WorldWideScience

Sample records for previous 2d simulations

  1. 2D PIM Simulation Based on COMSOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xinbo; Cui, Wanzhao; Wang, Jingyu

    2011-01-01

    Passive intermodulation (PIM) is a problematic type of nonlinear distortion en- countered in many communication systems. To analyze the PIM distortion resulting from ma- terial nonlinearity, a 2D PIM simulation method based on COMSOL is proposed in this paper. As an example, a rectangular waveguide...

  2. Simulation of 2D Granular Hopper Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhusong; Shattuck, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Jamming and intermittent granular flow are big problems in industry, and the vertical hopper is a canonical example of these difficulties. We simulate gravity driven flow and jamming of 2D disks in a vertical hopper and compare with identical companion experiments presented in this session. We measure and compare the flow rate and probability for jamming as a function of particle properties and geometry. We evaluate the ability of standard Hertz-Mindlin contact mode to quantitatively predict the experimental flow.

  3. 2-d Simulations of Test Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2004-01-01

    using both a Newton and Bingham model for characterisation of the rheological properties of the concrete. From the results, it is expected that both the slump flow and L-box can be simulated quite accurately when the model is extended to 3-d and the concrete is characterised according to the Bingham......One of the main obstacles for the further development of self-compacting concrete is to relate the fresh concrete properties to the form filling ability. Therefore, simulation of the form filling ability will provide a powerful tool in obtaining this goal. In this paper, a continuum mechanical...... approach is presented by showing initial results from 2-d simulations of the empirical test methods slump flow and L-box. This method assumes a homogeneous material, which is expected to correspond to particle suspensions e.g. concrete, when it remains stable. The simulations have been carried out when...

  4. 2-D electromagnetic simulation of passive microstrip circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Dueñas Jiménez, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    A reference for circuit design engineers and microwave engineers. It uses a simple 2-D electromagnetic simulation procedure to provide basic knowledge and practical insight into quotidian problems of microstrip passive circuits applied to microwave systems and digital technologies.

  5. Budget impact analysis of empagliflozin in T2D patients with a previous cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Iannazzo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Budget impact analysis of empagliflozin in T2D patients with a previous cardiovascular diseaseIntroductionThe EMPA-REG OUTCOME study demonstrated that empagliflozin is effective in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in T2D patients with high risk linked to a previous cardiovascular condition. The objective of this study is the budget impact analysis of the use of empagliflozin in this population in Italy.MethodsThe analysis was conducted from the cost perspective of the Italian NHS with a 3-year time horizon. The target population, defined as T2D patients with a known cardiovascular disease, was estimated based on epidemiologic and market data. An uptake of empagliflozin growing from 10% to 30% was considered to add up or substitute combinations of metformin, insulin, glitazones and DPP-4. The uptake of 80-100% was considered to substitute sulfonylureas and repaglinide. Costs, including drugs, glycaemia monitoring, management of severe hypoglycaemia events, and cardiovascular and renal events, were estimated based on published literature and current tariffs.ResultsThe target population was estimated in 243,693 in the first year. The incremental cost for drugs (17.6 million Euro is entirely offset by the savings in glycaemia monitoring (8.1 million Euro, cardiovascular and renal events (8.8 million Euro and severe hypoglycaemic events (3.1 million Euro, with a net saving of 2.3 million Euro, approximately corresponding to -0.7% of the total expenditure. The cumulative budget impact in the 3 years was 4.9 million Euro (-0.5%.ConclusionsThe progressive adoption of empagliflozin to treat T2D patients with known cardiovascular disease in Italy, would provide significant clinical benefit without entailing additional expense for the Italian NHS.

  6. CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 in Papua New Guinea: High frequency of previously uncharacterized CYP2D6 alleles and heterozygote excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ahsen, Nicolas; Tzvetkov, Mladen; Karunajeewa, Harin A; Gomorrai, Servina; Ura, Alice; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Davis, Timothy M E; Mueller, Ivo; Ilett, Kenneth F; Oellerich, Michael

    2010-08-18

    A high frequency of previously unknown CYP2D6 alleles have been reported in Oceania populations. Genetic and functional properties of these alleles remain unknown. We performed analyses of the genetic variability of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes using AmpliChip genotyping in cohorts from two distinct Papua New Guinea (PNG) populations (Kunjingini, n=88; Alexishafen, n=84) focussing on the genetic characterisation of PNG-specific alleles by re-sequencing. Previously unknown CYP2D6 alleles have population frequencies of 24% (Kunjingini) and 12% (Alexishafen). An allele similar to CYP2D6*1, but carrying the 1661G>C substitution, was the second most frequent CYP2D6 allele (20% Kunjingini and 10% Alexishafen population frequency). Sequencing suggests the CYP2D6* 1661G>C allele originated from a cross-over between CYP2D6*1 and *2 and thus is predicted to confer fully active CYP2D6 enzyme. Two additional predicted full activity alleles [1661G>C;4180G>C] and 31G>A were found in the Kunjingini cohort (frequencies 3 c/c and 1%, respectively) and a novel predicted reduced activity allele [100C>T;1039C>T] was found in the Alexishafen cohort (frequency 2%). A high frequency of ultra-rapid (15%) and notably low frequencies of intermediate and poor CYP2D6 metabolizers (exogamy and recent introduction of alleles by migration that are yet to reach HWE in relatively isolated populations. The CYP2D6*1661 allele common in Oceania may be regarded as functionally equivalent to the full activity CYP2D6*1 allele.

  7. 2-D Clinostat for Simulated Microgravity Experiments with Arabidopsis Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Xugang; Krause, Lars; Görög, Mark; Schüler, Oliver; Hauslage, Jens; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Kircher, Stefan; Lasok, Hanna; Haser, Thomas; Rapp, Katja; Schmidt, Jürgen; Yu, Xin; Pasternak, Taras; Aubry-Hivet, Dorothée; Tietz, Olaf; Dovzhenko, Alexander; Palme, Klaus; Ditengou, Franck Anicet

    2016-04-01

    Ground-based simulators of microgravity such as fast rotating 2-D clinostats are valuable tools to study gravity related processes. We describe here a versatile g-value-adjustable 2-D clinostat that is suitable for plant analysis. To avoid seedling adaptation to 1 g after clinorotation, we designed chambers that allow rapid fixation. A detailed protocol for fixation, RNA isolation and the analysis of selected genes is described. Using this clinostat we show that mRNA levels of LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), MIZU-KUSSEI 1 (MIZ1) and microRNA MIR163 are down-regulated in 5-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana roots after 3 min and 6 min of clinorotation using a maximal reduced g-force of 0.02 g, hence demonstrating that this 2-D clinostat enables the characterization of early transcriptomic events during root response to microgravity. We further show that this 2-D clinostat is able to compensate the action of gravitational force as both gravitropic-dependent statolith sedimentation and subsequent auxin redistribution (monitoring D R5 r e v :: G F P reporter) are abolished when plants are clinorotated. Our results demonstrate that 2-D clinostats equipped with interchangeable growth chambers and tunable rotation velocity are suitable for studying how plants perceive and respond to simulated microgravity.

  8. Remark on numerical simulation of 2D unsteady transonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foŕt, J.; Hülek, T.; Kozel, K.; Vavrincová, M.

    The work deals with three numerical methods solving the system of Euler or Navier-Stokes equations. Mac Cormack cell centered and Ni cell vertex finite volume schemes were used for simulation of inviscid unsteady solution of transonic flows through a 2D cascade. Unsteady motion is caused by a periodic change of downstream pressure. The Runge-Kutta multistage cell centered finite volume scheme has been used for viscous laminar steady and unsteady transonic flows over NACA 0012.

  9. Optimization of FIBMOS Through 2D Silvaco ATLAS and 2D Monte Carlo Particle-based Device Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, J.; He, X.; Vasileska, D.; Schroder, D. K.

    2001-01-01

    Focused Ion Beam MOSFETs (FIBMOS) demonstrate large enhancements in core device performance areas such as output resistance, hot electron reliability and voltage stability upon channel length or drain voltage variation. In this work, we describe an optimization technique for FIBMOS threshold voltage characterization using the 2D Silvaco ATLAS simulator. Both ATLAS and 2D Monte Carlo particle-based simulations were used to show that FIBMOS devices exhibit enhanced current drive ...

  10. A 2D simulation model for urban flood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Roland; van der Wielen, Jonathan; Velickov, Slavco; Galvao, Diogo

    2014-05-01

    The European Floods Directive, which came into force on 26 November 2007, requires member states to assess all their water courses and coast lines for risk of flooding, to map flood extents and assets and humans at risk, and to take adequate and coordinated measures to reduce the flood risk in consultation with the public. Flood Risk Management Plans are to be in place by 2015. There are a number of reasons for the promotion of this Directive, not least because there has been much urban and other infrastructural development in flood plains, which puts many at risk of flooding along with vital societal assets. In addition there is growing awareness that the changing climate appears to be inducing more frequent extremes of rainfall with a consequent increases in the frequency of flooding. Thirdly, the growing urban populations in Europe, and especially in the developing countries, means that more people are being put at risk from a greater frequency of urban flooding in particular. There are urgent needs therefore to assess flood risk accurately and consistently, to reduce this risk where it is important to do so or where the benefit is greater than the damage cost, to improve flood forecasting and warning, to provide where necessary (and possible) flood insurance cover, and to involve all stakeholders in decision making affecting flood protection and flood risk management plans. Key data for assessing risk are water levels achieved or forecasted during a flood. Such levels should of course be monitored, but they also need to be predicted, whether for design or simulation. A 2D simulation model (PriceXD) solving the shallow water wave equations is presented specifically for determining flood risk, assessing flood defense schemes and generating flood forecasts and warnings. The simulation model is required to have a number of important properties: -Solve the full shallow water wave equations using a range of possible solutions; -Automatically adjust the time step and

  11. Low-resolution simulations of vesicle suspensions in 2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabacaoğlu, Gökberk; Quaife, Bryan; Biros, George

    2018-03-01

    Vesicle suspensions appear in many biological and industrial applications. These suspensions are characterized by rich and complex dynamics of vesicles due to their interaction with the bulk fluid, and their large deformations and nonlinear elastic properties. Many existing state-of-the-art numerical schemes can resolve such complex vesicle flows. However, even when using provably optimal algorithms, these simulations can be computationally expensive, especially for suspensions with a large number of vesicles. These high computational costs can limit the use of simulations for parameter exploration, optimization, or uncertainty quantification. One way to reduce the cost is to use low-resolution discretizations in space and time. However, it is well-known that simply reducing the resolution results in vesicle collisions, numerical instabilities, and often in erroneous results. In this paper, we investigate the effect of a number of algorithmic empirical fixes (which are commonly used by many groups) in an attempt to make low-resolution simulations more stable and more predictive. Based on our empirical studies for a number of flow configurations, we propose a scheme that attempts to integrate these fixes in a systematic way. This low-resolution scheme is an extension of our previous work [51,53]. Our low-resolution correction algorithms (LRCA) include anti-aliasing and membrane reparametrization for avoiding spurious oscillations in vesicles' membranes, adaptive time stepping and a repulsion force for handling vesicle collisions and, correction of vesicles' area and arc-length for maintaining physical vesicle shapes. We perform a systematic error analysis by comparing the low-resolution simulations of dilute and dense suspensions with their high-fidelity, fully resolved, counterparts. We observe that the LRCA enables both efficient and statistically accurate low-resolution simulations of vesicle suspensions, while it can be 10× to 100× faster.

  12. Numerical simulation of 2D and 3D compressible flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huml, Jaroslav; Kozel, Karel; Příhoda, Jaromír

    2013-02-01

    The work deals with numerical solutions of 2D inviscid and laminar compressible flows in the GAMM channel and DCA 8% cascade, and of 3D inviscid compressible flows in a 3D modification of the GAMM channel (Swept Wing). The FVM multistage Runge-Kutta method and the Lax-Wendroff scheme (Richtmyer's form) with Jameson's artificial dissipation were applied to obtain the numerical solutions. The results are discussed and compared to other similar results and experiments.

  13. 2D fluid simulations of interchange turbulence with ion dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Henry; Madsen, Jens; Xu, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a first principle global two-dimensional fluid model. The HESEL (Hot Edge SOL Electrostatic) model is a 2D numerical fluid code, based on interchange dynamics and includes besides electron also the ion pressure dynamic. In the limit of cold ions the model almost reduces...... to the so-called ESEL model, which has successfully modeled profiles in JET [1], and profiles and fluctuations in MAST [2], EAST [3] and TCV [4]. It is a four-field Braginskii model including generalized vorticity, density, electron and ion pressure equations. The generalized vorticity consist of an Ex...

  14. Reformation of rippled quasi-parallel shocks: 2-D hybrid simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Y.; Lu, Q.; Gao, X.; Huang, C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    One-dimensional (1-D) hybrid simulations have demonstrated that a quasi-parallel shock is nonstationary and undergoes a reformation process. Recently, two-dimensional (2-D) hybrid simulations have revealed that ripples along the shock front is an inherent property of a quasi-parallel shock. In this paper,we investigate reformation process of a rippled quasi-parallel shock with a 2-D hybrid simulation model. The simulation results show that at a rippled shock, incident particles behave differently and just can be partially reflected at some specific locations along the rippled shock front, and the reflected particles will form an ion beam that moves back to the upstream along the magnetic field. Then, the beam locally interacts with upstream waves, and the waves are enhanced and finally steepen into a new shock front. As the upstream incident plasma moves to the shock front, the new shock front will approach and merge with the old shock front. Such a process occurs only before these locations along the shock front, and after the merging of the new shock front and old shock front is finished, a relatively plane shock front is formed. Subsequently, a new rippled shock front is again generated due to its interaction with the upstreamwaves, and it will repeat the previous process. In this pattern, the shock reforms itself quasiperiodically, and at the same time, ripples can shift along the shock front. The simulations present a more complete view of reformation for quasi-parallel shocks.

  15. Investigation of turbulent boundary layer flow over 2D bump using highly resolved large eddy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavar, Dalibor; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2011-01-01

    A large eddy simulation (LES) study of turbulent non-equilibrium boundary layer flow over 2 D Bump, at comparatively low Reynolds number Reh = U∞h/ν = 1950, was conducted. A well-known LES issue of obtaining and sustaining turbulent flow inside the computational domain at such low Re, is addresse...... partially confirm a close interdependency between generation and evolution of internal layers and the abrupt changes in the skin friction, previously reported in the literature. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers....

  16. 2D Electrostatic Potential Solver for Hall Thruster Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koo, Justin W

    2006-01-01

    ...) for Hall thruster simulation. It is based on a finite volume discretization of a current conservation equation where the electron current density is described by a Generalized Ohm's law description...

  17. A new model for two-dimensional numerical simulation of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingwen; Zhang, Yongmin

    2013-10-11

    Pseudo-two dimensional (pseudo-2D) fluidized beds, for which the thickness of the system is much smaller than the other two dimensions, is widely used to perform fundamental studies on bubble behavior, solids mixing, or clustering phenomenon in different gas-solids fluidization systems. The abundant data from such experimental systems are very useful for numerical model development and validation. However, it has been reported that two-dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds usually predict poor quantitative agreement with the experimental data, especially for the solids velocity field. In this paper, a new model is proposed to improve the 2D numerical simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds by properly accounting for the frictional effect of the front and back walls. Two previously reported pseudo-2D experimental systems were simulated with this model. Compared to the traditional 2D simulations, significant improvements in the numerical predictions have been observed and the predicted results are in better agreement with the available experimental data.

  18. Simulation of Simple Test Case 2D1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, M.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The turbulent flow pattern is calculated with a low Re number version of the k-∈ model in a room with two-dimensional isothermal flow. The results are compared both to LDA measurements obtained in a scale model and to other data obtained by numerical simulation. The overall performance is good an...

  19. Fast 2D Simulation of Superconductors: a Multiscale Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Zermeno, Victor Manuel; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a method to calculate AC losses in thin conductors such as the commercially available second generation superconducting wires through a multiscale meshing technique. The main idea is to use large aspect ratio elements to accurately simulate thin material layers. For a single th...

  20. 2D numerical simulation of the resistive reconnection layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzdensky, D. A.; Kulsrud, R. M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the authors present a two-dimensional numerical simulation of a reconnection current layer in incompressible resistive magnetohydrodynamics with uniform resistivity in the limit of very large Lundquist numbers. They use realistic boundary conditions derived consistently from the outside magnetic field, and they also take into account the effect of the backpressure from flow into the separatrix region. They find that within a few Alfven times the system reaches a steady state consistent with the Sweet-Parker model, even if the initial state is Petschek-like

  1. Quantum Simulation of a 2D Quasicrystal with Cold Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Macé

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a way to obtain a two-dimensional quasiperiodic tiling with eight-fold symmetry using cold atoms. One can obtain a series of such optical tilings, related by scale transformations, for a series of specific values of the chemical potential of the atoms. A theoretical model for the optical system is described and compared with that of the well-known cut-and-project method for the Ammann–Beenker tiling. The relation between the two tilings is discussed. This type of cold atom structure should allow the simulation of several important lattice models for interacting quantum particles and spins in quasicrystals.

  2. 2D Numerical Simulation and Sensitive Analysis of H-Darrieus Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad E. Saryazdi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of attention has been devoted to the use of Darrieus wind turbines in urban areas. The aerodynamics of a Darrieus turbine are very complex due to dynamic stall and changing forces on the turbine triggered by changing horizontal angles. In this study, the aerodynamics of H-rotor vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT has been studied using computational fluid dynamics via two different turbulence models. Shear stress transport (SST k-ω turbulence model was used to simulate a 2D unsteady model of the H-Darrieus turbine. In order to complete this simulation, sensitivity analysis of the effective turbine parameters such as solidity factor, airfoil shape, wind velocity and shaft diameter were done. To simulate the flow through the turbine, a 2D simplified computational domain has been generated. Then fine mesh for each case consisting of different turbulence models and dimensions has been generated. Each mesh in this simulation dependent on effective parameters consisted of domain size, mesh quality, time step and total revolution. The sliding mesh method was applied to evaluate the unsteady interaction between the stationary and rotating components. Previous works just simulated turbine, while in our study sensitivity analysis of effective parameters was done. The simulation results closely match the experimental data, providing an efficient and reliable foundation to study wind turbine aerodynamics. This also demonstrates computing the best value of the effective parameter. The sensitivity analysis revealed best value of the effective parameter that could be used in the process of designing turbine. This work provides the first step in developing an accurate 3D aerodynamic modeling of Darrieus wind turbines. Article History: Received :August 19th 2017; Received: December 15th 2017; Accepted: Januari 14th 2018; Available online How to Cite This Article: Saryazdi, S. M. E. and Boroushaki, M. (2018 2D Numerical Simulation and Sensitive

  3. 2D PIC simulations for an EN discharge with magnetized electrons and unmagnetized ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Michael A.; Kawamura, Emi; Lichtenberg, Allan J.

    2009-10-01

    We conducted 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for an electronegative (EN) discharge with magnetized electrons and unmagnetized ions, and compared the results to a previously developed 1D (radial) analytical model of an EN plasma with strongly magnetized electrons and weakly magnetized ions [1]. In both cases, there is a static uniform applied magnetic field in the axial direction. The 1D radial model mimics the wall losses of the particles in the axial direction by introducing a bulk loss frequency term νL. A special (desired) solution was found in which only positive and negative ions but no electrons escaped radially. The 2D PIC results show good agreement with the 1D model over a range of parameters and indicate that the analytical form of νL employed in [1] is reasonably accurate. However, for the PIC simulations, there is always a finite flux of electrons to the radial wall which is about 10 to 30% of the negative ion flux.[4pt] [1] G. Leray, P. Chabert, A.J. Lichtenberg and M.A. Lieberman, J. Phys. D, accepted for publication 2009.

  4. Differences in 3D vs. 2D analysis in lumbar spinal fusion simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hung-Wei; Bashkuev, Maxim; Pumberger, Matthias; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2018-03-15

    Lumbar interbody fusion is currently the gold standard in treating patients with disc degeneration or segmental instability. Despite it having been used for several decades, the non-union rate remains high. A failed fusion is frequently attributed to an inadequate mechanical environment after instrumentation. Finite element (FE) models can provide insights into the mechanics of the fusion process. Previous fusion simulations using FE models showed that the geometries and material of the cage can greatly influence the fusion outcome. However, these studies used axisymmetric models which lacked realistic spinal geometries. Therefore, different modeling approaches were evaluated to understand the bone-formation process. Three FE models of the lumbar motion segment (L4-L5) were developed: 2D, Sym-3D and Nonsym-3D. The fusion process based on existing mechano-regulation algorithms using the FE simulations to evaluate the mechanical environment was then integrated into these models. In addition, the influence of different lordotic angles (5, 10 and 15°) was investigated. The volume of newly formed bone, the axial stiffness of the whole segment and bone distribution inside and surrounding the cage were evaluated. In contrast to the Nonsym-3D, the 2D and Sym-3D models predicted excessive bone formation prior to bridging (peak values with 36 and 9% higher than in equilibrium, respectively). The 3D models predicted a more uniform bone distribution compared to the 2D model. The current results demonstrate the crucial role of the realistic 3D geometry of the lumbar motion segment in predicting bone formation after lumbar spinal fusion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Redefinition of Ra'for the 2D experimental facility simulating IVR-ERVC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Hyeon; Park, Hae Kyun; Chung, Bum Jin [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study simulated oxide pool using 3D and 2D facilities and performed mass transfer experiments based on the heat and mass transfer analogy concept. We found the existing definition of Ra' is not proper for 2D facility so as to compare with 3D results and redefined Ra'{sub 2D} for 2D facility. There are several studies simulating the IVR-ERVC phenomena with 3D and 2D experimental facilities. Since the mixture layer generates the decay heat continuously, the volumetric heat source should be established. The modified Rayleigh number, Ra' was defined as the product of Ra and Damköhler number to incorporate the internal heat generation. We discovered that the existing definition of Ra' is improper for the 2D tests. This study discusses the problem of the existing definition of Ra'for the 2D experiments and redefines it. We performed mass transfer experiments based on the analogy between heat and mass transfer with 2D and 3D facilities. The experimental facilities are semi-circular for 2D and hemi-spherical for 3D (MassTER-OP3 and MassTER-OP2: Mass Transfer Experimental Rig for a 3D and 2D Oxide Pool). We applied the redefined Ra'{sub 2D} to the all 2D results including MassTER-OP2, and compared with MassTER-OP3 results and 3D correlations.

  6. 2-D simulation of a waveguide free electron laser having a helical undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.K.; Lee, B.C.; Jeong, Y.U. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    We have developed a 2-D simulation code for the calculation of output power from an FEL oscillator having a helical undulator and a cylindrical waveguide. In the simulation, the current and the energy of the electron beam is 2 A and 400 keV, respectively. The parameters of the permanent-magnet helical undulator are : period = 32 mm, number of periods = 20, magnetic field = 1.3 kG. The gain per pass is 10 and the output power is calculated to be higher than 10 kW The results of the 2-D simulation are compared with those of 1-D simulation.

  7. Element soil behaviour during pile installation simulated by 2D-DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yi Pik; Liu, Junwei

    2017-06-01

    The estimation of the skin friction of onshore or offshore piles in sand is still a difficult problem for geotechnical engineers. It has been accepted by many researchers that the mechanism of driving piles in the soil has shared some similarities with that of an element shear test under the constant normal stiffness (CNS) condition. This paper describes the behaviour of an element of soil next to a pile during the process of pile penetration into dense fine sand using the 2D-DEM numerical simulation software. A new CNS servo was added to the horizontal boundary while maintaining the vertical stress constant. This should simulate the soil in a similar manner to that of a CNS pile-soil interface shear test, but allowing the vertical stress to remain constant which is more realistic to the field situation. Shear behaviours observed in these simulations were very similar to the results from previous researchers' lab shearing tests. With the normal stress and shear stress obtained from the virtual models, the friction angle and the shaft friction factor β mentioned in the API-2007 offshore pile design guideline were calculated and compared with the API recommended values.

  8. Element soil behaviour during pile installation simulated by 2D-DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the skin friction of onshore or offshore piles in sand is still a difficult problem for geotechnical engineers. It has been accepted by many researchers that the mechanism of driving piles in the soil has shared some similarities with that of an element shear test under the constant normal stiffness (CNS condition. This paper describes the behaviour of an element of soil next to a pile during the process of pile penetration into dense fine sand using the 2D-DEM numerical simulation software. A new CNS servo was added to the horizontal boundary while maintaining the vertical stress constant. This should simulate the soil in a similar manner to that of a CNS pile-soil interface shear test, but allowing the vertical stress to remain constant which is more realistic to the field situation. Shear behaviours observed in these simulations were very similar to the results from previous researchers’ lab shearing tests. With the normal stress and shear stress obtained from the virtual models, the friction angle and the shaft friction factor β mentioned in the API-2007 offshore pile design guideline were calculated and compared with the API recommended values.

  9. Isotachophoresis of proteins in a networked microfluidic chip: experiment and 2-D simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Huanchun; Dutta, Prashanta; Ivory, Cornelius F

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports both the experimental application and 2-D simulation of ITP of proteins in a networked microfluidic chip. Experiments demonstrate that a mixture of three fluorescent proteins can be concentrated and stacked into adjacent zones of pure protein under a constant voltage of 100 V over a 2 cm long microchannel. Measurements of the isotachophoretic velocity of the moving zones demonstrates that, during ITP under a constant voltage, the zone velocity decreases as more of the channel is occupied by the terminating electrolyte. A 2-D ITP model based on the Nernst-Planck equations illustrates the stacking and separation features of ITP using simulations of three virtual proteins. The self-sharpening behavior of ITP zones dispersed by a T-junction is clearly demonstrated both by experiment and by simulation. Comparison of 2-D simulations of ITP and zone electrophoresis (ZE) confirms that ZE lacks the ability to resharpen protein zones after they pass through a T-junction.

  10. Development of 2D particle-in-cell code to simulate high current, low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A code for 2D space-charge dominated beam dynamics study in beam trans- port lines is developed. The code is used for particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of z-uniform beam in a channel containing solenoids and drift space. It can also simulate a transport line where quadrupoles are used for focusing the beam.

  11. Comparison of 2D and 3D Models of Salinity Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the study of the effect of 2D and 3D mathematical model in salinity simulation, with Liuheng island strong brine discharge of seawater desalination project as an example, using 2D and 3D salinity mathematical models of Liuheng island to simulate coastal hydrodynamic environment and salinity distribution before and after the concentrated brine discharge, and analyzed the results. Finally got the applicable scope of the two models, it has an important significance in the study of similar problems.

  12. Development of 2D particle-in-cell code to simulate high current, low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 69; Issue 4. Development of 2D particle-in-cell code to simulate high current, low energy beam in a beam transport system. S C L Srivastava S V L S Rao ... Keywords. Space-charge; particle-in-cell; beam dynamics; Poisson's equation; solenoids; quadrupole magnets.

  13. Numerical simulations in granular matter: The discharge of a 2D silo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... short and elementary review of numerical simulations in granular assemblies, giving the process of discharge of a 2D silo as an example. The strengths and limitations of different approaches are discussed, together with some comments on the specific issues related to the numerics of discontinuous dissipative collisions.

  14. Power loss analysis of n-PASHA cells validated by 2D simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, G.J.M.; Gutjahr, A.; Burgers, A.R.; Saynova, D.S.; Cesar, I.; Romijn, I.G.

    2013-10-15

    To reach >21% efficiency for the n-Pasha (passivated all sides H-pattern) cell of ECN, reliable power-loss analyses are essential. A power-loss analysis is presented that is based on experimental data but validated and completed by 2D simulations. The analysis is used to identify the key factors that will contribute most to achieving >21% efficiency.

  15. Numerical simulations in granular matter: The discharge of a 2D silo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper I give a short and elementary review of numerical simulations in granular assemblies, giving the process of discharge of a 2D silo as an example. The strengths and limitations of different approaches are discussed, together with some comments on the specific issues related to the numerics of discontinuous ...

  16. Numerical Simulation of 2D Transonic Flows in DCA 8% Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Příhoda Jaromír

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a numerical simulation of 2D inviscid and laminar compressible flows in the DCA 8% cascade achieved by the FVM using a multistage Runge-Kutta method and Lax-Wendroff scheme (Richtmyer form with an artificial dissipation on non-orthogonal structured grids. The results are discussed and compared with other similar ones and experiment.

  17. Numerical Simulation of 2D Transonic Flows in DCA 8% Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huml, Jaroslav; Kozel, Karel; Příhoda, Jaromír

    2013-04-01

    This work deals with a numerical simulation of 2D inviscid and laminar compressible flows in the DCA 8% cascade achieved by the FVM using a multistage Runge-Kutta method and Lax-Wendroff scheme (Richtmyer form) with an artificial dissipation on non-orthogonal structured grids. The results are discussed and compared with other similar ones and experiment.

  18. Numerical simulation of the SLAC X-100 klystron using RKTW2D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryne, R.D.; Vlieks, A.E.

    1991-05-01

    We have performed numerical simulations of the X-100 klystron being developed at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The X-100 is being developed as a possible source for the next generation of linear collider, and will be required to produce ∼100 MW of power for a duration of ∼800 ns. Our simulations were performed using the simulation programs RKTW1D and RKTW2D, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The codes were used to investigate the operation of the klystron over a wide range of operating conditions. We will present comparisons of the simulation results with experimental results. 3 refs., 5 figs

  19. Comparison of experimental and simulation results of 2D-draw-bend springback

    OpenAIRE

    T. Da Sisva Botelho; E. Bayraktar; G. Inglebert

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the results of experimental, analytical and numerical studies of draw-bendspringback on the response of steel blank strips.Design/methodology/approach: Springback, the elastically-driven change of shape of a part after forming, hasbeen simulated with 2-D plane strain finite elements model (ABAQUS). Springback simulations compared withexperimental test results under some test conditions and also sidewall curls were further discussed in this paper.Findings: The resu...

  20. 2D full-wave simulation of waves in space and tokamak plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Eun-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation results using a 2D full-wave code (FW2D for space and NSTX fusion plasmas are presented. The FW2D code solves the cold plasma wave equations using the finite element method. The wave code has been successfully applied to describe low frequency waves in planetary magnetospheres (i.e., dipole geometry and the results include generation and propagation of externally driven ultra-low frequency waves via mode conversion at Mercury and mode coupling, refraction and reflection of internally driven field-aligned propagating left-handed electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC waves at Earth. In this paper, global structure of linearly polarized EMIC waves is examined and the result shows such resonant wave modes can be localized near the equatorial plane. We also adopt the FW2D code to tokamak geometry and examine radio frequency (RF waves in the scape-off layer (SOL of tokamaks. By adopting the rectangular and limiter boundary, we compare the results with existing AORSA simulations. The FW2D code results for the high harmonic fast wave heating case on NSTX with a rectangular vessel boundary shows excellent agreement with the AORSA code.

  1. 2D full-wave simulation of waves in space and tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Bertelli, Nicola; Johnson, Jay; Valeo, Ernest; Hosea, Joel

    2017-10-01

    Simulation results using a 2D full-wave code (FW2D) for space and NSTX fusion plasmas are presented. The FW2D code solves the cold plasma wave equations using the finite element method. The wave code has been successfully applied to describe low frequency waves in planetary magnetospheres (i.e., dipole geometry) and the results include generation and propagation of externally driven ultra-low frequency waves via mode conversion at Mercury and mode coupling, refraction and reflection of internally driven field-aligned propagating left-handed electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves at Earth. In this paper, global structure of linearly polarized EMIC waves is examined and the result shows such resonant wave modes can be localized near the equatorial plane. We also adopt the FW2D code to tokamak geometry and examine radio frequency (RF) waves in the scape-off layer (SOL) of tokamaks. By adopting the rectangular and limiter boundary, we compare the results with existing AORSA simulations. The FW2D code results for the high harmonic fast wave heating case on NSTX with a rectangular vessel boundary shows excellent agreement with the AORSA code.

  2. The simulation of 3D mass models in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Eman; De Keyzer, Frederik; Bosmans, Hilde; Dance, David R; Young, Kenneth C; Van Ongeval, Chantal

    2014-08-01

    This work proposes a new method of building 3D breast mass models with different morphological shapes and describes the validation of the realism of their appearance after simulation into 2D digital mammograms and breast tomosynthesis images. Twenty-five contrast enhanced MRI breast lesions were collected and each mass was manually segmented in the three orthogonal views: sagittal, coronal, and transversal. The segmented models were combined, resampled to have isotropic voxel sizes, triangularly meshed, and scaled to different sizes. These masses were referred to as nonspiculated masses and were then used as nuclei onto which spicules were grown with an iterative branching algorithm forming a total of 30 spiculated masses. These 55 mass models were projected into 2D projection images to obtain mammograms after image processing and into tomographic sequences of projection images, which were then reconstructed to form 3D tomosynthesis datasets. The realism of the appearance of these mass models was assessed by five radiologists via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis when compared to 54 real masses. All lesions were also given a breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) score. The data sets of 2D mammography and tomosynthesis were read separately. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used for the interrater observer agreement assessment for the BIRADS scores per modality. Further paired analysis, using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, of the BIRADS assessment between 2D and tomosynthesis was separately performed for the real masses and for the simulated masses. The area under the ROC curves, averaged over all observers, was 0.54 (95% confidence interval [0.50, 0.66]) for the 2D study, and 0.67 (95% confidence interval [0.55, 0.79]) for the tomosynthesis study. According to the BIRADS scores, the nonspiculated and the spiculated masses varied in their degrees of malignancy from normal (BIRADS 1) to highly suggestive for malignancy (BIRADS 5

  3. The simulation of 3D mass models in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaheen, Eman, E-mail: eman.shaheen@uzleuven.be; De Keyzer, Frederik; Bosmans, Hilde; Ongeval, Chantal Van [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C. [National Coordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: This work proposes a new method of building 3D breast mass models with different morphological shapes and describes the validation of the realism of their appearance after simulation into 2D digital mammograms and breast tomosynthesis images. Methods: Twenty-five contrast enhanced MRI breast lesions were collected and each mass was manually segmented in the three orthogonal views: sagittal, coronal, and transversal. The segmented models were combined, resampled to have isotropic voxel sizes, triangularly meshed, and scaled to different sizes. These masses were referred to as nonspiculated masses and were then used as nuclei onto which spicules were grown with an iterative branching algorithm forming a total of 30 spiculated masses. These 55 mass models were projected into 2D projection images to obtain mammograms after image processing and into tomographic sequences of projection images, which were then reconstructed to form 3D tomosynthesis datasets. The realism of the appearance of these mass models was assessed by five radiologists via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis when compared to 54 real masses. All lesions were also given a breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) score. The data sets of 2D mammography and tomosynthesis were read separately. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used for the interrater observer agreement assessment for the BIRADS scores per modality. Further paired analysis, using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, of the BIRADS assessment between 2D and tomosynthesis was separately performed for the real masses and for the simulated masses. Results: The area under the ROC curves, averaged over all observers, was 0.54 (95% confidence interval [0.50, 0.66]) for the 2D study, and 0.67 (95% confidence interval [0.55, 0.79]) for the tomosynthesis study. According to the BIRADS scores, the nonspiculated and the spiculated masses varied in their degrees of malignancy from normal (BIRADS 1) to highly

  4. The simulation of 3D mass models in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, Eman; De Keyzer, Frederik; Bosmans, Hilde; Ongeval, Chantal Van; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This work proposes a new method of building 3D breast mass models with different morphological shapes and describes the validation of the realism of their appearance after simulation into 2D digital mammograms and breast tomosynthesis images. Methods: Twenty-five contrast enhanced MRI breast lesions were collected and each mass was manually segmented in the three orthogonal views: sagittal, coronal, and transversal. The segmented models were combined, resampled to have isotropic voxel sizes, triangularly meshed, and scaled to different sizes. These masses were referred to as nonspiculated masses and were then used as nuclei onto which spicules were grown with an iterative branching algorithm forming a total of 30 spiculated masses. These 55 mass models were projected into 2D projection images to obtain mammograms after image processing and into tomographic sequences of projection images, which were then reconstructed to form 3D tomosynthesis datasets. The realism of the appearance of these mass models was assessed by five radiologists via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis when compared to 54 real masses. All lesions were also given a breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) score. The data sets of 2D mammography and tomosynthesis were read separately. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used for the interrater observer agreement assessment for the BIRADS scores per modality. Further paired analysis, using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, of the BIRADS assessment between 2D and tomosynthesis was separately performed for the real masses and for the simulated masses. Results: The area under the ROC curves, averaged over all observers, was 0.54 (95% confidence interval [0.50, 0.66]) for the 2D study, and 0.67 (95% confidence interval [0.55, 0.79]) for the tomosynthesis study. According to the BIRADS scores, the nonspiculated and the spiculated masses varied in their degrees of malignancy from normal (BIRADS 1) to highly

  5. Nonlinear soil-structure interaction calculations simulating the SIMQUAKE experiment using STEALTH 2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H. T.; Hofmann, R.; Yee, G.; Vaughan, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    Transient, nonlinear soil-structure interaction simulations of an Electric Power Research Institute, SIMQUAKE experiment were performed using the large strain, time domain STEALTH 2D code and a cyclic, kinematically hardening cap soil model. Results from the STEALTH simulations were compared to identical simulations performed with the TRANAL code and indicate relatively good agreement between all the STEALTH and TRANAL calculations. The differences that are seen can probably be attributed to: (1) large (STEALTH) vs. small (TRANAL) strain formulation and/or (2) grid discretization differences.

  6. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Collision between 2D Circular Particles Suspension in Couette Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zhong Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Collision between 2D circular particles suspension in Couette flow is simulated by using multiple-relaxation-time based lattice Boltzmann and direct forcing/fictitious domain method in this paper. The patterns of particle collisions are simulated and analyzed in detail by changing the velocity of top and bottom walls in the Couette flow. It can be seen from the simulation results that, while the velocity is large enough, the number of collisions between particles will change little as this velocity varies.

  7. Simulation of cardiac arrhythmias using a 2D heterogeneous whole heart model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minimol eBalakrishnan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulation studies of cardiac arrhythmias at the whole heart level with electrocardiogram (ECG gives an understanding of how the underlying cell and tissue level changes manifest as rhythm disturbances in the ECG. We present a 2D whole heart model (WHM2D which can accommodate variations at the cellular level and can generate the ECG waveform. It is shown that, by varying cellular-level parameters like the gap junction conductance (GJC, excitability, action potential duration(APD and frequency of oscillations of the auto-rhythmic cell in WHM2D a large variety of cardiac arrhythmias can be generated including sinus tachycardia, sinus bradycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sinus pause, junctional rhythm, Wolf Parkinson White syndrome and all types of AV conduction blocks. WHM2D includes key components of the electrical conduction system of the heart like the SA (Sino atrial node cells, fast conducting intranodal pathways, slow conducting atriovenctricular (AV node, bundle of His cells, Purkinje network, atrial and ventricular myocardial cells. SA nodal cells, AV nodal cells, bundle of His cells and Purkinje cells are represented by the Fitzhugh-Nagumo (FN model which is a reduced model of the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model. The atrial and ventricular myocardial cells are modeled by the Aliev-Panfilov (AP two-variable model proposed for cardiac excitation. WHM2D can prove to be a valuable clinical tool for understanding cardiac arrhythmias

  8. Debris Flow Hazard Map Simulation using FLO-2D For Selected Areas in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallil Ferrer, Peter; Llanes, Francesca; dela Resma, Marvee; Realino, Victoriano, II; Obrique, Julius; Ortiz, Iris Jill; Aquino, Dakila; Narod Eco, Rodrigo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    On December 4, 2012, Super Typhoon Bopha wreaked havoc in the southern region of Mindanao, leaving 1,067 people dead and causing USD 800 million worth of damage. Classified as a Category 5 typhoon by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), Bopha brought intense rainfall and strong winds that triggered landslides and debris flows, particularly in Barangay (village) Andap, New Bataan municipality, in the southern Philippine province of Compostela Valley. The debris flow destroyed school buildings and covered courts and an evacuation center. Compostela Valley also suffered the most casualties of any province: 612 out of a total of 1,067. In light of the disaster in Compostela, measures were immediately devised to improve available geohazard maps to raise public awareness about landslides and debris flows. A debris flow is a very rapid to extremely rapid flow of saturated non-plastic debris in a steep channel. They are generated when heavy rainfall saturates sediments, causing them to flow down river channels within an alluvial fan situated at the base of the slope of a mountain drainage network. Many rural communities in the Philippines, such as Barangay Andap, are situated at the apex of alluvial fans and in the path of potential debris flows. In this study, we conducted simulations of debris flows to assess the risks in inhabited areas throughout the Philippines and validated the results in the field, focusing on the provinces of Pangasinan and Aurora as primary examples. Watersheds that drain in an alluvial fan using a 10-m resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)-derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was first delineated, and then a 1 in 100-year rain return rainfall scenario for the watershed was used to simulate debris flows using FLO-2D, a flood-routing software. The resulting simulations were used to generate debris flow hazard maps which are consistent with danger zones in alluvial fans delineated previously from satellite imagery and available DEMs. The

  9. Application of 2-D Simulations to Z-Pinch Experiment Design and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.L.; Bowers, R.L.; Matuska, W.; Chandler, G.A.; Deeney, C.; Derzon, M.S.; Matzen, M.K.; Mock, R.C.; Nash, T.J.; Sanford, T.W.L.; Spielman, R.B.; Struve, K.W.

    1998-01-01

    The successful 2-D simulations of z-pinch experiments (reproducing such features as the measured experimental current drive, radiation pulse shape, peak power and total radiated energy) can lead to a better understanding of the underlying physics in z-pinch implosions and to the opportunity to use such simulations in the analysis of experimental data and in the design of new experiments. Such use has been made with LANL simulations of experiments on the Sandia Saturn and Z accelerators. Applications have included ''vacuum'' and ''dynamic'' hohlraum experiments; variations in mass, radius and length; and ''nested'' array configurations. Notable examples include the explanation of the power/length results in reduced length pinches and the prediction of the current best power and pulsewidth nested array experiment. Examples of circumstances where the simulation results do not match the experiments will be given along with a discussion of opportunities for improved simulation results

  10. X-CSIT: a toolkit for simulating 2D pixel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, A.; Wing, M.; Hauf, S.; Kuster, M.; Rüter, T.

    2015-04-01

    A new, modular toolkit for creating simulations of 2D X-ray pixel detectors, X-CSIT (X-ray Camera SImulation Toolkit), is being developed. The toolkit uses three sequential simulations of detector processes which model photon interactions, electron charge cloud spreading with a high charge density plasma model and common electronic components used in detector readout. In addition, because of the wide variety in pixel detector design, X-CSIT has been designed as a modular platform so that existing functions can be modified or additional functionality added if the specific design of a detector demands it. X-CSIT will be used to create simulations of the detectors at the European XFEL, including three bespoke 2D detectors: the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD), Large Pixel Detector (LPD) and DePFET Sensor with Signal Compression (DSSC). These simulations will be used by the detector group at the European XFEL for detector characterisation and calibration. For this purpose, X-CSIT has been integrated into the European XFEL's software framework, Karabo. This will further make it available to users to aid with the planning of experiments and analysis of data. In addition, X-CSIT will be released as a standalone, open source version for other users, collaborations and groups intending to create simulations of their own detectors.

  11. 2-D LSP Simulations of the Self Magnetic Pinch Radiographic Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threadgold, J.; Crotch, I.; Rose, D. V.

    2003-10-01

    The Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) UK has a number of Pulsed Power driven flash X-ray machines which are used to take transmission radiographs of hydrodynamic experiments. Some of the lower voltage x-ray machines ( 50 kA) to pinch the electron beam to a small diameter onto a high Z converter target. An electromagnetic PIC code, LSP, has been used to carry out 2-D simulations of the diode to support this project. The code has been used to investigate the effect of different target materials within the diode and to investigate the resultant electron trajectories onto the target. Results of these code simulations will be compared to experimental data The simulations show good agreement with measured experimental data on diode performance. The simulations suggest further improvements in spot size reduction could be achieved with changes in the diode geometry.

  12. Quantum simulation of 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhou, Xingxiang; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Jin-Shi; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2015-07-06

    Orbital angular momentum of light is a fundamental optical degree of freedom characterized by unlimited number of available angular momentum states. Although this unique property has proved invaluable in diverse recent studies ranging from optical communication to quantum information, it has not been considered useful or even relevant for simulating nontrivial physics problems such as topological phenomena. Contrary to this misconception, we demonstrate the incredible value of orbital angular momentum of light for quantum simulation by showing theoretically how it allows to study a variety of important 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities. This application for orbital angular momentum of light not only reduces required physical resources but also increases feasible scale of simulation, and thus makes it possible to investigate important topics such as edge-state transport and topological phase transition in a small simulator ready for immediate experimental exploration.

  13. A faster method for 3D/2D medical image registration--a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Wirth, Joachim; Burgstaller, Wolfgang; Baumann, Bernard; Staedele, Harald; Hammer, Beat; Gellrich, Niels Claudius; Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig; Regazzoni, Pietro; Messmer, Peter

    2003-08-21

    3D/2D patient-to-computed-tomography (CT) registration is a method to determine a transformation that maps two coordinate systems by comparing a projection image rendered from CT to a real projection image. Iterative variation of the CT's position between rendering steps finally leads to exact registration. Applications include exact patient positioning in radiation therapy, calibration of surgical robots, and pose estimation in computer-aided surgery. One of the problems associated with 3D/2D registration is the fact that finding a registration includes solving a minimization problem in six degrees of freedom (dof) in motion. This results in considerable time requirements since for each iteration step at least one volume rendering has to be computed. We show that by choosing an appropriate world coordinate system and by applying a 2D/2D registration method in each iteration step, the number of iterations can be grossly reduced from n6 to n5. Here, n is the number of discrete variations around a given coordinate. Depending on the configuration of the optimization algorithm, this reduces the total number of iterations necessary to at least 1/3 of it's original value. The method was implemented and extensively tested on simulated x-ray images of a tibia, a pelvis and a skull base. When using one projective image and a discrete full parameter space search for solving the optimization problem, average accuracy was found to be 1.0 +/- 0.6(degrees) and 4.1 +/- 1.9 (mm) for a registration in six parameters, and 1.0 +/- 0.7(degrees) and 4.2 +/- 1.6 (mm) when using the 5 + 1 dof method described in this paper. Time requirements were reduced by a factor 3.1. We conclude that this hardware-independent optimization of 3D/2D registration is a step towards increasing the acceptance of this promising method for a wide number of clinical applications.

  14. Fast acceleration of 2D wave propagation simulations using modern computational accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Lifan; Cavazos, John; Huang, Howie H; Kay, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in modern computational accelerators like Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and coprocessors provide great opportunities for making scientific applications run faster than ever before. However, efficient parallelization of scientific code using new programming tools like CUDA requires a high level of expertise that is not available to many scientists. This, plus the fact that parallelized code is usually not portable to different architectures, creates major challenges for exploiting the full capabilities of modern computational accelerators. In this work, we sought to overcome these challenges by studying how to achieve both automated parallelization using OpenACC and enhanced portability using OpenCL. We applied our parallelization schemes using GPUs as well as Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) coprocessor to reduce the run time of wave propagation simulations. We used a well-established 2D cardiac action potential model as a specific case-study. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to study auto-parallelization of 2D cardiac wave propagation simulations using OpenACC. Our results identify several approaches that provide substantial speedups. The OpenACC-generated GPU code achieved more than 150x speedup above the sequential implementation and required the addition of only a few OpenACC pragmas to the code. An OpenCL implementation provided speedups on GPUs of at least 200x faster than the sequential implementation and 30x faster than a parallelized OpenMP implementation. An implementation of OpenMP on Intel MIC coprocessor provided speedups of 120x with only a few code changes to the sequential implementation. We highlight that OpenACC provides an automatic, efficient, and portable approach to achieve parallelization of 2D cardiac wave simulations on GPUs. Our approach of using OpenACC, OpenCL, and OpenMP to parallelize this particular model on modern computational accelerators should be applicable to other computational models of

  15. Fast acceleration of 2D wave propagation simulations using modern computational accelerators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available Recent developments in modern computational accelerators like Graphics Processing Units (GPUs and coprocessors provide great opportunities for making scientific applications run faster than ever before. However, efficient parallelization of scientific code using new programming tools like CUDA requires a high level of expertise that is not available to many scientists. This, plus the fact that parallelized code is usually not portable to different architectures, creates major challenges for exploiting the full capabilities of modern computational accelerators. In this work, we sought to overcome these challenges by studying how to achieve both automated parallelization using OpenACC and enhanced portability using OpenCL. We applied our parallelization schemes using GPUs as well as Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC coprocessor to reduce the run time of wave propagation simulations. We used a well-established 2D cardiac action potential model as a specific case-study. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to study auto-parallelization of 2D cardiac wave propagation simulations using OpenACC. Our results identify several approaches that provide substantial speedups. The OpenACC-generated GPU code achieved more than 150x speedup above the sequential implementation and required the addition of only a few OpenACC pragmas to the code. An OpenCL implementation provided speedups on GPUs of at least 200x faster than the sequential implementation and 30x faster than a parallelized OpenMP implementation. An implementation of OpenMP on Intel MIC coprocessor provided speedups of 120x with only a few code changes to the sequential implementation. We highlight that OpenACC provides an automatic, efficient, and portable approach to achieve parallelization of 2D cardiac wave simulations on GPUs. Our approach of using OpenACC, OpenCL, and OpenMP to parallelize this particular model on modern computational accelerators should be applicable to other

  16. Comparison between a coupled 1D-2D model and a fully 2D model for supercritical flow simulation in crossroads

    KAUST Repository

    Ghostine, Rabih

    2014-12-01

    In open channel networks, flow is usually approximated by the one-dimensional (1D) Saint-Venant equations coupled with an empirical junction model. In this work, a comparison in terms of accuracy and computational cost between a coupled 1D-2D shallow water model and a fully two-dimensional (2D) model is presented. The paper explores the ability of a coupled model to simulate the flow processes during supercritical flows in crossroads. This combination leads to a significant reduction in the computational time, as a 1D approach is used in branches and a 2D approach is employed in selected areas only where detailed flow information is essential. Overall, the numerical results suggest that the coupled model is able to accurately simulate the main flow processes. In particular, hydraulic jumps, recirculation zones, and discharge distribution are reasonably well reproduced and clearly identified. Overall, the proposed model leads to a 30% reduction in run times. © 2014 International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research.

  17. Superclusters of galaxies from the 2dF redshift survey. 2. Comparison with simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einasto, Jaan; Einasto, M.; Saar, E.; Tago, E.; Liivamagi, L.J.; Joeveer, M.J; Suhhonenko, I.; Hutsi, G.; /Tartu Observ.; Jaaniste, J.; /Estonian U.; Heinamaki, P.; /Tuorla; Muller, V.; Knebe, A.; /Potsdam, Astrophys. Inst.; Tucker, D.; /Fermilab

    2006-04-01

    We investigate properties of superclusters of galaxies found on the basis of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, and compare them with properties of superclusters from the Millennium Simulation.We study the dependence of various characteristics of superclusters on their distance from the observer, on their total luminosity, and on their multiplicity. The multiplicity is defined by the number of Density Field (DF) clusters in superclusters. Using the multiplicity we divide superclusters into four richness classes: poor, medium, rich and extremely rich.We show that superclusters are asymmetrical and have multi-branching filamentary structure, with the degree of asymmetry and filamentarity being higher for the more luminous and richer superclusters. The comparison of real superclusters with Millennium superclusters shows that most properties of simulated superclusters agree very well with real data, the main differences being in the luminosity and multiplicity distributions.

  18. Reconstruction of chalk pore networks from 2D backscatter electron micrographs using a simulated annealing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, M.S.; Torsaeter, O. [Department of Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2002-05-01

    We report the stochastic reconstruction of chalk pore networks from limited morphological information that may be readily extracted from 2D backscatter electron (BSE) images of the pore space. The reconstruction technique employs a simulated annealing (SA) algorithm, which can be constrained by an arbitrary number of morphological descriptors. Backscatter electron images of a high-porosity North Sea chalk sample are analyzed and the morphological descriptors of the pore space are determined. The morphological descriptors considered are the void-phase two-point probability function and lineal path function computed with or without the application of periodic boundary conditions (PBC). 2D and 3D samples have been reconstructed with different combinations of the descriptors and the reconstructed pore networks have been analyzed quantitatively to evaluate the quality of reconstructions. The results demonstrate that simulated annealing technique may be used to reconstruct chalk pore networks with reasonable accuracy using the void-phase two-point probability function and/or void-phase lineal path function. Void-phase two-point probability function produces slightly better reconstruction than the void-phase lineal path function. Imposing void-phase lineal path function results in slight improvement over what is achieved by using the void-phase two-point probability function as the only constraint. Application of periodic boundary conditions appears to be not critically important when reasonably large samples are reconstructed.

  19. Offensive Strategy in the 2D Soccer Simulation League Using Multi-Group Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengbing Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2D soccer simulation league is one of the best test beds for the research of artificial intelligence (AI. It has achieved great successes in the domain of multi-agent cooperation and machine learning. However, the problem of integral offensive strategy has not been solved because of the dynamic and unpredictable nature of the environment. In this paper, we present a novel offensive strategy based on multi-group ant colony optimization (MACO-OS. The strategy uses the pheromone evaporation mechanism to count the preference value of each attack action in different environments, and saves the values of success rate and preference in an attack information tree in the background. The decision module of the attacker then selects the best attack action according to the preference value. The MACO-OS approach has been successfully implemented in our 2D soccer simulation team in RoboCup competitions. The experimental results have indicated that the agents developed with this strategy, along with related techniques, delivered outstanding performances.

  20. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulation of a 2D Circulation Control Wind Tunnel Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Brian G.; Jones, Greg; Lin, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulations are performed using a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver for a circulation control airfoil. 2D and 3D simulation results are compared to a circulation control wind tunnel test conducted at the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel (BART). The RANS simulations are compared to a low blowing case with a jet momentum coefficient, C(sub u), of 0:047 and a higher blowing case of 0.115. Three dimensional simulations of the model and tunnel walls show wall effects on the lift and airfoil surface pressures. These wall effects include a 4% decrease of the midspan sectional lift for the C(sub u) 0.115 blowing condition. Simulations comparing the performance of the Spalart Allmaras (SA) and Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence models are also made, showing the SST model compares best to the experimental data. A Rotational/Curvature Correction (RCC) to the turbulence model is also evaluated demonstrating an improvement in the CFD predictions.

  1. 2D simulation of hydride blister cracking during a RIA transient with the fuel code ALCYONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sercombe Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 2D generalized plain strain simulations of the thermo-mechanical response of a pellet fragment and overlying cladding during a RIA transient. A fictitious hydride blister of increasing depth (25 to 90% of the clad thickness is introduced at the beginning of the calculation. When a pre-determined hoop stress is exceeded at the clad outer surface, radial cracking of the blister is taken into account in the simulation by a modification of the mechanical boundary conditions. The hoop stress criterion is based on Finite Element simulations of laboratory hoop tensile tests performed on highly irradiated samples with a through-wall hydride blister. The response of the remaining clad ligament (beneath the cracked blister to the pellet thermal expansion is then studied. The simulations show that plastic strains localize in a band orientated at ∼45° to the radial direction, starting from the blister crack tip and ending at the clad inner wall. This result is in good agreement with the ductile shear failures of the clad ligaments observed post-RIA transients. Based on a local plastic strain failure criterion in the shear band, ALCYONE simulations are then used to define the enthalpy at failure in function of the blister depth.

  2. A 2-D simulation of hydrocephalus in the Foramens of Monro of the human ventricular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammourah, S.; Aroussi, A.; Vloeberghs, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow behavior in a two-dimensional plane (2-D) of the human ventricular system when the hydrocephalus in the Foramens of Monro (F.O.M) occurs. In order to understand the CSF behaviour when the hydrocephalus occurs, it is essential to comprehend its normal flow dynamics i.e. the healthy case with no hydrocephalus. This had been done numerically by reconstructing the ventricular system geometry from the MRI scans and then made a 15 o degree cut in the surgical line to obtain the outlines of the 2-D plane. The healthy cases were solved for the CSF actual flow rate, which is between 100-500 ml/day in 100 incremental steps. The unhealthy cases were studied for the average flow rate, which is 300 ml/day but for blockage ratios of the Foramen diameter of 20%, 50% and 75%. These obstructions are designed to simulate the hydrocephalus. The results show that as the flow rate increases the pressure and the velocity values increases, but no changes in the flow pattern occurs. The maximum pressure on the normal cases occurred in the lateral ventricles and the maximum velocity occurred in the aqueduct neck. The results of the hydrocephalus cases show that as the obstruction degree increases the pressure in the lateral ventricle increases accompanied with a velocity increase in the obstructed Foramen, which may cause unwanted stress on the neighboring tissues. (author)

  3. A 2-D simulation of hydrocephalus in the Foramens of Monro of the human ventricular system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammourah, S.; Aroussi, A. [Univ. of Nottingham, School of Mechanical, Materials, Manufacturing and Management, University Park, Nottingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: eaxsaka@nottingham.ac.uk; Vloeberghs, M. [Queen' s Medical Centre, Dept. of Child Health, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This study investigates the Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow behavior in a two-dimensional plane (2-D) of the human ventricular system when the hydrocephalus in the Foramens of Monro (F.O.M) occurs. In order to understand the CSF behaviour when the hydrocephalus occurs, it is essential to comprehend its normal flow dynamics i.e. the healthy case with no hydrocephalus. This had been done numerically by reconstructing the ventricular system geometry from the MRI scans and then made a 15{sup o} degree cut in the surgical line to obtain the outlines of the 2-D plane. The healthy cases were solved for the CSF actual flow rate, which is between 100-500 ml/day in 100 incremental steps. The unhealthy cases were studied for the average flow rate, which is 300 ml/day but for blockage ratios of the Foramen diameter of 20%, 50% and 75%. These obstructions are designed to simulate the hydrocephalus. The results show that as the flow rate increases the pressure and the velocity values increases, but no changes in the flow pattern occurs. The maximum pressure on the normal cases occurred in the lateral ventricles and the maximum velocity occurred in the aqueduct neck. The results of the hydrocephalus cases show that as the obstruction degree increases the pressure in the lateral ventricle increases accompanied with a velocity increase in the obstructed Foramen, which may cause unwanted stress on the neighboring tissues. (author)

  4. Simulation of ultrasonic fields in anisotropic materials using 2D ray tracing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkoori, S. R.; Rahaman, M.-U.; Chinta, P. K.; Boehm, R.; Prager, J.

    2012-05-01

    Ultrasound propagation in inhomogeneous anisotropic materials is difficult to examine because of the directional dependency of elastic properties. Simulation tools play an important role in developing advanced reliable ultrasonic testing techniques for the inspection of anisotropic materials particularly austenitic cladded materials and dissimilar welds. A 2-D Ray tracing method is developed for evaluating ray path, amplitude and travel time for three wave modes namely quasi longitudinal wave (qP), quasi shear vertical wave (qSV) and shear horizontal waves (SH) in anisotropic materials such as austenitic cladded materials. The inhomogenity in the anisotropic material is represented by discretizing the anisotropic region into several homogeneous layers. The ray paths are traced during its propagation through the various interfaces between those layers. At each interface the problem of reflection and refraction is solved. The ray amplitudes are computed by taking into account the directivity and phase relations. Ray divergence variation and ray transmission coefficients at each refraction boundary are considered. The Ray tracing results for ultrasonic field profiles in austenitic cladded materials are validated quantitatively by 2-D Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique (EFIT) results and by the experiments.

  5. Hall-Effect Thruster Simulations with 2-D Electron Transport and Hydrodynamic Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Hofer, Richard H.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2009-01-01

    A computational approach that has been used extensively in the last two decades for Hall thruster simulations is to solve a diffusion equation and energy conservation law for the electrons in a direction that is perpendicular to the magnetic field, and use discrete-particle methods for the heavy species. This "hybrid" approach has allowed for the capture of bulk plasma phenomena inside these thrusters within reasonable computational times. Regions of the thruster with complex magnetic field arrangements (such as those near eroded walls and magnets) and/or reduced Hall parameter (such as those near the anode and the cathode plume) challenge the validity of the quasi-one-dimensional assumption for the electrons. This paper reports on the development of a computer code that solves numerically the 2-D axisymmetric vector form of Ohm's law, with no assumptions regarding the rate of electron transport in the parallel and perpendicular directions. The numerical challenges related to the large disparity of the transport coefficients in the two directions are met by solving the equations in a computational mesh that is aligned with the magnetic field. The fully-2D approach allows for a large physical domain that extends more than five times the thruster channel length in the axial direction, and encompasses the cathode boundary. Ions are treated as an isothermal, cold (relative to the electrons) fluid, accounting for charge-exchange and multiple-ionization collisions in the momentum equations. A first series of simulations of two Hall thrusters, namely the BPT-4000 and a 6-kW laboratory thruster, quantifies the significance of ion diffusion in the anode region and the importance of the extended physical domain on studies related to the impact of the transport coefficients on the electron flow field.

  6. Fast numerical simulations of 2D turbulence using a dynamic model for subfilter motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, J.-P.; Dubrulle, B.; Nazarenko, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of 2D turbulent flow using a new model for the subfilter scales which are computed using a dynamic equation linking the subfilter scales with the resolved velocity. This equation is not postulated, but derived from the constitutive equations under the assumption that the non-linear interactions of subfilter scales between themselves are small compared to their distortions by the resolved scales. Such an assumption results in a linear stochastic equation for the subfilter scales, which can be numerically solved by a decomposition of the subfilter scales into localized wave packets. The wave packets are randomly produced by the smallest of the resolved scales. They are further transported by the resolved-scale velocity and they have wavenumbers and amplitudes which evolve according to the resolved strain. Performance of our model is compared with direct numerical simulations of decaying and forced turbulence. For the same resolution, numerical simulations using our model allow for a significant reduction of the computational time (of the order of 100 in the case we consider), and allow to achieve of significantly larger Reynolds number than the direct method

  7. 2-D CFD time-dependent thermal-hydraulic simulations of CANDU-6 moderator flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdi Zadeh, Foad [Department of Engineering Physics/Polytechnique Montréal, Montréal, QC (Canada); Étienne, Stéphane [Department of Mechanical Engineering/Polytechnique Montréal, Montréal, QC (Canada); Teyssedou, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.teyssedou@polymtl.ca [Department of Engineering Physics/Polytechnique Montréal, Montréal, QC (Canada)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • 2-D time-dependent CFD simulations of CANDU-6 moderator flows are presented. • A thermal-hydraulic code using thermal physical fluid properties is used. • The numerical approach and convergence is validated against available data. • Flow configurations are correlated using Richardson’s number. • Frequency components indicate moderator flow oscillations vs. Richardson numbers. - Abstract: The distribution of the fluid temperature and mass density of the moderator flow in CANDU-6 nuclear power reactors may affect the reactivity coefficient. For this reason, any possible moderator flow configuration and consequently the corresponding temperature distributions must be studied. In particular, the variations of the reactivity may result in major safety issues. For instance, excessive temperature excursions in the vicinity of the calandria tubes nearby local flow stagnation zones, may bring about partial boiling. Moreover, steady-state simulations have shown that for operating condition, intense buoyancy forces may be dominant, which can trigger a thermal stratification. Therefore, the numerical study of the time-dependent flow transition to such a condition, is of fundamental safety concern. Within this framework, this paper presents detailed time-dependent numerical simulations of CANDU-6 moderator flow for a wide range of flow conditions. To get a better insight of the thermal-hydraulic phenomena, the simulations were performed by covering long physical-time periods using an open-source code (Code-Saturne V3) developed by Électricité de France. The results show not only a region where the flow is characterized by coherent structures of flow fluctuations but also the existence of two limit cases where fluid oscillations disappear almost completely.

  8. Comparison Between 2D and 3D Simulations of Rate Dependent Friction Using DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Elsworth, D.

    2017-12-01

    Rate-state dependent constitutive laws of frictional evolution have been successful in representing many of the first- and second- order components of earthquake rupture. Although this constitutive law has been successfully applied in numerical models, difficulty remains in efficient implementation of this constitutive law in computationally-expensive granular mechanics simulations using discrete element methods (DEM). This study introduces a novel approach in implementing a rate-dependent constitutive relation of contact friction into DEM. This is essentially an implementation of a slip-weakening constitutive law onto local particle contacts without sacrificing computational efficiency. This implementation allows the analysis of slip stability of simulated fault gouge materials. Velocity-stepping experiments are reported on both uniform and textured distributions of quartz and talc as 3D analogs of gouge mixtures. Distinct local slip stability parameters (a-b) are assigned to the quartz and talc, respectively. We separately vary talc content from 0 to 100% in the uniform mixtures and talc layer thickness from 1 to 20 particles in the textured mixtures. Applied shear displacements are cycled through velocities of 1μm/s and 10μm/s. Frictional evolution data are collected and compared to 2D simulation results. We show that dimensionality significantly impacts the evolution of friction. 3D simulation results are more representative of laboratory observed behavior and numerical noise is shown at a magnitude of 0.01 in terms of friction coefficient. Stability parameters (a-b) can be straightforwardly obtained from analyzing velocity steps, and are different from locally assigned (a-b) values. Sensitivity studies on normal stress, shear velocity, particle size, local (a-b) values, and characteristic slip distance (Dc) show that the implementation is sensitive to local (a-b) values and relations between (Dc) and particle size.

  9. 2D IR spectra of cyanide in water investigated by molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Won; Carr, Joshua K.; Göllner, Michael; Hamm, Peter; Meuwly, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, the 2D infrared (IR) spectroscopy of CN− solvated in D2O is investigated. Depending on the force field parametrizations, most of which are based on multipolar interactions for the CN− molecule, the frequency-frequency correlation function and observables computed from it differ. Most notably, models based on multipoles for CN− and TIP3P for water yield quantitatively correct results when compared with experiments. Furthermore, the recent finding that T 1 times are sensitive to the van der Waals ranges on the CN− is confirmed in the present study. For the linear IR spectrum, the best model reproduces the full widths at half maximum almost quantitatively (13.0 cm−1 vs. 14.9 cm−1) if the rotational contribution to the linewidth is included. Without the rotational contribution, the lines are too narrow by about a factor of two, which agrees with Raman and IR experiments. The computed and experimental tilt angles (or nodal slopes) α as a function of the 2D IR waiting time compare favorably with the measured ones and the frequency fluctuation correlation function is invariably found to contain three time scales: a sub-ps, 1 ps, and one on the 10-ps time scale. These time scales are discussed in terms of the structural dynamics of the surrounding solvent and it is found that the longest time scale (≈10 ps) most likely corresponds to solvent exchange between the first and second solvation shell, in agreement with interpretations from nuclear magnetic resonance measurements.

  10. 2D Relativistic MHD simulations of the Kruskal-Schwarzschild instability in a relativistic striped wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ramandeep; Granot, Jonathan; Lyubarsky, Yuri

    2018-03-01

    We study the linear and non-linear development of the Kruskal-Schwarzchild instability in a relativisitically expanding striped wind. This instability is the generalization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the presence of a magnetic field. It has been suggested to produce a self-sustained acceleration mechanism in strongly magnetized outflows found in active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, and micro-quasars. The instability leads to magnetic reconnection, but in contrast with steady-state Sweet-Parker reconnection, the dissipation rate is not limited by the current layer's small aspect ratio. We performed two-dimensional (2D) relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations featuring two cold and highly magnetized (1 ≤ σ ≤ 103) plasma layers with an anti-parallel magnetic field separated by a thin layer of relativistically hot plasma with a local effective gravity induced by the outflow's acceleration. Our simulations show how the heavier relativistically hot plasma in the reconnecting layer drips out and allows oppositely oriented magnetic field lines to reconnect. The instability's growth rate in the linear regime matches the predictions of linear stability analysis. We find turbulence rather than an ordered bulk flow near the reconnection region, with turbulent velocities up to ˜0.1c, largely independent of model parameters. However, the magnetic energy dissipation rate is found to be much slower, corresponding to an effective ordered bulk velocity inflow into the reconnection region vin = βinc of 10-3 ≲ βin ≲ 5 × 10-3. This occurs due to the slow evacuation of hot plasma from the current layer, largely because of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability experienced by the dripping plasma. 3D RMHD simulations are needed to further investigate the non-linear regime.

  11. Particle acceleration with anomalous pitch angle scattering in 2D magnetohydrodynamic reconnection simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borissov, A.; Kontar, E. P.; Threlfall, J.; Neukirch, T.

    2017-09-01

    The conversion of magnetic energy into other forms (such as plasma heating, bulk plasma flows, and non-thermal particles) during solar flares is one of the outstanding open problems in solar physics. It is generally accepted that magnetic reconnection plays a crucial role in these conversion processes. In order to achieve the rapid energy release required in solar flares, an anomalous resistivity, which is orders of magnitude higher than the Spitzer resistivity, is often used in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of reconnection in the corona. The origin of Spitzer resistivity is based on Coulomb scattering, which becomes negligible at the high energies achieved by accelerated particles. As a result, simulations of particle acceleration in reconnection events are often performed in the absence of any interaction between accelerated particles and any background plasma. This need not be the case for scattering associated with anomalous resistivity caused by turbulence within solar flares, as the higher resistivity implies an elevated scattering rate. We present results of test particle calculations, with and without pitch angle scattering, subject to fields derived from MHD simulations of two-dimensional (2D) X-point reconnection. Scattering rates proportional to the ratio of the anomalous resistivity to the local Spitzer resistivity, as well as at fixed values, are considered. Pitch angle scattering, which is independent of the anomalous resistivity, causes higher maximum energies in comparison to those obtained without scattering. Scattering rates which are dependent on the local anomalous resistivity tend to produce fewer highly energised particles due to weaker scattering in the separatrices, even though scattering in the current sheet may be stronger when compared to resistivity-independent scattering. Strong scattering also causes an increase in the number of particles exiting the computational box in the reconnection outflow region, as opposed to along the

  12. Simulated radiographic bone and joint modeling from 3D ankle MRI: feasibility and comparison with radiographs and 2D MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordeck, Shaun M. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical College, Dallas, TX (United States); University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Koerper, Conrad E.; Adler, Aaron [University of Texas Southwestern Medical College, Dallas, TX (United States); Malhotra, Vidur; Xi, Yin [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Liu, George T. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Orthopaedic Surgery, Dallas, TX (United States); Chhabra, Avneesh [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Orthopaedic Surgery, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2017-05-15

    The purpose of this work is to simulate radiographs from isotropic 3D MRI data, compare relationship of angle and joint space measurements on simulated radiographs with corresponding 2D MRIs and real radiographs (XR), and compare measurement times among the three modalities. Twenty-four consecutive ankles were included, eight males and 16 females, with a mean age of 46 years. Segmented joint models simulating radiographs were created from 3D MRI data sets. Three readers independently performed blinded angle and joint space measurements on the models, corresponding 2D MRIs, and XRs at two time points. Linear mixed models and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was ascertained, with p values less than 0.05 considered significant. Simulated radiograph models were successfully created in all cases. Good agreement (ICC > 0.65) was noted among all readers across all modalities and among most measurements. Absolute measurement values differed between modalities. Measurement time was significantly greater (p < 0.05) on 2D versus simulated radiographs for most measurements and on XR versus simulated radiographs (p < 0.05) for nearly half the measurements. Simulated radiographs can be successfully generated from 3D MRI data; however, measurements differ. Good inter-reader and moderate-to-good intra-reader reliability was observed and measurements obtained on simulated radiograph models took significantly less time compared to measurements with 2D and generally less time than XR. (orig.)

  13. Finite volume simulation of 2-D steady square lid driven cavity flow at high reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yapici

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, computer simulation results of steady incompressible flow in a 2-D square lid-driven cavity up to Reynolds number (Re 65000 are presented and compared with those of earlier studies. The governing flow equations are solved by using the finite volume approach. Quadratic upstream interpolation for convective kinematics (QUICK is used for the approximation of the convective terms in the flow equations. In the implementation of QUICK, the deferred correction technique is adopted. A non-uniform staggered grid arrangement of 768x768 is employed to discretize the flow geometry. Algebraic forms of the coupled flow equations are then solved through the iterative SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equation algorithm. The outlined computational methodology allows one to meet the main objective of this work, which is to address the computational convergence and wiggled flow problems encountered at high Reynolds and Peclet (Pe numbers. Furthermore, after Re > 25000 additional vortexes appear at the bottom left and right corners that have not been observed in earlier studies.

  14. Icarus: A 2-D Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) Code for Multi-Processor Computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARTEL, TIMOTHY J.; PLIMPTON, STEVEN J.; GALLIS, MICHAIL A.

    2001-01-01

    Icarus is a 2D Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code which has been optimized for the parallel computing environment. The code is based on the DSMC method of Bird[11.1] and models from free-molecular to continuum flowfields in either cartesian (x, y) or axisymmetric (z, r) coordinates. Computational particles, representing a given number of molecules or atoms, are tracked as they have collisions with other particles or surfaces. Multiple species, internal energy modes (rotation and vibration), chemistry, and ion transport are modeled. A new trace species methodology for collisions and chemistry is used to obtain statistics for small species concentrations. Gas phase chemistry is modeled using steric factors derived from Arrhenius reaction rates or in a manner similar to continuum modeling. Surface chemistry is modeled with surface reaction probabilities; an optional site density, energy dependent, coverage model is included. Electrons are modeled by either a local charge neutrality assumption or as discrete simulational particles. Ion chemistry is modeled with electron impact chemistry rates and charge exchange reactions. Coulomb collision cross-sections are used instead of Variable Hard Sphere values for ion-ion interactions. The electro-static fields can either be: externally input, a Langmuir-Tonks model or from a Green's Function (Boundary Element) based Poison Solver. Icarus has been used for subsonic to hypersonic, chemically reacting, and plasma flows. The Icarus software package includes the grid generation, parallel processor decomposition, post-processing, and restart software. The commercial graphics package, Tecplot, is used for graphics display. All of the software packages are written in standard Fortran

  15. Simulation realization of 2-D wavelength/time system utilizing MDW code for OCDMA system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azura M. S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a realization of Wavelength/Time (W/T Two-Dimensional Modified Double Weight (2-D MDW code for Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA system based on Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC approach. The MDW code has the capability to suppress Phase-Induce Intensity Noise (PIIN and minimizing the Multiple Access Interference (MAI noises. At the permissible BER 10-9, the 2-D MDW (APD had shown minimum effective received power (Psr = -71 dBm that can be obtained at the receiver side as compared to 2-D MDW (PIN only received -61 dBm. The results show that 2-D MDW (APD has better performance in achieving same BER with longer optical fiber length and with less received power (Psr. Also, the BER from the result shows that MDW code has the capability to suppress PIIN ad MAI.

  16. Simulation realization of 2-D wavelength/time system utilizing MDW code for OCDMA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azura, M. S. A.; Rashidi, C. B. M.; Aljunid, S. A.; Endut, R.; Ali, N.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a realization of Wavelength/Time (W/T) Two-Dimensional Modified Double Weight (2-D MDW) code for Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system based on Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) approach. The MDW code has the capability to suppress Phase-Induce Intensity Noise (PIIN) and minimizing the Multiple Access Interference (MAI) noises. At the permissible BER 10-9, the 2-D MDW (APD) had shown minimum effective received power (Psr) = -71 dBm that can be obtained at the receiver side as compared to 2-D MDW (PIN) only received -61 dBm. The results show that 2-D MDW (APD) has better performance in achieving same BER with longer optical fiber length and with less received power (Psr). Also, the BER from the result shows that MDW code has the capability to suppress PIIN ad MAI.

  17. Simulation of Degraded Properties of 2D plain Woven C/SiC Composites under Preloading Oxidation Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xihui; Sun, Zhigang; Sun, Jianfen; Song, Yingdong

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a numerical model which incorporates the oxidation damage model and the finite element model of 2D plain woven composites is presented for simulation of the oxidation behaviors of 2D plain woven C/SiC composite under preloading oxidation atmosphere. The equal proportional reduction method is firstly proposed to calculate the residual moduli and strength of unidirectional C/SiC composite. The multi-scale method is developed to simulate the residual elastic moduli and strength of 2D plain woven C/SiC composite. The multi-scale method is able to accurately predict the residual elastic modulus and strength of the composite. Besides, the simulated residual elastic moduli and strength of 2D plain woven C/SiC composites under preloading oxidation atmosphere show good agreements with experimental results. Furthermore, the preload, oxidation time, temperature and fiber volume fractions of the composite are investigated to show their influences upon the residual elastic modulus and strength of 2D plain woven C/SiC composites.

  18. Stability and accuracy of 3D neutron transport simulations using the 2D/1D method in MPACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Benjamin; Stimpson, Shane; Kelley, Blake W.; Young, Mitchell T. H.; Kochunas, Brendan; Graham, Aaron; Larsen, Edward W.; Downar, Thomas; Godfrey, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    A consistent "2D/1D" neutron transport method is derived from the 3D Boltzmann transport equation, to calculate fuel-pin-resolved neutron fluxes for realistic full-core Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) problems. The 2D/1D method employs the Method of Characteristics to discretize the radial variables and a lower order transport solution to discretize the axial variable. This paper describes the theory of the 2D/1D method and its implementation in the MPACT code, which has become the whole-core deterministic neutron transport solver for the Consortium for Advanced Simulations of Light Water Reactors (CASL) core simulator VERA-CS. Several applications have been performed on both leadership-class and industry-class computing clusters. Results are presented for whole-core solutions of the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 and compared to both continuous-energy Monte Carlo results and plant data.

  19. Yielding in a strongly aggregated colloidal gel: 2D simulations and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Saikat; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the micro-structural details and the mechanical response under uniaxial compression of the strongly aggregating gel starting from low to high packing fraction.The numerical simulations account for short-range inter-particle attractions, normal and tangential deformation at particle contacts,sliding and rolling friction, and preparation history. It is observed that in the absence of rolling resistance(RR),the average coordination number varies only slightly with compaction whereas it is significant in the presence of RR. The particle contact distribution is isotropic throughout the consolidation process. In both cases, the yield strain is constant with the volume fraction. The modulus values are very similar at different attraction, and with and without RR implying that the elastic modulus does not scale with attraction.The modulus was found to be a weak function of the preparation history. The increase in yield stress with volume fraction is a consequence of the increased elastic modulus of the network. However, the yield stress scales similarly both with and without RR. The power law exponent of 5.4 is in good agreement with previous simulation results. A micromechanical theory is also proposed to describe the stress versus strain relation for the gelled network.

  20. MOD_FreeSurf2D: a Surface Fluid Flow Simulation Model for Rivers, Streams, and Shallow Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N.; Gorelick, S. M.

    2003-12-01

    The MOD_FreeSurf2D, Modular Free Surface Flow in Two-Dimensions, computer model simulates free surface fluid flow in streams, rivers, and shallow estuaries under the assumptions of a well-mixed water column, a small water depth to width ratio, and a hydrostatic pressure distribution. The dependent variables in the model are free surface elevation, which provides total water depth, and fluid velocity. Primary advantages of MOD_FreeSurf2D relative to other two-dimensional models are a stable and computationally efficient numerical representation and a transparent representation of wetting and drying of the simulation domain. MOD_FreeSurf2D approximates the depth-averaged, shallow water equations with a finite volume, semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian numerical representation similar to the TRIM method (Casulli, 1990; Casulli and Cheng, 1992; Casulli, 1999). The semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian approach is computationally efficient because time steps can exceed the Courant-Friedrich-Lewy (CFL) stability criterion without significant accuracy degradation (Robert, 1982; Casulli, 1990). The rectangular, Arakawa C-grid, finite-volume layout allows flooding and drying in response to changing flow conditions without prior channel specification or closed boundary specification. Open boundary conditions available in MOD_FreeSurf2D are specified flux, specified total water depth, specified velocity, radiation free surface, and radiation velocity. MOD_FreeSurf2D requires initial topography, undisturbed water depth, and Manning's roughness coefficient. MOD_FreeSurf2D simulated results are shown to converge to the semi-empirical solution for a simple straight channel case. Two applications demonstrate the accuracy of MOD_FreeSurf2D. The first application is the evolution of water depth in the dambreak-style flume experiment of Bellos et al. (1992). In this case, MOD_FreeSurf2D accurately simulates the changing water depth in the flume during the experiment and models the wetting of

  1. Simulated radiographic bone and joint modeling from 3D ankle MRI: feasibility and comparison with radiographs and 2D MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeck, Shaun M; Koerper, Conrad E; Adler, Aaron; Malhotra, Vidur; Xi, Yin; Liu, George T; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to simulate radiographs from isotropic 3D MRI data, compare relationship of angle and joint space measurements on simulated radiographs with corresponding 2D MRIs and real radiographs (XR), and compare measurement times among the three modalities. Twenty-four consecutive ankles were included, eight males and 16 females, with a mean age of 46 years. Segmented joint models simulating radiographs were created from 3D MRI data sets. Three readers independently performed blinded angle and joint space measurements on the models, corresponding 2D MRIs, and XRs at two time points. Linear mixed models and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was ascertained, with p values less than 0.05 considered significant. Simulated radiograph models were successfully created in all cases. Good agreement (ICC > 0.65) was noted among all readers across all modalities and among most measurements. Absolute measurement values differed between modalities. Measurement time was significantly greater (p 3D MRI data; however, measurements differ. Good inter-reader and moderate-to-good intra-reader reliability was observed and measurements obtained on simulated radiograph models took significantly less time compared to measurements with 2D and generally less time than XR.

  2. Sintering of hardmetals in different conditions: experimental results of 2-D dilatometry and computer simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasik, M.; Zhang, B.; Kaskiala, M.; Yilkeraelae, J.

    2001-01-01

    Properties of WC-Co functionally gradated materials (FGM) manufactured by powder metallurgy from nanograin powders are studied. New optical system (a 2-D dilatometer) has been developed, using a high-resolution CCd camera and a dedicated software fro image processing. Sintering of WC-Co hard metals with different cobalt and grain growth inhibitors content was performed for various conditions (substrate, heating rate, temperature) and resulting anisotropy was measured. (author)

  3. Development of 2D particle-in-cell code to simulate high current, low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sists of 50 keV ECR ion-source, low energy beam transport line (LEBT), 3 MeV radio frequency ... For the generation of particle distribution in transverse. 552 .... Development of 2D PIC code. Table 1. Definition of different phase space distributions. Distributions. Definition. KV. 2c π2r4. 0 rδ(r2 − r2. 0). Waterbag. 2c π2r4. 0.

  4. Quasi-2D Unsteady Flow Solver Module for Rocket Engine and Propulsion System Simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campell, Bryan T; Davis, Roger L

    2006-01-01

    .... The solver is targeted to the commercial dynamic simulation software package Simulink(Registered) for integration into a larger suite of modules developed for simulating rocket engines and propulsion systems...

  5. High performance shallow water kernels for parallel overland flow simulations based on FullSWOF2D

    KAUST Repository

    Wittmann, Roland

    2017-01-25

    We describe code optimization and parallelization procedures applied to the sequential overland flow solver FullSWOF2D. Major difficulties when simulating overland flows comprise dealing with high resolution datasets of large scale areas which either cannot be computed on a single node either due to limited amount of memory or due to too many (time step) iterations resulting from the CFL condition. We address these issues in terms of two major contributions. First, we demonstrate a generic step-by-step transformation of the second order finite volume scheme in FullSWOF2D towards MPI parallelization. Second, the computational kernels are optimized by the use of templates and a portable vectorization approach. We discuss the load imbalance of the flux computation due to dry and wet cells and propose a solution using an efficient cell counting approach. Finally, scalability results are shown for different test scenarios along with a flood simulation benchmark using the Shaheen II supercomputer.

  6. 2-D particle-in-cell simulations of high efficiency klystrons

    CERN Document Server

    Constable, David A; Burt, Graeme; Syratchev, Igor; Marchesin, Rodolphe; Baikov, Andrey Yu; Kowalczyk, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Currently, klystrons employing monotonic bunching offer efficiencies on the order of 70%. Through the use of the core oscillation electron bunching mechanism, numerical simulations have predicted klystrons with efficiencies up to 90%. In this paper, we present PIC simulations of such geometries operating at a frequency of 800 MHz, with efficiencies up to 83% predicted thus far.

  7. Proposal of evaluation method of tsunami wave pressure using 2D depth-integrated flow simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimitsu, Tsuyoshi; Ooe, Kazuya; Kawasaki, Koji

    2012-01-01

    To design and construct land structures resistive to tsunami force, it is most essential to evaluate tsunami pressure quantitatively. The existing hydrostatic formula, in general, tended to underestimate tsunami wave pressure under the condition of inundation flow with large Froude number. Estimation method of tsunami pressure acting on a land structure was proposed using inundation depth and horizontal velocity at the front of the structure, which were calculated employing a 2D depth-integrated flow model based on the unstructured grid system. The comparison between the numerical and experimental results revealed that the proposed method could reasonably reproduce the vertical distribution of the maximum tsunami pressure as well as the time variation of the tsunami pressure exerting on the structure. (author)

  8. RiverFlow2D numerical simulation of flood mitigation solutions in the Ebro River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Echeverribar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of measures oriented to flood mitigation in the mid reach of the Ebro river is presented: elimination of vegetation in the riverbed, use of controlled flooding areas and construction or re-adaptation of levees. The software used is RiverFlow2D which solves the conservative free-surface flow equations with a finite volume method running on GPU. The results are compared with measurements at gauge stations and aerial views. The most effective measure has turned out to be the elimination of vegetation in the riverbed. It is demonstrated that not only the maximum flooded area is narrower but also it reduces the water depth up to 1 m. The other measures have local consequences when the peak discharge is relatively high although they could be useful in case the discharge is lower.

  9. 2D simulation and performance evaluation of bifacial rear local contact c-Si solar cells under variable illumination conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Katsaounis, Theodoros

    2017-09-18

    A customized 2D computational tool has been developed to simulate bifacial rear local contact PERC type PV structures based on the numerical solution of the transport equations through the finite element method. Simulations were performed under various device material parameters and back contact geometry configurations in order to optimize bifacial solar cell performance under different simulated illumination conditions. Bifacial device maximum power output was also compared with the monofacial equivalent one and the industrial standard Al-BSF structure. The performance of the bifacial structure during highly diffused irradiance conditions commonly observed in the Middle East region due to high concentrations of airborne dust particles was also investigated. Simulation results demonstrated that such conditions are highly favorable for the bifacial device because of the significantly increased diffuse component of the solar radiation which enters the back cell surface.

  10. Experimental and 2D simulation study of the single-event burnout in n-channel power MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubaud, F.; Dachs, C.; Palau, J.M.; Gasiot, J.

    1993-01-01

    The use of the 2D simulator MEDICI as a tool for Single Event Burnout (SEB) comprehension is investigated. Simulation results are compared to experimental currents induced in an N channel power MOSFET by the ions from a 252 Cf source. Current measurements have been carried out with a specially designed circuit. Simulations allow to analyze separately the effects of the ion impact and of the electrical environment parameters on the SEB phenomenon. Burnout sensitivity is found to be increased by increasing supply voltage, ion's LET and by decreasing load charge. These electrical tendencies are validated by experiments. Burnout sensitivity is also found to be sensitive to the ion impact position. The current shapes variations for given electrical parameters can be related to LET or ion impact position changes. However, some experimental current shapes are not reproduced by simulations

  11. Phase diagram of 2D Hubbard model by simulated annealing mean field approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masaru; Kitagaki, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    In order to investigate the stable magnetic structure of the Hubbard model on a square lattice, we utilize the dynamical simulated annealing method which proposed by R. Car and M. Parrinello. Results of simulations on a 10 x 10 lattice system with 80 electrons under assumption of collinear magnetic structure that the most stable state is incommensurate spin density wave state with periodic domain wall. (orig.)

  12. Influence of Forced Flow on the Dendritic Growth of Fe-C Alloy: 3D vs 2D Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiling; Wang, Zhaohui; Luo, Sen; Ji, Cheng; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2017-12-01

    A 3D parallel cellular automaton-finite volume method (CA-FVM) model was used to simulate the equiaxed dendritic growth of an Fe-0.82 wt pct C alloy with xy- in- out and xyz- in- out type forced flows and the columnar dendritic growth with y- in- out type forced flow. In addition, the similarities and differences between the results of the 3D and 2D models are discussed and summarized in detail. The capabilities of the 3D and 2D CA-FVM models to predict the dendritic growth of the alloy with forced flow are validated through comparison with the boundary layer correction and Oseen-Ivanstov models, respectively. Because the forced flow can pass around perpendicular arms of the dendrites, the secondary arms at the sides upstream from the perpendicular arms are more developed than those on the upstream side of the upstream arms, especially at higher inlet velocities. In addition, compared to the xy- in- out case, the growth of the downstream arms is less inhibited and the secondary arms are more developed in the xyz- in- out case because of the greater lateral flow around their tips. Compared to the 3D case, the 2D equiaxed dendrites are more asymmetrical and lack secondary arms because of the thicker solute envelope. In the 3D case, the columnar dendrites on the upstream side (left one) are promoted, while the middle and downstream dendrites are inhibited in sequence. However, the sequential inhibition starts on the upstream side in the 2D case. This is mainly because the melt can pass around the upstream branch in 3D space. However, it can only climb over the upstream tip in 2D space. Additionally, the secondary arms show upstream development, which is more significant with increasing inlet velocity. The level of development of the secondary arms is also affected by the decay of the forced flow in the flow direction.

  13. SAGE 2D and 3D Simulations of the Explosive Venting of Supercritical Fluids Through Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R.; Gisler, G.; Svensen, H.; Mazzini, A.

    2008-12-01

    Magmatic intrusive events in large igneous provinces heat sedimentary country rock leading to the eventual release of volatiles. This has been proposed as a contributor to climate change and other environmental impacts. By means of numerical simulations, we examine ways in which these volatiles can be released explosively from depth. Gases and fluids cooked out of country rock by metamorphic heating may be confined for a time by impermeable clays or other barriers, developing high pressures and supercritical fluids. If confinement is suddenly breached (by an earthquake for example) in such a way that the fluid has access to porous sediments, a violent eruption of a non-magmatic mixture of fluid and sediment may result. Surface manifestations of these events could be hydrothermal vent complexes, kimberlite pipes, pockmarks, or mud volcanoes. These are widespread on Earth, especially in large igneous provinces, as in the Karoo Basin of South Africa, the North Sea off the Norwegian margin, and the Siberian Traps. We have performed 2D and 3D simulations with the Sage hydrocode (from Los Alamos and Science Applications International) of supercritical venting in a variety of geometries and configurations. The simulations show several different patterns of propagation and fracturing in porous or otherwise weakened overburden, dependent on depth, source conditions (fluid availability, temperature, and pressure), and manner of confinement breach. Results will be given for a variety of 2D and 3D simulations of these events exploring the release of volatiles into the atmosphere.

  14. Hemodynamic simulation of the heart using a 2D model and MR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeler, Pernille Thorup

    2002-01-01

    . The improvements require changing the geometry, the timing, the mechanical activation of the heart musculature, and the afterload. Furthermore, we introduce a tethering of the otherwise freely floating heart. We evaluate the model from a computational and modelling point of view and find a set of reasonable...... parameter values. This is our reference model, which gives representative simulation results. We compare a simulation using our reference model with an MR velocity data set obtained from a healthy human. The comparison is carried out for the intraventricular velocity field and the velocity time curves over...... the mitral ring and across the aortic outflow tract. The comparison between elocity fields shows a reasonably fair agreement in the general flow pattern: a wide inflow jet, the formation of an anterior vortex during filling, and an outflow jet through the outflow tract. There are some disagreements...

  15. Spin-dynamics simulations of vortex precession in 2-D magnetic dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depondt, Ph., E-mail: depondt@insp.jussieu.fr [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR 7588 CNRS, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Levy, J.-C.S., E-mail: jean-claude.levy@univ-paris-diderot.fr [Materiaux et Phenomenes Quantiques, Universite Denis Diderot, UMR 7162 CNRS, 75013 Paris (France)

    2011-10-31

    Highlights: → Vortex precession was simulated in two-dimensional magnetic dots of finite size. → A simple qualitative explanation of the observed behaviors is proposed, including seemingly erratic ones. → Pinning of the vortex motion, unconnected with defects, is also observed and an explanation thereof provided. -- Abstract: Vortex precession was simulated in two-dimensional magnetic dots. The Landau-Lifshitz equation with exchange and dipolar interactions was integrated at a low temperature with initial conditions consisting in a single vortex situated aside from the central position. This vortex precesses around the center of the sample and either can be expelled or converges towards the center. These relaxation processes are systematically studied. A simple qualitative explanation of the observed behaviors is proposed, including seemingly somewhat erratic ones. Intrinsic pinning of the vortex motion, unconnected with defects, is also observed and an explanation thereof provided.

  16. Spin-dynamics simulations of vortex precession in 2-D magnetic dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depondt, Ph.; Levy, J.-C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Vortex precession was simulated in two-dimensional magnetic dots of finite size. → A simple qualitative explanation of the observed behaviors is proposed, including seemingly erratic ones. → Pinning of the vortex motion, unconnected with defects, is also observed and an explanation thereof provided. -- Abstract: Vortex precession was simulated in two-dimensional magnetic dots. The Landau-Lifshitz equation with exchange and dipolar interactions was integrated at a low temperature with initial conditions consisting in a single vortex situated aside from the central position. This vortex precesses around the center of the sample and either can be expelled or converges towards the center. These relaxation processes are systematically studied. A simple qualitative explanation of the observed behaviors is proposed, including seemingly somewhat erratic ones. Intrinsic pinning of the vortex motion, unconnected with defects, is also observed and an explanation thereof provided.

  17. 3D Simulations of NIF Wetted Foam Experiments to Understand the Transition from 2D to 3D Implosion Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Brian; Olson, Richard; Yi, Austin; Zylstra, Alex; Peterson, Robert; Bradley, Paul; Shah, Rahul; Wilson, Doug; Kline, John; Leeper, Ramon; Batha, Steve

    2017-10-01

    The high convergence ratio (CR) of layered Inertial Confinement Fusion capsule implosions contribute to high performance in 1D simulations yet make them more susceptible to hydrodynamic instabilities, contributing to the development of 3D flows. The wetted foam platform is an approach to hot spot ignition to achieve low-to-moderate convergence ratios in layered implosions on the NIF unobtainable using an ice layer. Detailed high-resolution modeling of these experiments in 2D and 3D, including all known asymmetries, demonstrates that 2D hydrodynamics explain capsule performance at CR 12 but become less suitable as the CR increases. Mechanisms for this behavior and detailed comparisons of simulations to experiments on NIF will be presented. To evaluate the tradeoff between increased instability and improved 1D performance, we present a full-scale wetted foam capsule design with 17 Simulations predict that, given currently achievable levels of asymmetry, their effects negate all advantages of increased CR.

  18. A convergent 2D finite-difference scheme for the Dirac-Poisson system and the simulation of graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Brinkman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We present a convergent finite-difference scheme of second order in both space and time for the 2D electromagnetic Dirac equation. We apply this method in the self-consistent Dirac-Poisson system to the simulation of graphene. The model is justified for low energies, where the particles have wave vectors sufficiently close to the Dirac points. In particular, we demonstrate that our method can be used to calculate solutions of the Dirac-Poisson system where potentials act as beam splitters or Veselago lenses. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  19. Tentative study of flow patterns in the North Aegean Sea using NOAA-AVHRR images and 2D model simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zodiatis

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available A statistical technique for image processing, the maximum cross correlation (MCC method, was utilized on sequences of NOAA-AVHRR thermal data in order to explore the surface advective current dynamics at the discharge region of the Hellespont in the North Aegean Sea. A 2D numerical flow model was also used in order to simulate the barotropic flow pattern of the surface water layer. The model was forced with diurnal wind fields obtained for the same period as the satellite infrared images. The currents (magnitude and direction derived from the two methods compare satisfactorily despite the fact that some model simplifications were made.

  20. A 1D-2D coupled SPH-SWE model applied to open channel flow simulations in complicated geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kao-Hua; Sheu, Tony Wen-Hann; Chang, Tsang-Jung

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a one- and two-dimensional (1D-2D) coupled model is developed to solve the shallow water equations (SWEs). The solutions are obtained using a Lagrangian meshless method called smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate shallow water flows in converging, diverging and curved channels. A buffer zone is introduced to exchange information between the 1D and 2D SPH-SWE models. Interpolated water discharge values and water surface levels at the internal boundaries are prescribed as the inflow/outflow boundary conditions in the two SPH-SWE models. In addition, instead of using the SPH summation operator, we directly solve the continuity equation by introducing a diffusive term to suppress oscillations in the predicted water depth. The performance of the two approaches in calculating the water depth is comprehensively compared through a case study of a straight channel. Additionally, three benchmark cases involving converging, diverging and curved channels are adopted to demonstrate the ability of the proposed 1D and 2D coupled SPH-SWE model through comparisons with measured data and predicted mesh-based numerical results. The proposed model provides satisfactory accuracy and guaranteed convergence.

  1. Simulation of 2D rarefied gas flows based on the numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleshkin, Sergey O.; Malkov, Ewgenij A.; Kudryavtsev, Alexey N.; Shershnev, Anton A.; Bondar, Yevgeniy A.; Kohanchik, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    There are various methods for calculating rarefied gas flows, in particular, statistical methods and deterministic methods based on the finite-difference solutions of the Boltzmann nonlinear kinetic equation and on the solutions of model kinetic equations. There is no universal method; each has its disadvantages in terms of efficiency or accuracy. The choice of the method depends on the problem to be solved and on parameters of calculated flows. Qualitative theoretical arguments help to determine the range of parameters of effectively solved problems for each method; however, it is advisable to perform comparative tests of calculations of the classical problems performed by different methods and with different parameters to have quantitative confirmation of this reasoning. The paper provides the results of the calculations performed by the authors with the help of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method and finite-difference methods of solving the Boltzmann equation and model kinetic equations. Based on this comparison, conclusions are made on selecting a particular method for flow simulations in various ranges of flow parameters.

  2. Characterization of array scintillation detector for follicle thyroid 2D imaging acquisition using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Carlos Borges da

    2007-05-01

    The image acquisition methods applied to nuclear medicine and radiobiology are a valuable research study for determination of thyroid anatomy to seek disorders associated to follicular cells. The Monte Carlo (MC) simulation has also been used in problems related to radiation detection in order to map medical images since the improvement of data processing compatible with personnel computers (PC). This work presents an innovative study to find out the adequate scintillation inorganic detector array that could be coupled to a specific light photo sensor, a charge coupled device (CCD) through a fiber optic plate in order to map the follicles of thyroid gland. The goal is to choose the type of detector that fits the application suggested here with spatial resolution of 10 μm and good detector efficiency. The methodology results are useful to map a follicle image using gamma radiation emission. A source - detector simulation is performed by using a MCNP4B (Monte Carlo for Neutron Photon transport) general code considering different source energies, detector materials and geometries including pixel sizes and reflector types. The results demonstrate that by using MCNP4B code is possible to searching for useful parameters related to the systems used in nuclear medicine, specifically in radiobiology applied to endocrine physiology studies to acquiring thyroid follicles images. (author)

  3. CYLFUX, Fast Reactor Reactivity Transients Simulation in LWR by 2-D 2 Group Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.

    1973-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: A 2-dimensional calculation of the 2-group, space-dependent neutron diffusion equations is performed in r-z geometry using an arbitrary number of groups of delayed neutron precursors. The program is designed to simulate fast reactivity excursions in light water reactors taking into account Doppler feedback via adiabatic heatup of fuel. Axial motions of control rods may be considered including scram action on option. 2 - Method of solution: The differential equations are solved at each time step by an explicit finite difference method using two time levels. The stationary distributions are obtained by using the same algorithm. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: No restriction to the number of space points and delayed neutron energy groups besides the computer size

  4. Vortex polarity in 2-D magnetic dots by Langevin dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depondt, Ph.; Levy, J.-C.S.; Mertens, F.G.

    2011-01-01

    Two-dimensional magnetic plots of finite size were simulated by integrating the Landau-Lifshitz equation for the isotropic Heisenberg model with a systematic exploration of the effect of dipole-dipole interactions of various strengths d, at a low temperature. Structures with or without vortices are observed, and in the cases in which vortices are present, out-of-plane contributions show only for relatively weak dipolar strengths: the integrated intensity of the out-of-plane component decreases roughly as 1/d with increasing dipolar strength while the vortex core width decreases as d -1/2 . The coexistence of several vortices with an out-of-plane component seems limited to a narrow d-range, at least for the sample sizes studied. The size limit below which the vortices disappear decreases roughly as 1/d.

  5. A hierarchical lattice spring model to simulate the mechanics of 2-D materials-based composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas eBrely

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the field of engineering materials, strength and toughness are typically two mutually exclusive properties. Structural biological materials such as bone, tendon or dentin have resolved this conflict and show unprecedented damage tolerance, toughness and strength levels. The common feature of these materials is their hierarchical heterogeneous structure, which contributes to increased energy dissipation before failure occurring at different scale levels. These structural properties are the key to exceptional bioinspired material mechanical properties, in particular for nanocomposites. Here, we develop a numerical model in order to simulate the mechanisms involved in damage progression and energy dissipation at different size scales in nano- and macro-composites, which depend both on the heterogeneity of the material and on the type of hierarchical structure. Both these aspects have been incorporated into a 2-dimensional model based on a Lattice Spring Model, accounting for geometrical nonlinearities and including statistically-based fracture phenomena. The model has been validated by comparing numerical results to continuum and fracture mechanics results as well as finite elements simulations, and then employed to study how structural aspects impact on hierarchical composite material properties. Results obtained with the numerical code highlight the dependence of stress distributions on matrix properties and reinforcement dispersion, geometry and properties, and how failure of sacrificial elements is directly involved in the damage tolerance of the material. Thanks to the rapidly developing field of nanocomposite manufacture, it is already possible to artificially create materials with multi-scale hierarchical reinforcements. The developed code could be a valuable support in the design and optimization of these advanced materials, drawing inspiration and going beyond biological materials with exceptional mechanical properties.

  6. Simulation and Analysis for Wide-band Scattering Characteristics of 2-D Linear and Nonlinear Sea Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jia-ning

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the wideband backscattering fields of two-Dimensional (2-D linear and nonlinear sea surfaces are numerically simulated employing the Weighted Curvature Approximation (WCA method. A large number of Monte Carlo trials are performed to investigate the statistical characteristics of the rang-resolved sea clutter, especially for the sea spike phenomenon. Simulation results demonstrate that the long tail of the sea clutter intensity Probability Density Function (PDF tends to be more evident with finer radar resolution, higher wind speed, and when the radar sight changes from the crosswind direction to the upwind direction. Meanwhile, it is found that the nonlinear sea surfaces are more likely to have sea spikes. In addition, the Pareto distribution is demonstrated to describe the statistics of the sea clutter intensities better than the Kdistribution and Weibull distribution at low grazing angles.

  7. 2-D simulation and analysis of temperature effects on electrical parameters degradation of power RF LDMOS device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaid, M.A.; Ketata, K.; Gares, M.; Marcon, J.; Mourgues, K.; Masmoudi, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of temperature effects on power RF Laterally Diffused (LD) MOS performances, which can modify and degrade transistor physical and electrical behaviour. In this work, the temperature influence on device electrical characteristics is discussed with regard to physical limits for device operation. A developed 2-D structure was implemented and simulated using the physical simulator Silvaco-Atlas to explain the observed data and offer insight into the physical origin of LDMOS temperature behaviour. The temperature dependence of most important electrical parameters such as channel current I ds , threshold voltage V th and inter-electrodes capacitances (C ds , C gs ) is investigated. The temperature effects on mobility, electron concentration, electric field, current flow lines and Fermi level are taken into account. Finally, initial failure analysis is discussed

  8. 2-D simulation and analysis of temperature effects on electrical parameters degradation of power RF LDMOS device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belaid, M.A. [LEMI, University of Rouen, IUT Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan (France)]. E-mail: Mohamed-ali.belaid@univ-rouen.fr; Ketata, K. [LEMI, University of Rouen, IUT Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan (France); Gares, M. [LEMI, University of Rouen, IUT Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan (France); Marcon, J. [LEMI, University of Rouen, IUT Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan (France); Mourgues, K. [LEMI, University of Rouen, IUT Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan (France); Masmoudi, M. [LEMI, University of Rouen, IUT Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan (France)

    2006-12-15

    This paper presents a synthesis of temperature effects on power RF Laterally Diffused (LD) MOS performances, which can modify and degrade transistor physical and electrical behaviour. In this work, the temperature influence on device electrical characteristics is discussed with regard to physical limits for device operation. A developed 2-D structure was implemented and simulated using the physical simulator Silvaco-Atlas to explain the observed data and offer insight into the physical origin of LDMOS temperature behaviour. The temperature dependence of most important electrical parameters such as channel current I {sub ds}, threshold voltage V {sub th} and inter-electrodes capacitances (C {sub ds}, C {sub gs}) is investigated. The temperature effects on mobility, electron concentration, electric field, current flow lines and Fermi level are taken into account. Finally, initial failure analysis is discussed.

  9. Simulation of seismograms in a 2-D viscoelastic Earth by pseudospectral methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carcione, Jose M [Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Trieste (Italy); Helle, Hans B [Norsk Hydro a.s., 0 and E Research Centre, Bergen (Norway); Seriani, Geza [Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Trieste (Italy); Plasencia Linares, Milton P [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina)

    2005-04-15

    Using an improved global pseudospectral modeling algorithm we synthesize seismograms generated by oceanic and continental earthquakes. Attention is given to attenuation, to explicit modeling of boundary conditions at the ocean-bottom interface, simulation of the Rayleigh window and interface-wave propagation. The algorithm is based on Fourier and Chebyshev differential operators and a domain-decomposition technique - one grid for the fluid and another grid for the solid. Wave propagation in the oceanic and continent crusts and mantle is modeled by using a viscoelastic stress-strain relation based on memory variables. The main physical phenomena associated with an ocean-crust system are modeled, including Scholte waves, leaking Rayleigh waves, dispersive modes, and the Rayleigh-window phenomenon due to a minimum in the reflection coefficient of the ocean bottom, which has not been simulated with direct methods. In particular, we model Rayleigh modes (mainly the M11 mode), and coupled Rayleigh-Scholte waves, for which the dispersion relation is solved in simple cases. Also, we model the effects of random. [Spanish] El algoritmo de modulacion seudoespectral es mejorado y aplicado a la simulacion de sismogramas generados por sismos oceanicos y continentales, como atencion a la atenuacion y a la modelacion explicita de condiciones a la frontera en el fondo oceanico y a la simulacion de la ventana de Rayleigh y la propagacion en interfases. El algoritmo se basa en los operadores diferenciales de Fourier y de Chebyshev con una tecnica de decomposicion de dominios, una malla para el fluido y otra para el solido. Para la propagacion se usa una relacion de esfuerzo-deformacion basada en variables de memoria. Entre los fenomenos modelados se incluyen las ondas de Scholte, las ondas evanescentes de Rayleigh y los modos dispersivos, asi como la ventana de Rayleigh, un minimo del coeficiente de reflexion en el fondo oceanico que nunca ha sido simulado con metodos directos. Hemos

  10. The 1963 Vajont landslide (Italy) simulated through a numerical 2D code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniboni, Filippo; Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Elsen, Katharina; Tinti, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    On October 9th, 1963, a huge mass of about 260 million m3 collapsed along Mt. Toc flank into the artificial lake called Vajont and generated a gigantic wave that invested the town of Longarone (North-East Italy, about 100 km north of Venice), provoking about 2000 casualties. The event started a public debate on the responsibilities for the disaster, and also raised crucial issues for the scientific and engineering community, regarding reservoir flank instability and safety of the hydroelectric plant. The peculiar features of the event were immediately evident. The clay layers remained uncovered in the upper part of the detachment niche, supporting the hypothesis of a well-defined pre-existing sliding surface, that could explain the high falling velocity (around 20 m/s as a maximum) and the compactness of the deposit layers that were found to sit almost unperturbed on the bottom of the valley. The numerical study presented here contributes to the understanding of dynamics of the Vajont landslide. It is found that the accurate knowledge of the pre- and post-slide morphology provides tight constraints on the parameters of the numerical model, that are tuned to fit the observed deposit. Numerical simulations are carried out by means of the in-house built code UBO-BLOCK2. The initial sliding body is divided into a mesh of interacting volume-conserving blocks, whose motion is computed numerically. The friction coefficient at the base of the landslide is determined through a best fit search by maximizing the degree of overlapping between the calculated and observed deposits. Our best solution is also able to account for the observed slight easterly rotation of the mass, the different behaviors of the eastern and western part of the sliding surface and the retrogressive motion of the slide that after climbing up the opposite flank of the valley reverted velocity to settle down on the bottom of the valley.

  11. Observation and simulation of heterogeneous 2D water and solute flow processes in ditch beds for subsequent catchment modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dages, Cecile; Samouelian, Anatja; Lanoix, Marthe; Dollinger, Jeanne; Chakkour, Sara; Chovelon, Gabrielle; Trabelsi, Khouloud; Voltz, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Ditches are involved in the transfer of pesticide to surface and groundwaters (e.g. Louchart et al., 2001). Soil horizons underlying ditch beds may present specific soil characteristics compared to neighbouring field soils due to erosion/deposition processes, to the specific biological activities (rooting dynamic and animal habitat) in the ditches (e.g. Vaughan et al., 2008) and to management practices (burning, dredging, mowing,...). Moreover, in contrast to percolation processes in field soils that can be assumed to be mainly 1D vertical, those occurring in the ditch beds are by essence 2D or even 3D. Nevertheless, due to a lake of knowledge, these specific aspects of transfer within ditch beds are generally omitted for hydrological simulation at the catchment scale (Mottes et al., 2014). Accordingly, the aims of this study were i) to characterize subsurface solute transfer through ditch beds and ii) to determine equivalent hydraulic parameters of the ditch beds for use in catchment scale hydrological simulations. A complementary aim was to evaluate the error in predictions performed when percolation in ditches is assumed to be similar to that in the neighbouring field soil. First, bromide transfer experiments were performed on undisturbed soil column (15 cm long with a 15 cm inner-diameter), horizontally and vertically sampled within each soil horizon underlying a ditch bed and within the neighboring field. Columns were sampled at the Roujan catchment (Hérault, France), which belongs to the long term Mediterranean hydrological observatory OMERE (Voltz and Albergel, 2002). Second, for each column, a set of parameters was determined by inverse optimization with mobile-immobile or dual permeability models, with CXTFIT (Toride et al., 1999) or with HYDRUS (Simunek et al., 1998). Third, infiltration and percolation in the ditch was simulated by a 2D flow domain approach considering the 2D variation in hydraulic properties of the cross section of a ditch bed. Last

  12. 3D ultrasound imaging performance of a row-column addressed 2D array transducer: a simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares the imaging performance of a 128+128 element row-column addressed array with a fully addressed 1616 2D array. The comparison is made via simulations of the point spread function with Field II. Both arrays have lambda-pitch, a center frequency of 3:5MHz and use 256 active...... elements. The row-column addressed array uses 128 transmit channels and 128 receive channels, whereas the fully addressed array uses 256 channels in both transmit and receive. The large size of the emulated row and column elements in the row-column addressed array causes ghost echoes to appear. The ghost...... echoes are shown to be suppressed when the sub-elements within each of the emulated row and column elements are apodized. The maximum ghost intensity is suppressed by 22:2 dB compared to using no apodization. With apodization applied, the full-width-at-half-maximum in the lateral direction for the fully...

  13. Detection of anatomical changes in lung cancer patients with 2D time-integrated, 2D time-resolved and 3D time-integrated portal dosimetry: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfs, Cecile J. A.; Brás, Mariana G.; Schyns, Lotte E. J. R.; Nijsten, Sebastiaan M. J. J. G.; van Elmpt, Wouter; Scheib, Stefan G.; Baltes, Christof; Podesta, Mark; Verhaegen, Frank

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the performance of 2D time-integrated (2D-TI), 2D time-resolved (2D-TR) and 3D time-integrated (3D-TI) portal dosimetry in detecting dose discrepancies between the planned and (simulated) delivered dose caused by simulated changes in the anatomy of lung cancer patients. For six lung cancer patients, tumor shift, tumor regression and pleural effusion are simulated by modifying their CT images. Based on the modified CT images, time-integrated (TI) and time-resolved (TR) portal dose images (PDIs) are simulated and 3D-TI doses are calculated. The modified and original PDIs and 3D doses are compared by a gamma analysis with various gamma criteria. Furthermore, the difference in the D 95% (ΔD 95%) of the GTV is calculated and used as a gold standard. The correlation between the gamma fail rate and the ΔD 95% is investigated, as well the sensitivity and specificity of all combinations of portal dosimetry method, gamma criteria and gamma fail rate threshold. On the individual patient level, there is a correlation between the gamma fail rate and the ΔD 95%, which cannot be found at the group level. The sensitivity and specificity analysis showed that there is not one combination of portal dosimetry method, gamma criteria and gamma fail rate threshold that can detect all simulated anatomical changes. This work shows that it will be more beneficial to relate portal dosimetry and DVH analysis on the patient level, rather than trying to quantify a relationship for a group of patients. With regards to optimizing sensitivity and specificity, different combinations of portal dosimetry method, gamma criteria and gamma fail rate should be used to optimally detect certain types of anatomical changes.

  14. A 2D simulation study and characterization of a novel vertical SOI MOSFET with a smart source/body tie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jyi-Tsong; Lee, Tai-Yi; Lin, Kao-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    A novel vertical silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) with a smart source/body contact, SSBVMOS, is presented here for the first time. 2D simulations reveal that the SSBVMOS reduces self-heating effects, with the lattice temperature reduced by 14% and the hole temperature reduced by 25%. The SSBVMOS also eliminates the floating body effect, something that other SOI vertical MOSFETs are unable to accomplish, regardless of the thickness of the thin film. The SSBVMOS is further found to have a better drain-induced barrier lowering and subthreshold swing than either a conventional vertical MOSFET or an SOI vertical MOSFET. Moreover, these results are achieved using typical pillar heights and buried oxide thicknesses. Should future technological advances allow for lower pillars or thinner buried oxides, the SSBVMOS performance would further increase

  15. Finite-Difference Time-Domain Simulation of Light Propagation in 2D Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Photonic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dadashzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-short pulse is a promising technology for achieving ultra-high data rate transmission which is required to follow the increased demand of data transport over an optical communication system. Therefore, the propagation of such type of pulses and the effects that it may suffer during its transmission through an optical waveguide has received a great deal of attention in the recent years. We provide an overview of recent theoretical developments in a numerical modeling of Maxwell's equations to analyze the propagation of short laser pulses in photonic structures. The process of short light pulse propagation through 2D periodic and quasi-periodic photonic structures is simulated based on Finite-Difference Time-Domain calculations of Maxwell’s equations.

  16. 2D device-level simulation study of strained-Si pnp heterojunction bipolar transistors on virtual substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, N. D.; O'Neill, A.

    2004-02-01

    A novel strained-Si pnp heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) design, suitable for virtual substrate technology, is proposed that is inherently free from the detrimental valence band barrier effects usually encountered in conventional SiGe pnp HBTs on silicon. It takes advantage of the heterojunction formed between a strained-Si layer and a relaxed SiGe buffer (virtual substrate), whose associated valence band offset appears favorable for minority hole transport at the base/collector junction. From two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulation, it is found that the newly proposed strained-Si pnp HBT substantially outperforms the equivalent BJT on a silicon substrate in terms of DC and high-frequency characteristics. A threefold increase in maximum current gain β, a fourfold improvement in peak ft and a 2.5 times increase in peak fmax are predicted for strained-Si pnp HBTs on a 50% Ge virtual substrate in comparison with identical conventional silicon pnp BJTs.

  17. 2-D Simulation on the Contact of Pressure Tube and Calandria Tube in the Severe Accident of PHWR System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Se Myong [Kunsan National Univ., Kunsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    If the pressure tube is sufficiently hot while the channel pressure is still relatively high, the pressure tube may deform in the radial direction and would fully contact with its surrounding calandria tube (PT/CT ballooning contact). The present study is about preliminary calculation results for the ICSP (International Collaborative Standard Problem) activity works, where the COMSOL Multiphysics code is used to simulate plastic deformation of a pressure tube of CANDU reactor as a result of the interaction of stress and temperature. It is shown that the thermal stress model of COMSOL is compatible to simulate the multiple heat transfers (including the radiation heat transfer and heat conduction) and stress strain in the simplified two dimensional problem. A benchmark experiment model based on the Calandria moderator system of the CANDU reactor has been reduced to a 2-D computational model. Thermal radiation and linear stress-strain with creeping model is applied in this simulation. The multiphysics analysis results in a reasonable qualitative and quantitative trend, and is compared with CATHENA code results. The model after the contact of PT and CT should be considered in the future, and the accuracy order of the integration with numerical method of Gaussian quadrature should be modified for the improvement of numerical quality.

  18. A generalized 2D and 3D white LED device simulator integrating photon recycling and luminescent spectral conversion effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wei-Choon; Letay, Gergö

    2007-02-01

    We report new capabilities in our Sentaurus-Device1 simulator for modeling arbitrarily shaped 2D/3D white LEDs by coupling novel photon recycling, luminescent spectral conversion effects and electrical transport self consistently. In our simulator, the spontaneous emission spectra are embedded in ray tracing, and are allowed to evolve as the rays traverse regions of stimulated gain, absorption, and luminescence. In the active quantum well (QW), the spontaneous emission spectrum can be partially amplified by stimulated gain within a certain energy range and absorbed at higher energies, resulting in a modified spontaneous spectrum. The amplified and absorbed parts of the spectrum give a net recombination/generation rate that is feedback to the electrical transport via the continuity equations. This conceives a novel photon recycling model that includes amplified spontaneous emission. The modified spontaneous spectrum can further be altered by spectral conversion in the luminescent region. In this manner, we capture the important physical effects in white LED structures in a fully coupled and self-consistent electro-opto-thermal simulation.

  19. 2D simulation of active species and ozone production in a multi-tip DC air corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziane, M.; Eichwald, O.; Sarrette, J. P.; Ducasse, O.; Yousfi, M.

    2011-11-01

    The present paper shows for the first time in the literature a complete 2D simulation of the ozone production in a DC positive multi-tip to plane corona discharge reactor crossed by a dry air flow at atmospheric pressure. The simulation is undertaken until 1 ms and involves tens of successive discharge and post-discharge phases. The air flow is stressed by several monofilament corona discharges generated by a maximum of four anodic tips distributed along the reactor. The nonstationary hydrodynamics model for reactive gas mixture is solved using the commercial FLUENT software. During each discharge phase, thermal and vibrational energies as well as densities of radical and metastable excited species are locally injected as source terms in the gas medium surrounding each tip. The chosen chemical model involves 10 neutral species reacting following 24 reactions. The obtained results allow us to follow the cartography of the temperature and the ozone production inside the corona reactor as a function of the number of high voltage anodic tips.

  20. 2D fluid-analytical simulation of electromagnetic effects in low pressure, high frequency electronegative capacitive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, E; Lichtenberg, A J; Lieberman, M A; Marakhtanov, A M

    2016-01-01

    A fast 2D axisymmetric fluid-analytical multifrequency capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) reactor code is used to study center high nonuniformity in a low pressure electronegative chlorine discharge. In the code, a time-independent Helmholtz wave equation is used to solve for the capacitive fields in the linearized frequency domain. This eliminates the time dependence from the electromagnetic (EM) solve, greatly speeding up the simulations at the cost of neglecting higher harmonics. However, since the code allows up to three driving frequencies, we can add the two most important harmonics to the CCP simulations as the second and third input frequencies. The amplitude and phase of these harmonics are estimated by using a recently developed 1D radial nonlinear transmission line (TL) model of a highly asymmetric cylindrical discharge (Lieberman et al 2015 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24 055011). We find that at higher applied frequencies, the higher harmonics contribute significantly to the center high nonuniformity due to their shorter plasma wavelengths. (paper)

  1. A poor metabolizer of both CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 identified by mechanistic pharmacokinetic simulation in a fatal drug poisoning case involving venlafaxine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jornil, J; Nielsen, T S; Rosendal, I

    2013-01-01

    pharmacokinetic simulations suggested that the low metabolite ratio was the result of combined poor metabolizer (PM) status of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 and CYP2D6. This hypothesis was confirmed by genetic analysis. Simulations revealed that it was likely that the combined missing CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 activity...... would cause higher concentrations of VEN, but the simulations also suggested that there could be additional reasons to explain the high VEN concentration found in this case. Thus, it seems likely that the potentially toxic VEN concentration was caused by reduced metabolic capacity. The simulations...... combined with genotyping were considered very useful in this fatal drug poisoning case. Keywords CYP2D6; CYP2C19; Venlafaxine; Poor metabolizer; Drug poisoning; Mechanistic pharmacokinetic simulation --------------------------------------------------------------------------------...

  2. 2D statistical analysis of Non-Diffusive transport under attached and detached plasma conditions of the linear divertor simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Ohno, N.; Tsuji, Y.; Kajita, S.

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed the 2D convective motion of coherent structures, which is associated with plasma blobs, under attached and detached plasma conditions of a linear divertor simulator, NAGDIS-II. Data analysis of probes and a fast-imaging camera by spatio-temporal correlation with three decomposition and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was carried out to determine the basic properties of coherent structures detached from a bulk plasma column. Under the attached plasma condition, the spatio-temporal correlation with three decomposition based on the probe measurement showed that two types of coherent structures with different sizes detached from the bulk plasma and the azimuthally localized structure radially propagated faster than the larger structure. Under the detached plasma condition, movies taken by the fast-imaging camera clearly showed the dynamics of a 2D spiral structure at peripheral regions of the bulk plasma; this dynamics caused the broadening of the plasma profile. The POD method was used for the data processing of the movies to obtain low-dimensional mode shapes. It was found that the m=1 and m=2 ring-shaped coherent structures were dominant. Comparison between the POD analysis of both the movie and the probe data suggested that the coherent structure could be detached from the bulk plasma mainly associated with the m=2 fluctuation. This phenomena could play an important role in the reduction of the particle and heat flux as well as the plasma recombination processes in plasma detachment (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. A pseudo-spectral method for the simulation of poro-elastic seismic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates using domain decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidler, Rolf, E-mail: rsidler@gmail.com [Center for Research of the Terrestrial Environment, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Carcione, José M. [Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Borgo Grotta Gigante 42c, 34010 Sgonico, Trieste (Italy); Holliger, Klaus [Center for Research of the Terrestrial Environment, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    We present a novel numerical approach for the comprehensive, flexible, and accurate simulation of poro-elastic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates. An important application of this method and its extensions will be the modeling of complex seismic wave phenomena in fluid-filled boreholes, which represents a major, and as of yet largely unresolved, computational problem in exploration geophysics. In view of this, we consider a numerical mesh, which can be arbitrarily heterogeneous, consisting of two or more concentric rings representing the fluid in the center and the surrounding porous medium. The spatial discretization is based on a Chebyshev expansion in the radial direction and a Fourier expansion in the azimuthal direction and a Runge–Kutta integration scheme for the time evolution. A domain decomposition method is used to match the fluid–solid boundary conditions based on the method of characteristics. This multi-domain approach allows for significant reductions of the number of grid points in the azimuthal direction for the inner grid domain and thus for corresponding increases of the time step and enhancements of computational efficiency. The viability and accuracy of the proposed method has been rigorously tested and verified through comparisons with analytical solutions as well as with the results obtained with a corresponding, previously published, and independently benchmarked solution for 2D Cartesian coordinates. Finally, the proposed numerical solution also satisfies the reciprocity theorem, which indicates that the inherent singularity associated with the origin of the polar coordinate system is adequately handled.

  4. Realistic Vendor-Specific Synthetic Ultrasound Data for Quality Assurance of 2-D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography: Simulation Pipeline and Open Access Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, Martino; Chakraborty, Bidisha; Heyde, Brecht; Bernard, Olivier; De Craene, Mathieu; Sermesant, Maxime; D'Hooge, Jan

    2018-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiography is the modality of choice in the clinic for the diagnosis of cardiac disease. Hereto, speckle tracking (ST) packages complement visual assessment by the cardiologist by providing quantitative diagnostic markers of global and regional cardiac function (e.g., displacement, strain, and strain-rate). Yet, the reported high vendor-dependence between the outputs of different ST packages raises clinical concern and hampers the widespread dissemination of the ST technology. In part, this is due to the lack of a solid commonly accepted quality assurance pipeline for ST packages. Recently, we have developed a framework to benchmark ST algorithms for 3-D echocardiography by using realistic simulated volumetric echocardiographic recordings. Yet, 3-D echocardiography remains an emerging technology, whereas the compelling clinical concern is, so far, directed to the standardization of 2-D ST only. Therefore, by building upon our previous work, we present in this paper a pipeline to generate realistic synthetic sequences for 2-D ST algorithms. Hereto, the synthetic cardiac motion is obtained from a complex electromechanical heart model, whereas realistic vendor-specific texture is obtained by sampling a real clinical ultrasound recording. By modifying the parameters in our pipeline, we generated an open-access library of 105 synthetic sequences encompassing: 1) healthy and ischemic motion patterns; 2) the most common apical probe orientations; and 3) vendor-specific image quality from seven different systems. Ground truth deformation is also provided to allow performance analysis. The application of the provided data set is also demonstrated in the benchmarking of a recent academic ST algorithm.

  5. 2D simulations of hohlraum targets for laser-plasma experiments and ion stopping measurement in hot plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basko, M.M.; Novikov, V.G.; Grushin, A.S.

    2011-12-01

    An attractive way to create uniform plasma states at high temperatures and densities is by using hohlraums - cavities with heavy-metal walls that are either directly or indirectly heated by intense laser pulses to x-ray temperatures of tens and hundreds electron volts. A sample material, whose plasma state is to be studied, can be placed inside such a hohlraum (usually in the form of a low-density foam) and uniformly heated to a high temperature. In this case a high-Z hohlraum enclosure serves a double purpose: it prevents the hot plasma from rapid disassembly due to hydrodynamic expansion and, at the same time, suppresses its rapid radiative cooling by providing high diffusive resistivity for X-rays. Of course, both the inertial and the thermal confinement of high-temperature plasmas can be achieved only for a limited period of time - on the order of nanoseconds for millimeter-scale hohlraums. Some time ago such hohlraum targets were proposed for measurements of the stopping power of hot dense plasmas for fast ions at GSI (Darmstadt). Theoretical modeling of hohlraum targets has always been a challenging task for computational physics because it should combine multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations with the solution of the spectral transfer equation for thermal radiation. In this work we report on our latest progress in this direction, namely, we present the results of 2D (two-dimensional) simulations with a newly developed radiation-hydrodynamics code RALEF-2D of two types of the hohlraum targets proposed for experiments on the PHELIX laser at GSI. The first configuration is a simple spherical hohlraum with gold walls and empty interior, which has two holes - one for laser beam entrance, and the other for diagnostics. The hohlraums of this type have already been used in several experimental sessions with the NHELIX and PHELIX lasers at GSI. The second type is a two-chamber cylindrical hohlraum with a characteristic Ω-shaped cross-section of the enclosure

  6. Nonlinear MHD waves and discontinuities in the Martian magnetosheath. Observations and 2D bi-ion MHD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, K.; Dubinin, E.; Baumgärtel, K.

    1998-09-01

    The characteristic scale of the Martian magnetosheath is less than the pick-up gyroradius of oxygen ions. This leads to admissible differential motion of protons and heavies and a strong coupling between both ion fluids. 2D bi-ion MHD simulations reveal many new interesting features in such Large Larmour Radius systems. The formation of an ion-composition boundary, which separates both plasmas, and structuring of the transition from proton dominated plasma of the solar wind origin to massive planetary plasma are the main features of the interaction. A comprehensive multi-instrument study of Martian plasma environment and the comparison with theoretical modelling initiated in the framework of the Visiting Science Programme of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern (Switzerland) gives confirmation that Mars interacts with the solar wind like a comet which has a outgassing rate near to that of Grigg-Skjellerup. The results may also be relevant for small bodies which are surrounded by a neutral gas atmosphere (icy moons, asteroids, Mercury).

  7. A 2-D FEM thermal model to simulate water flow in a porous media: Campi Flegrei caldera case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Romano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic and geothermal aspects both exist in many geologically young areas. In these areas the heat transfer process is of fundamental importance, so that the thermal and fluid-dynamic processes characterizing a viscous fluid in a porous medium are very important to understand the complex dynamics of the these areas. The Campi Flegrei caldera, located west of the city of Naples, within the central-southern sector of the large graben of Campanian plain, is a region where both volcanic and geothermal phenomena are present. The upper part of the geothermal system can be considered roughly as a succession of volcanic porous material (tuff saturated by a mixture formed mainly by water and carbon dioxide. We have implemented a finite elements approach in transient conditions to simulate water flow in a 2-D porous medium to model the changes of temperature in the geothermal system due to magmatic fluid inflow, accounting for a transient phase, not considered in the analytical solutions and fluid compressibility. The thermal model is described by means of conductive/convective equations, in which we propose a thermal source represented by a parabolic shape function to better simulate an increase of temperature in the central part (magma chamber of a box, simulating the Campi Flegrei caldera and using more recent evaluations, from literature, for the medium's parameters (specific heat capacity, density, thermal conductivity, permeability. A best-fit velocity for the permeant is evaluated by comparing the simulated temperatures with those measured in wells drilled by Agip (Italian Oil Agency in the 1980s in the framework of geothermal exploration. A few tens of days are enough to reach the thermal steady state, showing the quick response of the system to heat injection. The increase in the pressure due to the heat transport is then used to compute ground deformation, in particular the vertical displacements characteristics of the Campi Flegrei caldera

  8. The modular approach enables a fully ab initio simulation of the contacts between 3D and 2D materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediai, Artem; Ryndyk, Dmitry A; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2016-10-05

    Up to now, the electrical properties of the contacts between 3D metals and 2D materials have never been computed at a fully ab initio level due to the huge number of atomic orbitals involved in a current path from an electrode to a pristine 2D material. As a result, there are still numerous open questions and controversial theories on the electrical properties of systems with 3D/2D interfaces-for example, the current path and the contact length scalability. Our work provides a first-principles solution to this long-standing problem with the use of the modular approach, a method which rigorously combines a Green function formalism with the density functional theory (DFT) for this particular contact type. The modular approach is a general approach valid for any 3D/2D contact. As an example, we apply it to the most investigated among 3D/2D contacts-metal/graphene contacts-and show its abilities and consistency by comparison with existing experimental data. As it is applicable to any 3D/2D interface, the modular approach allows the engineering of 3D/2D contacts with the pre-defined electrical properties.

  9. Simulation of nitrogen leaching from a fertigated crop rotation in a Mediterranean climate using the EU-Rotate_N and Hydrus-2D models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Nuñoz, P

    2010-01-01

    Two different modeling approaches were used to simulate the N leached during an intensively fertigated crop rotation: a recently developed crop-based simulation model (EU-Rotate_N) and a widely recognized solute transport model (Hydrus-2D). Model performance was evaluated using data from an exper......-scaling the quantification of N leaching from a field level to regional and national levels, identifying best management strategies in relation to N use from an environmental and economic perspective...

  10. 2D myocardial strain assessment in the mouse: a comparison between a synthetic lateral phase approach and block-matching using computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Florence; Choi, Hon Fai; Claus, Piet; D'hooge, Jan

    2012-09-01

    Estimating myocardial strain in the mouse with clinical equipment remains difficult due to the high heart rate and the small size of the mouse heart. Measuring the strain component perpendicular to the ultrasound beam is especially challenging because of the lack of phase information in that direction and the large speckle width compared to the wall thickness. In this study, the performance of a Synthetic Lateral Phase (SLP) approach was contrasted to a standard and a regularized 2D Speckle Tracking (2D ST) algorithm using simulated data sets. SLP yielded higher rms errors for the lateral strain estimates than the regularized 2D ST (Lateral rms error: 0.087±0.012 vs. 0.052±0.010; p<0.05). No significant difference was found between the standard 2D ST and SLP. For the axial strain estimates, SLP produced higher rms errors than the standard 2D ST (Axial rms error: 0.063±0.012 vs. 0.040±0.008; p<0.05). 2D ST combined with geometric regularization showed thus to be the most accurate method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. FireStem2D — A two-dimensional heat transfer model for simulating tree stem injury in fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthalia K. Chatziefstratiou; Gil Bohrer; Anthony S. Bova; Ravishankar Subramanian; Renato P.M. Frasson; Amy Scherzer; Bret W. Butler; Matthew B. Dickinson

    2013-01-01

    FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem) and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by...

  12. Stereoscopic (3D) versus monoscopic (2D) laparoscopy: comparative study of performance using advanced HD optical systems in a surgical simulator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthaler, Martin; Schnell, Daniel; Wilhelm, Konrad; Schlager, Daniel; Adams, Fabian; Hein, Simon; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Miernik, Arkadiusz

    2016-04-01

    To compare task performances of novices and experts using advanced high-definition 3D versus 2D optical systems in a surgical simulator model. Fifty medical students (novices in laparoscopy) were randomly assigned to perform five standardized tasks adopted from the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) curriculum in either a 2D or 3D laparoscopy simulator system. In addition, eight experts performed the same tasks. Task performances were evaluated using a validated scoring system of the SAGES/FLS program. Participants were asked to rate 16 items in a questionnaire. Overall task performance of novices was significantly better using stereoscopic visualization. Superiority of performances in 3D reached a level of significance for tasks peg transfer and precision cutting. No significant differences were noted in performances of experts when using either 2D or 3D. Overall performances of experts compared to novices were better in both 2D and 3D. Scorings in the questionnaires showed a tendency toward lower scores in the group of novices using 3D. Stereoscopic imaging significantly improves performance of laparoscopic phantom tasks of novices. The current study confirms earlier data based on a large number of participants and a standardized task and scoring system. Participants felt more confident and comfortable when using a 3D laparoscopic system. However, the question remains open whether these findings translate into faster and safer operations in a clinical setting.

  13. Spin correlations in the 2D Heisenberg antiferromagnet Sr2CuO2Cl2: Neutron scattering, Monte Carlo simulation, and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greven, M.; Birgeneau, R.J.; Endoh, Y.; Kastner, M.A.; Keimer, B.; Matsuda, M.; Shirane, G.; Thurston, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    We report a neutron scattering study of the spin correlations in the model 2D, S=1/2, square-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnetic Sr 2 CuO 2 Cl 2 . The spin correlation lengths obtained agree quantitatively with values deduced from Monte Carlo simulations over a wide range of temperature. The combined data, which cover the length scale from 1 to 200 lattice constants, are predicted accurately with no adjustable parameters by renormalized classical theory for the quantum nonlinear sigma model

  14. A new material model for 2D numerical simulation of serrated chip formation when machining titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V

    OpenAIRE

    CALAMAZ , Madalina; COUPARD , Dominique; GIROT , Franck

    2008-01-01

    International audience; A new material constitutive law is implemented in a 2D finite element model to analyse the chip formation and shear localisation when machining titanium alloys. The numerical simulations use a commercial finite element software (FORGE 2005) able to solve complex thermo-mechanical problems. One of the main machining characteristics of titanium alloys is to produce segmented chips for a wide range of cutting speeds and feeds. The present study assumes that the chip segme...

  15. Improved EDGE2D-EIRENE simulations of JET ITER-like wall L-mode discharges utilising poloidal VUV/visible spectral emission profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, K.D.; Groth, M.; Belo, P.; Brezinsek, S.; Corrigan, G.; Czarnecka, A.; Delabie, E.; Drewelow, P.; Harting, D.; Książek, I.; Maggi, C.F.; Marchetto, C.; Meigs, A.G.; Menmuir, S.; Stamp, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    A discrepancy in the divertor radiated powers between EDGE2D-EIRENE simulations, both with and without drifts, and JET-ILW experiments employing a set of NBI-heated L-mode discharges with step-wise density variation is investigated. Results from a VUV/visible poloidally scanning spectrometer are used together with bolometric measurements to determine the radiated power and its composition. The analysis shows the importance of D line radiation in contributing to the divertor radiated power, wh...

  16. Validation of SWAT+ at field level and comparison with previous SWAT models in simulating hydrologic quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    GAO, J.; White, M. J.; Bieger, K.; Yen, H.; Arnold, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been adopted by many researches to assess water quantity and quality in watersheds around the world. As the demand increases in facilitating model support, maintenance, and future development, the SWAT source code and data have undergone major modifications over the past few years. To make the model more flexible in terms of interactions of spatial units and processes occurring in watersheds, a completely revised version of SWAT (SWAT+) was developed to improve SWAT's ability in water resource modelling and management. There are only several applications of SWAT+ in large watersheds, however, no study pays attention to validate the new model at field level and assess its performance. To test the basic hydrologic function of SWAT+, it was implemented in five field cases across five states in the U.S. and compared the SWAT+ created results with that from the previous models at the same fields. Additionally, an automatic calibration tool was used to test which model is easier to be calibrated well in a limited number of parameter adjustments. The goal of the study was to evaluate the performance of SWAT+ in simulating stream flow on field level at different geographical locations. The results demonstrate that SWAT+ demonstrated similar performance with previous SWAT model, but the flexibility offered by SWAT+ via the connection of different spatial objects can result in a more accurate simulation of hydrological processes in spatial, especially for watershed with artificial facilities. Autocalibration shows that SWAT+ is much easier to obtain a satisfied result compared with the previous SWAT. Although many capabilities have already been enhanced in SWAT+, there exist inaccuracies in simulation. This insufficiency will be improved with advancements in scientific knowledge on hydrologic process in specific watersheds. Currently, SWAT+ is prerelease, and any errors are being addressed.

  17. Numerical simulation of the shot peening process under previous loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Ángeles, B; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Torres-San Miguel, C R; Molina-Ballinas, A; Benítez-García, H A; Vargas-Bustos, J A; Urriolagoitia-Calderón, G

    2015-01-01

    This research presents a numerical simulation of the shot peening process and determines the residual stress field induced into a component with a previous loading history. The importance of this analysis is based on the fact that mechanical elements under shot peening are also subjected to manufacturing processes, which convert raw material into finished product. However, material is not provided in a virgin state, it has a previous loading history caused by the manner it is fabricated. This condition could alter some beneficial aspects of the residual stress induced by shot peening and could accelerate the crack nucleation and propagation progression. Studies were performed in beams subjected to strain hardening in tension (5ε y ) before shot peening was applied. Latter results were then compared in a numerical assessment of an induced residual stress field by shot peening carried out in a component (beam) without any previous loading history. In this paper, it is clearly shown the detrimental or beneficial effect that previous loading history can bring to the mechanical component and how it can be controlled to improve the mechanical behavior of the material

  18. Line-source simulation for shallow-seismic data. Part 2: full-waveform inversion—a synthetic 2-D case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M.; Groos, L.; Forbriger, T.; Bohlen, T.

    2014-09-01

    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) of shallow-seismic surface waves is able to reconstruct lateral variations of subsurface elastic properties. Line-source simulation for point-source data is required when applying algorithms of 2-D adjoint FWI to recorded shallow-seismic field data. The equivalent line-source response for point-source data can be obtained by convolving the waveforms with √{t^{-1}} (t: traveltime), which produces a phase shift of π/4. Subsequently an amplitude correction must be applied. In this work we recommend to scale the seismograms with √{2 r v_ph} at small receiver offsets r, where vph is the phase velocity, and gradually shift to applying a √{t^{-1}} time-domain taper and scaling the waveforms with r√{2} for larger receiver offsets r. We call this the hybrid transformation which is adapted for direct body and Rayleigh waves and demonstrate its outstanding performance on a 2-D heterogeneous structure. The fit of the phases as well as the amplitudes for all shot locations and components (vertical and radial) is excellent with respect to the reference line-source data. An approach for 1-D media based on Fourier-Bessel integral transformation generates strong artefacts for waves produced by 2-D structures. The theoretical background for both approaches is presented in a companion contribution. In the current contribution we study their performance when applied to waves propagating in a significantly 2-D-heterogeneous structure. We calculate synthetic seismograms for 2-D structure for line sources as well as point sources. Line-source simulations obtained from the point-source seismograms through different approaches are then compared to the corresponding line-source reference waveforms. Although being derived by approximation the hybrid transformation performs excellently except for explicitly back-scattered waves. In reconstruction tests we further invert point-source synthetic seismograms by a 2-D FWI to subsurface structure and evaluate

  19. Computer simulation of 2D grain growth using a cellular automata model based on the lowest energy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yizhu; Ding Hanlin; Liu Liufa; Shin, Keesam

    2006-01-01

    The morphology, topology and kinetics of normal grain growth in two-dimension were studied by computer simulation using a cellular automata (Canada) model based on the lowest energy principle. The thermodynamic energy that follows Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics has been introduced into this model for the calculation of energy change. The transition that can reduce the system energy to the lowest level is chosen to occur when there is more than one possible transition direction. The simulation results show that the kinetics of normal grain growth follows the Burke equation with the growth exponent m = 2. The analysis of topology further indicates that normal grain growth can be simulated fairly well by the present CA model. The vanishing of grains with different number of sides is discussed in the simulation

  20. Meshing Preprocessor for the Mesoscopic 3D Finite Element Simulation of 2D and Interlock Fabric Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, A.; Daniel, J. L.; Hivet, G.; Vidal-Sallé, E.; Boisse, P.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical simulation is a powerful tool to predict the mechanical behavior and the feasibility of composite parts. Among the available numerical approaches, as far as woven reinforced composites are concerned, 3D finite element simulation at the mesoscopic scale leads to a good compromise between realism and complexity. At this scale, the fibrous reinforcement is modeled by an interlacement of yarns assumed to be homogeneous that have to be accurately represented. Among the numerous issues induced by these simulations, the first one consists in providing a representative meshed geometrical model of the unit cell at the mesoscopic scale. The second one consists in enabling a fast data input in the finite element software (contacts definition, boundary conditions, elements reorientation, etc.) so as to obtain results within reasonable time. Based on parameterized 3D CAD modeling tool of unit-cells of dry fabrics already developed, this paper presents an efficient strategy which permits an automated meshing of the models with 3D hexahedral elements and to accelerate of several orders of magnitude the simulation data input. Finally, the overall modeling strategy is illustrated by examples of finite element simulation of the mechanical behavior of fabrics.

  1. Title: Using Alignment and 2D Network Simulations to Study Charge Transport Through Doped ZnO Nanowire Thin Film Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Phadke, Sujay

    2011-09-30

    Factors affecting charge transport through ZnO nanowire mat films were studied by aligning ZnO nanowires on substrates and coupling experimental measurements with 2D nanowire network simulations. Gallium doped ZnO nanowires were aligned on thermally oxidized silicon wafer by shearing a nanowire dispersion in ethanol. Sheet resistances of nanowire thin films that had current flowing parallel to nanowire alignment direction were compared to thin films that had current flowing perpendicular to nanowire alignment direction. Perpendicular devices showed ∼5 fold greater sheet resistance than parallel devices supporting the hypothesis that aligning nanowires would increase conductivity of ZnO nanowire electrodes. 2-D nanowire network simulations of thin films showed that the device sheet resistance was dominated by inter-wire contact resistance. For a given resistivity of ZnO nanowires, the thin film electrodes would have the lowest possible sheet resistance if the inter-wire contact resistance was one order of magnitude lower than the single nanowire resistance. Simulations suggest that the conductivity of such thin film devices could be further enhanced by using longer nanowires. Solution processed Gallium doped ZnO nanowires are aligned on substrates using an innovative shear coating technique. Nanowire alignment has shown improvement in ZnO nanowire transparent electrode conductivity. 2D network simulations in conjunction with electrical measurements have revealed different regimes of operation of nanowire thin films and provided a guideline for improving electrical performance of nanowire electrodes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Numerical simulations of hydrodynamic instabilities: perturbation codes Pansy, Perle, and 2D code Chic applied to a realistic LIL target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallo, L.; Olazabal-Loume, M.; Maire, P.H.; Breil, J.; Schurtz, G. [CELIA, 33 - Talence (France); Morse, R.L. [Arizona Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Tucson (United States)

    2006-06-15

    This paper deals with ablation front instabilities simulations in the context of direct drive inertial confinement fusion. A simplified deuterium-tritium target, representative of realistic target on LIL (laser integration line at Megajoule laser facility) is considered. We describe here two numerical approaches: the linear perturbation method using the perturbation codes Perle (planar) and Pansy (spherical) and the direct simulation method using our bi-dimensional hydrodynamic code Chic. Our work shows a good behaviour of all methods even for large wavenumbers during the acceleration phase of the ablation front. We also point out a good agreement between model and numerical predictions at ablation front during the shock wave transit.

  3. Comparative thermal cyclic test of different beryllium grades previously subjected to simulated disruption loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervash, A.; Giniyatulin, R.; Mazul, I.

    1999-01-01

    Considering beryllium as plasma facing armour this paper presents recent results obtained in Russia. A special process of joining beryllium to a Cu-alloy material structure is described and recent results of thermal cycling tests of such joints are presented. Summarizing the results, the authors show that a Cu-alloy heat sink structure armoured with beryllium can survive high heat fluxes (≥10 MW/m 2 ) during 1000 heating/cooling cycles without serious damage to the armour material and its joint. The principal feasibility of thermal cycling of beryllium grades and their joints directly in the core of a nuclear reactor is demonstrated and the main results of this test are presented. The paper also describes the thermal cycling of different beryllium grades having cracks initiated by previously applied high heat loads simulating plasma disruptions. (orig.)

  4. ''Augmented reality'' in conventional simulation by projection of 3-D structures into 2-D images. A comparison with virtual methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutschmann, H.; Nairz, O.; Zehentmayr, F.; Fastner, G.; Sedlmayer, F.; Steininger, P.; Kopp, P.; Merz, F.; Wurstbauer, K.; Kranzinger, M.; Kametriser, G.; Kopp, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: in this study, a new method is introduced, which allows the overlay of three-dimensional structures, that have been delineated on transverse slices, onto the fluoroscopy from conventional simulators in real time. Patients and methods: setup deviations between volumetric imaging and simulation were visualized, measured and corrected for 701 patient isocenters. Results: comparing the accuracy to mere virtual simulation lacking additional X-ray imaging, a clear benefit of the new method could be shown. On average, virtual prostate simulations had to be corrected by 0.48 cm (standard deviation [SD] 0.38), and those of the breast by 0.67 cm (SD 0.66). Conclusion: the presented method provides an easy way to determine entity-specific safety margins related to patient setup errors upon registration of bony anatomy (prostate 0.9 cm for 90% of cases, breast 1.3 cm). The important role of planar X-ray imaging was clearly demonstrated. The innovation can also be applied to adaptive image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) protocols. (orig.)

  5. Simulating floods : On the application of a 2D-hydraulic model for flood hazard and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkema, D.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades, river floods in Europe seem to occur more frequently and are causing more and more economic and emotional damage. Understanding the processes causing flooding and the development of simulation models to evaluate countermeasures to control that damage are important issues. This

  6. Shape factor for dual-permeability fractured reservoir simulation : Effect of non-uniform flow in 2D fracture network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, J.; Rossen, W.R.

    2016-01-01

    The flow properties of naturally fractured reservoirs are dominated by flow through the fractures. In a previous study we showed that even a well-connected fracture network behaves like a much sparser network when the aperture distribution is broad enough: i.e., most fractures can be eliminated

  7. Investigation of the Triggering Mechanism of Magnetospheric Substorm via 2-1/2 D Full-Particle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, H.; Machida, S.

    2012-12-01

    A physical process of the substorm triggering in the Earth's Magnetotail is thought to be closely related to the magnetic reconnection and the tearing instability. Recently we proposed a new scheme of the substorm onset called "Catapult Current Sheet Relaxation (CCSR) Model " to physically understand the results from GEOTAIL and THEMIS data. The CCSR Model has characters that are the decrease of the total pressure and thinning of the current sheet at the distance about -12Re in the magnetotail a few minutes before the substorm onset, and the simultaneous occurrence of the dipolarization at X~-10Re and the magnetic reconnection at X~-20Re at the time of the onset. In this study, we investigate a stability of the current sheet and the particle acceleration via particle simulation in order to assess the validity of the CCSR model and to clarify the mechanism of substorm onset. We give an initial magnetic field structure which is akin to the Earth's dipole magnetic field together with a stretched magnetic field by thin current sheet, and further add a weak northward magnetic field at the place where Near-Earth Neutral Line is expected to be formed. The results of simulation contain similar features that characterize the CCSR Model. A physically interpretation of the simulation result with the linear instability theory as well as comparison with observations will be given.

  8. Data of the recombination loss mechanisms analysis on Al2O3PERC cell using PC1D and PC2D simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibing; Lv, Jun; Bao, Yameng; Xuan, Rongwei; Sun, Shenghua; Sneck, Sami; Li, Shuo; Modanese, Chiara; Savin, Hele; Wang, Aihua; Zhao, Jianhua

    2017-04-01

    This data article is related to our recently published article ('20.8% industrial PERC solar cell: ALD Al 2 O 3 rear surface passivation, efficiency loss mechanisms analysis and roadmap to 24%', Huang et al., 2017 [1]) where we have presented a systematic evaluation of the overall cell processing and a cost-efficient industrial roadmap for PERC cells. Aside from the information already presented in Huang et al., 2017 [1], here we provide data related to Sectin 3 in Huang et al., 2017 [1] concerning the analysis of the recombination losses׳ mechanisms by PC1D V5.9 and PC2D simulations (Clugston and Basore, 1997, Basore and Cabanas-Holmen, 2011, Cabanas-Holmen and Basore, 2012 and Cabanas-Holmen and Basore, 2012.) [2], [3], [4], [5] on our current industrial Al 2 O 3 PERC cell. The data include: i) PC2D simulations on J 02 , ii) the calculation of series resistance and back surface recombination velocity (BSRV) on the rear side metallization of PERC cell for the case of a point contact, and iii) the PC1D simulation on the cumulative photo-generation and recombination along the distance from the front surface. Finally, the roadmap of the solar cell efficiency for an industrial PERC technology up to 24% is presented, with the aim of providing a potential guideline for industrial researchers.

  9. Data of the recombination loss mechanisms analysis on Al2O3 PERC cell using PC1D and PC2D simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibing Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This data article is related to our recently published article (‘20.8% industrial PERC solar cell: ALD Al2O3 rear surface passivation, efficiency loss mechanisms analysis and roadmap to 24%’, Huang et al., 2017 [1] where we have presented a systematic evaluation of the overall cell processing and a cost-efficient industrial roadmap for PERC cells. Aside from the information already presented in Huang et al., 2017 [1], here we provide data related to Sectin 3 in Huang et al., 2017 [1] concerning the analysis of the recombination losses׳ mechanisms by PC1D V5.9 and PC2D simulations (Clugston and Basore, 1997, Basore and Cabanas-Holmen, 2011, Cabanas-Holmen and Basore, 2012 and Cabanas-Holmen and Basore, 2012. [2–5] on our current industrial Al2O3 PERC cell. The data include: i PC2D simulations on J02, ii the calculation of series resistance and back surface recombination velocity (BSRV on the rear side metallization of PERC cell for the case of a point contact, and iii the PC1D simulation on the cumulative photo-generation and recombination along the distance from the front surface. Finally, the roadmap of the solar cell efficiency for an industrial PERC technology up to 24% is presented, with the aim of providing a potential guideline for industrial researchers.

  10. 2D/3D quench simulation using ANSYS for epoxy impregnated Nb3Sn high field magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryuji Yamada et al.

    2002-09-19

    A quench program using ANSYS is developed for the high field collider magnet for three-dimensional analysis. Its computational procedure is explained. The quench program is applied to a one meter Nb{sub 3}Sn high field model magnet, which is epoxy impregnated. The quench simulation program is used to estimate the temperature and mechanical stress inside the coil as well as over the whole magnet. It is concluded that for the one meter magnet with the presented cross section and configuration, the thermal effects due to the quench is tolerable. But we need much more quench study and improvements in the design for longer magnets.

  11. ATHENA-2D: A computer code for simulation of hypothetical recriticality accidents in a thermal neutron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, K.N.

    1995-01-01

    In a damaged light water reactor core (as in the aftermath of a Three-Mile-Island-like core meltdown), water reflood is performed to carry off decay heat. The severely degraded geometry of the fuel debris bed may increase core reactivity with water reflood. Sufficient boron poisoning of the reflood water is therefore very important. One hypothetical accident is the reintroduction of cooling water that is insufficiently borated, resulting in the damaged reactor attaining criticality in this uncontrolled configuration. The goal in simulating this accident is the prediction of the energy release from the resulting transient

  12. Investigation of cellular detonation structure formation via linear stability theory and 2D and 3D numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, S. P.; Kudryavtsev, A. N.

    2017-10-01

    Linear and nonlinear stages of the instability of a plane detonation wave (DW) and the subsequent process of formation of cellular detonation structure are investigated. A simple model with one-step irreversible chemical reaction is used. The linear analysis is employed to predict the DW front structure at the early stages of its formation. An emerging eigenvalue problem is solved with a global method using a Chebyshev pseudospectral method and the LAPACK software library. A local iterative shooting procedure is used for eigenvalue refinement. Numerical simulations of a propagation of a DW in plane and rectangular channels are performed with a shock capturing WENO scheme of 5th order. A special method of a computational domain shift is implemented in order to maintain the DW in the domain. It is shown that the linear analysis gives certain predictions about the DW structure that are in agreement with the numerical simulations of early stages of DW propagation. However, at later stages, a merger of detonation cells occurs so that their number is approximately halved. Computations of DW propagation in a square channel reveal two different types of spatial structure of the DW front, "rectangular" and "diagonal" types. A spontaneous transition from the rectangular to diagonal type of structure is observed during propagation of the DW.

  13. Gauging the Nanotoxicity of h2D-C2N toward Single-Stranded DNA: An in Silico Molecular Simulation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Titas Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Kalishankar; Datta, Ayan

    2018-04-12

    Recent toxicological assessments of graphene, graphene oxides, and some other two-dimensional (2D) materials have shown them to be substantially toxic at the nanoscale, where they inhibit and eventually disrupt biological processes. These shortfalls of graphene and analogs have resulted in a quest for novel biocompatible 2D materials with minimum cytotoxicity. In this article, we demonstrate C 2 N (h2D-C 2 N), a newly synthesized 2D porous graphene analog, to be non-nanotoxic toward genetic materials from an "in-silico" point of view through sequence-dependent binding of different polynucleotide single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) onto it. The calculated binding energy of nucleobases and the free energy of binding of polynucleotides follow the common trait, cytosine > guanine > adenine > thymine, and are well within the limits of physisorption. Ab-initio simulations completely exclude the possibility of any chemical reaction, demonstrating purely noncovalent binding of nucleobases with C 2 N through a crucial interplay between hydrogen bonding and π-stacking interactions with the surface. Further, we show that the extent of distortion inflicted upon ssDNA by C 2 N is negligible. Analysis of the density of states of the nucleobase-C 2 N hybrids confirms minimum electronic perturbation of the bases after adsorption. Most importantly, we demonstrate the potency of C 2 N in nucleic acid transportation via reversible binding of ssDNA. The plausible use of C 2 N as a template for DNA repair is illustrated through an example of C 2 N-assisted complementary ssDNA winding.

  14. Simulation of 2-D Compressible Flows on a Moving Curvilinear Mesh with an Implicit-Explicit Runge-Kutta Method

    KAUST Repository

    AbuAlSaud, Moataz

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to solve unsteady two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for a moving mesh using implicit explicit (IMEX) Runge- Kutta scheme. The moving mesh is implemented in the equations using Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulation. The inviscid part of the equation is explicitly solved using second-order Godunov method, whereas the viscous part is calculated implicitly. We simulate subsonic compressible flow over static NACA-0012 airfoil at different angle of attacks. Finally, the moving mesh is examined via oscillating the airfoil between angle of attack = 0 and = 20 harmonically. It is observed that the numerical solution matches the experimental and numerical results in the literature to within 20%.

  15. Evaluation of cardiotoxicity five years after 2D planned, non-simulated, radiation therapy for left breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Pistevou-Gompaki

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Kyriaki Pistevou-Gompaki1, Apostolos Hatzitolios2, Nikos Eleftheriadis2, Evaggelos Boultoukas2, George Ntaios2, Ioannis Andronikidis2, Ioannis Tzitzikas11Department of Radiation Oncology; 2First Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, AHEPA Hospital, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, GreeceIntroduction: Radiation treatment has been associated with radiation induced cardiotoxicity, especially with older, long-outdated, techniques. Such complications include pericarditis, myocardial fibrosis, valvular injury, ischemic heart disease, and myocardial infarction.Aim: To assess the effect of outdated breast radiation therapy (RT – using a diagnostic CT scanner in the absence of a CT simulator – on cardiac function in women with stage II left breast cancer.Patients and Methods: Sixty-two women under 65 with stage II left breast cancer who received post-operative RT using a diagnostic computed tomography scanner were studied between 1997 and 2001. Participants underwent a clinical interview, ECG, and echocardiography before and 6 months and 5 years after RT.Results: There was no serious cardiotoxicity at 6 months and 5 years after radiotherapy. A 23% increase in hypertensive patients, and a slight decrease (2.3% in ejection fraction was observed after 5 years, with 3 patients (5% developing abnormalities. Two patients presented abnormal electrocardiographic findings within 6 months of RT.Conclusion: Our study showed that RT for left breast cancer was not associated with significant alteration in heart morbidity or mortality within 5 years of treatment, despite the lack of a simulator.Keywords: radiotherapy, breast cancer, cardiotoxicity, acute myocardial infraction, ischemic heart disease

  16. Insights into the growth rate of spatially evolving plane turbulent free-shear layers from 2D vortex-gas simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayanan, Saikishan; Narasimha, Roddam

    2017-02-01

    Although the free-shear or mixing layer has been a subject of extensive research over nearly a century, there are certain fundamental issues that remain controversial. These include the influence of initial and downstream conditions on the flow, the effect of velocity ratio across the layer, and the nature of any possible coupling between small scale dynamics and the large scale evolution of layer thickness. In the spirit of the temporal vortex-gas simulations of Suryanarayanan et al. ["Free turbulent shear layer in a point vortex gas as a problem in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics," Phys. Rev. E 89, 013009 (2014)], we revisit the simple 2D inviscid vortex-gas model with extensive computations and detailed analysis, in order to gain insights into some of the above issues. Simulations of the spatially evolving vortex-gas shear layer are carried out at different velocity ratios using a computational model based on the work of Basu et al. ["Vortex sheet simulation of a plane canonical mixing layer," Comput. Fluids 21, 1-30 (1992) and "Modelling plane mixing layers using vortex points and sheets," Appl. Math. Modell. 19, 66-75 (1995)], but with a crucial improvement that ensures conservation of global circulation. The simulations show that the conditions imposed at the origin of the free shear layer and at the exit to the computational domain can affect flow evolution in their respective downstream and upstream neighbourhoods, the latter being particularly strong in the single stream limit. In between these neighbourhoods at the ends is a regime of universal self-preserving growth rate given by a universal function of velocity ratio. The computed growth rates are generally located within the scatter of experimental data on plane mixing layers and closely agree with recent high Reynolds number experiments and 3D large eddy simulation studies. These findings support the view that observed free-shear layer growth can be largely explained by the 2D vortex dynamics of

  17. Molecular dynamics simulation investigations of H2/D2 dissocitive chemisorption dynamics on Cun(n=13-14) Rigid/nonrigid clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzein, N.

    2004-01-01

    In this work with a use of molecular dynamic simulations we have reported the results of a quasiclassical simulation study of the interaction of H2/(D2) with Cu N (N=13-14) atoms in both rigid /(non rigid) clusters.The geometry of the cluster is obtained by an embedded-atom (EA) mode potential, and the interaction between the molecule and cIuster is described by a LEPS -London-Eyring -Polanyi-Sato) potential energy function.Both channels the reactive dissociative adsorption of the molecule on the cIuster) and non reactive (scattering of the molecule from the cluster) are considered. The dissociative chemisorption probability, cross section and rate constant are studied as functions of the initial quantal rovibrational state of the molecule, collision energy, impact parameter and the temperature (OK,296K,834K ,1014K,1554K) of the clusters

  18. Simulation of decay heat removal by natural convection in a pool type fast reactor model-ramona-with coupled 1D/2D thermal hydraulic code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasinathan, N.; Rajakumar, A.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Chetal, S.C. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1995-09-01

    Post shutdown decay heat removal is an important safety requirement in any nuclear system. In order to improve the reliability of this function, Liquid metal (sodium) cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) are equipped with redundant hot pool dipped immersion coolers connected to natural draught air cooled heat exchangers through intermediate sodium circuits. During decay heat removal, flow through the core, immersion cooler primary side and in the intermediate sodium circuits are also through natural convection. In order to establish the viability and validate computer codes used in making predictions, a 1:20 scale experimental model called RAMONA with water as coolant has been built and experimental simulation of decay heat removal situation has been performed at KfK Karlsruhe. Results of two such experiments have been compiled and published as benchmarks. This paper brings out the results of the numerical simulation of one of the benchmark case through a 1D/2D coupled code system, DHDYN-1D/THYC-2D and the salient features of the comparisons. Brief description of the formulations of the codes are also included.

  19. Cell-centered particle weighting algorithm for PIC simulations in a non-uniform 2D axisymmetric mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Samuel J.; Wirz, Richard E.

    2014-09-01

    Standard area weighting methods for particle-in-cell simulations result in systematic errors on particle densities for a non-uniform mesh in cylindrical coordinates. These errors can be significantly reduced by using weighted cell volumes for density calculations. A detailed description on the corrected volume calculations and cell-centered weighting algorithm in a non-uniform mesh is provided. The simple formulas for the corrected volume can be used for any type of quadrilateral and/or triangular mesh in cylindrical coordinates. Density errors arising from the cell-centered weighting algorithm are computed for radial density profiles of uniform, linearly decreasing, and Bessel function in an adaptive Cartesian mesh and an unstructured mesh. For all the density profiles, it is shown that the weighting algorithm provides a significant improvement for density calculations. However, relatively large density errors may persist at outermost cells for monotonically decreasing density profiles. A further analysis has been performed to investigate the effect of the density errors in potential calculations, and it is shown that the error at the outermost cell does not propagate into the potential solution for the density profiles investigated.

  20. VIBA-Lab 3.0: Computer program for simulation and semi-quantitative analysis of PIXE and RBS spectra and 2D elemental maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlić, Ivica; Mekterović, Darko; Mekterović, Igor; Ivošević, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    VIBA-Lab is a computer program originally developed by the author and co-workers at the National University of Singapore (NUS) as an interactive software package for simulation of Particle Induced X-ray Emission and Rutherford Backscattering Spectra. The original program is redeveloped to a VIBA-Lab 3.0 in which the user can perform semi-quantitative analysis by comparing simulated and measured spectra as well as simulate 2D elemental maps for a given 3D sample composition. The latest version has a new and more versatile user interface. It also has the latest data set of fundamental parameters such as Coster-Kronig transition rates, fluorescence yields, mass absorption coefficients and ionization cross sections for K and L lines in a wider energy range than the original program. Our short-term plan is to introduce routine for quantitative analysis for multiple PIXE and XRF excitations. VIBA-Lab is an excellent teaching tool for students and researchers in using PIXE and RBS techniques. At the same time the program helps when planning an experiment and when optimizing experimental parameters such as incident ions, their energy, detector specifications, filters, geometry, etc. By "running" a virtual experiment the user can test various scenarios until the optimal PIXE and BS spectra are obtained and in this way save a lot of expensive machine time.

  1. Analysis of turbulence within the front of a quasi-perpendicular shock: two-stream instabilities analyzed with 2D full PIC simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembege, B.; Muschietti, L.

    2017-12-01

    Supercritical shocks in collisionless plasmas are characterized by the presence of a sizable fraction of ions that are reflected off of the shock front and form a foot upstream of the shock ramp. These ions which carry a significant amount of energy are the source of microturbulence within the shock front itself and play a key role in transforming the directed bulk energy (upstream) into thermal energy (downstream). For quasi-perpendicular shock geometries, the speed of the reflected ions is mostly directed at 90° to the magnetic field. Streaming instabilities can develop within the shock's foot, which are excited by the relative drifts between incoming ions, reflected ions, and electrons across Bo. Recent linear dispersion analysis and 1D full particle simulations [Muschietti et Lembege, Ann. Geophys., 2017] have identified three types of emissions: (i) one is the oblique extension of the ECDI (electron cyclotron drift instability) defined initially for 90°, and two types of whistler waves that propagate (ii) in the quasi-perpendicular domain and (iii) at strongly oblique angles. Herein, 2D full particle simulations are performed in order to analyze how these different waves can coexist and possibly couple with each other, and to determine the resulting wave emissions in their linear and nonlinear stages. Main results will be extracted for a possible comparison with high-resolution wave measurements issued from the recent MMS mission.

  2. Responses of Microcrustaceans to Simulated Microgravity (2D-Clinorotation) - Preliminary Assessments for the Development of Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jessica; Schoppmann, Kathrin; Knie, Miriam; Laforsch, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) are an endeavor to create environments able to maintain human life e.g. on future long-duration space missions like flights to Mars. Based on cyclic biological processes, these systems will be independent from material resupply (such as food, water and oxygen). Due to their central role in limnic ecosystems, herbivorous microcrustaceans could act as key player in aquatic BLSS as they link oxygen liberating, autotrophic producers like algae to higher trophic levels, such as fish. However, before such BLSS can be utilized in space, organisms inhabiting these systems have to be studied thoroughly to disclose the gravitational impact on the biological processes. This is possible in real microgravity, but requires high financial resources, is opportunity-limited or periods of microgravity are very short. Yet, cost-effective and almost permanently accessible tools for gravitational research are ground-based facilities (GBFs), providing simulated microgravity. Among those GBFs is the so called 2D-clinostat. In the present study we demonstrate, that rotation of clinostat tubes does not generate acceleration in form of (predator resembling) small scale turbulence, which can be perceived by Daphnia cucullata. Additionally, embryonal development is not disturbed in subitaneous eggs of Daphnia magna and resting eggs of the ostracod Heterocypris incongruens (besides through restrictions in space within the narrow clinostat tubes), just as subsequent hatching from the respective eggs. Hence, our results indicate that clinorotation is a suitable method to simulate microgravity for microcrustaceans.

  3. Effects of Precipitation on Ocean Mixed-Layer Temperature and Salinity as Simulated in a 2-D Coupled Ocean-Cloud Resolving Atmosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofan; Sui, C.-H.; Lau, K-M.; Adamec, D.

    1999-01-01

    A two-dimensional coupled ocean-cloud resolving atmosphere model is used to investigate possible roles of convective scale ocean disturbances induced by atmospheric precipitation on ocean mixed-layer heat and salt budgets. The model couples a cloud resolving model with an embedded mixed layer-ocean circulation model. Five experiment are performed under imposed large-scale atmospheric forcing in terms of vertical velocity derived from the TOGA COARE observations during a selected seven-day period. The dominant variability of mixed-layer temperature and salinity are simulated by the coupled model with imposed large-scale forcing. The mixed-layer temperatures in the coupled experiments with 1-D and 2-D ocean models show similar variations when salinity effects are not included. When salinity effects are included, however, differences in the domain-mean mixed-layer salinity and temperature between coupled experiments with 1-D and 2-D ocean models could be as large as 0.3 PSU and 0.4 C respectively. Without fresh water effects, the nocturnal heat loss over ocean surface causes deep mixed layers and weak cooling rates so that the nocturnal mixed-layer temperatures tend to be horizontally-uniform. The fresh water flux, however, causes shallow mixed layers over convective areas while the nocturnal heat loss causes deep mixed layer over convection-free areas so that the mixed-layer temperatures have large horizontal fluctuations. Furthermore, fresh water flux exhibits larger spatial fluctuations than surface heat flux because heavy rainfall occurs over convective areas embedded in broad non-convective or clear areas, whereas diurnal signals over whole model areas yield high spatial correlation of surface heat flux. As a result, mixed-layer salinities contribute more to the density differences than do mixed-layer temperatures.

  4. 2D design rule and layout analysis using novel large-area first-principles-based simulation flow incorporating lithographic and stress effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Steven L.; Blatchford, James; Olubuyide, Oluwamuyiwa; Riley, Deborah; Chang, Simon; Hong, Qi-Zhong; Kim, T. S.; Borges, Ricardo; Lin, Li

    2009-03-01

    As design rules and corresponding logic standard cell layouts continue to shrink node-on-node in accordance with Moore's law, complex 2D interactions, both intra-cell and between cells, become much more prominent. For example, in lithography, lack of scaling of λ/NA implies aggressive use of resolution enhancement techniques to meet logic scaling requirements-resulting in adverse effects such as 'forbidden pitches'-and also implies an increasing range of optical influence relative to cell size. These adverse effects are therefore expected to extend well beyond the cell boundary, leading to lithographic marginalities that occur only when a given cell is placed "in context" with other neighboring cells in a variable design environment [1]. This context dependence is greatly exacerbated by increased use of strain engineering techniques such as SiGe and dual-stress liners (DSL) to enhance transistor performance, both of which also have interaction lengths on the order of microns. The use of these techniques also breaks the formerly straightforward connection between lithographic 'shapes' and end-of-line electrical performance, thus making the formulation of design rules that are robust to process variations and complex 2D interactions more difficult. To address these issues, we have developed a first-principles-based simulation flow to study contextdependent electrical effects in layout, arising not only from lithography, but also from stress and interconnect parasitic effects. This flow is novel in that it can be applied to relatively large layout clips- required for context-dependent analysis-without relying on semi-empirical or 'black-box' models for the fundamental electrical effects. The first-principles-based approach is ideal for understanding contextdependent effects early in the design phase, so that they can be mitigated through restrictive design rules. The lithographic simulations have been discussed elsewhere [1] and will not be presented in detail. The

  5. Icarus: A 2D direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code for parallel computers. User`s manual - V.3.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartel, T.; Plimpton, S.; Johannes, J.; Payne, J.

    1996-10-01

    Icarus is a 2D Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code which has been optimized for the parallel computing environment. The code is based on the DSMC method of Bird and models from free-molecular to continuum flowfields in either cartesian (x, y) or axisymmetric (z, r) coordinates. Computational particles, representing a given number of molecules or atoms, are tracked as they have collisions with other particles or surfaces. Multiple species, internal energy modes (rotation and vibration), chemistry, and ion transport are modelled. A new trace species methodology for collisions and chemistry is used to obtain statistics for small species concentrations. Gas phase chemistry is modelled using steric factors derived from Arrhenius reaction rates. Surface chemistry is modelled with surface reaction probabilities. The electron number density is either a fixed external generated field or determined using a local charge neutrality assumption. Ion chemistry is modelled with electron impact chemistry rates and charge exchange reactions. Coulomb collision cross-sections are used instead of Variable Hard Sphere values for ion-ion interactions. The electrostatic fields can either be externally input or internally generated using a Langmuir-Tonks model. The Icarus software package includes the grid generation, parallel processor decomposition, postprocessing, and restart software. The commercial graphics package, Tecplot, is used for graphics display. The majority of the software packages are written in standard Fortran.

  6. 2D and 3D simulation of cavitating flows: development of an original algorithm in code Saturne and study of the influence of turbulence modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebli, Rezki

    2014-01-01

    Cavitation is one of the most demanding physical phenomena influencing the performance of hydraulic machines. It is therefore important to predict correctly its inception and development, in order to quantify the performance drop it induces, and also to characterize the resulting flow instabilities. The aim of this work is to develop an unsteady 3D algorithm for the numerical simulation of cavitation in an industrial CFD solver 'Code Saturne'. It is based on a fractional step method and preserves the minimum/maximum principle of the void fraction. An implicit solver, based on a transport equation of the void fraction coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations is proposed. A specific numerical treatment of the cavitation source terms provides physical values of the void fraction (between 0 and 1) without including any artificial numerical limitation. The influence of RANS turbulence models on the simulation of cavitation on 2D geometries (Venturi and Hydrofoil) is then studied. It confirms the capability of the two-equation eddy viscosity models, k-epsilon and k-omega-SST, with the modification proposed by Reboud et al. (1998) to reproduce the main features of the unsteady sheet cavity behavior. The second order model RSM-SSG, based on the Reynolds stress transport, appears able to reproduce the highly unsteady flow behavior without including any arbitrary modification. The three-dimensional effects involved in the instability mechanisms are also analyzed. This work allows us to achieve a numerical tool, validated on complex configurations of cavitating flows, to improve the understanding of the physical mechanisms that control the three-dimensional unsteady effects involved in the mechanisms of instability. (author)

  7. Quantitative simulation of ultrasonic time of flight diffraction technique in 2D geometries using Huygens-Fresnel diffraction model: theory and experimental comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkoori, Sanjeevareddy; Chitti Venkata, Krishnamurthy; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an analytical approach for simulation of ultrasonic diffracted wave signals from cracks in two-dimensional geometries based on a novel Huygens-Fresnel Diffraction Model (HFDM). The model employs the frequency domain far-field displacement expressions derived by Miller and Pursey in 2D for a line source located on the free surface boundary of a semi-infinite elastic medium. At each frequency in the bandwidth of a pulsed excitation, the complex diffracted field is obtained by summation of displacements due to the unblocked virtual sources located in the section containing a vertical crack. The time-domain diffracted wave signal amplitudes in a general isotropic solid are obtained by standard Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) procedures. The wedge based finite aperture transducer refracted beam profiles were modelled by treating the finite dimension transducer as an array of line sources. The proposed model is able to evaluate back-wall signal amplitude and lateral wave signal amplitude, quantitatively. The model predicted range-dependent diffracted amplitudes from the edge of a bottom surface-breaking crack in the isotropic steel specimen were compared with Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) results. The good agreement confirms the validity of the HFDM method. The simulated ultrasonic time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) A-scan signals for surface-breaking crack lengths 2 mm and 4 mm in a 10 mm thick aluminium specimen were compared quantitatively with the experimental results. Finally, important applications of HFDM method to the ultrasonic quantitative non-destructive evaluation are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Grid-Free 2D Plasma Simulations of the Complex Interaction Between the Solar Wind and Small, Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Poppe, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from a new grid-free 2D plasma simulation code applied to a small, unmagnetized body immersed in the streaming solar wind plasma. The body was purposely modeled as an irregular shape in order to examine photoemission and solar wind plasma flow in high detail on the dayside, night-side, terminator and surface-depressed 'pocket' regions. Our objective is to examine the overall morphology of the various plasma interaction regions that form around a small body like a small near-Earth asteroid (NEA). We find that the object obstructs the solar wind flow and creates a trailing wake region downstream, which involves the interplay between surface charging and ambipolar plasma expansion. Photoemission is modeled as a steady outflow of electrons from illuminated portions of the surface, and under direct illumination the surface forms a non-monotonic or ''double-sheath'' electric potential upstream of the body, which is important for understanding trajectories and equilibria of lofted dust grains in the presence of a complex asteroid geometry. The largest electric fields are found at the terminators, where ambipolar plasma expansion in the body-sized night-side wake merges seamlessly with the thin photoelectric sheath on the dayside. The pocket regions are found to be especially complex, with nearby sunlit regions of positive potential electrically connected to unlit negative potentials and forming adjacent natural electric dipoles. For objects near the surface, we find electrical dissipation times (through collection of local environmental solar wind currents) that vary over at least 5 orders of magnitude: from 39 Micro(s) inside the near-surface photoelectron cloud under direct sunlight to less than 1 s inside the particle-depleted night-side wake and shadowed pocket regions

  9. Theoretical investigations of open-shell systems: 1. Spectral simulation of the 2s(2)p(2) (2)D solid molecular hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrine, Jennifer Rebecca

    This dissertation is concerned in part with the construction of accurate pairwise potentials, based on reliable ab initio potential energy surfaces (PES's), which are fully anisotropic in the sense that multiple PES's are accessible to systems with orientational electronic properties. We have carried out several investigations of B (2s 22p 2Po) with spherical ligands: (1)an investigation of the electronic spectrum of the BAr2 complex and (2)two related studies of the equilibrium properties and spectral simulation of B embedded in solid pH 2. Our investigations suggest that it cannot be assumed that nuclear motion in an open-shell system occurs on a single PES. The 2s2p2 2 D path integral molecular dynamics investigation of the equilibrium properties of boron trapped in solid para-hydrogen (pH2) and a path integral Monte Carlo spectral simulation. Using fully anisotropic pair potentials, coupling of the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom is observed, and is found to be an essential feature in understanding the behavior and determining the energy of the impure solid, especially in highly anisotropic matrices. We employ the variational Monte Carlo method to further study the behavior of ground state B embedded in solid pH2. When a boron atom exists in a substitutional site in a lattice, the anisotropic distortion of the local lattice plays a minimal role in the energetics. However, when a nearest neighbor vacancy is present along with the boron impurity, two phenomena are found to influence the behavior of the impure quantum solid: (1)orientation of the 2p orbital to minimize the energy of the impurity and (2)distortion of the local lattice structure to promote an energetically favorable nuclear configuration. This research was supported by the Joint Program for Atomic, Molecular and Optical Science sponsored by the University of Maryland at College Park and the National Insititute of Standards and Technology, and by the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific

  10. Frequency and clinical significance of previously undetected incidental findings detected on computed tomography simulation scans for breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Naoki; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Takahashi, Osamu; Kikuchi, Mari; Honda, Satoshi; Shikama, Naoto; Akahane, Keiko; Sekiguchi, Kenji

    2012-11-01

    To determine the frequency and clinical significance of previously undetected incidental findings found on computed tomography (CT) simulation images for breast cancer patients. All CT simulation images were first interpreted prospectively by radiation oncologists and then double-checked by diagnostic radiologists. The official reports of CT simulation images for 881 consecutive postoperative breast cancer patients from 2009 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Potentially important incidental findings (PIIFs) were defined as any previously undetected benign or malignancy-related findings requiring further medical follow-up or investigation. For all patients in whom a PIIF was detected, we reviewed the clinical records to determine the clinical significance of the PIIF. If the findings from the additional studies prompted by a PIIF required a change in management, the PIIF was also recorded as a clinically important incidental finding (CIIF). There were a total of 57 (6%) PIIFs. The 57 patients in whom a PIIF was detected were followed for a median of 17 months (range, 3-26). Six cases of CIIFs (0.7% of total) were detected. Of the six CIIFs, three (50%) cases had not been noted by the radiation oncologist until the diagnostic radiologist detected the finding. On multivariate analysis, previous CT examination was an independent predictor for PIIF (p = 0.04). Patients who had not previously received chest CT examinations within 1 year had a statistically significantly higher risk of PIIF than those who had received CT examinations within 6 months (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-9.50; p = 0.01). The rate of incidental findings prompting a change in management was low. However, radiation oncologists appear to have some difficulty in detecting incidental findings that require a change in management. Considering cost, it may be reasonable that routine interpretations are given to those who have not received previous chest CT examinations within 1 year

  11. Multiple-canister flow and transport code in 2-dimensional space. MCFT2D: user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Doo-Hyun

    2006-03-01

    A two-dimensional numerical code, MCFT2D (Multiple-Canister Flow and Transport code in 2-Dimensional space), has been developed for groundwater flow and radionuclide transport analyses in a water-saturated high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository with multiple canisters. A multiple-canister configuration and a non-uniform flow field of the host rock are incorporated in the MCFT2D code. Effects of heterogeneous flow field of the host rock on migration of nuclides can be investigated using MCFT2D. The MCFT2D enables to take into account the various degrees of the dependency of canister configuration for nuclide migration in a water-saturated HLW repository, while the dependency was assumed to be either independent or perfectly dependent in previous studies. This report presents features of the MCFT2D code, numerical simulation using MCFT2D code, and graphical representation of the numerical results. (author)

  12. Numerical analysis of the impact of an RF sheath on the Scrape-Off Layer in 2D and 3D turbulence simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tamain

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by Radio Frequency (RF heating studies, the response of the plasma of tokamaks to the presence of a locally polarized limiter is studied. In a first part, we use the TOKAM3X3D global edge turbulence code to analyse the impact of such biasing in a realistic geometry. Key features of experimental observations are qualitatively recovered, especially the extension of a potential and density perturbation on long, but finite, distances along connected field lines. The perturbation is also found to extend in the transverse direction. Both observations demonstrate the influence of perpendicular current loops on the plasma confirming the need for an accurate description in reduced models. In a second part, we use the TOKAM2D slab turbulence code to determine the validity of using a transverse Ohm's law for this purpose. Results indicate that a local Ohm's law with a constant and uniform perpendicular resistivity appears at least as an oversimplified description of perpendicular charge transport in a turbulent Scrape-Off Layer.

  13. Facile synthesis of 2D Zn(II) coordination polymer and its crystal structure, selective removal of methylene blue and molecular simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Güneş Günay; Yeşilel, Okan Zafer; Şahin, Onur; Arslanoğlu, Hasan; Erucar, İlknur

    2017-09-01

    A new coordination polymer {[Zn(μ3-ppda)(H2O)(μ-bpa)Zn(μ-ppda)(μ-bpa)]·4H2O}n (1) (ppda = 1,4-phenylenediacetate, bpa = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane) has been synthesized by microwave-assisted reaction and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, single-crystal and powder X-ray diffractions. The asymmetric unit of 1 consists of two Zn(II) ions, two bpa ligands, two ppda ligands, one coordinated and four non-coordinated water molecules. In 1, ppda2- anions are linked the adjacent Zn(II) centers to generate 1D double-stranded chains. These chains are connected into 2D sheets by the bridging bpa ligands. Atomically detailed modeling was performed to compute single and binary component adsorption isotherms of H2, CO2, CH4 and N2 in complex 1. Results showed that 1 exhibits a high adsorption selectivity towards CO2 due to its high affinity for CO2. Results of this study will be helpful to guide the microwave-assisted reaction of coordination polymers to design promising adsorbents for gas storage and gas separation applications. The luminescent property of 1 and the selective removal of dyes in 1 have been also discussed. Results showed that 1 can be a potential candidate for luminescence applications and can selectively adsorb methylene blue (MB) dye molecules.

  14. 'Augmented reality' in conventional simulation by projection of 3-D structures into 2-D images. A comparison with virtual methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutschmann, H.; Nairz, O.; Zehentmayr, F.; Fastner, G.; Sedlmayer, F. [Univ. Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Salzburg (Austria); radART - Inst. for research and development on Advanced Radiation Technologies at the Paracelsus Medical Univ., Salzburg (Austria); Steininger, P. [radART - Inst. for research and development on Advanced Radiation Technologies at the Paracelsus Medical Univ., Salzburg (Austria); Dept. of Medical Computer Science and Technology, Univ. for Health Sciences, Hall i. T. (Austria); Kopp, P.; Merz, F.; Wurstbauer, K.; Kranzinger, M.; Kametriser, G.; Kopp, M. [Univ. Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Salzburg (Austria)

    2008-02-15

    Background and purpose: in this study, a new method is introduced, which allows the overlay of three-dimensional structures, that have been delineated on transverse slices, onto the fluoroscopy from conventional simulators in real time. Patients and methods: setup deviations between volumetric imaging and simulation were visualized, measured and corrected for 701 patient isocenters. Results: comparing the accuracy to mere virtual simulation lacking additional X-ray imaging, a clear benefit of the new method could be shown. On average, virtual prostate simulations had to be corrected by 0.48 cm (standard deviation [SD] 0.38), and those of the breast by 0.67 cm (SD 0.66). Conclusion: the presented method provides an easy way to determine entity-specific safety margins related to patient setup errors upon registration of bony anatomy (prostate 0.9 cm for 90% of cases, breast 1.3 cm). The important role of planar X-ray imaging was clearly demonstrated. The innovation can also be applied to adaptive image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) protocols. (orig.)

  15. A benchmark study of 2D and 3D finite element calculations simulating dynamic pulse buckling tests of cylindrical shells under axial impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    A series of tests investigating dynamic pulse buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial impact is compared to several finite element simulations of the event. The purpose of the study is to compare the performance of the various analysis codes and element types with respect to a problem which is applicable to radioactive material transport packages, and ultimately to develop a benchmark problem to qualify finite element analysis codes for the transport package design industry

  16. Interior insulation—Characterisation of the historic, solid masonrybuilding segment and analysis of the heat saving potential by 1d, 2d,and 3d simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Tommy Riviere; Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Rode, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    When considering interior insulation of historic, multi-storey buildings with solid masonry walls, it isimportant to focus on two important factors: How big is the building segment to which it can be applied,and what is the significance of how the multi-dimensional geometry of these fac¸ ade walls......-storey apartments in Denmark. It was investigated,which relative reduction of the average thermal transmittance could be obtained by interior insulationwhen simulated in different dimensions, degrees of insulation and thickness. The analysis showed thatpartial insulation of the spandrels below windows on the 2nd/3...

  17. A new DG nanoscale TFET based on MOSFETs by using source gate electrode: 2D simulation and an analytical potential model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Zeinab; Orouji, Ali A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper suggests and investigates a double-gate (DG) MOSFET, which emulates tunnel field effect transistors (M-TFET). We have combined this novel concept into a double-gate MOSFET, which behaves as a tunneling field effect transistor by work function engineering. In the proposed structure, in addition to the main gate, we utilize another gate over the source region with zero applied voltage and a proper work function to convert the source region from N+ to P+. We check the impact obtained by varying the source gate work function and source doping on the device parameters. The simulation results of the M-TFET indicate that it is a suitable case for a switching performance. Also, we present a two-dimensional analytic potential model of the proposed structure by solving the Poisson's equation in x and y directions and by derivatives from the potential profile; thus, the electric field is achieved. To validate our present model, we use the SILVACO ATLAS device simulator. The analytical results have been compared with it.

  18. Light field morphing using 2D features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lifeng; Lin, Stephen; Lee, Seungyong; Guo, Baining; Shum, Heung-Yeung

    2005-01-01

    We present a 2D feature-based technique for morphing 3D objects represented by light fields. Existing light field morphing methods require the user to specify corresponding 3D feature elements to guide morph computation. Since slight errors in 3D specification can lead to significant morphing artifacts, we propose a scheme based on 2D feature elements that is less sensitive to imprecise marking of features. First, 2D features are specified by the user in a number of key views in the source and target light fields. Then the two light fields are warped view by view as guided by the corresponding 2D features. Finally, the two warped light fields are blended together to yield the desired light field morph. Two key issues in light field morphing are feature specification and warping of light field rays. For feature specification, we introduce a user interface for delineating 2D features in key views of a light field, which are automatically interpolated to other views. For ray warping, we describe a 2D technique that accounts for visibility changes and present a comparison to the ideal morphing of light fields. Light field morphing based on 2D features makes it simple to incorporate previous image morphing techniques such as nonuniform blending, as well as to morph between an image and a light field.

  19. Simulation numérique 2D 3D des écoulements de convection naturelle et mixte en cavités anisothermes fermées et ventilées

    OpenAIRE

    Ezzouhri, Ridouane; Joubert, Patrice; Penot, François

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Des écoulements de convection naturelle et mixte en cavités (types habitat) anisothermes, fermées ou ventilées sont étudiés dans ce travail à l'aide de la Simulation des Grandes Structures (SGS). En convection naturelle, les calculs 2D/3D en SGS sont comparés avec ceux de référence d'une simulation numérique directe (SND). En convection mixte, des résultats expérimentaux disponibles dans la littérature sont comparés avec ceux de la SGS qui permet de reproduire globalem...

  20. Activated sludge model No. 2d, ASM2d

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) presents a model for biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in activated sludge systems. ASM2d is based on ASM2 and is expanded to include the denitrifying activity of the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs......). This extension of ASM2 allows for improved modeling of the processes, especially with respect to the dynamics of nitrate and phosphate. (C) 1999 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. Molecular dynamics simulation based on the multi-component molecular orbital method: Application to H5O2+,D5O2+,andT5O2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimoto, Takayoshi; Koyama, Michihisa

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Molecular dynamics method based on multi-component molecular orbital method was applied to basic hydrogen bonding systems, H 5 O 2 + , and its isotopomers (D 5 O 2 + andT 5 O 2 + ). Highlights: ► Molecular dynamics method with nuclear quantum effect was developed. ► Multi-component molecular orbital method was used as ab initio MO calculation. ► Developed method applied to basic hydrogen bonding system, H 5 O 2 + , and isotopomers. ► O ⋯ O vibrational stretching reflected to the distribution of protonic wavefunctions. ► H/D/T isotope effect was also analyzed. - Abstract: We propose a molecular dynamics (MD) method based on the multi-component molecular orbital (MC M O) method, which takes into account the quantum effect of proton directly, for the detailed analyses of proton transfer in hydrogen bonding system. The MC M O based MD (MC M O-MD) method is applied to the basic structures, H 5 O 2 + (called “Zundel ion”), and its isotopomers (D 5 O 2 + andT 5 O 2 + ). We clearly demonstrate the geometrical difference of hydrogen bonded O ⋯ O distance induced by H/D/T isotope effect because the O ⋯ O in H-compound was longer than that in D- or T-compound. We also find the strong relation between stretching vibration of O ⋯ O and the distribution of hydrogen bonded protonic wavefunction because the protonic wavefunction tends to delocalize when the O ⋯ O distance becomes short during the dynamics. Our proposed MC M O-MD simulation is expected as a powerful tool to analyze the proton dynamics in hydrogen bonding systems.

  2. 2D IR spectroscopy of high-pressure phases of ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Halina; Cunha, Ana V.; Shephard, Jacob J.; Shalit, Andrey; Hamm, Peter; Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Salzmann, Christoph G.

    2017-01-01

    We present experimental and simulated 2D IR spectra of some high-pressure forms of isotope-pure D2O ice and compare the results to those of ice Ih published previously [F. Perakis and P. Hamm, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14, 6250 (2012); L. Shi et al., ibid. 18, 3772 (2016)]. Ice II, ice V, and ice XIII

  3. The use of 2D and 3D information in a perceptual-cognitive judgement task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Put, Koen; Wagemans, Johan; Spitz, Jochim; Gallardo, Manuel Armenteros; Williams, A Mark; Helsen, Werner F

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether the use of three-dimensional (3D) simulations in an off-field offside decision-making task is beneficial compared to the more widely available two-dimensional (2D) simulations. Thirty-three assistant referees, who were all involved in professional football, participated in the experiment. They assessed 40 offside situations in both 2D and 3D formats using a counterbalanced design. A distinction was made between offside situations near (i.e., 15 m) and far (i.e., 30 m) from the touchline. Subsequently, a frame recognition task was performed in which assistant referees were asked to indicate which of the five pictures represented the previous video scene. A higher response accuracy score was observed under 3D (80.0%) compared to 2D (75.0%) conditions, in particular for the situations near the touchline (3D: 81.8%; 2D: 72.7%). No differences were reported between 2D and 3D in the frame recognition task. Findings suggest that in highly dynamic and complex situations, the visual system can benefit from the availability of 3D information, especially for relatively fine, metric position judgements. In the memory task, in which a mental abstraction had to be made from a dynamic situation to a static snapshot, 3D stereo disparities do not add anything over and beyond 2D simulations. The specific task demands should be taken into account when considering the most appropriate format for testing and training.

  4. 2D discrete Fourier transform on sliding windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chun-Su

    2015-03-01

    Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is the most widely used method for determining the frequency spectra of digital signals. In this paper, a 2D sliding DFT (2D SDFT) algorithm is proposed for fast implementation of the DFT on 2D sliding windows. The proposed 2D SDFT algorithm directly computes the DFT bins of the current window using the precalculated bins of the previous window. Since the proposed algorithm is designed to accelerate the sliding transform process of a 2D input signal, it can be directly applied to computer vision and image processing applications. The theoretical analysis shows that the computational requirement of the proposed 2D SDFT algorithm is the lowest among existing 2D DFT algorithms. Moreover, the output of the 2D SDFT is mathematically equivalent to that of the traditional DFT at all pixel positions.

  5. Ultrafast 2D IR microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiz, Carlos R; Schach, Denise; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2014-07-28

    We describe a microscope for measuring two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectra of heterogeneous samples with μm-scale spatial resolution, sub-picosecond time resolution, and the molecular structure information of 2D IR, enabling the measurement of vibrational dynamics through correlations in frequency, time, and space. The setup is based on a fully collinear "one beam" geometry in which all pulses propagate along the same optics. Polarization, chopping, and phase cycling are used to isolate the 2D IR signals of interest. In addition, we demonstrate the use of vibrational lifetime as a contrast agent for imaging microscopic variations in molecular environments.

  6. From 2D to 3D turbulence through 2D3C configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzicotti, Michele; Biferale, Luca; Linkmann, Moritz

    2017-11-01

    We study analytically and numerically the geometry of the nonlinear interactions and the resulting energy transfer directions of 2D3C flows. Through a set of suitably designed Direct Numerical Simulations we also study the coupling between several 2D3C flows, where we explore the transition between 2D and fully 3D turbulence. In particular, we find that the coupling of three 2D3C flows on mutually orthogonal planes subject to small-scale forcing leads to a stationary 3D out-of-equilibrium dynamics at the energy containing scales where the inverse cascade is directly balanced by a forward cascade carried by a different subsets of interactions. ERC AdG Grant No 339032 NewTURB.

  7. Photonics of 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Wang, Junzhuan; Hasan, Tawfique; Bao, Qiaoliang

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of graphene and graphene-like two dimensional (2D) materials has attracted a strong interest from the photonics community in recent decade. Apart from zero-gap graphene, insulating hexagonal boron nitride and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides and phosphorene/black phosphorus are being intensively investigated because of their fascinating photonic and optoelectronic properties. Compared to traditional bulk photonic materials such as Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) and Silicon (Si), 2D materials exhibit many unique properties important for device applications in nanophotonics. Firstly, quantum confinement in the direction perpendicular to 2D plane leads to novel electronic and optical features that are distinctively different from their bulk counterparts. Secondly, their surfaces are naturally passivated without any dangling bonds making them readily compatible for integration with photonic structures such as waveguides and cavities. It is also possible to construct vertical hetero-structures by using different 2D materials, without considering lattice mismatch issues that are common in bulk semiconductors. This is because the 2D layers with different lattice constants in heterostructures are only weakly bounded by van der Waals force. Thirdly, despite being atomically thin, many 2D materials interact very strongly with light.

  8. Documentation and verification of VST2D; a model for simulating transient, Variably Saturated, coupled water-heat-solute Transport in heterogeneous, anisotropic 2-Dimensional, ground-water systems with variable fluid density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a model for simulating transient, Variably Saturated, coupled water-heatsolute Transport in heterogeneous, anisotropic, 2-Dimensional, ground-water systems with variable fluid density (VST2D). VST2D was developed to help understand the effects of natural and anthropogenic factors on quantity and quality of variably saturated ground-water systems. The model solves simultaneously for one or more dependent variables (pressure, temperature, and concentration) at nodes in a horizontal or vertical mesh using a quasi-linearized general minimum residual method. This approach enhances computational speed beyond the speed of a sequential approach. Heterogeneous and anisotropic conditions are implemented locally using individual element property descriptions. This implementation allows local principal directions to differ among elements and from the global solution domain coordinates. Boundary conditions can include time-varying pressure head (or moisture content), heat, and/or concentration; fluxes distributed along domain boundaries and/or at internal node points; and/or convective moisture, heat, and solute fluxes along the domain boundaries; and/or unit hydraulic gradient along domain boundaries. Other model features include temperature and concentration dependent density (liquid and vapor) and viscosity, sorption and/or decay of a solute, and capability to determine moisture content beyond residual to zero. These features are described in the documentation together with development of the governing equations, application of the finite-element formulation (using the Galerkin approach), solution procedure, mass and energy balance considerations, input requirements, and output options. The VST2D model was verified, and results included solutions for problems of water transport under isohaline and isothermal conditions, heat transport under isobaric and isohaline conditions, solute transport under isobaric and isothermal conditions, and coupled water

  9. Optoelectronics with 2D semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, are currently receiving a lot of attention for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this talk, I will review our research activities on electrically driven light emission, photovoltaic energy conversion and photodetection in 2D semiconductors. In particular, WSe2 monolayer p-n junctions formed by electrostatic doping using a pair of split gate electrodes, type-II heterojunctions based on MoS2/WSe2 and MoS2/phosphorene van der Waals stacks, 2D multi-junction solar cells, and 3D/2D semiconductor interfaces will be presented. Upon optical illumination, conversion of light into electrical energy occurs in these devices. If an electrical current is driven, efficient electroluminescence is obtained. I will present measurements of the electrical characteristics, the optical properties, and the gate voltage dependence of the device response. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss photoconductivity studies of MoS2 field-effect transistors. We identify photovoltaic and photoconductive effects, which both show strong photoconductive gain. A model will be presented that reproduces our experimental findings, such as the dependence on optical power and gate voltage. We envision that the efficient photon conversion and light emission, combined with the advantages of 2D semiconductors, such as flexibility, high mechanical stability and low costs of production, could lead to new optoelectronic technologies.

  10. 2D Necklace Flower Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnas, David; Casanova, Daniel; Tresaco, Eva

    2018-01-01

    The 2D Necklace Flower Constellation theory is a new design framework based on the 2D Lattice Flower Constellations that allows to expand the possibilities of design while maintaining the number of satellites in the configuration. The methodology presented is a generalization of the 2D Lattice design, where the concept of necklace is introduced in the formulation. This allows to assess the problem of building a constellation in orbit, or the study of the reconfiguration possibilities in a constellation. Moreover, this work includes three counting theorems that allow to know beforehand the number of possible configurations that the theory can provide. This new formulation is especially suited for design and optimization techniques.

  11. 2D gravity, random surfaces and all that

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.

    1990-11-01

    I review the recent progress in 2d gravity and discuss the new numerical simulations for 2d gravity and for random surfaces in d>2. The random surface theories of interest in d>2 have extrinsic curvature terms, and for a finite value of the extrinsic curvature coupling there seems to be a second order phase transition where the string tension scales. (orig.)

  12. Numerical simulation of 2-D seismic wave propagation in the presence of a topographic fluid-solid interface at the sea bottom by the curvilinear grid finite-difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yao-Chong; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jian-Kuan; Chen, Xiaofei

    2017-09-01

    This study simulates seismic wave propagation across a 2-D topographic fluid (acoustic) and solid (elastic) interface at the sea bottom by the finite-difference method (FDM). In this method, seismic waves in sea water are governed by acoustic wave equations, whereas seismic waves in solid earth are governed by elastic wave equations. The fluid-solid interface condition is implemented on the interface. Body-conforming grids are used to fit the topographic fluid-solid interface which naturally avoids spurious diffractions due to staircase approximation. A collocated-grid MacCormack FDM is utilized to update the wavefields in the fluid and solid media. The fluid-solid interface condition is explicitly implemented by decomposing the velocity and stress components to the normal and tangential directions with respect to the interface within a fourth-order Runge-Kutta time-marching scheme. The algorithm solutions for both flat and topographic fluid-solid interface models are compared with analytical solutions and spectral element solutions to validate the proposed method. Results show a suitable agreement with the reference solutions and hence confirms the validity of this method. The proposed FDM enforces the numerical solutions to satisfy the exact interface condition and it is more accurate than the conventional FDM that uses effective media parameters to approximate the interface condition.

  13. SES2D user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.D.; Lyon, S.P.

    1982-04-01

    SES2D is an interactive graphics code designed to generate plots of equation of state data from the Los Alamos National Laboratory Group T-4 computer libraries. This manual discusses the capabilities of the code. It describes the prompts and commands and illustrates their use with a sample run

  14. Head First 2D Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fallow), Stray

    2009-01-01

    Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and

  15. Statistics of 2D solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brekke, L.; Imbo, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    The authors study the inequivalent quantizations of (1 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear sigma models with space manifold S 1 and target manifold X. If x is multiply connected, these models possess topological solitons. After providing a definition of spin and statistics for these solitons and demonstrating a spin-statistics correlation, we give various examples where the solitons can have exotic statistics. In some of these models, the solitons may obey a generalized version of fractional statistics called ambistatistics. In this paper the relevance of these 2d models to the statistics of vortices in (2 + 1)-dimensional spontaneously broken gauge theories is discussed. The authors close with a discussion concerning the extension of our results to higher dimensions

  16. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  17. Effective viscosity of 2D suspensions - Confinement effects

    OpenAIRE

    Doyeux , Vincent; Priem , Stephane; Jibuti , Levan; Farutin , Alexander; Ismail , Mourad; Peyla , Philippe

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We study the rheology of a sheared 2D suspension of non-Brownian disks in presence of walls. Although, it is of course possible today with modern computers and powerful algorithms to perform direct numerical simulations that fully account for multiparticle 3D interactions in the presence of walls, the analysis of the simple case of a 2D suspension, provides valuable insights and helps to understand 3D results. Thanks to the direct visualization of the whole 2D flow (th...

  18. Energy Efficiency of D2D Multi-User Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zufan; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jie

    2017-03-28

    The Device-to-Device (D2D) communication system is an important part of heterogeneous networks. It has great potential to improve spectrum efficiency, throughput and energy efficiency cooperation of multiple D2D users with the advantage of direct communication. When cooperating, D2D users expend extraordinary energy to relay data to other D2D users. Hence, the remaining energy of D2D users determines the life of the system. This paper proposes a cooperation scheme for multiple D2D users who reuse the orthogonal spectrum and are interested in the same data by aiming to solve the energy problem of D2D users. Considering both energy availability and the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of each D2D user, the Kuhn-Munkres algorithm is introduced in the cooperation scheme to solve relay selection problems. Thus, the cooperation issue is transformed into a maximum weighted matching (MWM) problem. In order to enhance energy efficiency without the deterioration of Quality of Service (QoS), the link outage probability is derived according to the Shannon Equation by considering the data rate and delay. The simulation studies the relationships among the number of cooperative users, the length of shared data, the number of data packets and energy efficiency.

  19. NASA-VOF2D, 2-D Transient Free Surface Incompressible Fluid Dynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrey, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: NASA-VOF2D is a two- dimensional, transient, free surface incompressible fluid dynamics program. It allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion forces and has a partial cell treatment which allows curved boundaries and interior obstacles. 2 - Method of solution: NASA-VOF2D simulates incompressible flows with free surfaces using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) algorithm. This technique is based on the use of donor-acceptor differencing to track the free surface across an Eulerian grid. The complete Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables for an incompressible fluid are solved by finite differences with surface tension and wall adhesion included. Optionally the pressure equation can be solved by a conjugate residual method rather than the successive over-relaxation (SOR) method

  20. 2D transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzeli, Sajedeh; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Pasquier, Diego; Yazyev, Oleg V.; Kis, Andras

    2017-08-01

    Graphene is very popular because of its many fascinating properties, but its lack of an electronic bandgap has stimulated the search for 2D materials with semiconducting character. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), which are semiconductors of the type MX2, where M is a transition metal atom (such as Mo or W) and X is a chalcogen atom (such as S, Se or Te), provide a promising alternative. Because of its robustness, MoS2 is the most studied material in this family. TMDCs exhibit a unique combination of atomic-scale thickness, direct bandgap, strong spin-orbit coupling and favourable electronic and mechanical properties, which make them interesting for fundamental studies and for applications in high-end electronics, spintronics, optoelectronics, energy harvesting, flexible electronics, DNA sequencing and personalized medicine. In this Review, the methods used to synthesize TMDCs are examined and their properties are discussed, with particular attention to their charge density wave, superconductive and topological phases. The use of TMCDs in nanoelectronic devices is also explored, along with strategies to improve charge carrier mobility, high frequency operation and the use of strain engineering to tailor their properties.

  1. Protein structure validation and identification from unassigned residual dipolar coupling data using 2D-PDPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Arjang; Mukhopadhyay, Rishi; Yandle, Ryan; Prestegard, James H; Valafar, Homayoun

    2013-08-22

    More than 90% of protein structures submitted to the PDB each year are homologous to some previously characterized protein structure. The extensive resources that are required for structural characterization of proteins can be justified for the 10% of the novel structures, but not for the remaining 90%. This report presents the 2D-PDPA method, which utilizes unassigned residual dipolar coupling in order to address the economics of structure determination of routine proteins by reducing the data acquisition and processing time. 2D-PDPA has been demonstrated to successfully identify the correct structure of an array of proteins that range from 46 to 445 residues in size from a library of 619 decoy structures by using unassigned simulated RDC data. When using experimental data, 2D-PDPA successfully identified the correct NMR structures from the same library of decoy structures. In addition, the most homologous X-ray structure was also identified as the second best structural candidate. Finally, success of 2D-PDPA in identifying and evaluating the most appropriate structure from a set of computationally predicted structures in the case of a previously uncharacterized protein Pf2048.1 has been demonstrated. This protein exhibits less than 20% sequence identity to any protein with known structure and therefore presents a compelling and practical application of our proposed work.

  2. Protein Structure Validation and Identification from Unassigned Residual Dipolar Coupling Data Using 2D-PDPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Arjang; Mukhopadhyay, Rishi; Yandle, Ryan; Prestegard, James H.; Valafar, Homayoun

    2014-01-01

    More than 90% of protein structures submitted to the PDB each year are homologous to some previously characterized protein structure. The extensive resources that are required for structural characterization of proteins can be justified for the 10% of the novel structures, but not for the remaining 90%. This report presents the 2D-PDPA method, which utilizes unassigned residual dipolar coupling in order to address the economics of structure determination of routine proteins by reducing the data acquisition and processing time. 2D-PDPA has been demonstrated to successfully identify the correct structure of an array of proteins that range from 46 to 445 residues in size from a library of 619 decoy structures by using unassigned simulated RDC data. When using experimental data, 2D-PDPA successfully identified the correct NMR structures from the same library of decoy structures. In addition, the most homologous X-ray structure was also identified as the second best structural candidate. Finally, success of 2D-PDPA in identifying and evaluating the most appropriate structure from a set of computationally predicted structures in the case of a previously uncharacterized protein Pf2048.1 has been demonstrated. This protein exhibits less than 20% sequence identity to any protein with known structure and therefore presents a compelling and practical application of our proposed work. PMID:23973992

  3. 2D vector-cyclic deformable templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette; Conradsen, Knut

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the theory of deformable templates is a vector cycle in 2D is described. The deformable template model originated in (Grenander, 1983) and was further investigated in (Grenander et al., 1991). A template vector distribution is induced by parameter distribution from transformation...... matrices applied to the vector cycle. An approximation in the parameter distribution is introduced. The main advantage by using the deformable template model is the ability to simulate a wide range of objects trained by e.g. their biological variations, and thereby improve restoration, segmentation...... and probabillity measurement. The case study concerns estimation of meat percent in pork carcasses. Given two cross-sectional images - one at the front and one near the ham of the carcass - the areas of lean and fat and a muscle in the lean area are measured automatically by the deformable templates....

  4. Coordination modes between copper(II) and N-acetylneuraminic (sialic) acid from a 2D-simulation analysis of EPR spectra. Implications for copper mediation of sialoglycoconjugate chemistry relevant to human biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainerman-Melnikova, Marina; Szabó-Plánka, Terézia; Rockenbauer, Antal; Codd, Rachel

    2005-04-04

    The equilibrium distribution of species formed between Cu(II) and N-acetylneuraminic (sialic) acid (I, LH) at 298 K has been determined using a two-dimensional (2D) simulation analysis of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra. In acidic solutions (pH values 11. It is proposed that [CuL]+ most likely features I coordinated via the deprotonated carboxylic acid group (O1) and the endocyclic oxygen atom (OR) forming a five-membered chelate ring. Select Cu(II)-I species of the form [CuLH-1] may feature I acting as a dianionic tridentate chelate, via oxygen atoms derived from O1, OR, and one deprotonated hydroxy group (O7 or O8) from the glycerol tail. Alternatively, I may coordinate Cu(II) in a bidentate fashion as the tert-2-hydroxycarboxylato (O1,O2) dianion. Spectra predicted for Cu(II)-I complexes in which I is coordinated in either a O1,OR {I1-} or O1,O2 {I2-} bidentate fashion {e.g., [CuL]+ (O1,O R), [CuL2] (bis-O1,O R), [CuLH-1] (isomer: O1, O2), [CuL2H-1]- (O1, O R; O1, O2), and [CuL2H-2]2- (isomer: bis-O1, O2)} have "irregular" EPR spectra that are ascribed to the existence of Cu(II)-I(monomer) Cu(II)-I(polymer) equilibria. The formation of polymeric Cu(II)-I species will be favored in these complexes because the glycerol-derived hydroxyl groups at the complex periphery (O, 7O, 8O9) are available for further Cu(II) binding. The presence of polymeric Cu(II)-I species is supported by EPR spectral data from solutions of Cu(II) and the homopolymer of I, colominic acid (Ipoly). Conversely, spectra predicted for Cu(II)-I complexes where I is coordinated in a {I2-} tridentate {e.g., [CuLH-1] (isomer: O1, O R, O7, or O8) and [CuL2H-2]2- (isomer: bis-O1,O R,O7, or O8)} or tetradentate fashion {I3-} {e.g., [CuLH-3]2- (O1, O R, O, 8O9)} are typical for mononuclear tetragonally elongated Cu(II) octahedra. In this latter series of complexes, the tendency toward the formation of polymeric Cu(II)-I analogues is small because the polydentate I effectively wraps up the

  5. 2-D Model Test of Dolosse Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The rational design diagram for Dolos armour should incorporate both the hydraulic stability and the structural integrity. The previous tests performed by Aalborg University (AU) made available such design diagram for the trunk of Dolos breakwater without superstructures (Burcharth et al. 1992......). To extend the design diagram to cover Dolos breakwaters with superstructure, 2-D model tests of Dolos breakwater with wave wall is included in the project Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes sponsored by the Directorate General XII of the Commission of the European Communities under Contract MAS-CT92......-0042. Furthermore, Task IA will give the design diagram for Tetrapod breakwaters without a superstructure. The more complete research results on Dolosse can certainly give some insight into the behaviour of Tetrapods armour layer of the breakwaters with superstructure. The main part of the experiment...

  6. Learn Unity for 2D game development

    CERN Document Server

    Thorn, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The only Unity book specifically covering 2D game development Written by Alan Thorn, experience game developer and author of seven books on game programming Hands-on examples of all major aspects of 2D game development using Unity

  7. Melting of 2D monatomic solids: Lennard-Jones system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Y.M.; Guo, Z.C.

    1987-09-01

    The Lennard-Jones interaction has been introduced into the Collins mix lattice of 2D liquids. By means of rigorous calculation of the total potential and the free area, the Gibbs functions for 2D liquid and solid have been derived. The melting line obtained from the phase transition equation agrees quite well with the result of recent computer simulation experiments. The obtained reduced temperature of the triple point T* t =0.438 agrees with the data measured in experiments of some inert gas monolayers adsorbed on graphite as well as in computer simulation experiments. (author). 11 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Characterization of array scintillation detector for follicle thyroid 2D imaging acquisition using Monte Carlo simulation; Caracterizacao de uma matriz detectora cintiladora para aquisicao de imagem 2D da regiao folicular da glandula tireoide por emissao radioativa usando simulacao Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carlos Borges da

    2007-05-15

    The image acquisition methods applied to nuclear medicine and radiobiology are a valuable research study for determination of thyroid anatomy to seek disorders associated to follicular cells. The Monte Carlo (MC) simulation has also been used in problems related to radiation detection in order to map medical images since the improvement of data processing compatible with personnel computers (PC). This work presents an innovative study to find out the adequate scintillation inorganic detector array that could be coupled to a specific light photo sensor, a charge coupled device (CCD) through a fiber optic plate in order to map the follicles of thyroid gland. The goal is to choose the type of detector that fits the application suggested here with spatial resolution of 10 {mu}m and good detector efficiency. The methodology results are useful to map a follicle image using gamma radiation emission. A source - detector simulation is performed by using a MCNP4B (Monte Carlo for Neutron Photon transport) general code considering different source energies, detector materials and geometries including pixel sizes and reflector types. The results demonstrate that by using MCNP4B code is possible to searching for useful parameters related to the systems used in nuclear medicine, specifically in radiobiology applied to endocrine physiology studies to acquiring thyroid follicles images. (author)

  9. 2D Organic Materials for Optoelectronic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fangxu; Cheng, Shanshan; Zhang, Xiaotao; Ren, Xiaochen; Li, Rongjin; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping

    2018-01-01

    The remarkable merits of 2D materials with atomically thin structures and optoelectronic attributes have inspired great interest in integrating 2D materials into electronics and optoelectronics. Moreover, as an emerging field in the 2D-materials family, assembly of organic nanostructures into 2D forms offers the advantages of molecular diversity, intrinsic flexibility, ease of processing, light weight, and so on, providing an exciting prospect for optoelectronic applications. Herein, the applications of organic 2D materials for optoelectronic devices are a main focus. Material examples include 2D, organic, crystalline, small molecules, polymers, self-assembly monolayers, and covalent organic frameworks. The protocols for 2D-organic-crystal-fabrication and -patterning techniques are briefly discussed, then applications in optoelectronic devices are introduced in detail. Overall, an introduction to what is known and suggestions for the potential of many exciting developments are presented. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Blockchain-Empowered Fair Computational Resource Sharing System in the D2D Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Hong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Device-to-device (D2D communication is becoming an increasingly important technology in future networks with the climbing demand for local services. For instance, resource sharing in the D2D network features ubiquitous availability, flexibility, low latency and low cost. However, these features also bring along challenges when building a satisfactory resource sharing system in the D2D network. Specifically, user mobility is one of the top concerns for designing a cooperative D2D computational resource sharing system since mutual communication may not be stably available due to user mobility. A previous endeavour has demonstrated and proven how connectivity can be incorporated into cooperative task scheduling among users in the D2D network to effectively lower average task execution time. There are doubts about whether this type of task scheduling scheme, though effective, presents fairness among users. In other words, it can be unfair for users who contribute many computational resources while receiving little when in need. In this paper, we propose a novel blockchain-based credit system that can be incorporated into the connectivity-aware task scheduling scheme to enforce fairness among users in the D2D network. Users’ computational task cooperation will be recorded on the public blockchain ledger in the system as transactions, and each user’s credit balance can be easily accessible from the ledger. A supernode at the base station is responsible for scheduling cooperative computational tasks based on user mobility and user credit balance. We investigated the performance of the credit system, and simulation results showed that with a minor sacrifice of average task execution time, the level of fairness can obtain a major enhancement.

  11. Fiber Drawn 2D Polymeric Photonic Crystal THz Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Matthias; Jansen, Christian; Ahmadi-Boroujeni, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on different polymeric 2D photonic crystal filters for THz frequencies which are fabricated by a standard fiber drawing technique. The bandstop filters were simulated and designed by the generalized multipole technique (GMT). The frequency and angle dependent transmission...

  12. 2D numerical modelling of meandering channel formation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To simulate the bend development and lateral migration of alluvial channels, a 2D numerical model must account for bend flow effects and river bank erosion processes. Subsequent works on helical flow and forces on sed- iment grains on a transversely sloping bed (e.g.,. Einstein and Shen 1964; Engelund 1974; Bathurst.

  13. Mermin-Wagner fluctuations in 2D amorphous solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Bernd; Fritschi, Sebastian; Kaiser, Herbert; Klix, Christian L.; Maret, Georg; Keim, Peter

    2017-02-01

    In a recent commentary, J. M. Kosterlitz described how D. Thouless and he got motivated to investigate melting and suprafluidity in two dimensions [Kosterlitz JM (2016) J Phys Condens Matter 28:481001]. It was due to the lack of broken translational symmetry in two dimensions—doubting the existence of 2D crystals—and the first computer simulations foretelling 2D crystals (at least in tiny systems). The lack of broken symmetries proposed by D. Mermin and H. Wagner is caused by long wavelength density fluctuations. Those fluctuations do not only have structural impact, but additionally a dynamical one: They cause the Lindemann criterion to fail in 2D in the sense that the mean squared displacement of atoms is not limited. Comparing experimental data from 3D and 2D amorphous solids with 2D crystals, we disentangle Mermin-Wagner fluctuations from glassy structural relaxations. Furthermore, we demonstrate with computer simulations the logarithmic increase of displacements with system size: Periodicity is not a requirement for Mermin-Wagner fluctuations, which conserve the homogeneity of space on long scales.

  14. Proteasome modulator 9 and macrovascular pathology of T2D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gragnoli Claudia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims Coronary artery disease (CAD and stroke share a major linkage at the chromosome 12q24 locus. The same chromosome region entails at least a major risk gene for type 2 diabetes (T2D within NIDDM2, the non-insulin-dependent-diabetes 2 locus. The gene of Proteasome Modulator 9 (PSMD9 lies in the NIDDM2 region and is implicated in diabetes in mice. PSMD9 mutations rarely cause T2D and common variants are linked to both late-onset T2D and maturity-onset-diabetes of the young (MODY3. In this study, we aimed at determining whether PSMD9 is linked to macrovascular pathology of T2D. Methods and Results In our 200 T2D families from Italy, we characterized the clinical phenotype of macrovascular pathology by defining the subjects for presence or absence of CAD, stroke and/or transitory ischemic attacks (TIA, plaques of the large arterial vessels (macro-vasculopathy and arterial angioplasty performance. We then screened 200 T2D siblings/families for PSMD9 +nt460A/G, +nt437C/T and exon E197G A/G single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and performed a non-parametric linkage study to test for linkage for coronary artery disease, stroke/TIA, macro-vasculopathy and macrovascular pathology of T2D. We performed 1,000 replicates to test the power of our significant results. Our results show a consistent significant LOD score in linkage with all the above-mentioned phenotypes. Our 1000 simulation analyses, performed for each single test, confirm that the results are not due to random chance. Conclusions In summary, the PSMD9 IVS3+nt460A/G, +nt437C/T and exon E197G A/G SNPs are linked to CAD, stroke/TIA and macrovascular pathology of T2D in Italians.

  15. Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (rediscovery of various two dimensional (2D materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.

  16. 2D and 3D Modeling Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Gaidyte, Rita

    2010-01-01

    Many inventors and companies still use 2D drawings and are starting to realize a 3D design because 3D modeling can save time and money. In this project I am going to compare 2D and 3D drawings and modeling. 2D modeling and 3D modeling have advantages and disadvantages. For this comparison I made 2D and 3D models using AutoCAD, Autodesk Revit Architectural and Revit MEP software. So, I am going to compare CAD (Computer-aided design) and BIM (Building Information Modeling) technologies, beca...

  17. Bedform characterization through 2D spectral analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefebvre, Alice; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Winter, Christian

    2011-01-01

    characteristics using twodimensional (2D) spectral analysis is presented and tested on seabed elevation data from the Knudedyb tidal inlet in the Danish Wadden Sea, where large compound bedforms are found. The bathymetric data were divided into 20x20 m areas on which a 2D spectral analysis was applied. The most...... energetic peak of the 2D spectrum was found and its energy, frequency and direction were calculated. A power-law was fitted to the average of slices taken through the 2D spectrum; its slope and y-intercept were calculated. Using these results the test area was morphologically classified into 4 distinct...

  18. 2-D model for pollutant dispersion at the coastal outfall off Paradip

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.; Gouveia, A.D.

    Simulation of dispersion of the effluent discharge has been carried out using 2-D Model to verify the advection and diffusion of the pollutant patch of the proposed effluent disposal off Paradip, Orissa, India. The simulation of dispersion...

  19. 2D Hexagonal Boron Nitride (2D-hBN) Explored for the Electrochemical Sensing of Dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aamar F; Brownson, Dale A C; Randviir, Edward P; Smith, Graham C; Banks, Craig E

    2016-10-04

    Crystalline 2D hexagonal boron nitride (2D-hBN) nanosheets are explored as a potential electrocatalyst toward the electroanalytical sensing of dopamine (DA). The 2D-hBN nanosheets are electrically wired via a drop-casting modification process onto a range of commercially available carbon supporting electrodes, including glassy carbon (GC), boron-doped diamond (BDD), and screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPEs). 2D-hBN has not previously been explored toward the electrochemical detection/electrochemical sensing of DA. We critically evaluate the potential electrocatalytic performance of 2D-hBN modified electrodes, the effect of supporting carbon electrode platforms, and the effect of "mass coverage" (which is commonly neglected in the 2D material literature) toward the detection of DA. The response of 2D-hBN modified electrodes is found to be largely dependent upon the interaction between 2D-hBN and the underlying supporting electrode material. For example, in the case of SPEs, modification with 2D-hBN (324 ng) improves the electrochemical response, decreasing the electrochemical oxidation potential of DA by ∼90 mV compared to an unmodified SPE. Conversely, modification of a GC electrode with 2D-hBN (324 ng) resulted in an increased oxidation potential of DA by ∼80 mV when compared to the unmodified electrode. We explore the underlying mechanisms of the aforementioned examples and infer that electrode surface interactions and roughness factors are critical considerations. 2D-hBN is utilized toward the sensing of DA in the presence of the common interferents ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). 2D-hBN is found to be an effective electrocatalyst in the simultaneous detection of DA and UA at both pH 5.0 and 7.4. The peak separations/resolution between DA and UA increases by ∼70 and 50 mV (at pH 5.0 and 7.4, respectively, when utilizing 108 ng of 2D-hBN) compared to unmodified SPEs, with a particularly favorable response evident in pH 5.0, giving rise to a

  20. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Corrigan, G.

    2005-01-01

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables

  1. Effective viscosity of 2D suspensions - Confinement effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyla, Philippe; Priem, Stephane; Vincent, Doyeux; Farutin, Alexander; Ismail, Mourad

    2014-11-01

    We study the rheology of a sheared 2D suspension of non-Brownian disks in presence of walls. Although, it is of course possible today with modern computers and powerful algorithms to perform direct numerical simulations that fully account for multiparticle 3D interactions, the analysis of the simple case of a 2D suspension, provides valuable insights and helps to understand 3D results. For instance, we examine the role of particle-wall and particle-particle interactions in determining the rheology of confined sheared suspensions. In addition we evaluate the intrinsic viscosity as well as the contribution of hydrodynamic interactions to the dissipation as a function of a wide range of confinements. Thanks to the direct visualisation of the whole 2D Stokes flow, we are able to give a clear interpretation about the rheology of semi-dilute confined suspensions.

  2. Isotropic 2D quadrangle meshing with size and orientation control

    KAUST Repository

    Pellenard, Bertrand

    2011-12-01

    We propose an approach for automatically generating isotropic 2D quadrangle meshes from arbitrary domains with a fine control over sizing and orientation of the elements. At the heart of our algorithm is an optimization procedure that, from a coarse initial tiling of the 2D domain, enforces each of the desirable mesh quality criteria (size, shape, orientation, degree, regularity) one at a time, in an order designed not to undo previous enhancements. Our experiments demonstrate how well our resulting quadrangle meshes conform to a wide range of input sizing and orientation fields.

  3. SU-G-BRA-04: Simulation of Errors in Maximal Intensity Projection (MIP)-Based Lung Tumor Internal Target Volumes (ITV) Using Real-Time 2D MRI and Deformable Image Registration Based Lung Tumor Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D; Kishan, A; Santhanam, A; Min, Y; O’Connell, D; Lamb, J; Cao, M; Agazaryan, N; Yang, Y; Lee, P; Low, D [University of California, Los Angeles, Ca (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of inter- and intra-fractional tumor motion on the error in four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) maximal intensity projection (MIP)–based lung tumor internal target volumes (ITV), using deformable image registration of real-time 2D-sagital cine-mode MRI acquired during lung SBRT treatments. Methods: Five lung tumor patients underwent free breathing SBRT treatment on the ViewRay, with dose prescribed to PTV (4DCT MIP-based ITV+3–6mm margin). Sagittal slice cine-MR images (3.5×3.5mm pixels) were acquired through the center of the tumor at 4 frames per second throughout the treatments (3–4 fractions of 21–32 minutes duration). Tumor GTVs were contoured on the first frame of the cine and tracked throughout the treatment using off-line optical-flow based deformable registration implemented on a GPU cluster. Pseudo-4DCT MIP-based ITVs were generated from MIPs of the deformed GTV contours limited to short segments of image data. All possible pseudo-4DCT MIP-based ITV volumes were generated with 1s resolution and compared to the ITV volume of the entire treatment course. Varying pseudo-4DCT durations from 10-50s were analyzed. Results: Tumors were covered in their entirety by PTV in the patients analysed here. However, pseudo-4DCT based ITV volumes were observed that were as small as 29% of the entire treatment-ITV, depending on breathing irregularity and the duration of pseudo-4DCT. With an increase in duration of pseudo-4DCT from 10–50s the minimum volume acquired from 95% of all pseudo-4DCTs increased from 62%–81% of the treatment ITV. Conclusion: A 4DCT MIP-based ITV offers a ‘snap-shot’ of breathing motion for the brief period of time the tumor is imaged on a specific day. Real time MRI over prolonged periods of time and over multiple treatment fractions shows that the accuracy of this snap-shot varies according to inter- and intra-fractional tumor motion. Further work is required to investigate the dosimetric

  4. Probing 2D Physics with Microwave

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsui, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Microwave absorption, using the co-planar waveguide configuration that we developed earlier, was employed to investigate electron dynamics of the high mobility 2D charge carriers in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures...

  5. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-01-01

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date

  6. 2D OR NOT 2D: THE EFFECT OF DIMENSIONALITY ON THE DYNAMICS OF FINGERING CONVECTION AT LOW PRANDTL NUMBER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garaud, Pascale; Brummell, Nicholas [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz CA 95060 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Fingering convection (otherwise known as thermohaline convection) is an instability that occurs in stellar radiative interiors in the presence of unstable compositional gradients. Numerical simulations have been used in order to estimate the efficiency of mixing induced by this instability. However, fully three-dimensional (3D) computations in the parameter regime appropriate for stellar astrophysics (i.e., low Prandtl number) are prohibitively expensive. This raises the question of whether two-dimensional (2D) simulations could be used instead to achieve the same goals. In this work, we address this issue by comparing the outcome of 2D and 3D simulations of fingering convection at low Prandtl number. We find that 2D simulations are never appropriate. However, we also find that the required 3D computational domain does not have to be very wide: the third dimension only needs to contain a minimum of two wavelengths of the fastest-growing linearly unstable mode to capture the essentially 3D dynamics of small-scale fingering. Narrow domains, however, should still be used with caution since they could limit the subsequent development of any large-scale dynamics typically associated with fingering convection.

  7. Applications of 2D helical vortex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we show how the assumption of helical symmetry in the context of 2D helical vortices can be exploited to analyse and to model various cases of rotating flows. From theory, examples of three basic applications of 2D dynamics of helical vortices embedded in flows with helical symmetry...... of the vorticity field are addressed. These included some of the problems related to vortex breakdown, instability of far wakes behind rotors and vortex theory of ideal rotors....

  8. 2D Saturable Absorbers for Fibre Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Woodward

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D nanomaterials are an emergent and promising platform for future photonic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we review recent progress demonstrating the application of 2D nanomaterials as versatile, wideband saturable absorbers for Q-switching and mode-locking fibre lasers. We focus specifically on the family of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides, including MoS2, MoSe2 and WS2.

  9. A simple and accurate rule-based modeling framework for simulation of autocrine/paracrine stimulation of glioblastoma cell motility and proliferation by L1CAM in 2-D culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccavale, Justin; Fiumara, David; Stapf, Michael; Sweitzer, Liedeke; Anderson, Hannah J; Gorky, Jonathan; Dhurjati, Prasad; Galileo, Deni S

    2017-12-11

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain cancer for which there is no known cure. Its malignancy is due to rapid cell division along with high motility and invasiveness of cells into the brain tissue. Simple 2-dimensional laboratory assays (e.g., a scratch assay) commonly are used to measure the effects of various experimental perturbations, such as treatment with chemical inhibitors. Several mathematical models have been developed to aid the understanding of the motile behavior and proliferation of GBM cells. However, many are mathematically complicated, look at multiple interdependent phenomena, and/or use modeling software not freely available to the research community. These attributes make the adoption of models and simulations of even simple 2-dimensional cell behavior an uncommon practice by cancer cell biologists. Herein, we developed an accurate, yet simple, rule-based modeling framework to describe the in vitro behavior of GBM cells that are stimulated by the L1CAM protein using freely available NetLogo software. In our model L1CAM is released by cells to act through two cell surface receptors and a point of signaling convergence to increase cell motility and proliferation. A simple graphical interface is provided so that changes can be made easily to several parameters controlling cell behavior, and behavior of the cells is viewed both pictorially and with dedicated graphs. We fully describe the hierarchical rule-based modeling framework, show simulation results under several settings, describe the accuracy compared to experimental data, and discuss the potential usefulness for predicting future experimental outcomes and for use as a teaching tool for cell biology students. It is concluded that this simple modeling framework and its simulations accurately reflect much of the GBM cell motility behavior observed experimentally in vitro in the laboratory. Our framework can be modified easily to suit the needs of investigators interested in other

  10. Matrix models and 2-D gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, F.

    1990-01-01

    In these lectures, I shall focus on the matrix formulation of 2-d gravity. In the first one, I shall discuss the main results of the continuum formulation of 2-d gravity, starting from the first renormalization group calculations which led to the concept of the conformal anomaly, going through the Polyakov bosonic string and the Liouville action, up to the recent results on the scaling properties of conformal field theories coupled to 2-d gravity. In the second lecture, I shall discuss the discrete formulation of 2-d gravity in term of random lattices, and the mapping onto random matrix models. The occurrence of critical points in the planar limit and the scaling limit at those critical points will be described, as well as the identification of these scaling limits with continuum 2-d gravity coupled to some matter field theory. In the third lecture, the double scaling limit in the one matrix model, and its connection with continuum non perturbative 2-d gravity, will be presented. The connection with the KdV hierarchy and the general form of the string equation will be discuted. In the fourth lecture, I shall discuss the non-perturbative effects present in the non perturbative solutions, in the case of pure gravity. The Schwinger-Dyson equations for pure gravity in the double scaling limit are described and their compatibility with the solutions of the string equation for pure gravity is shown to be somewhat problematic

  11. 2d index and surface operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadde, Abhijit; Gukov, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in N=2 superconformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d N=2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role

  12. Preliminary 2D numerical modeling of common granular problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyser, Emmanuel; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Granular studies received an increasing interest during the last decade. Many scientific investigations were successfully addressed to acknowledge the ubiquitous behavior of granular matter. We investigate liquid impacts onto granular beds, i.e. the influence of the packing and compaction-dilation transition. However, a physically-based model is still lacking to address complex microscopic features of granular bed response during liquid impacts such as compaction-dilation transition or granular bed uplifts (Wyser et al. in review). We present our preliminary 2D numerical modeling based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM) using nonlinear contact force law (the Hertz-Mindlin model) for disk shape particles. The algorithm is written in C programming language. Our 2D model provides an analytical tool to address granular problems such as i) granular collapses and ii) static granular assembliy problems. This provides a validation framework of our numerical approach by comparing our numerical results with previous laboratory experiments or numerical works. Inspired by the work of Warnett et al. (2014) and Staron & Hinch (2005), we studied i) the axisymetric collapse of granular columns. We addressed the scaling between the initial aspect ratio and the final runout distance. Our numerical results are in good aggreement with the previous studies of Warnett et al. (2014) and Staron & Hinch (2005). ii) Reproducing static problems for regular and randomly stacked particles provides a valid comparison to results of Egholm (2007). Vertical and horizontal stresses within the assembly are quite identical to stresses obtained by Egholm (2007), thus demonstating the consistency of our 2D numerical model. Our 2D numerical model is able to reproduce common granular case studies such as granular collapses or static problems. However, a sufficient small timestep should be used to ensure a good numerical consistency, resulting in higher computational time. The latter becomes critical

  13. Effects of a simulated wolf encounter on brain and blood biomarkers of stress-related psychological disorders in beef cows with or without previous exposure to wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Mehrkam, L R; Marques, R S; Lippolis, K D; Bohnert, D W

    2017-03-01

    This experiment compared mRNA expression of brain-blood biomarkers associated with stress-related psychological disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in beef cows from wolf-naïve and wolf-experienced origins that were subjected to a simulated wolf encounter. Multiparous, non-pregnant, non-lactating Angus-crossbred cows from the Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center (Burns, OR; CON; = 10) and from a commercial operation near Council, ID (WLF; = 10) were used. To date, gray wolves are not present around Burns, OR, and thus CON were naïve to wolves. Conversely, wolves are present around Council, ID, and WLF cows were selected from a herd that had experienced multiple wolf-predation episodes from 2008 to 2015. After a 60-d commingling and adaptation period, CON and WLF cows were allocated to groups A or B (d -1; 5 CON and 5 WLF cows in each group). On d 0, cows from group A were sampled for blood and immediately slaughtered, and samples were analyzed to evaluate inherent differences between CON and WLF cows. On d 1, cows from group B were exposed in pairs (1 CON and 1 WLF cow) to experimental procedures. Cows were sampled for blood, moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens (1 WLF and 1 CON cow/pen) and subjected to a simulated wolf encounter event for 20 min. The encounter consisted of (1) cotton plugs saturated with wolf urine attached to the drylot fence, (2) reproduction of wolf howls, and (3) three leashed dogs that were walked along the fence perimeter. Thereafter, another blood sample was collected and cows were slaughtered. Upon slaughter, the brain was removed and dissected for collection of the hypothalamus, and one longitudinal slice of the medial pre-frontal cortex, amygdala, and Cornu Ammonis (1 region of the hippocampus from both hemispheres). Within cows from group A, expression of in hippocampus and amygdala were greater ( wolf-experienced herd presented biological evidence suggesting a psychological disorder, such as PTSD, after the

  14. Progress in indirect drive hohlraum design for laser ICF. Self-generated magnetic field and non-local heat flux: Simulation with 2D radiation-hydrodynamic code and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattolo, E.; Nicolai, P.; Babonneau, D.; Jadaud, J.P.; Laffite, S.; Monteil, M.C.; Schurtz, G.; Vandenboomgaerde, M.; Wagon, F.

    2003-01-01

    In indirect drive scheme, the laser light is converted in X-rays in a hohlraum made of a high-Z material. Part of this radiation flux is absorbed by a micro balloon, filled with DT, and placed in the center of the hohlraum, leading to its implosion, ignition and burn. The right control of radiation fluxes, spectrum and energy, is then an issue for the LMJ target design. The presentation will give the status of our knowledge and last improvements in our codes to reproduce at best hohlraum energetics. Validation of our simulations is ensured by a large experimental program. Hohlraum energetics cover two themes: radiation energy and flux characterization inside the hohlraum, and symmetry. (author)

  15. Numerical 2D-modeling of multiroll leveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, N.; Potier-Ferry, M.; Zahrouni, H.

    2016-10-01

    Multiroll leveling is a forming process used in the metals industries (aluminum, steel, …) in order to correct flatness defects and minimize residual stresses in strips thanks to alternating bending. This work proposes a Finite Element 2D model to simulate the metal sheet conveying through the machine. Obtained results (plastic strain and residual stress distributions through thickness) are analysed. Strip deformation, after elastic springback and potential buckling, is also predicted (residual curvatures).

  16. 2D sparse array transducer optimization for 3D ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Hoon; Park, Kwan Kyu

    2014-01-01

    A 3D ultrasound image is desired in many medical examinations. However, the implementation of a 2D array, which is needed for a 3D image, is challenging with respect to fabrication, interconnection and cabling. A 2D sparse array, which needs fewer elements than a dense array, is a realistic way to achieve 3D images. Because the number of ways the elements can be placed in an array is extremely large, a method for optimizing the array configuration is needed. Previous research placed the target point far from the transducer array, making it impossible to optimize the array in the operating range. In our study, we focused on optimizing a 2D sparse array transducer for 3D imaging by using a simulated annealing method. We compared the far-field optimization method with the near-field optimization method by analyzing a point-spread function (PSF). The resolution of the optimized sparse array is comparable to that of the dense array.

  17. A 2D electrostatic PIC code for the Mark III Hypercube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, R.D.; Liewer, P.C. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States); Decyk, V.K. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1990-12-31

    We have implemented a 2D electrostastic plasma particle in cell (PIC) simulation code on the Caltech/JPL Mark IIIfp Hypercube. The code simulates plasma effects by evolving in time the trajectories of thousands to millions of charged particles subject to their self-consistent fields. Each particle`s position and velocity is advanced in time using a leap frog method for integrating Newton`s equations of motion in electric and magnetic fields. The electric field due to these moving charged particles is calculated on a spatial grid at each time by solving Poisson`s equation in Fourier space. These two tasks represent the largest part of the computation. To obtain efficient operation on a distributed memory parallel computer, we are using the General Concurrent PIC (GCPIC) algorithm previously developed for a 1D parallel PIC code.

  18. Real-time 2-D temperature imaging using ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S

    2010-01-01

    We have previously introduced methods for noninvasive estimation of temperature change using diagnostic ultrasound. The basic principle was validated both in vitro and in vivo by several groups worldwide. Some limitations remain, however, that have prevented these methods from being adopted in monitoring and guidance of minimally invasive thermal therapies, e.g., RF ablation and high-intensity-focused ultrasound (HIFU). In this letter, we present first results from a real-time system for 2-D imaging of temperature change using pulse-echo ultrasound. The front end of the system is a commercially available scanner equipped with a research interface, which allows the control of imaging sequence and access to the RF data in real time. A high-frame-rate 2-D RF acquisition mode, M2D, is used to capture the transients of tissue motion/deformations in response to pulsed HIFU. The M2D RF data is streamlined to the back end of the system, where a 2-D temperature imaging algorithm based on speckle tracking is implemented on a graphics processing unit. The real-time images of temperature change are computed on the same spatial and temporal grid of the M2D RF data, i.e., no decimation. Verification of the algorithm was performed by monitoring localized HIFU-induced heating of a tissue-mimicking elastography phantom. These results clearly demonstrate the repeatability and sensitivity of the algorithm. Furthermore, we present in vitro results demonstrating the possible use of this algorithm for imaging changes in tissue parameters due to HIFU-induced lesions. These results clearly demonstrate the value of the real-time data streaming and processing in monitoring, and guidance of minimally invasive thermotherapy.

  19. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Y; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C M

    2016-10-06

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V -1 , ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  20. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V-1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  1. Automatic Contour Extraction from 2D Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis GIOANNIS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a method for automatic contour extraction from a 2D image. Material and Method: The method is divided in two basic parts where the user initially chooses the starting point and the threshold. Finally the method is applied to computed tomography of bone images. Results: An interesting method is developed which can lead to a successful boundary extraction of 2D images. Specifically data extracted from a computed tomography images can be used for 2D bone reconstruction. Conclusions: We believe that such an algorithm or part of it can be applied on several other applications for shape feature extraction in medical image analysis and generally at computer graphics.

  2. The 2D lingual appliance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciafesta, Vittorio

    2013-09-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) lingual bracket system represents a valuable treatment option for adult patients seeking a completely invisible orthodontic appliance. The ease of direct or simplified indirect bonding of 2D lingual brackets in combination with low friction mechanics makes it possible to achieve a good functional and aesthetic occlusion, even in the presence of a severe malocclusion. The use of a self-ligating bracket significantly reduces chair-side time for the orthodontist, and the low-profile bracket design greatly improves patient comfort.

  3. Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...

  4. The 2D κ-Dirac oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Fabiano M., E-mail: fmandrade@uepg.br [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900 Ponta Grossa-PR (Brazil); Silva, Edilberto O., E-mail: edilbertoo@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Campus Universitário do Bacanga, 65085-580 São Luís-MA (Brazil)

    2014-11-10

    In this Letter, 2D Dirac oscillator in the quantum deformed framework generated by the κ-Poincaré–Hopf algebra is considered. The problem is formulated using the κ-deformed Dirac equation. The resulting theory reveals that the energies and wave functions of the oscillator are modified by the deformation parameter.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of 2-D Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, S.; Sahoo, P.; Afaneh, T.; Rodriguez Gutierrez, H.

    Atomically thin transition-metal dichacogenides (TMD), graphene, and boron nitride (BN) are two-dimensional materials where the charge carriers (electrons and holes) are confined to move in a plane. They exhibit distinctive optoelectronic properties compared to their bulk layered counterparts. When combined into heterostructures, these materials open more possibilities in terms of new properties and device functionality. In this work, WSe2 and graphene were grown using Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) techniques. The quality and morphology of each material was checked using Raman, Photoluminescence Spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Graphene had been successfully grown homogenously, characterized, and transferred from copper to silicon dioxide substrates; these films will be used in future studies to build 2-D devices. Different morphologies of WSe2 2-D islands were successfully grown on SiO2 substrates. Depending on the synthesis conditions, the material on each sample had single layer, double layer, and multi-layer areas. A variety of 2-D morphologies were also observed in the 2-D islands. This project is supported by the NSF REU Grant #1560090 and NSF Grant #DMR-1557434.

  6. Small polarons in 2D perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Cortecchia, Daniele

    2017-11-02

    We demonstrate that white light luminescence in two-dimensional (2D) perovskites stems from photoinduced formation of small polarons confined at specific sites of the inorganic framework in the form of self-trapped electrons and holes. We discuss their application in white light emitting devices and X-ray scintillators.

  7. Simultaneous Multiplane 2D-Echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Vletter-McGhie (Jackie)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractTwo-dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiography is one of the most frequently used techniques for diagnosis, management and follow-up of patients with any suspected or known cardiovascular disease. It is based on multiple single cardiac planes taken from standard positions on the

  8. 2D CFD Analysis of an Airfoil with Active Continuous Trailing Edge Flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksich, Dylan; Shen, Jinwei

    2014-11-01

    Efficient and quieter helicopter rotors can be achieved through on-blade control devices, such as active Continuous Trailing-Edge Flaps driven by embedded piezoelectric material. This project aims to develop a CFD simulation tool to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil with CTEF using open source code: OpenFOAM. Airfoil meshes used by OpenFOAM are obtained with MATLAB scripts. Once created it is possible to rotate the airfoil to various angles of attack. When the airfoil is properly set up various OpenFOAM properties, such as kinematic viscosity and flow velocity, are altered to achieve the desired testing conditions. Upon completion of a simulation, the program gives the lift, drag, and moment coefficients as well as the pressure and velocity around the airfoil. The simulation is then repeated across multiple angles of attack to give full lift and drag curves. The results are then compared to previous test data and other CFD predictions. This research will lead to further work involving quasi-steady 2D simulations incorporating NASTRAN to model aeroelastic deformation and eventually to 3D aeroelastic simulations. NSF ECE Grant #1358991 supported the first author as an REU student.

  9. Comparison of 2D and 3D modeled tumor motion estimation/prediction for dynamic tumor tracking during arc radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu; Ma, Xiangyu; Yan, Huagang; Chen, Zhe; Nath, Ravinder; Li, Haiyun

    2017-05-01

    Many real-time imaging techniques have been developed to localize a target in 3D space or in a 2D beam’s eye view (BEV) plane for intrafraction motion tracking in radiation therapy. With tracking system latency, the 3D-modeled method is expected to be more accurate even in terms of 2D BEV tracking error. No quantitative analysis, however, has been reported. In this study, we simulated co-planar arc deliveries using respiratory motion data acquired from 42 patients to quantitatively compare the accuracy between 2D BEV and 3D-modeled tracking in arc therapy and to determine whether 3D information is needed for motion tracking. We used our previously developed low kV dose adaptive MV-kV imaging and motion compensation framework as a representative of 3D-modeled methods. It optimizes the balance between additional kV imaging dose and 3D tracking accuracy and solves the MLC blockage issue. With simulated Gaussian marker detection errors (zero mean and 0.39 mm standard deviation) and ~155/310/460 ms tracking system latencies, the mean percentage of time that the target moved  >2 mm from the predicted 2D BEV position are 1.1%/4.0%/7.8% and 1.3%/5.8%/11.6% for the 3D-modeled and 2D-only tracking, respectively. The corresponding average BEV RMS errors are 0.67/0.90/1.13 mm and 0.79/1.10/1.37 mm. Compared to the 2D method, the 3D method reduced the average RMS unresolved motion along the beam direction from ~3 mm to ~1 mm, resulting in on average only  <1% dosimetric advantage in the depth direction. Only for a small fraction of the patients, when tracking latency is long, the 3D-modeled method showed significant improvement of BEV tracking accuracy, indicating potential dosimetric advantage. However, if the tracking latency is short (~150 ms or less), those improvements are limited. Therefore, 2D BEV tracking has sufficient targeting accuracy for most clinical cases. The 3D technique is, however, still important in solving the MLC blockage problem

  10. 2D:4D finger-length ratios in children and adults with gender identity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallien, M.S.C.; Zucker, K.J.; Steensma, T.D.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that prenatal testosterone affects the 2D:4D finger ratio in humans, and it has been speculated that prenatal testosterone also affects gender identity differentiation. If both things are true, then one would expect to find an association between the 2D:4D ratio and gender

  11. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  12. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-02-06

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  13. 2D numerical modelling of meandering channel formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    XIAO, Y.; ZHOU, G.; YANG, F. S.

    2016-03-01

    A 2D depth-averaged model for hydrodynamic sediment transport and river morphological adjustment was established. The sediment transport submodel takes into account the influence of non-uniform sediment with bed surface armoring and considers the impact of secondary flow in the direction of bed-load transport and transverse slope of the river bed. The bank erosion submodel incorporates a simple simulation method for updating bank geometry during either degradational or aggradational bed evolution. Comparison of the results obtained by the extended model with experimental and field data, and numerical predictions validate that the proposed model can simulate grain sorting in river bends and duplicate the characteristics of meandering river and its development. The results illustrate that by using its control factors, the improved numerical model can be applied to simulate channel evolution under different scenarios and improve understanding of patterning processes.

  14. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  15. Flexible 2D layered material junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabai, R.; Solomenko, A.

    2018-03-01

    Within the framework of the methods of the electron density functional and the ab initio pseudopotential, we have obtained the valence electron density spatial distribution, the densities of electron states, the widths of band gaps, the charges on combined regions, and the Coulomb potentials for graphene-based flexible 2D layered junctions, using author program complex. It is determined that the bending of the 2D layered junctions on the angle α leads to changes in the electronic properties of these junctions. In the graphene/graphane junction, there is clear charge redistribution with different signs in the regions of junctions. The presence in the heterojunctions of charge regions with different signs leads to the formation of potential barriers. The greatest potential jump is in the graphene/fluorographene junction. The greatest value of the band gap width is in the graphene/graphane junction.

  16. Estimating net surface shortwave radiation from Chinese geostationary meteorological satellite FengYun-2D (FY-2D) data under clear sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Lingling

    2016-03-21

    Net surface shortwave radiation (NSSR) significantly affects regional and global climate change, and is an important aspect of research on surface radiation budget balance. Many previous studies have proposed methods for estimating NSSR. This study proposes a method to calculate NSSR using FY-2D short-wave channel data. Firstly, a linear regression model is established between the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) broadband albedo (r) and the narrowband reflectivity (ρ1), based on data simulated with MODTRAN 4.2. Secondly, the relationship between surface absorption coefficient (as) and broadband albedo (r) is determined by dividing the surface type into land, sea, or snow&ice, and NSSR can then be calculated. Thirdly, sensitivity analysis is performed for errors associated with sensor noise, vertically integrated atmospheric water content, view zenith angle and solar zenith angle. Finally, validation using ground measurements is performed. Results show that the root mean square error (RMSE) between the estimated and actual r is less than 0.011 for all conditions, and the RMSEs between estimated and real NSSR are 26.60 W/m2, 9.99 W/m2, and 23.40 W/m2, using simulated data for land, sea, and snow&ice surfaces, respectively. This indicates that the proposed method can be used to adequately estimate NSSR. Additionally, we compare field measurements from TaiYuan and ChangWu ecological stations with estimates using corresponding FY-2D data acquired from January to April 2012, on cloud-free days. Results show that the RMSE between the estimated and actual NSSR is 48.56W/m2, with a mean error of -2.23W/m2. Causes of errors also include measurement accuracy and estimations of atmospheric water vertical contents. This method is only suitable for cloudless conditions.

  17. Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Derhsien

    2015-02-11

    When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.

  18. 2D array based on fermat spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, O.; Martín, C. J.; Godoy, G.; Ullate, L. G.

    2010-01-01

    The main challenge faced by 3D ultrasonic imaging with 2D array transducer is the large number of elements required to achieve an acceptable level of quality in the images. Therefore, the optimization of the array layout to reduce the number of active elements in the aperture has been a research topic in the last years. Nowadays, CMUT array technology has made viable the production of 2D arrays with larger flexibility on elements size, shape and position. This is opening new options in 2D array design, allowing to revise as viable alternatives others layouts that had been studied in the past, like circular and Archimedes spiral layout. In this work the problem of designing an imaging system array with a diameter of 60 λ and a limited number of elements using the Fermat spiral layout has been studied. This study has been done for two different numbers of electronic channels (N = 128 and N = 256). As summary, a general discussion of the results and the most interesting cases are presented.

  19. Control of Tumor Initiation by NKG2D Naturally Expressed on Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Cai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells may co-opt the NKG2D lymphocyte receptor to complement the presence of its ligands for autonomous stimulation of oncogenic signaling. Previous studies raise the possibility that cancer cell NKG2D may induce high malignancy traits, but its full oncogenic impact is unknown. Using epithelial ovarian cancer as model setting, we show here that ex vivo NKG2D+ cancer cells have stem-like capacities, and provide formal in vivo evidence linking NKG2D stimulation with the development and maintenance of these functional states. NKG2D+ ovarian cancer cell populations harbor substantially greater capacities for self-renewing in vitro sphere formation and in vivo tumor initiation in immunodeficient (NOD scid gamma mice than NKG2D− controls. Sphere formation and tumor initiation are impaired by NKG2D silencing or ligand blockade using antibodies or a newly designed pan ligand-masking NKG2D multimer. In further support of pathophysiological significance, a prospective study of 47 high-grade serous ovarian cancer cases revealed that the odds of disease recurrence were significantly greater and median progression-free survival rates higher among patients with above and below median NKG2D+ cancer cell frequencies, respectively. Collectively, our results define cancer cell NKG2D as an important regulator of tumor initiation in ovarian cancer and presumably other malignancies and thus challenge current efforts in immunotherapy aimed at enhancing NKG2D function.

  20. Passive object detection from pressure sensing using a 2-D viscous fluid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jack; Park, Jeongyong; Dahl, Jason

    2017-11-01

    Embedded pressure sensors have the ability to inform an object about the surrounding flow environment. Fish demonstrate this ability through the use of their lateral line system, which enables complex behaviors (feeding, schooling, etc.) based on measures of pressure on the surface of the body. Previous work has shown that inviscid models may be used for identifying object shapes or local flow structures based on several measurements of pressure, though these models fail to capture flow structures with large viscous effects or complex object shapes. In the present study, 2-D simulations are performed for a NACA 0012 foil passing by an object on a wall. The simulations vary object shape and size, demonstrating distinct wake behavior through pressure. A classifier is developed based on the pressure time histories in order to classify object shape and size, and demonstrated to work well using under-resolved simulated data. Experiments are also performed for a subset of object shapes and sizes. The experiments include physical sources of noise such as free surface disturbances and electrical noise to demonstrate the feasibility of this object recognition process. The classifier is tested against the physical measurements and compared with the simulated results. Office of Naval Research (Grant No: N00014-16-1-2968).

  1. Consistency between 2D-3D Sediment Transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaret, Catherine; Jodeau, Magali

    2017-04-01

    Sediment transport models have been developed and applied by the engineering community to estimate transport rates and morphodynamic bed evolutions in river flows, coastal and estuarine conditions. Environmental modelling systems like the open-source Telemac modelling system include a hierarchy of models from 1D (Mascaret), 2D (Telemac-2D/Sisyphe) and 3D (Telemac-3D/Sedi-3D) and include a wide range of processes to represent sediment flow interactions under more and more complex situations (cohesive, non-cohesive and mixed sediment). Despite some tremendous progresses in the numerical techniques and computing resources, the quality/accuracy of model results mainly depend on the numerous choices and skills of the modeler. In complex situations involving stratification effects, complex geometry, recirculating flows… 2D model assumptions are no longer valid. A full 3D turbulent flow model is then required in order to capture the vertical mixing processes and to represent accurately the coupled flow/sediment distribution. However a number of theoretical and numerical difficulties arise when dealing with sediment transport modelling in 3D which will be high-lighted : (1) Dependency of model results to the vertical grid refinement and choice of boundary conditions and numerical scheme (2) The choice of turbulence model determines also the sediment vertical distribution which is governed by a balance between the downward settling term and upward turbulent diffusion. (3) The use of different numerical schemes for both hydrodynamics (mean and turbulent flow) and sediment transport modelling can lead to some inconsistency including a mismatch in the definition of numerical cells and definition of boundary conditions. We discuss here those present issues and present some detailed comparison between 2D and 3D simulations on a set of validation test cases which are available in the Telemac 7.2 release using both cohesive and non-cohesive sediments.

  2. 2D non-separable linear canonical transform (2D-NS-LCT) based cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Healy, John J.; Malallah, Ra'ed; Cui, Xiao-Guang; Ryle, James P.; Sheridan, John T.

    2017-05-01

    The 2D non-separable linear canonical transform (2D-NS-LCT) can describe a variety of paraxial optical systems. Digital algorithms to numerically evaluate the 2D-NS-LCTs are not only important in modeling the light field propagations but also of interest in various signal processing based applications, for instance optical encryption. Therefore, in this paper, for the first time, a 2D-NS-LCT based optical Double-random- Phase-Encryption (DRPE) system is proposed which offers encrypting information in multiple degrees of freedom. Compared with the traditional systems, i.e. (i) Fourier transform (FT); (ii) Fresnel transform (FST); (iii) Fractional Fourier transform (FRT); and (iv) Linear Canonical transform (LCT), based DRPE systems, the proposed system is more secure and robust as it encrypts the data with more degrees of freedom with an augmented key-space.

  3. Hybridized Plasmons in 2D Nanoslits: From Graphene to Anisotropic 2D Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, P. A. D.; Xiao, Sanshui; Peres, N. M. R.

    2017-01-01

    plasmonic resonances arising from symmetric and antisymmetric hybridizations of the edge plasmons of the constituent half-sheets. These give rise to an antibonding and a bonding mode, lying above and below the energy of the bare edge plasmon. Our treatment is notably generic, being able to account for slits...... of arbitrary width, and remains valid irrespective of the 2D conductive material (e.g., doped graphene, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, or phosphorene). We derive the dispersion relation of the hybrid modes of a 2D nanoslit along with the corresponding induced potential and electric field distributions......Plasmon coupling and hybridization in complex nanostructures constitutes a fertile playground for controlling light at the nanoscale. Here, we present a semi-analytical model to describe the emergence of hybrid plasmon modes guided along 2D nanoslits. In particular, we find two new coupled...

  4. Effect of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] metabolism in vitamin D-deficient rats infused with 1,25-(OH)2D3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Fukumoto, S.; Ikeda, K.; Ishizuka, S.; Ogata, E.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that administration of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24,25-(OH)2D3] to calcium (Ca)-deficient rats causes a dose-dependent reduction in markedly elevated serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 level. Although the results suggested that the metabolism of 1,25-(OH)2D3 was accelerated by 24,25-(OH)2D3, those experiments could not define whether the enhanced metabolism of 1,25-(OH)2D3 played a role in the reduction in the serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 level. In the present study, in order to address this issue more specifically, serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 was maintained solely by exogenous administration through miniosmotic pumps of 1,25-(OH)2D3 into vitamin D-deficient rats. Thus, by measuring the serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 concentration, the effect of 24,25-(OH)2D3 on the MCR of 1,25-(OH)2D3 could be examined. Administration of 24,25-(OH)2D3 caused a dose-dependent enhancement in the MCR of 1,25-(OH)2D3, and 1 microgram/100 g rat.day 24,25-(OH)2D3, which elevated serum 24,25-(OH)2D3 to 8.6 +/- 1.3 ng/ml, significantly increased MCR and suppressed serum levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3. The effect of 24,25-(OH)2D3 on 1,25-(OH)2D3 metabolism developed with a rapid time course, and the recovery of iv injected [1 beta-3H]1,25-(OH)2D3 in blood was significantly reduced within 1 h. In addition, there was an increase in radioactivity in the water-soluble fraction of serum as well as in urine, suggesting that 1,25-(OH)2D3 is rapidly degraded to a water-soluble metabolite(s). Furthermore, the reduction in serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 was associated with a reduction in both serum and urinary Ca levels. Because the conversion of [3H]24,25-(OH)2D3 to [3H]1,24,25-(OH)2D3 or other metabolites was minimal in these rats, 24,25-(OH)2D3 appears to act without being converted into other metabolites. These results demonstrate that 24,25-(OH)2D3 rapidly stimulates the metabolism of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and reduces its serum level

  5. GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT)

    2006-11-01

    This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.

  6. Target tracking using a 2D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kriel, M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available . The accuracy of this approximation is entirely dependent on the �ight pro�le of the air- craft as illustrated in Figure 33.5. The model is usable without Doppler data as long as we have an accurate estimate of the speed of the aircraft, or more precisely u2... using a single 2D Radar when Doppler data is available and used to track a target in 3D. The average error when tracking a target in 3D using this method depends on the actual �ight pro�le, position of the sensor w.r.t the defended asset...

  7. Hybridized plasmons in 2D nanoslits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N. Asger; Dias Gonçalves, Paulo André; Xiao, Sanshui

    2017-01-01

    Plasmon coupling and hybridization in complex nanostructures constitutes a fertile playground for controlling light at the nanoscale. Here, we present a semi-analytical model to describe the emergence of hybrid plasmon modes guided along 2D nanoslits. In particular, we find two new coupled...... plasmonic resonances arising from symmetric and antisymmetric hybridizations of the edge plasmons of the constituent half-sheets. These give rise to an antibonding and a bonding mode, lying above and below the energy of the bare edge plasmon. Our treatment is notably generic, being able to account for slits...

  8. Vertical activity estimation using 2D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available intervals, the plot indicates the straight and turning flight paths of aircraft. However, it is possible to infer changes in perceived velocity of a tracked target from a 2D radar track. These perceived changes may be due to changes in the target... if the sum of all three prediction errors (representing upward, downward and acceleration-based errors) is less than a threshold value, then the aircraft is considered to be in straight flight. We make use of an error value of 3.0 (this value was obtained...

  9. Instant HTMl5 2D platformer

    CERN Document Server

    Temple, Aidan

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. The step-by-step approach taken by this book will show you how to develop a 2D HTML5 platformer-based game that you will be able to publish to multiple devices.This book is great for anyone who has an interest in HTML5 games development, and who already has a basic to intermediate grasp on both the HTML markup and JavaScript programming languages. Therefore, due to this requirement, the book will not discuss the inner workings of either of these languages but will instead attempt to

  10. 2D gravity and random matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinn-Justin, J.

    1990-01-01

    Recent progress in 2D gravity coupled to d ≤ 1 matter, based on a representation of discrete gravity in terms of random matrices, is reported. The matrix problem can be solved in many cases by the introduction of suitable orthogonal polynomials. Alternatively in the continuum limit the orthogonal polynomial method can be shown to be equivalent to the construction of representation of the canonical commutation relations in terms of differential operators. In the case of pure gravity or discrete Ising-like matter the sum over topologies is reduced to the solution of non-linear differential equations. The d = 1 problem can be solved by semiclassical methods

  11. 2-d spectroscopic imaging of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, N.J.; Brotchie, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This poster illustrates the use of two-dimensional spectroscopic imaging (2-D SI) in the characterisation of brain tumours, and the monitoring of subsequent treatment. After conventional contrast-enhanced MR imaging of patients with known or suspected brain tumours, 2-D SI is performed at a single axial level. The level is chosen to include the maximum volume of abnormal enhancement, or, in non-enhancing lesions. The most extensive T2 signal abnormality. Two different MR systems have been used (Marconi Edge and GE Signa LX); at each site, a PRESS localisation sequence is employed with TE 128-144 ms. Automated software is used to generate spectral arrays, metabolite maps, and metabolite ratio maps from the spectroscopic data. Colour overlays of the maps onto anatomical images are produced using manufacturer software or the Medex imaging data analysis package. High grade gliomas showed choline levels higher than those in apparently normal brain, with decreases in NAA and creatine. Some lesions showed spectral abnormality extending into otherwise normal appearing brain. This was also seen in a case of CNS lymphoma. Lowgrade lesions showed choline levels similar to normal brain, but with decreased NAA. Only a small number of metastases have been studied, but to date no metastasis has shown spectral abnormality beyond the margins suggested by conventional imaging. Follow-up studies generally show spectral heterogeneity. Regions with choline levels higher than those in normal-appearing brain are considered to represent recurrent high-grade tumour. Some regions show choline to be the dominant metabolite, but its level is not greater than that seen in normal brain. These regions are considered suspicious for residual / recurrent tumour when the choline / creatine ratio exceeds 2 (lower ratios may represent treatment effect). 2-D SI improves the initial assessment of brain tumours, and has potential for influencing the radiotherapy treatment strategy. 2-D SI also

  12. Surfactant exfoliated 2D hexagonal Boron Nitride (2D-hBN) explored as a potential electrochemical sensor for dopamine: surfactants significantly influence sensor capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aamar F; Brownson, Dale A C; Foster, Christopher W; Smith, Graham C; Banks, Craig E

    2017-05-21

    Surfactant exfoliated 2D hexagonal Boron Nitride (2D-hBN) nanosheets are explored as a potential electrochemical sensing platform and evaluated towards the electroanalytical sensing of dopamine (DA) in the presence of the common interferents, ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). Surfactant exfoliated 2D-hBN nanosheets (2-4 layers) fabricated using sodium cholate in aqueous media are electrically wired via a drop-casting modification process onto disposable screen-printed graphite electrodes (SPEs). We critically evaluate the performance of these 2D-hBN modified SPEs and demonstrate the effect of 'mass coverage' towards the detection of DA, AA and UA. Previous studies utilising surfactant-free (pristine) 2D-hBN modified SPEs have shown a beneficial effect towards the detection of DA, AA and UA when compared to the underlying/unmodified graphite-based electrode. We show that the fabrication route utilised to prepare 2D-hBN is a vital experimental consideration, such that the beneficial effect previously reported is considerably reduced when surfactant exfoliated 2D-hBN is utilised. We demonstrate for the first time, through implementation of control experiments in the form of surfactant modified graphite electrodes, that sodium cholate is a major contributing factor to the aforementioned detrimental behaviour. The significance here is not in the material per se, but the fundamental knowledge of the surfactant and surface coverage changing the electrochemical properties of the material under investigation. Given the wide variety of ionic and non-ionic surfactants that are utilised in the manufacture of novel 2D materials, the control experiments reported herein need to be performed in order to de-convolute the electrochemical response and effectively evaluate the 'underlying surface/surfactant/2D materials' electrocatalytic contribution.

  13. Non-Newtonian fluid flow in 2D fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, L.; Håkansson, U.; Cvetkovic, V.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling of non-Newtonian fluid (e.g., drilling fluids and cement grouts) flow in fractured rocks is of interest in many geophysical and industrial practices, such as drilling operations, enhanced oil recovery and rock grouting. In fractured rock masses, the flow paths are dominated by fractures, which are often represented as discrete fracture networks (DFN). In the literature, many studies have been devoted to Newtonian fluid (e.g., groundwater) flow in fractured rock using the DFN concept, but few works are dedicated to non-Newtonian fluids.In this study, a generalized flow equation for common non-Newtonian fluids (such as Bingham, power-law and Herschel-Bulkley) in a single fracture is obtained from the analytical solutions for non-Newtonian fluid discharge between smooth parallel plates. Using Monte Carlo sampling based on site characterization data for the distribution of geometrical features (e.g., density, length, aperture and orientations) in crystalline fractured rock, a two dimensional (2D) DFN model is constructed for generic flow simulations. Due to complex properties of non-Newtonian fluids, the relationship between fluid discharge and the pressure gradient is nonlinear. A Galerkin finite element method solver is developed to iteratively solve the obtained nonlinear governing equations for the 2D DFN model. Using DFN realizations, simulation results for different geometrical distributions of the fracture network and different non-Newtonian fluid properties are presented to illustrate the spatial discharge distributions. The impact of geometrical structures and the fluid properties on the non-Newtonian fluid flow in 2D DFN is examined statistically. The results generally show that modeling non-Newtonian fluid flow in fractured rock as a DFN is feasible, and that the discharge distribution may be significantly affected by the geometrical structures as well as by the fluid constitutive properties.

  14. Gas sensing in 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengxue; Jiang, Chengbao; Wei, Su-huai

    2017-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered inorganic nanomaterials have attracted huge attention due to their unique electronic structures, as well as extraordinary physical and chemical properties for use in electronics, optoelectronics, spintronics, catalysts, energy generation and storage, and chemical sensors. Graphene and related layered inorganic analogues have shown great potential for gas-sensing applications because of their large specific surface areas and strong surface activities. This review aims to discuss the latest advancements in the 2D layered inorganic materials for gas sensors. We first elaborate the gas-sensing mechanisms and introduce various types of gas-sensing devices. Then, we describe the basic parameters and influence factors of the gas sensors to further enhance their performance. Moreover, we systematically present the current gas-sensing applications based on graphene, graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), functionalized GO or rGO, transition metal dichalcogenides, layered III-VI semiconductors, layered metal oxides, phosphorene, hexagonal boron nitride, etc. Finally, we conclude the future prospects of these layered inorganic materials in gas-sensing applications.

  15. The role of the cytoskeleton in cellular force generation in 2D and 3D environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraning-Rush, Casey M; Carey, Shawn P; Califano, Joseph P; Smith, Brooke N; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A

    2011-01-01

    To adhere and migrate, cells generate forces through the cytoskeleton that are transmitted to the surrounding matrix. While cellular force generation has been studied on 2D substrates, less is known about cytoskeletal-mediated traction forces of cells embedded in more in vivo-like 3D matrices. Recent studies have revealed important differences between the cytoskeletal structure, adhesion, and migration of cells in 2D and 3D. Because the cytoskeleton mediates force, we sought to directly compare the role of the cytoskeleton in modulating cell force in 2D and 3D. MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with agents that perturbed actin, microtubules, or myosin, and analyzed for changes in cytoskeletal organization and force generation in both 2D and 3D. To quantify traction stresses in 2D, traction force microscopy was used; in 3D, force was assessed based on single cell-mediated collagen fibril reorganization imaged using confocal reflectance microscopy. Interestingly, even though previous studies have observed differences in cell behaviors like migration in 2D and 3D, our data indicate that forces generated on 2D substrates correlate with forces within 3D matrices. Disruption of actin, myosin or microtubules in either 2D or 3D microenvironments disrupts cell-generated force. These data suggest that despite differences in cytoskeletal organization in 2D and 3D, actin, microtubules and myosin contribute to contractility and matrix reorganization similarly in both microenvironments

  16. PREDICTION OF BLOOD FLOW VELOCITY AND LEAFLET DEFORMATION VIA 2D MITRAL VALVE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.H. Mohd Adib

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the mitral valve, regional variations in structure and material properties combine to affect the biomechanics of the entire valve. From previous studies, we know that the mitral valve leaflet tissue is highly extensible. A two-dimensional model of the mitral valve was generated using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE mesh. A simple approximation of the heart geometry was used and the valve dimensions were based on actual measurements made. Valve opening and closure was simulated using contact equations. The objective of this study was to investigate and predict flow and leaflet phenomena via a simple 2D mitral valve model based on the critical parameter of blood. Two stages of mitral valves analysis were investigated: the systolic and diastolic stages. The results show a linear correlation between the mitral valve leaflet rigidity and the volume of backflow. Additionally, the simulation predicted mitral valve leaflet displacement during closure, which agreed with the results of our previous data analysis and the results for blood flow velocity during systole condition through the mitral valve outlet, as reported in the medical literature. In conclusion, these computational techniques are very useful in the study of both degenerative valve disease and failure of prostheses and will be further developed to investigate heart valve failure and subsequent surgical repair.

  17. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  18. Nonlinear Optics with 2D Layered Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autere, Anton; Jussila, Henri; Dai, Yunyun; Wang, Yadong; Lipsanen, Harri; Sun, Zhipei

    2018-03-25

    2D layered materials (2DLMs) are a subject of intense research for a wide variety of applications (e.g., electronics, photonics, and optoelectronics) due to their unique physical properties. Most recently, increasing research efforts on 2DLMs are projected toward the nonlinear optical properties of 2DLMs, which are not only fascinating from the fundamental science point of view but also intriguing for various potential applications. Here, the current state of the art in the field of nonlinear optics based on 2DLMs and their hybrid structures (e.g., mixed-dimensional heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon/fiber integrated structures) is reviewed. Several potential perspectives and possible future research directions of these promising nanomaterials for nonlinear optics are also presented. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  20. Extending Ripley's K-Function to Quantify Aggregation in 2-D Grayscale Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Amgad

    Full Text Available In this work, we describe the extension of Ripley's K-function to allow for overlapping events at very high event densities. We show that problematic edge effects introduce significant bias to the function at very high densities and small radii, and propose a simple correction method that successfully restores the function's centralization. Using simulations of homogeneous Poisson distributions of events, as well as simulations of event clustering under different conditions, we investigate various aspects of the function, including its shape-dependence and correspondence between true cluster radius and radius at which the K-function is maximized. Furthermore, we validate the utility of the function in quantifying clustering in 2-D grayscale images using three modalities: (i Simulations of particle clustering; (ii Experimental co-expression of soluble and diffuse protein at varying ratios; (iii Quantifying chromatin clustering in the nuclei of wt and crwn1 crwn2 mutant Arabidopsis plant cells, using a previously-published image dataset. Overall, our work shows that Ripley's K-function is a valid abstract statistical measure whose utility extends beyond the quantification of clustering of non-overlapping events. Potential benefits of this work include the quantification of protein and chromatin aggregation in fluorescent microscopic images. Furthermore, this function has the potential to become one of various abstract texture descriptors that are utilized in computer-assisted diagnostics in anatomic pathology and diagnostic radiology.

  1. 2D to 3D transition of polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; Vázquez-Cabo, José; Sánchez-Arévalo, Francisco M.; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Martín-Gil, Jesús; Navas-Gracia, Luis M.; Dante, Roberto C.

    2014-01-01

    The transition from a prevalent turbostratic arrangement with low planar interactions (2D) to an array of polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets with stronger interplanar interactions (3D), occurring for samples treated above 650 °C, was detected by terahertz-time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The simulated 3D material made of stacks of shifted quasi planar sheets composed of zigzagged polymer ribbons, delivered a XRD simulated pattern in relatively good agreement with the experimental one. The 2D to 3D transition was also supported by the simulation of THz-TDS spectra obtained from quantum chemistry calculations, in which the same broad bands around 2 THz and 1.5 THz were found for 2D and 3D arrays, respectively. This transition was also in accordance with the tightening of the interplanar distance probably due to an interplanar π bond contribution, as evidenced also by a broad absorption around 2.6 eV in the UV–vis spectrum, which appeared in the sample treated at 650 °C, and increased in the sample treated at 700 °C. The band gap was calculated for 1D and 2D cases. The value of 3.374 eV for the 2D case is, within the model accuracy and precision, in a relative good agreement with the value of 3.055 eV obtained from the experimental results. - Graphical abstract: 2D lattice mode vibrations and structural changes correlated with the so called “2D to 3D transition”. - Highlights: • A 2D to 3D transition has been detected for polymeric carbon nitride. • THz-TDS allowed us to discover and detect the 2D to 3D transition of polymeric carbon nitride. • We propose a structure for polymeric carbon nitride confirming it with THz-TDS

  2. 2D to 3D transition of polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamorro-Posada, Pedro [Dpto. de Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones e IT, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicación, Paseo Belén 15, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Vázquez-Cabo, José [Dpto. de Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones, Universidad de Vigo, ETSI Telecomunicación, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, Vigo (Spain); Sánchez-Arévalo, Francisco M. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales (IIM), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70–360, Cd. Universitaria, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Martín-Ramos, Pablo [Dpto. de Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones e IT, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicación, Paseo Belén 15, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Laboratorio de Materiales Avanzados (Advanced Materials Laboratory) ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia (Spain); Martín-Gil, Jesús; Navas-Gracia, Luis M. [Laboratorio de Materiales Avanzados (Advanced Materials Laboratory) ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia (Spain); Dante, Roberto C., E-mail: rcdante@yahoo.com [Laboratorio de Materiales Avanzados (Advanced Materials Laboratory) ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    The transition from a prevalent turbostratic arrangement with low planar interactions (2D) to an array of polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets with stronger interplanar interactions (3D), occurring for samples treated above 650 °C, was detected by terahertz-time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The simulated 3D material made of stacks of shifted quasi planar sheets composed of zigzagged polymer ribbons, delivered a XRD simulated pattern in relatively good agreement with the experimental one. The 2D to 3D transition was also supported by the simulation of THz-TDS spectra obtained from quantum chemistry calculations, in which the same broad bands around 2 THz and 1.5 THz were found for 2D and 3D arrays, respectively. This transition was also in accordance with the tightening of the interplanar distance probably due to an interplanar π bond contribution, as evidenced also by a broad absorption around 2.6 eV in the UV–vis spectrum, which appeared in the sample treated at 650 °C, and increased in the sample treated at 700 °C. The band gap was calculated for 1D and 2D cases. The value of 3.374 eV for the 2D case is, within the model accuracy and precision, in a relative good agreement with the value of 3.055 eV obtained from the experimental results. - Graphical abstract: 2D lattice mode vibrations and structural changes correlated with the so called “2D to 3D transition”. - Highlights: • A 2D to 3D transition has been detected for polymeric carbon nitride. • THz-TDS allowed us to discover and detect the 2D to 3D transition of polymeric carbon nitride. • We propose a structure for polymeric carbon nitride confirming it with THz-TDS.

  3. Modeling Overlapping Laminations in Magnetic Core Materials Using 2-D Finite-Element Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Guest, Emerson David; Mecrow, Barrie C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for modeling overlapping laminations in magnetic core materials using two-dimensional finite-element (2-D FE) analysis. The magnetizing characteristic of the overlapping region is captured using a simple 2-D FE model of the periodic overlapping geometry...... and a composite material is created, which has the same magnetization characteristic. The benefit of this technique is that it allows a designer to perform design and optimization of magnetic cores with overlapped laminations using a 2-D FE model rather than a 3-D FE model, which saves modeling and simulation...... time. The modeling technique is verified experimentally by creating a composite material of a lap joint with a 3-mm overlapping region and using it in a 2-D FE model of a ring sample made up of a stack of 20 laminations. The B-H curve of the simulated ring sample is compared with the B-H curve obtained...

  4. Modelado de sistemas de visión en 2D y 3D: un enfoque hacia el control de robots manipuladores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Bueno López

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Visual servoing of robot manipulators has been an evolving issue in recent years, especially in applications where the environment is not structured or where access is difficult for operators. To design these controllers, previous simulations are important to adjust parameters or implement a behavioral approach. In this paper we present two different models of vision systems. The models focus on applications in the field of manipulator-robot control. The modeling of video cameras is obtained by using perspective projections. To validate the models, two servo visual controllers in 2D and 3D are simulated.

  5. Design and characterization of low-loss 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacava, C.; Carrol, L.; Bozzola, A.; Marchetti, R.; Minzioni, P.; Cristiani, I.; Fournier, M.; Bernabe, S.; Gerace, D.; Andreani, L. C.

    2016-03-01

    We present the characterization of Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonic-crystal based 2D grating-couplers (2D-GCs) fabricated by CEA-Leti in the frame of the FP7 Fabulous project, which is dedicated to the realization of devices and systems for low-cost and high-performance passives-optical-networks. On the analyzed samples different test structures are present, including 2D-GC connected to another 2D-GC by different waveguides (in a Mach-Zehnder like configuration), and 2D-GC connected to two separate 2D-GCs, so as to allow a complete assessment of different parameters. Measurements were carried out using a tunable laser source operating in the extended telecom bandwidth and a fiber-based polarization controlling system at the input of device-under-test. The measured data yielded an overall fiber-to-fiber loss of 7.5 dB for the structure composed by an input 2D-GC connected to two identical 2D-GCs. This value was obtained at the peak wavelength of the grating, and the 3-dB bandwidth of the 2D-GC was assessed to be 43 nm. Assuming that the waveguide losses are negligible, so as to make a worst-case analysis, the coupling efficiency of the single 2D-GC results to be equal to -3.75 dB, constituting, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest value ever reported for a fully CMOS compatible 2D-GC. It is worth noting that both the obtained values are in good agreement with those expected by the numerical simulations performed using full 3D analysis by Lumerical FDTD-solutions.

  6. Cutting an NKG2D Ligand Short: Cellular Processing of the Peculiar Human NKG2D Ligand ULBP4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Zöller

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced cell surface expression of MHC class I-related glycoproteins of the MIC and ULBP families allows for immune recognition of dangerous “self cells” by human cytotoxic lymphocytes via the NKG2D receptor. With two MIC molecules (MICA and MICB and six ULBP molecules (ULBP1–6, there are a total of eight human NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL. Since the discovery of the NKG2D–NKG2DL system, the cause for both redundancy and diversity of NKG2DL has been a major and ongoing matter of debate. NKG2DL diversity has been attributed, among others, to the selective pressure by viral immunoevasins, to diverse regulation of expression, to differential tissue expression as well as to variations in receptor interactions. Here, we critically review the current state of knowledge on the poorly studied human NKG2DL ULBP4. Summarizing available facts and previous studies, we picture ULBP4 as a peculiar ULBP family member distinct from other ULBP family members by various aspects. In addition, we provide novel experimental evidence suggesting that cellular processing gives rise to mature ULBP4 glycoproteins different to previous reports. Finally, we report on the proteolytic release of soluble ULBP4 and discuss these results in the light of known mechanisms for generation of soluble NKG2DL.

  7. 2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y H; Yang, X Y; Lin, C; Wang, L; Xu, M; Wang, X G; Xiao, C J

    2014-11-01

    A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.

  8. 2-D Versus 3-D Cross-Correlation-Based Radial and Circumferential Strain Estimation Using Multiplane 2-D Ultrafast Ultrasound in a 3-D Atherosclerotic Carotid Artery Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fekkes, S.; Swillens, A.E.; Hansen, H.H.G.; Saris, A.E.C.M.; Nillesen, M.M.; Iannaccone, F.; Segers, P.; Korte, C.L. de

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) strain estimation might improve the detection and localization of high strain regions in the carotid artery (CA) for identification of vulnerable plaques. This paper compares 2-D versus 3-D displacement estimation in terms of radial and circumferential strain using simulated

  9. Photovoltaic Effect of 2D Homologous Perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Mi-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The mixed perovskite was prepared by exposure of MAI gas on the BAPbI 4 film. • The increased dimensional perovskite shows a smaller band gap than 2D perovskite. • The mixed perovskite system shows the vertical crystal orientation. • The mixed perovskite cell exhibits the higher Jsc and FF than 2D perovskite cell. - Abstract: The controlled growth of mixed dimensional perovskite structures, (C 6 H 5 CH 2 NH 2 )(CH 3 NH 3 ) n-1 Pb n I 3n+1 , through the introduction of CH 3 NH 3 I molecule vapor into the two-dimensional perovskite C 6 H 5 CH 2 NH 3 PbI 4 structure and its application in photovoltaic devices is reported. The dimensionality of (C 6 H 5 CH 2 NH 2 )(CH 3 NH 3 ) n-1 Pb n I 3n+1 is controlled using the exposure time to the CH 3 NH 3 I vapor on the C 6 H 5 CH 2 NH 3 PbI 4 perovskite film. As the stacking of the lead iodide lattice increases, the crystallographic planes of the inorganic perovskite compound exhibit vertical growth in order to facilitate efficient charge transport. Furthermore, the devices have a smaller band gap, which offers broader absorption and the potential to increase the photocurrent density in the solar cell. As a result, the photovoltaic device based on the (C 6 H 5 CH 2 NH 2 )(CH 3 NH 3 ) n-1 Pb n I 3n+1 perovskite exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 5.43% with a short circuit current density of 14.49 mA cm −2 , an open circuit voltage of 0.85 V, and a fill factor of 44.30 for the best power conversion efficiency under AM 1.5G solar irradiation (100 mW cm −2 ), which is significantly higher than the 0.34% of the pure two-dimensional BAPbI 4 perovskite-based solar cell.

  10. Homogenization of 1D and 2D magnetoelastic lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaeffer Marshall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the equivalent in-plane mechanical properties of one dimensional (1D and two dimensional (2D, periodic magneto-elastic lattices. A lumped parameter model describes the lattices using magnetic dipole moments in combination with axial and torsional springs. The homogenization procedure is applied to systems linearized about stable configurations, which are identified by minimizing potential energy. Simple algebraic expressions are derived for the properties of 1D structures. Results for 1D lattices show that a variety of stiffness changes are possible through reconfiguration, and that magnetization can either stiffen or soften a structure. Results for 2D hexagonal and re-entrant lattices show that both reconfigurations and magnetization have drastic effects on the mechanical properties of lattice structures. Lattices can be stiffened or softened and the Poisson’s ratio can be tuned. Furthermore for certain hexagonal lattices the sign of Poisson’s ratio can change by varying the lattice magnetization. In some cases presented, analytical and numerically estimated equivalent properties are validated through numerical simulations that also illustrate the unique characteristics of the investigated configurations.

  11. Polymer ultrapermeability from the inefficient packing of 2D chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Ian; Bezzu, C. Grazia; Carta, Mariolino; Comesaña-Gándara, Bibiana; Lasseuguette, Elsa; Ferrari, M. Chiara; Bernardo, Paola; Clarizia, Gabriele; Fuoco, Alessio; Jansen, Johannes C.; Hart, Kyle E.; Liyana-Arachchi, Thilanga P.; Colina, Coray M.; McKeown, Neil B.

    2017-09-01

    The promise of ultrapermeable polymers, such as poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) (PTMSP), for reducing the size and increasing the efficiency of membranes for gas separations remains unfulfilled due to their poor selectivity. We report an ultrapermeable polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-TMN-Trip) that is substantially more selective than PTMSP. From molecular simulations and experimental measurement we find that the inefficient packing of the two-dimensional (2D) chains of PIM-TMN-Trip generates a high concentration of both small (Gas permeability data for PIM-TMN-Trip surpass the 2008 Robeson upper bounds for O2/N2, H2/N2, CO2/N2, H2/CH4 and CO2/CH4, with the potential for biogas purification and carbon capture demonstrated for relevant gas mixtures. Comparisons between PIM-TMN-Trip and structurally similar polymers with three-dimensional (3D) contorted chains confirm that its additional intrinsic microporosity is generated from the awkward packing of its 2D polymer chains in a 3D amorphous solid. This strategy of shape-directed packing of chains of microporous polymers may be applied to other rigid polymers for gas separations.

  12. An Improved Extrapolation Scheme for Truncated CT Data Using 2D Fourier-Based Helgason-Ludwig Consistency Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We improve data extrapolation for truncated computed tomography (CT projections by using Helgason-Ludwig (HL consistency conditions that mathematically describe the overlap of information between projections. First, we theoretically derive a 2D Fourier representation of the HL consistency conditions from their original formulation (projection moment theorem, for both parallel-beam and fan-beam imaging geometry. The derivation result indicates that there is a zero energy region forming a double-wedge shape in 2D Fourier domain. This observation is also referred to as the Fourier property of a sinogram in the previous literature. The major benefit of this representation is that the consistency conditions can be efficiently evaluated via 2D fast Fourier transform (FFT. Then, we suggest a method that extrapolates the truncated projections with data from a uniform ellipse of which the parameters are determined by optimizing these consistency conditions. The forward projection of the optimized ellipse can be used to complete the truncation data. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using simulated data and reprojections of clinical data. Results show that the root mean square error (RMSE is reduced substantially, compared to a state-of-the-art extrapolation method.

  13. 24,25(OH)2D3 enhances the calcemic effect of 1,25(OH)2D3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, H; Hayek, T; Popovtzer, M M

    1985-11-01

    The effect of 24,25(OH)2D3 on 1,25(OH)2D3-induced hypercalcemia was studied in normal rats. Serum (S) levels and urinary excretion of Ca2+ (UCaV) were measured in (a) control rats, (b) rats receiving a daily sc injection of 54 ng 1,25(OH)2D3, (c) rats receiving 24,25(OH)2D3 in the same dose and same manner, and (d) rats receiving 1,25(OH)2D3 + 24,25(OH)2D3. The animals were housed in metabolic cages and 24-hr urine specimens were collected. After 24 hr SCa2+ increased similarly with 1,25(OH)2D3 and with 1,25(OH)2D3 + 24,25(OH)2D3, while 24,25(OH)2D3 alone did not change SCa2+. UCaV after 24 hr increased significantly less (P less than 0.025) with 1,25(OH)2D3 + 24,25(OH)2D3 than with 1,25(OH)2D3 alone. After 5 days of 1,25(OH)2D3, SCa2+ rose from 5.1 +/- 0.15 to 6.29 +/- 0.08 whereas 1,25(OH)2D3 + 24,25(OH)2D3 effected a greater increase in SCa2+ up to 6.63 +/- 0.09 (P less than 0.01). 24,25(OH)2D3 alone did not change SCa2+. UCaV after 5 days of treatment rose similarly with 1,25(OH)2D3 and with 1,25(OH)2D3 + 24,25(OH)2D3. After 10 days of 1,25(OH)2D3 SCa2+ was 6.17 +/- 0.15 meq/liter while with the combination SCa2+ rose to 6.74 +/- 0.2 (P less than 0.025). 24,25(OH)2D3 alone did not change SCa2+. These results show that (a) 24,25(OH)2D3 alone does not alter SCa2+ in normal rats, (b) combined administration of 1,25(OH)2D3 + 24,25(OH)2D3 enhances the hypercalcemic response to 1,25(OH)2D3 without a parallel increase in UCaV, and (c) it is suggested that the effect of 24,25(OH)2D3 on serum Ca2+ level, at least partly, may result from its hypocalciuric effect.

  14. Electrokinetic Energy Conversion in Self-Assembled 2D Nanofluidic Channels with Janus Nanobuilding Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongfei; Zhou, Yi; Feng, Yaping; Geng, Wenxiao; Liu, Qinfu; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    Inspired by the microstructure of nacre, material design, and large-scale integration of artificial nanofluidic devices step into a completely new stage, termed 2D nanofluidics, in which mass and charge transportation are confined in the interstitial space between reconstructed 2D nanomaterials. However, all the existing 2D nanofluidic systems are reconstituted from homogeneous nanobuilding blocks. Herein, this paper reports the bottom-up construction of 2D nanofluidic materials with kaolinite-based Janus nanobuilding blocks, and demonstrates two types of electrokinetic energy conversion through the network of 2D nanochannels. Being different from previous 2D nanofluidic systems, two distinct types of sub-nanometer- and nanometer-wide fluidic channels of about 6.8 and 13.8 Å are identified in the reconstructed kaolinite membranes (RKM), showing prominent surface-governed ion transport behaviors and nearly perfect cation-selectivity. The RKMs exhibit superior capability in osmotic and hydraulic energy conversion, compared to graphene-based membranes. The mineral-based 2D nanofluidic system opens up a new avenue to self-assemble asymmetric 2D nanomaterials for energy, environmental, and healthcare applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. FILM ANIMASI 2D (DIMENSI PENYULUHAN KB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Hidayatul Ahmad Ismail

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia Animation is an attempt to make a live presentation of static or moving, the animation may consist of images and music to blend together and become alive. In this case Multimedia Animation designed by using multimedia-based information technology. From year to year Multimedia Animation Film Animation shaped more advanced, both in coloring, and in concep movement. With the community Animation Film spoiled by progress dazzling animation creation. Later in the era of globalization in Indonesia's population penetration rate can be calculated very rapidly. So the authors designed an Animated Film to Family Planning Counseling to promote family planning in the community.Data collection methods used to make this application is the method of interview and literature study. For the development of the system in this paper by using development techniques Luther systems development models - Sutopo which consists of six stages: concept, design, collecting materials, assembly, testing and distribution. The results of this study are 2D Animation Film as a medium of socialization to Family Planning Department with extension. Avi and will be distributed via CD media and aired on Social Media such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. This animation movie aims to be one choice as the media reduces the increase in the number of residents is too drastic. Keywords: movies, animation, family planning, Luther-Sutopo

  16. Microscopy of 2D Fermi gases. Exploring excitations and thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgener, Kai Henning

    2014-12-08

    This thesis presents experiments on three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) ultracold fermionic {sup 6}Li gases providing local access to microscopic quantum many-body physics. A broad magnetic Feshbach resonance is used to tune the interparticle interaction strength freely to address the entire crossover between the Bose-Einstein-Condensate (BEC) and Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) regime. We map out the critical velocity in the crossover from BEC to BCS superfluidity by moving a small attractive potential through the 3D cloud. We compare the results with theoretical predictions and achieve quantitative understanding in the BEC regime by performing numerical simulations. Of particular interest is the regime of strong correlations, where no theoretical predictions exist. In the BEC regime, the critical velocity should be closely related to the speed of sound, according to the Landau criterion and Bogolyubov theory. We measure the sound velocity by exciting a density wave and tracking its propagation. The focus of this thesis is on our first experiments on general properties of quasi-2D Fermi gases. We realize strong vertical confinement by generating a 1D optical lattice by intersecting two blue-detuned laser beams under a steep angle. The large resulting lattice spacing enables us to prepare a single planar quantum gas deeply in the 2D regime. The first measurements of the speed of sound in quasi-2D gases in the BEC-BCS crossover are presented. In addition, we present preliminary results on the pressure equation of state, which is extracted from in-situ density profiles. Since the sound velocity is directly connected to the equation of state, the results provide a crosscheck of the speed of sound. Moreover, we benchmark the derived sound from available equation of state predictions, find very good agreement with recent numerical calculations, and disprove a sophisticated mean field approach. These studies are carried out with a novel apparatus which has

  17. 2D ultrasonic elastography with lateral displacement estimation using statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Haolin; Cheng, Yangjie

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography is the method of obtaining relative stiffness information of biological tissue, which plays an important role in early diagnosis. Generally, a gradient-based strain imaging algorithm assumes that motion only occurs in an axial direction. However, because tissue has different relative stiffness, the scatter presents lateral motion under high freehand compression. Therefore, errors occur in estimating the cross-correlation phase in the calculation window. A 2D elastography algorithm with lateral displacement estimation using statistics was proposed to reduce errors. The new method was investigated through simulation, and the experiment confirmed that errors introduced by lateral tissue movement have been greatly reduced with no sacrifice of real-time ultrasonic imaging quality.

  18. Automated Motion Estimation for 2D Cine DENSE MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Andrew D.; Epstein, Frederick H.

    2013-01-01

    Cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) is a magnetic resonance (MR) method that directly encodes tissue displacement into MR phase images. This technique has successfully interrogated many forms of tissue motion, but is most commonly used to evaluate cardiac mechanics. Currently, motion analysis from cine DENSE images requires manually delineated anatomical structures. An automated analysis would improve measurement throughput, simplify data interpretation, and potentially access important physiological information during the MR exam. In this article, we present the first fully automated solution for the estimation of tissue motion and strain from 2D cine DENSE data. Results using both simulated and human cardiac cine DENSE data indicate good agreement between the automated algorithm and the standard semi-manual analysis method. PMID:22575669

  19. 2D vibrational properties of epitaxial silicene on Ag(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solonenko, Dmytro; Gordan, Ovidiu D.; Le Lay, Guy; Sahin, Hasan; Cahangirov, Seymur; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; Vogt, Patrick

    2017-03-01

    The two-dimensional silicon allotrope, silicene, could spur the development of new and original concepts in Si-based nanotechnology. Up to now silicene can only be epitaxially synthesized on a supporting substrate such as Ag(111). Even though the structural and electronic properties of these epitaxial silicene layers have been intensively studied, very little is known about its vibrational characteristics. Here, we present a detailed study of epitaxial silicene on Ag(111) using in situ Raman spectroscopy, which is one of the most extensively employed experimental techniques to characterize 2D materials, such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and black phosphorous. The vibrational fingerprint of epitaxial silicene, in contrast to all previous interpretations, is characterized by three distinct phonon modes with A and E symmetries. Both, energies and symmetries of theses modes are confirmed by ab initio theory calculations. The temperature dependent spectral evolution of these modes demonstrates unique thermal properties of epitaxial silicene and a significant electron-phonon coupling. These results unambiguously support the purely two-dimensional character of epitaxial silicene up to about 300 °C, whereupon a 2D-to-3D phase transition takes place. The detailed fingerprint of epitaxial silicene will allow us to identify it in different environments or to study its modifications.

  20. Syndrome identification based on 2D analysis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Stefan; Vollmar, Tobias; Tasse, Christiane; Wurtz, Rolf P; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Wieczorek, Dagmar

    2006-10-01

    Clinical evaluation of children with developmental delay continues to present a challenge to the clinicians. In many cases, the face provides important information to diagnose a condition. However, database support with respect to facial traits is limited at present. Computer-based analyses of 2D and 3D representations of faces have been developed, but it is unclear how well a larger number of conditions can be handled by such systems. We have therefore analysed 2D pictures of patients each being affected with one of 10 syndromes (fragile X syndrome; Cornelia de Lange syndrome; Williams-Beuren syndrome; Prader-Willi syndrome; Mucopolysaccharidosis type III; Cri-du-chat syndrome; Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome; Sotos syndrome; Microdeletion 22q11.2; Noonan syndrome). We can show that a classification accuracy of >75% can be achieved for a computer-based diagnosis among the 10 syndromes, which is about the same accuracy achieved for five syndromes in a previous study. Pairwise discrimination of syndromes ranges from 80 to 99%. Furthermore, we can demonstrate that the criteria used by the computer decisions match clinical observations in many cases. These findings indicate that computer-based picture analysis might be a helpful addition to existing database systems, which are meant to assist in syndrome diagnosis, especially as data acquisition is straightforward and involves off-the-shelf digital camera equipment.

  1. Validation of 2D flood models with insurance claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zischg, Andreas Paul; Mosimann, Markus; Bernet, Daniel Benjamin; Röthlisberger, Veronika

    2018-02-01

    Flood impact modelling requires reliable models for the simulation of flood processes. In recent years, flood inundation models have been remarkably improved and widely used for flood hazard simulation, flood exposure and loss analyses. In this study, we validate a 2D inundation model for the purpose of flood exposure analysis at the river reach scale. We validate the BASEMENT simulation model with insurance claims using conventional validation metrics. The flood model is established on the basis of available topographic data in a high spatial resolution for four test cases. The validation metrics were calculated with two different datasets; a dataset of event documentations reporting flooded areas and a dataset of insurance claims. The model fit relating to insurance claims is in three out of four test cases slightly lower than the model fit computed on the basis of the observed inundation areas. This comparison between two independent validation data sets suggests that validation metrics using insurance claims can be compared to conventional validation data, such as the flooded area. However, a validation on the basis of insurance claims might be more conservative in cases where model errors are more pronounced in areas with a high density of values at risk.

  2. FEM 2D and 3D design of transformer for core losses computation

    OpenAIRE

    Sarac, Vasilija

    2017-01-01

    Accurate simulation and prediction of losses in power transformer is important during transformer lifetime but also during the design stage. Paper presents the simulation model of transformer based of Finite Element Method that allows calculation of core losses and magnetic flux density in transformer cross-section. Two different models are constructed for 2D and 3D simulation. Obtained results are compared with experiments. Finally, flux density in both models is calculated and obtained r...

  3. 2D Seismic Reflection Data across Central Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    In a continuing collaboration with the Midwest Geologic Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) on the Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins project, Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco acquired two-dimensional (2D) seismic data in the Illinois Basin. This work included the design, acquisition and processing of approximately 125 miles of (2D) seismic reflection surveys running west to east in the central Illinois Basin. Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco oversaw the management of the field operations (including a pre-shoot planning, mobilization, acquisition and de-mobilization of the field personnel and equipment), procurement of the necessary permits to conduct the survey, post-shoot closure, processing of the raw data, and provided expert consultation as needed in the interpretation of the delivered product. Three 2D seismic lines were acquired across central Illinois during November and December 2010 and January 2011. Traversing the Illinois Basin, this 2D seismic survey was designed to image the stratigraphy of the Cambro-Ordovician sections and also to discern the basement topography. Prior to this survey, there were no regionally extensive 2D seismic data spanning this section of the Illinois Basin. Between the NW side of Morgan County and northwestern border of Douglas County, these seismic lines ran through very rural portions of the state. Starting in Morgan County, Line 101 was the longest at 93 miles in length and ended NE of Decatur, Illinois. Line 501 ran W-E from the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) site to northwestern Douglas County and was 25 miles in length. Line 601 was the shortest and ran N-S past the IBDP site and connected lines 101 and 501. All three lines are correlated to well logs at the IBDP site. Originally processed in 2011, the 2D seismic profiles exhibited a degradation of signal quality below ~400 millisecond (ms) which made

  4. Role of brain cytochrome P450 (CYP2D) in the metabolism of monoaminergic neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Haduch, Anna; Bromek, Ewa; Daniel, Władysława A

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on recent research on the cytochrome P450 2D (CYP2D) catalyzed synthesis of the monoaminergic neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin in the brain and on the influence of psychotropic drugs on the activity of brain CYP2D. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies performed in rodents indicate that dopamine and serotonin may be formed in the brain via alternative CYP2D-mediated pathways, i.e., tyramine hydroxylation and 5-methoxytryptamine O-demethylation, respectively. The contribution of these alternative pathways to the total synthesis of brain neurotransmitters may be higher in humans and may be significantly increased under specific conditions, such as tyrosine hydroxylase and amino acid decarboxylase or tryptophan hydroxylase deficiency. These alternative pathways of neurotransmitter synthesis may also become more efficient when the CYP2D enzyme is mutated or activated by inducers (e.g., alcohol, nicotine, psychotropics), which may be of importance in some neurodegenerative or psychiatric diseases. In addition to the previously observed influence of antidepressants and neuroleptics on CYP2D in the liver, the investigated drugs also produce an effect on CYP2D in the brain. However, their effect on brain CYP2D is different than that in the liver and is structure-dependent. The observed psychotropic drug-brain CYP2D interactions may be important for the metabolism of endogenous neuroactive substrates (e.g., monoaminergic neurotransmitters, neurosteroids) and for the local biotransformation of drugs. The results are discussed with regard to the contribution of CYP2D to the total synthesis of neurotransmitters in the brain in vivo as well as the possible significance of these alternative pathways in specific physiological and pathological conditions and in the pharmacological actions of psychotropic drugs.

  5. In vitro assessment of 24 CYP2D6 allelic isoforms on the metabolism of methadone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ying; Zhan, Yun-Yun; Wang, Ben-Fu; Wang, Si-Cong; Dai, Da-Peng; Hu, Guo-Xin; Lin, Han; Lian, Qing-Quan; Cai, Jian-Ping

    2017-02-01

    CYP2D6 is an important member of the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme super family, with at least 100 CYP2D6 alleles being previously identified. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 significantly influence the efficacy and safety of some drugs, which might cause adverse effects and therapeutic failure. The aim of this study was to clarify the catalytic activities of 24 CYP2D6 alleles on the oxidative in vitro metabolism of methadone. Reactions were incubated with 50-2000  µM methadone for 30 min at 37 °C and terminated by cooling to -80 °C immediately. Methadone and the major metabolite EDDP were analyzed by an ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) system. Compared with wild-type CYP2D6*1, most variants showed significantly altered values in V max and intrinsic clearance (V max /K m ). Only three variants (CYP2D6*88, *91 and E215K) exhibited markedly increased intrinsic clearance values, and one variant CYP2D6*94 showed no significant difference. On the other hand, the kinetic parameters of two CYP2D6 variants (CYP2D6*92 and *96) could not be determined because they had no detectable enzyme activity, whereas 18 variants exhibited significantly decreased values. To sum up, this study demonstrated that more attention should be paid in clinical administration of methadone to individuals carrying these CYP2D6 alleles. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Limits of 2D-TCA in detecting BOLD responses to epileptic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatamian, Yasha Borna; Fahoum, Firas; Gotman, Jean

    2011-05-01

    Two-dimensional temporal clustering analysis (2D-TCA) is a relatively new functional MRI (fMRI) based technique that breaks blood oxygen level dependent activity into separate components based on timing and has shown potential for localizing epileptic activity independently of electroencephalography (EEG). 2D-TCA has only been applied to detect epileptic activity in a few studies and its limits in detecting activity of various forms (i.e. activation size, amplitude, and frequency) have not been investigated. This study evaluated 2D-TCA's ability to detect various forms of both simulated epileptic activity and EEG-fMRI activity detected in patients. When applied to simulated data, 2D-TCA consistently detected activity in 6min runs containing 5 spikes/run, 10 spikes/run, and one 5s long event with hemodynamic response function amplitudes of at least 1.5%, 1.25%, and 1% above baseline respectively. When applied to patient data, while detection of interictal spikes was inconsistent, 2D-TCA consistently produced results similar to those obtained by EEG-fMRI when at least 2 prolonged interictal events (a few seconds each) occurred during the run. However, even for such cases it was determined that 2D-TCA can only be used to validate localization by other means or to create hypotheses as to where activity may occur, as it also detects changes not caused by epileptic activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A FPC-ROOT Algorithm for 2D-DOA Estimation in Sparse Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the performance of two-dimensional direction-of-arrival (2D DOA estimation in sparse array, this paper presents a Fixed Point Continuation Polynomial Roots (FPC-ROOT algorithm. Firstly, a signal model for DOA estimation is established based on matrix completion and it can be proved that the proposed model meets Null Space Property (NSP. Secondly, left and right singular vectors of received signals matrix are achieved using the matrix completion algorithm. Finally, 2D DOA estimation can be acquired through solving the polynomial roots. The proposed algorithm can achieve high accuracy of 2D DOA estimation in sparse array, without solving autocorrelation matrix of received signals and scanning of two-dimensional spectral peak. Besides, it decreases the number of antennas and lowers computational complexity and meanwhile avoids the angle ambiguity problem. Computer simulations demonstrate that the proposed FPC-ROOT algorithm can obtain the 2D DOA estimation precisely in sparse array.

  8. 3D vision accelerates laparoscopic proficiency and skills are transferable to 2D conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Stine Maya Dreier; Konge, Lars; Bjerrum, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    : Mean training time were reduced in the intervention group; 231 min versus 323 min; P = 0.012. There was no significant difference in the mean times to completion of the retention test; 92 min versus 95 min; P = 0.85. CONCLUSION: 3D vision reduced time to proficiency on a virtual-reality laparoscopy......BACKGROUND: Laparoscopy is difficult to master, in part because surgeons operate in a three-dimensional (3D) space guided by two-dimensional (2D) images. This trial explores the effect of 3D vision during a laparoscopic training program, and examine whether it is possible to transfer skills...... acquired with 3D conditions to 2D conditions. METHODS: We designed a randomized controlled trial where residents (n = 34) were randomized to proficiency-based laparoscopic simulator training under either 3D or 2D conditions. Subsequently, participants completed a retention test under 2D conditions. RESULTS...

  9. Upscaling of upward CO2 migration in 2D system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Hamid; Alvarado, Vladimir

    2012-09-01

    A procedure for upscaling CO2 buoyancy driven upward migration in finite-difference simulation models is presented in this work. This upscaling procedure accounts for capillary and buoyancy forces to enable CO2 upward migration modeling in coarser grids while accounting for dominant fine-scaled geological effects. The developed method is applied to 2D domains with no-flow boundary conditions. The absolute permeability field is correlated in the horizontal direction, with zero correlation in the vertical direction. Capillary pressure is parameterized using a Leveret J-function. A Dykstra-Parsons coefficient of 0.7 was used to generate a relatively heterogeneous absolute permeability field and hence test the developed algorithm under more stringent conditions. Multiphase flow upscaling is improved by accounting for spatial connectivity (percolation), which enables us to obtain more realistic rock-fluid pseudo-functions and capture effects of local capillary trapping at the fine scale (meso-scale trapping). The upscaling method and estimation of rock-fluid functions are numerically tested and compared with currently accepted single and multiphase flow upscaling methods. Results show that single-phase flow upscaling is insufficient, because it fails to adequately predict mobility and residual saturation, and hence multiphase flow upscaling should be employed. Significant improvement in gas travel time (representative of mobility) and trapped CO2 saturation (representative of trapped saturation) are observed when spatial connectivity (percolation) is included. The simulation execution time reduces 17-fold through upscaling. This speedup will enable simulating 3D CO2 sequestration simulation scenarios.

  10. The IDOL–UBE2D complex mediates sterol-dependent degradation of the LDL receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Fairall, Louise; Goult, Benjamin T.; Calkin, Anna C.; Hong, Cynthia; Millard, Christopher J.; Tontonoz, Peter; Schwabe, John W.R.

    2011-01-01

    We previously identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL as a sterol-dependent regulator of the LDL receptor (LDLR). The molecular pathway underlying IDOL action, however, remains to be determined. Here we report the identification and biochemical and structural characterization of an E2–E3 ubiquitin ligase complex for LDLR degradation. We identified the UBE2D family (UBE2D1–4) as E2 partners for IDOL that support both autoubiquitination and IDOL-dependent ubiquitination of the LDLR in a cell-free system. NMR chemical shift mapping and a 2.1 Å crystal structure of the IDOL RING domain–UBE2D1 complex revealed key interactions between the dimeric IDOL protein and the E2 enzyme. Analysis of the IDOL–UBE2D1 interface also defined the stereochemical basis for the selectivity of IDOL for UBE2Ds over other E2 ligases. Structure-based mutations that inhibit IDOL dimerization or IDOL–UBE2D interaction block IDOL-dependent LDLR ubiquitination and degradation. Furthermore, expression of a dominant-negative UBE2D enzyme inhibits the ability of IDOL to degrade the LDLR in cells. These results identify the IDOL–UBE2D complex as an important determinant of LDLR activity, and provide insight into molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of cholesterol uptake. PMID:21685362

  11. The IDOL-UBE2D complex mediates sterol-dependent degradation of the LDL receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Fairall, Louise; Goult, Benjamin T; Calkin, Anna C; Hong, Cynthia; Millard, Christopher J; Tontonoz, Peter; Schwabe, John W R

    2011-06-15

    We previously identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL as a sterol-dependent regulator of the LDL receptor (LDLR). The molecular pathway underlying IDOL action, however, remains to be determined. Here we report the identification and biochemical and structural characterization of an E2-E3 ubiquitin ligase complex for LDLR degradation. We identified the UBE2D family (UBE2D1-4) as E2 partners for IDOL that support both autoubiquitination and IDOL-dependent ubiquitination of the LDLR in a cell-free system. NMR chemical shift mapping and a 2.1 Å crystal structure of the IDOL RING domain-UBE2D1 complex revealed key interactions between the dimeric IDOL protein and the E2 enzyme. Analysis of the IDOL-UBE2D1 interface also defined the stereochemical basis for the selectivity of IDOL for UBE2Ds over other E2 ligases. Structure-based mutations that inhibit IDOL dimerization or IDOL-UBE2D interaction block IDOL-dependent LDLR ubiquitination and degradation. Furthermore, expression of a dominant-negative UBE2D enzyme inhibits the ability of IDOL to degrade the LDLR in cells. These results identify the IDOL-UBE2D complex as an important determinant of LDLR activity, and provide insight into molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of cholesterol uptake.

  12. Preoperative scallop-by-scallop assessment of mitral prolapse using 2D-transthoracic echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonetti Stefania

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to assess the accuracy of harmonic imaging 2D-transthoracic echocardiography (2D-TTE segmental analysis compared to surgical findings, in degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR. Methods Seventy-seven consecutive patients with severe degenerative MR were prospectively enrolled. Preoperative 2D-TTE with precise localization of prolapsing or flailing scallops/segments was performed. All patients underwent mitral valve surgical repair. Surgical reports (SR, including valve description, were used as references for comparisons. A postoperative control 2D-TTE was performed. Results Out of 462 scallops/segments studied, surgical inspection identified 102 prolapses or flails (22%, 92 of which had previously been detected by 2D-TTE (90.2% sensitivity, 100% specificity. Agreement between preoperative 2D-TTE segmental analysis and SR was 97.8% (k = 0.93; p Conclusions 2D-TTE, performed by an experienced echo-lab, has very good diagnostic accuracy in localizing the scallops/segments involved in degenerative MR, particularly for the middle ones (P2-A2, which represent almost the totality of prolapses. More invasive, time consuming and expensive exams should be reserved to selected cases.

  13. Photorealistic image synthesis and camera validation from 2D images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Ferrer, Juan C.; González Chévere, David; Manian, Vidya

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a new 3D scene reconstruction technique using the Unity 3D game engine. The method presented here allow us to reconstruct the shape of simple objects and more complex ones from multiple 2D images, including infrared and digital images from indoor scenes and only digital images from outdoor scenes and then add the reconstructed object to the simulated scene created in Unity 3D, these scenes are then validated with real world scenes. The method used different cameras settings and explores different properties in the reconstructions of the scenes including light, color, texture, shapes and different views. To achieve the highest possible resolution, it was necessary the extraction of partial textures from visible surfaces. To recover the 3D shapes and the depth of simple objects that can be represented by the geometric bodies, there geometric characteristics were used. To estimate the depth of more complex objects the triangulation method was used, for this the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters were calculated using geometric camera calibration. To implement the methods mentioned above the Matlab tool was used. The technique presented here also let's us to simulate small simple videos, by reconstructing a sequence of multiple scenes of the video separated by small margins of time. To measure the quality of the reconstructed images and video scenes the Fast Low Band Model (FLBM) metric from the Video Quality Measurement (VQM) software was used. Low bandwidth perception based features include edges and motion.

  14. Plasmonic Physics of 2D Crystalline Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Torbatian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Collective modes of doped two-dimensional crystalline materials, namely graphene, MoS 2 and phosphorene, both monolayer and bilayer structures, are explored using the density functional theory simulations together with the random phase approximation. The many-body dielectric functions of the materials are calculated using an ab initio based model involving material-realistic physical properties. Having calculated the electron energy-loss, we calculate the collective modes of each material considering the in-phase and out-of-phase modes for bilayer structures. Furthermore, owing to many band structures and intreband transitions, we also find high-energy excitations in the systems. We explain that the material-specific dielectric function considering the polarizability of the crystalline material such as MoS 2 are needed to obtain realistic plasmon dispersions. For each material studied here, we find different collective modes and describe their physical origins.

  15. CYP2D7 sequence variation interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K Riffel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35 which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696 SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe

  16. Cooperative dynamics in ultrasoft 2D crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprakel, Joris; van der Meer, Berend; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van der Gucht, Jasper

    2015-03-01

    The creation, annihilation, and diffusion of defects in crystal lattices play an important role during crystal melting and deformation. Although it is well understood how defects form and react when crystals are subjected to external stresses, it remains unclear how crystals cope with internal stresses. We report a study in which we create a highly localized internal stress, by means of optical tweezing, in a crystal formed from micrometer-sized colloidal spheres and directly observe how the solid reacts using microscopy. We find that, even though the excitation is highly localized, a collective dance of colloidal particles results; these collective modes take the form of closed rings or open-ended strings, depending on the sequence of events which nucleate the rearrangements. Surprisingly, we find from Brownian Dynamics simulations that these cooperative dynamics are thermally-activated modes inherent to the crystal, and can even occur through a single, sufficiently large thermal fluctuation, resulting in the irreversible displacement of 100s of particles from their lattice sites.

  17. Mechanical characterization of 2D, 2D stitched, and 3D braided/RTM materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Jerry W.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Portanova, Marc A.

    1993-01-01

    Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Fuselage frames, floor beams, wing spars, and stiffeners are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage tolerance requirements are met. Another important consideration for braided composites relates to their mechanical properties and how they compare to the properties of composites produced by other textile composite processes being proposed for these applications. Unfortunately, mechanical property data for braided composites do not appear extensively in the literature. Data are presented in this paper on the mechanical characterization of 2D triaxial braid, 2D triaxial braid plus stitching, and 3D (through-the-thickness) braid composite materials. The braided preforms all had the same graphite tow size and the same nominal braid architectures, (+/- 30 deg/0 deg), and were resin transfer molded (RTM) using the same mold for each of two different resin systems. Static data are presented for notched and unnotched tension, notched and unnotched compression, and compression after impact strengths at room temperature. In addition, some static results, after environmental conditioning, are included. Baseline tension and compression fatigue results are also presented, but only for the 3D braided composite material with one of the resin systems.

  18. A dimensionality reduction technique for 2D scattering problems in photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, Alyona; Stoffer, Remco; Hammer, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation method for 2D frequency domain scattering problems in photonics. The technique reduces the spatial dimensionality of the problem by means of global, continuous mode expansion combined with a variational formalism; the resulting equations are solved using a finite

  19. Status for the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, J.

    2001-01-01

    This report sets up an evaluation of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D in its present state. This code is used for blade aerodynamics simulations in the Aeroelastic Design group at Risø. Two airfoils are investigated by computing theflow at several angles of attack ranging from...

  20. Functional characterization of a first avian cytochrome P450 of the CYP2D subfamily (CYP2D49.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Cai

    Full Text Available The CYP2D family members are instrumental in the metabolism of 20-25% of commonly prescribed drugs. Although many CYP2D isoforms have been well characterized in other animal models, research concerning the chicken CYP2Ds is limited. In this study, a cDNA encoding a novel CYP2D enzyme (CYP2D49 was cloned from the chicken liver for the first time. The CYP2D49 cDNA contained an open reading frame of 502 amino acids that shared 52%-57% identities with other CYP2Ds. The gene structure and neighboring genes of CYP2D49 are conserved and similar to those of human CYP2D6. Additionally, similar to human CYP2D6, CYP2D49 is un-inducible in the liver and expressed predominantly in the liver, kidney and small intestine, with detectable levels in several other tissues. Metabolic assays of the CYP2D49 protein heterologously expressed in E. coli and Hela cells indicated that CYP2D49 metabolized the human CYP2D6 substrate, bufuralol, but not debrisoquine. Moreover, quinidine, a potent inhibitor of human CYP2D6, only inhibited the bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation activity of CYP2D49 to a negligible degree. All these results indicated that CYP2D49 had functional characteristics similar to those of human CYP2D6 but measurably differed in the debrisoquine 4'-hydroxylation and quinidine inhibitory profile. Further structure-function investigations that employed site-directed mutagenesis and circular dichroism spectroscopy identified the importance of Val-126, Glu-222, Asp-306, Phe-486 and Phe-488 in keeping the enzymatic activity of CYP2D49 toward bufuralol as well as the importance of Asp-306, Phe-486 and Phe-488 in maintaining the conformation of CYP2D49 protein. The current study is only the first step in characterizing the metabolic mechanism of CYP2D49; further studies are still required.

  1. Investigation of the partially coherent effects in a 2D Talbot interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Xin; Gao, Kun; Wang, Dajiang [University of Science and Technology of China, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Hefei (China); Wang, Zhili; Wu, Ziyu [University of Science and Technology of China, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Hefei (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Zhang, Kai; Hong, Youli; Zhu, Zhongzhu; Zhu, Peiping [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2011-08-15

    The recent use of a one-dimensional (1D) X-ray Talbot interferometer has triggered great interest in X-ray differential phase contrast imaging. As an improved version of a 1D interferometer, the development of two-dimensional (2D) grating interferometry strongly stimulated applications of grating-based imaging. In the framework of Fresnel diffraction theory, we investigated the self-image of 2D-phase gratings under partially coherent illumination. The fringe visibility of the self-image has been analyzed as a function of the spatial coherence length. From the viewpoint of self-image visibility, it is possible to find the optimal 2D grid for 2D X-ray grating interferometer imaging. Numerical simulations have been also carried out for quantitative evaluation. Results, in good agreement with theoretical analysis, indicate the spatial coherence requirements of the radiation illuminating a 2D grating interferometer. Moreover, our results can be used to optimize performances of a 2D grating interferometer and for further theoretical and experimental research on grating-based imaging systems. (orig.)

  2. Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ngada, Narcisse

    2015-06-15

    The complexity and cost of building and running high-power electrical systems make the use of simulations unavoidable. The simulations available today provide great understanding about how systems really operate. This paper helps the reader to gain an insight into simulation in the field of power converters for particle accelerators. Starting with the definition and basic principles of simulation, two simulation types, as well as their leading tools, are presented: analog and numerical simulations. Some practical applications of each simulation type are also considered. The final conclusion then summarizes the main important items to keep in mind before opting for a simulation tool or before performing a simulation.

  3. Anti-NKG2D mAb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Kasper; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    with a wide range of cell types and proteins involved. Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) is an activating receptor constitutively expressed on human Natural Killer (NK), γδ T, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT), CD56⁺ T, and CD8⁺ T cells. Activation of NKG2D triggers cellular proliferation, cytokine...... production, and target cell killing. Research into the NKG2D mechanism of action has primarily been focused on cancer and viral infections where cytotoxicity evasion is a concern. In human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) this system is less characterized, but the ligands have been shown to be highly...... expressed during intestinal inflammation and the following receptor activation may contribute to tissue degeneration. A recent phase II clinical trial showed that an antibody against NKG2D induced clinical remission of CD in some patients, suggesting NKG2D and its ligands to be of importance...

  4. Conference Proceedings. Defense Modeling and Simulation Office Information/Data Base (I/DB) Task Group Meetings Held February 14-18, 1994, and Notes from the Previous Two I/DB Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    CL 0 cr oE -2 (D Co) 0U- 0r Cl) I CuCI LOI co CI co CD I __ ____ ___ ____ ____ ___ 300 A I) W CU- c a Iz 00 % >\\ _JC)C 0 C)Z C0 0 C~< 0 E (0 0’ <oCZ C... Nutritional and Metabolic UrologicEye Occupational VirusFungal Ophthalmic I EARTH RADIATIVE PROCESSES Albedo Irradiance TemperatureBrightness Temperature...Contamination Epidemiologic MeasurementsBehavior Environmental Health Food PoisoningDisease Outbreaks Epidemics Nutrition VITAL STATISTICS Demnograhy

  5. High-contrast controllable switching based on polystyrene nonlinear cavities in 2D hole-type photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paghousi, Roohollah; Fasihi, Kiazand

    2018-05-01

    We present a new high-contrast controllable switch, which is based on a polystyrene nonlinear cavity, and is implemented in a two dimensional (2D) hole-type photonic crystal (PC). We show that by applying a control signal, the input power can be transmitted to the output waveguide with a high contrast ratio. The operation of the proposed device is investigated through the use of coupled-mode theory (CMT) and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The contrast ratio of the proposed device varies between 18 and 23, which is higher than the corresponding value in the previous investigations. Based on the simulation results, with increasing the control power the range of operating power will be increased, while the contrast ratio will be decreased. It has been shown that in a modified structure, at the expense of the range of operating power and the contrast ratio, the control power can be decreased, considerably.

  6. Substrate-assisted 2D DNA lattices and algorithmic lattices from single-stranded tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghoon; Ha, Tai Hwan; Park, Sung Ha

    2015-08-07

    We present a simple route to circumvent kinetic traps which affect many types of DNA nanostructures in their self-assembly process. Using this method, a new 2D DNA lattice made up of short, single-stranded tile (SST) motifs was created. Previously, the growth of SST DNA assemblies was restricted to 1D (tubes and ribbons) or finite-sized 2D (molecular canvases). By utilizing the substrate-assisted growth method, sets of SSTs were designed as unit cells to self-assemble into periodic and aperiodic 2D lattices which continuously grow both along and orthogonal to the helical axis. Notably, large-scale (∼1 μm(2)) fully periodic 2D lattices were fabricated using a minimum of just 2 strand species. Furthermore, the ability to create 2D lattices from a few motifs enables certain rules to be encoded into these SSTs to carry out algorithmic self-assembly. A set of these motifs was designed to execute simple 1-input 1-output COPY and NOT algorithms, the space-time manifestations which were aperiodic 2D algorithmic SST lattices. The methodology presented here can be straightforwardly applied to other motifs which fall into this type of kinetic trap to create novel DNA crystals.

  7. FLOWPLOT2, 2-D, 3-D Fluid Dynamic Plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, C.K.; Tunstall, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FLOWPLOT2 is a plotting program used with numerical or analytical fluid dynamics codes to create velocity vector plots, contour plots of up to three fluid parameters (e.g. pressure, density, and temperature), two-dimensional profile plots, three-dimensional curve plots, and/or three-dimensional surface plots for either the u or v velocity components. If the fluid dynamics code computes a transient or simulated time related solution, FLOWPLOT2 can also be used to generate these plots for any specified time interval. Multiple cases generating different plots for different time intervals may be run in one execution of the program. In addition, plots can be created for selected two- dimensional planes of three-dimensional steady-state problems. The user has the option of producing plots on CalComp or Versatec plotters or microfiche and of creating a compressed dataset before plotting. 2 - Method of solution: FLOWPLOT2 reads a dataset written by the fluid dynamics code. This dataset must be written in a specified format and must contain parametric data at the nodal points of a uniform or non-uniform rectangular grid formed by the intersection of the grid lines of the model. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 2500 nodes, 40 y-values for 2-D profile plots and 3-D curve plots, 20 contour values, 3 fluid parameters

  8. Global 2-D intercomparison of sectional and modal aerosol modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Weisenstein

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an intercomparison of several aerosol modules, sectional and modal, in a global 2-D model in order to differentiate their behavior for tropospheric and stratospheric applications. We model only binary sulfuric acid-water aerosols in this study. Three versions of the sectional model and three versions of the modal model are used to test the sensitivity of background aerosol mass and size distribution to the number of bins or modes and to the prescribed width of the largest mode. We find modest sensitivity to the number of bins (40 vs. 150 used in the sectional model. Aerosol mass is found to be reduced in a modal model if care is not taken in selecting the width of the largest lognormal mode, reflecting differences in sedimentation in the middle stratosphere. The size distributions calculated by the sectional model can be better matched by a modal model with four modes rather than three modes in most but not all situations. A simulation of aerosol decay following the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo shows that the representation of the size distribution can have a signficant impact on model-calculated aerosol decay rates in the stratosphere. Between 1991 and 1995, aerosol extinction and surface area density calculated by two versions of the modal model adequately match results from the sectional model. Calculated effective radius for the same time period shows more intermodel variability, with a 20-bin sectional model performing much better than any of the modal models.

  9. Analysis of 2D NMR relaxation data using Chisholm approximations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, S; Haase, A; Gleich, B

    2017-08-01

    To analyze 2D NMR relaxation data based on a discrete delta-like relaxation map we extended the Padé-Laplace method to two dimensions. We approximate the forward Laplace image of the time domain signal by a Chisholm approximation, i.e. a rational polynomial in two dimensions. The poles and residues of this approximation correspond to the relaxation rates and weighting factors of the underlying relaxation map. In this work we explain the principle ideas of our algorithm and demonstrate its applicability. Therefore we compare the inversion results of the Chisholm approximation and Tikhonov regularization method as a function of SNR when the investigated signal is based on a given discrete relaxation map. Our algorithm proved to be reliable for SNRs larger than 50 and is able to compete with the Tikhonov regularization method. Furthermore we show that our method is also able to detect the simulated relaxation compartments of narrow Gaussian distributions with widths less or equal than 0.05s -1 . Finally we investigate the resolution limit with experimental data. For a SNR of 750 the Chisholm approximation method was able to resolve two relaxation compartments in 8 of 10 cases when both compartments differ by a factor of 1.7. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A 2D Electromechanical Model of Human Atrial Tissue Using the Discrete Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Brocklehurst

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac tissue is a syncytium of coupled cells with pronounced intrinsic discrete nature. Previous models of cardiac electromechanics often ignore such discrete properties and treat cardiac tissue as a continuous medium, which has fundamental limitations. In the present study, we introduce a 2D electromechanical model for human atrial tissue based on the discrete element method (DEM. In the model, single-cell dynamics are governed by strongly coupling the electrophysiological model of Courtemanche et al. to the myofilament model of Rice et al. with two-way feedbacks. Each cell is treated as a viscoelastic body, which is physically represented by a clump of nine particles. Cell aggregations are arranged so that the anisotropic nature of cardiac tissue due to fibre orientations can be modelled. Each cell is electrically coupled to neighbouring cells, allowing excitation waves to propagate through the tissue. Cell-to-cell mechanical interactions are modelled using a linear contact bond model in DEM. By coupling cardiac electrophysiology with mechanics via the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, the DEM model successfully simulates the conduction of cardiac electrical waves and the tissue’s corresponding mechanical contractions. The developed DEM model is numerically stable and provides a powerful method for studying the electromechanical coupling problem in the heart.

  11. New methodology to reconstruct in 2-D the cuspal enamel of modern human lower molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto-Mata, Mario; García-Campos, Cecilia; Martín-Francés, Laura; Martínez de Pinillos, Marina; García-González, Rebeca; Quintino, Yuliet; Canals, Antoni; Lozano, Marina; Dean, M Christopher; Martinón-Torres, María; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2017-08-01

    In the last years different methodologies have been developed to reconstruct worn teeth. In this article, we propose a new 2-D methodology to reconstruct the worn enamel of lower molars. Our main goals are to reconstruct molars with a high level of accuracy when measuring relevant histological variables and to validate the methodology calculating the errors associated with the measurements. This methodology is based on polynomial regression equations, and has been validated using two different dental variables: cuspal enamel thickness and crown height of the protoconid. In order to perform the validation process, simulated worn modern human molars were employed. The associated errors of the measurements were also estimated applying methodologies previously proposed by other authors. The mean percentage error estimated in reconstructed molars for these two variables in comparison with their own real values is -2.17% for the cuspal enamel thickness of the protoconid and -3.18% for the crown height of the protoconid. This error significantly improves the results of other methodologies, both in the interobserver error and in the accuracy of the measurements. The new methodology based on polynomial regressions can be confidently applied to the reconstruction of cuspal enamel of lower molars, as it improves the accuracy of the measurements and reduces the interobserver error. The present study shows that it is important to validate all methodologies in order to know the associated errors. This new methodology can be easily exportable to other modern human populations, the human fossil record and forensic sciences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. 2D Diffusion of Rods in a Nonneutral Plasma with Finite E × B Shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, D. Z.; Dubin, Daniel H. E.

    2000-10-01

    Cross-magnetic-field collisional diffusion of test particles is discussed for a nonneutral plasma column in the 2D regime, where the diffusion is due to the E × B drift of charged rods (bounce-averaged electrons) in the random Coulomb fields of other rods. If the overall flow has a finite E × B velocity shear, the diffusion can be orders of magnitude smaller than predicted by previous calculations,(J.B. Taylor and B. McNamara, Phys. Fluids 14), 1492 (1971); J.M. Dawson, H. Okuda and R.N. Carlile, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 491 (1971). which are shown to hold only for a nearly shear-free plasma. Particle-in-cell and molecular dynamics simulations of the diffusion match the theory, provided that the E × B rotation frequency is monotonically decreasing as a function of radius (negative shear, the usual case in a stable nonneutral plasma column). Interestingly, when the rotation frequency is monotonically increasing (positive shear), the transport is suppressed by another order of magnitude or more. This phenomenon is related to the nonlinear dynamics of prograde point vortices in a shear flow.(David A. Schecter and Daniel H.E. Dubin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83), 2191 (1999).

  13. CYP2D6 polymorphisms and their influence on risperidone treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puangpetch A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Apichaya Puangpetch,1 Natchaya Vanwong,1 Nopphadol Nuntamool,2 Yaowaluck Hongkaew,1 Monpat Chamnanphon,1 Chonlaphat Sukasem1 1Division of Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, 2Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: Cytochrome P450 enzyme especially CYP2D6 plays a major role in biotransformation. The interindividual variations of treatment response and toxicity are influenced by the polymorphisms of this enzyme. This review emphasizes the effect of CYP2D6 polymorphisms in risperidone treatment in terms of basic knowledge, pharmacogenetics, effectiveness, adverse events, and clinical practice. Although the previous studies showed different results, the effective responses in risperidone treatment depend on the CYP2D6 polymorphisms. Several studies suggested that CYP2D6 polymorphisms were associated with plasma concentration of risperidone, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, and active moiety but did not impact on clinical outcomes. In addition, CYP2D6 poor metabolizer showed more serious adverse events such as weight gain and prolactin than other predicted phenotype groups. The knowledge of pharmacogenomics of CYP2D6 in risperidone treatment is increasing, and it can be used for the development of personalized medication in term of genetic-based dose recommendation. Moreover, the effects of many factors in risperidone treatment are still being investigated. Both the CYP2D6 genotyping and therapeutic drug monitoring are the important steps to complement the genetic-based risperidone treatment. Keywords: CYP2D6, risperidone, polymorphisms, adverse drug reaction, pharmacogenetics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics

  14. Elastic properties and 2D icosahedral bonding in borides of hexagonal WC type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2005-01-01

    Using ab initio calculations we have identified materials with bulk moduli comparable to cubic BN. These are WB, IrB, ReB and OsB crystallizing in the hexagonal WC structure. In the (0 0 0 2) planes of these compounds, we find 2D icosahedral bonding between adjacent B atoms, which has previously not been reported

  15. Risk Preferences and Predictions about Others: No Association with 2D:4D Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Lima de Miranda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal androgen exposure affects the brain development of the fetus which may facilitate certain behaviors and decision patterns in the later life. The ratio between the lengths of second and the fourth fingers (2D:4D is a negative biomarker of the ratio between prenatal androgen and estrogen exposure and men typically have lower ratios than women. In line with the typical findings suggesting that women are more risk averse than men, several studies have also shown negative relationships between 2D:4D and risk taking although the evidence is not conclusive. Previous studies have also reported that both men and women believe women are more risk averse than men. In the current study, we re-test the relationship between 2D:4D and risk preferences in a German student sample and also investigate whether the 2D:4D ratio is associated with people’s perceptions about others’ risk preferences. Following an incentivized risk elicitation task, we asked all participants their predictions about (i others’ responses (without sex specification, (ii men’s responses, and (iii women’s responses; then measured their 2D:4D ratios. In line with the previous findings, female participants in our sample were more risk averse. While both men and women underestimated other participants’ (non sex-specific and women’s risky decisions on average, their predictions about men were accurate. We also found evidence for the false consensus effect, as risky choices are positively correlated with predictions about other participants’ risky choices. The 2D:4D ratio was not directly associated either with risk preferences or the predictions of other participants’ choices. An unexpected finding was that women with mid-range levels of 2D:4D estimated significantly larger sex differences in participants’ decisions. This finding needs further testing in future studies.

  16. Risk Preferences and Predictions about Others: No Association with 2D:4D Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima de Miranda, Katharina; Neyse, Levent; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal androgen exposure affects the brain development of the fetus which may facilitate certain behaviors and decision patterns in the later life. The ratio between the lengths of second and the fourth fingers (2D:4D) is a negative biomarker of the ratio between prenatal androgen and estrogen exposure and men typically have lower ratios than women. In line with the typical findings suggesting that women are more risk averse than men, several studies have also shown negative relationships between 2D:4D and risk taking although the evidence is not conclusive. Previous studies have also reported that both men and women believe women are more risk averse than men. In the current study, we re-test the relationship between 2D:4D and risk preferences in a German student sample and also investigate whether the 2D:4D ratio is associated with people’s perceptions about others’ risk preferences. Following an incentivized risk elicitation task, we asked all participants their predictions about (i) others’ responses (without sex specification), (ii) men’s responses, and (iii) women’s responses; then measured their 2D:4D ratios. In line with the previous findings, female participants in our sample were more risk averse. While both men and women underestimated other participants’ (non sex-specific) and women’s risky decisions on average, their predictions about men were accurate. We also found evidence for the false consensus effect, as risky choices are positively correlated with predictions about other participants’ risky choices. The 2D:4D ratio was not directly associated either with risk preferences or the predictions of other participants’ choices. An unexpected finding was that women with mid-range levels of 2D:4D estimated significantly larger sex differences in participants’ decisions. This finding needs further testing in future studies. PMID:29472846

  17. Can Full Duplex reduce the discovery time in D2D Communication?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatnau, Marta; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2016-01-01

    Device-to-device (D2D) communication is considered as one of the key technologies to support new types of services, such as public safety and proximity-based applications. D2D communication requires a discovery phase, i.e., the node awareness procedure prior to the communication phase. Conventional...... compared to half duplex. Simulation results show that, in order to meet the strict 5G control plane latency target, advanced receivers are required. In that case, full duplex can reduce the latency up to 80%....

  18. Atomistic methodologies for material properties of 2D materials at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen

    Research on two dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and MoS2, now involves thousands of researchers worldwide cutting across physics, chemistry, engineering and biology. Due to the extraordinary properties of 2D materials, research extends from fundamental science to novel applications of 2D materials. From an engineering point of view, understanding the material properties of 2D materials under various conditions is crucial for tailoring the electrical and mechanical properties of 2D-material-based devices at the nanoscale. Even at the nanoscale, molecular systems typically consist of a vast number of atoms. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations enable us to understand the properties of assemblies of molecules in terms of their structure and the microscopic interactions between them. From a continuum approach, mechanical properties and thermal properties, such as strain, stress, and heat capacity, are well defined and experimentally measurable. In MD simulations, material systems are considered to be discrete, and only interatomic potential, interatomic forces, and atom positions are directly obtainable. Besides, most of the fracture mechanics concepts, such as stress intensity factors, are not applicable since there is no singularity in MD simulations. However, energy release rate still remains to be a feasible and crucial physical quantity to characterize the fracture mechanical property of materials at the nanoscale. Therefore, equivalent definition of a physical quantity both in atomic scale and macroscopic scale is necessary in order to understand molecular and continuum scale phenomena concurrently. This work introduces atomistic simulation methodologies, based on interatomic potential and interatomic forces, as a tool to unveil the mechanical properties, thermal properties and fracture mechanical properties of 2D materials at the nanoscale. Among many 2D materials, graphene and MoS2 have attracted intense interest. Therefore, we applied our

  19. High accuracy determination of the thermal properties of supported 2D materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judek, Jarosław; Gertych, Arkadiusz P; Świniarski, Michał; Łapińska, Anna; Dużyńska, Anna; Zdrojek, Mariusz

    2015-07-16

    We present a novel approach for the simultaneous determination of the thermal conductivity κ and the total interface conductance g of supported 2D materials by the enhanced opto-thermal method. We harness the property of the Gaussian laser beam that acts as a heat source, whose size can easily and precisely be controlled. The experimental data for multi-layer graphene and MoS2 flakes are supplemented using numerical simulations of the heat distribution in the Si/SiO2/2D material system. The procedure of κ and g extraction is tested in a statistical approach, demonstrating the high accuracy and repeatability of our method.

  20. Principal Component Analysis Based Two-Dimensional (PCA-2D) Correlation Spectroscopy: PCA Denoising for 2D Correlation Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young Mee

    2003-01-01

    Principal component analysis based two-dimensional (PCA-2D) correlation analysis is applied to FTIR spectra of polystyrene/methyl ethyl ketone/toluene solution mixture during the solvent evaporation. Substantial amount of artificial noise were added to the experimental data to demonstrate the practical noise-suppressing benefit of PCA-2D technique. 2D correlation analysis of the reconstructed data matrix from PCA loading vectors and scores successfully extracted only the most important features of synchronicity and asynchronicity without interference from noise or insignificant minor components. 2D correlation spectra constructed with only one principal component yield strictly synchronous response with no discernible a asynchronous features, while those involving at least two or more principal components generated meaningful asynchronous 2D correlation spectra. Deliberate manipulation of the rank of the reconstructed data matrix, by choosing the appropriate number and type of PCs, yields potentially more refined 2D correlation spectra

  1. 2-D Versus 3-D Cross-Correlation-Based Radial and Circumferential Strain Estimation Using Multiplane 2-D Ultrafast Ultrasound in a 3-D Atherosclerotic Carotid Artery Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkes, Stein; Swillens, Abigail E S; Hansen, Hendrik H G; Saris, Anne E C M; Nillesen, Maartje M; Iannaccone, Francesco; Segers, Patrick; de Korte, Chris L

    2016-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) strain estimation might improve the detection and localization of high strain regions in the carotid artery (CA) for identification of vulnerable plaques. This paper compares 2-D versus 3-D displacement estimation in terms of radial and circumferential strain using simulated ultrasound (US) images of a patient-specific 3-D atherosclerotic CA model at the bifurcation embedded in surrounding tissue generated with ABAQUS software. Global longitudinal motion was superimposed to the model based on the literature data. A Philips L11-3 linear array transducer was simulated, which transmitted plane waves at three alternating angles at a pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz. Interframe (IF) radio-frequency US data were simulated in Field II for 191 equally spaced longitudinal positions of the internal CA. Accumulated radial and circumferential displacements were estimated using tracking of the IF displacements estimated by a two-step normalized cross-correlation method and displacement compounding. Least-squares strain estimation was performed to determine accumulated radial and circumferential strain. The performance of the 2-D and 3-D methods was compared by calculating the root-mean-squared error of the estimated strains with respect to the reference strains obtained from the model. More accurate strain images were obtained using the 3-D displacement estimation for the entire cardiac cycle. The 3-D technique clearly outperformed the 2-D technique in phases with high IF longitudinal motion. In fact, the large IF longitudinal motion rendered it impossible to accurately track the tissue and cumulate strains over the entire cardiac cycle with the 2-D technique.

  2. 2D versus 3D cross-correlation-based radial and circumferential strain estimation using multiplane 2D ultrafast ultrasound in a 3D atherosclerotic carotid artery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkes, Stein; Swillens, Abigail E S; Hansen, Hendrik H G; Saris, Anne E C M; Nillesen, Maartje M; Iannaccone, Francesco; Segers, Patrick; de Korte, Chris L

    2016-08-25

    Three-dimensional strain estimation might improve the detection and localization of high strain regions in the carotid artery for identification of vulnerable plaques. This study compares 2D vs. 3D displacement estimation in terms of radial and circumferential strain using simulated ultrasound images of a patient specific 3D atherosclerotic carotid artery model at the bifurcation embedded in surrounding tissue generated with ABAQUS software. Global longitudinal motion was superimposed to the model based on literature data. A Philips L11-3 linear array transducer was simulated which transmitted plane waves at 3 alternating angles at a pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz. Inter-frame radiofrequency ultrasound data were simulated in Field II for 191 equally spaced longitudinal positions of the internal carotid artery. Accumulated radial and circumferential displacements were estimated using tracking of the inter-frame displacements estimated by a two-step normalized cross-correlation method and displacement compounding. Least squares strain estimation was performed to determine accumulated radial and circumferential strain. The performance of the 2D and 3D method was compared by calculating the root-mean-squared error of the estimated strains with respect to the reference strains obtained from the model. More accurate strain images were obtained using the 3D displacement estimation for the entire cardiac cycle. The 3D technique clearly outperformed the 2D technique in phases with high inter-frame longitudinal motion. In fact the large inter-frame longitudinal motion rendered it impossible to accurately track the tissue and cumulate strains over the entire cardiac cycle with the 2D technique.

  3. Hybrid 2D-3D modelling of GTA welding with filler wire addition

    KAUST Repository

    Traidia, Abderrazak

    2012-07-01

    A hybrid 2D-3D model for the numerical simulation of Gas Tungsten Arc welding is proposed in this paper. It offers the possibility to predict the temperature field as well as the shape of the solidified weld joint for different operating parameters, with relatively good accuracy and reasonable computational cost. Also, an original approach to simulate the effect of immersing a cold filler wire in the weld pool is presented. The simulation results reveal two important observations. First, the weld pool depth is locally decreased in the presence of filler metal, which is due to the energy absorption by the cold feeding wire from the hot molten pool. In addition, the weld shape, maximum temperature and thermal cycles in the workpiece are relatively well predicted even when a 2D model for the arc plasma region is used. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. GENERALIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR 2D+SCALE DHE DATA MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Karim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Different users or applications need different scale model especially in computer application such as game visualization and GIS modelling. Some issues has been raised on fulfilling GIS requirement of retaining the details while minimizing the redundancy of the scale datasets. Previous researchers suggested and attempted to add another dimension such as scale or/and time into a 3D model, but the implementation of scale dimension faces some problems due to the limitations and availability of data structures and data models. Nowadays, various data structures and data models have been proposed to support variety of applications and dimensionality but lack research works has been conducted in terms of supporting scale dimension. Generally, the Dual Half Edge (DHE data structure was designed to work with any perfect 3D spatial object such as buildings. In this paper, we attempt to expand the capability of the DHE data structure toward integration with scale dimension. The description of the concept and implementation of generating 3D-scale (2D spatial + scale dimension for the DHE data structure forms the major discussion of this paper. We strongly believed some advantages such as local modification and topological element (navigation, query and semantic information in scale dimension could be used for the future 3D-scale applications.

  5. 2D modelling and its applications in engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinbalik, M. Tahir; İRSEL, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    A model, in computer aided engineering applications, may be created by either using a two- dimensional or a three-dimensional design depending on the purpose of design. What matters most in this regard is the selection of a right method to meet system solution requirements in the most economical way. Manufacturability of a design that is developed by utilising computer aided engineering is important, but usability of the data obtained in the course of design works in the production is also equally important. In the applications consisting of such production operations as CNC or plasma cutting, two-dimensional designs can be directly used in production. These machines are equipped with interfaces which converts two-dimensional drawings into codes. In this way, a design can be directly transferred to production, and any arrangements during production process can be synchronously evaluated. As a result of this, investment expenses will be lowered, and thus the costs can be reduced to some extent. In the presented study, we have studied two-dimensional design applications and requirements. We created a two-dimensional design for a part for which a three-dimensional model have previously been generated, and then, we transferred this design to plasma cutting machine, and thus, the operation has been realized experimentally. Key words: Plasma Cutting, 2D modelling, flexibility

  6. Estimating 2-D Vector Velocities Using Multidimensional Spectrum Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Niels; Løvstakken, Lasse; Torp, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Wilson (1991) presented an ultrasonic wide-band estimator for axial blood flow velocity estimation through the use of the 2-D Fourier transform. It was shown how a single velocity component was concentrated along a line in the 2-D Fourier space, where the slope was given by the axial velocity...

  7. 32 CFR 1639.4 - Exclusion from Class 2-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusion from Class 2-D. 1639.4 Section 1639.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION OF... Class 2-D when: (a) He fails to establish that the theological or divinity school is a recognized school...

  8. Cascading Constrained 2-D Arrays using Periodic Merging Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby

    2003-01-01

    We consider a method for designing 2-D constrained codes by cascading finite width arrays using predefined finite width periodic merging arrays. This provides a constructive lower bound on the capacity of the 2-D constrained code. Examples include symmetric RLL and density constrained codes...

  9. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and 2D-DIGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleady, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) continues to be one of the most versatile and widely used techniques to study the proteome of a biological system. In particular, a modified version of 2D-PAGE, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), which uses differential labeling of protein samples with up to three fluorescent tags, offers greater sensitivity and reproducibility over conventional 2D-PAGE gels for differential quantitative analysis of protein expression between experimental groups. Both these methods have distinct advantages in the separation and identification of thousands of individual proteins species including protein isoforms and post-translational modifications. This review will discuss the principles of 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE including limitations to the methods. 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE continue to be popular methods in bioprocessing-related research (particularly on recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells), which will also be discussed in the review chapter.

  10. The absorber realized by 2D photonic crystals with plasma constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yongdiao; Liu, Shaobin; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Lingling

    2018-01-01

    Herein, a tunable metamaterial absorber was realized by using two-dimensional (2D) plasma photonic crystals (PPCs). A photonic band gap (PBG) can be obtained in the proposed 2D PPCs, which runs at frequencies from 1.7 to 1.93 GHz. The fabricated absorber is tunable and is composed of excited plasma tubes with 2D square lattices. The resonances originate from the all-dielectric resonances. The plasma frequency is also measured. The experimental results agree with the simulation results. The fabricated absorber shows excellent absorption (up to 84.3%). Hence, it can be used to design various devices, such as tunable microwave devices, stealth devices, and reconfigurable antennas.

  11. The IDOL–UBE2D complex mediates sterol-dependent degradation of the LDL receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Li; Fairall, Louise; Goult, Benjamin T.; Calkin, Anna C.; Hong, Cynthia; Millard, Christopher J.; Tontonoz, Peter; Schwabe, John W.R.

    2011-01-01

    We previously identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL as a sterol-dependent regulator of the LDL receptor (LDLR). The molecular pathway underlying IDOL action, however, remains to be determined. Here we report the identification and biochemical and structural characterization of an E2–E3 ubiquitin ligase complex for LDLR degradation. We identified the UBE2D family (UBE2D1–4) as E2 partners for IDOL that support both autoubiquitination and IDOL-dependent ubiquitination of the LDLR in a cell-fr...

  12. A numerical approach for assessing effects of shear on equivalent permeability and nonlinear flow characteristics of 2-D fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richeng; Li, Bo; Jiang, Yujing; Yu, Liyuan

    2018-01-01

    Hydro-mechanical properties of rock fractures are core issues for many geoscience and geo-engineering practices. Previous experimental and numerical studies have revealed that shear processes could greatly enhance the permeability of single rock fractures, yet the shear effects on hydraulic properties of fractured rock masses have received little attention. In most previous fracture network models, single fractures are typically presumed to be formed by parallel plates and flow is presumed to obey the cubic law. However, related studies have suggested that the parallel plate model cannot realistically represent the surface characters of natural rock fractures, and the relationship between flow rate and pressure drop will no longer be linear at sufficiently large Reynolds numbers. In the present study, a numerical approach was established to assess the effects of shear on the hydraulic properties of 2-D discrete fracture networks (DFNs) in both linear and nonlinear regimes. DFNs considering fracture surface roughness and variation of aperture in space were generated using an originally developed code DFNGEN. Numerical simulations by solving Navier-Stokes equations were performed to simulate the fluid flow through these DFNs. A fracture that cuts through each model was sheared and by varying the shear and normal displacements, effects of shear on equivalent permeability and nonlinear flow characteristics of DFNs were estimated. The results show that the critical condition of quantifying the transition from a linear flow regime to a nonlinear flow regime is: 10-4 〈 J governing equations when solving fluid flow problems in fracture networks.

  13. A novel improved method for analysis of 2D diffusion-relaxation data-2D PARAFAC-Laplace decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonning, E.; Polders, D.; Callaghan, P.T.; Engelsen, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how the multi-linear PARAFAC model can with advantage be used to decompose 2D diffusion¿relaxation correlation NMR spectra prior to 2D-Laplace inversion to the T2¿D domain. The decomposition is advantageous for better interpretation of the complex correlation maps as well as

  14. Double-well chimeras in 2D lattice of chaotic bistable elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelev, I. A.; Bukh, A. V.; Vadivasova, T. E.; Anishchenko, V. S.; Zakharova, A.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate spatio-temporal dynamics of a 2D ensemble of nonlocally coupled chaotic cubic maps in a bistability regime. In particular, we perform a detailed study on the transition ;coherence - incoherence; for varying coupling strength for a fixed interaction radius. For the 2D ensemble we show the appearance of amplitude and phase chimera states previously reported for 1D ensembles of nonlocally coupled chaotic systems. Moreover, we uncover a novel type of chimera state, double-well chimera, which occurs due to the interplay of the bistability of the local dynamics and the 2D ensemble structure. Additionally, we find double-well chimera behavior for steady states which we call double-well chimera death. A distinguishing feature of chimera patterns observed in the lattice is that they mainly combine clusters of different chimera types: phase, amplitude and double-well chimeras.

  15. Thermoelastic expansion vs. piezoelectricity for high-frequency, 2-D arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buma, Takashi; Spisar, Monica; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2003-08-01

    Optical generation using the thermoelastic effect has traditionally suffered from low conversion efficiency. We previously demonstrated increased efficiency of nearly 20 dB with an optical absorbing layer consisting of a mixture of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and carbon black spin coated onto a glass microscope slide. In this paper we show that the radiated power from a black PDMS film is comparable to a 20 MHz piezoelectric two-dimensional (2-D) array element. Furthermore, we predict that a thermoelastic array element can produce similar acoustic power levels compared to ideal piezoelectric 2-D array elements at frequencies in the 100 MHz regime. We believe these results show that thermoelastic generation of ultrasound is a promising alternative to piezoelectricity for high-frequency, 2-D arrays.

  16. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and wearing of wedding rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin

    2008-06-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker for prenatal androgen levels, and absolute finger length, a marker for pubertal androgen action, were not associated with wearing of wedding rings in a sample of 150 male and 199 female married individuals. This failure to replicate associations previously reported by Manning was true for both men and women, self-reported and spousal ring-wearing behavior, and one's own and spousal 2D:4D or absolute finger lengths. Supplemental findings included sex differences and age effects in the prevalence of wearing wedding rings (more frequent in women and the younger than in men and the older) and a sex bias when ring-wearing behavior within couples was discordant (men more frequently did not wear their wedding ring when their wives did than vice versa). Discussed are implications of the current findings and directions for future research into possible associations of 2D:4D with other aspects of body ornamentation.

  17. Enhancement of MS2D Bartington point measurement of soil magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabijańczyk, Piotr; Zawadzki, Jarosław

    2015-04-01

    Field magnetometry is fast method used to assess the potential soil pollution. The most popular device used to measure the soil magnetic susceptibility on the soil surface is a MS2D Bartington. Single reading using MS2D device of soil magnetic susceptibility is low time-consuming but often characterized by considerable errors related to the instrument or environmental and lithogenic factors. Typically, in order to calculate the reliable average value of soil magnetic susceptibility, a series of MS2D readings is performed in the sample point. As it was analyzed previously, such methodology makes it possible to significantly reduce the nugget effect of the variograms of soil magnetic susceptibility that is related to the micro-scale variance and measurement errors. The goal of this study was to optimize the process of taking a series of MS2D readings, whose average value constitutes a single measurement, in order to take into account micro-scale variations of soil magnetic susceptibility in proper determination of this parameter. This was done using statistical and geostatistical analyses. The analyses were performed using field MS2D measurements that were carried out in the study area located in the direct vicinity of the Katowice agglomeration. At 150 sample points 10 MS2D readings of soil magnetic susceptibility were taken. Using this data set, series of experimental variograms were calculated and modeled. Firstly, using single random MS2D reading for each sample point, and next using the data set increased by adding one more MS2D reading, until their number reached 10. The parameters of variogram: nugget effect, sill and range of correlation were used to determine the most suitable number of MS2D readings at sample point. The distributions of soil magnetic susceptibility at sample point were also analyzed in order to determine adequate number of readings enabling to calculate reliable average soil magnetic susceptibility. The research leading to these results has

  18. 10Gbps 2D MGC OCDMA Code over FSO Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professor Urmila Bhanja, Associate, Dr.; Khuntia, Arpita; Alamasety Swati, (Student

    2017-08-01

    Currently, wide bandwidth signal dissemination along with low latency is a leading requisite in various applications. Free space optical wireless communication has introduced as a realistic technology for bridging the gap in present high data transmission fiber connectivity and as a provisional backbone for rapidly deployable wireless communication infrastructure. The manuscript highlights on the implementation of 10Gbps SAC-OCDMA FSO communications using modified two dimensional Golomb code (2D MGC) that possesses better auto correlation, minimum cross correlation and high cardinality. A comparison based on pseudo orthogonal (PSO) matrix code and modified two dimensional Golomb code (2D MGC) is developed in the proposed SAC OCDMA-FSO communication module taking different parameters into account. The simulative outcome signifies that the communication radius is bounded by the multiple access interference (MAI). In this work, a comparison is made in terms of bit error rate (BER), and quality factor (Q) based on modified two dimensional Golomb code (2D MGC) and PSO matrix code. It is observed that the 2D MGC yields better results compared to the PSO matrix code. The simulation results are validated using optisystem version 14.

  19. Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F., E-mail: sfkry@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Bosca, Ryan [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); O’Daniel, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must

  20. The Casimir force for 2d sinusoidal gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marachevsky Valery N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Casimir free energy for 2d gratings separated by a vacuum slit is expressed in terms of Rayleigh coefficients, a novel general approach valid for arbitrary 2d surface profiles of gratings is outlined. The normal Casimir force in the system of two identical Si gratings with 2d sinusoidal surface profiles separated by a vacuum slit is computed for several amplitudes of surface profiles, distance dependence of the force is studied. A comparison with results for flat boundaries is performed.

  1. Optimization and practical implementation of ultrafast 2D NMR experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz Junior, Luiz H. K., E-mail: professorkeng@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSC), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSC), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Giraudeau, Patrick [Universite de Nantes (France). CNRS, Chimie et Interdisciplinarite: Synthese, Analyse, Modelisation

    2013-09-01

    Ultrafast 2D NMR is a powerful methodology that allows recording of a 2D NMR spectrum in a fraction of second. However, due to the numerous non-conventional parameters involved in this methodology its implementation is no trivial task. Here, an optimized experimental protocol is carefully described to ensure efficient implementation of ultrafast NMR. The ultrafast spectra resulting from this implementation are presented based on the example of two widely used 2D NMR experiments, COSY and HSQC, obtained in 0.2 s and 41 s, respectively. (author)

  2. Introduction to game physics with Box2D

    CERN Document Server

    Parberry, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Written by a pioneer of game development in academia, Introduction to Game Physics with Box2D covers the theory and practice of 2D game physics in a relaxed and entertaining yet instructional style. It offers a cohesive treatment of the topics and code involved in programming the physics for 2D video games. Focusing on writing elementary game physics code, the first half of the book helps you grasp the challenges of programming game physics from scratch, without libraries or outside help. It examines the mathematical foundation of game physics and illustrates how it is applied in practice thro

  3. Distributed Control of Heat Conduction in Thermal Inductive Materials with 2D Geometrical Isomorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yu Chou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study we provided analytical and experimental evidence that some materials are able to store entropy-flow, of which the heat-conduction behaves as standing waves in a bounded region small enough in practice. In this paper we continue to develop distributed control of heat conduction in these thermal-inductive materials. The control objective is to achieve subtle temperature distribution in space and simultaneously to suppress its transient overshoots in time. This technology concerns safe and accurate heating/cooling treatments in medical operations, polymer processing, and other prevailing modern day practices. Serving for distributed feedback, spatiotemporal H ∞ /μ control is developed by expansion of the conventional 1D-H ∞ /μ control to a 2D version. Therein 2D geometrical isomorphism is constructed with the Laplace-Galerkin transform, which extends the small-gain theorem into the mode-frequency domain, wherein 2D transfer-function controllers are synthesized with graphical methods. Finally, 2D digital-signal processing is programmed to implement 2D transfer-function controllers, possibly of spatial fraction-orders, into DSP-engine embedded microcontrollers.

  4. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Yann-Wen

    2016-09-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (V-CB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (V-CB < 0). That is, our 2D material-base hot electron transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications.

  5. Quasi 2D hydrodynamic modelling of the flooded hinterland due to dyke breaching on the Elbe River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In flood modeling, many 1D and 2D combination and 2D models are used to simulate diversion of water from rivers through dyke breaches into the hinterland for extreme flood events. However, these models are too demanding in data requirements and computational resources which is an important consideration when uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo techniques is used to complement the modeling exercise. The goal of this paper is to show the development of a quasi-2D modeling approach, which still calculates the dynamic wave in 1D but the discretisation of the computational units are in 2D, allowing a better spatial representation of the flow in the hinterland due to dyke breaching without a large additional expenditure on data pre-processing and computational time. A 2D representation of the flow and velocity fields is required to model sediment and micro-pollutant transport. The model DYNHYD (1D hydrodynamics from the WASP5 modeling package was used as a basis for the simulations. The model was extended to incorporate the quasi-2D approach and a Monte-Carlo Analysis was used to conduct a flood sensitivity analysis to determine the sensitivity of parameters and boundary conditions to the resulting water flow. An extreme flood event on the Elbe River, Germany, with a possible dyke breach area was used as a test case. The results show a good similarity with those obtained from another 1D/2D modeling study.

  6. Excitons in atomically thin 2D semiconductors and their applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research on emerging layered two-dimensional (2D semiconductors, such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2, reveals unique optical properties generating significant interest. Experimentally, these materials were observed to host extremely strong light-matter interactions as a result of the enhanced excitonic effect in two dimensions. Thus, understanding and manipulating the excitons are crucial to unlocking the potential of 2D materials for future photonic and optoelectronic devices. In this review, we unravel the physical origin of the strong excitonic effect and unique optical selection rules in 2D semiconductors. In addition, control of these excitons by optical, electrical, as well as mechanical means is examined. Finally, the resultant devices such as excitonic light emitting diodes, lasers, optical modulators, and coupling in an optical cavity are overviewed, demonstrating how excitons can shape future 2D optoelectronics.

  7. Optical identification using imperfections in 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yameng; Robson, Alexander J.; Alharbi, Abdullah; Roberts, Jonathan; Woodhead, Christopher S.; Noori, Yasir J.; Bernardo-Gavito, Ramón; Shahrjerdi, Davood; Roedig, Utz; Fal'ko, Vladimir I.; Young, Robert J.

    2017-12-01

    The ability to uniquely identify an object or device is important for authentication. Imperfections, locked into structures during fabrication, can be used to provide a fingerprint that is challenging to reproduce. In this paper, we propose a simple optical technique to read unique information from nanometer-scale defects in 2D materials. Imperfections created during crystal growth or fabrication lead to spatial variations in the bandgap of 2D materials that can be characterized through photoluminescence measurements. We show a simple setup involving an angle-adjustable transmission filter, simple optics and a CCD camera can capture spatially-dependent photoluminescence to produce complex maps of unique information from 2D monolayers. Atomic force microscopy is used to verify the origin of the optical signature measured, demonstrating that it results from nanometer-scale imperfections. This solution to optical identification with 2D materials could be employed as a robust security measure to prevent counterfeiting.

  8. MERRA DAS 2D Constants V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAC0NXASM or const_2d_asm_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional Constants at native resolution. MERRA, or the Modern Era...

  9. MERRA CHM 2D Constants V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAC0FXCHM or const_2d_chm_Fx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional Constants at native Fv resolution. MERRA, or the Modern Era...

  10. Negative terahertz photoconductivity in 2D layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junpeng; Liu, Hongwei; Sun, Jing

    2017-11-01

    The remarkable qualities of 2D layered materials such as wide spectral coverage, high strength and great flexibility mean that ultrathin 2D layered materials have the potential to meet the criteria of next-generation optoelectronic devices. Photoconductivity is one of the critical parameters of materials applied to optoelectronics. In contrast to traditional semiconductors, specific ultrathin 2D layers present anomalous negative photoconductivity. This opens a new avenue for designing novel optoelectronic devices. It is important to have a deep understanding of the fundamentals of this anomalous response, in order to design and optimize such devices. In this review, we provide an overview of the observation of negative photoconductivity in 2D layered materials including graphene, topological insulators and transitional metal dichalcogenides. We also summarize recent reports on investigations into the fundamental mechanism using ultrafast terahertz (THz) spectroscopies. Finally, we conclude the review by discussing the existing challenges and proposing the possible prospects of this direction of research.

  11. Orbifold reduction and 2d (0,2) gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Sebastián [Physics Department, The City College of the CUNY,160 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10031 (United States); The Graduate School and University Center, The City University of New York,365 Fifth Avenue, New York NY 10016 (United States); Lee, Sangmin [Center for Theoretical Physics, Seoul National University,Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University,Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); College of Liberal Studies, Seoul National University,Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Rak-Kyeong [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-03

    We introduce Orbifold Reduction, a new method for generating 2d(0,2) gauge theories associated to D1-branes probing singular toric Calabi-Yau 4-folds starting from 4dN=1 gauge theories on D3-branes probing toric Calabi-Yau 3-folds. The new procedure generalizes dimensional reduction and orbifolding. In terms of T-dual configurations, it generates brane brick models starting from brane tilings. Orbifold reduction provides an agile approach for generating 2d(0,2) theories with a brane realization. We present three practical applications of the new algorithm: the connection between 4d Seiberg duality and 2d triality, a combinatorial method for generating theories related by triality and a 2d(0,2) generalization of the Klebanov-Witten mass deformation.

  12. 2D and 3D Modeling Efforts in Fuel Film Cooling of Liquid Rocket Engines (Conference Paper with Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-12

    Conference Paper with Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 November 2016 – 12 January 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2D and 3D Modeling ...98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 2D and 3D Modeling Efforts in Fuel Film Cooling of Liquid Rocket Engines Kevin C. Brown∗, Edward B. Coy†, and...wide. As a consequence, the 3D simulations may better model the experimental setup used, but are perhaps not representative of the long circumferential

  13. Structural Theory and Classification of 2D Adinkras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Iga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adinkras are combinatorial objects developed to study (1-dimensional supersymmetry representations. Recently, 2D Adinkras have been developed to study 2-dimensional supersymmetry. In this paper, we classify all 2D Adinkras, confirming a conjecture of T. Hübsch. Along the way, we obtain other structural results, including a simple characterization of Hübsch’s even-split doubly even codes.

  14. Maximizing the Optical Band Gap in 2D Photonic Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Kristian G.; Sigmund, Ole

    Topology optimization is used to find the 2D photonic crystal designs with the largest relative photonic band gaps. Starting points for the topology optimization are found with an exhaustive binary search on a low resolution grid.......Topology optimization is used to find the 2D photonic crystal designs with the largest relative photonic band gaps. Starting points for the topology optimization are found with an exhaustive binary search on a low resolution grid....

  15. Large scale 2D spectral compressed sensing in continuous domain

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Jian-Feng

    2017-06-20

    We consider the problem of spectral compressed sensing in continuous domain, which aims to recover a 2-dimensional spectrally sparse signal from partially observed time samples. The signal is assumed to be a superposition of s complex sinusoids. We propose a semidefinite program for the 2D signal recovery problem. Our model is able to handle large scale 2D signals of size 500 × 500, whereas traditional approaches only handle signals of size around 20 × 20.

  16. QSAR Models for P-450 (2D6) Substrate Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Tine; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Jensen, Gunde Egeskov

    2009-01-01

    Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) is a large group of enzymes that possess an essential function in metabolising different exogenous and endogenous compounds. Humans have more than 50 different genes encoding CYP enzymes, among these a gene encoding for the CYP isoenzyme 2D6, a CYP able to metabolise d...... substrates. These chemicals are potentially present in the environment. The biological importance of the CYP 2D6 and the use of the software mentioned above were discussed....

  17. Photonics of 2D gold nanolayers on sapphire surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muslimov, A. E., E-mail: amuslimov@mail.ru; Butashin, A. V.; Nabatov, B. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Research Center “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation); Konovko, A. A.; Belov, I. V.; Gizetdinov, R. M.; Andreev, A. V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Kanevsky, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Research Center “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Gold layers with thicknesses of up to several nanometers, including ordered and disordered 2D nanostructures of gold particles, have been formed on sapphire substrates; their morphology is described; and optical investigations are carried out. The possibility of increasing the accuracy of predicting the optical properties of gold layers and 2D nanostructures using quantum-mechanical models based on functional density theory calculation techniques is considered. The application potential of the obtained materials in photonics is estimated.

  18. Generating a 2D Representation of a Complex Data Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A computer program, designed to assist in the development and debugging of other software, generates a two-dimensional (2D) representation of a possibly complex n-dimensional (where n is an integer >2) data structure or abstract rank-n object in that other software. The nature of the 2D representation is such that it can be displayed on a non-graphical output device and distributed by non-graphical means.

  19. Sparse Non-negative Matrix Factor 2-D Deconvolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel N.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the non-negative matrix factor 2-D deconvolution (NMF2D) model, which decomposes a matrix into a 2-dimensional convolution of two factor matrices. This model is an extension of the non-negative matrix factor deconvolution (NMFD) recently introduced by Smaragdis (2004). We derive and ...... this form of factorization. The developed algorithms have been used for source separation and music transcription....

  20. 2D IR Correlation Spectroscopy in Wood Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mihaela Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Generalized 2D correlation spectroscopy is a well-established technique that provides considerable utility and benefit in various spectroscopic studies of polymers. Some of the important features of generalized 2D correlation spectra are simplification of complex spectra consisting of many overlapped peaks, enhancement of spectral resolution by spreading peaks along the second dimension, unambiguous assignments through the correlation of bands selectively coupled by various interaction mechanisms, and determination of the sequence of the spectral peak emergence.

  1. Numerical investigation of convection-induced MHD waves interacting with a null point in 2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, Lucas A.; Linton, Mark G.; Leake, James

    2015-04-01

    We use the LaRe2D MHD code to investigate the propagation of waves in a 2D geometry that includes a quadrupolar magnetic field with a single nullpoint. The simulation box spans the upper convection zone to the corona (y=[-3Mm,35.4Mm] ) and includes a stratified atmosphere. We model the upper convection zone by introducing an energy flux at the lower boundary, an ad-hoc Newton-cooling term to simulate the effect of radiation at the photosphere (y=0), and an initial condition that includes density and internal energy perturbations throughout the convection zone. This sets up the superadiabatic temperature gradient necessary to sustain convection and generate waves. We discuss the dynamic properties of these waves as they propagate through the atmosphere and interact at topologically important features of the magnetic field. This work is funded by the Chief of Naval Research.

  2. 2-D numerical study of the hydrodynamics of laser accelerated foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atzeni, S.

    1989-01-01

    The large scale hydrodynamics of laser accelerated thin disks (foils) are studied numerically using a 2-D, evolutionary Lagrangian fluid code. The laser and target parameters considered are relevant to direct drive laser fusion, in the classical interaction regime. Peculiar 2-D features observed in the experiments are recovered in the simulations; agreement with experimental data is found for a series of experiments concerning foils of different thickness. Scaling laws for the design of hydrodynamically equivalent experiments are tested, with the effects of non-scaled processes turning out to be fairly small, although observable, and qualitatively in agreement with the relevant theory. Simulations also indicate the adequacy of foil acceleration experiments driven by non-uniform (but controlled) beams to the quantitative study of the smoothing of the irradiation non-uniformities. (author)

  3. Relevance of 2D radiographic texture analysis for the assessment of 3D bone micro-architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, Lian; Boudousq, Vincent; Basset, Oliver; Odet, Christophe; Yot, Sophie; Tabary, Joachim; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Boller, Elodie; Kotzki, Pierre-Olivier; Peyrin, Francoise

    2006-01-01

    Although the diagnosis of osteoporosis is mainly based on dual x-ray absorptiometry, it has been shown that trabecular bone micro-architecture is also an important factor in regard to fracture risk. In vivo, techniques based on high-resolution x-ray radiography associated to texture analysis have been proposed to investigate bone micro-architecture, but their relevance for giving pertinent 3D information is unclear. Thirty-three calcaneus and femoral neck bone samples including the cortical shells (diameter: 14 mm, height: 30-40 mm) were imaged using 3D-synchrotron x-ray micro-CT at the ESRF. The 3D reconstructed images with a cubic voxel size of 15 μm were further used for two purposes: (1) quantification of three-dimensional trabecular bone micro-architecture (2) simulation of realistic x-ray radiographs under different acquisition conditions. The simulated x-ray radiographs were then analyzed using a large variety of texture analysis methods (co-occurrence, spectral density, fractal, morphology, etc.). The range of micro-architecture parameters was in agreement with previous studies and rather large, suggesting that the population was representative. More than 350 texture parameters were tested. A small number of them were selected based on their correlation to micro-architectural morphometric parameters. Using this subset of texture parameters, multiple regression allowed one to predict up to 93% of the variance of micro-architecture parameters using three texture features. 2D texture features predicting 3D micro-architecture parameters other than BV/TV were identified. The methodology proposed for evaluating the relationships between 3D micro-architecture and 2D texture parameters may also be used for optimizing the conditions for radiographic imaging. Further work will include the application of the method to physical radiographs. In the future, this approach could be used in combination with DXA to refine osteoporosis diagnosis

  4. Exploration of complex metal 2D design rules using inverse lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Simon; Blatchford, James; Prins, Steve; Jessen, Scott; Dam, Thuc; Xiao, Guangming; Pang, Linyong; Gleason, Bob

    2009-03-01

    As design rule (DR) scaling continues to push lithographic imaging to higher numerical aperture (NA) and smaller k1 factor, extensive use of resolution enhancement techniques becomes a general practice. Use of these techniques not only adds considerable complexity to the design rules themselves, but also can lead to undesired and/or unanticipated problematic imaging effects known as "hotspots." This is particularly common for metal layers in interconnect patterning due to the many complex random and bidirectional (2D) patterns present in typical layout. In such situations, the validation of DR becomes challenging, and the ability to analyze large numbers of 2D layouts is paramount in generating a DR set that encodes all lithographic constraints to avoid hotspot formation. Process window (PW) and mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) are the two most important lithographic constraints in defining design rules. Traditionally, characterization of PW and MEEF by simulation has been carried out using discrete cut planes. For a complex 2D pattern or a large 2D layout, this approach is intractable, as the most likely location of the PW or MEEF hotspots often cannot be predicted empirically, and the use of large numbers of cut planes to ensure all hotspots are detected leads to excessive simulation time. In this paper, we present a novel approach to analyzing fullfield PW and MEEF using the inverse lithography technology (ILT) technique, [1] in the context of restrictive design rule development for the 32nm node. Using this technique, PW and MEEF are evaluated on every pixel within a design, thereby addressing the limitations of cut-plane approach while providing a complete view of lithographic performance. In addition, we have developed an analysis technique using color bitmaps that greatly facilitates visualization of PW and MEEF hotspots anywhere in the design and at an arbitrary level of resolution. We have employed the ILT technique to explore metal patterning options

  5. CYP2D6 variability in populations from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Nancy; Flores-Angulo, Carlos; Villegas, Cecilia; Mora, Yuselin

    2016-12-01

    CYP2D6 is an important cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of about 25% of currently prescribed drugs. The presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene may modulate enzyme level and activity, thereby affecting individual responses to pharmacological treatments. The most prevalent diseases in the admixed population from Venezuela are cardiovascular and cancer, whereas viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, particularly malaria, are prevalent in Amerindian populations; in the treatment of these diseases, several drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 are used. In this work, we reviewed the data on CYP2D6 variability and predicted metabolizer phenotypes, in healthy volunteers of two admixed and five Amerindian populations from Venezuela. The Venezuelan population is very heterogeneous as a result of the genetic admixture of three major ethnical components: Europeans, Africans and Amerindians. There are noticeable inter-regional and inter-population differences in the process of mixing of this population. Hitherto, there are few published studies in Venezuela on CYP2D6; therefore, it is necessary to increase research in this regard, in particular to develop studies with a larger sample size. There is a considerable amount of work remaining before CYP2D6 is integrated into clinical practice in Venezuela.

  6. Dynamic and approximate pattern matching in 2D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clifford, Raphaël; Fontaine, Allyx; Starikovskaya, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    We consider dynamic and online variants of 2D pattern matching between an mXm pattern and an nXn text. All the algorithms we give are randomised and give correct outputs with at least constant probability. - For dynamic 2D exact matching where updates change individual symbols in the text, we show...... updates can be performed in O(log2 n) time and queries in O(log2 m) time. - We then consider a model where an update is a new 2D pattern and a query is a location in the text. For this setting we show that Hamming distance queries can be answered in O(log m + H) time, where H is the relevant Hamming......). Given a threshold k and after building the 2D text index and receiving a 2D query pattern, we must output a location where the Hamming distance is at most (1 + ε)k as long as there exists a location where the Hamming distance is at most k. - For our LSH inspired 2D indexing problem, the text can...

  7. Prenatal Influences on Sexual Orientation: Digit Ratio (2D:4D and Number of Older Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katariina Kangassalo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal androgen levels are suggested to influence sexual orientation in both sexes. The 2D:4D digit ratio has been found to associate with sexual orientation, but published findings have often been contradictory, which may partly be due to the large ethnic diversity between and within studied populations. In men, number of older brothers has been found to correlate positively with homosexuality. This phenomenon has been explained with a maternal immune reaction, which is provoked only by male fetuses and which gets stronger after each pregnancy. Here we assessed the relationship of sexual orientation to 2D:4D ratios and number of older siblings in Finland, where the population is found to be genetically relatively homogeneous. As in many previous studies, heterosexual men had lower 2D:4D than non-heterosexual men, which supports the notion that non-heterosexual men experience higher androgen levels in utero than population norms. Contrary to previous reports, non-heterosexual women had higher 2D:4D than heterosexual women. Non-heterosexual men had more older brothers and older sisters than heterosexual men. The greater number of older sisters in non-heterosexual men indicates that there are other factors that contribute to the higher birth order of homosexual men than the maternal immunization.

  8. A dimensionality reduction technique for 2D scattering problems in photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyona Ivanova, O. V.; Stoffer, Remco; Hammer, Manfred

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes a simulation method for 2D frequency domain scattering problems in photonics. The technique reduces the spatial dimensionality of the problem by means of global, continuous mode expansion combined with a variational formalism; the resulting equations are solved using a finite element method. Transparent influx boundary conditions and perfectly matched layers are employed at the computational window boundaries. Numerical examples validate the method.

  9. Numerical solution of subsonic and transonic flows in 2D and 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huml, Jaroslav; Kozel, Karel

    2014-03-01

    This work deals with a numerical simulation of 2D and 3D inviscid and laminar compressible flows around a DCA 18% profile. Numerical results were achieved on non-orthogonal structured grids by the authors' in-home code with an implemented FVM multistage Runge-Kutta method and an artificial dissipation. The results are discussed and compared with other similar ones (e.g. the results by G. S. Deiwert).

  10. Numerical solution of subsonic and transonic flows in 2D and 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huml Jaroslav

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a numerical simulation of 2D and 3D inviscid and laminar compressible flows around a DCA 18% profile. Numerical results were achieved on non-orthogonal structured grids by the authors’ in-home code with an implemented FVM multistage Runge-Kutta method and an artificial dissipation. The results are discussed and compared with other similar ones (e.g. the results by G. S. Deiwert.

  11. Systematic Comparison of the Performance of Different 2D and 3D Ligand-Based Virtual Screening Methodologies to Discover Anticonvulsant Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ianni, Mauricio E; Gantner, Melisa E; Ruiz, María E; Castro, Eduardo A; Bruno-Blanch, Luis E; Talevi, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Virtual screening encompasses a wide range of computational approaches aimed at the high-throughput, cost-efficient exploration of chemical libraries or databases to discover new bioactive compounds or novel medical indications of known drugs. Here, we have performed a systematic comparison of the performance of a large number of 2D and 3D ligand-based approaches (2D and 3D similarity, QSAR models, pharmacophoric hypothesis) in a simulated virtual campaign on a chemical library containing 50 known anticonvulsant drugs and 950 decoys with no previous reports of anticonvulsant effect. To perform such comparison, we resorted to Receiver Operating Characteristic curves. We also tested the relative performance of consensus methodologies. Our results indicate that the selective combination of the individual approaches (through voting and ranking combination schemes) significantly outperforms the individual algorithms and/or models. Among the best-performing individual approaches, 2D similarity search based on circular fingerprints and 3D similarity approaches should be highlighted. Combining the results from different query molecules also led to enhanced enrichment.

  12. 2D halide perovskite-based van der Waals heterostructures: contact evaluation and performance modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yaguang; Saidi, Wissam A.; Wang, Qian

    2017-09-01

    Halide perovskites and van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures are both of current interest owing to their novel properties and potential applications in nano-devices. Here, we show the great potential of 2D halide perovskite sheets (C4H9NH3)2PbX4 (X  =  Cl, Br and I) that were synthesized recently (Dou et al 2015 Science 349 1518-21) as the channel materials contacting with graphene and other 2D metallic sheets to form van der Waals heterostructures for field effect transistor (FET). Based on state-of-the-art theoretical simulations, we show that the intrinsic properties of the 2D halide perovskites are preserved in the heterojunction, which is different from the conventional contact with metal surfaces. The 2D halide perovskites form a p-type Schottky barrier (Φh) contact with graphene, where tunneling barrier exists, and a negative band bending occurs at the lateral interface. We demonstrate that the Schottky barrier can be turned from p-type to n-type by doping graphene with nitrogen atoms, and a low-Φh or an Ohmic contact can be realized by doping graphene with boron atoms or replacing graphene with other high-work-function 2D metallic sheets such as ZT-MoS2, ZT-MoSe2 and H-NbS2. This study not only predicts a 2D halide perovskite-based FETs, but also enhances the understanding of tuning Schottky barrier height in device applications.

  13. Stimulus control by 5methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine in wild-type and CYP2D6-humanized mice

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, J. C.; Amorosi, D. J.; Rice, Kenner C.; Cheng, Kejun; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies we have observed that, in comparison with wild type mice, Tg-CYP2D6 mice have increased serum levels of bufotenine [5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine] following the administration of 5-MeO-DMT. Furthermore, following the injection of 5-MeO-DMT, harmaline was observed to increase serum levels of bufotenine and 5-MeO-DMT in both wild-type and Tg-CYP2D6 mice. In the present investigation, 5-MeO-DMT-induced stimulus control was established in wild-type and Tg-CYP2D6 mice. The t...

  14. Bethe Ansatz for two-magnon scattering states in 2D and 3D Heisenberg-Ising ferromagnets

    OpenAIRE

    Bibikov, P. N.

    2017-01-01

    Various versions of the Bethe ansatz are suggested for evaluation of scattering two-magnon states in 2D and 3D Heisenberg-Ising ferromagnets. It is shown that for 2D square (3D qubic) finite-periodic or infinite lattices about a half (3/4) of states have a correctly 2D- (3D-) generalized Bethe form. The remaining scattering states are treated (on the infinite lattices only) within the degenerative discrete-diffractive modification of the Bethe ansatz previously suggested by the author.

  15. Sparse Non-negative Tensor 2D Deconvolution (SNTF2D) for multi channel time-frequency analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel N.

    2006-01-01

    We recently introduced two algorithms for sparse non-negative matrix factor 2-D deconvolution (SNMF2D) that are useful for single channel source separation and music transcription. We here extend this approach to the analysis of the log-frequency spectrograms of a multichannel recording. The model....... The algorithms are demonstrated to successfully identify the components of both artificially generated as well as real stereo music....

  16. Impact of high speed civil transports on stratospheric ozone. A 2-D model investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnison, D.E.; Connell, P.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This study investigates the effect on stratospheric ozone from a fleet of proposed High Speed Civil Transports (HSCTs). The new LLNL 2-D operator-split chemical-radiative-transport model of the troposphere and stratosphere is used for this HSCT investigation. This model is integrated in a diurnal manner, using an implicit numerical solver. Therefore, rate coefficients are not modified by any sort of diurnal average factor. This model also does not make any assumptions on lumping of chemical species into families. Comparisons to previous model-derived HSCT assessment of ozone change are made, both to the previous LLNL 2-D model and to other models from the international assessment modeling community. The sensitivity to the NO{sub x} emission index and sulfate surface area density is also explored. (author) 7 refs.

  17. TLR and NKG2D signaling pathways mediate CS-induced pulmonary pathologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W Wortham

    Full Text Available Long-term exposure to cigarette smoke (CS can have deleterious effects on lung epithelial cells including cell death and the initiation of inflammatory responses. CS-induced cell injury can elaborate cell surface signals and cellular byproducts that stimulate immune system surveillance. Our previous work has shown that the expression of ligands for the cytotoxic lymphocyte activating receptor NKG2D is enhanced in patients with COPD and that the induction of these ligands in a mouse model can replicate COPD pathologies. Here, we extend these findings to demonstrate a role for the NKG2D receptor in CS-induced pathophysiology and provide evidence linking nucleic acid-sensing endosomal toll-like receptor (TLR signaling to COPD pathology through NKG2D activation. Specifically, we show that mice deficient in NKG2D exhibit attenuated pulmonary inflammation and airspace enlargement in a model of CS-induced emphysema. Additionally, we show that CS exposure induces the release of free nucleic acids in the bronchoalveolar lavage and that direct exposure of mouse lung epithelial cells to cigarette smoke extract similarly induces functional nucleic acids as assessed by TLR3, 7, and 9 reporter cell lines. We demonstrate that exposure of mouse lung epithelial cells to TLR ligands stimulates the surface expression of RAET1, a ligand for NKG2D, and that mice deficient in TLR3/7/9 receptor signaling do not exhibit CS-induced NK cell hyperresponsiveness and airspace enlargement. The findings indicate that CS-induced airway injury stimulates TLR signaling by endogenous nucleic acids leading to elevated NKG2D ligand expression. Activation of these pathways plays a major role in the altered NK cell function, pulmonary inflammation and remodeling related to long-term CS exposure.

  18. Comparative analysis of 2D and 3D model of a PEMFC in COMSOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, R. Bakiya; Harikrishnan, N. P.; Juliet, A. Vimala

    2017-10-01

    In this article, 2D and 3D model of a PEMFC has been simulated in order to study their performance when subjected to similar operating conditions. The comparison reveals interesting phenomena of performance enhancement of the fuel cell. Design of fuel cell channel and stationary studies were done in COMSOL. Variations in current density and electrolyte potential from simulation results were observed when operated at a temperature of 120 °C. The electrolyte potential was found to have increased from 1 to 2.5 V and the surface pressure due to fluid flow was found to have increased from 3 to 9.58 Pa.

  19. Grupos de galaxias en el catálogo 2dF: La estructura en gran escala con grupos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandivarez, A.; Merchán, M. E.; Padilla, N. D.

    We use the 2dF Galaxy Group Catalogue constructed by Merchán & Zandivarez to study the large scale structure of the Universe traced by galaxy groups. The resulting group power spectrum shows a similar shape to the galaxy power spectrum of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, but with a higher amplitude quantified by a relative bias in redshift space of bs(k) ˜ 1.5. The group two point correlation function ξ(s) for the total sample is well described by a power law with correlation length s0=8.9 ± 0.3 h-1 Mpc and slope γ=-1.6 ± 0.1. In order to study the dependence of the clustering properties on group mass we split the catalogue in four subsamples defined by different ranges of group virial masses finding that our results are consistent with a 40% increase of the correlation length s0. These computations allow a fair estimate of the relation described by s0 and the mean intergroup separation dc. An empirical scaling law s0=4.7 dc0.32 provides a very good fit to the results from this work, as well as to previous results obtained for groups and clusters of galaxies and for dark matter haloes in N-body simulations of ΛCDM models. We also study the redshift space distortions of galaxy groups, finding that the anisotropies in the clustering pattern of groups are consistent with gravitational instability, with a flattening of the ξ(s) contours in the direction of the line of sight and group pairwise velocities found for almost the whole sample of groups are consistent with 1/2 = (280+50-110)km/s, in agreement with ΛCDM cosmological simulations. The bias factor for the 2dF groups of moderate masses is consistent with the values predicted by the combination of a CDM model and the ellipsoidal collapse model for the formation of structures.

  20. Performance of the 2-D asynchronous OCDMA system with ASE light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bin; Lehnert, James S.

    2005-09-01

    The wavelength-hopping/time-spreading scheme for optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA), also known as the 2-D scheme, has been studied by many researchers for more than a decade. In all of previous analyses, the light sources were modeled as perfectly incoherent, which requires infinite bandwidth, and chip-synchrony was assumed for mathematical simplicity. Therefore, it is important to study how the system actually performs with true asynchrony and practical light sources. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source is a desirable source for the incoherent OCDMA system because of its broad bandwidth, large power, and low cost. In this paper, each chip generated by the transmitter is a rectangular ASE pulse with a Gaussian-distributed electrical field. The coherence time is much smaller than the chip duration, but non-zero. Because of this partial coherence of the light source, beat noise will occur when multiple pulses are combined. In addition, interfering pulses may only partially overlap with the pulses from the desired user due to the asynchrony, which introduces more randomness into the decision statistic. Both factors are taken into account when the distribution of the decision statistic is derived mathematically. Simulations of the bit-error rate (BER) are performed, and the results show that the coherence time may be the major limiting factor on the system performance. For example, when the coherence time is only 1/100 of the chip duration, the BER is 1-4 orders of magnitude worse than that of the ideal case.

  1. Onset of 2D magnetic reconnection in the solar photosphere, chromosphere, and corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, B.; Botha, G. J. J.; McLaughlin, J. A.; Hillier, A.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: We aim to investigate the onset of 2D time-dependent magnetic reconnection that is triggered using an external (non-local) velocity driver located away from, and perpendicular to, an equilibrium Harris current sheet. Previous studies have typically utilised an internal trigger to initiate reconnection, for example initial conditions centred on the current sheet. Here, an external driver allows for a more naturalistic trigger as well as the study of the earlier stages of the reconnection start-up process. Methods: Numerical simulations solving the compressible, resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations were performed to investigate the reconnection onset within different atmospheric layers of the Sun, namely the corona, chromosphere and photosphere. Results: A reconnecting state is reached for all atmospheric heights considered, with the dominant physics being highly dependent on atmospheric conditions. The coronal case achieves a sharp rise in electric field (indicative of reconnection) for a range of velocity drivers. For the chromosphere, we find a larger velocity amplitude is required to trigger reconnection (compared to the corona). For the photospheric environment, the electric field is highly dependent on the inflow speed; a sharp increase in electric field is obtained only as the velocity entering the reconnection region approaches the Alfvén speed. Additionally, the role of ambipolar diffusion is investigated for the chromospheric case and we find that the ambipolar diffusion alters the structure of the current density in the inflow region. Conclusions: The rate at which flux enters the reconnection region is controlled by the inflow velocity. This determines all aspects of the reconnection start-up process, that is, the early onset of reconnection is dominated by the advection term in Ohm's law in all atmospheric layers. A lower plasma-β enhances reconnection and creates a large change in the electric field. A high plasma-β hinders the

  2. Vertical Transistors Based on 2D Materials: Status and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Giannazzo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D materials, such as graphene (Gr, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN, offer interesting opportunities for the implementation of vertical transistors for digital and high-frequency electronics. This paper reviews recent developments in this field, presenting the main vertical device architectures based on 2D/2D or 2D/3D material heterostructures proposed so far. For each of them, the working principles and the targeted application field are discussed. In particular, tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs for beyond-CMOS low power digital applications are presented, including resonant tunneling transistors based on Gr/h-BN/Gr stacks and band-to-band tunneling transistors based on heterojunctions of different semiconductor layered materials. Furthermore, recent experimental work on the implementation of the hot electron transistor (HET with the Gr base is reviewed, due to the predicted potential of this device for ultra-high frequency operation in the THz range. Finally, the material sciences issues and the open challenges for the realization of 2D material-based vertical transistors at a large scale for future industrial applications are discussed.

  3. Unsupervised 2D Dimensionality Reduction with Adaptive Structure Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Nie, Feiping; Wang, Sen; Guo, Jun; Xu, Pengfei; Chen, Xiaojiang

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, unsupervised two-dimensional (2D) dimensionality reduction methods for unlabeled large-scale data have made progress. However, performance of these degrades when the learning of similarity matrix is at the beginning of the dimensionality reduction process. A similarity matrix is used to reveal the underlying geometry structure of data in unsupervised dimensionality reduction methods. Because of noise data, it is difficult to learn the optimal similarity matrix. In this letter, we propose a new dimensionality reduction model for 2D image matrices: unsupervised 2D dimensionality reduction with adaptive structure learning (DRASL). Instead of using a predetermined similarity matrix to characterize the underlying geometry structure of the original 2D image space, our proposed approach involves the learning of a similarity matrix in the procedure of dimensionality reduction. To realize a desirable neighbors assignment after dimensionality reduction, we add a constraint to our model such that there are exact [Formula: see text] connected components in the final subspace. To accomplish these goals, we propose a unified objective function to integrate dimensionality reduction, the learning of the similarity matrix, and the adaptive learning of neighbors assignment into it. An iterative optimization algorithm is proposed to solve the objective function. We compare the proposed method with several 2D unsupervised dimensionality methods. K-means is used to evaluate the clustering performance. We conduct extensive experiments on Coil20, AT&T, FERET, USPS, and Yale data sets to verify the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  4. A self-assembled 2D/2D-type protonated carbon nitride-modified graphene oxide nanocomposite with improved photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Linfang; Ni, Jie; Tang, Bo; He, Guangyu; Chen, Haiqun

    2018-03-01

    A surface charge modified g-C3N4 was successfully prepared by protonation of nitric acid. Combination of the protonated g-C3N4 (pCN) and graphene oxide (GO) layers created a 2D/2D-type composite (pCN/GO) under the synergistic effect of sonication-exfoliation and self-assembly. The obtained 2D nanostructure of pCN/GO was explored by electron microscopy analysis. The photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) showed a distinctly high efficiency of pCN/GO-5% with excellent stability, which is superior not only to that of g-C3N4, pCN and g-C3N4/GO-5% nanocomposites we prepared, but also to what was reported previously. The optimized combination of GO and pCN afforded the pCN/GO composite intimate interfacial contact within the heterojunction, which promoted the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs as evidenced by zeta potential, photoluminescence and photocurrent measurements. A visible-light photocatalytic degradation mechanism associated with pCN/GO nanocomposites was also proposed.

  5. Multiyear Statistics of 2-D Shortwave Radiative Effects at Three ARM Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnai, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the importance of horizontal photon transport effects, which are not considered in the 1-D calculations of solar radiative heating used by most atmospheric dynamical models. In particular, the paper analyzes the difference between 2-D and 1-D radiative calculations for 2-D vertical cross-sections of clouds that were observed at three sites over 2- to 3-year periods. The results show that 2-D effects increase multiyear 24-hour average total solar absorption by about 4.1 W/sq m, 1.2 W/sq m, and 0.3 W/sq m at a tropical, mid-latitude, and arctic site, respectively. However, 2-D effects are often much larger than these average values, especially for high sun and for convective clouds. The results also reveal a somewhat unexpected behavior, that horizontal photon transport often enhances solar heating even for oblique sun. These findings underscore the need for fast radiation calculation methods that can allow atmospheric dynamical simulations to consider the inherently multidimensional nature of shortwave radiative processes.

  6. Quantum computational capability of a 2D valence bond solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Akimasa

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Our model is the 2D valence bond solid phase of a quantum antiferromagnet. → Universal quantum computation is processed by measurements of quantum correlations. → An intrinsic complexity of strongly-correlated quantum systems could be a resource. - Abstract: Quantum phases of naturally-occurring systems exhibit distinctive collective phenomena as manifestation of their many-body correlations, in contrast to our persistent technological challenge to engineer at will such strong correlations artificially. Here we show theoretically that quantum correlations exhibited in the 2D valence bond solid phase of a quantum antiferromagnet, modeled by Affleck, Kennedy, Lieb, and Tasaki (AKLT) as a precursor of spin liquids and topological orders, are sufficiently complex yet structured enough to simulate universal quantum computation when every single spin can be measured individually. This unveils that an intrinsic complexity of naturally-occurring 2D quantum systems-which has been a long-standing challenge for traditional computers-could be tamed as a computationally valuable resource, even if we are limited not to create newly entanglement during computation. Our constructive protocol leverages a novel way to herald the correlations suitable for deterministic quantum computation through a random sampling, and may be extensible to other ground states of various 2D valence bond phases beyond the AKLT state.

  7. A Fast Algorithm for 2D DOA Estimation Using an Omnidirectional Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weike Nie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The traditional 2D MUSIC algorithm fixes the azimuth or the elevation, and searches for the other without considering the directions of sources. A spectrum peak diffusion effect phenomenon is observed and may be utilized to detect the approximate directions of sources. Accordingly, a fast 2D MUSIC algorithm, which performs azimuth and elevation simultaneous searches (henceforth referred to as AESS based on only three rounds of search is proposed. Firstly, AESS searches along a circle to detect the approximate source directions. Then, a subsequent search is launched along several straight lines based on these approximate directions. Finally, the 2D Direction of Arrival (DOA of each source is derived by searching on several small concentric circles. Unlike the 2D MUSIC algorithm, AESS does not fix any azimuth and elevation parameters. Instead, the adjacent point of each search possesses different azimuth and elevation, i.e., azimuth and elevation are simultaneously searched to ensure that the search path is minimized, and hence the total spectral search over the angular field of view is avoided. Simulation results demonstrate the performance characters of the proposed AESS over some existing algorithms.

  8. Analysis of the behavior and 2D modeling of ferrite inductors with E geometry: comparison with 3D model and real measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleite J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose and validate by experiment a practical method to compute by simulations the inductance of a ferrite inductor as a function of the current intensity level from the linear to the saturation regions. Our method combines the use of 2D Finite Element Analysis with experimental measurements taken in a laboratory environment. We also present and analyze results of the convergence and computational cost of the 2D and 3D simulations showing the reduction of computational cost when we chose the 2D simulation.

  9. MESH2D Grid generator design and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-31

    Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program originally designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). x-coordinates depending only on index i implies strictly vertical x-grid lines, whereas the y-grid lines can undulate. Mesh2d also assigns an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations. Since the original development effort, Mesh2d has been extended to more general two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i,j),(i,j)].

  10. Simultaneous 2D Strain Sensing Using Polymer Planar Bragg Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Manuel; Eisenbeil, Waltraud; Schmauss, Bernhard; Hellmann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of polymer planar Bragg gratings for multi-axial strain sensing and particularly highlight simultaneous 2D strain measurement. A polymer planar Bragg grating (PPBG) fabricated with a single writing step in bulk polymethylmethacrylate is used for measuring both tensile and compressive strain at various angles. It is shown that the sensitivity of the PPBG strongly depends on the angle between the optical waveguide into which the grating is inscribed and the direction along which the mechanical load is applied. Additionally, a 2D PPBG fabricated by writing two Bragg gratings angularly displaced from each other into a single polymer platelet is bonded to a stainless steel plate. The two reflected wavelengths exhibit different sensitivities while tested toward tensile and compressive strain. These characteristics make 2D PPBG suitable for measuring multi-axial tensile and compressive strain. PMID:25686313

  11. Surface defect indices and 2d-4d BPS states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova, Clay; Gaiotto, Davide; Shao, Shu-Heng

    2017-12-01

    We conjecture a formula for the Schur index of four-dimensional N=2 theories coupled to (2, 2) surface defects in terms of the 2 d-4 d BPS spectrum in the Coulomb phase of the theory. The key ingredient in our conjecture is a refined 2 d-4 d wall-crossing invariant, which we also formulate. Our result intertwines recent conjectures expressing the four-dimensional Schur index in terms of infrared BPS particles, with the Cecotti-Vafa formula for limits of the elliptic genus in terms of two-dimensional BPS solitons. We extend our discussion to framed 2 d-4 d BPS states, and use this to demonstrate a general relationship between surface defect indices and line defect indices. We illustrate our results in the example of su(2) super Yang-Mills coupled to the ℂℙ1 sigma model defect.

  12. Maximizing entropy of image models for 2-D constrained coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Danieli, Matteo; Burini, Nino

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers estimating and maximizing the entropy of two-dimensional (2-D) fields with application to 2-D constrained coding. We consider Markov random fields (MRF), which have a non-causal description, and the special case of Pickard random fields (PRF). The PRF are 2-D causal finite...... context models, which define stationary probability distributions on finite rectangles and thus allow for calculation of the entropy. We consider two binary constraints and revisit the hard square constraint given by forbidding neighboring 1s and provide novel results for the constraint that no uniform 2...... £ 2 squares contains all 0s or all 1s. The maximum values of the entropy for the constraints are estimated and binary PRF satisfying the constraint are characterized and optimized w.r.t. the entropy. The maximum binary PRF entropy is 0.839 bits/symbol for the no uniform squares constraint. The entropy...

  13. Determination of slope failure using 2-D resistivity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muztaza, Nordiana Mohd; Saad, Rosli; Ismail, Nur Azwin; Bery, Andy Anderson

    2017-07-01

    Landslides and slope failure may give negative economic effects including the cost to repair structures, loss of property value and medical costs in the event of injury. To avoid landslide, slope failure and disturbance of the ecosystem, good and detailed planning must be done when developing hilly area. Slope failure classification and various factors contributing to the instability using 2-D resistivity survey conducted in Selangor, Malaysia are described. The study on landslide and slope failure was conducted at Site A and Site B, Selangor using 2-D resistivity method. The implications of the anticipated ground conditions as well as the field observation of the actual conditions are discussed. Nine 2-D resistivity survey lines were conducted in Site A and six 2-D resistivity survey lines with 5 m minimum electrode spacing using Pole-dipole array were performed in Site B. The data were processed using Res2Dinv and Surfer10 software to evaluate the subsurface characteristics. 2-D resistivity results from both locations show that the study areas consist of two main zones. The first zone is alluvium or highly weathered with the resistivity of 100-1000 Ωm at 20-70 m depth. This zone consists of saturated area (1-100 Ωm) and boulders with resistivity value of 1200-3000 Ωm. The second zone with resistivity values of > 3000 Ωm was interpreted as granitic bedrock. The study area was characterized by saturated zones, highly weathered zone, highly contain of sand and boulders that will trigger slope failure in the survey area. Based on the results obtained from the study findings, it can be concluded that 2-D resistivity method is useful method in determination of slope failure.

  14. SKIMO: corto de animación 2D

    OpenAIRE

    VALERO BALLESTER, AIDA AMPARO

    2015-01-01

    El siguiente Trabajo Final de Grado llamado “Skimo” consiste en un teaser de animación 2D enfocado a ser finalizado el próximo año durante la realización del Diploma en Animación de personajes 2D del Máster de animación. Realizado en solitario como reto personal durante el curso presente, siendo la primera vez que trabajaba la animación. Para este proyecto he realizado toda la preproducción (layout, animática, storyboard, diseño de personajes, fondos, etc), animación en pape...

  15. 2-D emittance equation with acceleration and compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, K.D.; Smith, L.

    1988-10-01

    Since both acceleration and compression are required for an Inertial Fusion Driver, the understanding of their effect on the beam quality, emittance, is important. This report attempts to generalize the usual emittance formula for the drifting beam to include these effects. The derivation of the 2-D emittance equation is carried out and a comparison with the particle code results is given. The 2-D emittance at a given axial location is reasonable to consider for a long beam, particularly with velocity tilt; transverse emittance averaged over the entire bunch is not a useful quantity. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachón, Leonardo A. [Grupo de Física Atómica y Molecular, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Marcus, Andrew H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Oregon Center for Optics, Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States); Aspuru-Guzik, Alán [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.

  17. Promiscuity and the single receptor: NKG2D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Robert A; Trowsdale, John

    2007-09-01

    NKG2D (natural-killer group 2, member D) is a powerful activating receptor expressed by natural killer (NK) cells and T cells that regulates immune responses during infection, cancer and autoimmunity. NKG2D ligands comprise a diverse array of MHC-class-I-related proteins that are upregulated by cellular stress. Why is it beneficial for the host to have so many ligands for the same receptor? In this Opinion article, we propose that although competition with viruses is the most likely evolutionary drive for this diversity, there might be other explanations.

  18. Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gould, Derek A; Chalmers, Nicholas; Johnson, Sheena J

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of the many limitations of traditional apprenticeship training is driving new approaches to learning medical procedural skills. Among simulation technologies and methods available today, computer-based systems are topical and bring the benefits of automated, repeatable, and reliable...... performance assessments. Human factors research is central to simulator model development that is relevant to real-world imaging-guided interventional tasks and to the credentialing programs in which it would be used....

  19. A study of a sector spectrophotometer and auroral O+(2P-2D) emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    The metastable O+(2P-2D) auroral emission was investigated. The neighboring OH contaminants and low intensity levels of the emission itself necessitated the evolution of an instrument capable of separating the emission from the contaminants and having a high sensitivity in the wavelength region of interest. A new type of scanning photometer was developed and its properties are discussed. The theoretical aspects of auroral electron interaction with atomic oxygen and the resultant O+(2P-2D) emissions were examined in conjunction with N2(+)1NEG emissions. Ground based measurements of O+(2P-2D) auroral emission intensities were made using the spatial scanning photometer (sector spectrophotometer). Simultaneous measurements of N2(+)1NEG sub 1,0 emission intensity were made in the same field of view using a tilting photometer. Time histories of the ratio of these two emissions made in the magnetic zenith during auroral breakup periods are given. Theories of I sub 7319/I sub 4278 of previous investigators were presented. A rocket measurement of N2(+)1NEG sub 0,0 and O+(2P-2D) emission in aurora was examined in detail and was found to agree with the ground based measurements. Theoretical examination resulted in the deduction of the electron impact efficiency generating O+(2P) and also suggests a large source of O+(2P) at low altitude. A possible source is charge exchange of N+(1S) with OI(3P).

  20. Investigating fold structures of 2D materials by quantitative transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Zengming; Liu, Wei; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-04-01

    We report an approach developed for deriving 3D structural information of 2D membrane folds based on the recently-established quantitative transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Systematic multislice simulations reveal that the membrane folding leads to sufficiently strong electron scattering which enables a precise determination of bending radius. The image contrast depends also on the folding angles of 2D materials due to the variation of projection potentials, which however exerts much smaller effect compared with the bending radii. DFT calculations show that folded edges are typically characteristic of (fractional) nanotubes with the same curvature retained after energy optimization. Owing to the exclusion of Stobbs factor issue, numerical simulations were directly used in comparison with the experimental measurements on an absolute contrast scale, which results in a successful determination of bending radius of folded monolayer MoS 2 films. The method should be applicable to characterizing all 2D membranes with 3D folding features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Comparison of Fully-Coupled 3D In-Stent Restenosis Simulations to In-vivo Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zun, P.S.; Anikina, T.; Svitenkov, A.I.; Hoekstra, A.G.

    We describe our fully-coupled 3D multiscale model of in-stent restenosis, with blood flow simulations coupled to smooth muscle cell proliferation, and report results of numerical simulations performed with this model. This novel model is based on several previously reported 2D models. We study the

  2. Implementation of 2D Discrete Wavelet Transform by Number Theoretic Transform and 2D Overlap-Save Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the computation complexity of wavelet transform, this paper presents a novel approach to be implemented. It consists of two key techniques: (1 fast number theoretic transform(FNTT In the FNTT, linear convolution is replaced by the circular one. It can speed up the computation of 2D discrete wavelet transform. (2 In two-dimensional overlap-save method directly calculating the FNTT to the whole input sequence may meet two difficulties; namely, a big modulo obstructs the effective implementation of the FNTT and a long input sequence slows the computation of the FNTT down. To fight with such deficiencies, a new technique which is referred to as 2D overlap-save method is developed. Experiments have been conducted. The fast number theoretic transform and 2D overlap-method have been used to implement the dyadic wavelet transform and applied to contour extraction in pattern recognition.

  3. 2D FEM Inversion With A Moving Footprint And A hybrid 1D And 2D Forward And Derivative Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, T.; Auken, E.; Vöge, M.; Kirkegaard, C.; Andersen, K. R.; Pfaffhuber, A. A.; Christiansen, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    FEM inversions using a 1D model description have proven themselves extremely robust and fast, but every now and again geological structures that are not well modelled within the 1D Earth approximation are encountered. Finding and determining these structures are often one of the primary objectives in an EM survey. Unfortunately, pure 2D/3D modelling is prohibitively computational expensive, which limits inversions. We present a hybrid inversion scheme that consists of three stages: a 1D forward and derivative stage, a 2D forward and 1D derivative stage, and a full 2D stage. This ensures that the full 2D inversion has an optimal starting model and thus only requires a limited number of iterations. This hybrid scheme significantly lowers the time it takes to invert a survey compared to conventional full 2D inversions. We have implemented a moving footprint, which is required due to memory limitations. However, due to the quadratic increase in computation time when increasing the number of elements in our finite element mesh, one finds that the optimal section size, which results in the fastest computation speed, is much smaller than the limitations caused by memory requirements. The parallelisation is placed across the sections created by the moving footprint, which gives a strong scaling as shown in Figure 1. We present our algorithm on both synthetic data for a clear understanding of the benefits of the 2D algorithm as well as on field data to show the robustness and scalability. Figure 1: The speed-up as a function of the number of cpus on a non-uniform memory architecture (NUMA) system.

  4. Modeling Root Growth, Crop Growth and N Uptake of Winter Wheat Based on SWMS_2D: Model and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejun Yang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Simulations for root growth, crop growth, and N uptake in agro-hydrological models are of significant concern to researchers. SWMS_2D is one of the most widely used physical hydrologically related models. This model solves equations that govern soil-water movement by the finite element method, and has a public access source code. Incorporating key agricultural components into the SWMS_2D model is of practical importance, especially for modeling some critical cereal crops such as winter wheat. We added root growth, crop growth, and N uptake modules into SWMS_2D. The root growth model had two sub-models, one for root penetration and the other for root length distribution. The crop growth model used was adapted from EU-ROTATE_N, linked to the N uptake model. Soil-water limitation, nitrogen limitation, and temperature effects were all considered in dry-weight modeling. Field experiments for winter wheat in Bouwing, the Netherlands, in 1983-1984 were selected for validation. Good agreements were achieved between simulations and measurements, including soil water content at different depths, normalized root length distribution, dry weight and nitrogen uptake. This indicated that the proposed new modules used in the SWMS_2D model are robust and reliable. In the future, more rigorous validation should be carried out, ideally under 2D situations, and attention should be paid to improve some modules, including the module simulating soil N mineralization.

  5. CFD code comparison for 2D airfoil flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Méndez, B.; Muñoz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The current paper presents the effort, in the EU AVATAR project, to establish the necessary requirements to obtain consistent lift over drag ratios among seven CFD codes. The flow around a 2D airfoil case is studied, for both transitional and fully turbulent conditions at Reynolds numbers of 3 × ...

  6. Invariant measures of the 2D Euler and Vlasov equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, Freddy; Corvellec, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    We discuss invariant measures of partial differential equations such as the 2D Euler or Vlasov equations. For the 2D Euler equations, starting from the Liouville theorem, valid for N-dimensional approximations of the dynamics, we define the microcanonical measure as a limit measure where N goes to infinity. When only the energy and enstrophy invariants are taken into account, we give an explicit computation to prove the following result: the microcanonical measure is actually a Young measure corresponding to the maximization of a mean-field entropy. We explain why this result remains true for more general microcanonical measures, when all the dynamical invariants are taken into account. We give an explicit proof that these microcanonical measures are invariant measures for the dynamics of the 2D Euler equations. We describe a more general set of invariant measures and discuss briefly their stability and their consequence for the ergodicity of the 2D Euler equations. The extension of these results to the Vlasov equations is also discussed, together with a proof of the uniqueness of statistical equilibria, for Vlasov equations with repulsive convex potentials. Even if we consider, in this paper, invariant measures only for Hamiltonian equations, with no fluxes of conserved quantities, we think this work is an important step towards the description of non-equilibrium invariant measures with fluxes

  7. The toroidal Hausdorff dimension of 2d Euclidean quantum gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjorn, Jan; Budd, Timothy George

    2013-01-01

    The lengths of shortest non-contractible loops are studied numerically in 2d Euclidean quantum gravity on a torus coupled to conformal field theories with central charge less than one. We find that the distribution of these geodesic lengths displays a scaling in agreement with a Hausdorff dimension...

  8. Comparison Between 2D And 3D Surface Roughness Parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of a research programme, extensive electro discharge machining (EDM) was done so as to generate different spark eroded surfaces. Through surface texture measurements, it has been confirmed that the use of 2D parameters alone is indeed misleading. Thus, in order to comprehensively represent the topography ...

  9. Numerical modelling of unsteady 2D sheet cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, D.F.; de Bruin, G.J.; van Wijngaarden, L.; van Wijngaarden, L.

    1996-01-01

    Unsteady 2D sheet cavitation has been calculated by a BEM. Cubics are used to represent various quantities like the potential on the wet part of the profile, the normal velocity on the sheet, the geometry of the profile and the sheet. The growing cavity sheet, the re-entrant jet and the sheet

  10. 2D MR angiography of the aortic aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanuma, Makoto; Hasegawa, Makoto; Watabe, Tsuneya; Heshiki, Atsuko

    1992-01-01

    2D time-of-flight MR angiography was performed in 6 cases of thoracic aortic aneurysm. Oblique saturation pulses were used to suppress the signals of the pulmonary artery and SVC, providing excellent selective MR aortograms. Three dimensional extension of the aneurysm and its relation with cervical branches were easily assessed. It could be possible to replace invasive aortography by this technique. (author)

  11. spatial variation of magnetotelluric field components in simple 2d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEVEERERRY

    when approximating a three-dimensional (3D) body by a two-dimensional (2D) body because of ... 1993). A 3D MT response calculated using the integral equation technique required about 20 minutes – CPU time ..... are local induction of current loops and current gathering. When the aspect ratio of the inhomogeneity is.

  12. Approximate 2D inversion of airborne TEM data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N.B.; Wolfgram, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We propose an approximate two-dimensional inversion procedure for transient electromagnetic data. The method is a two-stage procedure, where data are first inverted with 1D multi-layer models. The 1D model section is then considered as data for the next inversion stage that produces the 2D model...

  13. Superconformal N=2, D=5 matter with and without actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E; de Wit, T; Halbersma, R; Cucu, S; Gheerardyn, J; Van Proeyen, A; Vandoren, S

    2002-01-01

    We investigate N = 2, D = 5 supersymmetry and matter-coupled supergravity theories in a superconformal context. In a first stage we do not require the existence of a lagrangian. Under this assumption, we already find at the level of rigid supersymmetry, i.e. before coupling to conformal

  14. A 2D particle velocity sensor with minimal flow disturbance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pjetri, O.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2016-01-01

    A 2D sound particle velocity sensor, consisting of a cross of two connected, heated wires is presented. We developed a fabrication process by which the wires become freely suspended 350 micrometer above the chip surface. This largely eliminates the influence of boundary layer effects and increases

  15. Computational study of interfaces and edges of 2D materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farmanbar Gelepordsari, M.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its intriguing properties has given birth to the field of two-dimensional (2D) materials. These materials are characterized by a strong covalent bonding between the atoms within a plane, but weak, van derWaals, bonding between the planes. Such materials can be isolated

  16. 2D nanomaterials based electrochemical biosensors for cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Xiong, Qirong; Xiao, Fei; Duan, Hongwei

    2017-03-15

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in the world. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that early diagnosis holds the key towards effective treatment outcome. Cancer biomarkers are extensively used in oncology for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Electrochemical sensors play key roles in current laboratory and clinical analysis of diverse chemical and biological targets. Recent development of functional nanomaterials offers new possibilities of improving the performance of electrochemical sensors. In particular, 2D nanomaterials have stimulated intense research due to their unique array of structural and chemical properties. The 2D materials of interest cover broadly across graphene, graphene derivatives (i.e., graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide), and graphene-like nanomaterials (i.e., 2D layered transition metal dichalcogenides, graphite carbon nitride and boron nitride nanomaterials). In this review, we summarize recent advances in the synthesis of 2D nanomaterials and their applications in electrochemical biosensing of cancer biomarkers (nucleic acids, proteins and some small molecules), and present a personal perspective on the future direction of this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Generic Theory for Majorana Zero Modes in 2D Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cheung; Zhang, Lin; Poon, Ting Fung Jeffrey; He, Ying-Ping; Wang, Yan-Qi; Liu, Xiong-Jun

    2017-07-01

    It is well known that non-Abelian Majorana zero modes (MZM) are located at vortex cores in a px+𝒾 py topological superconductor, which can be realized in a 2D spin-orbit coupled system with a single Fermi surface and by proximity coupling to an s -wave superconductor. Here we show that the existence of non-Abelian MZMs is unrelated to the bulk topology of a 2D superconductor, and propose that such exotic modes can result in a much broader range of superconductors, being topological or trivial. For a generic 2D system with multiple Fermi surfaces that is gapped out by superconducting pairings, we show that at least a single MZM survives if there are only an odd number of Fermi surfaces of which the corresponding superconducting orders have vortices; such a MZM is protected by an emergent Chern-Simons invariant, irrespective of the bulk topology of the superconductor. This result enriches new experimental schemes for realizing non-Abelian MZMs. In particular, we propose a minimal scheme to realize the MZMs in a 2D superconducting Dirac semimetal with trivial bulk topology, which can be well achieved based on recent cold-atom experiments.

  18. Estimating 2D Upper Body Poses from Monocular Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuijsen, Jeroen; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Poel, Mannes

    2006-01-01

    Automatic estimation and recognition of poses from video allows for a whole range of applications. The research described here is an important step towards automatic extraction of 3D poses. We describe our research to extract the 2D joint locations of the people in meeting videos. The key point of

  19. Concepts and methods of 2D infrared spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamm, Peter; Zanni, Martin T

    2011-01-01

    ... spectra and exercises to illustrate the concepts involved. Readers will learn how to accurately interpret 2D IR spectra, design their own spectrometer and invent their own pulse sequences. It is an excellent starting point for graduate students and researchers new to this exciting field. Computer codes and answers to the exercises can be downloaded fro...

  20. The effects of aging on haptic 2D shape recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overvliet, K.E.; Wagemans, J.; Krampe, R.T.

    2013-01-01

    We use the image-mediation model (Klatzky & Lederman, 1987) as a framework to investigate potential sources of adult age differences in the haptic recognition of two-dimensional (2D) shapes. This model states that the low-resolution, temporally sequential, haptic input is translated into a visual

  1. On the sensitivity of the 2D electromagnetic invisibility cloak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaproulias, S. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Sigalas, M.M., E-mail: sigalas@upatras.gr [Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2012-10-15

    A computational study of the sensitivity of the two dimensional (2D) electromagnetic invisibility cloaks is performed with the finite element method. A circular metallic object is covered with the cloak and the effects of absorption, gain and disorder are examined. Also the effect of covering the cloak with a thin dielectric layer is studied.

  2. Creation of a scalar potential in 2D dilaton gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrndt, K.

    1994-09-01

    The authors investigate quantum corrections of the 2-d dilaton gravity near the singularity. Their motivation comes from a s-wave reduced cosmological solution which is classically singular in the scalar fields (dilaton and moduli). As a result they find, that the singularity disappears and a dilaton/moduli potential is created

  3. Fast 2D Complex Gabor Filter With Kernel Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyoon; Um, Suhyuk; Min, Dongbo

    2018-04-01

    2D complex Gabor filtering has found numerous applications in the fields of computer vision and image processing. Especially, in some applications, it is often needed to compute 2D complex Gabor filter bank consisting of filtering outputs at multiple orientations and frequencies. Although several approaches for fast Gabor filtering have been proposed, they focus primarily on reducing the runtime for performing filtering once at specific orientation and frequency. To obtain the Gabor filter bank, the existing methods are repeatedly applied with respect to multiple orientations and frequencies. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that efficiently computes the 2D complex Gabor filter bank by reducing the computational redundancy that arises when performing filtering at multiple orientations and frequencies. The proposed method first decomposes the Gabor kernel to allow a fast convolution with the Gaussian kernel in a separable manner. This enables reducing the runtime of the Gabor filter bank by reusing intermediate results computed at a specific orientation. By extending this idea, we also propose a fast approach for 2D localized sliding discrete Fourier transform that uses the Gaussian kernel in order to lend spatial localization ability as in the Gabor filter. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method runs faster than the state-of-the-art methods, while maintaining similar filtering quality.

  4. Band Alignment of 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Chiu, Ming-Hui

    2016-09-20

    It is critically important to characterize the band alignment in semiconductor heterojunctions (HJs) because it controls the electronic and optical properties. However, the well-known Anderson\\'s model usually fails to predict the band alignment in bulk HJ systems due to the presence of charge transfer at the interfacial bonding. Atomically thin 2D transition metal dichalcogenide materials have attracted much attention recently since the ultrathin HJs and devices can be easily built and they are promising for future electronics. The vertical HJs based on 2D materials can be constructed via van der Waals stacking regardless of the lattice mismatch between two materials. Despite the defect-free characteristics of the junction interface, experimental evidence is still lacking on whether the simple Anderson rule can predict the band alignment of HJs. Here, the validity of Anderson\\'s model is verified for the 2D heterojunction systems and the success of Anderson\\'s model is attributed to the absence of dangling bonds (i.e., interface dipoles) at the van der Waal interface. The results from the work set a foundation allowing the use of powerful Anderson\\'s rule to determine the band alignments of 2D HJs, which is beneficial to future electronic, photonic, and optoelectronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. 2D Materials with Nanoconfined Fluids for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustyn, Veronica [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Gogotsi, Yury [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Inst.

    2017-10-11

    In the quest to develop energy storage with both high power and high energy densities, and while maintaining high volumetric capacity, recent results show that a variety of 2D and layered materials exhibit rapid kinetics of ion transport by the incorporation of nanoconfined fluids.

  6. 2-D tiles declustering method based on virtual devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongmin; Gao, Lu

    2009-10-01

    Generally, 2-D spatial data are divided as a series of tiles according to the plane grid. To satisfy the effect of vision, the tiles in the query window including the view point would be displayed quickly at the screen. Aiming at the performance difference of real storage devices, we propose a 2-D tiles declustering method based on virtual device. Firstly, we construct a group of virtual devices which have same storage performance and non-limited capacity, then distribute the tiles into M virtual devices according to the query window of 2-D tiles. Secondly, we equably map the tiles in M virtual devices into M equidistant intervals in [0, 1) using pseudo-random number generator. Finally, we devide [0, 1) into M intervals according to the tiles distribution percentage of every real storage device, and distribute the tiles in each interval in the corresponding real storage device. We have designed and realized a prototype GlobeSIGht, and give some related test results. The results show that the average response time of each tile in the query window including the view point using 2-D tiles declustering method based on virtual device is more efficient than using other methods.

  7. Validation of minor species of the MIPAS2D database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Papandrea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The MIPAS2D [Dinelli et al., 2010] database has been developed applying the tomographic analysis technique GMTR [Carlotti et al., 2001] to measurements acquired in the nominal observation mode of the complete MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmosphere Sounding [Fischer et al., 2008] mission. […

  8. 2D Toda chain and associated commutator identity

    OpenAIRE

    Pogrebkov, A. K.

    2007-01-01

    Developing observation made in \\cite{commut} we show that simple identity of the commutator type on an associative algebra is in one-to-one correspondence to 2D (infinite) Toda chain. We introduce representation of elements of associative algebra that, under some generic conditions, enables derivation of the Toda chain equation and its Lax pair from the given commutator identity.

  9. ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research

  10. A Library for Declarative Resolution-Independent 2D Graphics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van der Ploeg (Atze); P. Klint (Paul)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractThe design of most 2D graphics frameworks has been guided by what the computer can draw efficiently, instead of by how graphics can best be expressed and composed. As a result, such frameworks restrict expressivity by providing a limited set of shape primitives, a limited set of textures

  11. 2D lattice model of a lipid bilayer: Microscopic derivation and thermodynamic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Davit; Heuer, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Based on all-atom Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of a lipid bilayer we present a systematic mapping on a 2D lattice model. Keeping the lipid type and the chain order parameter as key variables we derive a free energy functional, containing the enthalpic interaction of adjacent lipids as well as the tail entropy. The functional form of both functions is explicitly determined for saturated and polyunsaturated lipids. By studying the lattice model via Monte Carlo simulations it is possible to reproduce the temperature dependence of the distribution of order parameters of the pure lipids, including the prediction of the gel transition. Furthermore, application to a mixture of saturated and polyunsaturated lipids yields the correct phase separation behavior at lower temperatures with a simulation time reduced by approximately 7 orders of magnitude as compared to the corresponding MD simulations. Even the time-dependence of the de-mixing is reproduced on a semi-quantitative level. Due to the generality of the approach we envisage a large number of further applications, ranging from modeling larger sets of lipids, sterols, and solvent proteins to predicting nucleation barriers for the melting of lipids. Particularly, from the properties of the 2D lattice model one can directly read off the enthalpy and entropy change of the 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine gel-to-liquid transition in excellent agreement with experimental and MD results.

  12. Cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6) Genotype and Breast Cancer Recurrence in Tamoxifen-Treated Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Hertz, Daniel L; Damkier, Per

    2017-01-01

    -infiltrated tissues, all of which showed excellent CYP2D6 genotype agreement. We applied these concordance data to a quantitative bias analysis of the subset of the 31 studies that were based on genotypes from tumor-infiltrated tissue to examine whether genotyping errors substantially biased estimates of association....... The bias analysis showed negligible bias by discordant genotypes. Summary estimates of association, with or without bias adjustment, indicated no clinically important association between CYP2D6 genotype and breast cancer survival in tamoxifen-treated women....

  13. 2-D DOA Estimation of LFM Signals Based on Dechirping Algorithm and Uniform Circle Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Cui

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on Dechirping algorithm and uniform circle array(UCA, a new 2-D direction of arrival (DOA estimation algorithm of linear frequency modulation (LFM signals is proposed in this paper. The algorithm uses the thought of Dechirping and regards the signal to be estimated which is received by the reference sensor as the reference signal and proceeds the difference frequency treatment with the signal received by each sensor. So the signal to be estimated becomes a single-frequency signal in each sensor. Then we transform the single-frequency signal to an isolated impulse through Fourier transform (FFT and construct a new array data model based on the prominent parts of the impulse. Finally, we respectively use multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithm and rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT algorithm to realize 2-D DOA estimation of LFM signals. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the algorithm proposed.

  14. Adaptive DSPI phase denoising using mutual information and 2D variational mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qiyang; Li, Jian; Wu, Sijin; Li, Weixian; Yang, Lianxiang; Dong, Mingli; Zeng, Zhoumo

    2018-04-01

    In digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI), noise interference leads to a low peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and measurement errors in the phase map. This paper proposes an adaptive DSPI phase denoising method based on two-dimensional variational mode decomposition (2D-VMD) and mutual information. Firstly, the DSPI phase map is subjected to 2D-VMD in order to obtain a series of band-limited intrinsic mode functions (BLIMFs). Then, on the basis of characteristics of the BLIMFs and in combination with mutual information, a self-adaptive denoising method is proposed to obtain noise-free components containing the primary phase information. The noise-free components are reconstructed to obtain the denoising DSPI phase map. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively reduce noise interference, giving a PSNR that is higher than that of two-dimensional empirical mode decomposition methods.

  15. On the control of the chaotic attractors of the 2-d Navier-Stokes equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaoui, Nejib; Zribi, Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    The control problem of the chaotic attractors of the two dimensional (2-d) Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations is addressed in this paper. First, the Fourier Galerkin method based on a reduced-order modelling approach developed by Chen and Price is applied to the 2-d N-S equations to construct a fifth-order system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The dynamics of the fifth-order system was studied by analyzing the system's attractor for different values of Reynolds number, R e . Then, control laws are proposed to drive the states of the ODE system to a desired attractor. Finally, an adaptive controller is designed to synchronize two reduced order ODE models having different Reynolds numbers and starting from different initial conditions. Simulation results indicate that the proposed control schemes work well.

  16. COMPARISON BETWEEN 2D TURBULENCE MODEL ESEL AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA FROM AUG AND COMPASS TOKAMAKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ondac

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we have used the 2D fluid turbulence numerical model, ESEL, to simulate turbulent transport in edge tokamak plasma. Basic plasma parameters from the ASDEX Upgrade and COMPASS tokamaks are used as input for the model, and the output is compared with experimental observations obtained by reciprocating probe measurements from the two machines. Agreements were found in radial profiles of mean plasma potential and temperature, and in a level of density fluctuations. Disagreements, however, were found in the level of plasma potential and temperature fluctuations. This implicates a need for an extension of the ESEL model from 2D to 3D to fully resolve the parallel dynamics, and the coupling from the plasma to the sheath.

  17. Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin

    2016-10-26

    Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule-CN-noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology.

  18. Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon

    2006-01-01

    Ross's Simulation, Fourth Edition introduces aspiring and practicing actuaries, engineers, computer scientists and others to the practical aspects of constructing computerized simulation studies to analyze and interpret real phenomena. Readers learn to apply results of these analyses to problems in a wide variety of fields to obtain effective, accurate solutions and make predictions about future outcomes. This text explains how a computer can be used to generate random numbers, and how to use these random numbers to generate the behavior of a stochastic model over time. It presents the statist

  19. WE-AB-BRA-07: Quantitative Evaluation of 2D-2D and 2D-3D Image Guided Radiation Therapy for Clinical Trial Credentialing, NRG Oncology/RTOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giaddui, T; Yu, J; Xiao, Y [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Jacobs, P [MIM Software, Inc, Cleavland, Ohio (United States); Manfredi, D; Linnemann, N [IROC Philadelphia, RTQA Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: 2D-2D kV image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) credentialing evaluation for clinical trial qualification was historically qualitative through submitting screen captures of the fusion process. However, as quantitative DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D image registration tools are implemented in clinical practice for better precision, especially in centers that treat patients with protons, better IGRT credentialing techniques are needed. The aim of this work is to establish methodologies for quantitatively reviewing IGRT submissions based on DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D image registration and to test the methodologies in reviewing 2D-2D and 2D-3D IGRT submissions for RTOG/NRG Oncology clinical trials qualifications. Methods: DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D automated and manual image registration have been tested using the Harmony tool in MIM software. 2D kV orthogonal portal images are fused with the reference digital reconstructed radiographs (DRR) in the 2D-2D registration while the 2D portal images are fused with DICOM planning CT image in the 2D-3D registration. The Harmony tool allows alignment of the two images used in the registration process and also calculates the required shifts. Shifts calculated using MIM are compared with those submitted by institutions for IGRT credentialing. Reported shifts are considered to be acceptable if differences are less than 3mm. Results: Several tests have been performed on the 2D-2D and 2D-3D registration. The results indicated good agreement between submitted and calculated shifts. A workflow for reviewing these IGRT submissions has been developed and will eventually be used to review IGRT submissions. Conclusion: The IROC Philadelphia RTQA center has developed and tested a new workflow for reviewing DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D IGRT credentialing submissions made by different cancer clinical centers, especially proton centers. NRG Center for Innovation in Radiation Oncology (CIRO) and IROC RTQA center continue their collaborative efforts to enhance

  20. Value of digit ratio 2D:4D, a biomarker of prenatal hormone exposure, is stable across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Magdalena; Marcinkowska, Urszula M; Jasienska, Grazyna

    2017-07-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) is used as a marker of prenatal hormone exposure and, consequently, as a predictor of many characteristics throughout a woman's lifespan. A previous study has suggested that values of 2D:4D vary across menstrual cycles and further questioned the reliability of a single measurement of 2D:4D among cycling women, while another study failed to confirm these results. However, these studies estimated the timing of cycle phases based on a date of menstruation reported by participants and also had small sample sizes. For our study, we evaluated potential changes in 2D:4D values across a menstrual cycle in a group of women among whom the phases of the menstrual cycle were determined by hormonal (luteinizing hormone based) ovulation tests. We studied 32 naturally cycling women aged 22-37 from rural Poland. Lengths of second and fourth digits were measured based on scans of both hands taken three times (i.e. in the follicular phase, peri-ovulatory phase and luteal phase of the cycle) for each participant. No differences in 2D:4D value across the menstrual cycle were detected either when right-hand, left-hand, and mean 2D:4D for both hands were analysed, nor when difference in the 2D:4D value between hands (D left-right ) was evaluated. We documented that 2D:4D is independent of the phase of the menstrual cycle and these findings suggest that among naturally cycling women, a value of 2D:4D can be reliably obtained from measurements taken during any day of the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High frequency of CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizer genotypes in an Ashkenazi Jewish population from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, G; Dorado, P; Ferreiro, V; Naranjo, M E G; Peñas-Lledó, E M; LLerena, A

    2017-07-01

    A twofold higher frequency of CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers (estimated from genotype: gUMs) was reported among Ashkenazi Jews (AJ) living in New York (USA) than in other North American Caucasians, which might be important to guide the prescription for CYP2D6 substrates in AJ communities around the world. This study was aimed to determine whether the high frequency of CYP2D6 gUMs described in AJ from USA was replicated in AJ from Argentina when compared with other multiethnic admixture Argentines (GA). The frequency of the most common allelic variants and of CYP2D6 gUMs (>2 active genes) and poor metabolizers (0 active genes, gPMs) was also compared among the studied Argentine populations. CYP2D6 genotyping was performed in 173 AJ and 246 GA DNA samples of unrelated donors from the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires. CYP2D6 alleles (*2, *3, *4, *5, *6, *10, *17, *35, *41 and multiple copies), genotypes and functional phenotype frequencies were determined. The frequencies of gUMs and gPMs in AJ from Argentina were 11.5% and 5.2%, respectively, whereas in GA, the frequencies of gUM and gPMs were 6.5% and 4.9%, respectively. Comparisons between AJ and GA showed that gUMs frequencies were twofold higher (P<0.05) in AJ than GA. CYP2D6*35 allele was more frequent in GA than AJ, whereas CYP2D6*41 and *1xN were more frequent in AJ than in GA (P<0.05). This study supports the previously reported high frequency of gUMs on another Ashkenazi population in New York. The present findings also support the interethnic variability of CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism in the overall Argentine population.

  2. Comparison of the accuracy and precision of prostate localization with 2D-2D and 3D images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadottir, Ashildur; Korreman, Stine; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per

    2011-01-01

    with prostate cancer were enrolled in the study. After each daily session, a set of 2D–2D and 3D images were acquired. The images isocenter was compared to reference images isocenter. For the set-up error analysis the systematic error, μ, and the set-up uncertainties, Σ and σ, were determined...

  3. 2-D linear motion system. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program requires buildings to be decontaminated, decommissioned, and surveyed for radiological contamination in an expeditious and cost-effective manner. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. D and D workers must perform duties high off the ground, requiring the use of manlifts or scaffolding, often, in radiologically or chemically contaminated areas or in areas with limited access. Survey and decontamination instruments that are used are sometimes heavy or awkward to use, particularly when the worker is operating from a manlift or scaffolding. Finding alternative methods of performing such work on manlifts or scaffolding is important. The 2-D Linear Motion System (2-D LMS), also known as the Wall Walker trademark, is designed to remotely position tools and instruments on walls for use in such activities as radiation surveys, decontamination, and painting. Traditional (baseline) methods for operating equipment for these tasks require workers to perform duties on elevated platforms, sometimes several meters above the ground surface and near potential sources of contamination. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS significantly improves health and safety conditions by facilitating remote operation of equipment. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS performed well in a demonstration of its precision, accuracy, maneuverability, payload capacity, and ease of use. Thus, this innovative technology is demonstrated to be a viable alternative to standard methods of performing work on large, high walls, especially those that have potential contamination concerns. The Wall Walker was used to perform a final release radiological survey on over 167 m 2 of walls. In this application, surveying using a traditional (baseline) method that employs an aerial lift for manual access was 64% of the total cost of the improved technology. However

  4. Gold-standard performance for 2D hydrodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; MacVicar, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    Two-dimensional, depth-averaged hydrodynamic (2D) models are emerging as an increasingly useful tool for environmental water resources engineering. One of the remaining technical hurdles to the wider adoption and acceptance of 2D modeling is the lack of standards for 2D model performance evaluation when the riverbed undulates, causing lateral flow divergence and convergence. The goal of this study was to establish a gold-standard that quantifies the upper limit of model performance for 2D models of undulating riverbeds when topography is perfectly known and surface roughness is well constrained. A review was conducted of published model performance metrics and the value ranges exhibited by models thus far for each one. Typically predicted velocity differs from observed by 20 to 30 % and the coefficient of determination between the two ranges from 0.5 to 0.8, though there tends to be a bias toward overpredicting low velocity and underpredicting high velocity. To establish a gold standard as to the best performance possible for a 2D model of an undulating bed, two straight, rectangular-walled flume experiments were done with no bed slope and only different bed undulations and water surface slopes. One flume tested model performance in the presence of a porous, homogenous gravel bed with a long flat section, then a linear slope down to a flat pool bottom, and then the same linear slope back up to the flat bed. The other flume had a PVC plastic solid bed with a long flat section followed by a sequence of five identical riffle-pool pairs in close proximity, so it tested model performance given frequent undulations. Detailed water surface elevation and velocity measurements were made for both flumes. Comparing predicted versus observed velocity magnitude for 3 discharges with the gravel-bed flume and 1 discharge for the PVC-bed flume, the coefficient of determination ranged from 0.952 to 0.987 and the slope for the regression line was 0.957 to 1.02. Unsigned velocity

  5. First Investigation on a novel 2D position sensitive semiconductor detector concept

    CERN Document Server

    Bassignana, D; Jaramillo, R; Lozano, M; Munoz, F.J; Pellegrini, G; Quirion, D; Vila, I

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a first study of the performance of a novel 2D position-sensitive microstrip detector, where the resistive charge division method was implemented by replacing the metallic electrodes with resistive electrodes made of polycrystalline silicon. A characterization of two proof-of-concept prototypes with different values of the electrode resistivity was carried out using a pulsed Near Infra-Red laser. The experimental data were compared with the electrical simulation of the sensor equivalent circuit coupled to simple electronics readout circuits. The good agreement between experimental and simulation results establishes the soundness of resistive charge division method in silicon microstrip sensors and validates the developed simulation as a tool for the optimization of future sensor prototypes. Spatial resolution in the strip length direction depends on the ionizing event position. The average value obtained from the protype analysis is close to 1.2% of the strip length for a 6 MIP signal.

  6. CYP 2D6 Binding Affinity Predictions Using Multiple Ligand and Protein Conformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovorka Perić-Hassler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the large flexibility and malleability of Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs, in silico prediction of CYP binding affinities to drugs and other xenobiotic compounds is a true challenge. In the current work, we use an iterative linear interaction energy (LIE approach to compute CYP binding affinities from molecular dynamics (MD simulation. In order to improve sampling of conformational space, we combine results from simulations starting with different relevant protein-ligand geometries. For calculated binding free energies of a set of thiourea compounds binding to the flexible CYP 2D6 isoform, improved correlation with experiment was obtained by combining results of MD runs starting from distinct protein conformations and ligand-binding orientations. This accuracy was obtained from relatively short MD simulations, which makes our approach computationally attractive for automated calculations of ligand-binding affinities to flexible proteins such as CYPs.

  7. Comparison between a 1D and a 2D numerical model of an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Frank; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2008-01-01

    The active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigeration system represents an environmentally attractive alternative to vapour-compression refrigeration. This paper compares the results of two numerical AMR models: (1) a 1D finite difference model and (2) a 2D finite element model. Both models simulate...

  8. First Principles Calculations of Electronic Excitations in 2D Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Filip Anselm

    Since the first reported synthesization of graphene ̣- an atomically thin carbon material - in 2004 there has been a surge of research in discovering other novel two-dimensional materials. The reason is clear: two-dimensional materials are thought to be able to lead to new fast and low-power ultra...... mechanics methods. One of these methods, Density Functional Theory (DFT), has been very successful at determining structural properties of 2D materials. It is however well-known that it less accurate when it comes to predicting the energy levels of excited states that are important in order to determine...... of the numerical methods that are efficient for bulk systems become invalid. In this thesis I describe the study of a set of novel 2D materials and establish their electronic and optical properties using DFT and the GW approximation while taking the reduced screening properly into account as well as taking regard...

  9. 2D/3D Program work summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The 2D/3D Program was carried out by Germany, Japan and the United States to investigate the thermal-hydraulics of a PWR large-break LOCA. A contributory approach was utilized in which each country contributed significant effort to the program and all three countries shared the research results. Germany constructed and operated the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF), and Japan constructed and operated the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF) and the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF). The US contribution consisted of provision of advanced instrumentation to each of the three test facilities, and assessment of the TRAC computer code against the test results. Evaluations of the test results were carried out in all three countries. This report summarizes the 2D/3D Program in terms of the contributing efforts of the participants, and was prepared in a coordination among three countries. US and Germany have published the report as NUREG/IA-0126 and GRS-100, respectively. (author)

  10. 2D/3D Program work summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The 2D/3D Program was carried out by Germany, Japan and the United States to investigate the thermal-hydraulics of a PWR large-break LOCA. A contributory approach was utilized in which each country contributed significant effort to the program and all three countries shared the research results. Germany constructed and operated the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF), and Japan constructed and operated the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF) and the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF). The US contribution consisted of provision of advanced instrumentation to each of the three test facilities, and assessment of the TRAC computer code against the test results. Evaluations of the test results were carried out in all three countries. This report summarizes the 2D/3D Program in terms of the contributing efforts of the participants, and was prepared in a coordination among three countries. US and Germany have published the report as NUREG/IA-0126 and GRS-100, respectively. (author).

  11. Room temperature Sieving of Hydrogen Isotopes Using 2-D Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Colon-Mercado, H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Krentz, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Serkiz, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Velten, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Xiao, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-28

    Hydrogen isotope separation is critical to the DOE’s mission in environmental remediation and nuclear nonproliferation. Isotope separation is also a critical technology for the NNSA, and the ability to perform the separations at room temperature with a relatively small amount of power and space would be a major advancement for their respective missions. Recent work has shown that 2-D materials such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride can act as an isotopic sieve at room temperature; efficiently separating hydrogen isotopes in water with reported separation ratios of 10:1 for hydrogen: deuterium separation for a single pass. The work performed here suggests that this technique has merit, and furthermore, we are investigating optimization and scale up of the required 2-D material based membranes.

  12. 2D-immunoblotting analysis of Sporothrix schenckii cell wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Ruiz-Baca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We utilized two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting (2D-immunoblotting with anti-Sporothrix schenckii antibodies to identify antigenic proteins in cell wall preparations obtained from the mycelial and yeast-like morphologies of the fungus. Results showed that a 70-kDa glycoprotein (Gp70 was the major antigen detected in the cell wall of both morphologies and that a 60-kDa glycoprotein was present only in yeast-like cells. In addition to the Gp70, the wall from filament cells showed four proteins with molecular weights of 48, 55, 66 and 67 kDa, some of which exhibited several isoforms. To our knowledge, this is the first 2D-immunoblotting analysis of the S. schenckii cell wall.

  13. (2D2LDALPP: A Novel Approach to Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Guo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel supervised dimensionality reduction approach for facial feature extraction called (2D2LDALPP. The proposed (2D2LDALPP method effectively combines alternative 2DLDA with alternative 2DLPP. The feature extraction is split into two steps: firstly, the column directional information is extracted by applying alternative 2DLDA; secondly, the feature matrix is inversed and alternative 2DLPP is used to extract the row directional information. The advantage of the method lies in the compression of the facial image in two different directions and the fact that the dimension of the feature matrix is low. At the same time, because 2DLDA is a supervised learning method, the proposed method not only preserves the manifold structure of the samples but also contains the label information of the classes. Experimental results on the Feret, ORL, and Yale databases show that the proposed method is effective.

  14. Electrical spin injection into high mobility 2D systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltscher, M; Ciorga, M; Utz, M; Schuh, D; Bougeard, D; Weiss, D

    2014-12-05

    We report on spin injection into a high mobility 2D electron system confined at an (Al,Ga)As/GaAs interface, using (Ga,Mn)As Esaki diode contacts as spin aligners. We measured a clear nonlocal spin valve signal, which varies nonmonotonically with the applied bias voltage. The magnitude of the signal cannot be described by the standard spin drift-diffusion model, because at maximum this would require the spin polarization of the injected current to be much larger than 100%, which is unphysical. A strong correlation of the spin signal with contact width and electron mean free path suggests that ballistic transport in the 2D region below ferromagnetic contacts should be taken into account to fully describe the results.

  15. 2-D and 3-D computations of curved accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    In order to save computer memory, a long accelerator magnet may be computed by treating the long central region and the end regions separately. The dipole magnets for the injector synchrotron of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), employ magnet iron consisting of parallel laminations, stacked with a uniform radius of curvature of 33.379 m. Laplace's equation for the magnetic scalar potential has a different form for a straight magnet (x-y coordinates), a magnet with surfaces curved about a common center (r-θ coordinates), and a magnet with parallel laminations like the APS injector dipole. Yet pseudo 2-D computations for the three geometries give basically identical results, even for a much more strongly curved magnet. Hence 2-D (x-y) computations of the central region and 3-D computations of the end regions can be combined to determine the overall magnetic behavior of the magnets. 1 ref., 6 figs

  16. Simplistic approach for 2D grown-in microdefect modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prostomolotov, Anatoly; Verezub, Nataliya [Institute for Problems in Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-15

    In the present paper the analysis of cooling conditions influence on microdefect formation in Si single crystal was carried out on the basis of an analytical formulation for crystal temperature field jointly with developed two-dimensional (2D) models of microdefect formation. The new mathematical model is applied for calculations of vacancy microdefect formation, in which the 2D vacancy migration process is taken into account and the approached calculation algorithm is offered, which is not requiring the data storage for whole defect growth pre-history. The calculated results are discussed for conditions of Cz silicon single crystal growing. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Submicrometric 2D ratchet effect in magnetic domain wall motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castán-Guerrero, C., E-mail: ccastan@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Herrero-Albillos, J. [Fundación ARAID, E-50004 Zaragoza (Spain); Centro Universitario de la Defensa, E-50090 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Sesé, J. [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Bartolomé, J.; Bartolomé, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Valdés-Bango, F.; Martín, J.I.; Alameda, J.M. [Dpto. Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); CINN (CSIC – Universidad de Oviedo – Principado de Asturias), Asturias (Spain); García, L.M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    Strips containing arrays of submicrometric triangular antidots with a 2D square periodicity have been fabricated by electron beam lithography. A clear ratchet effect of 180° domain wall motion under a varying applied field parallel to the walls has been observed. The direction is determined by the direction of the triangle vertices. In contrast, no ratchet effect is observed when the antidot array is constituted by symmetric rhomb-shaped antidots.

  18. 2D NMR-spectroscopic screening reveals polyketides in ladybugs

    OpenAIRE

    Deyrup, Stephen T.; Eckman, Laura E.; McCarthy, Patrick H.; Smedley, Scott R.; Meinwald, Jerrold; Schroeder, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    Small molecules of biological origin continue to yield the most promising leads for drug design, but systematic approaches for exploring nature’s cache of structural diversity are lacking. Here, we demonstrate the use of 2D NMR spectroscopy to screen a library of biorationally selected insect metabolite samples for partial structures indicating the presence of new chemical entities. This NMR-spectroscopic survey enabled detection of novel compounds in complex metabolite mixtures without prior...

  19. 2D-piirtotoimintojen toteutus Revit-mallinnusohjelmassa

    OpenAIRE

    Piironen, Perttu

    2013-01-01

    Tämän insinöörityön tavoitteena oli mallintaa Revit Architecture-ohjelmalla kaksikerroksinen kivirunkoinen paritalo. Lisäksi tavoitteena oli perehtyä ohjelman 2D-piirustusominaisuuksiin, sekä pääpiirustusten viimeistelyyn ja tulostamiseen oikeassa mittakaavassa. Paritalo suunniteltiin Jyväskylässä sijaitsevalle kaupungin vuokratontille. Työssä selvitettiin paritalon mallintamisen vaiheet Revit Architecture -ohjelmalla. Lisäksi piirrettiin vaiheittain perustusleikkaus Revit Architecturen 2...

  20. The Seismic Analyzer: Interpreting and Illustrating 2D Seismic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Daniel; Giertsen, Christopher; Thurmond, John; Gjelberg, John; Gröller, Eduard

    2008-01-01

    We present a toolbox for quickly interpreting and illustrating 2D slices of seismic volumetric reflection data. Searching for oil and gas involves creating a structural overview of seismic reflection data to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs. We improve the search of seismic structures by precalculating the horizon structures of the seismic data prior to interpretation. We improve the annotation of seismic structures by applying novel illustrative rendering algorithms tailored to seism...

  1. 2-D Video Motion Detection (VMD) theory and operations manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hush, D.R.; Schnetzer, E.E.

    1988-08-01

    This document describes the 2-D Video Motion Detection system. The system uses the difference between an image and a time averaged reference to detect moving objects in a scene. The objects are tracked over several frames to infer whether they exhibit purposeful motion and are targets of interest. The system is robust in the sense that it can track multiple objects under difficult scenarios. 8 figs.

  2. Energy level transitions of gas in a 2D nanopore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinyaev, Yurii V., E-mail: grn@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Chertova, Nadezhda V., E-mail: chertova@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Psakhie, Sergei G., E-mail: sp@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    An analytical study of gas behavior in a 2D nanopore was performed. It is shown that the temperature dependence of gas energy can be stepwise due to transitions from one size-quantized subband to another. Taking into account quantum size effects results in energy level transitions governed by the nanopore size, temperature and gas density. This effect leads to an abrupt change of gas heat capacity in the nanopore at the above varying system parameters.

  3. Multiwavelet packets and frame packets of L2( d)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    we see that the above procedure splits the half-integer translates of a function into integer translates of two functions. In fact, the splitting is not confined to V1 alone: we can choose to split Wj .... To define the Fourier transform for functions of L2( d), the operator F is extended from ... -periodic if f (x + 2kπ) = f (x) for all k ∈ d.

  4. 2D imaging of functional structures in perfused pig heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Manfred D.; Cristea, Paul D.; Hiller, Michael; Trinks, Tobias

    2002-06-01

    In 2000 by 2D-imaging we were able for the first time to visualize in subcellular space functional structures of myocardium. For these experiments we used hemoglobin-free perfused pig hearts in our lab. Step by step we learned to understand the meaning of subcellular structures. Principally, the experiment revealed that in subcellular space very fast changes of light scattering can occur. Furthermore, coefficients of different parameters were determined on the basis of multicomponent system theory.

  5. Nonlinear to Linear Elastic Code Coupling in 2-D Axisymmetric Media.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, Leiph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Explosions within the earth nonlinearly deform the local media, but at typical seismological observation distances, the seismic waves can be considered linear. Although nonlinear algorithms can simulate explosions in the very near field well, these codes are computationally expensive and inaccurate at propagating these signals to great distances. A linearized wave propagation code, coupled to a nonlinear code, provides an efficient mechanism to both accurately simulate the explosion itself and to propagate these signals to distant receivers. To this end we have coupled Sandia's nonlinear simulation algorithm CTH to a linearized elastic wave propagation code for 2-D axisymmetric media (axiElasti) by passing information from the nonlinear to the linear code via time-varying boundary conditions. In this report, we first develop the 2-D axisymmetric elastic wave equations in cylindrical coordinates. Next we show how we design the time-varying boundary conditions passing information from CTH to axiElasti, and finally we demonstrate the coupling code via a simple study of the elastic radius.

  6. F-theory and 2d (0,2) theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura [Department of Mathematics, King’s College London, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Weigand, Timo [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität,Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-05-11

    F-theory compactified on singular, elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds gives rise to two-dimensional gauge theories preserving N=(0,2) supersymmetry. In this paper we initiate the study of such compactifications and determine the dictionary between the geometric data of the elliptic fibration and the 2d gauge theory such as the matter content in terms of (0,2) superfields and their supersymmetric couplings. We study this setup both from a gauge-theoretic point of view, in terms of the partially twisted 7-brane theory, and provide a global geometric description based on the structure of the elliptic fibration and its singularities. Global consistency conditions are determined and checked against the dual M-theory compactification to one dimension. This includes a discussion of gauge anomalies, the structure of the Green-Schwarz terms and the Chern-Simons couplings in the dual M-theory supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Furthermore, by interpreting the resulting 2d (0,2) theories as heterotic worldsheet theories, we propose a correspondence between the geometric data of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds and the target space of a heterotic gauged linear sigma-model (GLSM). In particular the correspondence between the Landau-Ginsburg and sigma-model phase of a 2d (0,2) GLSM is realized via different T-branes or gluing data in F-theory.

  7. Volumetric Elasticity Imaging with a 2D CMUT Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ted G.; Hall, Timothy J.; Panda, Satchi; Richards, Michael S.; Barbone, Paul E.; Jiang, Jingfeng; Resnick, Jeff; Barnes, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the use of a two-dimensional (2D) capacitive micro-machined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) to acquire radio frequency (RF) echo data from relatively large volumes of a simple ultrasound phantom to compare 3D elasticity imaging methods. Typical 2D motion tracking for elasticity image formation was compared to three different methods of 3D motion tracking, with sum-squared difference (SSD) used as the similarity measure. Differences among the algorithms were the degree to which they tracked elevational motion: not at all (2D search), planar search, combination of multiple planes, and plane independent guided search. The cross correlation between the pre-deformation and motion-compensated post-deformation RF echo fields was used to quantify motion tracking accuracy. The lesion contrast-to-noise ratio was used to quantify image quality. Tracking accuracy and strain image quality generally improved with increased tracking sophistication. When used as input for a 3D modulus reconstruction, high quality 3D displacement estimates yielded accurate and low noise modulus reconstruction. PMID:20510188

  8. Volumetric elasticity imaging with a 2-D CMUT array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ted G; Hall, Timothy J; Panda, Satchi; Richards, Michael S; Barbone, Paul E; Jiang, Jingfeng; Resnick, Jeff; Barnes, Steve

    2010-06-01

    This article reports the use of a two-dimensional (2-D) capacitive micro-machined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) to acquire radio-frequency (RF) echo data from relatively large volumes of a simple ultrasound phantom to compare three-dimensional (3-D) elasticity imaging methods. Typical 2-D motion tracking for elasticity image formation was compared with three different methods of 3-D motion tracking, with sum-squared difference (SSD) used as the similarity measure. Differences among the algorithms were the degree to which they tracked elevational motion: not at all (2-D search), planar search, combination of multiple planes and plane independent guided search. The cross-correlation between the predeformation and motion-compensated postdeformation RF echo fields was used to quantify motion tracking accuracy. The lesion contrast-to-noise ratio was used to quantify image quality. Tracking accuracy and strain image quality generally improved with increased tracking sophistication. When used as input for a 3-D modulus reconstruction, high quality 3-D displacement estimates yielded accurate and low noise modulus reconstruction. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Design Application Translates 2-D Graphics to 3-D Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Fabric Images Inc., specializing in the printing and manufacturing of fabric tension architecture for the retail, museum, and exhibit/tradeshow communities, designed software to translate 2-D graphics for 3-D surfaces prior to print production. Fabric Images' fabric-flattening design process models a 3-D surface based on computer-aided design (CAD) specifications. The surface geometry of the model is used to form a 2-D template, similar to a flattening process developed by NASA's Glenn Research Center. This template or pattern is then applied in the development of a 2-D graphic layout. Benefits of this process include 11.5 percent time savings per project, less material wasted, and the ability to improve upon graphic techniques and offer new design services. Partners include Exhibitgroup/Giltspur (end-user client: TAC Air, a division of Truman Arnold Companies Inc.), Jack Morton Worldwide (end-user client: Nickelodeon), as well as 3D Exhibits Inc., and MG Design Associates Corp.

  10. 2D inflow MR angiography in severe chronic leg ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekloef, H.; Smedby, Oe.; Ahlstroem, H. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Ljungman, C.; Karacagil, S.; Bergqvist, D. [Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-11-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare 2D inflow MR angiography (MRA) with selective X-ray angiography (XRA) in patients with severe chronic leg ischemia. Material and Methods: In a blinded prospective study, 2D inflow MRA and XRA were compared with regard to evaluation of the arteries distal to the knee in 24 patients (medium age 72 years) with severe ischema; 23 of them had either rest pain or tissue loss. Statistics were calculated with XRA as the reference method. Results: The interpretations of 2D inflow MRA and XRA showed moderate agreement in the calf arteries but poor agreement in the foot arteries. Of the discrepancies, two-thirds were observer-related and only one-third method-related. Of all the comparable arteries, 9% showed method-related differences between the two methods. An assessment of MRA using only maximum intensity projections (MIP) resulted in 19% of findings being judged inconclusive whereas all the arteries could be classified when the cross-sectional images were studied on the viewing console. Conclusion: The agreement between MRA and XRA was good in the calf but questionable in the foot. (orig.)

  11. Hybrid 3D-2D printing for bone scaffolds fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznev, V. A.; Prinz, V. Ya

    2017-02-01

    It is a well-known fact that bone scaffold topography on micro- and nanometer scale influences the cellular behavior. Nano-scale surface modification of scaffolds allows the modulation of biological activity for enhanced cell differentiation. To date, there has been only a limited success in printing scaffolds with micro- and nano-scale features exposed on the surface. To improve on the currently available imperfect technologies, in our paper we introduce new hybrid technologies based on a combination of 2D (nano imprint) and 3D printing methods. The first method is based on using light projection 3D printing and simultaneous 2D nanostructuring of each of the layers during the formation of the 3D structure. The second method is based on the sequential integration of preliminarily created 2D nanostructured films into a 3D printed structure. The capabilities of the developed hybrid technologies are demonstrated with the example of forming 3D bone scaffolds. The proposed technologies can be used to fabricate complex 3D micro- and nanostructured products for various fields.

  12. Intensity-based 2D 3D registration for lead localization in robot guided deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsche, Stefan; Sauner, Dieter; El Majdoub, Faycal; Neudorfer, Clemens; Poggenborg, Jörg; Goßmann, Axel; Maarouf, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    Intraoperative assessment of lead localization has become a standard procedure during deep brain stimulation surgery in many centers, allowing immediate verification of targeting accuracy and, if necessary, adjustment of the trajectory. The most suitable imaging modality to determine lead positioning, however, remains controversially discussed. Current approaches entail the implementation of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In the present study, we adopted the technique of intensity-based 2D 3D registration that is commonly employed in stereotactic radiotherapy and spinal surgery. For this purpose, intraoperatively acquired 2D x-ray images were fused with preoperative 3D computed tomography (CT) data to verify lead placement during stereotactic robot assisted surgery. Accuracy of lead localization determined from 2D 3D registration was compared to conventional 3D 3D registration in a subsequent patient study. The mean Euclidian distance of lead coordinates estimated from intensity-based 2D 3D registration versus flat-panel detector CT 3D 3D registration was 0.7 mm  ±  0.2 mm. Maximum values of these distances amounted to 1.2 mm. To further investigate 2D 3D registration a simulation study was conducted, challenging two observers to visually assess artificially generated 2D 3D registration errors. 95% of deviation simulations, which were visually assessed as sufficient, had a registration error below 0.7 mm. In conclusion, 2D 3D intensity-based registration revealed high accuracy and reliability during robot guided stereotactic neurosurgery and holds great potential as a low dose, cost effective means for intraoperative lead localization.

  13. Accuracy of spectral and finite difference schemes in 2D advection problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the accuracy of two numerical procedures commonly used to solve 2D advection problems: spectral and finite difference (FD) schemes. These schemes are widely used, simulating, e.g., neutral and plasma flows. FD schemes have long been considered fast, relatively easy...... that the accuracy of FD schemes can be significantly improved if one is careful in choosing an appropriate FD scheme that reflects conservation properties of the nonlinear terms and in setting up the grid in accordance with the problem....

  14. Canonical vs. micro-canonical sampling methods in a 2D Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepner, J.

    1990-12-01

    Canonical and micro-canonical Monte Carlo algorithms were implemented on a 2D Ising model. Expressions for the internal energy, U, inverse temperature, Z, and specific heat, C, are given. These quantities were calculated over a range of temperature, lattice sizes, and time steps. Both algorithms accurately simulate the Ising model. To obtain greater than three decimal accuracy from the micro-canonical method requires that the more complicated expression for Z be used. The overall difference between the algorithms is small. The physics of the problem under study should be the deciding factor in determining which algorithm to use. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  15. The role of topology in microstructure-property relations: a 2D DEM based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleme Ruiz, Katerine; Emelianenko, Maria

    2018-01-01

    We compare Rényi entropy-based mesoscale approaches for characterizing 2D polycrystalline network topology and geometry, based on the grain number of sides and grain areas, respectively. We study the effect of microstructure disorder on mechanical properties such as elastic and damage response by performing simulations of quasi-static uniaxial compression loading tests on an idealized material using grain-level micro-mechanical discrete element model. While not comprehensive enough to make general conclusions, this study allows us to make observations about the sensitivity of mechanical parameters such as Young's modulus, proportional limit, first yield stress, toughness and amount of microstructure damage to different entropy measures.

  16. Joint-2D-SL0 Algorithm for Joint Sparse Matrix Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sparse matrix reconstruction has a wide application such as DOA estimation and STAP. However, its performance is usually restricted by the grid mismatch problem. In this paper, we revise the sparse matrix reconstruction model and propose the joint sparse matrix reconstruction model based on one-order Taylor expansion. And it can overcome the grid mismatch problem. Then, we put forward the Joint-2D-SL0 algorithm which can solve the joint sparse matrix reconstruction problem efficiently. Compared with the Kronecker compressive sensing method, our proposed method has a higher computational efficiency and acceptable reconstruction accuracy. Finally, simulation results validate the superiority of the proposed method.

  17. On the global attractor of 2D incompressible turbulence with random forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Pedram; Bowman, John C.

    2018-03-01

    This study revisits bounds on the projection of the global attractor in the energy-enstrophy plane for 2D incompressible turbulence [Dascaliuc, Foias, and Jolly, 2005, 2010]. In addition to providing more elegant proofs of some of the required nonlinear identities, the treatment is extended from the case of constant forcing to the more realistic case of random forcing. Numerical simulations in particular often use a stochastic white-noise forcing to achieve a prescribed mean energy injection rate. The analytical bounds are demonstrated numerically for the case of white-noise forcing.

  18. Probing the low-temperature rotational population of H{sub 2}D{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asvany, Oskar; Hugo, Edouard; Wahed, Serjoscha; Schlemmer, Stephan, E-mail: asvany@ph1.uni-koeln.d [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    The gas phase exchange reactions of isotopologues of H{sup +}{sub 3} with isotopologues of H{sub 2} are responsible for the observed deuteration in low-temperature interstellar clouds. At the prevailing cryogenic temperatures many quantum effects, as zero-point vibrational energies, large rotational level spacings and nuclear spin effects become important. In order to understand the processes on a level-to-level basis, experiments in a 22-pole ion trap are carried out accompanied by microcanonical simulations. In particular, the method of laser induced reaction (LIR) is applied to probe the four lowest rotational levels of H{sub 2}D{sup +}.

  19. A simple computational for the analysis of 2-D solute migration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, Heldio Pereira

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary model for the simulation of 2-D migration patterns is presented. This computer model adopts a novel approach to the solution of the advection-dispersion equation in two dimensions through finite differences. The soil column is divided into a number of thin columns. The 1-D advection-dispersion equation is applied in the direction of flow and, using the same time increment, the 1-D diffusion equation is applied perpendicularly to the flow. The results thus obtained were compared to those of two migration experiments with two different soils. (author)

  20. Volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D CMUT arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oralkan, Omer; Ergun, A Sanli; Cheng, Ching-Hsiang; Johnson, Jeremy A; Karaman, Mustafa; Lee, Thomas H; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T

    2003-11-01

    Recently, capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have emerged as a candidate to overcome the difficulties in the realization of 2-D arrays for real-time 3-D imaging. In this paper, we present the first volumetric images obtained using a 2-D CMUT array. We have fabricated a 128 x 128-element 2-D CMUT array with through-wafer via interconnects and a 420-microm element pitch. As an experimental prototype, a 32 x 64-element portion of the 128 x 128-element array was diced and flip-chip bonded onto a glass fanout chip. This chip provides individual leads from a central 16 x 16-element portion of the array to surrounding bondpads. An 8 x 16-element portion of the array was used in the experiments along with a 128-channel data acquisition system. For imaging phantoms, we used a 2.37-mm diameter steel sphere located 10 mm from the array center and two 12-mm-thick Plexiglas plates located 20 mm and 60 mm from the array. A 4 x 4 group of elements in the middle of the 8 x 16-element array was used in transmit, and the remaining elements were used to receive the echo signals. The echo signal obtained from the spherical target presented a frequency spectrum centered at 4.37 MHz with a 100% fractional bandwidth, whereas the frequency spectrum for the echo signal from the parallel plate phantom was centered at 3.44 MHz with a 91% fractional bandwidth. The images were reconstructed by using RF beamforming and synthetic phased array approaches and visualized by surface rendering and multiplanar slicing techniques. The image of the spherical target has been used to approximate the point spread function of the system and is compared with theoretical expectations. This study experimentally demonstrates that 2-D CMUT arrays can be fabricated with high yield using silicon IC-fabrication processes, individual electrical connections can be provided using through-wafer vias, and flip-chip bonding can be used to integrate these dense 2-D arrays with electronic circuits for