience. This study independently demonstrates that the Melbourne Cerebral Palsy Hip Classification System for NM hip dysplasia in patients with CP can be reliably used for communication among various healthcare providers and research and epidemiological purposes.

  1. The Eating and Drinking Ability Classification System in a population-based sample of preschool children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2017-06-01

    To determine (1) the reproducibility of the Eating and Drinking Ability Classification System (EDACS); (2) EDACS classification distribution in a population-based cohort with cerebral palsy (CP); and (3) the relationships between the EDACS and clinical mealtime assessment, other classifications, and health outcomes. This was a cross-sectional population-based cohort study of 170 children with CP at 3 years to 5 years (mean 57.6mo, standard deviation [SD] 8.3mo; 105 males, n=65 females). Functional abilities were representative of a population sample (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I=74, II=34, III=21, IV=18, V=23). The EDACS was the primary classification of mealtime function. The Dysphagia Disorders Survey was the clinical mealtime assessment. Gross motor function was classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System. EDACS classification had 88.3% intrarater agreement (κ=0.84, intraclass correlation coefficient=0.95; passessment of feeding skills in children with CP for use in surveillance trials and clinical practice. A rating addendum would be a useful contribution to the tool to enhance reproducibility. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  2. Should the Gross Motor Function Classification System be used for children who do not have cerebral palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Megan; Rosenbaum, Peter; Palisano, Robert; Wright, F Virginia

    2018-02-01

    This literature review addressed four questions. (1) In which populations other than cerebral palsy (CP) has the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) been applied? (2) In what types of study, and why was it used? (3) How was it modified to facilitate these applications? (4) What justifications and evidence of psychometric adequacy were used to support its application? A search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase databases (January 1997 to April 2017) using the terms: 'GMFCS' OR 'Gross Motor Function Classification System' yielded 2499 articles. 118 met inclusion criteria and reported children/adults with 133 health conditions/clinical descriptions other than CP. Three broad GMFCS applications were observed: as a categorization tool, independent variable, or outcome measure. While the GMFCS is widely used for children with health conditions/clinical description other than CP, researchers rarely provided adequate justification for these uses. We offer recommendations for development/validation of other condition-specific classification systems and discuss the potential need for a generic gross motor function classification system. The Gross Motor Function Classification System should not be used outside cerebral palsy or as an outcome measure. The authors provide recommendations for development and validation of condition-specific or generic classification systems. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  3. Guided Classification System for Conceptual Overlapping Classes in OpenStreetMap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Loai Ali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increased development of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI and its potential role in GIScience studies raises questions about the resulting data quality. Several studies address VGI quality from various perspectives like completeness, positional accuracy, consistency, etc. They mostly have consensus on the heterogeneity of data quality. The problem may be due to the lack of standard procedures for data collection and absence of quality control feedback for voluntary participants. In our research, we are concerned with data quality from the classification perspective. Particularly in VGI-mapping projects, the limited expertise of participants and the non-strict definition of geographic features lead to conceptual overlapping classes, where an entity could plausibly belong to multiple classes, e.g., lake or pond, park or garden, marsh or swamp, etc. Usually, quantitative and/or qualitative characteristics exist that distinguish between classes. Nevertheless, these characteristics might not be recognizable for non-expert participants. In previous work, we developed the rule-guided classification approach that guides participants to the most appropriate classes. As exemplification, we tackle the conceptual overlapping of some grass-related classes. For a given data set, our approach presents the most highly recommended classes for each entity. In this paper, we present the validation of our approach. We implement a web-based application called Grass&Green that presents recommendations for crowdsourcing validation. The findings show the applicability of the proposed approach. In four months, the application attracted 212 participants from more than 35 countries who checked 2,865 entities. The results indicate that 89% of the contributions fully/partially agree with our recommendations. We then carried out a detailed analysis that demonstrates the potential of this enhanced data classification. This research encourages the development of

  4. Evaluation and integration of disparate classification systems for clefts of the lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathie H Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Orofacial clefting is a common birth defect with wide phenotypic variability. Many systems have been developed to classify cleft patterns to facilitate diagnosis, management, surgical treatment, and research. In this review, we examine the rationale for different existing classification schemes and determine their inter-relationships, as well as strengths and deficiencies for subclassification of clefts of the lip. The various systems differ in how they describe and define attributes of cleft lip phenotypes. Application and analysis of the cleft lip classifications reveal discrepancies that may result in errors when comparing studies that use different systems. These inconsistencies in terminology, variable levels of subclassification, and ambiguity in some descriptions may confound analyses and impede further research aimed at understanding the genetics and etiology of clefts, development of effective treatment options for patients, as well as cross-institutional comparisons of outcome measures. Identification and reconciliation of discrepancies among existing systems is the first step towards creating a common standard to allow for a more explicit interpretation that will ultimately lead to a better understanding of the causes and manifestations of phenotypic variations in clefting.

  5. On the classification of structures, systems and components of nuclear research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattar Neto, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    The classification of structures, systems and components of nuclear reactors is a relevant issue related to their design because it is directly associated with their safety functions. There is an important statement regarding quality standards and records that says Structures, systems, and components important to safety shall be designed, fabricated, erected, and tested to quality standards commensurate with the importance of the safety functions to be performed. The definition of the codes, standards and technical requirements applied to the nuclear reactor design, fabrication, inspection and tests may be seen as the main result from this statement. There are well established guides to classify structures, systems and components for nuclear power reactors such as the Pressurized Water Reactors but one can not say the same for nuclear research and test reactors. The nuclear reactors safety functions are those required to the safe reactor operation, the safe reactor shutdown and continued safe conditions, the response to anticipated transients, the response to potential accidents and the control of radioactive material. So, it is proposed in this paper an approach to develop the classification of structures, systems and components of these reactors based on their intended safety functions in order to define the applicable set of codes, standards and technical requirements. (author)

  6. A review of congenital lung malformations with a simplified classification system for clinical and research use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seear, Michael; Townsend, Jennifer; Hoepker, Amy; Jamieson, Douglas; McFadden, Deborah; Daigneault, Patrick; Glomb, William

    2017-06-01

    Congenital lung abnormalities are rare malformations increasingly detected early by prenatal ultrasound. Whether management of these frequently asymptomatic lesions should be surgical or conservative is an unresolved issue. The necessary prospective studies are limited by the absence of a widely accepted practical classification system. Our aim was to develop a simple, clinically relevant system for classifying and studying congenital lung abnormalities. We based our proposed grouping on a detailed analysis of clinical, radiological, and histological data from well-documented cases, plus an extensive review of the literature. The existence of hybrid lesions and common histological findings suggested a unified embryological mechanism-possibly obstruction of developing airways with distal dysplasia. Malformations could be classified by their anatomical and pathological findings; however, a system based on the prenatal ultrasound plus initial chest X-ray findings had greater clinical relevance: Group 1-Congenital solid/cystic lung malformation, Group 2-Congenital hyperlucent lobe, Group 3-Congenital small lung. Pathological classification is academically important but is unnecessarily complex for clinical and research use. Our simple radiological-based system allows unambiguous comparison between the results of different studies and also guides the choice of necessary investigations specific to each group.

  7. Cogent Confabulation based Expert System for Segmentation and Classification of Natural Landscape Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAOVIC, M.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ever since there has been an increase in the number of automatic wildfire monitoring and surveillance systems in the last few years, natural landscape images have been of great importance. In this paper we propose an expert system for fast segmentation and classification of regions on natural landscape images that is suitable for real-time applications. We focus primarily on Mediterranean landscape images since the Mediterranean area and areas with similar climate are the ones most associated with high wildfire risk. The proposed expert system is based on cogent confabulation theory and knowledge bases that contain information about local and global features, optimal color spaces suitable for classification of certain regions, and context of each class. The obtained results indicate that the proposed expert system significantly outperforms well-known classifiers that it was compared against in both accuracy and speed, and that it is effective and efficient for real-time applications. Additionally, we present a FESB MLID dataset on which we conducted our research and that we made publicly available.

  8. Topographic, bioclimatic, and vegetation characteristics of three ecoregion classification systems in North America: Comparisons along continent-wide transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R.S.; Shafer, S.L.; Anderson, K.H.; Strickland, L.E.; Pelltier, R.T.; Bartlein, P.J.; Kerwin, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Ecoregion classification systems are increasingly used for policy and management decisions, particularly among conservation and natural resource managers. A number of ecoregion classification systems are currently available, with each system defining ecoregions using different classification methods and different types of data. As a result, each classification system describes a unique set of ecoregions. To help potential users choose the most appropriate ecoregion system for their particular application, we used three latitudinal transects across North America to compare the boundaries and environmental characteristics of three ecoregion classification systems [Ku??chler, World Wildlife Fund (WWF), and Bailey]. A variety of variables were used to evaluate the three systems, including woody plant species richness, normalized difference in vegetation index (NDVI), and bioclimatic variables (e.g., mean temperature of the coldest month) along each transect. Our results are dominated by geographic patterns in temperature, which are generally aligned north-south, and in moisture, which are generally aligned east-west. In the west, the dramatic changes in physiography, climate, and vegetation impose stronger controls on ecoregion boundaries than in the east. The Ku??chler system has the greatest number of ecoregions on all three transects, but does not necessarily have the highest degree of internal consistency within its ecoregions with regard to the bioclimatic and species richness data. In general, the WWF system appears to track climatic and floristic variables the best of the three systems, but not in all regions on all transects. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  9. Documentation of pharmaceutical care: Validation of an intervention oriented classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Karen A; Studer, Helene; Berger, Jérôme; Hersberger, Kurt E; Lampert, Markus L

    2017-12-01

    During the dispensing process, pharmacists may come across technical and clinical issues requiring a pharmaceutical intervention (PI). An intervention-oriented classification system is a helpful tool to document these PIs in a structured manner. Therefore, we developed the PharmDISC classification system (Pharmacists' Documentation of Interventions in Seamless Care). The aim of this study was to evaluate the PharmDISC system in the daily practice environment (in terms of interrater reliability, appropriateness, interpretability, acceptability, feasibility, and validity); to assess its user satisfaction, the descriptive manual, and the online training; and to explore first implementation aspects. Twenty-one pharmacists from different community pharmacies each classified 30 prescriptions requiring a PI with the PharmDISC system on 5 selected days within 5 weeks. Interrater reliability was determined using model PIs and Fleiss's kappa coefficients (κ) were calculated. User satisfaction was assessed by questionnaire with a 4-point Likert scale. The main outcome measures were interrater reliability (κ); appropriateness, interpretability, validity (ratio of completely classified PIs/all PIs); feasibility, and acceptability (user satisfaction and suggestions). The PharmDISC system reached an average substantial agreement (κ = 0.66). Of documented 519 PIs, 430 (82.9%) were completely classified. Most users found the system comprehensive (median user agreement 3 [2/3.25 quartiles]) and practical (3[2.75/3]). The PharmDISC system raised the awareness regarding drug-related problems for most users (n = 16). To facilitate its implementation, an electronic version that automatically connects to the prescription together with a task manager for PIs needing follow-up was suggested. Barriers could be time expenditure and lack of understanding the benefits. Substantial interrater reliability and acceptable user satisfaction indicate that the PharmDISC system is a valid

  10. Calibration of a Plastic Classification System with the CCW Model; Calibracion de un Sistema de Clasification de Plasticos segun el Modelo CCW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcala Riveira, J. M.; Fernandez Marron, J. L.; Alberdi Primicia, J.; Navarrete Marin, J. J.; Oller Gonzalez, J. C.

    2003-07-01

    This document describes the calibration of a plastic Classification system with the CCW model (Classification by Quaternions built Wavelet Coefficients). The method is applied to spectra of plastics usually present in domestic wastes. Obtained results are showed. (Author) 16 refs.

  11. Gaia eclipsing binary and multiple systems. Supervised classification and self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süveges, M.; Barblan, F.; Lecoeur-Taïbi, I.; Prša, A.; Holl, B.; Eyer, L.; Kochoska, A.; Mowlavi, N.; Rimoldini, L.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Large surveys producing tera- and petabyte-scale databases require machine-learning and knowledge discovery methods to deal with the overwhelming quantity of data and the difficulties of extracting concise, meaningful information with reliable assessment of its uncertainty. This study investigates the potential of a few machine-learning methods for the automated analysis of eclipsing binaries in the data of such surveys. Aims: We aim to aid the extraction of samples of eclipsing binaries from such databases and to provide basic information about the objects. We intend to estimate class labels according to two different, well-known classification systems, one based on the light curve morphology (EA/EB/EW classes) and the other based on the physical characteristics of the binary system (system morphology classes; detached through overcontact systems). Furthermore, we explore low-dimensional surfaces along which the light curves of eclipsing binaries are concentrated, and consider their use in the characterization of the binary systems and in the exploration of biases of the full unknown Gaia data with respect to the training sets. Methods: We have explored the performance of principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), Random Forest classification and self-organizing maps (SOM) for the above aims. We pre-processed the photometric time series by combining a double Gaussian profile fit and a constrained smoothing spline, in order to de-noise and interpolate the observed light curves. We achieved further denoising, and selected the most important variability elements from the light curves using PCA. Supervised classification was performed using Random Forest and LDA based on the PC decomposition, while SOM gives a continuous 2-dimensional manifold of the light curves arranged by a few important features. We estimated the uncertainty of the supervised methods due to the specific finite training set using ensembles of models constructed

  12. Fast breeder reactor reference system classification for the ENEA data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righini, R.

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the Reference System Classification (RSC) of fast breeder reactors: it provides a functional system breakdown of the reactor. For each system the following important characteristics are reported: the main function, the mode of operation, its location in the reactor, the main interface system, its main components and the component working environment (fluid and/or atmosphere type). The RSC represent a basic step in organizing the ENEA data bank for the registration and processing of reliability data on typical fast reactor components; it provides a functional component breakdown and represent a plant-unique identification in the process of omogenization of event-data coming from different reactors. In this report it was tried to take into account different generations of nuclear power plants, different plant layouts and solutions: in particular loop and pool reactors are separately treated

  13. Unlocking the full potential of Open Innovation in the Life Sciences through a classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niclas; Minssen, Timo

    2018-01-01

    the identification of research-driven business opportunities. Transparent communication requires a common definition and standard for open innovation, to align both parties’ expectations. In this paper we suggest a 5-level classification system for the level of openness , to reduce the contract negotiation...... complexity and times, between two parties looking to engage in open innovation. The intention is to systematize definitions and contractual terms for open innovation from an operational aspect in the life science industry to reduce entry barriers and boost collaborative value generation....

  14. Classification in the organisation of Digital Documentary Systems: criticalities and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Guercio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a reflection on the Archival Classification with specific reference to the role that this function plays in Digital Documentary Systems. Those aspects have been dealt with in depth both on the methodological and theoretical level and directly on the ground since mid-Nineties of the last century; however, many relevant issues are still unanswered, despite the development of specific software and standards. This paper analyses the recent Italian and International literature, and highlights the delays of the current disciplinary research and of the practical experiences of the last years, that in many cases show an impasse or even a recession phase.

  15. Very rapid dissolution is not needed to guarantee bioequivalence for biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) I drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortejärvi, H; Shawahna, R; Koski, A; Malkki, J; Ojala, K; Yliperttula, M

    2010-02-01

    Currently, the EMEA, FDA, and WHO as regulatory authorities accept rapidly dissolving (>85% dissolved in 30 min) biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) I drug products for biowaiver candidates. In the draft EMEA guideline the requirement has been set tighter, that is, the drug product should be very rapidly dissolving (>85% dissolved in 15 min) to be eligible for a biowaiver. Pharmacokinetic modeling of 32 BCS I drugs was performed to demonstrate that very rapid dissolution is not necessary to guarantee bioequivalence for them. Rapid dissolution and similar dissolution profiles are sufficient criteria for all BCS I drugs. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. Classification of Physical Activity: Information to Artificial Pancreas Control Systems in Real Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Paulino, Thiago Marques Luz; Zaharieva, Dessi P; Yavelberg, Loren; Jamnik, Veronica; Riddell, Michael C; Cinar, Ali

    2015-10-06

    Physical activity has a wide range of effects on glucose concentrations in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depending on the type (ie, aerobic, anaerobic, mixed) and duration of activity performed. This variability in glucose responses to physical activity makes the development of artificial pancreas (AP) systems challenging. Automatic detection of exercise type and intensity, and its classification as aerobic or anaerobic would provide valuable information to AP control algorithms. This can be achieved by using a multivariable AP approach where biometric variables are measured and reported to the AP at high frequency. We developed a classification system that identifies, in real time, the exercise intensity and its reliance on aerobic or anaerobic metabolism and tested this approach using clinical data collected from 5 persons with T1D and 3 individuals without T1D in a controlled laboratory setting using a variety of common types of physical activity. The classifier had an average sensitivity of 98.7% for physiological data collected over a range of exercise modalities and intensities in these subjects. The classifier will be added as a new module to the integrated multivariable adaptive AP system to enable the detection of aerobic and anaerobic exercise for enhancing the accuracy of insulin infusion strategies during and after exercise. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Exploring human error in military aviation flight safety events using post-incident classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Brionny J; O'Hare, David P A

    2013-08-01

    Human error classification systems theoretically allow researchers to analyze postaccident data in an objective and consistent manner. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) framework is one such practical analysis tool that has been widely used to classify human error in aviation. The Cognitive Error Taxonomy (CET) is another. It has been postulated that the focus on interrelationships within HFACS can facilitate the identification of the underlying causes of pilot error. The CET provides increased granularity at the level of unsafe acts. The aim was to analyze the influence of factors at higher organizational levels on the unsafe acts of front-line operators and to compare the errors of fixed-wing and rotary-wing operations. This study analyzed 288 aircraft incidents involving human error from an Australasian military organization occurring between 2001 and 2008. Action errors accounted for almost twice (44%) the proportion of rotary wing compared to fixed wing (23%) incidents. Both classificatory systems showed significant relationships between precursor factors such as the physical environment, mental and physiological states, crew resource management, training and personal readiness, and skill-based, but not decision-based, acts. The CET analysis showed different predisposing factors for different aspects of skill-based behaviors. Skill-based errors in military operations are more prevalent in rotary wing incidents and are related to higher level supervisory processes in the organization. The Cognitive Error Taxonomy provides increased granularity to HFACS analyses of unsafe acts.

  18. Seizure Classification From EEG Signals Using Transfer Learning, Semi-Supervised Learning and TSK Fuzzy System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yizhang; Wu, Dongrui; Deng, Zhaohong; Qian, Pengjiang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Guanjin; Chung, Fu-Lai; Choi, Kup-Sze; Wang, Shitong

    2017-12-01

    Recognition of epileptic seizures from offline EEG signals is very important in clinical diagnosis of epilepsy. Compared with manual labeling of EEG signals by doctors, machine learning approaches can be faster and more consistent. However, the classification accuracy is usually not satisfactory for two main reasons: the distributions of the data used for training and testing may be different, and the amount of training data may not be enough. In addition, most machine learning approaches generate black-box models that are difficult to interpret. In this paper, we integrate transductive transfer learning, semi-supervised learning and TSK fuzzy system to tackle these three problems. More specifically, we use transfer learning to reduce the discrepancy in data distribution between the training and testing data, employ semi-supervised learning to use the unlabeled testing data to remedy the shortage of training data, and adopt TSK fuzzy system to increase model interpretability. Two learning algorithms are proposed to train the system. Our experimental results show that the proposed approaches can achieve better performance than many state-of-the-art seizure classification algorithms.

  19. Classification Of Road Accidents From The Perspective Of Vehicle Safety Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirovský Václav

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern road accident investigation and database structures are focused on accident analysis and classification from the point of view of the accident itself. The presented article offers a new approach, which will describe the accident from the point of view of integrated safety vehicle systems. Seven main categories have been defined to specify the level of importance of automated system intervention. One of the proposed categories is a new approach to defining the collision probability of an ego-vehicle with another object. This approach focuses on determining a 2-D reaction space, which describes all possible positions of the vehicle or other moving object in the specified amount of time in the future. This is to be used for defining the probability of the vehicles interacting - when the intersection of two reaction spaces exists, an action has to be taken on the side of ego-vehicle. The currently used 1-D quantity of TTC (time-to-collision can be superseded by the new reaction space variable. Such new quantity, whose basic idea is described in the article, enables the option of counting not only with necessary braking time, but mitigation by changing direction is then easily feasible. Finally, transparent classification measures of a probable accident are proposed. Their application is highly effective not only during basic accident comparison, but also for an on-board safety system.

  20. Modern Methods of Multidimensional Data Visualization: Analysis, Classification, Implementation, and Applications in Technical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with theoretical and practical aspects of solving the problem of visualization of multidimensional data as an effective means of multivariate analysis of systems. Several classifications are proposed for visualization techniques, according to data types, visualization objects, the method of transformation of coordinates and data. To represent classification are used charts with links to the relevant work. The article also proposes two classifications of modern trends in display technology, including integration of visualization techniques as one of the modern trends of development, along with the introduction of interactive technologies and the dynamics of development processes. It describes some approaches to the visualization problem, which are concerned with fulfilling the needs. The needs are generated by the relevant tasks such as information retrieval in global networks, development of bioinformatics, study and control of business processes, development of regions, etc. The article highlights modern visualization tools, which are capable of improving the efficiency of the multivariate analysis and searching for solutions in multi-objective optimization of technical systems, but are not very actively used for such studies. These are horizontal graphs, graphics "quantile-quantile", etc. The paper proposes to use Choropleth cards traditionally used in cartography for simultaneous presentation of the distribution parameters of several criteria in the space. It notes that visualizations of graphs in network applications can be more actively used to describe the control system. The article suggests using the heat maps to provide graphical representation of the sensitivity of the system quality criteria under variations of options (multivariate analysis of technical systems. It also mentions that it is useful to extend the supervising heat maps to the task of estimating quality of identify in constructing system models. A

  1. MACHINE LEARNING IMPLEMENTATION FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF ATTACKS ON WEB SYSTEMS. PART 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Smirnova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of applying machine learning for the classification of malicious requests to aWeb application is considered. This approach excludes the use of deterministic analysis systems (for example, expert systems,and is based on the application of a cascade of neural networks or perceptrons on an approximate model to the real humanbrain. The main idea of the work is to enable to describe complex attack vectors consisting of feature sets, abstract terms forcompiling a training sample, controlling the quality of recognition and classifying each of the layers (networks participatingin the work, with the ability to adjust not the entire network, but only a small part of it, in the training of which a mistake orinaccuracy crept in. The design of the developed network can be described as a cascaded, scalable neural network.When using neural networks to detect attacks on web systems, the issue of vectorization and normalization of features isacute. The most commonly used methods for solving these problems are not designed for the case of deliberate distortion ofthe signs of an attack.The proposed approach makes it possible to obtain a neural network that has been studied in more detail by small features,and also to eliminate the normalization issues in order to avoid deliberately bypassing the intrusion detection system. Byisolating one more group of neurons in the network and teaching it to samples containing various variants of circumvention ofthe attack classification, the developed intrusion detection system remains able to classify any types of attacks as well as theiraggregates, putting forward more stringent measures to counteract attacks. This allows you to follow the life cycle of theattack in more detail: from the starting trial attack to deliberate sophisticated attempts to bypass the system and introducemore decisive measures to actively counteract the attack, eliminating the chances of a false alarm system.

  2. Different classification systems yield different dementia occurrence among nonagenarians and centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioggiosi, Philippe; Forti, Paola; Ravaglia, Giovanni; Berardi, Domenico; Ferrari, Giuseppe; De Ronchi, Diana

    2004-01-01

    Literature data consistently show different prevalence estimates of dementia when different classification systems are used in the same population. Very few data are available for the oldest old of the elderly. We investigated the occurrence of dementia among 34 nonagenarians and centenarians according to four classification systems: the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition revised (DSM-III-R) and fourth edition (DSM-IV), the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10), and the Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly (CAMDEX). Cognitive functioning, work, social function and independence in activities of daily living were evaluated by using an extensive neuropsychological examination. The prevalence (95% CI) of dementia was the following: 47.1% (95% CI 30.3-63.8) with the DSM-III-R criteria, 41.2% (95% CI 24.6-57.7) with the DSM-IV criteria, 29.4% (95% CI 14.1-44.7) with the ICD-10 criteria and 38.2% (95% CI 21.9-54.6) with the CAMDEX. The factors that best predicted disagreement between DSM-III-R and DSM-IV were calculation impairment and the presence or absence of personality changes. DSM-III-R and ICD-10 were differentiated by the weight given to executive functions that all have to be impaired according to ICD-10, whereas progressive deterioration differentiated CAMDEX from DSM-III-R. It should be noted that although the DSM-III-R diagnoses differ by a factor of 1.6 times from the ICD-10 and 1.2 times from the CAMDEX diagnoses, we are speaking about dementia, which is very frequent in nonagenarians and centenarians. Moreover, with regard to public health, an estimation of the number of subjects who will lose their autonomy is rather more useful and informative than simple prevalence figures of dementia by itself. In this light, classification systems, such as the ICD-10, that do not include impairment of social function as a

  3. The National Ecosystem Services Classification System: A Framework for Identifying and Reducing Relevant Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, C. R.; Sinha, P.; Amanda, N.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years the gap between what scientists know and what policymakers should appreciate in environmental decision making has received more attention, as the costs of the disconnect have become more apparent to both groups. Particularly for water-related policies, the EPA's Office of Water has struggled with benefit estimates held low by the inability to quantify ecological and economic effects that theory, modeling, and anecdotal or isolated case evidence suggest may prove to be larger. Better coordination with ecologists and hydrologists is being explored as a solution. The ecosystem services (ES) concept now nearly two decades old links ecosystem functions and processes to the human value system. But there remains no clear mapping of which ecosystem goods and services affect which individual or economic values. The National Ecosystem Services Classification System (NESCS, 'nexus') project brings together ecologists, hydrologists, and social scientists to do this mapping for aquatic and other ecosystem service-generating systems. The objective is to greatly reduce the uncertainty in water-related policy making by mapping and ultimately quantifying the various functions and products of aquatic systems, as well as how changes to aquatic systems impact the human economy and individual levels of non-monetary appreciation for those functions and products. Primary challenges to fostering interaction between scientists, social scientists, and policymakers are lack of a common vocabulary, and the need for a cohesive comprehensive framework that organizes concepts across disciplines and accommodates scientific data from a range of sources. NESCS builds the vocabulary and the framework so both may inform a scalable transdisciplinary policy-making application. This talk presents for discussion the process and progress in developing both this vocabulary and a classifying framework capable of bridging the gap between a newer but existing ecosystem services classification

  4. A new method for design and reduction of neuro-fuzzy classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cpałka, Krzysztof

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new class of neuro-fuzzy systems. Moreover, we develop a novel method for reduction of such systems without the deterioration of their accuracy. The reduction algorithm gradually eliminates inputs, rules, antecedents, and the number of discretization points of integrals in the center of area defuzzification method. It then automatically detects and merges similar input and output fuzzy sets. Through computer simulations it is shown that accuracy of the system after reduction and merging has not deteriorated despite the fact that in some cases up to 54% of various parameters and 74% of inputs were eliminated. The reduction algorithm has been tested using well-known classification benchmarks.

  5. Comparison of Pattern Classification Methods in Crossarm Reuse Judgement System Based on Rust Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, Michiko; Murata, Hiroshi; Onoda, Takashi; Ohashi, Tohru; Kato, Seiji

    Japanese electric power companies currently utilize existing equipments completely and maintain facilities effectively. Human experts presently judge various hardwares whether they are be reusable or not to utilize equipments completely. Especially, this paper considers about crossarm reuse judgement. This judgement is based on rust, which attaches on crossarms, by human experts. However, this judgement depends on human expertise and it is difficult to keep constant judgement accuracy. Electric power companies want to take constant and good judgement accuracy. Therefore, we develop a crossarm reuse judgement system based on rust images using machine learning techniques. The system consists of commercial microscope and standard note PC to keep the cost. And we estimate the judgement accuracy of various pattern classification methods without the special image processing such as extracting features. The results show that support vector machine is the most suitable method for this judgement system.

  6. Ecosystem services classification: A systems ecology perspective of the cascade framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Notte, Alessandra; D'Amato, Dalia; Mäkinen, Hanna; Paracchini, Maria Luisa; Liquete, Camino; Egoh, Benis; Geneletti, Davide; Crossman, Neville D

    2017-03-01

    Ecosystem services research faces several challenges stemming from the plurality of interpretations of classifications and terminologies. In this paper we identify two main challenges with current ecosystem services classification systems: i) the inconsistency across concepts, terminology and definitions, and; ii) the mix up of processes and end-state benefits, or flows and assets. Although different ecosystem service definitions and interpretations can be valuable for enriching the research landscape, it is necessary to address the existing ambiguity to improve comparability among ecosystem-service-based approaches. Using the cascade framework as a reference, and Systems Ecology as a theoretical underpinning, we aim to address the ambiguity across typologies. The cascade framework links ecological processes with elements of human well-being following a pattern similar to a production chain. Systems Ecology is a long-established discipline which provides insight into complex relationships between people and the environment. We present a refreshed conceptualization of ecosystem services which can support ecosystem service assessment techniques and measurement. We combine the notions of biomass, information and interaction from system ecology, with the ecosystem services conceptualization to improve definitions and clarify terminology. We argue that ecosystem services should be defined as the interactions (i.e. processes) of the ecosystem that produce a change in human well-being, while ecosystem components or goods, i.e. countable as biomass units, are only proxies in the assessment of such changes. Furthermore, Systems Ecology can support a re-interpretation of the ecosystem services conceptualization and related applied research, where more emphasis is needed on the underpinning complexity of the ecological system.

  7. Classification as a generic tool for characterising status and changes of regional scale groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Roland; Haaf, Ezra

    2016-04-01

    the behavior of groundwater systems. It is based on the hypothesis that similar groundwater systems respond similarly to similar impacts. At its core is the classification of (i) static hydrogeological characteristics (such as aquifer geometry and hydraulic properties), (ii) dynamic changes of the boundary conditions (such as recharge, water levels in surface waters), and (iii) dynamic groundwater system responses (groundwater head and chemical parameters). The dependencies of system responses on explanatory variables are used to map knowledge from observed locations to areas without measurements. Classification of static and dynamic system features combined with information about known system properties and their dependencies provide insight into system behavior that cannot be directly derived through the analysis of raw data. Classification and dependency analysis could finally lead to a new framework for groundwater system assessment on the regional scale as a replacement or supplement to numerical groundwater models and catchment scale hydrological models. This contribution focusses on the main hydrogeological concepts underlying the approach while another EGU contribution (Haaf and Barthel, 2016) explains the methodologies used to classify groundwater systems. References: Barthel, R., 2014. A call for more fundamental science in regional hydrogeology. Hydrogeol J, 22(3): 507-510. Barthel, R., Banzhaf, S., 2016. Groundwater and Surface Water Interaction at the Regional-scale - A Review with Focus on Regional Integrated Models. Water Resour Manag, 30(1): 1-32. Haaf, E., Barthel, R., 2016. An approach for classification of hydrogeological systems at the regional scale based on groundwater hydrographs. Abstract submitted to EGU General Assembly 2016, Vienna, Austria.

  8. An Automated Artificial Neural Network System for Land Use/Land Cover Classification from Landsat TM Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Khorram

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on an automated ANN classification system consisting of two modules: an unsupervised Kohonen’s Self-Organizing Mapping (SOM neural network module, and a supervised Multilayer Perceptron (MLP neural network module using the Backpropagation (BP training algorithm. Two training algorithms were provided for the SOM network module: the standard SOM, and a refined SOM learning algorithm which incorporated Simulated Annealing (SA. The ability of our automated ANN system to perform Land-Use/Land-Cover (LU/LC classifications of a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM image was tested using a supervised MLP network, an unsupervised SOM network, and a combination of SOM with SA network. Our case study demonstrated that the ANN classification system fulfilled the tasks of network training pattern creation, network training, and network generalization. The results from the three networks were assessed via a comparison with reference data derived from the high spatial resolution Digital Colour Infrared (CIR Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quad (DOQQ data. The supervised MLP network obtained the most accurate classification accuracy as compared to the two unsupervised SOM networks. Additionally, the classification performance of the refined SOM network was found to be significantly better than that of the standard SOM network essentially due to the incorporation of SA. This is mainly due to the SA-assisted classification utilizing the scheduling cooling scheme. It is concluded that our automated ANN classification system can be utilized for LU/LC applications and will be particularly useful when traditional statistical classification methods are not suitable due to a statistically abnormal distribution of the input data.

  9. The Communication Function Classification System: cultural adaptation, validity, and reliability of the Farsi version for patients with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Zahra; Joveini, Ghodsiye; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza

    2015-03-01

    This study developed a Farsi language Communication Function Classification System and then tested its reliability and validity. Communication Function Classification System is designed to classify the communication functions of individuals with cerebral palsy. Up until now, there has been no instrument for assessment of this communication function in Iran. The English Communication Function Classification System was translated into Farsi and cross-culturally modified by a panel of experts. Professionals and parents then assessed the content validity of the modified version. A backtranslation of the Farsi version was confirmed by the developer of the English Communication Function Classification System. Face validity was assessed by therapists and parents of 10 patients. The Farsi Communication Function Classification System was administered to 152 individuals with cerebral palsy (age, 2 to 18 years; median age, 10 years; mean age, 9.9 years; standard deviation, 4.3 years). Inter-rater reliability was analyzed between parents, occupational therapists, and speech and language pathologists. The test-retest reliability was assessed for 75 patients with a 14 day interval between tests. The inter-rater reliability of the Communication Function Classification System was 0.81 between speech and language pathologists and occupational therapists, 0.74 between parents and occupational therapists, and 0.88 between parents and speech and language pathologists. The test-retest reliability was 0.96 for occupational therapists, 0.98 for speech and language pathologists, and 0.94 for parents. The findings suggest that the Farsi version of Communication Function Classification System is a reliable and valid measure that can be used in clinical settings to assess communication function in patients with cerebral palsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between patient classification systems and nurse staffing costs in intensive care units: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafseth, Siv K; Tønnessen, Tor Inge; Fagerström, Lisbeth

    2018-04-01

    Nurse staffing costs represent approximately 60% of total intensive care unit costs. In order to analyse resource allocation in intensive care, we examined the association between nurse staffing costs and two patient classification systems: the nursing activities score (NAS) and nine equivalents of nursing manpower use score (NEMS). A retrospective descriptive correlational analysis of nurse staffing costs and data of 6390 patients extracted from a data warehouse. Three intensive care units in a university hospital and one in a regional hospital in Norway. Nurse staffing costs, NAS and NEMS. For merged data from all units, the NAS was more strongly correlated with monthly nurse staffing costs than was the NEMS. On separate analyses of each ICU, correlations were present for the NAS on basic costs and external overtime costs but were not significant. The annual mean nurse staffing cost for 1% of NAS was 20.9-23.1 euros in the units, which was comparable to 53.3-81.5 euros for 1 NEMS point. A significant association was found between monthly costs, NAS, and NEMS. Cost of care should be based on individual patients' nursing care needs. The NAS makes nurses' workload visible and may be a helpful classification system in future planning and budgeting of intensive care resources. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of soft segment modeling on a context independent phoneme classification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razzazi, F.; Sayadiyan, A.

    2007-01-01

    The geometric distribution of states duration is one of the main performance limiting assumptions of hidden Markov modeling of speech signals. Stochastic segment models, generally, and segmental HMM, specifically overcome this deficiency partly at the cost of more complexity in both training and recognition phases. In addition to this assumption, the gradual temporal changes of speech statistics has not been modeled in HMM. In this paper, a new duration modeling approach is presented. The main idea of the model is to consider the effect of adjacent segments on the probability density function estimation and evaluation of each acoustic segment. This idea not only makes the model robust against segmentation errors, but also it models gradual change from one segment to the next one with a minimum set of parameters. The proposed idea is analytically formulated and tested on a TIMIT based context independent phenomena classification system. During the test procedure, the phoneme classification of different phoneme classes was performed by applying various proposed recognition algorithms. The system was optimized and the results have been compared with a continuous density hidden Markov model (CDHMM) with similar computational complexity. The results show 8-10% improvement in phoneme recognition rate in comparison with standard continuous density hidden Markov model. This indicates improved compatibility of the proposed model with the speech nature. (author)

  12. Computer-Assisted Decision Support System in Pulmonary Cancer detection and stage classification on CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Anum; Sheng, Bin; Li, Ping; Hou, Xuhong; Wei, Xiaoer; Qin, Jing; Feng, Dagan

    2018-03-01

    Pulmonary cancer is considered as one of the major causes of death worldwide. For the detection of lung cancer, computer-assisted diagnosis (CADx) systems have been designed. Internet-of-Things (IoT) has enabled ubiquitous internet access to biomedical datasets and techniques; in result, the progress in CADx is significant. Unlike the conventional CADx, deep learning techniques have the basic advantage of an automatic exploitation feature as they have the ability to learn mid and high level image representations. We proposed a Computer-Assisted Decision Support System in Pulmonary Cancer by using the novel deep learning based model and metastasis information obtained from MBAN (Medical Body Area Network). The proposed model, DFCNet, is based on the deep fully convolutional neural network (FCNN) which is used for classification of each detected pulmonary nodule into four lung cancer stages. The performance of proposed work is evaluated on different datasets with varying scan conditions. Comparison of proposed classifier is done with the existing CNN techniques. Overall accuracy of CNN and DFCNet was 77.6% and 84.58%, respectively. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of proposed method for the detection and classification of lung cancer nodules. These results demonstrate the potential for the proposed technique in helping the radiologists in improving nodule detection accuracy with efficiency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Computed aided system for separation and classification of the abnormal erythrocytes in human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wąsowicz, Michał; Grochowski, Michał; Kulka, Marek; Mikołajczyk, Agnieszka; Ficek, Mateusz; Karpieńko, Katarzyna; Cićkiewicz, Maciej

    2017-12-01

    The human peripheral blood consists of cells (red cells, white cells, and platelets) suspended in plasma. In the following research the team assessed an influence of nanodiamond particles on blood elements over various periods of time. The material used in the study consisted of samples taken from ten healthy humans of various age, different blood types and both sexes. The markings were leaded by adding to the blood unmodified diamonds and oxidation modified. The blood was put under an impact of two diamond concentrations: 20μl and 100μl. The amount of abnormal cells increased with time. The percentage of echinocytes as a result of interaction with nanodiamonds in various time intervals for individual specimens was scarce. The impact of the two diamond types had no clinical importance on red blood cells. It is supposed that as a result of longlasting exposure a dehydratation of red cells takes place, because of the function of the cells. The analysis of an influence of nanodiamond particles on blood elements was supported by computer system designed for automatic counting and classification of the Red Blood Cells (RBC). The system utilizes advanced image processing methods for RBCs separation and counting and Eigenfaces method coupled with the neural networks for RBCs classification into normal and abnormal cells purposes.

  14. Forecasting oral absorption across biopharmaceutics classification system classes with physiologically based pharmacokinetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansmann, Simone; Darwich, Adam; Margolskee, Alison; Aarons, Leon; Dressman, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was (1) to determine how closely physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models can predict oral bioavailability using a priori knowledge of drug-specific properties and (2) to examine the influence of the biopharmaceutics classification system class on the simulation success. Simcyp Simulator, GastroPlus ™ and GI-Sim were used. Compounds with published Biowaiver monographs (bisoprolol (BCS I), nifedipine (BCS II), cimetidine (BCS III), furosemide (BCS IV)) were selected to ensure availability of accurate and reproducible data for all required parameters. Simulation success was evaluated with the average fold error (AFE) and absolute average fold error (AAFE). Parameter sensitivity analysis (PSA) to selected parameters was performed. Plasma concentration-time profiles after intravenous administration were forecast within an AAFE biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class. The reliability of literature permeability data was identified as a key issue in the accuracy of predicting oral drug absorption. For the four drugs studied, it appears that the forecasting accuracy of the PBPK models is related to the BCS class (BCS I > BCS II, BCS III > BCS IV). These results will need to be verified with additional drugs. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  16. AO group, AO subgroup, Garden and Pauwels classification systems of femoral neck fractures: are they reliable and reproducible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašpar, Drago; Crnković, Tomislav; Durović, Dražen; Podsednik, Dinko; Slišurić, Ferdinand

    2012-08-01

    To determine which of the classification systems for the femoral neck fracture between AO group, AO subgroup, Garden and Pauwels is much more reliable and reproducible to predict a method of treatment, radiological prediction of nonunion and prediction of outcomes. Five observers classified 77 randomly selected anterior- posterior (AP) and lateral view preoperative radiographs of the femoral neck fractures according to AO group, AO subgroup, Garden and Pauwels classification systems. The procedure was repeated on the same radiographs after three months. First classification is used to calculate interobserver agreement by kappa value between observers, while the first and second classification has served to calculate intraobserver kappa value for each examiner. Overall mean for classification system for interobserver agreement is: AO 0.44, AO subgroup 0.17, Garden 0.41 and Pauwels 0.19. Mean intraobserver agreement for AO group was 0.56, AO subgroup 0.38, Garden 0.49 and Pauwels 0.38 coefficient kappa value. Garden and AO group are useful for the division of femoral neck fractures without displacement and with displacement, but they are not for clinical use. AO subgroup and Pauwels classification are not recommended for further use.

  17. Sensitivity and specificity of body mass index-based classification systems for overweight in children 7-10 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Altenburg de Assis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of BMI-based classification systems for detecting excess body fat in schoolchildren. A total of 2,795 schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years were examined. Excess body fat was defined as the standardized residuals of sum of three skinfolds thickness ranking at or above the 90th percentile. The international BMI-based systems recommended by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF and the World Health Organization(WHO-2007 were evaluated on the basis of their sensitivity and specificity for detecting excess body fat and compared with a national BMI reference (Brazil-2006. The positive (LR+ and negative (LR- likelihood ratios analysis was also used to compare the diagnostic accuracies of the three BMI criteria.The three classification systems presented moderately high sensitivity (78.4-98.6% and specificity (75.9-91.6% for both genders. Overall, the three classification systems showed both LR+ and LR- values consistent with adiagnosis of moderate evidence for overweight (LR+ above five and LR- below0.2. The results showed that the three BMI classification systems can be usedas screening instruments of excess body fat. However, the performance of the Brazil-2006 classification system was superior because it showed the best balance between the diagnostic accuracy indices.

  18. Manual Ability Classification System (MACS): reliability between therapists and parents in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Daniela B. R.; Funayama, Carolina A. R.; Pfeifer, Luzia I.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) has been widely used to describe the manual ability of children with cerebral palsy (CP); however its reliability has not been verified in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To establish the inter- and intra-rater reliability of the Portuguese-Brazil version of the MACS by comparing the classifications given by therapists and parents of children with CP. METHOD: Data were obtained from 90 children with CP between the ages of 4 and 18 years, who were treated at the neurology and rehabilitation clinics of a Brazilian hospital. Therapists (an occupational therapist and a student) classified manual ability (MACS) through direct observation and information provided by parents. Therapists and parents used the Portuguese-Brazil version of the MACS. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was obtained using unweighted Kappa coefficient (k) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The Chi-square test was used to identify the predominance of disagreements in the classification of parents and therapists. RESULTS: An almost perfect agreement resulted among therapists [K=0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.97); ICC=0.97 (95%CI 0.96-0.98)], as well as with intra-rater (therapists), with Kappa ranging between 0.83 and 0.95 and ICC between 0.96 and 0.99 for the evaluator with more and less experience in rehabilitation, respectively. The agreement between therapists and parents was fair [K=0.36 (95% CI 0.22-0.50); ICC=0.79 (95% CI 0.70-0.86)]. CONCLUSIONS: The Portuguese version of the MACS is a reliable instrument to be used jointly by parents and therapists. PMID:25651133

  19. Manual Ability Classification System (MACS: reliability between therapists and parents in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela B. R. Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS has been widely used to describe the manual ability of children with cerebral palsy (CP; however its reliability has not been verified in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To establish the inter- and intra-rater reliability of the Portuguese-Brazil version of the MACS by comparing the classifications given by therapists and parents of children with CP. METHOD: Data were obtained from 90 children with CP between the ages of 4 and 18 years, who were treated at the neurology and rehabilitation clinics of a Brazilian hospital. Therapists (an occupational therapist and a student classified manual ability (MACS through direct observation and information provided by parents. Therapists and parents used the Portuguese-Brazil version of the MACS. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was obtained using unweighted Kappa coefficient (k and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC. The Chi-square test was used to identify the predominance of disagreements in the classification of parents and therapists. RESULTS: An almost perfect agreement resulted among therapists [K=0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.97; ICC=0.97 (95%CI 0.96-0.98], as well as with intra-rater (therapists, with Kappa ranging between 0.83 and 0.95 and ICC between 0.96 and 0.99 for the evaluator with more and less experience in rehabilitation, respectively. The agreement between therapists and parents was fair [K=0.36 (95% CI 0.22-0.50; ICC=0.79 (95% CI 0.70-0.86]. CONCLUSIONS: The Portuguese version of the MACS is a reliable instrument to be used jointly by parents and therapists.

  20. A semi-automatic traffic sign detection, classification, and positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creusen, I. M.; Hazelhoff, L.; de With, P. H. N.

    2012-01-01

    The availability of large-scale databases containing street-level panoramic images offers the possibility to perform semi-automatic surveying of real-world objects such as traffic signs. These inventories can be performed significantly more efficiently than using conventional methods. Governmental agencies are interested in these inventories for maintenance and safety reasons. This paper introduces a complete semi-automatic traffic sign inventory system. The system consists of several components. First, a detection algorithm locates the 2D position of the traffic signs in the panoramic images. Second, a classification algorithm is used to identify the traffic sign. Third, the 3D position of the traffic sign is calculated using the GPS position of the photographs. Finally, the results are listed in a table for quick inspection and are also visualized in a web browser.