Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Okumura, Yuko; Inoue, Yasuyuki; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Itakura, Shoji
Despite its essential role in human coexistence, the developmental origins and progression of sympathy in infancy are not yet fully understood. We show that preverbal 10-month-olds manifest sympathetic responses, evinced in their preference for attacked others according to their evaluations of the respective roles of victim, aggressor, and neutral party. In Experiment 1, infants viewing an aggressive social interaction between a victim and an aggressor exhibited preference for the victim. In Experiment 2, when comparing the victim and the aggressor to a neutral object, infants preferred the victim and avoided the aggressor. These findings indicate that 10-month-olds not only evaluate the roles of victims and aggressors in interactions but also show rudimentary sympathy toward others in distress based on that evaluation. This simple preference may function as a foundation for full-fledged sympathetic behavior later on.
Southgate, Victoria; Vernetti, Angelina
Successful mindreading entails both the ability to think about what others know or believe, and to use this knowledge to generate predictions about how mental states will influence behavior. While previous studies have demonstrated that young infants are sensitive to others' mental states, there continues to be much debate concerning how to characterize early theory of mind abilities. In the current study, we asked whether 6-month-old infants appreciate the causal role that beliefs play in action. Specifically, we tested whether infants generate action predictions that are appropriate given an agent's current belief. We exploited a novel, neural indication of action prediction: motor cortex activation as measured by sensorimotor alpha suppression, to ask whether infants would generate differential predictions depending on an agent's belief. After first verifying our paradigm and measure with a group of adult participants, we found that when an agent had a false belief that a ball was in the box, motor activity indicated that infants predicted she would reach for the box, but when the agent had a false belief that a ball was not in the box, infants did not predict that she would act. In both cases, infants based their predictions on what the agent, rather than the infant, believed to be the case, suggesting that by 6months of age, infants can exploit their sensitivity to other minds for action prediction. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gogate, Lakshmi; Maganti, Madhavilatha
This experiment examined English- or Spanish-learning preverbal (8-9 months, n = 32) and postverbal (12-14 months, n = 40) infants' learning of word-action pairings prior to and after the transition to verb comprehension and its relation to naturally learned vocabulary. Infants of both verbal levels were first habituated to 2 dynamic video displays of novel word-action pairings, the words /wem/ or /bæf/, spoken synchronously with an adult shaking or looming an object, and tested with interchanged (switched) versus same word-action pairings. Mothers of the postverbal infants were asked to report on their infants' vocabulary on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (Fenson et al., 1994). The preverbal infants looked longer to the switched relative to same pairings, suggesting word-action mapping, but not the postverbal infants. Mothers of the postverbal infants reported a noun bias on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories; infants learned more nouns than verbs in the natural environment. Further analyses revealed marginal word-action mapping in postverbal infants who learned fewer nouns and only comprehended verbs (post-verb comprehension), but not in those who learned more nouns and also produced verbs (post-verb production). These findings on verb learning from inside and outside the laboratory suggest a developmental shift from domain-general to language-specific mechanisms. Long before they talk, infants learning a noun-dominant language learn synchronous word-action relations. As a postverbal language-specific noun bias develops, this learning temporarily diminishes. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5592637.
Gogate, Lakshmi; Maganti, Madhavilatha
Purpose: This experiment examined English- or Spanish-learning preverbal (8-9 months, n = 32) and postverbal (12-14 months, n = 40) infants' learning of word-action pairings prior to and after the transition to verb comprehension and its relation to naturally learned vocabulary. Method: Infants of both verbal levels were first habituated to 2…
Hakuno, Yoko; Omori, Takahide; Yamamoto, Jun-Ichi; Minagawa, Yasuyo
In natural settings, infants learn spoken language with the aid of a caregiver who explicitly provides social signals. Although previous studies have demonstrated that young infants are sensitive to these signals that facilitate language development, the impact of real-life interactions on early word segmentation and word-object mapping remains elusive. We tested whether infants aged 5-6 months and 9-10 months could segment a word from continuous speech and acquire a word-object relation in an ecologically valid setting. In Experiment 1, infants were exposed to a live tutor, while in Experiment 2, another group of infants were exposed to a televised tutor. Results indicate that both younger and older infants were capable of segmenting a word and learning a word-object association only when the stimuli were derived from a live tutor in a natural manner, suggesting that real-life interaction enhances the learning of spoken words in preverbal infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goldstein, Alison; Cole, Thomas; Cordes, Sara
Studies have stressed the importance of counting with children to promote formal numeracy abilities; however, little work has investigated when parents begin to engage in this behavior with their young children. In the current study, we investigated whether parents elaborated on numerical information when reading a counting book to their preverbal infants and whether developmental differences in numerical input exist even in the 1st year of life. Parents and their 5-10 months old infants were asked to read, as they would at home, two books to their infants: a counting book and another book that did not have numerical content. Parents' spontaneous statements rarely focused on number and those that did consisted primarily of counting, with little emphasis on labeling the cardinality of the set. However, developmental differences were observed even in this age range, such that parents were more likely to make numerical utterances when reading to older infants. Together, results are the first to characterize naturalistic reading behaviors between parents and their preverbal infants in the context of counting books, suggesting that although counting books promote numerical language in parents, infants still receive very little in the way of numerical input before the end of the 1st year of life. While little is known regarding the impact of number talk on the cognitive development of young infants, the current results may guide future work in this area by providing the first assessment of the characteristics of parental numerical input to preverbal infants.
Full Text Available Studies have stressed the importance of counting with children to promote formal numeracy abilities; however little work has investigated when parents begin to engage in this behavior with their young children. In the current study, we investigated whether parents elaborated on numerical information when reading a counting book to their preverbal infants and whether developmental differences in numerical input exist even in the first year of life. Parents and their 5-10 month old infants were asked to read, as they would at home, two books to their infants: a counting book and another book that did not have numerical content. Parents’ spontaneous statements rarely focused on number and those that did consisted primarily of counting, with little emphasis on labeling the cardinality of the set. However, developmental differences were observed even in this age range, such that parents were more likely to make numerical utterances when reading to older infants. Together, results are the first to characterize naturalistic reading behaviors between parents and their preverbal infants in the context of counting books, suggesting that although counting books promote numerical language in parents, infants still receive very little in the way of numerical input before the end of the first year of life. While little is known regarding the impact of number talk on the cognitive development of young infants, the current results may guide future work in this area by providing the first assessment of the characteristics of parental numerical input to preverbal infants.
Full Text Available Preverbal infants often vocalize in emotionally loaded situations, yet the communicative potential of these vocalizations is not well understood. The aim of our study was to assess how accurately adult listeners extract information about the eliciting situation from infant preverbal vocalizations. Vocalizations of 19 infants aged 5-10 months were recorded in 3 negative (Pain, Isolation, Demand for Food and 3 positive (Play, Reunion, After Feeding situations. The recordings were later rated by 333 adult listeners on the scales of emotional valence and intensity. Subsequently, the listeners assigned the eliciting situations in a forced choice task. Listeners were almost perfectly able to discriminate whether a recording came from a negative or a positive situation. Their discrimination may have been based on perceived valence as they consistently assigned higher valence when listening to positive, and lower valence when listening to negative, recordings. Ability to identify the particular situation within the negative or positive realm was substantially weaker, with only three of the six situations being discriminated above chance. The best discriminated situation, Play, was associated with high perceived intensity. The weak qualitative discrimination of negative situations seemed to be based on graded perception of negative recordings, from the most intense and unpleasant (assigned to Pain to the least intense and least unpleasant (assigned to Demand for Food. Parenthood and younger age, but not gender of listeners, had weak positive effects on the accuracy of judgments. Our results indicate that adults almost flawlessly distinguish positive and negative infant sounds, but are rather inaccurate regarding identification of the specific needs of the infant and may normally employ other sensory channels to gain this information.
Vallotton, Claire D.
Gestures are a natural form of communication between preverbal children and parents which support children's social and language development; however, low-income parents gesture less frequently, disadvantaging their children. In addition to pointing and waving, children are capable of learning many symbolic gestures, known as "infant signs," if…
Toran, Hasnah; Squires, Jane; Lawrence, Karen
The Infant Mental Health system in Malaysia is described, beginning with cultural and religious practices that influence mental health practices. Second, a description of the Malaysian mental health system, including historical influences, is given. Third, policy and services for young children with mental health problems are described. Finally, recommendations for future steps for developing an effective infant mental health system are presented, including the development of infant mental health policies by the government, increased personnel training, increased community mental health resources, integration of culture into the mental health system, and finally, development of appropriate screening and assessment instruments and systems. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace
Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.
Masoe, Paula; Bush, Allister
This paper describes background to the development of the relatively new field of infant mental health and why this may be important for Pacific communities in Aotearoa/New Zealand (NZ) and elsewhere. There is a discussion of Samoan concepts and research that could inform infant mental health theory and practice. A Pacific home visiting programme based at Taeaomanino Trust in Porirua, Aotearoa/NZ has formed a collaboration with child and adolescent mental health service clinicians with an interest in infant mental health, to further develop infant mental health understandings and practices in this early intervention service. The benefits and practical application of this collaboration are discussed. The paper ends with a personal perspective from one of the authors on her Samoan reflection on the relevance of attachment ideas to her family relationships and work with Pacific infants, mothers and their families.
Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis
such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems...... and sychopathologies. In disadvantaged populations insecure and disorganized attachment are common, which points to the need of identifying early risk and effective methods of addressing such problems. This protocol describes an experimental evaluation of an indicated group-based parental educational program, Circle......, will be randomly allocated with a ratio of 2:1 into the COS-P intervention arm and into CAU. Data will be obtained at inclusion (baseline) and at follow-up when the child is 12–16 months. The primary outcome is maternal sensitivity. Secondary outcomes include quality of infant attachment, language, cognitive...
Hipwell, Alison E; Guo, Chaohui; Phillips, Mary L; Swain, James E; Moses-Kolko, Eydie L
The study objective was to examine neural correlates of a specific component of human caregiving: maternal mental state talk, reflecting a mother's proclivity to attribute mental states and intentionality to her infant. Using a potent, ecologically relevant stimulus of infant cry during fMRI, we tested hypotheses that postpartum neural response to the cry of "own" versus a standard "other" infant in the right frontoinsular cortex (RFIC) and subcortical limbic network would be associated with independent observations of maternal mental state talk. The sample comprised 76 urban-living, low socioeconomic mothers (82% African American) and their 4-month-old infants. Before the fMRI scan, mothers were filmed in face-to-face interaction with their infant, and maternal behaviors were coded by trained researchers unaware of all other information about the participants. The results showed higher functional activity in the RFIC to own versus other infant cry at the group level. In addition, RFIC and bilateral subcortical neural activity (e.g., thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, putamen) was associated positively with maternal mental state talk but not with more global aspects of observed caregiving. These findings held when accounting for perceptual and contextual covariates, such as maternal felt distress, urge to help, depression severity, and recognition of own infant cry. Our results highlight the need to focus on specific components of caregiving to advance understanding of the maternal brain. Future work will examine the predictive utility of this neural marker for mother-child function. The current study advances extant literature examining the neural underpinning of early parenting behavior. The findings highlight the special functional importance of the right frontoinsular cortex-thalamic-limbic network in a mother's proclivity to engage in mental state talk with her preverbal infant, a circumscribed aspect of maternal caregiving purported to be a prerequisite of
Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; von Wowern, Rie Krondorf
these risks in a cost effective way in a general population. Methods: In a period of 20 months 8.800 mothers and infants in Copenhagen are screened (at 2, 4 and 8 months) using two standardized screening instruments: 1) Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) in detecting infant social withdrawal and 2) Edinburg...... mental health adversities and enhancing parental sensitivity and attachment security. Outcomes are measured at follow-up and include parental sensitivity and reflective functioning, child attachment, child social emotional and cognitive development. Results: Preliminary results from the study...... will be presented focusing mainly on the results from screening part of the study. Conclusion: On the basis of our results we will discuss the importance of screening programs for early infant mental risks and indicated prevention programs aiming at enhancing parental sensitivity and child attachment. If proved...
Papke, Julia Kay Porter
The Indo-European language family contains many "small words" with various adverbial meanings and functions, including preverbs. The term "preverb" is used to label any of a variety of modifying morphemes that form a close semantic unit with a verb, including both words and prefixes (Booij and Kemenade 2003). Some Indo-European languages not only…
Wechsler, Nick D.; Woodlock, Kelly K.
Many professionals who work with very young children and their families have not received training in infant mental health (IMH). The Ounce of Prevention Fund recognized this unmet need and formed a multidisciplinary support network for teams of home visitors, parent group facilitators, community program supervisors, and mental health clinicians.…
Arons, Judith; Epstein, Ann; Sklan, Susan
The Infant Parent Training Institute (IPTI) at Jewish Family and Children's Service of Greater Boston offers integrated clinical and theoretical infant mental health training. The curriculum reflects the belief that nurturing and reflective relationships promote optimal learning and growth. A specialty in infant mental health requires knowledge…
Infants can adapt themselves and their relationship with their caregivers in a way incomparable to any other stage in life. Infants are innately motivated to communicate with people and to actively take part in human social interaction. The question is how to provide an environment that facilitates such potentials for each particular infant and its family. Japan strove to improve the physical aspect of maternal and infant care after the second World War and yielded a nation-wide perinatal and infant screening system that produced a world minimum infant mortality rate and more than 80% compliance rate of infant checkups. Instead, infant abuse and infants with development disorders and psychosomatic symptoms has alerted the professionals to improve their approach. In addition, the increasing incidence of child abuse, juvenile crimes, eating disorders and other emotional and behavioral problems of children and adolescents has alerted the government and public to reconsider the importance of early intimate relationship. Creating a secure base for families to enjoy nurturing companionship with their infants is now common goal of infant mental health in Japan. As professionals we try to introduce a more dynamic, natural, non-judgmental empathic approach to support troubled infant care-giving systems. Whichever problem an infant may suffer, whether a problem of body or mind, its mother is bound to suffer and much more so in Japan with its old values for divine motherhood, stigmas associated with abnormality and new demands for perfect mothering. It should be acknowledged more and more that a well-meant effort on the side of infant workers cannot yield beneficial outcomes for mothers and infants unless we take into full account the importance of the complex intertwining of diverse factors, including the infant's predisposition, the mother's upbringing and past trauma and quality of the attachment system supporting the mother and family interaction. It is here that an
Barron, Carla; Paradis, Nichole
Relationship-based infant mental health home visiting services for infants, toddlers, and their families intensify the connection between the personal and professional. To promote the therapeutic relationship and maximize the effectiveness of the intervention, home visitors must exercise good judgment, in the field and in the moment, to set and…
D'Agata, Amy L; Sanders, Marilyn R; Grasso, Damion J; Young, Erin E; Cong, Xiaomei; Mcgrath, Jacqueline M
Infants who begin early life in the medicalized environment of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) experience disruption to numerous fundamental expectancies. In the NICU, infants are exposed to chronic, extreme stressors that include painful medical procedures and parental separation. Due to their preverbal stage of development, infants are unable to fully express these experiences, and linking these experiences to long-term outcomes has been difficult. This clinical article proposes the terminology Infant Medical Trauma in the NICU (IMTN) to describe the infant experience. Following a discussion of the NICU as an adverse childhood event, the article has three sections: (a) the unique and critical factors that define the newborn period, (b) a review of the IMTN conceptual model, and (c) recommendations for supportive neuroprotective strategies to moderate the intensity of adverse NICU infant experiences. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Cohen, Julie; Stark, Deborah Roderick
This article defines the concept of Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health (IECMH) and describes how it provides the foundation for lifelong health and well-being. The authors provide policy recommendations that include the need to: (a) establish cross-agency leadership for IECMH, (b) ensure Medicaid payment for IECMH services, (c) invest in…
de Camps Meschino, Diane; Philipp, Diane; Israel, Aliza; Vigod, Simone
Dyadic interactions associated with maternal depression and anxiety may perpetuate maternal mental illness and impact infant attachment. Individual and maternal-dyadic therapies are effective but resource intensive. We assessed feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a newly developed maternal-infant dyadic group therapy intervention. This was an open-label pilot study targeting mothers with mood or anxiety disorders, and their infants aged 6 to 12 months. We conducted three 12-week groups combining evidence-based maternal and mother-infant dyadic strategies to enhance mood, insight, parenting, and mentalizing capacity. We measured recruitment and retention rates, reasons for nonparticipation, and missed sessions. Acceptability of the intervention was assessed via questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Efficacy outcomes were the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EDPS), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), measured pretreatment and posttreatment. The feasibility and acceptability were excellent. There was a significant reduction in mean depressive symptom scores (t 3.31; p 0.008 sig) and a trend toward decreasing anxiety scores (t 1.96; p 0.08). The total PSI score decreased, approaching statistical significance (t 2.23; p 0.057). Enhanced insight, parenting capacity, affect regulation, and positive interaction with baby were supported with self-report surveys and interviews. This resource-efficient novel mother-baby dyadic group intervention shows excellent feasibility, acceptability, and has good preliminary efficacy results. It has the potential to improve depression, anxiety, affect regulation, parenting, and maternal mentalization.
Seligman, Stephen; Harrison, Alexandra
This article considers the influence of infant research on psychodynamic theory and practice. Infant research highlights the dramatic effects of the early caregiving relationship on development throughout the life span. It also provides important perspectives on psychotherapeutic processes. This article highlights such elements as empathy, mutual recognition and attachment, along with elaborating the intersubjective and transactional systems perspectives. In addition, it stresses the powerful role of nonverbal, implicit communication and meaning-making, which play a greater role in human relational experience-and therefore in the therapeutic process-than previously understood. In addition to clarifying these general orientations, the article describes specific therapeutic strategies based on the expanded developmental knowledge. Copyright © 2012 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Ammitzbøll, Janni; Holstein, Bjorn E.; Wilms, Lisbeth
in 15.9% and problems of emotional regulation in 14.3%. Significant gender differences were seen. EFA demonstrated that among 27 items 11 items were clustering into five areas: Problems of eating, emotions, attention, language and communication and attachment, respectively. High face validity...... and feasibility was demonstrated, and the participation was 91%. Conclusions:The new measure shows potentials for infant mental health screening. However, further exploration of construct validity and reliability is needed....
Goble, Carla B.; Laurin, Deborah E.
Infant-toddler teachers are often the first people outside of families to interact with infants on a daily basis. Through these interactions teachers can promote infant mental health, prevent problems, screen and identify infants experiencing difficulties, make referrals, and work as members of interdisciplinary intervention teams. However,…
Willoughby, Jay C.; Carubia, Beau A.; Murgolo, Marisa A.; Carter, Debbie R.; Frankel, Karen A.
A recent partnership between the Irving Harris Program in Child Development and Infant Mental Health and the Community Based Psychiatry Program at University of Colorado Hospital joined two different approaches to child mental health treatment: infant mental health and multisystemic therapy (MST). This article illustrates the compatibility of…
Fonagy, Peter; Sleed, Michelle; Baradon, Tessa
There is a dearth of good-quality research investigating the outcomes of psychoanalytic parent-infant psychotherapy (PIP). This randomized controlled trial investigated the outcomes of PIP for parents with mental health problems who also were experiencing high levels of social adversity and their young infants (<12 months). Dyads were clinically referred and randomly allocated to PIP or a control condition of standard secondary and specialist primary care treatment (n = 38 in each group). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. The primary outcome was infant development. Secondary outcomes included parent-infant interaction, maternal psychopathology, maternal representations, maternal reflective functioning, and infant attachment. There were no differential effects over time between the groups on measures of infant development, parent-infant interaction, or maternal reflective functioning. Infant attachment classifications, measured only at the 12-month follow-up, did not differ between the groups. There were favorable outcomes over time for the PIP-treated dyads relative to the control group on several measures of maternal mental health, parenting stress, and parental representations of the baby and their relationship. The findings indicate potential benefits of parent-infant psychotherapy for improving mothers' psychological well-being and their representations of their baby and the parent-infant relationship. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Matacz, Rochelle; Priddis, Lynn
This article describes a unique Australian infant mental health (IMH) service for families from pregnancy through to early parenthood (0-3 years) and training center for postgraduate clinical psychology students. The Australian Association for Infant Mental Health Incorporated, West Australia Branch (AAIMHI WA) "Competency Guidelines"®…
Rodríguez, Gabriela M; Garcia, Dainelys; Blizzard, Angela; Barroso, Nicole E; Bagner, Daniel M
Mental health interventions for infants typically target high-risk groups and can prevent long-term negative outcomes. Despite federal initiatives promoting early intervention, minimal research has examined usual care services for infants, which is important to improve routine care. The current study characterized usual care practices in infant mental health through the adaptation and administration of a provider survey. Providers (n = 126) reported using a wide range of intervention strategies and few intervention programs with varied evidence. Findings can inform future research to identify quality improvement targets of usual mental health care for high-risk infants and their families.
Priddis, Lynn E; Matacz, Rochelle; Weatherston, Deborah
This article describes findings from a project conducted in Western Australia (Mental Health Commission WA, 2015) that investigated the education and training needs of the Infant/Early Childhood Mental Health (I/ECMH) workforce. We examined international training programs and models of delivery in infant mental health, including a review of the current training available in Australia. Data collected from over 60 interviews were analyzed, and a staged delivery model for I/ECMH training and supervision that aligned with the Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health (2014) Competency Guidelines was recommended. These findings led to the purchase of the Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health (2014) for use in Western Australia. In a very short time, use of the Michigan Competency Framework by the Australian Association for Infant Mental Health West Australian Branch Incorporated has begun to change the training and education opportunities for upskilling the infant and early childhood workforce in Western Australia. It has resulted in a map to guide and develop training in the I/ECMH field for individual practitioners and professionals as well as for workplaces that will ultimately benefit Western Australian infants, young children, and their families during the perinatal period and in the early years. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Locative inversion construction in Setswana, as in other Bantu languages, defies straightforward analysis in the sense that the preverbal locative NP does not pass the subject hood test, while the post-verbal NP shows features atypical of objects. In the literature in locative inversion constructions, there is a predominant ...
García-Ormaechea, Inés; González, Inmaculada; Duplá, María; Andres, Eva; Pueyo, Victoria
Visual cognitive integrative functions need to be evaluated by a behavioral assessment, which requires an experienced evaluator. The Preverbal Visual Assessment (PreViAs) questionnaire was designed to evaluate these functions, both in general pediatric population or in children with high risk of visual cognitive problems, through primary caregivers' answers. We aimed to validate the PreViAs questionnaire by comparing caregiver reports with results from a comprehensive clinical protocol. A total of 220 infants (visual development, as determined by the clinical protocol. Their primary caregivers completed the PreViAs questionnaire, which consists of 30 questions related to one or more visual domains: visual attention, visual communication, visual-motor coordination, and visual processing. Questionnaire answers were compared with results of behavioral assessments performed by three pediatric ophthalmologists. Results of the clinical protocol classified 128 infants as having normal visual maturation, and 92 as having abnormal visual maturation. The specificity of PreViAs questionnaire was >80%, and sensitivity was 64%-79%. More than 80% of the infants were correctly classified, and test-retest reliability exceeded 0.9 for all domains. The PreViAs questionnaire is useful to detect abnormal visual maturation in infants from birth to 24months of age. It improves the anamnesis process in infants at risk of visual dysfunctions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Isosävi, Sanna; Diab, Safwat Y; Kangaslampi, Samuli; Qouta, Samir; Kankaanpää, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena
We examined how diverse and cumulated traumatic experiences predicted maternal prenatal mental health and infant stress regulation in war conditions and whether maternal mental health mediated the association between trauma and infant stress regulation. Participants were 511 Palestinian mothers from the Gaza Strip who reported exposure to current war trauma (WT), past childhood emotional (CEA) and physical abuse, socioeconomic status (SES), prenatal mental health problems (posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms), and perceived stress during their secondtrimester of pregnancy as well as infant stress regulation at 4 months. While all trauma types were associated with high levels of prenatal symptoms, CEA had the most wide-ranging effects and was uniquely associated with depression symptoms. Concerning infant stress regulation, mothers' CEA predicted negative affectivity, but only among mothers with low WT. Against hypothesis, the effects of maternal trauma on infant stress regulation were not mediated by mental health symptoms. Mothers' higher SES was associated with better infant stress regulation whereas infant prematurity and male sex predisposed for difficulties. Our findings suggest that maternal childhood abuse, especially CEA, should be a central treatment target among war-exposed families. Cumulated psychosocial stressors might increase the risk for transgenerational problems. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Nelson, Florence; Mann, Tammy
Infant and early childhood mental health practices can be supported by policies and professional standards of care that foster the healthy development of young children. Policies that support infants and toddlers include those that strengthen their families to provide a family environment that promotes mental wellness. Policy issues for infants,…
Duan, Yang; Sun, Fu-qiang; Li, Yue-qin; Que, Sheng-shun; Yang, Su-yan; Xu, Wen-jing; Yu, Wen-hong; Chen, Jun-hua; Lu, Ya-jie; Li, Xin
It is of high incidence of brain injuries in premature infants, so it is necessary to diagnose and treat the brain injury early for neonatal clinical practice. We are aimed to investigate the relationship between early postnatal cranial ultrasonography and psychomotor and mental development in prematrue infants at the age of 12 months. Two-hundred and eight premature infants were selected and underwent follow-up from January, 2007 to November, 2012. Cranial ultrasonography was performed on them. The developmental outcomes of these premature infants at the age of 12 months were assessed by the psychomotor developmental index (PDI) scale and mental development index (MDI). The relationship between ultrasonic gray-scale value and PDI and MDI was analyzed. The worse prognosis for psychomotor and mental development was associated with the gestational age, Apgar score(1 min), gender, chorioamnionitis, duration of mechanical ventilation and duration of mechanic ventilation. The differences between the prognosis of psychomotor and mental development, and peri-intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) and periventricular white matter damage (PWMD), were statistically significant (Ppsychomotor development and mental development (Ppsychomotor and mental development for premature infants. The higher grade of PIVH and PWMD was associated with the worse prognosis of psychomotor and mental development.
Full Text Available In recent work on null subject languages it has been claimed that preverbal subjects are always (clitic-left dislocated. In this paper, we argue against this claim, on the grounds of empirical evidence from European Portuguese concerning agreement facts, asymmetries between preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs with respect to minimality effects, the existence of languages with a mixed system (null expletive subjects and full referential ones, language acquisition data, the behavior of negative QPs and interpretation facts, and propose a non-uniform analysis of preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs that derives their topic interpretation from a predication rule stated configurationally (section 2. Our account of the SVO and VSO orders displayed in European Portuguese relies on a specific formulation of the EPP parameter, on the locality constraint Attract Closest X and on the independently motivated claim that V-movement targets T in European Portuguese (section 3. Under our analysis, the computational system generates equally economical SVO and VSO derivations and discourse considerations, at the appropriate interface, rule out the unfelicitous ones.
Sampaio, Adriana; Lifter, Karin
This article is about the neural correlates of infant mental health and their correspondences to social emotional development. These correspondences are organized in terms of the definition of infant mental provided by Zero to Three (2001), centered on infants' capacities regarding the experience and expression of emotions, interpersonal relationships, and learning. We conclude with implications of these correspondences for counseling psychology-namely, working with children's caregivers to maximize children's healthy social and emotional development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted
This study assessed the relation between mother mental state language and child desire language and emotion understanding in 15--24-month-olds. At both times point, mothers described pictures to their infants and mother talk was coded for mental and nonmental state language. Children were administered 2 emotion understanding tasks and their mental…
Ashworth, A; Morris, S S; Lira, P I; Grantham-McGregor, S M
To test whether zinc supplementation reduces the deficits in mental development and behaviour that are found in term infants of low birth weight in the study population. A prospective double-blind, part-randomised efficacy trial. A low-income population in Pernambuco, northeast Brazil, where the economy is largely dependent on sugar-cane production, and where over 90% of deliveries occur in health facilities. During a 20-month period, all singleton, term infants weighing 1500-2499 g born to families of low income ( tested were 163 and 138 respectively. Infants born from January 1993-January 1994 were randomly assigned to receive daily, except Sundays, a placebo (n = 66) or 1 mg zinc (n = 68). Those born February-August 1994 were given 5 mg zinc (n = 71). Supplementation was for eight weeks, starting at birth. Field workers visited each infant at home to administer the supplement. At 6 and 12-months, mental and psychomotor development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and no significant differences in the scores of the three groups were found. At 12-months, behaviour was also assessed on 5 ratings. Ratings were highest in infants given 5 mg zinc (P = 0.042). Zinc supplementation (5 mg/d) for eight weeks may reverse some of the poor behaviours, particularly responsiveness, exhibited by low birth weight infants. No amelioration of their mental and psychomotor deficits was found.
Hassan, Bruna Kulik; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Hasselmann, Maria Helena
To analyze if maternal mental health is associated with infant nutritional status at six month of age. A cross-sectional study with 228 six-month-old infants who used primary health care units of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Mean weight-for-length and mean weight-for-age were expressed in z-scores considering the 2006 World Health Organization reference curves. Maternal mental health was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The following cutoff points were used: ≥ 3 for common mental disorders, ≥ 5 for more severe mental disorders, and ≥ 9 for depression. The statistical analysis employed adjusted linear regression models. The prevalence of common mental disorders, more severe mental disorders and depression was 39.9%, 23.7%, and 8.3%, respectively. Children of women with more severe mental disorders had, on average, a weight-for-length 0.37 z-scores lower than children of women without this health harm (p = 0.026). We also observed that the weight-for-length indicator of children of depressed mothers was, on average, 0.67 z-scores lower than that of children of nondepressed women (p = 0.010). Maternal depression was associated with lower mean values of weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.041). Maternal mental health is positively related to the inadequacy of the nutritional status of infants at six months.
Bruna Kulik Hassan
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if maternal mental health is associated with infant nutritional status at six month of age. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 228 six-month-old infants who used primary health care units of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Mean weight-for-length and mean weight-for-age were expressed in z-scores considering the 2006 World Health Organization reference curves. Maternal mental health was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The following cutoff points were used: ≥ 3 for common mental disorders, ≥ 5 for more severe mental disorders, and ≥ 9 for depression. The statistical analysis employed adjusted linear regression models. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders, more severe mental disorders and depression was 39.9%, 23.7%, and 8.3%, respectively. Children of women with more severe mental disorders had, on average, a weight-for-length 0.37 z-scores lower than children of women without this health harm (p = 0.026. We also observed that the weight-for-length indicator of children of depressed mothers was, on average, 0.67 z-scores lower than that of children of nondepressed women (p = 0.010. Maternal depression was associated with lower mean values of weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.041. CONCLUSIONS Maternal mental health is positively related to the inadequacy of the nutritional status of infants at six months.
Zeegers, M.A.J.; Colonnesi, C.; Stams, G.-J.J.M.; Meins, E.
Major developments in attachment research over the past 2 decades have introduced parental mentalization as a predictor of infant-parent attachment security. Parental mentalization is the degree to which parents show frequent, coherent, or appropriate appreciation of their infants' internal states.
Weatherston, Deborah J
This essay discusses infant mental health (IMH) as well as its origins and relational framework. The author then reflects, professionally and personally, on the meaning of psychological vulnerability of boys under 5 years of age, the importance of early caregiving relationships to the reduction of risk, and implications for education and training in the IMH field. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Schmidt, M.K.; Muslimatun, S.; West, C.E.; Schultink, J.W.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.
Maternal nutrition is important for fetal development, but its impact on the functional outcome of infants is still unclear. The present study investigated the effects of vitamin A and Fe supplementation during gestation on infant mental and psychomotor development. Mothers of infants from five
Pereira, Priscila Krauss; Lima, Lúcia Abelha; Legay, Letícia Fortes; de Cintra Santos, Jacqueline Fernandes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos
Prenatal and postnatal period presents the highest prevalence of mental disorders in women's lives and depression is the most frequent one, affecting approximately one in every five mothers. The aggravating factor here is that during this period psychiatric symptoms affect not only women's health and well-being but may also interfere in the infant's intra and extra-uterine development. Although the causes of the relationship between maternal mental disorders and possible risks to a child's health and development remain unknown, it is suspected that these risks may be related to the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy, to substance abuse and the mother's lifestyle. Moreover, after delivery, maternal mental disorders may also impair the ties of affection (bonding) with the newborn and the maternal capacity of caring in the post-partum period thus increasing the risk for infant infection and malnutrition, impaired child growth that is expressed in low weight and height for age, and even behavioral problems and vulnerability to presenting mental disorders in adulthood. Generally speaking, research on this theme can be divided into the type of mental disorder analyzed: studies that research minor mental disorders during pregnancy such as depression and anxiety find an association between these maternal disorders and obstetric complications such as prematurity and low birth weight, whereas studies that evaluate severe maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have found not only an association with general obstetric complications as well as with congenital malformations and perinatal mortality. Therefore, the success of infant growth care programs also depends on the mother's mental well being. Such findings have led to the need for new public policies in the field of maternal-infant care geared toward the population of mothers. However, more research is necessary so as to confirm the association between all factors with greater
Simpson, Tanika E; Condon, Eileen; Price, Rosemary M; Finch, Bennie Kelly; Sadler, Lois S; Ordway, Monica Roosa
Infant mental health is an interdisciplinary professional field of inquiry, practice, and policy that is concerned with alleviating suffering and enhancing the social and emotional competence of young children. The focus of this field of practice is supporting the relationships between infants and toddlers and their primary caregivers to ensure healthy social and emotional development. Notably, the connection between early life experiences and lifelong health has been well established in the scientific literature. Without appropriate regulation from a supportive caregiver, exposure to extreme stressors in early childhood can result in wide-ranging physiological disruptions, including alterations to the developing brain and immune, metabolic, and cardiovascular systems. As part of this interdisciplinary team, pediatric primary care clinicians are in a unique position to incorporate infant mental health practice tenets during their frequent office visits with infants and toddlers. This article provides pediatric primary care clinicians with an overview of infant mental health practice and suggestions for the conscious promotion of positive early relationships as an integral component of well-child care. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shea, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Sheryl
This article describes a unique reflective supervision training series for community-based infant mental health (IMH) specialists and their supervisors that was designed to support the relational capacities of both supervisors and supervisees and to facilitate collaborative supervisory relationships. Qualitative evaluation results of the pilot…
This article describes an intense relationship between an infant mental health (IMH) specialist and a mother-daughter dyad. At intake, an 18-month-old little girl was diagnosed with failure to thrive and a chronic kidney condition, and she was at risk for protective service involvement and possible removal from the family home. The author…
Sandbank, Micheal; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Watson, Linda R; Gardner, Elizabeth; Keçeli Kaysili, Bahar; Yoder, Paul
Intentional communication has previously been identified as a value-added predictor of expressive language in preverbal preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder. In the present study, we sought to identify value-added predictors of intentional communication. Of five theoretically-motivated putative predictors of intentional communication measured early in the study (at study entry and 4 months after), three had significant zero-order correlations with later intentional communication (12 months after study entry) and were thus added to a linear model that predicted later intentional communication scores controlling for initial intentional communication scores at study entry. After controlling for initial intentional communication, early motor imitation was the only predictor that accounted for a significant amount of variance in children's later intentional communication.
Lyons-Ruth, Karlen; Todd Manly, Jody; Von Klitzing, Kai; Tamminen, Tuula; Emde, Robert; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Paul, Campbell; Keren, Miri; Berg, Astrid; Foley, Maree; Watanabe, Hisako
Children worldwide experience mental and emotional disorders. Mental disorders occurring among young children, especially infants (birth -3 years), often go unrecognized. Prevalence rates are difficult to determine because of lack of awareness and difficulty assessing and diagnosing young children. Existing data, however, suggest that rates of disorders in young children are comparable to those of older children and adolescents (von Klitzing, Dohnert, Kroll, & Grube, ). The lack of widespread recognition of disorders of infancy is particularly concerning due to the unique positioning of infancy as foundational in the developmental process. Both the brain and behavior are in vulnerable states of development across the first 3 years of life, with potential for enduring deviations to occur in response to early trauma and deprivation. Intervention approaches for young children require sensitivity to their developmental needs within their families. The primacy of infancy as a time of unique foundational risks for disorder, the impact of trauma and violence on young children's development, the impact of family disruption on children's attachment, and existing literature on prevalence rates of early disorders are discussed. Finally, global priorities for addressing these disorders of infancy are highlighted to support prevention and intervention actions that may alleviate suffering among our youngest world citizens. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Guxens, Mònica; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxundi, Nerea; Mendez, Michelle A; Tardón, Adonina; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer, Jordi
Air pollution effects on children's neurodevelopment have recently been suggested to occur most likely through the oxidative stress pathway. We aimed to assess whether prenatal exposure to residential air pollution is associated with impaired infant mental development, and whether antioxidant/detoxification factors modulate this association. In the Spanish INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA; Environment and Childhood) Project, 2,644 pregnant women were recruited during their first trimester. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and benzene were measured with passive samplers covering the study areas. Land use regression models were developed for each pollutant to predict average outdoor air pollution levels for the entire pregnancy at each residential address. Maternal diet was obtained at first trimester through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Around 14 months, infant mental development was assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Among the 1,889 children included in the analysis, mean exposure during pregnancy was 29.0 μg/m3 for NO2 and 1.5 μg/m3 for benzene. Exposure to NO2 and benzene showed an inverse association with mental development, although not statistically significant, after adjusting for potential confounders [β (95% confidence interval) = -0.95 (-3.90, 1.89) and -1.57 (-3.69, 0.56), respectively, for a doubling of each compound]. Stronger inverse associations were estimated for both pollutants among infants whose mothers reported low intakes of fruits/vegetables during pregnancy [-4.13 (-7.06, -1.21) and -4.37 (-6.89, -1.86) for NO2 and benzene, respectively], with little evidence of associations in the high-intake group (interaction p-values of 0.073 and 0.047). Inverse associations were also stronger in non-breast-fed infants and infants with low maternal vitamin D, but effect estimates and interactions were not significant. Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to residential air pollutants may adversely affect infant mental
Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Fuentes Lugo, Daniel; Henríquez Sánchez, Patricia; Doreste Alonso, Jorge; Skinner, Anna L; Medina, Marisol W; Lowe, Nicola M; Hall Moran, Victoria; Serra-Majem, Lluis
A systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the effect of zinc (Zn) intake on mental and motor development in infants. Out of 5500 studies identified through electronic searches and reference lists, 5 RCTs were selected after applying the exclusion/inclusion criteria. The influence of Zn intake on mental and motor development was considered in the overall meta-analysis. Other variables were also taken into account as possible effect modifiers: doses of Zn intake, intervention duration, nutritional situation, and risk of bias. Indices of mental and motor development assessed were the Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI). Additionally we carried out a sensitivity analysis. The pooled β was -0.01 (95 %CI -0.02, 0) for MDI and 0 (95 %CI -0.03, 0.02) for PDI, with a substantial heterogeneity in both analyses. When we performed a meta-regression, the effect of Zn supplementation on MDI changed depending on the dose of supplementation. Regarding PDI, there was a differential effect of Zn intake depending on intervention duration, dose of supplementation, nutritional situation, and risk of bias. Zn supplementation showed a negative, weak and significant effect on PDI score in those studies with a length of 4 to 20 weeks (β= -0.05; CI 95 % -0.06 to -0.04). In conclusion, no association was found between Zn intake and mental and motor development in infants. Further standardized research is urgently needed to clarify the role of Zn supplementation upon infant mental and motor development, particularly in Europe.
Masciantonio, Sonia; Hemer, Susan R; Chur-Hansen, Anna
This paper is an ethnographic exploration of how attachment theory underpins therapeutic practices in an Australian institutional context where mothers of infants have been diagnosed and are undergoing treatment for mental illness. We argue that attachment theory in this particular context rests on a series of principles or assumptions: that attachment theory is universally applicable; that attachment is dyadic and gendered; that there is an attachment template formed which can be transferred across generations and shapes future social interactions; that there is understood to be a mental health risk to the infant when attachment is characterised as problematic; and that this risk can be mitigated through the therapeutic practices advocated by the institution. Through an in-depth case study, this paper demonstrates how these assumptions cohere in practice and are used to assess mothering as deficient, to choose therapeutic options, to shape women's behaviour, and to formulate decisions about child placement.
Tran, Thach Duc; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Tran, Tuan; Simpson, Julie Anne; Hanieh, Sarah; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and common mental disorders (CMD) on cognitive development of 6 months old infants in a developing country. A prospective population-based study in a rural province in Vietnam, which enrolled pregnant women at 12-20 weeks gestation and followed them up with their infants until six months postpartum. Criteria for IDA were Hb 30 years and primiparity had an indirect adverse effect on infants' Bayley cognitive scores. These findings suggest that antenatal IDA and CMD both have adverse effects on child cognitive development, which if unrecognized and unaddressed are likely to be lasting. It is crucial that both these risks are considered by policy makers, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve child cognitive function in developing countries.
Thach Duc Tran
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency anemia (IDA and common mental disorders (CMD on cognitive development of 6 months old infants in a developing country. METHODS: A prospective population-based study in a rural province in Vietnam, which enrolled pregnant women at 12-20 weeks gestation and followed them up with their infants until six months postpartum. Criteria for IDA were Hb 30 years and primiparity had an indirect adverse effect on infants' Bayley cognitive scores. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that antenatal IDA and CMD both have adverse effects on child cognitive development, which if unrecognized and unaddressed are likely to be lasting. It is crucial that both these risks are considered by policy makers, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve child cognitive function in developing countries.
Zeegers, Moniek A J; Colonnesi, Cristina; Stams, Geert-Jan J M; Meins, Elizabeth
Major developments in attachment research over the past 2 decades have introduced parental mentalization as a predictor of infant-parent attachment security. Parental mentalization is the degree to which parents show frequent, coherent, or appropriate appreciation of their infants' internal states. The present study examined the triangular relations between parental mentalization, parental sensitivity, and attachment security. A total of 20 effect sizes (N = 974) on the relation between parental mentalization and attachment, 82 effect sizes (N = 6,664) on the relation between sensitivity and attachment, and 24 effect sizes (N = 2,029) on the relation between mentalization and sensitivity were subjected to multilevel meta-analyses. The results showed a pooled correlation of r = .30 between parental mentalization and infant attachment security, and rs of .25 for the correlations between sensitivity and attachment security, and between parental mentalization and sensitivity. A meta-analytic structural equation model was performed to examine the combined effects of mentalization and sensitivity as predictors of infant attachment. Together, the predictors explained 12% of the variance in attachment security. After controlling for the effect of sensitivity, the relation between parental mentalization and attachment remained, r = .24; the relation between sensitivity and attachment remained after controlling for parental mentalization, r = .19. Sensitivity also mediated the relation between parental mentalization and attachment security, r = .07, suggesting that mentalization exerts both direct and indirect influences on attachment security. The results imply that parental mentalization should be incorporated into existing models that map the predictors of infant-parent attachment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Villar, J; Smeriglio, V; Martorell, R; Brown, C H; Klein, R E
Postnatal growth and development were studied in two groups of term infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and one group of infants with normal birth weight up to 3 years of age (total sample, 205 infants). Infants with IUGR were classified as having low ponderal index (IUGR-LPI) or adequate ponderal index (IUGR-API). At birth, the two groups of infants with IUGR had similar birth weight, but length and head circumference measurements were significantly different. Overall, the IUGR-API infants remained lighter and shorter and had smaller head circumferences up to 30 months of age. The IUGR-LPI infants experienced catch-up growth in weight during the first months, because of greater fat deposition. At 24 months of age, the IUGR-API infants scored below the others on mental items. At 3 years of age the IUGR-API infants had the lowest values on seven of eight developmental measures and on the composite score; at these two time periods, the group with normal birth weight scored the highest, and the IUGR-LPI infants obtained intermediate values. It is concluded that infants with IUGR tend to follow postnatal growth and developmental patterns that are associated with their physical characteristics at birth.
Sammallahti, Sara; Lahti, Marius; Pyhälä, Riikka; Lahti, Jari; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Hovi, Petteri; Eriksson, Johan G.; Strang-Karlsson, Sonja; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Andersson, Sture; Kajantie, Eero; Räikkönen, Katri
Objectives Faster growth after preterm birth benefits long-term cognitive functioning. Whether these benefits extend to mental health remains largely unknown. We examined if faster growth in infancy is associated with better self-reported mental health in young adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW) (term, and 12 months of corrected age, and growth between these time points. Growth data were collected from records and measures at term and at 12 months of corrected age were interpolated. Additionally, we examined the moderating effects of intrauterine growth restriction. Results Size at birth, term, or 12 months of corrected age, or growth between these time points were not associated with mental health outcomes (p-values >0.05). Intrauterine growth restriction did not systematically moderate any associations. Conclusions Despite the high variability in early growth of VLBW infants, the previously described association between slow growth in infancy and poorer cognitive functioning in later life is not reflected in symptoms of depression, ADHD, and other psychiatric problems. This suggests that the development of cognitive and psychiatric problems may have dissimilar critical periods in VLBW infants. PMID:26327229
Manno, Daniela; Kowa, Priscilla K.; Bwalya, Hellen K.; Siame, Joshua; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Baisley, Kathy; De Stavola, Bianca L.; Jaffar, Shabbar; Filteau, Suzanne
It is uncertain whether multiple micronutrients benefit the mental and psychomotor development of young children in developing countries. We conducted a randomised double-blind controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a richly micronutrient-fortified v. a basal fortified porridge on mental and psychomotor development in Zambian infants. Infants (n 743) were randomised at age 6 months to receive either the richly fortified or the basal fortified infant food and were followed up until 18 months of age. All the infants were evaluated monthly for achievement of a series of developmental milestones. The Bayley scales of infant development II were administered to a subsample of 502 infants at 6, 12 and 18 months. Rich micronutrient fortification had no significant benefit on the following: (a) number of developmental milestones achieved (rate ratio at 12 months = 1·00; 95 % CI 0·96, 1·05; P=0·81, adjusted for sex, socio-economic status and maternal education, with similar results at 15 and 18 months); (b) ages of walking unsupported (hazard ratio (HR) 1·04; 95 % CI 0·88, 1·24; P=0·63, adjusted for the above covariates) and of speaking three or four clear words (HR 1·01; 95 % CI 0·84, 1·20; P=0·94, adjusted for the above covariates); (c) mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) of the Bayley scales (scores difference adjusted for baseline scores, age at the assessment, sex, socio-economic status, maternal education, language, age and HIV status: MDI 0·3 (95 % CI −0·5, 1·1), P=0·43; PDI −0·1 (95 % CI −0·9, 0·7), P=0·78). In conclusion, the results do not support the hypothesis that rich micronutrient fortification improves Zambian infants’ mental and motor development. PMID:21733297
Full Text Available The present experiment examined whether the mental rotation ability of 9-month-old infants was related to their abilities to crawl and manually explore objects. Forty-eight 9-month-old infants were tested; half of them had been crawling for an average of 9.3 weeks. The infants were habituated to a video of a simplified Shepard-Metzler object rotating back and forth through a 240° angle around the longitudinal axis of the object. They were tested with videos of the same object rotating through a previously unseen 120° angle and with a mirror image of the display. All of the infants also participated in a manual object exploration task, in which they freely explored 5 toy blocks. The results showed that the crawlers looked significantly longer at the novel (mirror object than at the familiar object, independent of their manual exploration scores. The non-crawlers looking times, in contrast, were influenced by the manual exploration scores. The infants who did not spontaneously explore the toy blocks tended to show a familiarity preference, whereas those who explored the toy blocks preferred to look at the novel object. Thus, all of the infants were able to master the mental rotation task but it seemed to be the most complex process for infants who had no crawling experience and who did not spontaneously explore objects.
Brockington, Ian; Butterworth, Ruth; Glangeaud-Freudenthal, Nine
The purpose of this paper is to set out informal, provisional and comprehensive but concise guidelines for mother-infant (perinatal) mental health (psychiatry), as an area of specialisation. It is informal in the sense that the authors are clinicians and researchers from many different nations, who share a common goal and vision, speaking on their own behalf and not with the backing of any authority or society. It is provisional in the expectation that it can be improved by criticism and new research findings. It is a comprehensive summary of the development of the specialty, its core knowledge and recommended investigations and interventions. It is concise (under 6,000 words, taking less than an hour to read) in order to increase readership and facilitate translation. No attempt has been made to parade the evidence for these suggestions, because the document would have been too long to translate, and for many to read. Instead, drafts were circulated for criticism by those included in the authorship, resulting in a consensus (finalised by the three principal authors), providing a framework to guide service provision, clinical practice and research. The full list of authors, from 33 nations, is given in the postscript. They include mother-infant (or parent-infant) and perinatal adult or child psychiatrists and those with a special interest; mother-infant, perinatal and forensic psychologists; psychiatric nurses; the founders of Postpartum Support International and the Association for Postnatal Illness; representatives of social work and obstetrics and the management of these services, and research scientists working in the field.
Guxens, Mònica; Mendez, Michelle A; Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; Julvez, Jordi; García-Esteban, Raquel; Forns, Joan; Ferrer, Muriel; Vrijheid, Martine; López-Sabater, M Carmen; Sunyer, Jordi
Breastfeeding has been associated with improved neurodevelopment in children. However, it remains unknown to what extent nutritional advantages of breast milk may explain this relationship. We assessed the role of parental psychosocial factors and colostrum long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) levels in the relationship between breastfeeding and children's neurodevelopment. A population-based birth cohort was established in the city of Sabadell (Catalonia, Spain) as part of the INMA-INfancia y Medio Ambiente Project. A total of 657 women were recruited during the first trimester of pregnancy. Information about parental characteristics and breastfeeding was obtained by using a questionnaire, and trained psychologists assessed mental and psychomotor development by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development in 504 children at 14 months of age. A high percentage of breastfeeds among all milk feeds accumulated during the first 14 months was positively related with child mental development (0.37 points per month of full breastfeeding [95% confidence interval: 0.06-0.67]). Maternal education, social class, and intelligence quotient only partly explained this association. Children with a longer duration of breastfeeding also exposed to higher ratios between n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in colostrum had significantly higher mental scores than children with low breastfeeding duration exposed to low levels. Greater levels of accumulated breastfeeding during the first year of life were related to higher mental development at 14 months, largely independently from a wide range of parental psychosocial factors. LC-PUFA levels seem to play a beneficial role in children's mental development when breastfeeding levels are high.
Gart, Natalie; Zamora, Irina; Williams, Marian E
Therapeutic Assessment (TA; S.E. Finn & M.E. Tonsager, 1997; J.D. Smith, 2010) is a collaborative, semistructured model that encourages self-discovery and meaning-making through the use of assessment as an intervention approach. This model shares core strategies with infant mental health assessment, including close collaboration with parents and caregivers, active participation of the family, a focus on developing new family stories and increasing parents' understanding of their child, and reducing isolation and increasing hope through the assessment process. The intersection of these two theoretical approaches is explored, using case studies of three infants/young children and their families to illustrate the application of TA to infant mental health. The case of an 18-month-old girl whose parents fear that she has bipolar disorder illustrates the core principles of the TA model, highlighting the use of assessment intervention sessions and the clinical approach to preparing assessment feedback. The second case follows an infant with a rare genetic syndrome from ages 2 to 24 months, focusing on the assessor-parent relationship and the importance of a developmental perspective. Finally, assessment of a 3-year-old boy illustrates the development and use of a fable as a tool to provide feedback to a young child about assessment findings and recommendations. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Takizawa, Tohru; Kondo, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Osamu; Wake, Norie; Naka, Kuoichi; Todoriki, Hidemi; Ishizu, Hiroshi
Grasping both the extent and the actual situation of psychosomatic disorders, neurotic habits and developmental disorders of infancy and childhood is vital for their prevention and for taking appropriate measures to deal with the current situation. The purpose of this study is to explore the current situation of infant mental health in Japanese…
Osofsky, Joy D; Lieberman, Alicia F
A system of care for abused and neglected infants and young children should adopt a comprehensive perspective, with mental health considerations systematically incorporated into policies and decisions affecting children and their families. Children age birth to 5 years have disproportionately high rates of maltreatment, with long-term consequences for their mental and physical health. Research on normal development and developmental psychopathology has shown that early development unfolds in an ecology of transactional influences among biological, interpersonal, and environmental domains. Psychologists should collaborate with other early intervention disciplines to create systems of care based on an ecological-transactional model of development that includes early mental health principles in order to serve the needs of these young children. Didactic courses, practicums, and internships in infant and early childhood mental health should become integral components of undergraduate and graduate curricula in psychology in order to build capacity to achieve this goal. Recommendations are offered for systemic change by integrating infant and early childhood mental health principles into existing systems of care for young children and their families. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
McDonald, Christine M; Manji, Karim P; Kupka, Roland; Bellinger, David C; Spiegelman, Donna; Kisenge, Rodrick; Msamanga, Gernard; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Duggan, Christopher P
Infants born to HIV-infected women are at increased risk of impaired neurodevelopment, but little research has attempted to identify modifiable risk factors. The objective of this prospective cohort analysis was to identify maternal, socioeconomic, and child correlates of psychomotor and mental development in the first 18 mo of life among Tanzanian infants born to HIV-infected women. We hypothesized that child HIV infection, morbidity, and undernutrition would be associated with lower developmental status when taking into consideration maternal health and socioeconomic factors. Baseline maternal characteristics were recorded during pregnancy, birth characteristics were collected immediately after delivery, infant micronutrient status was measured at 6 wk and 6 mo, and anthropometric measurements and morbidity histories were performed at monthly follow-up visits. The Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) were used to assess developmental functioning at 6, 12, and 18 mo of age. Multivariate repeated regression models with time-varying covariates were used to estimate adjusted mean MDI and PDI scores for each level of the variables. A total of 311 infants contributed ≥1 BSID-II assessments for 657 PDI and 655 MDI measurements. Of infants, 51% were male, 23% were born preterm, 7% were low birth weight, and 10% were HIV-positive at 6 wk. Preterm birth, child HIV infection, stunting, and wasting were independently associated with lower PDI and MDI scores. Strategies to lower mother-to-child transmission of HIV, prevent preterm birth, and enhance child growth could contribute to improved child psychomotor and mental development.
Medhin, Girmay; Hanlon, Charlotte; Dewey, Michael; Alem, Atalay; Tesfaye, Fikru; Lakew, Zufan; Worku, Bogale; Aray, Mesfin; Abdulahi, Abdulreshid; Tomlinson, Mark; Hughes, Marcus; Patel, Vikram; Prince, Martin
Although maternal common mental disorder (CMD) appears to be a risk factor for infant undernutrition in South Asian countries, the position in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is unclear A population-based cohort of 1065 women, in the third trimester of pregnancy, was identified from the demographic surveillance site (DSS) in Butajira, to investigate the effect of maternal CMD on infant undernutrition in a predominantly rural Ethiopian population. Participants were interviewed at recruitment and at two months post-partum. Maternal CMD was measured using the locally validated Self-Reported Questionnaire (score of > or = six indicating high levels of CMD). Infant anthropometry was recorded at six and twelve months of age. The prevalence of CMD was 12% during pregnancy and 5% at the two month postnatal time-point. In bivariate analysis antenatal CMD which had resolved after delivery predicted underweight at twelve months (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.50). There were no other statistically significant differences in the prevalence of underweight or stunted infants in mothers with high levels of CMD compared to those with low levels. The associations between CMD and infant nutritional status were not significant after adjusting for pre-specified potential confounders. Our negative finding adds to the inconsistent picture emerging from SSA. The association between CMD and infant undernutrition might be modified by study methodology as well as degree of shared parenting among family members, making it difficult to extrapolate across low- and middle-income countries.
Tran, Thach Duc; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Tran, Tuan; Simpson, Julie Anne; de Mello, Meena Cabral; Hanieh, Sarah; Nguyen, Trang Thu; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane
Little is known about the effect of common mental disorders (CMD) among women in the perinatal period on infant development in low-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exposures to maternal symptoms of ante- and post-natal CMD on infant social-emotional development in a low-income setting. A prospective community-based investigation in which a cohort of pregnant women was recruited in rural northern Vietnam and followed until 6 months postpartum. Psychosocial and biological data were collected in four assessment waves. The outcome was 6-month old infants' scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Social-Emotional Questionnaire. Direct and indirect effects of maternal CMD on the outcome were tested simultaneously with path analysis. Complete data were available for 378 mother-infant dyads. There were no direct effects of ante- or post-natal CMD on infant Social-Emotional scores. However, there was an indirect pathway (path coefficient -1.11, 95% CI -1.79 to -0.42) in which antenatal CMD were associated with increased likelihood of postnatal CMD, which were associated with reduced parenting self-efficacy and less affectionate and warm parenting practices, which were associated with lower infant social-emotional scores. Parenting self-efficacy and practices also mediated the adverse effects of a woman being young or of high parity or experiencing poverty, intimate partner violence, a poor relationship with her own mother, non-economic life adversity and insufficient breastmilk, on infant social-emotional development. We acknowledge some limitations including (1) a moderate rate of attrition, (2) the use of a screening test for perinatal CMD, (3) the Bayley scales are not yet validated for use in Vietnam and (4) possible response bias in which maternal perceptions of their infants were influenced by their mood. These data indicate that women's antenatal and postnatal mental health is a crucial but currently
Following a series of consultations throughout 2014 and 2015, the Queensland Centre for Perinatal and Infant Mental Health (QCPIMH) identified a significant gap in provision of perinatal and infant mental health (PIMH) services to families living in rural and remote areas of Queensland. Challenges to health service provision in rural and remote areas are well known and include geographically-dispersed populations, the transient nature of some populations (including fly-in/fly-out workers and ...
Festen, D A M; Wevers, M; Lindgren, A C; Böhm, B; Otten, B J; Wit, J M; Duivenvoorden, H J; Hokken-Koelega, A C S
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by muscular hypotonia, psychomotor delay, feeding difficulties and failure to thrive in infancy. GH treatment improves growth velocity and body composition. Research on the effects of GH on psychomotor development in infants with PWS is limited. To evaluate psychomotor development in PWS infants and toddlers during GH treatment compared to randomized controls. Forty-three PWS infants were evaluated at baseline. Twenty-nine of them were randomized into a GH group (n = 15) receiving 1 mg/m(2)/day GH or a non-GH-treated control group (n = 14). At baseline and after 12 months of follow-up, analysis with Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II) was performed. Data were converted to percentage of expected development for age (%ed), and changes during follow-up were calculated. Infants in the GH group had a median age of 2.3 years [interquartile range (IQR) 1.7-3.0] and in the control group of 1.5 years (IQR 1.2-2.7) (P = 0.17). Both mental and motor development improved significantly during the first year of study in the GH group vs. the control group: median (IQR) change was +9.3% (-5.3 to 13.3) vs.-2.9% (-8.1 to 4.9) (P development and +11.2% (-4.9 to 22.5) vs.-18.5% (-27.9 to 1.8) (P development, respectively. One year of GH treatment significantly improved mental and motor development in PWS infants compared to randomized controls.
Copenhagen infant mental health project: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing circle of security –parenting and care as usual as interventions targeting infant mental health risks
Mette Skovgaard Væver
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems and psychopathologies. In disadvantaged populations insecure and disorganized attachment are common, which points to the need of identifying early risk and effective methods of addressing such problems. This protocol describes an experimental evaluation of an indicated group-based parental educational program, Circle of Security–Parenting (COS-P, currently being conducted in Denmark. Methods/design In a parallel randomized controlled trial of two intervention groups this study tests the efficacy of COS-P compared to Care as Usual (CAU in enhancing maternal sensitivity and child attachment in a community sample in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314, who agree to participate, will be randomly allocated with a ratio of 2:1 into the COS-P intervention arm and into CAU. Data will be obtained at inclusion (baseline and at follow-up when the child is 12–16 months. The primary outcome is maternal sensitivity. Secondary outcomes include quality of infant attachment, language, cognitive and socioemotional development, family functioning, parental stress, parental mentalizing and maternal mental wellbeing
Santiesteban, Idalmis; Kaur, Simran; Bird, Geoffrey; Catmur, Caroline
Mentalizing is a fundamental process underpinning human social interaction. Claims of the existence of 'implicit mentalizing' represent a fundamental shift in our understanding of this important skill, suggesting that preverbal infants and even animals may be capable of mentalizing. One of the most influential tasks supporting such claims in adults is the dot perspective-taking task, but demonstrations of similar performance on this task for mentalistic and non-mentalistic stimuli have led to the suggestion that this task in fact measures domain-general processes, rather than implicit mentalizing. A mentalizing explanation was supported by fMRI data claiming to show greater activation of brain areas involved in mentalizing, including right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), when participants made self-perspective judgements in a mentalistic, but not in a non-mentalistic condition, an interpretation subsequently challenged. Here we provide the first causal test of the mentalizing claim using disruptive transcranial magnetic stimulation of rTPJ during self-perspective judgements. We found no evidence for a distinction between mentalistic and non-mentalistic stimuli: stimulation of rTPJ impaired performance on all self-perspective trials, regardless of the mentalistic/non-mentalistic nature of the stimulus. Our data support a domain-general attentional interpretation of performance on the dot perspective-taking task, a role which is subserved by the rTPJ. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Coates, Dominiek; Saleeba, Christine; Howe, Deborah
The perinatal period is a time of great vulnerability for many women, in particular those with a range of psychosocial vulnerabilities and mental health risk factors. This paper outlines the psychosocial and mental health profile of consumers and their partners of a perinatal and infant mental health (PIMH) service in Australia. To establish the consumer profile, we analysed client vulnerabilities and demographical information maintained over a 6-year period for 406 consumers. Consumer information, including mental health problems, psychosocial vulnerabilities and demographical information, was entered into a standalone database by the allocated clinicians upon service allocation and throughout treatment. The women accepted by PIMH presented with an average of nine different vulnerabilities. Frequently endorsed risk factors included depression (72.66%), anxiety (71.43%), comorbid depression and anxiety (58.13%), self-harm (past, 7.88%, present, 16.26%), a history of family mental health issues (39.66%), childhood trauma (57.88%), limited support (68.84%), relationship conflict with partners (38.92%) and financial stress (47.29%). The women's partners also presented with a range of vulnerabilities, in particular childhood trauma (34.11%) and mental health issues (30.81%). This study contributes to our understanding of the profile of vulnerable women in the perinatal period, and in particular contributes to the literature by highlighting that in addition to depression, anxiety, self-harm and trauma are also significant in PIMH service delivery. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although maternal common mental disorder (CMD appears to be a risk factor for infant undernutrition in South Asian countries, the position in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is unclear Methods A population-based cohort of 1065 women, in the third trimester of pregnancy, was identified from the demographic surveillance site (DSS in Butajira, to investigate the effect of maternal CMD on infant undernutrition in a predominantly rural Ethiopian population. Participants were interviewed at recruitment and at two months post-partum. Maternal CMD was measured using the locally validated Self-Reported Questionnaire (score of ≥ six indicating high levels of CMD. Infant anthropometry was recorded at six and twelve months of age. Result The prevalence of CMD was 12% during pregnancy and 5% at the two month postnatal time-point. In bivariate analysis antenatal CMD which had resolved after delivery predicted underweight at twelve months (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.50. There were no other statistically significant differences in the prevalence of underweight or stunted infants in mothers with high levels of CMD compared to those with low levels. The associations between CMD and infant nutritional status were not significant after adjusting for pre-specified potential confounders. Conclusion Our negative finding adds to the inconsistent picture emerging from SSA. The association between CMD and infant undernutrition might be modified by study methodology as well as degree of shared parenting among family members, making it difficult to extrapolate across low- and middle-income countries.
Frick, Andrea; Wang, Su-Hua
Infants' ability to mentally track the orientation of an object during a hidden rotation was investigated (N = 28 in each experiment). A toy on a turntable was fully covered and then rotated 90°. When revealed, the toy had turned with the turntable (probable event), remained at its starting orientation (improbable event in Experiment 1), or turned to the opposite side (improbable event in Experiment 2). Results demonstrated a developmental progression between 14 and 16 months of age in infants' sensitivity to spatial object relations and their ability to track the orientation of an object during hidden rotation. Experiment 3 showed that 14-month-olds' performance improved with hands-on training, highlighting the role of action experience in cognitive development. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Woynaroski, Tiffany; Watson, Linda; Gardner, Elizabeth; Newsom, Cassandra R.; Keceli-Kaysili, Bahar; Yoder, Paul J.
Diversity of key consonants used in communication (DKCC) is a value-added predictor of expressive language growth in initially preverbal children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studying the predictors of DKCC growth in young children with ASD might inform treatment of this under-studied aspect of prelinguistic development. Eighty-seven…
Brinamen, Charles F; Taranta, Adriana N; Johnston, Kadija
The number of infants and young children affected by homelessness and domestic violence is growing, and the effect of these experiences on children is wide-ranging. Early childhood mental health consultation (ECMHC) has expanded to these settings to help the adults attend to very young children whose needs are often obscured by families' crises. Recent research in ECMHC to childcare has cited the salience of the consultant-consultee relationship as the central contributor to positive change in caregiver's behavior and children's experience. This article explores the similarities and variations in the consultant's way of being that are necessary to expand this relationship-based ECMHC model to adult-focused settings. This has incorporated a combination of consultative shifts: expanded training, appreciation for families' survival priorities, attention to the effects of unavoidable adult decisions on children, increased tolerance for the affect this raises in parents and caseworkers, and greater efforts to create space for reflection and thinking. Caseworkers' attenuated contact with and limited prior knowledge about young children creates challenges in identifying and responding to concerns about children. The particular systemic and relational difficulties that emerge in shelters and that influence caseworkers' responsiveness to clients are explored. Copyright © 2012 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Facchini, Sergio; Martin, Valentina; Downing, George
This case series study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a behavioral/cognitive psychological intervention in a pediatric primary health care setting during standard well-baby visits. The aim of the intervention was to support caregivers’ sensitivity and mentalization in order to promote infant mental health. Four neonates from birth to eight months were consecutively enrolled to test a short video-feedback intervention (Primary Care - Video Intervention Therapy, an adaptation ...
Full Text Available Child maltreatment is associated with life-long social, physical, and mental health problems. Intervening early to provide maltreated children with safe, nurturing care can improve outcomes. The need for prompt decisions about permanent placement (i.e., regarding adoption or return home is internationally recognised. However, a recent Glasgow audit showed that many maltreated children “revolve” between birth families and foster carers. This paper describes the protocol of the first exploratory randomised controlled trial of a mental health intervention aimed at improving placement permanency decisions for maltreated children. This trial compares an infant's mental health intervention with the new enhanced service as usual for maltreated children entering care in Glasgow. As both are new services, the trial is being conducted from a position of equipoise. The outcome assessment covers various fields of a child’s neurodevelopment to identify problems in any ESSENCE domain. The feasibility, reliability, and developmental appropriateness of all outcome measures are examined. Additionally, the potential for linkage with routinely collected data on health and social care and, in the future, education is explored. The results will inform a definitive randomised controlled trial that could potentially lead to long lasting benefits for the Scottish population and which may be applicable to other areas of the world. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NC01485510.
Gudmundsdottir, Helga Rut; Gudmundsdottir, Dora Gudrun
The objective of this study was to evaluate how parent-infant music classes would benefit young mothers frequenting a support group for young mothers at a community centre in comparison to a group of older mothers. When the courses had terminated the mothers were interviewed in their homes and their singing confidence was assessed, as well as…
O'Farrelly, Christine; Guerin, Suzanne; Victory, Gerard
Infant mental health (IMH) is best promoted through a continuum of services underpinned by strong service capacity. However, service providers often lack fundamental IMH knowledge and skills. Using the Ready, Steady, Grow (RSG) initiative as a case study of a capacity-building model (P., Hawe, L., King, M., Noort, C., Jordens, & B., Llyod,…
Natalia Cámara Conde
Full Text Available The sleep disorders are among the most common behaviour problems in infancy and early childhood, not only affect children, but parents also suffer from lack of sleep which creates problems of anxiety and communication in the partner by exhaustion. One way to prevent insomnia in children is that parents know how to create the habit of sleeping with their children.The main aims of the protocol are: - To train parents to establish healthy habits for proper sleep hygiene.- Preventing sleep disorders caused by bad habits in the infant. - To prevent symptoms of anxiety due to lack of sleep in the parents.The program will consist of 6 sessions of 90 minutes long, 3 pre-natal where they thrive knowledge and 3 sessions after to exposure doubts and search for solutions. We think that cooperation between the mental health nurse specialist with the midwife it is necessary to create a program that establish a healthy dream pattern in both infants and their parents, will prevent the sleep disorders by incorrect habits and their effects
Woynaroski, Tiffany; Watson, Linda; Gardner, Elizabeth; Newsom, Cassandra R; Keceli-Kaysili, Bahar; Yoder, Paul J
Diversity of key consonants used in communication (DKCC) is a value-added predictor of expressive language growth in initially preverbal children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studying the predictors of DKCC growth in young children with ASD might inform treatment of this under-studied aspect of prelinguistic development. Eighty-seven initially preverbal preschoolers with ASD and their parents were observed at five measurement periods. In this longitudinal correlational investigation, we found that child intentional communication acts and parent linguistic responses to child leads predicted DKCC growth, after controlling for two other predictors and two background variables. As predicted, receptive vocabulary mediated the association between the value-added predictors and endpoint DKCC.
Gemma D Traviss
Full Text Available To identify factors associated with infant growth up to 6 months, with a particular focus on maternal distress, and to explore the effect of ethnicity on any relation between maternal distress and infant growth.Cohort study recruiting White and Pakistani women in the United Kingdom (UK. Infant growth was measured at birth and 6 months. Standard assessment of mental health (GHQ-28 was undertaken in pregnancy (26-28 weeks gestation and 6 months postpartum. Modelling included social deprivation, ethnicity, and other known influences on infant growth such as maternal smoking and alcohol consumption.Maternal distress improved markedly from pregnancy to 6 months postpartum. At both times Pakistani women had more somatic and depression symptoms than White women. Depression in pregnancy (GHQ subscale D was associated with lower infant growth at 6 months. Self-reported social dysfunction in pregnancy (GHQ subscale C was associated with lower gestational age.. Pakistani women reported higher GHQ scores during pregnancy associated with smaller infants at birth. They lived in areas of higher social deprivation, reported less alcohol consumption and smoking postnatally, all independent influences on growth at 6 months.Maternal mental health in pregnancy is an independent influence on infant growth up to 6 months and is associated with ethnicity which was itself associated with deprivation in our sample. There is a complex relationship between symptoms of maternal distress, ethnicity, deprivation, health behaviours, and early infant growth. Measures should include both emotional and somatic symptoms and interventions to reduce risks of poor early growth need to include psychological and social components.
Mckelvey, Lorraine; Schiffman, Rachel F; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Bocknek, Erika London; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Reischl, Thomas M; Hawver, Shelley; Cunningham Deluca, Mary
Infant Mental Health based interventions aim to promote the healthy development of infants and toddlers through promoting healthy family functioning to foster supportive relationships between the young child and his or her important caregivers. This study examined impacts of an Infant Mental Health home-based Early Head Start (IMH-HB EHS) program on family functioning. The sample includes 152 low-income families in the Midwestern United States, expectant or parenting a child younger than 1 year of age, who were randomly assigned to receive IMH-HB EHS services (n = 75) or to a comparison condition (n = 77). Mothers who received IMH-HB EHS services reported healthier psychological and family functioning, outcomes that are consistent with the IMH focus, when their children were between the ages of 3 and 7 years of age. Specifically, mothers in the IMH-HB EHS group reported healthier family functioning and relationships, better coping skills needed to advocate for their families, and less stress in the parenting role versus those in the comparison condition. The study also examined support seeking coping, some of which changed differently over time based on program group assignment. Overall, findings suggest that the gains families achieve from participating in IMH-HB EHS services are maintained after services cease. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Oosterman, M.; Kohlhoff, J.; Barnett, B.; Kunseler, F.C.; Schuengel, C.; Wernand, J.J.; Flykt, M.
Maternal mental health problems are linked to negative parenting and child outcomes. However, evidence for mechanisms that may explain the undermining influence of psychological problems is less well specified and the influence of possible moderators is relatively unexplored. (Dix & Meunier, 2009).
Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia’s Early Parenting Services support families and intervene early in mental health problems in parents. The Victorian Early Parenting Strategy, a platform for government policy recommended a stronger evidence base for early parenting services. Tweddle Child and Family Health Service (TCFHS is a not-for-profit public sector early parenting centre, which provides residential, day stay, home visiting and outreach programs. This study aimed i to examine the health, social circumstances and presenting needs of clients attending the Tweddle Day Stay Program (DSP with infants under 12 months old and ii to assess the parent mental health and infant behaviour outcomes and the factors associated with program success. Methods A cohort of clients was recruited prior to admission and followed-up 8 weeks after discharge. Data were collected using standardised measures in a study specific questionnaire at baseline, participant’s Tweddle records and a follow-up telephone interview. Health, social circumstances and presenting needs of clients were described. Changes in parents’ symptoms of depression and infants’ sleep and settling between admission and follow-up were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with changes in primary outcomes. Results Of the total 162 clients who were eligible and invited to participate, 115 (72% were recruited. Parents admitted to the DSP had worse general self-reported physical and mental health than community samples. Infants of DSP participants were no more likely to be premature or have low birth weight, but significantly more unsettled than other community samples. Participants’ mental health and their infants’ behaviours were significantly improved after DSP admission. In multivariate analysis, higher depression score at baseline and greater educational attainment were significantly associated with improvements in parents’ mental
Kovács, Agnes Melinda; Mehler, Jacques
Children acquire their native language according to a well-defined time frame. Surprisingly, although children raised in bilingual environments have to learn roughly twice as much about language as their monolingual peers, the speed of acquisition is comparable in monolinguals and bilinguals. Here, we show that preverbal 12-month-old bilingual infants have become more flexible at learning speech structures than monolinguals. When given the opportunity to simultaneously learn two different regularities, bilingual infants learned both, whereas monolinguals learned only one of them. Hence, bilinguals may acquire two languages in the time in which monolinguals acquire one because they quickly become more flexible learners.
Full Text Available Background: Antenatal steroid administration may benefit fetal lung maturity in preterm infants. Although some studies have shown that this treatment may increase asthma in childhood, the correlation between antenatal dexamethasone exposure and allergic diseases remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between antenatal dexamethasone and T cell expression in childhood allergic diseases. Methods: We recruited a cohort of preterm infants born at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 2007 and 2010 with a gestational age of less than 35 weeks and body weight at birth of less than 1500 g. The status of antenatal exposure to steroids and allergic diseases were surveyed using a modified ISAAC questionnaire for subjects aged 2–5 years old. We analyzed Th1/Th2/Th17 expression of mRNA, cytokines (using the Magpix® my-system, and mental development index (MDI. Results: Among the 40 patients that were followed, the data showed that the antenatal dexamethasone exposure group (N = 24 had a significantly higher incidence of allergic diseases (75.0% vs. 18.8%, p < 0.0001 when compared to the non-dexamethasone exposure group (N = 16, especially with regard to asthma (41.7% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.003 and allergic rhinitis (58.3% vs. 18.8%, p = 0.013, but not atopic dermatitis. No statistical difference was observed in the mRNA expression levels of total white blood cell count between the dexamethasone exposure and non-exposure groups (p > 0.05. However, the asthma group had higher IL-5 levels (p = 0.009, and the MDI was shown to be significantly higher in the dexamethasone exposure group (90.38 ± 3.31 vs. 79.94 ± 3.58, p = 0.043 while no significant difference was found between the PDI of the two groups. Conclusions: Exposure to antenatal dexamethasone in preterm infants will increase their susceptibility to allergic diseases, particularly asthma and allergic rhinitis. Preterm infants’ exposure to antenatal
Okada, Junichiro; Takeuchi, Kazuo
Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 47 children and adolescents with mental and/or physical handicaps. Of these series, 22 cases of morphological change were noted. Another 25 cases showed no overt CT abnormality. These 47 cases were divided into three groups in the following manner. Group 1, with no CT abnormality; Group 2, with ventricular dilatation and/or cerebral atrophy, and Group 3, with a major morphological anomaly of the brain. Group 1 (25 cases) showed a marked dissociation between the CT findings and the IQ. EEG showed normal findings in two cases, diffuse abnormality in 5 cases, and focal abnormality in 9 cases. This group alone included 8 cases of athetosis. Group 2 (14 cases). Seven cases of EEG showed diffuse abnormality in 3 cases and focal abnormality in 4 cases. So-called cerebral palsy was noted in 11 cases. Group 3 (8 cases). This group included cases of hemihydranencephaly, porencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and arachnoid cyst. The mean and standard deviations of the IQ's in the groups are 57.1 +- 21.6, 65.2 +- 20.5, and 72.0 +- 8.0. That is, an inverted correlation between the CT abnormality and the IQ was noted. CT is a noninvasive study and a reasonable method of investigation for mentally handicapped children. DeMyer gave three categories of cerebral malformation: cytogenetic malformations, organogenetic disorders, and histogenetic disorders. On the other hand, EEG aimed at evaluating cerebral function and CT undertaken for morphological evaluation reveal no intimate correlation with one another. Rather, these two procedures each have their one value for the evaluation of the function and the structure of the brain. Mentally and/or physically handicapped patients without any overt cerebral anomaly have been found to be as follows: Murobushi, 12.29%; Malamud, 34%; Gross, 15.8%; Benda, 15%, and Hamada, 45.4%. (author)
Farley, Jennifer L; Whipple, Ellen E
The expansion of infant mental health (IMH) to at-risk preschoolers and their families has contributed to the integration of relational play therapy (RPT) into IMH treatment services for this population. Integrating RPT allows access to specialized play and expressive techniques specific to preschool and family development, which improves the clinical ability to meet the multiple and complex needs of at-risk parent-child dyads and their families. This article will examine the RPT literature and explore the similarities and differences between IMH and RPT. In addition, two case studies will highlight a five-phase, integrative clinical-treatment process and provide insight into how IMH clinicians are integrating RPT models and maintaining adherence to the IMH treatment approach. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Full Text Available This case series study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a behavioral/cognitive psychological intervention in a pediatric primary health care setting during standard well-baby visits. The aim of the intervention was to support caregivers’ sensitivity and mentalization in order to promote infant mental health. Four neonates from birth to eight months were consecutively enrolled to test a short video-feedback intervention (Primary Care - Video Intervention Therapy, an adaptation of George Downing's Video Intervention Therapy to primary care conducted by a pediatrician.The five minute interaction recording and the video-feedback session were performed during the same well-baby visit and in the same pediatrician's office where the physical examination was conducted. During the study period, six video-feedback sessions were performed for each baby at different ages (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 months. Filmed and discussed were a series of different interactional situations: touch, cry, affective matching, descriptive language, feeding, separation and autonomy.The intervention was easily accepted and much appreciated by all four families enrolled. This study aimed to answer a dilemma which pediatric providers generally face: if the provider wishes to respond to not only physical but also infant mental health issues, how on a practical level can this be done? This case series study indicates that Primary Care - Video Intervention Therapy deserves to be seen as a promising new tool for such a purpose.
Hawthorne, Dawn M; Youngblut, JoAnne M; Brooten, Dorothy
The death of an infant/child is one of the most devastating experiences for parents and immediately throws them into crisis. Research on the use of spiritual/religious coping strategies is limited, especially with Black and Hispanic parents after a neonatal (NICU) or pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) death. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to test the relationships between spiritual/religious coping strategies and grief, mental health (depression and post-traumatic stress disorder) and personal growth for mothers and fathers at 1 (T1) and 3 (T2) months after the infant's/child's death in the NICU/PICU, with and without control for race/ethnicity and religion. Bereaved parents' greater use of spiritual activities was associated with lower symptoms of grief, mental health (depression and post-traumatic stress), but not post-traumatic stress in fathers. Use of religious activities was significantly related to greater personal growth for mothers, but not fathers. Spiritual strategies and activities helped parents cope with their grief and helped bereaved mothers maintain their mental health and experience personal growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
INTERFACING INFANT MENTAL HEALTH KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS: REFLECTIONS ON THE NARRATIVES OF LAY HOME VISITORS' EXPERIENCES OF LEARNING AND APPLYING RELATIONAL CONCEPTS OF DEVELOPMENT IN A SOUTH AFRICAN INTERVENTION PROGRAM.
Baradon, Tessa; Bain, Katherine
The question of interfacing research and clinically generated knowledge in the field of infant mental health (IMH) with local cultural knowledge and belief systems has provoked extended discussion in recent years. This article explores convergences and divergences between current research-based, relational IMH mental health models and "community" knowledge held by a group of South African lay home visitors from a socioeconomically deprived township. These women were trained in a psychoanalytic and attachment-informed infant mental health program that promotes a relational model of infant development. They provide an intervention that supports high risk mother-infant relationships in the same locality. A two-tiered approach was taken to the analysis of the home visitor interviews and focused on the home visitors' constructed narratives of infant development posttraining as well as the personal impact of the training and work on the home visitors themselves. The study found that psychoanalytic and attachment-informed thinking about development makes sense to those operating within the local South African cultural context, but that the accommodation of this knowledge is a complex and challenging process. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Full Text Available Three experiments provide evidence of an incipient sense of fairness in preverbal infants. Ten-month-old infants were shown cartoon videos with two agents, the 'donors', who distributed resources to two identical recipients. One donor always distributed the goods equally, while the other performed unequal distributions by giving everything to one recipient. In the test phase, a third agent hit or took resources away from either the fair or the unfair donor. We found that infants looked longer when the antisocial actions were directed towards the unfair rather than the fair donor. These findings support the view that infants are able to evaluate agents based on their distributive actions and suggest that the foundations of human socio-moral competence are acquired independently of parental feedback and linguistic experience.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies suggest that the number of risk factors rather than their nature is key to mental health disorders in childhood. Method and design The objective of this multicentre randomized controlled parallel trial (PROBE methodology is to assess the impact in a multi-risk French urban sample of a home-visiting program targeting child mental health and its major determinants. This paper describes the protocol of this study. In the study, pregnant women were eligible if they were: living in the intervention area; able to speak French, less than 26 years old; having their first child; less than 27 weeks of amenorrhea; and if at least one of the following criteria were true: less than twelve years of education, intending to bring up their child without the presence of the child’s father, and 3 low income. Participants were randomized into either the intervention or the control group. All had access to usual care in mother-child centres and community mental health services free of charge in every neighbourhood. Psychologists conducted all home visits, which were planned on a weekly basis from the 7th month of pregnancy and progressively decreasing in frequency until the child’s second birthday. Principle outcome measures included child mental health at 24 months and two major mediating variables for infant mental health: postnatal maternal depression and the quality of the caring environment. A total of 440 families were recruited, of which a subsample of 120 families received specific attachment and caregiver behaviour assessment. Assessment was conducted by an independent assessment team during home visits and, for the attachment study, in a specifically created Attachment Assessment laboratory. Discussion The CAPEDP study is the first large-scale randomised, controlled infant mental health promotion programme to take place in France. A major specificity of the program was that all home visits were conducted by
Tubach, Florence; Greacen, Tim; Saïas, Thomas; Dugravier, Romain; Guedeney, Nicole; Ravaud, Philippe; Tereno, Susana; Tremblay, Richard; Falissard, Bruno; Guedeney, Antoine
Several studies suggest that the number of risk factors rather than their nature is key to mental health disorders in childhood. The objective of this multicentre randomized controlled parallel trial (PROBE methodology) is to assess the impact in a multi-risk French urban sample of a home-visiting program targeting child mental health and its major determinants. This paper describes the protocol of this study. In the study, pregnant women were eligible if they were: living in the intervention area; able to speak French, less than 26 years old; having their first child; less than 27 weeks of amenorrhea; and if at least one of the following criteria were true: less than twelve years of education, intending to bring up their child without the presence of the child's father, and 3) low income. Participants were randomized into either the intervention or the control group. All had access to usual care in mother-child centres and community mental health services free of charge in every neighbourhood. Psychologists conducted all home visits, which were planned on a weekly basis from the 7th month of pregnancy and progressively decreasing in frequency until the child's second birthday. Principle outcome measures included child mental health at 24 months and two major mediating variables for infant mental health: postnatal maternal depression and the quality of the caring environment. A total of 440 families were recruited, of which a subsample of 120 families received specific attachment and caregiver behaviour assessment. Assessment was conducted by an independent assessment team during home visits and, for the attachment study, in a specifically created Attachment Assessment laboratory. The CAPEDP study is the first large-scale randomised, controlled infant mental health promotion programme to take place in France. A major specificity of the program was that all home visits were conducted by specifically trained, supervised psychologists rather than nurses
Akimitsu, Osami; Wada, Kai; Noji, Teruki; Taniwaki, Nozomi; Krejci, Milada; Nakade, Miyo; Takeuchi, Hitomi; Harada, Tetsuo
Background This study aims to examine the relationship between tyrosine and phenylalanine intake at breakfast as precursors of dopamine, and scores on the Torsvall-?kerstedt Diurnal Type Scale and of mental health in Japanese infants aged 2 to 5 years. Results An integrated questionnaire was administered to parents of 1,367 infants attending one of ten nursery schools governed by Kochi City or a kindergarten affiliated with the Faculty of Education at Kochi University (775 answers for analysi...
Phung, Janice N; Milojevich, Helen M; Lukowski, Angela F
Adult-provided language shapes event memory in children who are preverbal and in those who are able to discuss the past using language. The research conducted to date, however, has not yet established whether infant language comprehension abilities moderate the extent to which preverbal infants benefit from adult-provided supportive language. The present study was conducted to address this question by examining immediate imitation and 1-week delayed generalization across cues in 20-month-old infants as a function of (a) variability in adult-provided linguistic support at encoding and test, (b) infant language comprehension abilities, and (c) their interaction. The provision of supportive adult language at encoding and test was associated with delayed generalization across cues although supportive adult language at encoding did not influence performance at immediate imitation. Infant language comprehension abilities were associated with performance at immediate imitation and delayed generalization across cues. In addition, infant language comprehension abilities moderated the extent to which infants benefited from adult-provided supportive language at encoding and test. The findings contribute to the literature by demonstrating that adult language use and infant language comprehension are independently and differentially associated with immediate imitation and 1-week delayed generalization across cues but also serve to jointly structure event memory in the second year of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A Diagnosis of Denial: How Mental Health Classification Systems Have Struggled to Recognise Family Violence as a Serious Risk Factor in the Development of Mental Health Issues for Infants, Children, Adolescents and Adults.
Bunston, Wendy; Franich-Ray, Candice; Tatlow, Sara
Child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) routinely overlook assessing for, and providing treatment to, infants and children living with family violence, despite family violence being declared endemic across the globe. As contemporary neuro-developmental research recognises the harm of being exposed to early relational trauma, key international diagnostic texts such as the DSM-5 and ICD-10 struggle to acknowledge or appreciate the relational complexities inherent in addressing family violence and its impacts during childhood. These key texts directly influence thinking, funding and research imperatives in adult services as well as CAMHS, however, they rarely reference family violence. Their emphasis is to pathologise conditions over exploring causality which may be attributable to relational violence. Consequently, CAMHS can miss important indicators of family violence, misdiagnose disorders and unwittingly, not address unacceptable risks in the child's caregiving environment. Notwithstanding urgent safety concerns, ongoing exposure to family violence significantly heightens the development of mental illness amongst children. CAMHS providers cannot and should not rely on current diagnostic manuals alone. They need to act now to see family violence as a significant and important risk factor to mental health and to treat its impacts on children before these develop into enduring neurological difficulties.
A Diagnosis of Denial: How Mental Health Classification Systems Have Struggled to Recognise Family Violence as a Serious Risk Factor in the Development of Mental Health Issues for Infants, Children, Adolescents and Adults
Full Text Available Child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS routinely overlook assessing for, and providing treatment to, infants and children living with family violence, despite family violence being declared endemic across the globe. As contemporary neuro-developmental research recognises the harm of being exposed to early relational trauma, key international diagnostic texts such as the DSM-5 and ICD-10 struggle to acknowledge or appreciate the relational complexities inherent in addressing family violence and its impacts during childhood. These key texts directly influence thinking, funding and research imperatives in adult services as well as CAMHS, however, they rarely reference family violence. Their emphasis is to pathologise conditions over exploring causality which may be attributable to relational violence. Consequently, CAMHS can miss important indicators of family violence, misdiagnose disorders and unwittingly, not address unacceptable risks in the child’s caregiving environment. Notwithstanding urgent safety concerns, ongoing exposure to family violence significantly heightens the development of mental illness amongst children. CAMHS providers cannot and should not rely on current diagnostic manuals alone. They need to act now to see family violence as a significant and important risk factor to mental health and to treat its impacts on children before these develop into enduring neurological difficulties.
A Diagnosis of Denial: How Mental Health Classification Systems Have Struggled to Recognise Family Violence as a Serious Risk Factor in the Development of Mental Health Issues for Infants, Children, Adolescents and Adults
Bunston, Wendy; Franich-Ray, Candice; Tatlow, Sara
Child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) routinely overlook assessing for, and providing treatment to, infants and children living with family violence, despite family violence being declared endemic across the globe. As contemporary neuro-developmental research recognises the harm of being exposed to early relational trauma, key international diagnostic texts such as the DSM-5 and ICD-10 struggle to acknowledge or appreciate the relational complexities inherent in addressing family violence and its impacts during childhood. These key texts directly influence thinking, funding and research imperatives in adult services as well as CAMHS, however, they rarely reference family violence. Their emphasis is to pathologise conditions over exploring causality which may be attributable to relational violence. Consequently, CAMHS can miss important indicators of family violence, misdiagnose disorders and unwittingly, not address unacceptable risks in the child’s caregiving environment. Notwithstanding urgent safety concerns, ongoing exposure to family violence significantly heightens the development of mental illness amongst children. CAMHS providers cannot and should not rely on current diagnostic manuals alone. They need to act now to see family violence as a significant and important risk factor to mental health and to treat its impacts on children before these develop into enduring neurological difficulties. PMID:29039808
van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Heymans, Hugo S. A.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; de Vijlder, Jan J. M.; Vulsma, Thomas
OBJECTIVE: Young infants with Down syndrome have an increased occurrence of several well-known medical conditions such as congenital heart and gastrointestinal disease. The aim of this study was to establish consequences like hospitalization and medication use rates and to determine their possible
Rollo, D.; Buttiglieri, F.
In recent years, a number of studies that have examined how social experiences are related to children's theory of mind development, have found that: (1) the frequency of mothers' mental state utterances used in mother-child picture-book reading, is correlated with children's theory of mind abilities; (2) mothers' use of cognitive terms is related more strongly to children's theory of mind performances than the mothers' references to other mental states, such as desires or emotions (Adrian, Clemente, Villanueva, Rieffe, 2005; Ruffman, Slade, Crowe, 2002; Taumoepeau, Ruffman, 2006; Dunn, 2002). Despite the evidence for the role of mothers' language, there is disagreement over how exactly it improves children's theory of mind development. In short, mentalistic comments contain distinctive words, grammatical constructions and pragmatic features. The question is, however, which factor is critical (de Rosnay, Pons, Harris, Morrell, 2004). The present study addresses this issue and focuses on relationship between mothers' mental state terms and children's performances in theory of mind tasks (emotion understanding and false belief tasks). Mothers were asked to read some pictures to 10 children between 3;0 and 5;0. Among the different mental state references (perceptual, emotional, volitional, cognitive, moral and communicative), it was found that the frequency and variety of mothers' mental state words were significantly associated with children's mental lexicon. In addition, emotional terms correlated positively with children's false belief performance. Kind of emotional words that are used by the mothers with reference to the Italian language will be discussed.
Full Text Available Background: Despite the large number of studies conducted on breastfeeding, no studies have yet examined the direct and indirect effects of socio-personal factors and mental health on breastfeeding. Aim: This study aimed to analyze of the effects of mental health and socio-personal factors on breastfeeding in infants aged less than six months. Method: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 465 eligible mothers visiting general health centers in a northern city of Iran, in 2015. Data were collected using the researcher-made scale of socio-personal factors of breastfeeding, Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck’s Depression Inventory, Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, the Breastfeeding Difficulties Questionnaire, the Access to Healthcare Questionnaire, and the Poor Health Behaviors Questionnaire. Results: The path analysis of the mental health variables showed that breastfeeding problems are associated through a direct path with depression, through an indirect path with stress, and through both paths with anxiety; a positive correlation was thus observed between these variables and breastfeeding problems. Poor health behaviors also contributed to mothers’ breastfeeding problems through a direct path and indirectly by affecting their level of depression. Income had the highest positive effect (B=0.66, while the number of children had the highest negative effect (B=-3.16 on breastfeeding problems through a direct path. Poor health behaviors had the highest positive effect (B=0.75 and family support had the highest negative effect (B=-0.11 on breastfeeding. Implications for Practice: The early diagnosis of poor postpartum mental health in mothers can help reduce breastfeeding problems.
Tran, Thach D; Tran, Tuan; Simpson, Julie A; Tran, Ha T; Nguyen, Trang T; Hanieh, Sarah; Dwyer, Terence; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Fisher, Jane
Antenatal anaemia, iron deficiency and common mental disorders (CMD) are prevalent in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of antenatal exposures to these risks and infant motor development. A cohort of women who were pregnant with a single foetus and between 12 and 20 weeks pregnant in 50 randomly-selected rural communes in Ha Nam province was recruited. Participants provided data twice during pregnancy (early and late gestation) and twice after giving birth (8 weeks and 6 months postpartum). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used at all four data collection waves to detect CMD (score ≥ 4). Maternal anaemia (Hb deficiency (ferritin deficiency at early pregnancy and 48.2% at late pregnancy. Clinically significant symptoms of CMD were apparent among 40% women in early pregnancy and 28% in late pregnancy. There were direct adverse effects on infant BSID-M scores at 6 months of age due to antenatal anaemia in late pregnancy (an estimated mean reduction of 2.61 points, 95% Confidence Interval, CI, 0.57 to 4.65) and CMD in early pregnancy (7.13 points, 95% CI 3.13 to 11.13). Iron deficiency and anaemia in early pregnancy were indirectly related to the outcome via anaemia during late pregnancy. Antenatal anaemia, iron deficiency, and CMD have a negative impact on subsequent infant motor development. These findings highlight the need to improve the quality of antenatal care when developing interventions for pregnant women that aim to optimise early childhood development in low- and middle-income countries.
Facchini, Sergio; Martin, Valentina; Downing, George
This case series study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a behavioral/cognitive psychological intervention in a pediatric primary health care setting during standard well-baby visits. The aim of the intervention was to support caregivers' sensitivity and mentalization in order to promote infant mental health (IMH). Four neonates from birth to 8 months were consecutively enrolled to test a short video-feedback intervention (Primary Care - Video Intervention Therapy, an adaptation of George Downing's Video Intervention Therapy to primary care) conducted by a pediatrician. The 5 min interaction recording and the video-feedback session were performed during the same well-baby visit and in the same pediatrician's office where the physical examination was conducted. During the study period, six video-feedback sessions were performed for each baby at different ages (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 months). A series of different interactional situations were filmed and discussed: touch, cry, affective matching, descriptive language, feeding, separation and autonomy. The intervention was easily accepted and much appreciated by all four families enrolled. This study aimed to answer a dilemma which pediatric providers generally face: if the provider wishes to respond not only to physical but also IMH issues, how on a practical level can this be done? This case series study indicates that Primary Care - Video Intervention Therapy can be a promising new tool for such a purpose.
Akimitsu, Osami; Wada, Kai; Noji, Teruki; Taniwaki, Nozomi; Krejci, Milada; Nakade, Miyo; Takeuchi, Hitomi; Harada, Tetsuo
This study aims to examine the relationship between tyrosine and phenylalanine intake at breakfast as precursors of dopamine, and scores on the Torsvall-Åkerstedt Diurnal Type Scale and of mental health in Japanese infants aged 2 to 5 years. An integrated questionnaire was administered to parents of 1,367 infants attending one of ten nursery schools governed by Kochi City or a kindergarten affiliated with the Faculty of Education at Kochi University (775 answers for analysis: 56.7%) in May and June 2008. Questionnaires included the Torsvall-Åkerstedt Diurnal Type Scale and questions on sleep habits (onset, offset, quality, quantity, and so on), meal habits (content and regularity of timing), and mental health (depressive states). Amount of tyrosine and phenylalanine intake was calculated based on a breakfast content questionnaire and data on the components of amino acids in foods. Infants who ingested more than 800 mg of tyrosine or phenylalanine at breakfast per meal were more morning-type than those who ingested less than 800 mg (ANOVA: P= 0.005). However, this relationship disappeared in the ANCOVA analysis (with the covariance of tryptophan intake, P= 0.894). Infants who ingested more than 800 mg of the two amino acids at breakfast showed significantly higher mental health scores (lower frequency of depressive states) than those who ingested less than 800 mg (ANOVA: P = 0.004). This relationship remained significant when ANCOVA analysis was performed with the covariance of tryptophan (ANCOVA: P= 0.017). These results suggest that tyrosine and phenylalanine ingested at breakfast are not related with circadian phase, but are relate with mental health in infants.
Kish, Allison; Courtaney, Katie; Dilger, Adi; Gallo, Tori; King, Lauren; Jarvis, Amy; Roberson, Ambry; Smith, Meredith; Thottichira, Serina
Various measures of infant responsiveness have been shown to predict child outcomes. Despite this extensive research, there is no work examining links between infant responsiveness during caregiver-infant interactions with infants' ability to perform basic linguistic tasks. One key task in early linguistic development is word segmentation, an achievement that allows infants to build their mental dictionaries. We hypothesized that infants' responsiveness to caregiver facial expressions might b...
Segal, Osnat; Kishon-Rabin, Liat
The main purpose of the present study was to determine listening preference for child-directed speech (CDS) over static (white noise, WN) and dynamic (time-reversed speech, TRS) nonspeech stimuli in both normal-hearing (NH) infants and hearing-impaired infants with cochlear implants (CIs). A second purpose was to investigate the effect of auditory experience on listening preference for speech in both groups. A total of 64 infants, 43 NH (age 6 to 20 mos) and 21 CI users (age 14 to 33 mos), were tested. Twenty-two NH infants and 12 infants with CIs were tested on their listening preference for CDS compared with WN. In addition, 21 NH infants and 9 infants with CIs were tested on their listening preference for CDS compared with TRS using the central fixation preference procedure. NH infants and infants with CIs preferred listening to speech compared with WN and TRS. This preference was shown in infants with limited listening experience and increased significantly with auditory exposure for both NH infants and infants with CIs. The extent of preference for speech versus nonspeech among infants with CIs was significantly correlated with gross auditory and preverbal production skills (as measured by ITMAIS and PRISE tests, respectively) as well as with duration of auditory experience. The CI device provides sufficient information for the infants with CIs to follow early language processes similarly to NH infants.
Maternal mental health symptoms are positively related to emotional and restrained eating attitudes in a statewide sample of mothers participating in a supplemental nutrition program for women, infants and young children.
Emerson, Jillian A; Hurley, Kristen M; Caulfield, Laura E; Black, Maureen M
Postpartum, low-income mothers are at risk for mental health symptoms and obesity, and disordered eating attitudes may be associated with both mental health and obesity in this vulnerable population. The study objective is to determine whether higher levels of mental health symptoms are associated with increased odds of emotional and restrained eating attitudes in this sample of Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Data on 711 mothers of infants Emotional and restrained eating attitudes were measured with questions adapted from the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used. Obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30] was explored as a moderating variable. Mothers reporting higher levels of depression symptoms [odds ratio (OR) = 3.93, 95%CI: 2.71-5.69], anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.96, 95%CI: 1.47-2.65), stress symptoms (OR = 2.09, 95%CI: 1.67-2.61) and high overall mental health symptomatology (OR = 3.51, 95%CI: 2.43-5.3) had increased odds of emotional eating attitudes. There were significant associations between symptoms of depression (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.12-2.25) and increased odds of restrained eating attitudes. Obesity did not moderate the association. Mothers with mental health symptoms are at risk for disordered eating attitudes, which may increase risk of poor diet. These findings underscore the need for greater focus on addressing maternal mental health status and eating attitudes in the postpartum period. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Koutra, Katerina; Chatzi, Leda; Bagkeris, Manolis; Vassilaki, Maria; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis
A growing body of evidence links poor maternal mental health with negative outcomes on early child development. We examined the effect of antenatal and postnatal maternal mental health on infant neurodevelopment at age 18 months in a population-based mother-child cohort (Rhea Study) in Crete, Greece. Self-reported measures of maternal depression (EPDS), trait anxiety (STAI-Trait) and personality traits (EPQ-R) were assessed in a sample of women during pregnancy and at 8 weeks postpartum (n = 223). An additional sample of 247 mothers also completed the EPDS scale at 8 weeks postpartum (n = 470). Neurodevelopment at 18 months was assessed with the use of Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (3rd edition). Multivariable linear regression models adjusted for confounders revealed that antenatal depressive symptoms (EPDS ≥ 13) were associated with decrease in cognitive development independently of postnatal depression. High trait anxiety and extraversion were associated with decrease and increase, respectively, in social-emotional development. Also, high trait anxiety and neuroticism had a positive effect on infants' expressive communication. Finally, postpartum depressive symptoms (EPDS ≥ 13) were associated with decrease in cognitive and fine motor development independently of antenatal depression. These findings suggest that antenatal and postnatal maternal psychological well-being has important consequences on early child neurodevelopment.
Denison, Stephanie; Xu, Fei
Reasoning under uncertainty is the bread and butter of everyday life. Many areas of psychology, from cognitive, developmental, social, to clinical, are interested in how individuals make inferences and decisions with incomplete information. The ability to reason under uncertainty necessarily involves probability computations, be they exact calculations or estimations. What are the developmental origins of probabilistic reasoning? Recent work has begun to examine whether infants and toddlers can compute probabilities; however, previous experiments have confounded quantity and probability-in most cases young human learners could have relied on simple comparisons of absolute quantities, as opposed to proportions, to succeed in these tasks. We present four experiments providing evidence that infants younger than 12 months show sensitivity to probabilities based on proportions. Furthermore, infants use this sensitivity to make predictions and fulfill their own desires, providing the first demonstration that even preverbal learners use probabilistic information to navigate the world. These results provide strong evidence for a rich quantitative and statistical reasoning system in infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fatores associados ao desenvolvimento mental e motor de crianças de quatro creches públicas de Recife, Brasil Factors associated with mental and psychomotor development of infants in four public day care centers in the municipality of Recife, Brazil
Sophie Helena Eickmann
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores associados aos índices de desenvolvimento mental e motor em lactentes que frequentam creches da rede municipal em Recife. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal realizado entre fevereiro e abril de 2005 em uma amostra de 108 crianças com idade entre quatro e 24 meses, pertencentes a quatro creches municipais do Recife. O desenvolvimento mental e motor foi avaliado pela Escala de Desenvolvimento Infantil de Bayley II. Por meio de entrevistas às mães, foram obtidas informações sobre as condições socioeconômicas e demográficas das famílias e as características biológicas das crianças ao nascer (peso, sexo e idade gestacional. O estado nutricional foi avaliado através dos índices peso/idade, comprimento/idade, peso/comprimento e da concentração de hemoglobina. RESULTADOS: As médias dos índices de desenvolvimento mental e motor foram 88±11 e 95±12 pontos, respectivamente. A idade gestacional apresentou associação significativa com o desenvolvimento mental e motor e o peso ao nascer e o estado nutricional atual, avaliado pelo índice peso/comprimento, se associaram ao desenvolvimento motor. CONCLUSÕES: As crianças analisadas apresentaram desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor ainda na faixa de normalidade, mas aquém do esperado para a idade, comparado a populações de referência em países desenvolvidos. Os fatores associados ao baixo desempenho do desenvolvimento nessa população estão relacionados aos fatores biológicos, destacando-se os déficits nutricionais, cuja redução deve ser uma prioridade para gestores em saúde e educação.OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with mental and psychomotor development of infants enrolled at public day care centers of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 108 infants aged four to 24 months attending four public day care centers of the Municipality of Recife from February to April 2005. Mental and
Nolvi, Saara; Karlsson, Linnea; Bridgett, David J; Pajulo, Marjukka; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Karlsson, Hasse
Postnatal mother-infant bonding refers to the early emotional bond between mothers and infants. Although some factors, such as maternal mental health, especially postnatal depression, have been considered in relation to mother-infant bonding, few studies have investigated the role of infant temperament traits in early bonding. In this study, the effects of maternal postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms and infant temperament traits on mother-infant bonding were examined using both mother and father reports of infant temperament. Data for this study came from the first phase of the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study (n=102, father reports n=62). After controlling for maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, mother-reported infant positive emotionality, measured by infant smiling was related to better mother-infant bonding. In contrast, infant negative emotionality, measured by infant distress to limitations was related to lower quality of bonding. In regards to father-report infant temperament, only infant distress to limitations (i.e., frustration/anger) was associated with lower quality of mother-infant bonding. These findings underline the importance of infant temperament as one factor contributing to early parent-infant relationships, and counseling parents in understanding and caring for infants with different temperament traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Soderstrom, Melanie; Reimchen, Melissa; Sauter, Disa; Morgan, James L
Adults are highly proficient in understanding emotional signals from both facial and vocal cues, including when communicating across cultural boundaries. However, the developmental origin of this ability is poorly understood, and in particular, little is known about the ontogeny of differentiation of signals with the same valence. The studies reported here employed a habituation paradigm to test whether preverbal infants discriminate between non-linguistic vocal expressions of relief and triumph. Infants as young as 6 months who had habituated to relief or triumph showed significant discrimination of relief and triumph tokens at test (i.e. greater recovery to the unhabituated stimulus type), when exposed to tokens from a single individual (Study 1). Infants habituated to expressions from multiple individuals showed less consistent discrimination in that consistent discrimination was only found when infants were habituated to relief tokens (Study 2). Further, infants tested with tokens from individuals from different cultures showed dishabituation only when habituated to relief tokens and only at 10-12 months (Study 3). These findings suggest that discrimination between positive emotional expressions develops early and is modulated by learning. Further, infants' categorical representations of emotional expressions, like those of speech sounds, are influenced by speaker-specific information.
Shohet, Cilly; Jaegermann, Nurit
The Mediational Intervention for Sensitizing Caregivers (MISC) model is a comprehensive developmental approach to help adults understand their role in child development by enhancing the quality of adult-child interactions. This article describes how the Irving B. Harris Program for Infants, Toddlers and Their Families at Bar-Ilan University…
... Midwest. Top of Page Infant Mortality Rates by Race and Ethnicity, 2015 *Source: Table 1 (p. 79) ... 1.27MB] . In 2015, infant mortality rates by race and ethnicity were as follows: Non-Hispanic black ...
Wynter, Karen; Rowe, Heather; Fisher, Jane
Studies of postpartum mental health have focused predominantly on women and on depression. There is limited evidence regarding men's postpartum mental health and about other common mental disorders, such as anxiety and adjustment disorders, which may also be relevant at this life phase. The main aim of this study was to establish the period prevalence of depression, anxiety, and adjustment disorders in primiparous women and their male partners in the first six months postpartum English-speaking couples were recruited in five local government areas in Victoria, Australia. Women and men completed separate telephone interviews which included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and selected Depression and Anxiety modules of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. DSM-IV criteria were used to classify adjustment disorders, based on subclinical symptoms not meeting criteria for diagnoses of major or minor depression or generalised anxiety disorder. The main outcome was any common mental disorder (depression, anxiety or adjustment disorder) in the first six months postpartum Complete data were available for 172 couples. The 6-month period prevalence of mental health problems was 33% for women and 17% for men. The most common diagnosis in both women and men was adjustment disorder with anxiety symptoms Unpartnered women and men, women whose partners were not willing to participate and those who did not have sufficient English fluency to complete the interviews were excluded from the sample. The results of this study cannot be generalised to these populations. The most common postnatal mental health problem in both women and men in this community sample was anxiety. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jeschonek, Susanna; Marinovic, Vesna; Hoehl, Stefanie; Elsner, Birgit; Pauen, Sabina
One of the earliest categorical distinctions to be made by preverbal infants is the animate-inanimate distinction. To explore the neural basis for this distinction in 7-8-month-olds, an equal number of animal and furniture pictures was presented in an ERP-paradigm. The total of 118 pictures, all looking different from each other, were presented in a semi-randomized order for 1000ms each. Infants' brain responses to exemplars from both categories differed systematically regarding the negative central component (Nc: 400-600ms) at anterior channels. More specifically, the Nc was enhanced for animals in one subgroup of infants, and for furniture items in another subgroup of infants. Explorative analyses related to categorical priming further revealed category-specific differences in brain responses in the late time window (650-1550ms) at right frontal channels: Unprimed stimuli (preceded by a different-category item) elicited a more positive response as compared to primed stimuli (preceded by a same-category item). In sum, these findings suggest that the infant's brain discriminates exemplars from both global domains. Given the design of our task, we conclude that processes of category identification are more likely to account for our findings than processes of on-line category formation during the experimental session. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bogat, G. Anne; DeJonghe, Erika; Levendosky, Alytia A.; Davidson, William S.; von Eye, Alexander
Objective: To determine whether infants have a traumatic response to intimate partner violence (male violence toward their female partner; IPV) experienced by their mothers, two questions were explored: (1) Is the number of infant trauma symptoms related to the infant's temperament and the mother's mental health? (2) Does severity of violence…
Kyoung-Eun Kim, PhD
Conclusion: The findings from this study demonstrate the fundamental importance of infant health as linked to the mother's mental health, and marital relationship and increasing the quality of marital relationship may be the key to infant abuse prevention.
Glanemann, Reinhild; Reichmuth, Karen; Matulat, Peter; Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette Am
With the implementation of the Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS), the age of diagnosis of children with hearing loss (HL) has been steadily declining in the past years. Consequently, there is a need for early educational intervention methods that are suitable for infants at the preverbal level. To meet this need we have developed and evaluated the Muenster Parental Programme (MPP), a responsive parenting programme for parents of children with HL aged 3-18 months. It aims at enhancing the parents' communicative skills towards their child. The MPP is introduced following confirmation of a HL. Flanked by two individual counselling sessions, the programme comprises six group sessions and two single training sessions with video feedback. The focus of the programme lies in enhancing parents' responsive behaviour and in reducing inappropriate initiative behaviour. The present study involved 29 parents of 24 children aged 6.6 (mean, range: 3-12) months at the outset of the MPP. The children's degree of HL ranged from moderate to profound. Parents of children with unilateral HL and/or risk for an additional developmental delay were included. The prospective study compared parent communication skills of a trained (N = 15) versus a control group (N = 14) before and after the MPP. For this purpose, instances of responsive behaviour to the signals of the child and total time of initiative behaviour within a 4-min video-sample were measured before and after completion of the study in both groups. Trained parents could enhance their responsiveness to vocal and preverbal signals of the child (Wilcoxon test, p = .002) and also their responsiveness to non-verbal signals (Wilcoxon test, p communication skills. The MPP constitutes the first evaluated group concept for parents of infants with HL in the German-speaking countries and equally meets the needs of parents and professionals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... twitch their hips toward the touch in a dancing movement. GRASP REFLEX This reflex occurs if you ... Infant reflexes can occur in adults who have: Brain damage Stroke When to Contact a Medical Professional ...
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de Hevia, Maria Dolores; Girelli, Luisa; Addabbo, Margaret; Macchi Cassia, Viola
While associations between number and space, in the form of a spatially oriented numerical representation, have been extensively reported in human adults, the origins of this phenomenon are still poorly understood. The commonly accepted view is that this number-space association is a product of human invention, with accounts proposing that culture, symbolic knowledge, and mathematics education are at the roots of this phenomenon. Here we show that preverbal infants aged 7 months, who lack symbolic knowledge and mathematics education, show a preference for increasing magnitude displayed in a left-to-right spatial orientation. Infants habituated to left-to-right oriented increasing or decreasing numerical sequences showed an overall higher looking time to new left-to-right oriented increasing numerical sequences at test (Experiment 1). This pattern did not hold when infants were presented with the same ordinal numerical information displayed from right to left (Experiment 2). The different pattern of results was congruent with the presence of a malleable, context-dependent baseline preference for increasing, left-to-right oriented, numerosities (Experiment 3). These findings are suggestive of an early predisposition in humans to link numerical order with a left-to-right spatial orientation, which precedes the acquisition of symbolic abilities, mathematics education, and the acquisition of reading and writing skills.
Bigelow, Ann E; Beebe, Beatrice; Power, Michelle; Stafford, Anna-Lee; Ewing, Julie; Egleson, Anna; Kaminer, Tammy
The relations among maternal depression risk, maternal mind-mindedness, and infants' attachment behavior were longitudinally examined in a community sample of mother-infant dyads. Maternal self-reported depression risk was measured at the infant ages of 6 weeks, 4 months, and 12 months. Maternal mind-mindedness, assessed from mothers' comments about infants' mental states (e.g., infants' thoughts, desires, or emotions), was measured during mother-infant interactions when infants were 4 months. Infants' attachment behavior was assessed at one year. Mothers' depression risk decreased over the infants' first year, with the sharpest decline between 6 weeks and 4 months. Mothers at risk for depression when infants were 6 weeks showed less appropriate mind-mindedness at 4 months. Mind-mindedness was not related to maternal depression risk at the infant age of 4 months or 12 months. Infants' degree of disorganized attachment behavior at one year was positively associated with maternal depression risk at 6 weeks and negatively associated with maternal appropriate mind-mindedness at 4 months. Mothers who are at risk for depression in their infants' early lives may be hampered in their capacity to respond appropriately to their infants' mental states. Infants with mothers who have difficulty responding appropriately to their mental states, as suggested by low appropriate mind-mindedness, may feel less known and recognized by their mothers, a key theme in the origins of disorganized attachment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Four-, 6-, and 11-month old infants were presented with movies in which two adult actors conversed about everyday events, either by facing each other or looking in opposite directions. Infants from 6 months of age made more gaze shifts between the actors, in accordance with the flow of conversation, when the actors were facing each other. A second experiment demonstrated that gaze following alone did not cause this difference. Instead the results are consistent with a social cognitive interpretation, suggesting that infants perceive the difference between face-to-face and back-to-back conversations and that they prefer to attend to a typical pattern of social interaction from 6 months of age.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes preverbal overt subjects, comparing Brazilian Portuguese to (other null-subject languages, especially within Romance. It explores syntactic and semantic properties, including resumption, ellipsis, quantifiers and scope, variable binding, ordering restrictions, pronominal distinctions, minimality violations, bare nouns and definiteness. It concludes that preverbal subjects in Brazilian Portuguese can be realized both in argumental positions (Specifier of the Inflectional or Tense Phrase and non-argumental positions (Topic Phrase specifiers, with the possibility that both types of positions are filled by the subject in the same clause, incorporating properties that have been argued not to be found together in other languages.Esse artigo analiza sujeitos preverbais manifestos, comparando o português do Brasil com (outras línguas de sujeitos nulos. O artigo investiga propriedades sintáticas e semânticas, incluindo pronomes resumptivos, elipse, quantificadores e escopo, ligação de variáveis, restrições de ordem, distinções pronominais, violações de minimalidade, nomes sem determinantes, e definitude. Concluo que esses sujeitos preverbais podem realizar-se tanto em posição argumental (especificador do sintagma flexional ou temporal quanto em posições não-argumentais (posições de tópico, com a possibilidade de os dois tipos de posições serem preenchidos pelo sujeito na mesma oração, incorporando propriedades que são tidas como não ocorrendo juntas em outras línguas.
Helton, Jesse J; Cross, Theodore P; Vaughn, Michael G; Gochez-Kerr, Tatiana
The impact of food insecurity on child development in the general U.S. population is well-established, yet little is known about the harm of food neglect relative to other types of maltreatment. Due to the harmful physiological impact of inadequate nutrients and the social impact of food-related stress, it was hypothesized that food neglect would be more likely to impair infant cognitive and language development than physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other forms of neglect. Families of infants (N = 1,951) investigated by Child Protective Services were studied using the second cohort of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II; NSCAW Research Group, 2002). Results from multivariable logistic regression models that controlled for likely confounding variables showed that the odds of impairment in cognition and language were significantly greater when food neglect was the most serious form of maltreatment. Considering that both food insecurity and child neglect are associated with poverty and parental mental health problems, it will be important for child welfare and mental health professionals to work collaboratively to better the health of these vulnerable children. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
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Joos, Sandra K.; And Others
Examines the effect of nutritional supplementation provided to mothers during pregnancy and lactation on the mental and motor development of their infants. While neither sex nor mental differences could be attributed to supplementation, motor development in infants was affected. (Author/MP)
Lieberman, Alicia F.; Osofsky, Joy D.
Young children growing up in poverty face chronic risk factors, including abuse and neglect, severe maternal depression, parental substance abuse, harsh parenting, and family and community violence as well as greater exposure to physical risks, including substandard housing, lack of access to resources, and environmental toxins. The authors offer…
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy has been shown to increase women’s vulnerability to mental disorders. Common mental disorders (CMDs have been studied both in the general population and in pregnant vs. non-pregnant women. During pregnancy, CMDs have been considered a potential predictor of obstetric and infant outcomes. METHODS: A search was conducted on the PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, and SciELO databases to find relevant articles written in English, Spanish, and Portuguese. No limit was established for year of publication, but only studies involving human beings were included. RESULTS: A total of 25 articles were selected. There was a consensus among studies that the mean prevalence of CMD during pregnancy is 20%. There was also agreement that the occurrence of CMDs during pregnancy is a predictor of postpartum depression and anxiety disorders and that the disorder remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. As for the positive association between CMDs and obstetric and infant complications, results are still conflicting. In lower-income countries, frequently there is an association between CMD and perinatal changes. It is argued that some confounding factors, such as sociodemographic and cultural differences, health and maternal conditions, and type of instruments used, probably contribute to this lack of consensus. CONCLUSION: We believe that the conflicting results found in the literature are caused by differences in methodology and sociodemographic factors that influence the development of CMDs. Despite these differences, our findings underscore the need for depression and anxiety disorders during pregnancy to be studied and better identified by all professionals who provide antenatal care.INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos têm mostrado que a gravidez torna a mulher mais vulnerável a transtornos mentais. Os transtornos mentais comuns (TMCs têm sido estudados tanto na população geral quanto em mulheres grávidas versus não grávidas. Durante a gravidez, os TMCs
Niessen, Anke; Konrad, Kerstin; Dahmen, Brigitte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Firk, Christine
Previous studies have shown that adolescent mothers interact less sensitively with their infants than do adult mothers. This difference might be due to developmental difficulties in the recognition of infants' emotional states in adolescents. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to explore differences in the recognition of infant signals between nonparous adolescent girls and boys as compared to female and male adults. To this end, we examined 54 childless adolescents and 54 childless adults (50% female). Participants were shown a series of 20 short videos of infants aged 3 to 6 months presenting different emotional states ranging from very distressed to very happy. In addition, participants were asked to report their own parental experiences using the German version, Fragebogen zum erinnerten elterlichen Erziehungsverhalten (J. Schumacher, M. Eisemann, & E. Brähler, ), of the Egna Minnen Befräffande Uppfostran (Own Memories of Parental Rearing Experiences in Childhood; C. Perris, L. Jacobsson, H. Lindstrom, L. von Knorring, & H. Perris, ). Adolescents rated distressed infants as more distressed than did the adults. Furthermore, female participants rated the very distressed infants as more distressed than did male participants. These data suggest that adolescents, in general, are not impaired in recognizing infant emotional states, as compared to adults. Thus, we suggest that more extreme ratings of infant signals of discomfort together with immature sociocognitive regulation processes during adolescence might contribute to reduced sensitivity observed in adolescent mothers. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Marcio M. Vasconcelos
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esta revisão aborda as recentes descobertas da neurobiologia do retardo mental, enfatizando os novos recursos da citogenética, das técnicas moleculares e da neurorradiologia para esclarecer o diagnóstico. FONTES DE DADOS: O autor pesquisou o banco de dados MEDLINE da National Library of Medicine utilizando as palavras-chave "mental retardation", "developmental disability", "child" e "adolescent" em diferentes combinações, abrangendo o período de janeiro de 2000 a outubro de 2003. Também foram utilizados os bancos de dados das revistas científicas Pediatrics e New England Journal of Medicine através da palavra-chave "mental retardation". No total, o autor consultou cerca de 1.500 títulos de artigos e 500 resumos, e teve acesso direto a 150 artigos completos pertinentes. Quando oportuno, algumas referências dos artigos consultados também foram consideradas. O site Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man foi utilizado como fonte de informações em genética clínica. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Em outubro de 2003, o total de síndromes genéticas associadas a retardo mental chegou a 1.149. Considerando-se o conjunto das causas genéticas ou ambientais e congênitas ou adquiridas de retardo mental, a avaliação diagnóstica atual é capaz de esclarecer a etiologia em 50 a 70% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: O autor sugere uma avaliação diagnóstica do retardo mental em etapas lógicas, visando ao uso racional dos dispendiosos recursos da citogenética, biologia molecular e neuroimagem.OBJECTIVE: This paper describes recent advances in the neurobiology of mental retardation, emphasizing new diagnostic resources provided by cytogenetics, molecular testing, and neuroimaging. SOURCES OF DATA: MEDLINE (January 2000 through October 2003, using the following key words: mental retardation, developmental disability, child, and adolescent. Search of the Pediatrics and New England Journal of Medicine websites using the key word mental retardation. The
Afand, Nahid; Keshavarz, Maryam; Fatemi, Naiemeh Seyed; Montazeri, Ali
This study evaluated the effect of infant massage on anxiety in mothers of preterm infants who discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit. Birth of preterm infants commonly leads to great levels of distress and anxiety in mothers. Although various methods have been suggested to help mothers cope with such stressful conditions, the effects of infant massage have not been adequately studied in mothers. This was a quasi-experimental clinical trial. Overall, in 70 mothers and their preterm infants who scheduled to be discharged within 24 hours, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scale (Spielberger) was completed for mothers in both groups in the morning of the day before discharge. The experimental group received eight minutes of massage including two standard similar parts (each part four minutes). The massage was repeated in two parts on the day of discharge, and then, state anxiety was re-measured using Spielberg's scale for all mothers. The control group received no intervention. The results showed that on the day of discharge, there was a significant difference in the overall mean score of maternal state anxiety between the two groups (p anxiety. In both groups, the mean score of maternal state anxiety was significantly decreased on the day of discharge (p anxiety of mothers of preterm infants, so it is recommended that mothers apply massage for preterm infants to improve their mental health. Mothers of preterm infants can promote mental health by continuing massage of their infants at home. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ellison, James R.
The First Steps Domestic Violence Program (First Steps) was developed to address the mental health needs of infants and toddlers entering a domestic violence shelter. When domestic violence occurs, the primary caregiver's ability to help restore a sense of safety for the infant--through regulation of the infant's emotions, sleep, arousal, and…
Full Text Available Asphyxia is a risk factor that is very often related to neuro-developmental issues in high risk infants and equally affects preterm and term infants, however its outcome on the developed brain differs from the outcome on the preterm brain.In preterm infants, asphyxia usually exerts a hemorrhagic or ischaemic event and periventricular leukomalacia.In term infants, asphyxia leads to cerebral edema and atrophy of the brain, which may later lead to hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE.The number of term infants with HIE who have survived is lower than those of preterm infants, while the percentage of term infants with HIE who have neuro-developmental issues is higher. Preemies face more problems in their motor development as a result of the brain damage, while term infants suffer from encephalopathy and their cognitive abilities are more affected.We have conducted a study about the effects that asphyxia has on the developmental outcomes in high risk infants. In our study, we did a longitudinal developmental follow-up of 30 high risk infants and an evaluation of their developmental outcome using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales, from the 4th month of life until the end of the 36th month. First, we found that high risk infants had a much lower developmental outcome than the control group during the trial. Finally, we found that asphyxia makes a difference in the developmental outcome of preterm infants without asphyxia who have a very low birth weight, the preterm infants with asphyxia, and the term infants with HIE-II.
The Ububele Baby Mat Service is a community-based, parent–infant mental health intervention offered at five primary health care clinics in Alexandra Township, in Johannesburg. The aim of the intervention is to promote healthy caregiver-infant attachments. There has been a steady increase in the number of mother-baby ...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between surgery in very preterm infants and brain structure at term equivalent and 2-year neurodevelopmental outcome. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 227 infants born at <30 weeks gestation or at a birth weight of <1250 g were prospectively enrolled into a longitudinal observational cohort for magnetic resonance imaging and developmental follow-up. The infants were categorized retrospectively into either a nonsurgical group (n=178) or a surgical group (n=30). Nineteen infants were excluded because of incomplete or unsuitable data. The surgical and nonsurgical groups were compared in terms of clinical demographic data, white matter injury, and brain volume at term. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at age 2 years. RESULTS: Compared with the nonsurgical group, the infants in the surgical group were smaller and more growth-restricted at birth, received more respiratory support and oxygen therapy, and had longer hospital stays. They also had smaller brain volumes, particularly smaller deep nuclear gray matter volumes. Infants who underwent bowel surgery had greater white matter injury. Mental Developmental Index scores were lower in the surgical group, whereas Psychomotor Developmental Index scores did not differ between the groups. The Mental Developmental Index difference became nonsignificant after adjustment for confounding variables. CONCLUSION: Preterm infants exposed to surgery and anesthesia had greater white matter injury and smaller total brain volumes, particularly smaller deep nuclear gray matter volumes. Surgical exposure in the preterm infant should alert the clinician to an increased risk for adverse cognitive outcome.
Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play ...
Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...
Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter
The concept of mentalizing has captured the interest and imagination of an astonishing range of people-from psychoanalysts to neuroscientists, from child development researchers to geneticists, from existential philosophers to phenomenologists-all of whom seem to have found it useful. According to the Thompson Reuter maintained Web of Science, the use of the term in titles and abstracts of scientific papers increased from 10 to 2,750 between 1991 and 2011. Clinicians in particular have enthusiastically embraced the idea, and have put it to innovative use in their practices. Mentalization-based treatment (MBT)-making mentalizing a core focus of therapy-was initially developed for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in routine clinical services delivered in group and individual modalities. Therapy with mentalizing as a central component is currently being developed for treatment of numerous groups, including people with antisocial personality disorder, substance abuse, eating disorders, and at-risk mothers with infants and children (A. Bateman & Fonagy, 2011). It is also being used with families and adolescents, in schools, and in managing social groups (Asen & Fonagy, 2011; Fonagy et al., 2009; Twemlow, Fonagy, & Sacco, 2005a, 2005b). In this article, we focus on MBT in the treatment of BPD.
... Profiles > Black/African American > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 ... to receive late or no prenatal care. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...
PICC - infants; PQC - infants; Pic line - infants; Per-Q cath - infants ... A percutaneously inserted central catheter (PICC) is a long, very thin, soft plastic tube that is put into a small blood vessel. This article addresses PICCs in ...
Burford, B; Trevarthen, C
Girls with Rett syndrome retain a responsiveness with care-givers that corresponds in many respects with the preverbal communication observed with normal infants. This has characteristic rhythmic patterns and phrases, mutual imitation, reciprocal emotional phases and rudimentary oral, vocal and gestural expressions. After individuals with Rett syndrome have passed the critical stage in dissolution of their attention, co-ordination and voluntary control, they retain positive orientation to human faces and eyes with smiling. Video analyses show that they can engage with rhythms and phrases of conversation, sometimes showing a sense of humour and sensitivity to playful teasing. They respond to repeated patterns of expression in rhythmic/prosodic play and to certain forms in music. It is suggested that sensitive and appropriately attuned support for the rudimentary motives for human contact that survive in Rett syndrome can help stabilisation of self-regulatory states, alleviate panic and confusion and facilitate learning. The effects of the disorder may be a consequence of a genetic fault in the elaboration of an Intrinsic Motive Formation in the reticular core of the embryo brain, leading to dysregulation of differentiation in higher cognitive systems and learning, but leaving partially intact motive principles for human intersubjective response.
Kühn-Popp, N; Kristen, S; Paulus, M; Meinhardt, J; Sodian, B
Pointing plays a central role in preverbal communication. While imperative pointing aims at influencing another person's behavior, declarative gestures serve to convey epistemic information and to share interest in an object. Further, the latter are hypothesized to be a precursor ability of epistemic language. So far, little is known about their underlying brain maturation processes. Therefore, the present study investigated the relation between brain maturation processes and the production of imperative and declarative motives as well as epistemic language in N = 32 infants. EEG coherence scores were measured at 14 months, imperative and declarative point production at 15 months and epistemic language at 48 months. Results of correlational analyses suggest distinct behavioral and neural patterns for imperative and declarative pointing, with declarative pointing being associated with the maturation of the left hemisphere. Further, EEG coherence measures of the left hemisphere at 14 months and declarative pointing at 15 months are related to individual differences in epistemic language skills at 48 months, independently of child IQ. In regression analyses, coherence measures of the left hemisphere prove to be the most important predictor of epistemic language skills. Thus, neural processes of the left hemisphere seem particularly relevant to social communication.
do Couto, Hildo Honório
O objetivo principal deste artigo é mostrar que no interior do ecossistema mental da língua, e do nosso ecossistema cognitivo geral, existe uma parte que se pode chamar de mapa mental, intimamente associado ao mapa cognitivo. Após caracterizar o conceito de mapa mental e de associá-lo a conceitos assemelhados, comento o mapa mental que eu tinha de Brasília, por ter vivido lá por mais de 30 anos. Como me mudei para Goiânia, comecei a perder partes do mapa mental de Brasília. Por outro lado, es...
Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... AW, Diamond FB. Disorders of mineral homeostasis in children and adolescents. In: Sperling MA ed. Pediatric Endocrinology . ...
Ventilator - infants; Respirator - infants ... WHY IS A MECHANICAL VENTILATOR USED? A ventilator is used to provide breathing support for ill or immature babies. Sick or premature babies are often ...
Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... A urinary catheter is a small, soft tube placed in the bladder. This article addresses urinary catheters in babies. WHY IS ...
Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... blood vessel of the kidney) In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...
Albers, Esther M; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina
This study examined whether the quality of caregiver behavior in child care centers contributes to infant cognitive development at 9 months of age. Sixty-four infants (34 boys) were observed with their primary caregivers in child care centers at 3, 6, and 9 months of age. Caregiver behavior was rated for sensitivity and for stimulation of infant development during one-to-one caregiving interactions. Infant cognitive development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (Mental Development Index). Higher levels of developmental stimulation in the centers predicted higher levels of infant cognitive development at 9 months, beyond infant cognitive development at 3 months (just before entering child care), parental education, and maternal sensitivity. The results suggest that even small increases in developmental stimulation provided in child care centers in the first year of life may foster infants' cognitive development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C
Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months.......Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....
Falceto, Olga G; Fernandes, Carmen L; Baratojo, Claudia; Giugliani, Elsa R J
To identify factors associated with the lack of active father involvement in infant care at four months of age. Cross-sectional study involving families of 153 infants at four months of age, interviewed in their homes by two family therapists. In addition to father involvement in infant care, sociodemographic, parental mental health (using the Self Report Questionnaire-20 scale and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria assessment) and quality of couple relationship characteristics (using the Assessment of Relational Functioning from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV) were analyzed. Poisson regression was employed to assess the association between lack of father involvement in child care and the variables selected. Prevalence ratio was used to estimate the magnitude of associations. Fathers of 13% of infants had no contact with their children. Among families whose parents lived together (78% of all), 33% of the fathers reported not actively participating in their children's care. Problematic couple relationship and mother as a housewife were associated with lack of father involvement in infant care. High prevalence of families whose father is not actively involved with infant care, especially when couple relationship is problematic and the mother does not have a paid job.
Reijneveld, S.A.; Wal, M.F.V.D.; Brugman, E.; Sing, R.A.H.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.
Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5·6% (95% CI 4·2-7·0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,
Conclusion: In VLBW infants born prior to 32 weeks' gestation, IVH is a risk factor for impaired development. Its effects on psychomotor development, but not mental development, are still apparent at 2 years of age.
Hughes, Mary-alayne; Spence, Christine M.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.
As the field of early childhood mental health continues to expand and evolve, the evidence base is growing, and early childhood mental health consultation is viewed as a promising practice. However, there continues to be a need for further research, with particular attention given to the utility and effectiveness of this approach with infants and…
Paradis, Nichole; Eidson, Faith; Weatherston, Deborah J.
Early Childhood Mental Health Endorsement® (ECMH-E®) offers a credential for those whose work with or on behalf of children 3-6 years old and their families is informed by infant and early childhood mental health principles. Those who have earned ECMH-E demonstrate completion of specialized education, work, in-service training, and reflective…
Malloch, Stephen; Shoemark, Helen; Črnčec, Rudi; Newnham, Carol; Paul, Campbell; Prior, Margot; Coward, Sean; Burnham, Denis
Infants seek contingent, companionable interactions with others. Infants in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), while receiving care that optimizes their chances of survival, often do not have the kind of interactions that are optimal for their social development. Live music therapy (MT) with infants is an intervention that aims for contingent, social interaction between therapist and infant. This study, with a limited numbers of infants, examined the effectiveness of an MT intervention in the NICU at The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne. Two groups of late pre-term and full-term infants were recruited to the study; one was given MT and the other was not. A healthy group of infants not given MT served as an additional control. The effect of MT was indexed using two measures reflecting infant social engagement: the Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant (NAPI) and the Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB). Results suggest that the MT intervention used at The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne supports infants' neurobehavioral development. In particular, hospitalized infants who received MT were better able to maintain self-regulation during social interaction with an adult, were less irritable and cried less, and were more positive in their response to adult handling, when compared with infants who did not receive the intervention. These are important prerequisites for social interaction and development. Further and larger scale research using MT with this population is indicated. Copyright © 2012 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Bigelow, Ann E; Power, Michelle; Gillis, Doris E; Maclellan-Peters, Janis; Alex, Marion; McDonald, Claudette
The effects of skin-to-skin contact (SSC) on the maintenance of mothers' decision to breastfeed, the effects of breastfeeding and SSC on mother-infant interactions, and whether maternal depressive symptoms mediate these effects were investigated over infants' first 3 months. When infants were 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months of age, mothers in the SSC and control groups reported the type of infant feeding provided and completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; J.L. Cox, J.M. Holden, & R. Sagovsky, 1987); mother-infant interactions were coded on the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS; G. Summer & A. Spietz, 1994). Percentage of breastfeeding dyads in the SSC group was stable over the 3 months; yet, fewer dyads in the control group were breastfeeding at the 2- and 3-month visits than at the 1-week visit. Breastfeeding dyads had higher NCAFS Caregiver subscale scores, indicating more positive maternal interactions, at 1 week, 2 months, and 3 months. NCAFS scores did not differ for the SSC and control groups. EPDS scores did not mediate the effect of SSC on breastfeeding or breastfeeding on NCAFS Caregiver subscale scores. © 2013 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
are significantly associated with age in cohorts of typical and at-risk infantsdiffer significantly at 5–6 months of age, depending on the context: relating either with an object or a person.Environmental and developmental factors shape the developmental trajectories of hand movements in different cohorts: environment for infants with VIMs; stage of development for premature infants and those with West syndrome; and both factors for infants with orality disorders.The curvature of hand movements specifically reflects atypical development in infants with West syndrome when developmental age is considered.We aimed to discriminate between typical and atypical developmental trajectory patterns of at-risk infants in an interactive setting in this observational and longitudinal study, with the assumption that hand movements (HM reflect preverbal communication and its disorders. We examined the developmental trajectories of HM in five cohorts of at-risk infants and one control cohort, followed from ages 2 to 10 months: 25 West syndrome (WS, 13 preterm birth (PB, 16 orality disorder (OD, 14 with visually impaired mothers (VIM, 7 early hospitalization (EH, and 19 typically developing infants (TD. Video-recorded data were collected in three different structured interactive contexts. Descriptors of the hand motion were used to examine the extent to which HM were associated with age and cohort. We obtained four principal results: (i the kinematics of HM (spatial use, curvature, acceleration, and velocity were significantly associated with age in all cohorts; (ii HM significantly differed at 5–6 months of age in TD infants, depending on the context; (iii environmental and developmental factors shaped the developmental trajectories of HM in different cohorts: environment for VIM, development for PB and WS, and both factors for OD and; (iv the curvatures of HM showed atypical development in WS infants when developmental age was considered. These findings support the importance
Wong, Olivia; Nguyen, Tram; Thomas, Naomi; Thomson-Salo, Frances; Handrinos, Dennis; Judd, Fiona
The importance of parental mental health as a determinant of infant and child outcomes is increasingly acknowledged. Yet, there is limited information regarding paternal mental health during the perinatal period. The aim of this review is to summarize existing clinical research regarding paternal mental health in the perinatal period in various contexts, and its possible impact on infant development. An electronic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE and PubMed databases. Key texts were used to cross-check for any further articles of interest. Men are at increased risk of mental health problems during the transition to fatherhood, as well as during the perinatal period. Paternal mental health during the perinatal period has been shown to impact on their child's emotional and behavioral development. However, research addressing the needs of fathers with mental illness and the impact of their illness on their infant and family has been limited. A paradigm shift is required, from a focus on women following childbirth and women with pre-existing psychiatric disorders, to a broader family perspective with the focus firmly on parent-infant relationships. This paradigm shift needs to involve greater research into the fathering role and paternal mental illness during the perinatal period, including further studies into risk factors, impact on the family system, and the most appropriate form of intervention and service provision. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available The article deals with the etiology, growth mechanisms, clinical implications, diagnostics and treatment of the infant food allergy. The author highlights the status of the allergy to the proteins of cow milk within this age group of children. Alongside the article describes the modern approaches to the diet therapy of the infants with the allergy to the proteins of cow milk.Key words: infant, food allergy, allergy to the proteins of cow milk, diet therapy.
Widmayer, Susan M.; And Others
Families in urban and rural settings were studied in an investigation of environmental influences on the development of Haitian-American infants. Birthweight and scores on the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment predicted mental development. Psychomotor development was related to birthweight and household crowding. (PCB)
Globally, anxiety and depression is the third leading cause of disease burden for women 14 to 44 years of age. The World Health Organisation reports that 15 to 57% of women in developing countries experience symptoms of depression. Maternal mental illness has a negative impact on infant and young child (IYC) growth, ...
... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...
Trevarthen, C; Aitken, K J
We review research evidence on the emergence and development of active "self-and-other" awareness in infancy, and examine the importance of its motives and emotions to mental health practice with children. This relates to how communication begins and develops in infancy, how it influences the individual subject's movement, perception, and learning, and how the infant's biologically grounded self-regulation of internal state and self-conscious purposefulness is sustained through active engagement with sympathetic others. Mutual self-other-consciousness is found to play the lead role in developing a child's cooperative intelligence for cultural learning and language. A variety of preconceptions have animated rival research traditions investigating infant communication and cognition. We distinguish the concept of "intersubjectivity", and outline the history of its use in developmental research. The transforming body and brain of a human individual grows in active engagement with an environment of human factors--organic at first, then psychological or inter-mental. Adaptive, human-responsive processes are generated first by interneuronal activity within the developing brain as formation of the human embryo is regulated in a support-system of maternal tissues. Neural structures are further elaborated with the benefit of intra-uterine stimuli in the foetus, then supported in the rapidly growing forebrain and cerebellum of the young child by experience of the intuitive responses of parents and other human companions. We focus particularly on intrinsic patterns and processes in pre-natal and post-natal brain maturation that anticipate psychosocial support in infancy. The operation of an intrinsic motive formation (IMF) that developed in the core of the brain before birth is evident in the tightly integrated intermodal sensory-motor coordination of a newborn infant's orienting to stimuli and preferential learning of human signals, by the temporal coherence and intrinsic
Il Rak Choi
Full Text Available <B>Purpose:</B> This study aimed to assess early development in very low birth weight (VLBW infants with mild intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH or those without IVH and to identify the perinatal morbidities affecting early neurodevelopmental outcome. <B>Methods:</B> Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II was used for assessing neurological development in 49 infants with a birth weight <1,500 g and with low grade IVH (?#167;rade II or those without IVH at a corrected age of 12 months. <B>Results:</B> Among the 49 infants, 19 infants (38.8% showed normal development and 14 (28.6% showed abnormal mental and psychomotor development. Infants with abnormal mental development (n=14 were mostly male and had a longer hospitalization, a higher prevalence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, and were under more frequent postnatal systemic steroid treatment compared with infants with normal mental development (n=35, P<0.05. Infants with abnormal psychomotor development (n=29 had a longer hospitalization and more associated PDA compared to infants with normal psychomotor development (n=20, P<0.05. Infants with abnormal mental and psychomotor development were mostly male and had a longer hospitalization and a higher prevalence of PDA and BPD compared to infants with normal mental and psychomotor development (n=19, P<0.05. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, a longer duration of hospitalization and male gender were found to be significant risk factors. <B>Conclusion:</B> Approximately 62% of VLBW infants with low grade IVH or those without IVH had impaired early development.
Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua
Ethicists have tended to treat the psychology of attributing mental states to animals as an entirely separate issue from the moral importance of animals’ mental states. In this paper I bring these two issues together. I argue for two theses, one descriptive and one normative. The descriptive thesis...... holds that ordinary human agents use what are generally called phenomenal mental states (e.g., pain and other emotions) to assign moral considerability to animals. I examine recent empirical research on the attribution of phenomenal states and agential states (e.g., memory and intelligence) to argue...... that phenomenal mental states are the primary factor, psychologically, for judging an animal to be morally considerable. I further argue that, given the role of phenomenal states in assigning moral considerability, certain theories in animal ethics will meet significant psychological resistance. The normative...
Full Text Available Whereas the effects of maternal parenting quality during infants’ 2nd year on later executive function (EF have been studied extensively, less is known about the impact of maternal parenting quality during the 1st year. The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal parenting during infants’ 1st year predicted EF performance at 2 and 3 years of age in a Chinese sample. Data were collected from 96 mother-infant dyads (42 males when the infants were 6, 9, 25, and 38 months old. Cognitive development as a control variable was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II at 6 months. At 9 months, three aspects of maternal parenting quality (sensitivity, mind-mindedness, and encouragement of autonomy were assessed with MBQS, mind-mindedness coding system, and encouragement of autonomy coding schema within a 15-min mother–infant interaction. Three aspects of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, and delay EF were measured at 25 and 38 months with age-appropriate tasks. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that maternal mind-mindedness had a more important effect than did the encouragement of autonomy and maternal sensitivity during infants’ preverbal period. More precisely, maternal mind-mindedness at 9 months predicted inhibitory control at 2 and 3 years, and maternal encouragement of autonomy predicted performance on delay EF tasks at 3 years, maternal sensitivity had no observed effect on children’s EF. This study suggests that maternal parenting quality during the 1st year (maternal mind-mindedness and encouragement of autonomy, but not maternal sensitivity impacts later EF development.
Full Text Available Microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract is different in breastfed infants and in children receiving standard infant formulas. While breast milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and can also contain some probiotics, standard infant formulas contain neither one thing nor the other. The formulation of an infant formula includes various prebiotic ingredients: galacto- and fructooligosaccharides, polydextrose and their combinations. There is evidence that the addition of prebiotics to baby food makes the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of infants receiving infant formulas more similar to the microbiota of breastfed children. Prebiotics alter the metabolic activity of the intestinal microflora (lower stool pH and increase the amount of short-chain fatty acids, have a bifidogenic effect and provide a stool consistency and bowel movement frequency that are similar to these parameters in breastfed infants. There is limited evidence that such changes in microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract may have some influence on the development of an infant's immune system. Adverse events are extremely rare in the application of prebiotics.
Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard
mechanisms behind these associations remain largely unknown. Although maternal obesity is associated with a wide range of complications in the mother and neonate that may impair fetal and infant survival, the increased risk of stillbirth and infant mortality is virtually unchanged when accounting...
Olsen, Tina Vestermann; Boye, Anne Mette; Borchmann, Inger Haarup
Formålet med publikationen er at præsentere metoden "Mental byomdannelse". Metoden viser, hvordan man via midlertidig brug af grunde kan undersøge et steds potentialer, tage et område i brug tidligt i en byomdannelsesproces og derved bidrage til at opbygge en ny identitet for området. Mental...... byomdannelse går ud på at skabe bevidsthed om et byudviklingsområde overfor byens borgere, kommende beboere og fremtidige brugere af området allerede mens den fysiske omdannelse er i gang. I publikationen præsenteres en værktøjskasse, som giver redskaber og ideer til, hvordan man kan sætte en mental...... byomdannelsesproces i gang i byens rum. Publikationen udgør en afrapportering fra et støttet forsøgsprojekt hvor metoden ”Mental byomdannelse” er udviklet ved at afprøve ideerne om mental byomdannelse i to cases i Ålborg Kommune, hhv. i Østre Havn og Nibe by. Formålet med at anvende metoden i de to cases har været...
Pereira, Keila Rg; Valentini, Nadia C; Saccani, Raquel
Infant developmental delays have been associated with several risk factors, such as familial environmental, individual and demographic characteristics. The goal of this study was to longitudinally investigate the effects of maternal knowledge and practices, home environment and biological factors on infant motor and cognitive outcomes. This was a prospective cohort study with a sample of 49 infants from Southern Brazil. The infants were assessed three times over 4 months using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale and the Bayley Scale of Infant Development (Mental Development Scale). Parents completed the Daily Activities Scale of Infants, the Affordances in The Home Environment for Motor Development - Infant Scale, the Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory and a demographic questionnaire. Generalized estimating equation with Bonferroni method as the follow-up test and Spearman correlation and multivariate linear backward regression were used. Cognitive and motor scores were strongly associated longitudinally and increased over time. Associations between the home affordances, parental practices and knowledge, and motor and cognitive development over time were observed. This relationship explained more variability in motor and cognitive scores compared with biological factors. Variability in motor and cognitive development is better explained by environment and parental knowledge and practice. The investigation of factors associated with infant development allows the identification of infants at risk and the implementation of educational programs and parental training to minimize the effects of developmental delay. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.
Petrie Thomas, Julianne H; Whitfield, Michael F; Oberlander, Tim F; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E
The majority of children who are born very preterm escape major impairment, yet more subtle cognitive and attention problems are very common in this population. Previous research has linked infant focused attention during exploratory play to later cognition in children born full-term and preterm. Infant focused attention can be indexed by sustained decreases in heart rate (HR). However there are no preterm studies that have jointly examined infant behavioral attention and concurrent HR response during exploratory play in relation to developing cognition. We recruited preterm infants free from neonatal conditions associated with major adverse outcomes, and further excluded infants with developmental delay (Bayley Mental Development Index [MDI attention and concurrent HR response were compared in 83 preterm infants (born 23-32 weeks gestational age [GA]) who escaped major impairment to 46 full-term infants. Focused attention and HR response were then examined in relation to Bayley MDI, after adjusting for neonatal risk. MDI did not differ by group, yet full-term infants displayed higher global focused attention ratings. Among the extremely preterm infants born attention episodes, accounted for 49% of adjusted variance in predicting concurrent MDI. There were no significant associations for later-born gestational age (29-32 weeks) or full-term infants. Among extremely preterm infants who escape major impairment, our findings suggest unique relationships between focused attention, HR deceleration, and developing cognition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gordon, Joshua H; Leung, Angela M; Hale, Andrea R; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E; He, Xuemei; Belfort, Mandy B; Nelson, Sara M; Brown, Rosalind S
Thyroid hormone is essential for normal mental and physical development in infancy and childhood and is dependent on adequate iodine intake. During the first few months of life, infants are reliant on breastmilk and/or infant formula as their sole sources of dietary iodine. The iodine status of U.S. infants has not been well studied. This was a cross-sectional study of 95 breastfed and/or formula-fed infants less than 3 months of age in the Boston area. We measured iodine content from infants' single spot urine samples and assessed associations with infant feeding type as well as maternal demographic data, salt and multivitamin use, smoking status, and diet. The median infant urine iodine concentration was 197.5 μg/L (range 40-897.5 μg/L). Median infant urine iodine concentrations were similar between infants who were exclusively breastfed (n=39, 203.5 μg/L; range 61.5-395.5 μg/L), formula-fed (n=44, 182.5 μg/L; range 40-897.5 μg/L), and mixed (n=10, 197.8 μg/L; range 123-592.5) (p=0.88). There were no significant correlations of infant urinary iodine with maternal salt or multivitamin use (regularly or in the past 24 hours), active or secondhand cigarette smoke exposures, infant weight, infant length, or recent maternal ingestion of common iodine-containing foods, although the correlations with iodine-containing foods are difficult to accurately determine due to the small sample sizes of these variables. Both breastfed and formula-fed infants less than 3 months of age in the Boston area were generally iodine sufficient. Larger studies are needed to confirm these observations among infants nationwide and elucidate other factors that may contribute to infant iodine nutrition.
Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie
To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to…
Quinn, Tori; Cavanaugh, Lauren
Mental toughness (MT) is defined as a set of attributes that allow an individual to persevere through difficult circumstances that ultimately can lead to successful outcomes. It is also a critical component of maximizing the performance of an athlete. These attributes assist with and promote a state of mind that enhances performance. A negative…
... NIH/National Institute of Mental Health – Division of AIDS Research SAMHSA – Behavioral Health and HIV/AIDS SAMHSA – Suicide ... Office of Adolescent Health OAR NIH Office of AIDS Research OCR HHS Office for Civil Rights OFBNP HHS ...
... to situations and to people Alcohol or drug abuse Major changes in eating habits Sex drive changes Excessive anger, hostility or violence Suicidal thinking Sometimes symptoms of a mental health disorder appear as physical ... on Drug Abuse. http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-drug-addiction- ...
Blepharoptosis - children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping - children; Eyelid drooping - amblyopia; Eyelid drooping - astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003417.htm Urine collection - infants To use the sharing features on this ... collect the urine at home, have some extra collection bags available. How the Test will Feel There ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... year old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...
When your infant has diarrhea; When your baby has diarrhea; BRAT diet; Diarrhea in children ... Children who have diarrhea may have less energy, dry eyes, or a dry, sticky mouth. They may also not wet their diaper as ...
... water down Pedialyte or Infalyte. Do not give sports drinks to young infants. Try giving your baby ... gastrointestinal tract infections and food poisoning. In Cherry JD, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach WJ, Hotez PJ, ...
O'Shea, Joyce E; Thio, Marta; Owen, Louise S; Wong, Connie; Dawson, Jennifer A; Davis, Peter G
International guidelines recommend that an appropriately sized face mask for providing positive pressure ventilation should cover the mouth and nose but not the eyes and should not overlap the chin. This study aimed to measure the dimensions of preterm infants' faces and compare these with the size of the most commonly available face masks (external diameter 50 mm) and the smallest masks available (external diameters 35 and 42 mm). Infants 24-33 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) were photographed in a standardised manner. Images were analysed using ImageJ software (National Institute of Health, USA) to calculate the distance from the nasofrontal groove to the mental protuberance. This facial measurement corresponds to the external diameter of an optimally fitting mask. A cohort of 107 infants between 24 and 33 weeks' gestational age, including at least 10 infants per week of gestation, was photographed within 72 h after birth and weekly until 33 weeks' PMA. 347 photographs were analysed. Infants of 24, 26, 28, 30 and 32 weeks' PMA had mean (SD) facial measurements of 32 (2), 36 (3), 38 (4), 41 (2) and 43 (4) mm, respectively. There were no significant differences when examined by gender or when small for gestational age infants were excluded. The smallest size of some brands of mask is too large for many preterm infants. Masks of 35 mm diameter are suitable for infants Masks of 42 mm diameter are suitable for infants 27-33 weeks' PMA or 750-2500 g. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
... Mental Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Good mental health Nutrition and mental health Exercise and ... a friend. Return to top More information on Good mental health Read more from womenshealth.gov Action ...
Harris, Susan R; Backman, Catherine L; Mayson, Tanja A
We compared abilities of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) and the Harris Infant Neuromotor Test (HINT), during the infant's first year, in predicting scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) at age 2 and 3 years. This prospective study involved 144 infants (71 females, 73 males), assessed with the HINT and AIMS at 4 to 6.5 and 10 to 12.5 months and with the BSID at 2 and 3 years. Inclusion criteria for typical infants (n=58) were the following: 38 to 42 weeks' gestation, birthweight at least 2500g, and no congenital anomaly, postnatal health concern, nor major prenatal or perinatal maternal risk factor. For at-risk infants (n=86), inclusion criteria were any of the following: less than 38 weeks' gestation, birthweight less than 2500g, maternal age older than 35 years or younger than 19 years at infant birth, maternal psychiatric/mental health concerns, prenatal drug/alcohol exposure, multiple births, or use of reproductive technology. For the overall sample, the early (4-6.5mo) HINT had higher predictive correlations than the AIMS for 2-year BSID-II motor outcomes (r=-0.36 vs 0.26), and 3-year BSID-III gross motor outcomes (r=-0.45 vs 0.31), as did the 10- to 12.5-month HINT (r=-0.55 vs 0.47). Correlations were identical for 10- to 12.5-month HINT and AIMS scores and 3-year BSID-III gross motor (r=-0.58 and 0.58) and fine motor (r=-0.35 and 0.35) subscales. When the sample was divided into typical and at-risk groups, predictive correlations were consistently stronger for the at-risk infants. Categorical predictive analyses were reasonably similar across both tests. Results suggest that the HINT has comparable predictive validity to the AIMS and should be considered for use in clinical and research settings.
Metwally, Ammal M; Salah El-Din, Ebtissam M; Shehata, Manal A; Shaalan, Ashraf; El Etreby, Lobna A; Kandeel, Wafaa A; Shaaban, Sanaa Y; Rabah, Thanaa M
Emotional problems are amongst the most critical concerns to be intentionally handled to enhance the wellbeing and development of children. To determine the predictors of socio-emotional development of Egyptian infants related to infant feeding practices, aspects of infant and maternal health and socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional comparative study included 322 breast fed, 240 bottle fed and 93 mixed fed infants, from 6-24 months of age, who were enrolled in the Well-Baby Clinic of the National Research Centre and from pediatric outpatient facilities in urban Cairo. Assessment of socio-emotional development was performed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley III). Detailed maternal and infant history was recorded. Levels of serum zinc, copper, iron, vitamin B12 and complete blood count (CBC) were assessed in a subsample of 193 infants. The risk of having below average socio-emotional composite score was nearly two and half times among formula-fed infants than among breast-fed infants. By binary logistical regression analysis, predictors of below average socio-emotional score were a lower serum zinc value, being formula fed during the first half-year and introduction of complementary food before the age of six months (pemotional development. Maternal education and zinc status were also determinants of better infant mental health. Our endeavors ought to be directed towards integrated interventions addressing multiple risks to children's development.
Galbally, Megan; Lewis, Andrew J; McEgan, Kerri; Scalzo, Katherine; Islam, Fm Amirul
Our purpose was to determine if babies breastfed at 6 months of age were more likely to wake at night and less likely to sleep alone than formula-fed babies. Data were drawn from the first wave of The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, an ongoing, nationally representative study of the growth and development of Australia's children. The 4507 participants met the criteria for this study. The measures examined infant sleep problems as the outcome and breastfeeding at 6 months of age as the exposure in addition to the demographic data, maternal mental health, infant birthweight and gestational age at delivery. After adjustment for covariates, reports by mothers of infants that breastfed at 6 months of age suggested infants were 66% more likely to wake during the night and 72% more likely to report difficulty sleeping alone. However, breastfeeding had a strongly protective effect on wheezing, coughing, snoring and breathing problems, and it was not associated with restless sleep or problems getting to sleep for the infant. Breastfeeding was found to be associated with increased night waking and this is consistent with other studies. There are biological reasons why this might be required to ensure breastfeeding continues to 6 months and beyond. The current low rates of sustained breastfeeding in many Western countries needs to be reconsidered in relation to parental and public health practices promoting prolonged nocturnal infant sleep patterns. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Andres, Aline; Cleves, Mario A; Bellando, Jayne B; Pivik, R T; Casey, Patrick H; Badger, Thomas M
Although soy formula has been reported to support normal development, concerns exist regarding potential adverse developmental effects of phytochemicals associated with soy protein. This study characterized developmental status (mental, motor, and language) of breastfed (BF), milk-based formula-fed (MF), or soy protein-based formula-fed (SF) infants during the first year of life. Healthy infants (N = 391) were assessed longitudinally at ages 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Development was evaluated by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Preschool Language Scale-3. Mixed effects models were used while adjusting for socioeconomic status, mother's age and IQ, gestational age, gender, birth weight, head circumference, race, age, and diet history. No differences were found between formula-fed infants (MF versus SF). BF infants scored slightly higher than formula-fed infants on the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) score at ages 6 and 12 months (P < .05). Infants who were breastfed also had higher Psychomotor Development Index scores than SF infants at age 6 months and slightly higher Preschool Language Scale-3 scores than MF infants at ages 3 and 6 months (P < .05). In addition, BF infants had a lower probability to score within the lower MDI quartile compared with MF infants and a higher likelihood to score within the upper quartile for the MDI and Psychomotor Development Index compared with SF infants. This unique study showed that all scores on developmental testing were within established normal ranges and that MF and SF groups did not differ significantly. Furthermore, this study demonstrated a slight advantage of BF infants on cognitive development compared with formula-fed infants.
Amir Lisa H
Full Text Available Abstract The relationship between poverty and human development touches on a central aim of the International Breastfeeding Journal's editorial policy which is to support and protect the health and wellbeing of all infants through the promotion of breastfeeding. It is proposed that exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding to 12 months, could prevent 1,301,000 deaths or 13% of all child deaths under 5 years in a hypothetical year. Although there is a conventional wisdom that poverty 'protects' breastfeeding in developing countries, poverty actually threatens breastfeeding, both directly and indirectly. In the light of increasingly aggressive marketing behaviour of the infant formula manufacturers and the need to protect the breastfeeding rights of working women, urgent action is required to ensure the principles and aim of the International Code of Breastmilk Substitutes, and subsequent relevant resolutions of the World Health Assembly, are implemented. If global disparities in infant health and development are to be significantly reduced, gender inequities associated with reduced access to education and inadequate nutrition for girls need to be addressed. Improving women's physical and mental health will lead to better developmental outcomes for their children.
Rutherford, Helena J V; Maupin, Angela N; Landi, Nicole; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C
Parental reflective functioning refers to the capacity for a parent to understand their own and their infant's mental states, and how these mental states relate to behavior. Higher levels of parental reflective functioning may be associated with greater sensitivity to infant emotional signals in fostering adaptive and responsive caregiving. We investigated this hypothesis by examining associations between parental reflective functioning and neural correlates of infant face and cry perception using event-related potentials (ERPs) in a sample of recent mothers. We found both early and late ERPs were associated with different components of reflective functioning. These findings suggest that parental reflective functioning may be associated with the neural correlates of infant cue perception and further support the value of enhancing reflective functioning as a mechanism in parenting intervention programs.
... Population Profiles > Asian American > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific ... as compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...
Shan, Ruobing; Wang, Xiaoliang; Fu, Ping
To observe changes in audiology, intellectual development, behavior development, and physical growth during systematic follow-up of infants with asymptomatic congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. Fifty-two infants diagnosed with asymptomatic congenital HCMV infection from July 2003 to July 2007 served as the infection group, and 21 healthy infants served as the control group. All infants were confirmed to have HCMV infection by Fluorescent Quantative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR). In both the infection and control groups, the neonates and infants at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year of age underwent examinations. 1) 20 items of National Black Nurses Association (NBNA) scores of neonates 12-14 days after birth in 2 groups were 38.3 +/- 1.95 and 38.5 +/- 2.29, without significant differences. 2) Auditory test: 50 ears of 25 cases in the infection group showed abnormal auditory thresholds in V waves with an abnormal rate of 14%, while no abnormalities were found in 21 cases in the control group. 3) Mental and psychomotor development index scores in the control group (107.49 +/- 11.31 and 107.19 +/- 10.98) were compared with those in 41 asymptomatically infected infants at 1 year of age (107.21 +/- 9.96 and 108.31 +/- 11.25), and no statistically significant difference was noted. 1) An elevated threshold in the V wave was present in asymptomatically infected infants, but could not be detected through otoacoustic emission (OAE) screening. 2) Either in the neonatal or infant periods, asymptomatic congenital HCMV infection did not have a significant influence on nervous behavior or on physical and intellectual development.
Partyka, Brendine; Whiting, Susan; Grunerud, Deanna; Archibald, Karen; Quennell, Kara
We explored infant nutrition in Saskatoon by assessing current accessibility to all forms of infant nourishment, investigating challenges in terms of access to infant nutrition, and determining the use and effectiveness of infant nutrition programs and services. We also examined recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Semi-structured community focus groups and stakeholder interviews were conducted between June 2006 and August 2006. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to infant feeding practices and barriers, as well as recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Our study showed that infant food security is a concern among lower-income families in Saskatoon. Barriers that limited breastfeeding sustainability or nourishing infants through other means included knowledge of feeding practices, lack of breastfeeding support, access and affordability of infant formula, transportation, and poverty. Infant nutrition and food security should be improved by expanding education and programming opportunities, increasing breastfeeding support, and identifying acceptable ways to provide emergency formula. If infant food security is to be addressed successfully, discussion and change must occur in social policy and family food security contexts.
Home care, continuous follow-up, and endless post discharge support play vital role in preventing the emergence of mental and physical disabilities and death among preterm infants. Providing necessary care and support for such infants requires huge financial and human resources and exposes heavy costs on hygiene and health system. Internet and information sharing applications, particularly Web 2.0, and social media present innovative techniques to provide a convenient channel to exch...
Festen, Dederieke A M; Wevers, Maaike; de Weerd, Al W; van den Bossche, Renilde A S; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Otten, Barto J; Wit, Jan Maarten; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurogenetic disorder with hypotonia, psychomotor delay, obesity, short stature, and sleep-related breathing disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between psychomotor development and sleep-related breathing disorders in PWS infants. Bayley Scales of Infant Development were performed in 22 PWS infants, with a median (interquartile range, IQR) age of 1.8 (1.1-3.4) y, and a body mass index SD score (BMISDS) of -0.5 (-1.3 to 1.6). We evaluated psychomotor development in relation to results of polysomnography. Median (IQR) mental and motor development was 73.1% (64.3-79.6%) and 55.2% (46.5-63.1%) of normal children, respectively. All infants had sleep-related breathing disorders, mostly of central origin. The apnea hypopnea index was not associated with psychomotor development. Only four infants had obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). They had a significantly delayed mental development of 65.5% (60.0-70.3%) of normal. They had a median BMISDS of 1.4 (0.1-1.6), which tended to be higher than in those without OSAS. Our data indicate that psychomotor development in PWS infants is not related to central sleep-related breathing disorders, but infants with OSAS have more severely delayed mental development, suggesting that PWS infants should be screened for OSAS.
Saffran, Jenny R.; Kirkham, Natasha Z.
Perception involves making sense of a dynamic, multimodal environment. In the absence of mechanisms capable of exploiting the statistical patterns in the natural world, infants would face an insurmountable computational problem. Infant statistical learning mechanisms facilitate the detection of structure. These abilities allow the infant to compute across elements in their environmental input, extracting patterns for further processing and subsequent learning. In this selective review, we summarize findings that show that statistical learning is both a broad and flexible mechanism (supporting learning from different modalities across many different content areas) and input specific (shifting computations depending on the type of input and goal of learning). We suggest that statistical learning not only provides a framework for studying language development and object knowledge in constrained laboratory settings, but also allows researchers to tackle real-world problems, such as multilingualism, the role of ever-changing learning environments, and differential developmental trajectories. PMID:28793812
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...
Full Text Available Due to its peculiar nutritional and non-nutritional contents, which include long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids (LC-PUFA, prebiotics, immunological factors, hormones and growth factors, breast milk shows significant advantages over infant formulas in nourishing preterm infants. Better neurocognitive outcomes, which are reported to persist far beyond the early childhood, have been largely observed in breastfed preterm infants; a role of LC-PUFA in promoting neural and retinal development is assumed. As far as the gastrointestinal tract is concerned, several evidences have reported a dose-related reduction in NEC incidence among preterm infants fed on human milk. Moreover, the higher amount of immunological factors as secretory IgA within preterm breast milk might play a remarkable role in reducing the overall infections. Despite breastfeeding in preterm infants is generally linked with lowered growth rates which might potentially affect neurocognitive outcomes, the beneficial effects of human milk on neurodevelopment prevail. Fortified human milk might better fulfill the particular nutritional needs of preterm infants. However, as breast milk fortification is difficult to carry out after the achievement of full oral feeding, some concerns on the nutritional adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding during hospitalization as well as after discharge have been raised. Finally, breastfeeding also entails maternal psychological beneficial effects, as promoting the motherhood process and the mother-child relationship, which could be undermined in those women experiencing preterm delivery. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research
Russell, Dorothy S.
The paper discusses the birth of a mentally retarded infant in terms of initial parent reactions, adjustment, decision to institutionalize, psychological effect on the mother, psychological effect on the father, impact on the marriage, and impact on siblings. The birth is a traumatic experience for the parents and can result in initial feelings of…
Talmi, Ayelet; Stafford, Brian; Buchholz, Melissa
After birth, newborns and their caregivers are seen routinely and frequently in pediatric primary care settings. The close succession of visits in the first few months of life puts pediatric primary care professionals in a unique position to enhance infant mental health by developing strong relationships with caregivers, supporting babies and…
Summers, Susan Janko, Ed.; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel, Ed.
Integrating infant mental health services into early education programs leads to better child outcomes and stronger parent-child relationships--the big question is how to do it appropriately and effectively. Clear answers are in this accessible textbook, created to prepare early childhood professionals and programs to weave best practices in…
Fyfe, Karinna L; Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wong, Flora Y; Odoi, Alexsandria; Walker, Adrian M; Horne, Rosemary S C
Prone sleeping is a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and preterm infants are at significantly increased risk. In term infants, prone sleeping is associated with reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cerebral tissue oxygenation index (TOI). However, little is known about the effects of sleeping position on TOI and MAP in preterm infants. We aimed to examine TOI and MAP in preterm infants after term-equivalent age, during the period of greatest SIDS risk. Thirty-five preterm and 17 term infants underwent daytime polysomnography, including measurement of TOI (NIRO-200 spectrophotometer, Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Japan) and MAP (Finapress Medical Systems, Amsterdam, Netherlands) at 2 to 4 weeks, 2 to 3 months, and 5 to 6 months postterm age. Infants slept prone and supine in active and quiet sleep. The effects of sleep state and position were determined by using 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance and of preterm birth by using 2-way analysis of variance. In preterm infants, TOI was significantly lower when prone compared with supine in both sleep states at all ages (P preterm compared with term infants at 2 to 4 weeks, in both positions (P preterm infants in the prone position at 2 to 3 months (P position in preterm infants and is lower compared with age-matched term infants, predominantly in the prone position when MAP is also reduced. This may contribute to their increased SIDS risk. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Fever in Infants and ChildrenBecause young children are not ... Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants and Children Fever Fever in Infants and Children Foot Problems Genital ...
Romeo, Domenico M; Brogna, Claudia; Sini, Francesca; Romeo, Mario G; Cota, Francesco; Ricci, Daniela
The influence of gestational age and gender in the neurodevelopment of infants during the first year of age is not yet fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to identify the early occurrence of neurodevelopmental differences, between very preterm, late preterm and term born infants and the possible influence of the gender on the neurodevelopment in early infancy. A total of 188 low-risk infants, 69 very preterms, 71 late-preterms, and 48 term infants were assessed at 3, 6, 9, 12 months corrected age using the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE). At two years of age infants performed the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The main results indicate that both very preterms and late-preterms showed significant lower global scores than term born infants at each evaluation (p development of infants assessed during the first 2 years of life. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Shari; Ullman, Tomer D; Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Spelke, Elizabeth S
Infants understand that people pursue goals, but how do they learn which goals people prefer? We tested whether infants solve this problem by inverting a mental model of action planning, trading off the costs of acting against the rewards actions bring. After seeing an agent attain two goals equally often at varying costs, infants expected the agent to prefer the goal it attained through costlier actions. These expectations held across three experiments that conveyed cost through different physical path features (height, width, and incline angle), suggesting that an abstract variable-such as "force," "work," or "effort"-supported infants' inferences. We modeled infants' expectations as Bayesian inferences over utility-theoretic calculations, providing a bridge to recent quantitative accounts of action understanding in older children and adults. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
... to cow's milk may also be allergic to soy milk. Soy-based formulas should be used for infants with galactosemia , a rare condition. These formulas can also be used ... have allergies to milk protein and for those with skin rashes or ...
... A hip problem in infants is known as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). It is when the ball of the ... later in life? Resources International Hip Dysplasia Institute, Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) International Hip Dysplasia Institute, Hip-Healthy Swaddling ...
Colic in infants causes one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for colic in infants? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 27 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: advice to increase carrying, advice to reduce stimulation, casein hydrolysate milk, cranial osteopathy, crib vibrator device, focused counselling, gripe water, infant massage, low-lactose milk, simethicone, soya-based infant feeds, spinal manipulation, and whey hydrolysate milk.
Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra Duarte
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: the infection of chikungunya virus presents clinical manifestations variables, particularly in infants in which may present multiple cutaneous manifestations. Description: a case series study was carried out in an analytical character of 14 infants (>28 days to < 2 years old admitted in a hospital between November 2015 and January 2016 with suspected case of chikungunya, by a specific IgM reactive serology. Patients positive for dengue fever, Zika virus, bacterial infections and other exanthematic diseases were excluded. Fever and cutaneous alterations were the most frequent clinical manifestations in 100% of the cases, followed by irritability (64.3%, vomits and arthralgia/arthritis in 35.7% each. Three children presented alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid compatible to meningitis. Anemia frequency was 85.7%. The median white blood cells count was 7.700/mm3 (2.600 to 20.300/mm3. High levels of aminotransferases were observed in three cases (230 to 450 U/L. Antibiotic therapy was indicated in 64.3% of the cases. Two infants needed opioid derivatives for analgesia while others took acetaminophen and/or dipyrone. Discussion: the study shows evident multi-systemic involvement of chikungunya infection in infants. The treatment is supportive, giving special attention to hydration, analgesia, skin care, and rational use of antibiotic therapy.
... Sing songs. Show and talk about simple picture books. This is the way your baby learns how to talk. Infants Love To Explore You may have noticed that your baby is becoming interested in everything within reach, especially simple toys with bright colors and ...
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth / For Parents / Milk Allergy in ... Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a milk ...
... the womb (breech position) babies with a family history of DDH Also, DDH occurs more frequently in girls than boys and among first-born infants. Doctors will consider all of these factors when deciding whether a baby's hips should be checked by ultrasound. In addition, a ...
Adriana Chebar Lozinsky
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.
Lester, Barry M.; Miller, Robin J.; Hawes, Katheleen; Salisbury, Amy; Bigsby, Rosemarie; Sullivan, Mary C.; Padbury, James F.
The trend toward single-room neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) is increasing; however scientific evidence is, at this point, mostly anecdotal. This is a critical time to assess the impact of the single-room NICU on improving medical and neurobehavioral outcomes of the preterm infant. We have developed a theoretical model that may be useful in studying how the change from an open-bay NICU to a single-room NICU could affect infant medical and neurobehavioral outcome. The model identifies mediating factors that are likely to accompany the change to a single-room NICU. These mediating factors include family centered care, developmental care, parenting and family factors, staff behavior and attitudes, and medical practices. Medical outcomes that plan to be measured are sepsis, length of stay, gestational age at discharge, weight gain, illness severity, gestational age at enteral feeding, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Neurobehavioral outcomes include the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) scores, sleep state organization and sleep physiology, infant mother feeding interaction scores, and pain scores. Preliminary findings on the sample of 150 patients in the open-bay NICU showed a “baseline” of effects of family centered care, developmental care, parent satisfaction, maternal depression, and parenting stress on the neurobehavioral outcomes of the newborn. The single-room NICU has the potential to improve the neurobehavioral status of the infant at discharge. Neurobehavioral assessment can assist with early detection and therefore preventative intervention to maximize developmental outcome. We also present an epigenetic model of the potential effects of maternal care on improving infant neurobehavioral status. PMID:21255702
... News & Events About Us Home > Health Information Share Statistics Research shows that mental illnesses are common in ... of mental illnesses, such as suicide and disability. Statistics Top ı cs Mental Illness Any Anxiety Disorder ...
Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi
This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.
Hyatt, I. Ralph
Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)
... NAMI About NAMI + x IN THIS SECTION La salud mental en la comunidad latina Share NAMI Share Home ... Support Diverse Communities Latinos IN THIS SECTION La salud mental en la comunidad latina Latino Mental Health Video ...
Giannì, Maria Lorella; Roggero, Paola; Amato, Orsola; Picciolini, Odoardo; Piemontese, Pasqua; Liotto, Nadia; Taroni, Francesca; Mosca, Fabio
Preterm infants are at risk for adverse neurodevelopment. Furthermore, nutrition may play a key role in supporting neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a nutrient-enriched formula fed to preterm infants after hospital discharge could improve their neurodevelopment at 24 months (term-corrected age). We conducted an observer-blinded, single-center, randomized controlled trial in infants admitted to the Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Italy between 2009 and 2011. Inclusion criteria were gestational age age, using two computer-generated randomization lists; one appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and one for small for gestational age (SGA) infants. We assessed neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age using the Griffiths Mental Development Scale and related subscales (locomotor, personal-social, hearing and speech, hand and eye coordination, and performance). Of the 207 randomized infants, 181 completed the study. 52 AGA and 35 SGA infants were fed a nutrient-enriched formula, whereas 56 AGA and 38 SGA infants were fed a standard full-term formula. The general quotient at 24 months of corrected age was not significantly different between infants randomized to receive a nutrient-enriched formula compared with a standard term formula up until 6 months of corrected age (AGA infants: 93.8 ± 12.6 vs. 92.4 ± 10.4, respectively; SGA infants: 96.1 ± 9.9 vs. 98.2 ± 9, respectively). The scores of related subscales were also similar among groups. This study found that feeding preterm infants a nutrient-enriched formula after discharge does not affect neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age, in either AGA or SGA infants, free from major comorbidities. Current Controlled Trials (http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN30189842) London, UK.
Petrie Thomas, Julianne H.; Whitfield, Michael F.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Synnes, Anne R.; Grunau, Ruth E.
The majority of children who are born very preterm escape major impairment, yet more subtle cognitive and attention problems are very common in this population. Previous research has linked infant focused attention during exploratory play to later cognition in children born full-term and preterm. Infant focused attention can be indexed by sustained decreases in heart rate (HR). However there are no preterm studies that have jointly examined infant behavioral attention and concurrent HR response during exploratory play in relation to developing cognition. We recruited preterm infants free from neonatal conditions associated with major adverse outcomes, and further excluded infants with developmental delay (Bayley Mental Development Index [MDI < 70]) at 8 months corrected age (CA). During infant exploratory play at 8 months CA, focused attention and concurrent HR response were compared in 83 preterm infants (born 23–32 weeks gestational age [GA]) who escaped major impairment to 46 full-term infants. Focused attention and HR response were then examined in relation to Bayley MDI, after adjusting for neonatal risk. MDI did not differ by group, yet full-term infants displayed higher global focused attention ratings. Among the extremely preterm infants born <29 weeks, fewer days on mechanical ventilation, mean longest focus, and greater HR deceleration during focused attention episodes, accounted for 49% of adjusted variance in predicting concurrent MDI. There were no significant associations for later-born gestational age (29–32 weeks) or full-term infants. Among extremely preterm infants who escape major impairment, our findings suggest unique relationships between focused attention, HR deceleration, and developing cognition. PMID:22487941
Liddle, Mitzi-Jane E; Bradley, Ben S; Mcgrath, Andrew
Empathy is an important competence in our social world, a motivator of prosocial behavior, and thought to develop throughout the second year of life. The current study examined infants' responses to naturalistic peer distress to explore markers of empathy and prosocial behavior in young babies. Seventeen 8-month-old infants participated in a repeated measures design using the "babies-in-groups" paradigm, with maternal presence as the independent variable. Significant differences were found between response types: Gaze was the standard response to infant distress, followed by socially directed behaviors and affect, with self-distress rarely occurring. Maternal presence was not found to impact the nature or frequency of babies' responses to peer distress. During distress episodes, babies looked preferentially at the distressed peer, then other mothers, and least to their own mother. Data revealed that infant responses to peer distress resulted in a successful cessation of that distress episode over one third of the time. Case studies are provided to illustrate the quantitative data. The results provided evidence of empathic concern and prosocial behavior in the first year of life, and provoke a challenge to developmental theories of empathy. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M; Hannan, Jean; Caicedo, Carmen; Roche, Rosa; Malkawi, Fatima
Examine parents' concerns about subsequent pregnancies after experiencing an infant or child death (newborn to 18 years). Thirty-nine semistructured parent (white, black, Hispanic) interviews 7 and 13 months post infant/child death conducted in English and/or Spanish, audio-recorded, transcribed, and content analyzed. Mothers' mean age was 31.8 years, fathers' was 39 years; 11 parents were white, 16 black, and 12 Hispanic. Themes common at 7 and 13 months: wanting more children; fear, anxiety, scared; praying to God/God's will; thinking about/keeping the infant's/child's memory and at 7 months importance of becoming pregnant for family members; and at 13 months happy about a new baby. Parents who lost a child in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) commented more than those who lost a child in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Black and Hispanic parents commented more on praying to God and subsequent pregnancies being God's will than white parents. Loss of an infant/child is a significant stressor on parents with documented negative physical and mental health outcomes. Assessing parents' subsequent pregnancy plans, recognizing the legitimacy of their fears about another pregnancy, discussing a plan should they encounter problems, and carefully monitoring the health of all parents who lost an infant/child is an essential practitioner role. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Sanmaneechai, Oranee; Sogawa, Yoshimi; Silver, Wendy; Ballaban-Gil, Karen; Moshé, Solomon L; Shinnar, Shlomo
West syndrome constitutes the most frequent of all seizure types in infants with Down syndrome. We retrospectively reviewed records of 12 infants with Down syndrome and West syndrome, accounting for 5% of 239 infants with West syndrome from a comprehensive epilepsy database during a 17-year period. All demonstrated classic hypsarrhythmia on video electroencephalograms. One had clinically responded to clonazepam, and one was not treated because the parents refused any treatment. Seven of 10 infants demonstrated a complete response to high-dose natural adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Four (57%) of these seven infants relapsed. Relapses occurred as long as 2 years after cessation of the initial presentation of infantile spasms. At most recent follow-up (median age, 5 years), 8/12 (67%) were seizure-free, and seven were off any medications. Two of three nonresponders manifested intractable epilepsy and profound mental retardation. Developmentally, 6/8 who could be assessed met criteria for autistic spectrum disorder. Close follow-up is necessary even after successful initial treatment, because relapses are frequent and can occur as long as 2 years later. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
We examined patients with mental space navigation or mental time travel disorder to identify regions in the brain that may play a critical role in mental time travel in terms of clinical neuropsychology. These regions included the precneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, retrosplenial cortex, and hippocampus, as well as the orbitofrontal cortex: the anterior and posterior medial areas were both shown to be important in this process. Further studies are required to define whether these form a network for mental time travel.
Developing the musical brain to boost early pre-verbal, communication and listening skills: The implications for musicality development pre- and post-cochlear implantation. It is not just about Nursery Rhymes!
A growing body of evidence suggests that musical activities can enhance the listening brain and develop higher cognitive functions, including linguistic abilities. The BabyBeats™ early intervention resource, a musical habilitation resource, was designed to improve early parent interaction, early listening behaviour, early communication skills, and social and emotional development, pre- and post-implantation. A feasibility study was conducted on families from the UK. There were two groups: seven babies 12 months old. Audit data were collected based on a simple parental and professional feedback questionnaire, completed at the end of an 8-month trial. Parental feedback was positive and ideas from the resource were carried over into the family's everyday routines. Parents and professionals observed increased vocalisation, attention, and anticipation of the activities in their babies. Parents also reported increased confidence in singing, moving, and playing with their baby. These preliminary outcomes suggest that this type of intervention may lead to earlier development of communication and listening skills when used in combination with appropriate amplification. The next steps will be to include more infants, match the groups regarding age and developmental stage, to observe the infants for a longer period and to compare outcomes over time.
Holvoet, Claire; Scola, Céline; Arciszewski, Thomas; Picard, Delphine
In 2007, a study carried out by Hamlin, Wynn, and Bloom provided concrete evidence that infants as young as 6 months were capable of social evaluation, displaying an early preference for agents performing a prosocial behavior. Since then the development of early social abilities to judge other's behavior has been the topic of a growing body of research. The present paper reviews studies conducted between 2007 and 2015 that experimentally examined infants' social evaluation abilities by testing their preference for agents acting prosocially. We performed a detailed analysis of a corpus of 16 research studies including 59 experimental results, scrutinizing their methods and findings, and identifying their convergent and divergent features. This analysis showed that a preference for agents who perform prosocial behaviors (as opposed to antisocial or neutral) was present in a majority of infants, but some conflicting results have also been reported. The rich interpretation that infants are endowed with mature socio-moral evaluation abilities has not really been sufficiently discussed. In order to deepen this debate, we assessed other studies that have further explored infants' understanding of the social value of behaviors. Many of the studies provide evidence that young infants manage to identify and prefer the prosocial agent by taking into account the context and agents' mental states beyond the behavior itself. In this study two specific areas are assessed: (1) studies that have previously explored social evaluation abilities beyond a basic preference for prosocial behavior and (2) current theories which attempt to explain how and why such preferences could exist so early in infancy. Future directions for research on social evaluation abilities in infants are also discussed as well as a review of the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... of post-natal depression found amongst South African mothers parenting in adverse circumstances. There is a need for education regarding key messages from the neuroscience of development, to give these parents opportunities to raise their children in a way that supports healthy cognitive and emotional development.
Lieberman, Alicia F.; Harris, William W.; Osofsky, Joy D.; Osofsky, Howard J.
This article is excerpted and reprinted by permission of the publisher, Wiley-Blackwell, from the book "Nurturing Children and Families: Building on the Legacy of T. Berry Brazelton", edited by Barry M. Lester and Joshua D. Sparrow. In the first excerpt, Alicia F. Lieberman and William W. Harris explore the impact of violence and…
Vrijheid, Martine; Martinez, David; Aguilera, Inma; Bustamante, Mariona; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Guxens, Mònica; Lertxundi, Nerea; Martinez, M Dolores; Tardon, Adonina; Sunyer, Jordi
Gas cooking is a main source of indoor air pollutants, including nitrogen dioxide and particles. Because concerns are emerging for neurodevelopmental effects of air pollutants, we examined the relationship between indoor gas cooking during pregnancy and infant neurodevelopment. Pregnant mothers were recruited between 2004 and 2008 to a prospective birth cohort study (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) in Spain during the first trimester of pregnancy. Third-trimester questionnaires collected information about the use of gas appliances at home. At age 11 to 22 months, children were assessed for mental development using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Linear regression models examined the association of gas cooking and standardized mental development scores (n = 1887 mother-child pairs). Gas cookers were present in 44% of homes. Gas cooking was related to a small decrease in the mental development score compared with use of other cookers (-2.5 points [95% confidence interval = -4.0 to -0.9]) independent of social class, maternal education, and other measured potential confounders. This decrease was strongest in children tested after the age of 14 months (-3.1 points [-5.1 to -1.1]) and when gas cooking was combined with less frequent use of an extractor fan. The negative association with gas cooking was relatively consistent across strata defined by social class, education, and other covariates. This study suggests a small adverse effect of indoor air pollution from gas cookers on the mental development of young children.
Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.
Donaldson, M D; Spurgeon, P; Haycock, G B; Chantler, C
A commercially available closed dialysis system and a new peritoneal cannula with potential advantages for infants have been developed. The dialysis set includes three dialysate bags that may be connected to the filling burette; the warming coil of the set is placed in a thermostatically controlled water bath. The peritoneal catheter comprises a flexible tube with side holes and a sharp short bevelled needle with obturator. Advantages of the new equipment over previously available equipment a...
General practitioners (GPs) are often the first point of advice about nutrition and feeding concerns in infants and toddlers. The aim of this article is to discuss the assessment of breastfed infants and address commonly presenting issues such as regurgitation, vomiting and bowel habits. Recommendations for starting solids and management of fussy eating are also outlined in this article. Breastfeeding should be supported by all healthcare professionals. Intake is difficult to quantify, but can be assessed using growth and urine output, with support from lactation consultants and/or child and family health nurses. Regurgitation is common, and usually resolves itself. If there are clinical concerns about a child's vomiting, they should be investigated medically. Consti-pation can be caused by insufficient fluid intake and should be managed medically; dietary interventions are not recommended as first-line treatment. Solid foods should be introduced around six months of age, when the infant is developmentally ready. Delaying the introduction of solids or allergenic foods does not prevent allergies. Fussy eating is common in toddlers exerting their independence, and behavioural management is essential.
Butler, Samantha C; O'Sullivan, Laura P; Shah, Bhavesh L; Berthier, Neil E
The current study explores the effects of exposure to maternal voice on infant sucking in preterm infants. Twenty-four preterm infants averaging 35 weeks gestational age were divided randomly into two groups. A contingency between high-amplitude sucking and presentation of maternal voice was instituted for one group while the other group served as a yoked control. No significant differences were observed in sucking of the two groups, but the degree of pitch modulation of the maternal voice predicted an increase in the rate of infant sucking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Elbasan, Bulent; Kocyigit, Murat Fatih; Soysal-Acar, A Sebnem; Atalay, Yıldız; Gucuyener, Kivilcim
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of family centered physiotherapy according to the neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) principles on mental and motor performance in premature infants. A total of 156 infant, ≥24/36 week+6days gestational age included in the study. All the infants were diagnosed by a child neurologist and referred to psychology and physiotherapy department for their neurodevelopmental assessment and treatment. Bayley Scale of Infant II (BSI-II) was used for neurodevelopmental assessment and Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) was used for assessing their motor performance. Seventy-eight of the infants were in the study group and 76 were recruited as age matched controls according to the classification of their gestational age. Family centered physiotherapy according to the neurodevelopmental treatment principles was used as an intervention and all the mothers are trained accordingly. Cognitive Development Scores and Motor Development Scores of Bayley II were recorded for the 3., 6., 9., and 12 months respectively. Between the 3. and 12. month of gestational age, within-groups measurements in both Cognitive Development Scores (pMotor Development Scores (pMotor Development Scores (p=0.334) between the groups was not different. Family centered physiotherapy with NDT principles may not be enough to improve motor and cognitive performance in preterm infants at the first year of age. For supporting the motor and cognitive development of the preterm infants other intervention modalities also should be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Noriuchi, Madoka; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Senoo, Atsushi
Maternal love, which may be the core of maternal behavior, is essential for the mother-infant attachment relationship and is important for the infant's development and mental health. However, little has been known about these neural mechanisms in human mothers. We examined patterns of maternal brain activation in response to infant cues using video clips. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements while 13 mothers viewed video clips, with no sound, of their own infant and other infants of approximately 16 months of age who demonstrated two different attachment behaviors (smiling at the infant's mother and crying for her). We found that a limited number of the mother's brain areas were specifically involved in recognition of the mother's own infant, namely orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), periaqueductal gray, anterior insula, and dorsal and ventrolateral parts of putamen. Additionally, we found the strong and specific mother's brain response for the mother's own infant's distress. The differential neural activation pattern was found in the dorsal region of OFC, caudate nucleus, right inferior frontal gyrus, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, thalamus, substantia nigra, posterior superior temporal sulcus, and PFC. Our results showed the highly elaborate neural mechanism mediating maternal love and diverse and complex maternal behaviors for vigilant protectiveness.
Bottoms, Bette L; Kalder, Alaine K; Stevenson, Margaret C; Oudekerk, Barbara A; Wiley, Tisha R; Perona, Alison
The present study investigated the influence of juror gender and infant victim disability on jurors' reactions to infanticide cases. Participants (men and women undergraduates) read a summary of a mock trial involving alleged father-perpetrated infanticide. The infant was described as severely mentally disabled or as not disabled. Participants completed a series of case-related judgments (e.g., guilt; sentence; and empathy, sympathy, and similarity toward the defendant and victim). There were pervasive gender differences such that compared to men, women mock jurors rendered more guilty verdicts, perceived the father/defendant as having greater intent to kill his infant, and felt less similar to the defendant. Compared to men, women also believed the father was more responsible and the pneumonia was less responsible for the infant's death, had less sympathy and empathy for the defendant, endorsed more negative beliefs about the father, and were more likely to believe the infant was a unique person. Mediational analyses revealed that these statistically significant effects were explained, in part, by gender differences in attitudes toward the defendant. Further, whether the infant victim was portrayed as severely disabled (versus developmentally normal) had little effect on central case judgments such as verdict, but jurors who believed the infant was severely disabled gave significantly shorter sentences to the defendant, were less likely to perceive the defendant as mentally ill, and felt significantly less empathy for and similarity to the infant victim. Although juror gender consistently predicted juror's judgments, there were fewer effects of disability status. Even so, bias against disabled infants manifested for several dependant variables. This research can inform legal professionals about the potential for bias in juror decision-making, and in turn, help facilitate fairness and justice for the youngest and most vulnerable victims of child abuse. 2011
Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.
Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…
Xu, Kang; Zhang, Cui-Mei; Huang, Lian-Hong; Fu, Si-Mao; Liu, Yu-Ling; Chen, Ang; Ou, Jun-Bin
To study the risk factors for moderate and severe iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infants aged 6-12 months, and to preliminarily investigate the effects of IDA on the neuromotor development and temperament characteristics of infants. A total of 326 infants aged 6-12 months with IDA were classified into three groups: mild IDA (n=176), moderate IDA (n=111), and severe IDA (n=39) according to the severity of anemia. The risk factors for moderate or severe IDA were investigated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Three hundred and forty-six infants without IDA who showed matched age, sex, and other backgrounds were selected as the control group. The Gesell Development Diagnosis Scale was used to evaluate children's mental development. The Temperament Scale for infants was used for evaluating children's temperament. The univariate analysis showed that the severity of IDA was associated with sex, birth weight, gestational age, multiple birth, maternal anemia during pregnancy, and mother's lack of knowledge about IDA (Panemia during pregnancy, breast feeding, and mother's lack of knowledge about IDA were the risk factors for severe IDA (OR>1; P1; Panemia during pregnancy and mother's lack of knowledge about IDA in infants aged 6-12 months. Infants with IDA have delayed neuromotor development and most of them have negative temperaments. More attention should be paid to mental and behavior problems for the infants. It is necessary to provide guidance for their parents in feeding and education.
Gray, Sarah A O; Jones, Christopher W; Theall, Katherine P; Glackin, Erin; Drury, Stacy S
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a parasympathetic-mediated biomarker of self-regulation linked to lifespan mental and physical health outcomes. Intergenerational impacts of mothers' exposure to prenatal stress have been demonstrated, but evidence for biological embedding of maternal preconception stress, including adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), on infant RSA is lacking. We examine the independent effects of maternal ACEs and prenatal stress on infant RSA, seeking to broaden the understanding of the earliest origins of mental and physical health risk. Mothers reported on ACEs and prenatal stress. RSA was recorded in a sample of 167 4-month-old infants (49% female and 51% male) during a dyadic stressor, the Still Face Paradigm. Independent contributions of maternal ACEs and prenatal stress to infant RSA were observed. High maternal ACEs were associated with lower RSA, whereas prenatal stress was associated with failure to recover following the stressor. Sex but not race differences were observed. Prenatal stress was associated with higher RSA among boys but lower RSA among girls. Infants' RSA is affected by mothers' life course experiences of stress, with ACEs predicting a lower set point and prenatal stress dampening recovery from stress. For prenatal stress but not ACEs, patterns vary across sex. Findings underscore that stress-reducing interventions for pregnant women or those considering pregnancy may lead to decreased physical and mental health risk across generations. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adama, Esther Abena; Bayes, Sara; Sundin, Deborah
To explore parents of preterm infants' experiences of caring for their preterm infants with the grandmother as their primary support after discharge. Preterm delivery is the major cause of high neonatal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. There is poor neonatal health outcome in the Ghanaian community with some illnesses culturally classified as not-for-hospital. In the community, grandmothers or older women provide support for new parents and decide treatment options for sick infants. However, there is paucity of research on how parents of preterm infants experience this support in the Ghanaian community. Qualitative narrative inquiry methodology was used. Face-to-face interviews using semi-structured interview guide were used to collect data from 21 mothers and nine fathers. Participant observation and field notes were used to complement interview data. Thematic content analysis of data within the three-dimensional narrative space was employed. Analysis focussed on the relationship of time, place, person and cultural practices affecting the care of preterm infants in the community. Three themes emerged from the data, namely (i) Grandmother's prescriptions, (ii) Fighting for the well-being of the infant and (iii) Being in a confused state. Cultural practices mainly initiated by grandmothers resulted in adverse health problems for preterm infants and disruption in parents' mental health. As grandmothers perform their traditional role of supporting new parents to care for preterm infants after discharge, they give both positive and negative advice which can adversely affect the health of vulnerable preterm infants in the community. Grandmothers are the main support providers of parents of preterm infants after neonatal unit discharge. Nurses should identify and include grandmothers in predischarge education in order to equip them to render appropriate support to parents and preterm infants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The author draws attention to something distinctive in the psychoanalytic 'air' from the early 1960s onwards: the strong emphasis upon the very early psychological, emotional and cognitive view of infants and young children. She focuses on the work of two analysts in particular, Esther Bick and Wilfred Bion, and the comparable, though differently expressed, centrality of the observational method in their work. Each explored not only the pathological picture but also the nature and integrative function of psychic containment in earliest mental life. Each also shared a preoccupation with what constituted a psychoanalytic attitude and with the process of becoming a psychoanalyst and, in Bick's case, a child analyst or psychotherapist. The author provides an historical background to the idea of observation, followed by an account, with detailed examples, of the nature of infant observation and the observational method as taught and practised at the Tavistock Clinic, London since the late 1940s, and subsequently in many other training institutions. Here the themes of Bick and Bion are constantly interrelated such that the prototype or model for the creation of emotional meaning and thought can be appreciated and learning from experience can take place.
MENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF INDONESIAN INFANTS AND CHILDREN: RESULTS OF SEANUTS INDONESIA Maternal nutrition during gestation has consequences on mental development of the offspring. The physical and mental disorders can be identified in early life. South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS is a multicenter nutrition study on children aged 0.5 to 12.9 years in which measurement of mental development is also included. The aim of this paper was to describe mental development of Indonesian children 0.5-5.9 years old. Denver Development Screening Test (DDST was used to identify the deviation of development. Child’s height was measured to reflect posture. Detailed study design was described by Sandjaja, et al earlier in this issue. The results revealed that total suspected of late all four development was 21.6 percent, including 11.5, 14.5, 11.8, and 15.8 percent for gross-motor development, personal social, adaptation-fine motor, and language skill, respectively. Infants were the most often detected as severe suspected of late developments (45.8%, especially for language and personal social skill. Unadjusted data revealed that there were no associations found between neuropsychological deviation (all four and posture. When it was adjusted, a significant difference was found only in 1.0-2.9 years old group. We concluded that parenting stimulation as be shown in language skill and personal-social were important risk factors. Keyword: mental development, DDST, posture, multi-center study
Markin, Rayna D
In recent years, the theory of mentalization has been applied to a number of clinically relevant areas including psychotherapy for patients with borderline personality disorder, therapy with adolescents and children, treatment of self-harm in young people, parent-infant early interventions, and even community outreach (see Midgley & Vrouvam, 2012. Minding the child: Mentalizing interventions with children, young people, and their families. London and New York: Routledge). Extending on this body of work, the present article applies the theory of mentalization to psychotherapies that aim to help first time expecting mothers psychologically adjust to and prepare for motherhood. Theory and research suggest that pregnancy represents an intermediate space in which, under ideal circumstances, the woman comes to represent herself as a mother, her unborn child as a separate and intentional being, and her emotional bond or attachment to the fetus. However, the expecting mother's own conflictual experiences being mothered are likely to influence her ability to mentalize her pregnancy, setting the stage for problems in the mother-infant dyad postpartum. This article explores how mentalizing techniques may be used in psychotherapy to help mothers-to-be to mentalize their emerging identity as a mother, their unborn child, and their developing relationship to the fetus. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Singer, Lynn Twarog; And Others
Tracheostomized infants tended to be white, male, and premature, with moderate to severe medical illness. The majority of survivors presented with multiple physical and mental handicaps. Follow-up of survivors without other major handicapping conditions suggested an association with impaired physical and emotional development, even when cognitive…
Reid, Vincent; Stahl, Daniel; Striano, Tricia
This study investigates the relationship between having an older sibling and early goal-directed motor development. In a longitudinal study, infants were filmed playing with their mother and were observed at 5 and 12 months of age. After each observation, they were assessed with the Mental Bayley Scale. From the mother-child interaction, playing…
Arkhipova, E F
The problem of perinatal pathology of the nervous system in infants is getting more and more urgent due to the progressive growth of the frequency of cerebral disorders in newborns. This pathology leads to the development of severe motor and speech disorders which inhibit the development of communication skills and social adaptation of children in future. Perinatal factors cause not only neurologic and mental disorders but impede and distort the formation of pre-speech functions, basic for speech development, in infants thus worsening their disability. Patients with cerebral palsy make up 57% of children acknowledged as disabled. Therefore, logopedic diagnostic methods are needed to allow identification of the structure of pre-speech defects in infant period of life, prediction of the level of nervous-mental development, planning and realization of a correction-educational route from the first months of life.
... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants Share Tweet Linkedin ... infants has only been available in a stronger concentration that doesn’t require giving the infants as ...
... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...
... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...
Costa, Raquel; Figueiredo, Barbara
This study aims to (a) identify and profile groups of infants according to their behavioral and physiological characteristics, considering their neurobehavioral organization, social withdrawal behavior, and endocrine reactivity to stress, and to (b) analyze group differences in the quality of mother-infant interaction. Ninety-seven 8-week-old…
The health systems also face a lot of challenges while implementing these programmes that would promptly identify HIV exposed babies as well as enrolment into care. This review examined challenges facing early infant diagnosis of HIV among infants in Nigeria. Résumé Le nombre d'enfants qui sont atteints du VIH ne ...
AJRH Managing Editor
The number of children who have HIV continues to grow. Studies have confirmed dramatic survival benefits and mortality reduction for infants confirmed and managed as early as possible after diagnosis. With the advent of the Polymerase Chain. Reaction technology, early infant diagnosis of HIV among children is easier ...
This review focuses on infants' emerging awareness of mental states and demonstrates how cultural models-consisting of parenting beliefs and practices-interact dynamically with biologically prepared developmental potentialities in shaping infant behavior and development. Contrasting very different cultural contexts, it is suggested that caregivers' visual contingent responsiveness and associated processes are key features of early mother-infant interaction. They (a) are informed by intuitive parenting and culture-specific ethnotheories that, as a consequence, (b) differentially sensitize infants for internal mental states in the 1st year and beyond, and thereby (c) provide mechanisms that specify how culture not only shapes human behavior and experience but also produces culture-specific developmental pathways. © 2015 The Author Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Cohen, C I; Thompson, K S
Mainstream psychiatry conceptualizes people who are homeless and mentally ill as distinct from other homeless persons because it is thought that their status stems from their mental disorder and the poor implementation of deinstitutionalization. The authors believe this dichotomy is illusory. They present data indicating that recent socioeconomic and political shifts contributed greatly to homelessness among all groups, regardless of mental illness; that those with and without mental illness have similar biographical and demographic profiles; that high levels of mental distress are common to all homeless persons; and that few mentally ill homeless persons require involuntary hospitalization. This perspective suggests novel responses that de-emphasize clinical solutions and focus on empowerment, consumerism, entitlement, community-level interventions, and closer alliances with other advocates for the homeless.
Mestan, Karen K L; Marks, Jeremy D; Hecox, Kurt; Huo, Dezheng; Schreiber, Michael D
Chronic lung disease and severe intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia in premature infants are associated with abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes. In a previous randomized, controlled, single-center trial of premature infants with the respiratory distress syndrome, inhaled nitric oxide decreased the risk of death or chronic lung disease as well as severe intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia. We hypothesized that infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide would also have improved neurodevelopmental outcomes. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal follow-up study of premature infants who had received inhaled nitric oxide or placebo to investigate neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years of corrected age. Neurologic examination, neurodevelopmental assessment, and anthropometric measurements were made by examiners who were unaware of the children's original treatment assignment. A total of 138 children (82 percent of survivors) were evaluated. In the group given inhaled nitric oxide, 17 of 70 children (24 percent) had abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes, defined as either disability (cerebral palsy, bilateral blindness, or bilateral hearing loss) or delay (no disability, but one score of less than 70 on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II), as compared with 31 of 68 children (46 percent) in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.53; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.87; P=0.01). This effect persisted after adjustment for birth weight and sex, as well as for the presence or absence of chronic lung disease and severe intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia. The improvement in neurodevelopmental outcome in the group given inhaled nitric oxide was primarily due to a 47 percent decrease in the risk of cognitive impairment (defined by a score of less than 70 on the Bayley Mental Developmental Index) (P=0.03). Premature infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide have improved neurodevelopmental
Berrut, Sylvie; Pouillard, Violette; Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.
This paper is about infant mortality. In line with reliability theory, "infant" refers to the time interval following birth during which the mortality (or failure) rate decreases. This definition provides a systems science perspective in which birth constitutes a sudden transition falling within the field of application of the Transient Shock (TS) conjecture put forward in Richmond and Roehner (2016c). This conjecture provides predictions about the timing and shape of the death rate peak. It says that there will be a death rate spike whenever external conditions change abruptly and drastically and also predicts that after a steep rise there will be a much longer hyperbolic relaxation process. These predictions can be tested by considering living organisms for which the transient shock occurs several days after birth. Thus, for fish there are three stages: egg, yolk-sac and young adult phases. The TS conjecture predicts a mortality spike at the end of the yolk-sac phase and this timing is indeed confirmed by observation. Secondly, the hyperbolic nature of the relaxation process can be tested using very accurate Swiss statistics for postnatal death rates spanning the period from one hour immediately after birth through to age 10 years. It turns out that since the 19th century despite a significant and large reduction in infant mortality, the shape of the age-specific death rate has remained basically unchanged. Moreover the hyperbolic pattern observed for humans is also found for small primates as recorded in the archives of zoological gardens. Our overall objective is to identify a series of cases which start from simple systems and move step by step to more complex organisms. The cases discussed here we believe represent initial landmarks in this quest.
Odio, C M; Navarrete, M; Carrillo, J M; Mora, L; Carranza, A
Disseminated histoplasmosis usually occurs in immunocompromised patients who reside in Histoplasma capsulatum-endemic regions. It has also been described in immunocompetent infants after exposure to a large inoculum of the pathogen resulting in case fatality rates of 40 to 50%. From 1983 through 1996 all infants with documented disseminated histoplasmosis were treated with amphotericin B followed by daily ketoconazole for 3 months. Immunologic workups were performed at the time of diagnosis and at 4 to 6 weeks of therapy. Surviving patients were followed for at least 1 year. Time to resolution of signs and symptoms was recorded, as were complications. We managed 40 patients with disseminated histoplasmosis. The age in months at diagnosis was 15.3+/-10.2 (mean +/- SD), and 24 were male. All patients were from endemic regions and they presented with fever, spleen and/or liver enlargement and hematologic abnormalities. Diagnosis was made by histology and culture of bone marrow, spleen, lymph node, bronchoalveolar or liver samples. Twenty patients presented with T cell deficiency that resolved at 4 to 6 weeks of therapy in all of the retested patients, and 10 of 12 tested patients had hyperglobulinemia that resolved. Thirty-five (88%) patients were cured by treatment; 4 died and 1 relapsed. Disseminated histoplasmosis should be considered in infants from endemic areas who present with fever, hepatosplenomegaly and hematologic abnormalities. These patients develop transient hyperglobulinemia and T cell deficiency that resolve with treatment. Treatment with amphotericin B followed by an oral azole for 3 months is effective in most patients.
Ku, Lawrence C; Boggess, Kim A; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael
Neonatal bacterial meningitis is uncommon but devastating. Morbidity among survivors remains high. The types and distribution of pathogens are related to gestational age, postnatal age, and geographic region. Confirming the diagnosis is difficult. Clinical signs are often subtle, lumbar punctures are frequently deferred, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures can be compromised by prior antibiotic exposure. Infants with bacterial meningitis can have negative blood cultures and normal CSF parameters. Promising tests such as the polymerase chain reaction require further study. Prompt treatment with antibiotics is essential. Clinical trials investigating a vaccine for preventing neonatal Group B Streptococcus infections are ongoing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Problems experienced within the first year of an infant's life can be precursors of later mental health conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency and continuity of difficult behaviors in infants at 3 and 6 months of age and the associations of these difficulties with biomedical and psychosocial factors. Methods This study was a part of an ongoing prospective birth-cohort study. Study participants were 189 uniparous mothers and their full-term newborns. The index of infant difficult behavior was constructed. This index was then associated with the following factors: delivery mode, newborn function after birth, maternal emotional well-being, risk behavior, subjective evaluation of the quality of the relationship of the couple, and attitudes toward infant-rearing. Results Common difficult behaviors, including crying, sleeping and eating problems, were characteristic for 30.2% of 3 month old and for 22.2% of 6 month old full-term infants. The expression of infant difficult behaviors at the age of 3 months increased the likelihood of the expression of these difficulties at 6 months by more than 5 times. Factors including younger maternal age, poor prenatal and postnatal emotional well-being, prenatal alcohol consumption, low satisfaction with the couple's relationship before pregnancy, and deficiency of infant-centered maternal attitudes towards infant-rearing increased the likelihood of difficult behaviors in infants at the age of 3 months. Low maternal satisfaction with the relationship of the couple before pregnancy, negative emotional reactions of both parents toward pregnancy (as reported by the mother and the deficiency of an infant-centered maternal attitude towards infant-rearing increased the likelihood of infant difficult behaviors continuing between the ages of 3 to 6 months. Perinatal biomedical conditions were not related to the difficult behaviors in infants. Conclusions Our study suggests
Morales, Eva; Guxens, Mònica; Llop, Sabrina; Rodríguez-Bernal, Clara L; Tardón, Adonina; Riaño, Isolina; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Lertxundi, Nerea; Espada, Mercedes; Rodriguez, Agueda; Sunyer, Jordi
To investigate whether circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] concentration in pregnancy is associated with neuropsychological development in infants. The Spanish population-based cohort study INfancia y Medio Ambiente Project recruited pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy between November 2003 and February 2008. Completed data on 1820 mother-infant pairs were used. Maternal plasma 25(OH)D(3) concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in pregnancy (mean 13.5 ± 2.1 weeks of gestation). Offspring mental and psychomotor scores were assessed by trained psychologists at age 14 months (range, 11-23) by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. β-Coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of mental and psychomotor scores associated with continuous or categorical concentrations of maternal plasma 25(OH)D(3) were calculated by using linear regression analysis. The median plasma value of 25(OH)D(3) in pregnancy was 29.6 ng/mL (interquartile range, 21.8-37.3). A positive linear relationship was found between circulating concentrations of maternal 25(OH)D(3) concentrations in pregnancy and mental and psychomotor scores in the offspring. After adjustment for potential confounders, infants of mothers with 25(OH)D(3) concentrations in pregnancy >30 ng/mL showed higher mental score (β = 2.60; 95% CI 0.63-4.56) and higher psychomotor score (β = 2.32; 95% CI 0.36-4.28) in comparison with those of mothers with 25(OH)D(3) concentrations <20 ng/mL. Higher circulating concentration of maternal 25(OH)D(3) in pregnancy was associated with improved mental and psychomotor development in infants.
Chan, Ka Po
Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Foss, B. M., Ed.
This volume consists of reports of individual studies and surveys of research work on mother-infant interactions. It is divided into two parts. The first section presents a wide range of studies on mother-infant relations as exhibited in the behavior of animals. The second part, concerning human behavior, includes studies on the natural history of…
In laboratory studies of social referencing, infants as young as 12 months have been reported to prefer looking at the experimenter over the caregiver for clarifying information. From an expertise perspective, such behavior could be interpreted as if the infant seeks information from others and can discriminate between persons who have or do not…
Hale, Christiane B.
Assesses the complex problem of infant deaths in America and reviews the policy options before the nation. High infant mortality rates have been attributed to population heterogeneity, poverty, or differences in the way health services are organized. Links health policy issues to the larger issue of social and economic equity. (AF)
Full Text Available The concept that asthma is psychosomatic and may be related to parenting has been debated since the 1930s. With the growing focus on the multi-dimensional nature of physical and mental illness currently present in the health fields, recent research has once again begun to support such a theory. This article provides a brief review of the literature pertaining to the possible relationship between the early maternal–infant bond and later onset and severity of asthma with a focus on the history of this theory. Modern research suggests that multiple asthma risk factors are also possible results of poor maternal–infant bonding, supporting the theory that a poor maternal–infant bond may make a child vulnerable to the development of later asthma. However, the impact of such a bond needs to be investigated further and with better methodology to help develop better and more comprehensive models of asthma, maternal–infant bonding, and early experiences.
Zmyj, Norbert; Klein-Radukic, Sarah
During the first months of life, infants switch from a preference for perfect contingent feedback to a preference for less-than-perfect contingent feedback of their own movements. This is an indicator of increasing social interest since others provide less-than-perfect contingent feedback whereas the self provides perfect contingent feedback. We presented 117 6-month-olds with real-time and delayed video feedback of self-performed leg movements and asked parents about difficulties in various socioemotional domains. It was hypothesized that the more infants prefer real-time and therefore perfect contingent feedback over 7 s delayed and therefore perceived noncontingent feedback, the more difficulties parents will report in interaction and communication with their child. Preference for real-time feedback was related to difficulties in interaction, but not to difficulties in communication. Implications of this finding for infants' socioemotional development and health are discussed. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Full Text Available The infantile form of primary hyperoxaluria type-1 (PH-1 is characterized by a rapid progression to the end-stage renal disease (ESRD due to both increased oxalate load and reduced glomerular filtration rate. In the literature, data on this form are limited. The purpose of this study is to analyze retrospectively the clinical, biological, and radiological features of children who were diagnosed with PH-1 during the 1styear of life. We reviewed the records of all children with PH-1 diagnosed and followed-up at our department between January 1995 and December 2013. Among them, only infants younger than 12 months of age were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Fourteen infants with the median age of two months were enrolled in the study. At diagnosis, 11 patients had ESRD. All patients had nephrocalcinosis and two of them had calculi. The diagnosis was established in nine patients on the basis of the positive family history of PH-1, bilateral nephrocalcinosis, and quantitative crystalluria. In four patients, the diagnosis was made with molecular analysis of DNA. Kidney biopsy contributed to the diagnosis in one patient. During follow-up, two patients were pyridoxine sensitive and preserved renal function. Seven among 11 patients who had ESRD died, four patients are currently undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Children with infantile PH and ESRD are at high risk of early death. Peritoneal dialysis is not a treatment of choice. Combined liver-kidney transplantation is mandatory.
Schlapbach, Luregn J; Aebischer, Maude; Adams, Mark; Natalucci, Giancarlo; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Latzin, Philipp; Nelle, Mathias; Bucher, Hans Ulrich; Latal, Beatrice
Neonatal sepsis causes high mortality and morbidity in preterm infants, but less is known regarding the long-term outcome after sepsis. This study aimed to determine the impact of sepsis on neurodevelopment at 2 years' corrected age in extremely preterm infants. This was a multicenter Swiss cohort study on infants born between 2000 and 2007 at 24(0/7) to 27(6/7) weeks' gestational age. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. Neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) was defined as a Mental or Psychomotor Developmental Index lower than 70, cerebral palsy (CP), or visual or auditory impairment. Of 541 infants, 136 (25%) had proven sepsis, 169 (31%) had suspected sepsis, and 236 (44%) had no signs of infection. CP occurred in 14 of 136 (10%) infants with proven sepsis compared with 10 of 236 (4%) uninfected infants (odds ratio [OR]: 2.90 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22-6.89]; P = .016). NDI occurred in 46 of 134 (34%) infants with proven sepsis compared with 55 of 235 (23%) uninfected infants (OR: 1.85 [95% CI: 1.12-3.05]; P = .016). Multivariable analysis confirmed that proven sepsis independently increased the risk of CP (OR: 3.23 [95% CI: 1.23-8.48]; P = .017) and NDI (OR: 1.69 [95% CI: 0.96-2.98]; P = .067). In contrast, suspected sepsis was not associated with neurodevelopmental outcome (P > .05). The presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, pathologic brain ultrasonography, retinopathy, and sepsis predicted the risk of NDI (P < .0001). Proven sepsis significantly contributes to NDI in extremely preterm infants, independent of other risk factors. Better strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of sepsis in this highly vulnerable population are needed.
Medical and technological advances dominate the design of infant incubators because of their essential role in the survival of critically ill neonates. Yet other important design considerations, such as caregiver interaction, discomfort at bedside, and harmful materials, often are overlooked. The purpose of this paper is to consider the effects of existing incubator designs and to suggest criteria for the next generation of infant incubators. Incubators of the mid-1940s established an industry standard that exists to this day: portholes in an infant chamber positioned over a mechanical system, resting on top of storage cabinets or drawers. This design is unresponsive to many of the infants' needs and significantly influences parent/infant interaction. The physical effects and social barriers that the incubator presents to the health and well-being of infants are compounded by the use of unhealthful substances and materials such as formaldehyde. Collectively, these conditions call for an incubator that not only ameliorates physical and social obstacles, but also uses benign materials. Simple alterations to existing incubator design, such as introducing color and pattern, providing arm rests, and freeing space beneath the infant chamber to accommodate seated caregivers, would encourage more prolonged periods of contact with the infant occupants, thereby improving their behavioral organization and recovery. Replacing harmful materials with alternatives such as formaldehyde-free substrates in the cabinetry also will improve the developmental outcomes of the infant occupants. These types of recommended changes embrace the intent of the incubator to provide a controlled, secure environment while acknowledging that incubators are not merely medical equipment, but the living spaces of their infant occupants.
Macrae, J A; Pearson, R M; Lee, R; Chauhan, D; Bennert, K; Burns, A; Baxter, H; Evans, J
Research has suggested that prenatal depression may be associated with disrupted maternal responses to infant stimuli, with depressed pregnant women not showing the bias toward distressed infants as that observed in nondepressed pregnant women. The current study examined the effects of depression on self- reported responses to infant stimuli, in early pregnancy. Women with clinical depression (n = 38), and nondepressed women (n = 67) were recruited from a wider cognitive behavioral therapy trial. They completed Maternal Response Scales in which they were presented with images of distressed, neutral, and happy infant faces, with no time limit. The women rated their responses to these images along three dimensions--wanting to comfort, wanting to turn away, and feelings of anxiety--using Likert scales via a computerized task. There was evidence that women with depression in pregnancy showed different responses than did women without depression. Women with depression were substantially more likely to be in the highest quartile for ratings of wanting to turn away, odds (OR) ratio = 4.15, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 1.63-10.5, p = .003, and also were substantially less likely to be in the highest quartile for wanting to comfort a distressed infant face, OR = 0.22, 95% CIs = 0.09-0.54, p < .001. Findings are consistent with there being both a heightened avoidant and a reduced comforting response toward distressed infants in depressed pregnant women, providing some support that depression disrupts maternal preparations at a conscious level. © 2015 The Authors. Infant Mental Health Journal published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Braid, Susan; Bernstein, Jenny
To examine the effect of shared book reading on the cognitive development of children born preterm and to determine what factors influence shared book reading in this population. Secondary analysis using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a large, nationally representative survey of children born in the United States in 2001. One thousand four hundred singleton preterm infants (22-36 weeks gestation). Cognitive development measured using the Bayley Mental Scale score from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development Research Edition. Adjusting for neonatal, maternal, and socioeconomic characteristics, reading aloud more than two times a week is associated with higher cognitive development scores in two-year-old children born preterm (p book reading holds potential as an early developmental intervention for this population.
Im-Bolter, Nancie; Johnson, Janice; Ling, Daphne; Pascual-Leone, Juan
The current study tested 2 models of inhibition in 45 children with language impairment and 45 children with normally developing language; children were aged 7 to 12 years. Of interest was whether a model of inhibition as a mental-control process (i.e., executive function) or as a mental resource would more accurately reflect the relations among…
Lee, Nae-Young; Kim, Young-Hae
It has been attempted to support mother of premature infants by providing information of premature infant care using e-learning because premature infants need continuous care from birth to after discharge. The e-Learning Program for mother of premature was developed with Xpert, Namo web editor, Adobe Photoshop, and PowerPoint and applied for 4 weeks from 4 to 30 September 2006. 1) We found that the contents of information which premature infants' need when being in the hospital and after discharge were the definition of a premature infant, orientation of NICU, care of premature infants, care of premature infants' common diseases, the connection of healthcare resources, exchange of information, and the management of rearing stress. 2) The program content consisted of cause of premature birth, comparison to full-term baby, physiology character, orientation of NICU, common health problems, follow up care, infection control, feeding, normal development physically and mentally, weaning method, and vaccination. Considering the results, this program for mother of premature is a useful means to provide premature-care information to mothers. This information can be readily accessible and can be varied and complex enough to be able to help mothers to the information and assistance they require.
Twohig, Aoife; Reulbach, Udo; Figuerdo, Ricardo; McCarthy, Anthony; McNicholas, Fiona; Molloy, Eleanor Joan
The infant-parent relationship has been shown to be of particular significance to preterm infant socioemotional development. Supporting parents and infants in this process of developing their relationships is an integral part of neonatal intensive care; however, there is limited knowledge of NICU staff perceptions about this aspect of care. To explore NICU staff perceptions about attachment and socioemotional development of preterm infants, experience of training in this area and the emotional impact of their work. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of staff perceptions of the emotional experiences of parents and the developing parent-infant relationship in an NICU was conducted in a Level III NICU, after pilot testing, revision, and ethical approval. Fifty-seven (68%) of NICU staff responded to the survey. Respondents identified parents' emotional experiences such as "anxiety," "shock," "loss of control," and "lack of feelings of competence as parents" as highly prevalent. Infant cues of "responding to parent's voice" and "quieting-alerting" were ranked most highly; "crying" and "physiological changes" were ranked lowest. Preterm infant medical risk, maternal emotional state, and mental health are perceived to impact most highly on the developing relationship, as compared with infant state or behavior and socioeconomic factors. Fifty-three (93%) respondents felt confident, and 50 (87.8%) felt competent discussing their emotional experiences with parents. Fifty-four (95%) responded that attending to these areas was an integral part of their role; however, staff had seldom received education in this area. Respondents also perceived that specific psychological support for parents was lacking both during and after the infant's discharge. While all staff surveyed perceived the nature of their work to be emotionally stressful, there were differences among NICU staff disciplines and with years of experience in the NICU in terms of their perceptions about education in
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Prieto-Welch, Susan L.
This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.
... Soomaali (Somali) MP3 EthnoMed Spanish (español) Expand Section Mental Disorders: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Enfermedades mentales: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine ...
Maguire, C M; Walther, F J; van Zwieten, P H T; Le Cessie, S; Wit, J M; Veen, S
To investigate in a randomised controlled trial the effect of basic elements of developmental care (incubator covers and positioning aids) on growth and neurodevelopment in infants born at < 32 weeks. Infants were randomised within 48 h of birth to a developmental care (DC) or standard care (C) group. Outcome measures at 1 and 2 years corrected age were growth, standardised neurological examinations, and mental (MDI) and psychomotor (PDI) development (Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II). 192 infants were recruited (DC = 98; C = 94). Thirteen infants (DC = 7, C = 6) were excluded because they were admitted for <5 days or died within the first 5 days. In total, 179 infants met the inclusion criteria. In-hospital mortality was 12/91 (13.2%) in the DC group and 8/88 (9.1%) in the C group. Assessments were carried out on 147 children (DC = 74, C = 73) at 1 year and 142 children (DC = 72, C = 70) at 2 years. No significant difference in growth, neurological outcomes or MDI was found. A positive trend in PDI at 1 year (p = 0.05) did not continue once the children reached 2 years. There was no difference found when neurological and developmental scores were combined. Basic developmental care has no positive effect on neurological and mental development or growth at 1 and 2 years of age in infants born at <32 weeks. A positive effect on psychomotor development at 1 year did not continue at 2 years of age.
Hornik, Christoph P; Graham, Eric M; Hill, Kevin; Li, Jennifer S; Ofori-Amanfo, George; Clark, Reese H; Smith, P Brian
Hospitalized infants requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) represent a high-risk group. Recent data on risk factors for mortality following CPR in this population are lacking. We hypothesized that infant demographic characteristics, diagnoses, and levels of cardiopulmonary support at the time of CPR requirement would be associated with survival to hospital discharge following CPR. Retrospective cohort study. All infants receiving CPR on day of life 2 to 120 admitted to 348 Pediatrix Medical Group neonatal intensive care units from 1997 to 2012. We collected data on demographics, interventions, center volume, and death prior to NICU discharge. We evaluated predictors of death after CPR using multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering of the data by center. Our cohort consisted of 2231 infants receiving CPR. Of these, 1127 (51%) survived to hospital discharge. Lower gestational age, postnatal age, 5-min APGAR, congenital anomaly, and markers of severity of illness were associated with higher mortality. Mortality after CPR did not change significantly over time (Cochran-Armitage test for trend p=0.35). Mortality following CPR in infants is high, particularly for less mature, younger infants with congenital anomalies and those requiring cardiopulmonary support prior to CPR. Continued focus on at risk infants may identify targets for CPR prevention and improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Extrauterine growth restriction is common in very preterm infants. The incidence in very-low-birth-weight infants ranges between 43% and 97% in various centers, with a wide variability due to the use of different reference growth charts and nonstandard nutritional strategies. Extrauterine growth restriction is associated with an increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcome. Inadequate postnatal nutrition is an important factor contributing to growth failure, as most very preterm infants experience major protein and energy deficits during neonatal intensive care unit hospitalization. First-week protein and energy intake are associated with 18-month developmental outcomes in very preterm infants. Early aggressive nutrition, including parenteral and enteral, is well tolerated in the very preterm infant and is effective in improving growth. Continued provision of appropriate nutrition (fortified human milk or premature formula is important throughout the growing care during the hospitalization. After discharge, exclusively breast-fed infants require additional supplementation. If formula-fed, nutrient-enriched postdischarge formula should be continued for approximately 9 months corrected age. Supplementation of the preterm formulas with protein would increase the protein/energy ratio (3 g/100 kcal, leading to increased lean mass with relatively decreased fat deposition. Further research is required to optimize the nutritional needs of preterm infants and to evaluate the effects of nutritional interventions on long-term growth, neurodevelopment, and other health outcomes.
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Arc of the United States, 2004
The purpose of this document is to define mental retardation and answer questions related to this topic. According to the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR), mental retardation is a disability that occurs before age 18. It is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviors as expressed in…
HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.
REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…
... Health Promotion . Fact sheet no. 220. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Chronic Illness & Mental Health . Bethesda, MD: National Institutes ... of-onset distributions of mental disorders in the World Health Organization’s World Mental Health Survey Initiative. World Psychiatry. 2007; ...
Priddis, Lynn E.
This paper focuses on infant sleep behaviour that is of concern to mothers of young infants, and disruptive to families. It reports on the incidence of sleep problems in dyads that self-referred to a specialist clinic, and the relationship between the mother's sensitive responsiveness and infant sleep patterns in a sample of 65 Australian infants.…
Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.
This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…
Neal, M V
The ability of the premature infant to organize behavior was described in relation to auditory, kinesthetic, and vestibular stimulation. Twenty infants from 31--36 weeks gestation were shown to have heart rate responses to auditory stimuli. The 31 week infant showed deceleration, while 32--36 week infants showed comparable patterns of acceleration followed by deceleration.
Full Text Available Ce texte commence par donner un chapitre des Miracles d’Isidore de Séville écrits par Lucas de Tuy (années 1220-1230. On y voit le saint expulser du monastère de Saint-Isidore l’infante Sancha, sœur d’Alphonse VII et maîtresse de l’Infantaticum. Une époque se termine, qui, depuis le Xe siècle, avait été marquée par le rôle éminent de certaines infantes (filles et soeurs de rois, placées à la tête d’un ensemble de possessions structurées par un ou plusieurs monastères. A la mort des infantes, ces « infantats » (infantaticum revenaient à la couronne. Cette pratique, qu’il serait sans doute exagéré de qualifier d’institution, ne nous est clairement présentée que chez les chroniqueurs du début du XIIIe siècle, lorsqu’elle disparaît en tant que telle. L’histoire de l’Infantaticum invite donc à s’interroger sur le rôle des femmes dans les stratégies de pouvoir propres à l’Espagne du Moyen Âge central, en même temps qu’elle contraint l’historien à ne pas imaginer les infantes comme les incarnations successives d’un personnage type et invariant à travers les siècles.Este texto empieza con un capítulo de los Milagros de Isidoro de Sevilla escritos por Lucas de Tuy en los años 1220-1230. Se ve al santo expulsar del monasterio de San Isidoro a la infanta Sancha, hermana de Alfonso VII y domina del Infantazgo (Infantaticum. Se acaba una época, que desde el siglo X habia sido marcada por el papel eminente de ciertas infantas (hijas y hermanas de reyes que dominaban un conjunto de posesiones estructuradas por uno o varios monasterios. A la muerte de las infantas, estos « infantazgos » volvían a la corona. Esta práctica, que dificilmente se puede calificar de « institución », no se nos presenta de manera totalmente clara antes de las crónicas de principios del XIII, momento en el cual desaparece como tal. La historia del Infantazgo nos invita a interrogarnos sobre el
Halliday, K.E., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Broderick, N.J.; Somers, J.M. [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hawkes, R. [Department of Radiology, Paul O' Gorman Building, Bristol (United Kingdom)
Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.
Deschildre, A; Thumerelle, C; Bruno, B; Dubos, F; Santos, C; Dumonceaux, A
Bronchiolitis is the most common disease of the respiratory tract during the first year of life, and occurs in annual epidemics in winter. The etiology is viral, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the commonest agent. Respiratory symptoms remain generally mild, and treatment just supportive and at home. Certain infants are at high risk of severe illness (age less than 3 months, preterm birth, neonatal respiratory disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, underlying chronic diseases), and require hospitalisation. Most treatments are of unproved (corticosteroids), or limited benefit (inhaled bronchodilators, antibiotics). Chest physiotherapy is indicated in case of bronchial secretion. Vaccine are not now available, but prophylaxis with human RSV immunoglobulin or monoclonal antibodies has to be considered for children at increased risk for severe disease.
Isayama, Tetsuya; Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; O'Reilly, Daria; Beyene, Joseph; McDonald, Sarah D
Late-preterm infants born at 34 to 36 weeks' gestation have increased risks of various health problems. Health service utilization (HSU) of late-preterm infants has not been systematically summarized before. To summarize the published literature on short- and long-term HSU by late-preterm infants versus term infants from infancy to adulthood after initial discharge from the hospital. We searched Medline, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO. Cohort and case-control studies that compared HSU (admissions, emergency department visits, etc) between late-preterm infants and term infants were included. Data extracted included study design, setting, population, HSU, covariates, and effect estimates. Fifty-two articles were included (50 cohort and 2 case-control studies). Meta-analyses with random effect models that used the inverse-variance method found that late-preterm infants had higher chances of all-cause admissions than term infants during all the time periods. The magnitude of the differences decreased with age from the neonatal period through adolescence, with adjusted odds ratios from 2.34 (95% confidence intervals 1.19-4.61) to 1.09 (1.05-1.13) and adjusted incidence rate ratios from 2.62 (2.52-2.72) to 1.14 (1.11-1.18). Late-preterm infants had higher rates of various cause-specific HSU than term infants for jaundice, infection, respiratory problems, asthma, and neurologic and/or mental health problems during certain periods, including adulthood. Considerable heterogeneity existed and was partially explained by the variations in the adjustment for multiple births and gestational age ranges of the term infants. Late-preterm infants had higher risks for all-cause admissions as well as for various cause-specific HSU during the neonatal period through adolescence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Review the literature on excessive crying in young infants, also known as infantile colic, and its effects on family dynamics, its pathophysiology, and new treatment interventions. Data source: The literature review was carried out in the Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO, and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “excessive crying,” and “infantile colic,” as well technical books and technical reports on child development, selecting the most relevant articles on the subject, with emphasis on recent literature published in the last five years. Summary of the findings: Excessive crying is a common symptom in the first 3 months of life and leads to approximately 20% of pediatric consultations. Different prevalence rates of excessive crying have been reported, ranging from 14% to approximately 30% in infants up to 3 months of age. There is evidence linking excessive crying early in life with adaptive problems in the preschool period, as well as with early weaning, maternal anxiety and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other behavioral problems. Several pathophysiological mechanisms can explain these symptoms, such as circadian rhythm alterations, central nervous system immaturity, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Several treatment alternatives have been described, including behavioral measures, manipulation techniques, use of medication, and acupuncture, with controversial results and effectiveness. Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative
Christiansen, Dorte M.; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda
Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentially traumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic posttraumatic...... stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study. Participants...
Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda
Objective: Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentiallytraumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic...... posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)´symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Methods: Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study...
Full Text Available The article deals with the concept of food programming according to which the type of nourishment of an infant programs peculiarities of his metabolism all along his entire future life, and as a consequence, predisposition to certain diseases and characteristics of their run. The work gives an estimate of the hazards and consequences of improper infant feeding and explains the advantages of the breast feeding. The authors present modern information on preparation of baby milk formulas.Key words: infants, health, feeding, adapted milk formulas, nucleotides, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, oligosaccharides.
The characteristic differences among the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in terms of trade and investment, society and cultural values, medical information and technology, and the living and working environment have become major health problems in terms of mental disorders. The purpose of this article is to identify the gaps in those aspects, to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors. A comparative analysis and literature review of existing policy, including overviews of previous research were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs. The review results recommend mental health and mental disorder programs for policy makers, research investors, and stakeholders in order to strengthen the directions for implementing these programs in the future. The healthcare provision in each country will not be limited only to its citizens; the healthcare markets and target groups are likely to expand to the neighboring countries in the context of changes in domestic and international factors, which have both positive and negative impacts according to the political, economic, and social situations of the influencing countries.
All children were tested blind at 2 years using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, adapted for use in Ethiopia. Mean (SD) scores on the psychomotor scale were 10.2 (3.7) in the controls, 6.6 (4.2) in the early growth falterers, and 8.5 (4.3) in the late growth falterers. For the mental scale they were 28.9 (5.8), 22.6 (6.2), ...
Schuwerk, Tobias; Jarvers, Irina; Vuori, Maria; Sodian, Beate
Implicit mentalizing, a fast, unconscious and rigid way of processing other's mental states has recently received much interest in typical social cognitive development in early childhood and in adults with autism spectrum condition (ASC). This research suggests that already infants implicitly mentalize, and that adults with ASC have a sustained implicit mentalizing deficit. Yet, we have only sparse empirical evidence on implicit mentalizing beyond early childhood, and deviations thereof in children with ASC. Here, we administered an implicit mentalizing eye tracking task to assess the sensitivity to false beliefs to a group of 8-year-old children with and without ASC, matched for chronological age, verbal and non-verbal IQ. As previous research suggested that presenting outcomes of belief-based actions leads to fast learning from experience and false belief-congruent looking behavior in adults with ASC, we were also interested in whether already children with ASC learn from such information. Our results provide support for a persistent implicit mentalizing ability in neurotypical development beyond early childhood. Further, they confirmed an implicit mentalizing deficit in children with ASC, even when they are closely matched to controls for explicit mentalizing skills. In contrast to previous findings with adults, no experience-based modulation of anticipatory looking was observed. It seems that children with ASC have not yet developed compensatory general purpose learning mechanisms. The observed intact explicit, but impaired implicit mentalizing in ASC, and correlation patterns between mentalizing tasks and executive function tasks, are in line with theories on two dissociable mentalizing systems.
Diment, Gregory Michael
In the past decade mental toughness has been discussed as a significant factor in performance in elite sport. Few studies have explored mental toughness from a behavioral perspective, and no comprehensive lists of mental toughness behaviors have been developed. The aim of the study was to produce...... a systematic observation checklist of mental toughness behavior in professional soccer. Consistent with existing studies, the results created a systematic observation instrument containing 15 mental toughness behaviors. Practical implications include goal-setting, game analysis and self-modeling interventions...
Laher, Abdullah Ebrahim; Wells, Mike; Motara, Feroza; Kramer, Efraim; Moolla, Muhammed; Mahomed, Zeyn
The mental foramen and mental nerve are clinically important landmarks for clinicians across various disciplines including dentists, oral maxillofacial surgeons, emergency physicians and plastic and reconstructive surgeons. To minimize complications related to procedures in the vicinity of the mental foramen and nerve, knowledge of its anatomy and anatomical variations is cardinal to concerned clinicians. In this review, basic anatomy, procedural complications, hard and soft tissue relations, variations between population groups, asymmetry, accessory mental foramina and the use of various radiological modalities to determine the position of the mental foramen are reviewed to provide a more thorough understanding of this important landmark.
Rivera, Susan M; Zawaydeh, Aseen Nancie
The present study investigated the role that comprehending words for objects plays in 10- and 11-month-old infants' ability to individuate those objects in a spatiotemporally ambiguous event. To do this, we employed an object individuation task in which infants were familiarized to two objects coming in and out from behind a screen in alternation, and then the screen was removed to reveal either both or only one of the objects. Results show that only when 10- and 11-month-olds comprehend words for both objects seen do they exhibit looking behavior that is consistent with object individuation (i.e., looking longer when one of the objects is surreptitiously removed). Neither level of object permanence reasoning nor overall receptive vocabulary had an effect on performance in the object individuation task, indicating that the effect was specific to the immediate parameters of the situation, and not a function of overall precocity on the part of the succeeding infants. These results suggest that comprehending the words for occluded/disoccluded objects provides a kind of "glue" which allows infants to bind the mental index of an object with its perceptual features (thus precipitating the formation of two mental indexes, rather than one). They further suggest that a shift from object indexing driven by the where (dorsal) system to one which is driven by integration of the ventral and dorsal neural systems, usually not observed until 12 months of age, can be facilitated by word comprehension in 10- and 11-month-old infants.
Rich, O J
Adolescent pregnancy is a major problem in our society today. A special subset of adolescents who are becoming mothers are those who are homeless--those who have no dependable, on-going place to live. These homeless teen mothers are a special at-risk group in terms of mothering. The focus of this study is to study maternal-infant bonding in a subset of homeless adolescents who are becoming mothers. This is a longitudinal, descriptive study for which the overall research questions are: What is the process of maternal-infant bonding in homeless teens during the first year of the infant's life? What are the mother-infant interactions around the feeding experience during this first year of life? Mother-infant pairs (N = 19), who are clients in a residential home, are videotaped (videotaped segments, N = 30) during the feeding situation. Time/event periods for data gathering according to the infant's age are: 1-3 weeks; 6-8 weeks; 4 months; 6 months; 8 months; 10 months; 12 months. Content analysis of the tapes used Barnard's Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS), a 73-item binary scale divided into 6 subscales. A descriptive profile of the clients on admission to the program includes measures of empathy, self-esteem, depression, social support, and social network. The findings are compared with the NCAFS norms for homeless teen mothers.
Woythaler, Melissa; McCormick, Marie C; Mao, Wen-Yang; Smith, Vincent C
Late preterm infants (LPIs) (gestation 34 weeks and 0 days to 36 weeks and 6 days) compared with full-term infants (FTIs) are at increased risk for mortality and short- and long-term morbidity. The objective of this study was to assess the neurodevelopmental outcomes in a longitudinal cohort study of LPIs from infancy to school age and determine predictive values of earlier developmental testing compared with school-age testing. We used general estimating equations to calculate the odds of school readiness in a nationally representative cohort of 4900 full-term and 950 late preterm infants. We generated positive and negative predictive values of the ability of the 24-month Mental Developmental Index (MDI) scores of the Bayley Short Form, Research Edition, to predict Total School Readiness Score (TSRS) at kindergarten age. In multivariable analysis, late preterm infants had higher odds of worse TSRSs (adjusted odds ratio 1.52 [95% confidence interval 1.06-2.18], P = .0215). The positive predictive value of a child having an MDI of kindergarten was 10.4%. The negative predictive value of having an MDI of >70 at 24 months and a TSRS >5% was 96.8%. Most infants improved score ranking over the study interval. LPIs continue to be delayed at kindergarten compared with FTIs. The predictive validity of having a TSRS in the bottom 5% given a MDI 85) at 24 months had an excellent chance of testing in the normal range at kindergarten. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective studies linking infant temperament, or behavioral style, to infant body composition are lacking. In this longitudinal study (3 to 18 months, we seek to examine the associations between two dimensions of infant temperament (distress to limitations and activity level and two anthropometric indicators (weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ and skin fold (SF measures in a population at high risk of overweight. Methods Data are from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Project, a longitudinal study of North Carolina low income African American mother-infant dyads (n = 206. Two temperament dimensions were assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. A high distress to limitations score denotes an infant whose mother perceives that s/he often cries or fusses, and a high activity level score one who moves his/her limbs and squirms frequently. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using ordinary least squares regression. Fixed effects longitudinal models were used to estimate anthropometric outcomes as a function of time varying infant temperament. Results In longitudinal models, increased activity levels were associated with later decreased fatness and WLZ. In contrast, high levels of distress to limitations were associated with later increased fatness at all time points and later increased WLZ at 12 months. Conclusion Infant temperament dimensions contribute to our understanding of the role of behavior in the development of the risk of overweight in the formative months of life. Identification of modifiable risk factors early in life may help target strategies for establishing healthy lifestyles prior to the onset of overweight.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...
Full Text Available An unusual case of clival chordoma seen in a 7 month 16 day old infant is presented. The literature on this subject, clinical course of such tumours and the management strategy in paediatric age group is reviewed.
Gowdy, J M; Ulsamer, A G
Vacuolization of the white matter of the brain is produced by a number of disease entities and chemicals, including hexachlorophene. Brains of 135 stillborn infants and infants dying in the neonatal period were examined for vacuole formation in the white matter to determine if any hexachlorophene-like lesions could be found. A nonsignificant excess of vaculoes was found in infants bathed in hexachlorophene at birth compared with infants not bathed in it. Analysis of 11 brains for hexachlorophene showed that detectable levels were present in five, all of which showed vacuolization. None was detected in the remaining six, three of which also showed vacuolization. In two of these there was no hexachlorophene exposure.
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000755.htm Home apnea monitor use - infants To use the sharing ... portable. Why is an Apnea Monitor Used at Home? A monitor may be needed when: Your baby ...
... bones, that are in various stages of healing. Handling Suggestions • All movements should be slow, methodical and ... holding, lifting, diapering, and general infant care. The return demonstration will ensure that the parents are comfortable ...
... when the infant begins to show symptoms including refusal to feed, poor weight gain, breathing problems and ... medical advice. It is not a substitute for care by a trained medical provider. GIKids is not ...
Arana, A; Morton, N S; Hansen, Tom Giedsing
Paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-amino-phenol) or acetaminophen has become the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. However, there is a wide discrepancy between the extent to which paracetamol is used and the limited available pharmacological data in small infants. The purpose...... of this article is to present a review of the current literature regarding the use of paracetamol in neonates and infants with a particular emphasis on pharmacological issues....
Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218
Honda, Eiichiro; Shigemori, Minoru; Hayashi, Takashi; Kuratomi, Akihiko; Kuramoto, Shinken
Two cases of subdural abscess in infant and child treated with irrigation via burr holes were reported. The first case was a 1.4-year-old boy with right hemiparesis and mental retardation since severe head trauma at 9 months old. The patient with manifested with an acute onset of high fever followed by disturbance of consciousness and convulsive seizures 2.5 months prior to admission to our department. During admission in the other hospital, the diagnosis of septicemia caused by E. coli was made by blood cultures when CT scan demonstrated a huge lentiform low density area over the right hemisphere and contralateral crescent low density area. The low density area on the right side was well circumscribed by high density rim which was enhanced by contrast medium. Under the diagnosis of bilateral subdural abscess secondary to septicemia caused by E. coli, irrigation of the purulent cavity was carried out. The contralateral low density area was found to be chronic subdural effusion. The second case of 3-month-old infant who complained of high fever, neck stiffness, unconsciousness and right hemiconvulsions 8 days prior to admission. CT scan showed bilateral crescent low density areas indicating subdural effusion. Subdural punctures performed via the fontanelle revealed pus in the left subdural space and xanthocromic fluid in the right side. The low density area on CT scan was changed to the lentiform high density area circumscribed smooth high density rim during the course of the patient. The subdural abscess was treated with irrigation via burr holes. In this report, the etiology of the subdural abscess and route of infection in addition to follow up study of CT findings were presented with the literature. (author)
Humphries, Joan Margaret; McDonald, Carol
In this hermeneutic study, six women from the local Perinatal Mental Health Program were interviewed about their experiences with infant feeding. None of the women in the study were breastfeeding their infants. The research question centered on their experience of formula feeding with a view to gaining better insight about the issues that women face when feeding practices do not conform to best-practice (i.e., breastfeeding) promotional standards. We also considered the needs of nurses working in the mental health setting, who may face conflicting recommendations concerning the treatment of a mental health crisis in the presence of current infant feeding best-practice guidelines. Our findings support concerns that current guidelines overlook the special needs of women who live with perinatal mood disorder. We speculate that breastfeeding challenges may present a risk for postpartum depression in women who are biologically vulnerable. The need for ongoing assessment for emerging depression among women who are experiencing breastfeeding challenges is identified. The importance of deepened understanding among mental health nurses is highlighted.
Sun, Yuhang; Mundluru, Surya N.; Chu, Alice
Since the introduction of vaccines, the impact of vaccinations has been immeasurable. Under the current immunization guidelines, infants receive the first of their routine infant vaccinations at 2 months of age. While the benefits of routine infant vaccinations in premature infants have been demonstrated, there is relatively little data on the dosing of these vaccines in premature infants. The medical records of two premature infants who developed intramuscular abscesses after receiving their...
Rand, Katherine M; Austin, Nicola C; Inder, Terrie E; Bora, Samudragupta; Woodward, Lianne J
To document associations between confirmed and suspected neonatal infection and motor, cognitive, educational, and mental health outcomes of very preterm (VPT)-born children at 9 years of age; to examine the potential intervening role of cerebral white matter abnormalities (WMAs) and structural development on term magnetic resonance imaging. A regional cohort of 110 infants born VPT in Christchurch, New Zealand were studied from birth to age of 9 years. Confirmed infection was defined as positive blood, cerebrospinal fluid or urine culture, and/or necrotizing enterocolitis ≥ stage 2. Suspected infection was defined as ≥ 5 days of antibiotics with evidence of clinical correlates. At term gestational equivalence, infants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. At age 9 years, neuromotor function, IQ, educational achievement, and mental health were assessed. During hospitalization, 25% of VPT infants had confirmed and 23% had suspected infection. Longer-term neurodevelopmental impairments were largely confined to infants with confirmed infection (relative risk 1.4-3.1, vs uninfected). After accounting for other neonatal factors, these infants were at increased risk of severe motor impairment (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.3-8), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6-8), and IQ delay (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1-3.9). Cerebral WMAs contributed to associations between confirmed infection and motor and IQ impairments but not to ADHD (P = .005). Confirmed neonatal infection heightens VPT infants' risk for neurodevelopmental impairment. WMA appears to be an important intervening factor linking infection and severe motor and IQ impairments. Further analysis of the neurologic mechanism accounting for ADHD in infants with infection is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Taillefer, A; Casasoprana, A; Cascarigny, F; Claudet, I
Numerous infants wear teething necklaces, a quack remedy with a real risk of strangulation or aspiration of small beads. Evaluate parental perceptions and beliefs about the use of teething necklaces and analyze parental knowledge about the associated dangers. Between March and July 2011, in three different pediatric units of a tertiary children's hospital and a general hospital in Toulouse and Montauban (southwest France), voluntary parents were invited to be interviewed about their child wearing a teething necklace. The interviews were conducted following an anthropological approach: they were recorded and then fully transcribed and analyzed. Parents were informed that the conversation was recorded. During the study period, 48 children were eligible. Eleven families refused to participate, 29 parents were interviewed face to face. The children's mean age was 14 years ± 7 months, the male:female ratio was equal to 0.8 (12 boys, 15 girls). The mean age of children when necklace wearing was started was equal to 4 ± 2 months. The mean mother's age was 31 ± 5 years and 33 ± 4 years for fathers. The parents' religion was mostly Catholic (60%). Teething necklaces were mainly made of amber (n=23). Sales information about the risks associated with the necklaces was for the most part absent (92%). The most frequent positive parental perceptions were analgesic properties and a soothing remedy (73%); a birth accessory and memory (64%); an esthetic accessory (60%); a protective amulet (60%); and an alternative or additional element to other traditional therapeutics (55%). The negative parental perceptions (n=4) were an unnecessary accessory, costume jewelry, a pure commercial abuse of a popular belief, a dangerous item with a risk of strangulation, and the absence of proof of its efficacy. Although parents concede that teeth eruption is benign, they fear its related symptoms. To a natural phenomenon a natural response: they use a necklace to satisfy the analogy. The
van Schie, P.E.M.; Becher, J.G.S.J.S.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Barkhof, F.; van Weissenbruch, M.M.; Vermeulen, R.J.
Aim: To investigate the predictive value of motor testing at 1 year for motor and mental outcome at 2 years after perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in term neonates. Method: Motor and mental outcome at 2 years was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition
Sherman, Amanda L; Anderson, Julia; Rudolph, Colin D; Walker, Lynn S
The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that caregiver-reported difficulties in infant behavior and caregivers' distress will significantly improve on lactose-free (LF) milk-based or LF soy-based formulas compared with a milk-based, lactose-containing formula. In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, infants (mean age: 4.97 weeks) with caregiver-reported feeding problems on a milk-based lactose-containing formula were randomized to receive either LF milk-based (n = 96), LF soy-based (n = 97), or milk-based, lactose-containing (n = 103) formula. Study formula was infants' sole item of diet for 14 days. Infants' caregivers completed measures of infant behavior and caregivers' distress for the week preceding baseline and again for the week preceding the 14-day follow-up. Infants who received LF milk or LF soy-based formulas did not significantly differ from those who received milk-based, lactose-containing formula on follow-up caregiver-reported measures of infant difficultness from the Infant Characteristics Questionnaire, F(2, 277) = 0.83, nor on measures of caregivers' distress, assessed with measures of caregivers' mental health and parenting efficacy, F(2, 285) = 0.73-1.07. Across the 3 formula groups, scores on outcome measures significantly improved from baseline to follow-up (P milk or LF soy-based formulas to alleviate common infant behaviors such as fussiness, crying, or need for attention. Moreover, the data suggest that some difficulties in infant behaviors, as well as caregivers' distress and perceived efficacy in parenting difficult infants, may improve within a couple weeks of reporting difficulties to the pediatrician.
Full Text Available Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of Extremely Low Birth Weight-ELBW and Very Low Birth Weight-VLBW preterm infants with full-term ones. 77 preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW and 120 full term (FT infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 minutes of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviours were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis help to plan
Mammen, Micah A; Moore, Ginger A; Scaramella, Laura V; Reiss, David; Ganiban, Jody M; Shaw, Daniel S; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M
The experience of touch is critical for early communication and social interaction; infants who show aversion to touch may be at risk for atypical development and behavior problems. The current study aimed to clarify predictive associations between infant responses to tactile stimuli and toddler autism spectrum, internalizing, and externalizing behaviors. This study measured 9-month-old infants' (N = 561; 58% male) avoidance and negative affect during a novel tactile task in which parents painted infants' hands and feet and pressed them to paper to make a picture. Parent reports on the Pervasive Developmental Problems (PDP), Internalizing, and Externalizing scales of the Child Behavior Checklist were used to measure toddler behaviors at 18 months. Infant observed avoidance and negative affect were significantly correlated; however, avoidance predicted subsequent PDP scores only, independent of negative affect, which did not predict any toddler behaviors. Findings suggest that incorporating measures of responses to touch in the study of early social interaction may provide an important and discriminating construct for identifying children at greater risk for social impairments related to autism spectrum behaviors. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Winberg Salomonsson, Majlis; Barimani, Mia
As part of a larger research project in Sweden, a qualitative study investigated mother-infant psychoanalysis (MIP). Earlier, a randomized controlled trial compared two mother-infant groups. One received MIP, and the other received standard child health center care. Previous articles have reported long-term effects: MIP-group mothers were less depressed throughout a 3-year posttreatment period, and their children demonstrated better global functioning and psychological well-being (Winberg Salomonsson, Sorjonen, & Salomonsson, ). The present study's objectives were to describe the mothers' experiences of MIP and deepen the understanding of the MIP process. Six months after treatment started, all mothers were interviewed. Transcribed interviews of 10 (of 33) MIP-group participants were randomly selected and analyzed in detail. Thematic analysis was used on the interview data. Two main themes emerged: (a) transition to motherhood and (b) relationships with the infant and family. MIP facilitated mother-infant relationship development and familial relationship development and clarified mothers' views of how their personal histories were connected with their motherhood experiences. Mothers reported that the analysts had succeeded in balancing the mothers' own needs and those of the infant. Their accounts of therapy matched the published descriptions of MIP. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Vreeswijk, Charlotte M J M; Rijk, Catharina H A M; Maas, A Janneke B M; van Bakel, Hedwig J A
Parents' representations of their infants consist of parents' subjective experiences of how they perceive their infants. They provide important information about the quality of the parent-infant relationship and are closely related to parenting behavior and infant attachment. Previous studies have shown that parents' representations emerge during pregnancy. However, little is known about prenatal (risk) factors that are related to parents' representations. In a prospective study, 308 mothers and 243 fathers were followed during pregnancy and postpartum. Prenatal risk factors were assessed with an adapted version of the Dunedin Family Services Indicator (T.G. Egan et al., ; R.C. Muir et al., ). At 26 weeks' gestation and 6 months' postpartum, parents' representations of their children were assessed with the Working Model of the Child Interview (C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, L. Hirshberg, M.L. Barton, & C. Regan). Results showed stability between pre- and postnatal representations, with fathers having more disengaged representations than did mothers. In addition, prenatal risk factors of parenting problems were associated with the quality of parents' prenatal (only in mothers) and postnatal representations. This study provides valuable information concerning parents at risk of developing nonbalanced representations of their children. In clinical practice, these families could be monitored more intensively and may be supported in developing a more optimal parent-infant relationship. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Magli, Erica; Buizza, Chiara; Pioli, Rosaria
Many knowledges on the mental disease that the community possesses are turning out of information disclosed from the media. It's common in the press to connect actions of violence and murders to the mental diseases. For this reason, the reader is induced to infer that murders and other violent actions are more frequent in people who have suffered from mentally ill, than in the general population. The mystifying impression provided by media accrues from the fact that these reports are rarely compensated from positive reports. Objective of the present study is to characterize the type of information concerning mental illness diffused from the local daily paper "Giornale di Brescia" in the year 2001. The results show that many articles connote negatively the mental disease. The journalistic sensationalism, denounced facing the speech of the prejudgment in the comparisons of the mentally ill people, seems to still remain, in the considered year of publication, one unchanging tendency.
Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter
In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....
Physiotherapy in mental health care and psychiatry is a recognized specialty within physiotherapy. It offers a rich variety of observational and evaluation tools as well as a range of interventions that are related to the patient’s physical and mental health problems based on evidence-based literature and a 50-year history. Physiotherapy in mental health care addresses human movement, function, physical activity and exercise in individual and group therapeutic settings. Additionally, it conne...
Balcioglu, Huseyin Avni; Kocaelli, Humeyra
Context: Accessory mental foramen is a rare anatomical variation. Even so, in order to avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more accessory mental foramen during surgical procedures involving the mandible. Case report: A 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scan of a female patient revealed an accessory mental foramen on the right side of her mandible. Conclusion: A 3D-CT scan should be obtained prior to mandibular sur...
Okkels, Niels; Kristiansen, Christina Blanner; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl
areas include loneliness, violence, high crime rates, homelessness, noise and other pollutants, traffic accidents, drug abuse, and insufficiency of mental health services. Summary Urbanization is a global and growing phenomenon that pose significant challenges to mental health and mental health services....... Fast and unstructured urbanization, such as that seen in many developing countries, further exacerbates these challenges. There are promising initiatives emerging including initiatives to end homelessness, to improve access to green areas in urban environments, to provide emergency psychiatric services...
Mental conditions usually affect cognitive, emotional and volitional aspects and functions of the personality, which are also functions of interest in law, as they are essential at the time of adjudicating guilt, labeling the accused a criminal, and proffering a sentence. A relationship between mental illness and criminality has, thus, been described and given as one of the reasons for the large number of mental patients in prisons. Whether this relationship is one of causality or one that fl...
vab, Vesna; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana
Mental health conceptualize a state of well-being, perceived self efficacy, competence, autonomy, intergenerational dependence and recognition of the ability to realize one's intellectual and emotional potential. Mental health care are services provided to individuals or communities by agents of the health services or professions to promote, maintain, monitor, or restore mental health. Students will become familiar with extensiveness of the problem, and levels of preventing it. It is illustra...
van Haastert, I C; de Vries, L S; Helders, P J M; Jongmans, M J
To systematically examine gross motor development in the first 18 months of life of preterm infants. A total of 800 preterm infants (356 boys), ages between 1 and 18 months and corrected for degree of prematurity, were assessed with the use of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. Comparison of the mean Alberta Infant Motor Scale scores of the preterm infants with the norm-referenced values derived from term infants revealed that as a group, the preterm infants scored significantly lower at all age levels, even with full correction for degree of prematurity. In general, preterm infants exhibit different gross motor developmental trajectories compared with term infants in the first 18 months of life. The gross motor developmental profile of preterm infants may reflect a variant of typical gross motor development, which seems most likely to be specific for this population. As a consequence, adjusted norms should be used for proper evaluation and clinical decision-making in relation to preterm infants.
La recientemente reglamentada Ley Nacional de Salud Mental 26.657 plantea amplias reformas en el ámbito de la salud pública. Este escrito se detendrá en uno de los puntos de la ley referido al lugar de las adicciones en las políticas de salud mental. Reflexionará sobre las conexiones entre la salud mental y adicciones. Si bien desde la nueva ley las adicciones forman parte de las políticas de salud mental, la “Y” conectora entre ambas, a la vez que unifica ambos campos, también hace pensar en...
Smith, J. David
This article addresses the moral and ethical issues of mental retardation and a continuing legacy of belief in eugenics. It discusses the involuntary sterilization of Carrie Buck in 1927, support for legalized killing of subnormal infants by 47% of respondents to a Mensa survey, and implications of the Human Genome Project for the field of mental…
Verhoef, H.; West, C.E.; Bleichrodt, N.; Dekker, P.H.; Born, M.P.
The questions that are addressed in this chapter concern the extent to which a shortage of iodine and iron during fetal and infant development impairs mental development and the extent to which this impairment can be redressed by increasing the intake of these micronutrients
Kaplan-Sanoff, Margot; Talmi, Ayelet; Augustyn, Marilyn
Thinking beyond physical health to include mental health and emotional well-being offers the pediatric clinician different approaches to old challenges and a new lens through which to view infant and parent behavior. Because pediatric primary care is accessible, universally available, has no entrance criteria, and is nonstigmatizing, clinicians…
Osofsky, Joy; Wieder, Serena; Noroña, Carmen Rosa; Lowell, Darcy; Worthy, D'Lisa Ramsey
Infant and early childhood mental health interventions and treatment take place in many different settings including clinics serving adults and children, primary care centers, pediatric clinics, private practice offices, homes, early intervention offices, and child care centers. In addition, the types of evaluations and services offered in these…
Sopko, Kimberly Moherek
Early childhood mental health (ECMH) services are relationship-based since infants and young children depend on parents/family/care-takers to provide for their basic survival needs and their social emotional health. ECMH is defined by ZERO TO THREE as the "social, emotional, and behavioral well-being of children birth through five and their…
Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health. ... The relationship between perceived parenting styles and resilience during adolescence · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Natasha Kritzas ... Blackwell Handbook of Infant Development By Mark Tomlinson (2004) ...
Eichhorn, Sarah K.
Research on cytomegalovirus (CMV), a herpes virus causing neurological damage (hearing problems and/or mental retardation) in 10 percent of infants born with the condition, is reviewed. Incidence of hearing and retardation in CMV cases is reported and current treatment described. (CL)
... American Indian/Alaska Native > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska ... as compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Infant Mortality Rate: Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...
... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall ... data for this ethnic group is limited. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...
Tully, Kristin P; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Silva, Susan; Brandon, Debra
Late preterm birth is associated with lower rates of breastfeeding and earlier breastfeeding cessation than term birth. The objectives of this secondary analysis were to compare the incidence of exclusive breastfeeding after late preterm and term childbirth and to examine the association between infant feeding outcomes and maternal emotional well-being. Participants were 105 mother-infant dyads (54 late preterm and 51 term) at a southeastern US medical center. Face-to-face data collection and telephone follow-up occurred during 2009-2012. Late preterm mothers were less likely to exclusively provide their milk than were term mothers during hospitalization. Feeding at 1 month did not differ between late preterm and term infants. Among late preterm mothers, (1) formula supplementation during hospitalization was associated with greater severity of anxiety than among those exclusively providing formula and (2) exclusive provision of human milk at 1 month was associated with less severe depressive symptoms than among those supplementing or exclusively formula feeding. Among term mothers, feeding outcome was not related to emotional well-being measures at either time point. Mothers of late preterm infants may particularly benefit from anticipatory guidance and early mental health screening, with integrated, multidisciplinary lactation teams to support these interrelated healthcare needs. Prospective research is critical to document women's intentions for infant feeding and how experiences with childbirth and the early postpartum period impact achievement of their breastfeeding goals.
Tully, Kristin P.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Silva, Susan; Brandon, Debra
Background Late preterm birth is associated with lower rates of breastfeeding and earlier breastfeeding cessation than term birth. Purpose The objectives of this secondary analysis were to compare the incidence of exclusive breastfeeding after late preterm and term childbirth and to examine the association between infant feeding outcomes and maternal emotional well-being. Methods Participants were 105 mother-infant dyads (54 late preterm and 51 term) at a southeastern U.S. medical center. Face-to-face data collection and telephone follow up occurred during 2009-2012. Results Late preterm mothers were less likely to exclusively provide their milk than were term mothers during hospitalization. Feeding at one month did not differ between late preterm and term infants. Among late preterm mothers, (1) formula supplementation during hospitalization was associated with greater severity of anxiety compared to those exclusively providing formula and (2) exclusive provision of human milk at one month was associated with less severe depressive symptoms relative to those supplementing or exclusively formula feeding. Among term mothers, feeding outcome was not related to emotional well-being measures at either time point. Implications for Practice Mothers of late preterm infants may particularly benefit from anticipatory guidance and early mental health screening, with integrated, multidisciplinary lactation teams to support these interrelated health care needs Implications for Research Prospective research is critical to document women’s intentions for infant feeding and how experiences with childbirth and the early postpartum period impact achievement of their breastfeeding plans. PMID:27533332
Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Tei, Monica; Coccina, Francesca; Buonocore, Giuseppe
Sensorial saturation (SS) is a multisensorial stimulation consisting of delicate tactile, gustative, auditory and visual stimuli. This procedure consists of simultaneously: attracting the infant's attention by massaging the infant's face; speaking to the infant gently, but firmly, and instilling a sweet solution on the infant's tongue. We performed a systematic Medline search of for articles focusing on human neonatal studies related to SS. The search was performed within the last 10 years and was current as of January 2012. We retrieved 8 articles that used a complete form of SS and 2 articles with an incomplete SS. Data show that the use of SS is effective in relieving newborns' pain. Oral solution alone are less effective than SS, but the stimuli without oral sweet solution are ineffective. the partial forms of SS have some effectiveness, but minor than the complete SS. Only one article showed lack of SS as analgesic method, after endotracheal suctioning. SS can be used for all newborns undergoing blood samples or other minor painful procedures. It is more effective than oral sugar alone. SS also promotes interaction between nurse and infant and is a simple effective form of analgesia for the neonatal intensive care unit.
Full Text Available Introduction: This article aimed to review the literatures on visual impairments and ocular changes in premature infants with low birth weight and gestational age.Methods: Five electronic databases including: PubMed, Web of Science, Science direct, Ovid, and Scopus were searched. Original articles published until 2015 describing preterm infants were reviewed. Repetitive and derivative articles were excluded.Results: Out of 100 unique, potentially relevant articles, 42 studies that addressed and met the inclusion criteria were evaluated.Conclusion: Prematurity affects ocular structures (from anterior to posterior segment and functions. Premature infants are at risk of myopization. Concerning the changes in premature infants, a significant increase is found in axial length, intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness; moreover, high incidence of retinal changes is reported as a result of prematurity. On the other hand, visual acuity, tear, electroretinogram, and visual evoked potential responses decrease with prematurity. The most common ophthalmic disorders in preterm infants are myopia and retinopathy of prematurity, which could affect life quality due to reduced visual acuity.
Full Text Available Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant’s body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future.
Spittle, Alicia J; Thompson, Deanne K; Brown, Nisha C; Treyvaud, Karli; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Lee, Katherine J; Pace, Carmen C; Olsen, Joy; Allinson, Leesa G; Morgan, Angela T; Seal, Marc; Eeles, Abbey; Judd, Fiona; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J
Infants born long term neurodevelopmental problems compared with term born peers. The predictive value of neurobehavioural examinations at term equivalent age in very preterm infants has been reported for subsequent impairment. Yet there is little knowledge surrounding earlier neurobehavioural development in preterm infants prior to term equivalent age, and how it relates to perinatal factors, cerebral structure, and later developmental outcomes. In addition, maternal psychological wellbeing has been associated with child development. Given the high rate of psychological distress reported by parents of preterm children, it is vital we understand maternal and paternal wellbeing in the early weeks and months after preterm birth and how this influences the parent-child relationship and children's outcomes. Therefore this study aims to examine how 1) early neurobehaviour and 2) parental mental health relate to developmental outcomes for infants born preterm compared with infants born at term. This prospective cohort study will describe the neurobehaviour of 150 infants born at term equivalent age, and explore how early neurobehavioural deficits relate to brain growth or injury determined by magnetic resonance imaging, perinatal factors, parental mental health and later developmental outcomes measured using standardised assessment tools at term, one and two years' corrected age. A control group of 150 healthy term-born infants will also be recruited for comparison of outcomes. To examine the effects of parental mental health on developmental outcomes, both parents of preterm and term-born infants will complete standardised questionnaires related to symptoms of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress at regular intervals from the first week of their child's birth until their child's second birthday. The parent-child relationship will be assessed at one and two years' corrected age. Detailing the trajectory of infant neurobehaviour and parental psychological
Posner, Zoe; Janssen, Jessica; Roddam, Hazel
Purpose- Burnout in mental health staff is acknowledged as a major problem. The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of mental health staff views on improving burnout and mental toughness in mental health staff.\\ud Design/methodology/approach-Ten participants from two mental health rehabilitation units across the North West of England took part in a Nominal Group Technique (NGT). Participants consisted of mental health workers from varied roles in order to\\ud capture views from a...
Farhanah Mohamad Ishak, Daing Noor; Jamil, Muhammad Mahadi Abdul; Ambar, Radzi
This paper proposes a system for monitoring infant in an incubator and records the relevant data into a computer. The data recorded by the system can be further referred by the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) personnel for diagnostic or research purposes. The study focuses on designing the monitoring system that consists of an incubator equipped with humidity sensor to measure the humidity level, and a pulse sensor that can be attached on an infant placed inside the incubator to monitor infant’s heart pulse. The measurement results which are the pulse rate and humidity level are sent to the PC via Arduino microcontroller. The advantage of this system will be that in the future, it may also enable doctors to closely monitor the infant condition through local area network and internet. This work is aimed as an example of an application that contributes towards remote tele-health monitoring system.
Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm
The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral haemod...
... and touch therapy in neonates: The current evidence. Indian Pediatrics. 2010;47:771. Cervasio C. Baby massage ... infant-and-toddler-health/in-depth/infant-massage/art-20047151 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...
... the foundation of his or her healthy development. Trust your ability to meet your baby's needs. You ... infant-and-toddler-health/in-depth/infant-development/art-20048012 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000805.htm How to save money on infant formula To use the sharing features ... several months. Here are some ways you can save money on infant formula . Money-Saving Ideas Here are ...
... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedule for Infants and Children (Birth through 6 ... any questions please talk to your doctor. 2018 Immunization Schedule Recommended Vaccinations for Infants and Children Schedule ...
Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Olsen, S.F.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the brain during the 1st and 2nd years of life. The objective of this study was to see if an increased content of DHA in breast-milk via maternal fish oil (FO)-supplementation affects mental development in term infants. one hundred twenty-two Danish mothers...... DHA-intake and RBC-DHA level was assessed on problem solving ability at nine months and language at one and two years of age. Infants in the three groups performed equally well on the problem test and no association was observed between problem solving and erythrocyte-DHA at four months. Passive......-milk on early language development of breast-fed infants....
Kim, Hojin I.; Johnson, Scott P.
Infants' visual preference for infant-directed (ID) faces over adult-directed (AD) faces was examined in two experiments that introduced controls for emotion. Infants' eye movements were recorded as they viewed a series of side-by-side dynamic faces. When emotion was held constant, 6-month-old infants showed no preference for ID faces over AD…
Thurman, Sabrina L.; Corbetta, Daniela
Infants' motor skill development triggers changes in parent-infant interactions, exploration, and play behaviors, particularly during periods of locomotor transitions. We investigated how these transitions reorganized infants' and mothers' explorations of spatial layouts. Thirteen infants and their mothers were followed biweekly from the age of 6…
Background: Prevalence of anthropometric failure among Nigerian infants is still high. Inappropriate infant feeding practices may be one of the major contributory factors. Objective: The study assessed the anthropometric indices of infants (0 – 2 years) and infant feeding practices of mothers in. Nsukka district; and ...
Jeon, Ga Won; Jung, Yu Jin; Koh, Sun Young; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Kyung Ah; Shin, Son Moon; Kim, Sung Shin; Shim, Jae Won; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of feeding nutrient-enriched preterm formula to preterm infants until 6 months' corrected age (CA) on growth and development in the first 18 months of life. Very low-birthweight preterm infants were fed preterm formula until term (40 weeks CA). Infants were then assigned to one of three groups and were fed term formula until 6 months' CA (group 1, n= 29); preterm formula to 3 months' CA and then term formula to 6 months' CA (group 2, n= 30); or preterm formula until 6 months' CA (group 3, n= 31). Anthropometry was performed at term, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and at s18 months' CA. Mental and psychomotor development were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II at 18 months' CA. Although body weight, length, head circumference and z score for CA at term in group 3 were significantly lower than those of groups 1 and 2, growth rates of these parameters were significantly higher in group 3 up to 18 months CA', as compared to groups 1 and 2. The mental developmental index and psychomotor developmental index of the Bayley test were not significantly different between the three groups. Very low-birthweight preterm infants fed nutrient-enriched preterm formula until 6 months' CA demonstrated significantly improved growth rates for bodyweight, length and head circumference, and comparable mental and psychomotor development throughout the first 18 months of life. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.
... Helping Children in Rural Areas Children's Mental Health Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Mental health in childhood means reaching developmental and emotional milestones, and learning healthy social skills and how to cope when ...
Verrocchio, Maria Cristina; Carrozzino, Danilo; Marchetti, Daniela
a systematic review analyzing the relationship between mental pain and suicide by providing a qualitative data synthesis of the studies. Methods: We have conducted, in accordance with PRISMA guidelines, a systematic search for the literature in PubMed, Web Of Science, and Scopus. Search terms were "mental pain...
A random walk model of the classical mental rotation task is explored in two experiments. By assuming that a mental rotation is repeated until sufficient evidence for a match/mismatch is obtained, the model accounts for the approximately linearly increasing reaction times (RTs) on positive trials...
... for the individual. Covering issues including perinatal psychiatric disorders, depression, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and alcohol and drug abuse - from a female perspective - Women and Mental Health will prove a valuable tool for all those working in the fields of mental health. Dora Kohen is a Consultant Psychiatrist and an Honorary Senior...
Horvath, Michael; And Others
This monograph presents a general introduction to the history, classification, and characteristics of mental retardation. It begins with a discussion of the history of mental retardation from ancient Greece and Rome to the present. The beginnings of special education are traced to the early 19th century in Europe. Major influences in treatment of…
Recently, mentalization theory has risen to fame as a theoretical framework emphasising social cognition as a key issue in its approach to psychopathology and psychotherapy. In this paper, I review and criticise the social-ontological assumptions made by mentalization theory, arguing that, in spi...
Hofstede, Gert Jan
How does culture affect mental activity? That question, applied to the design of social agents, is tackled in this chapter. Mental activity acts on the perceived outside world. It does so in three steps: perceive, interpret, select action. We see that when culture is taken into account, objective
Full Text Available Issues related to the mental health of women are a priority these days. Many international organisations working in the field of psychiatry are having sections on it now. This approach can go a long way in the improvement of the available mental health services for this population.
legislation humane treatment for the mentally ill. In 1913 there was a .... way, the person leaves his village and his com- munity at a time when he is ..... fective treatment? How might we predict if an epileptic patient may commit murder? We have in our mental hospital population a number of people who have murdered while ...
Yeh, T F; Goldbarg, H R; Henek, T; Thalji, A; Pildes, R S
Fifty-five infants participated in a double-blind study of indomethacin therapy for the closure of patent ductus arteriosus. Seventeen infants died. There was no significant difference in autopsy findings between the groups with respect to pneumonia, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, kernicterus, brain softening, and renal damage. For those infants who survived and returned for follow-up at approximately 1 year of age, there was no significant difference between the control (n = 17) and indomethacin (n = 13) groups with respect to physical growth, Bayley scores, respiratory infection, abnormal eye ground, neurological defects, and abnormal EEG. Four in the control group (24%) and three in the indomethacin group (23%) had moderate to severe neurological defects and/or scored less than 80 on the Bayley Mental Development Index or Psychomotor Development Index. It appeared that indomethacin therapy did not have a long-term adverse effect on premature infants.
Lyon, A.J.; McIntosh, N.; Wheeler, K.; Williams, J.E.
Forty-eight infants of birthweight less than 1000 grams who survived for more than 28 days, had wrist X-rays to prospectively determine the incidence of radiological rickets. Twelve infants (25%) had normal X-rays throughout, 10 infants (21%) showed osteopoenia and 26 infants (54%) had classical changes or rickets of which 8 (17% of the total) had spontaneous fractures. There was poor correlation between peak values of serum alkaline phosphatase and the radiological changes.
Lewis, Joshua; Deak, Gedeon; Jasso, Hector; Triesch, Jochen
Naturalistic observations of infant/caregiver social attention have yielded rich information about human social develop- ment. However, observational data are expensive, laborious, and reliant on fallible human coders. We model interactions between caregivers and infants using a three dimensional sim- ulation environment in order to gain greater insight into the development of infant attention sharing, specifically gaze fol- lowing. Most models of infant cognition have been only ab- stractly ...
... to content Home Health Information Health Information Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental ... Gordon discusses NIMH priorities and future directions in mental health research. More Autism Awareness Month Autism Spectrum Disorder ( ...
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
... violence (IPV) and women veterans More information on women veterans and mental health Recent research shows that about 25to 30 percent of veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan report symptoms of a mental disorder. Untreated mental ...
Public Health Agency
This leaflet outlines the signs of poor mental health and suggests steps that people can take to promote good mental health. It advises people to talk to someone if they feel that they may have a mental health problem.
Balcioglu, Huseyin Avni; Kocaelli, Humeyra
Accessory mental foramen is a rare anatomical variation. Even so, in order to avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more accessory mental foramen during surgical procedures involving the mandible. A 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scan of a female patient revealed an accessory mental foramen on the right side of her mandible. A 3D-CT scan should be obtained prior to mandibular surgeries so that the presence of accessory mental foramen can be detected, and so that the occurrence of a neurosensory disturbance or hemorrhage can be avoided. Although this anatomical variation is rare, it should be kept in mind that an accessory mental foramen may exist.
Bonelli, Raphael Maria
Since 1978, two systematic evidence-based reviews of the available data on religiosity and mental health in the field of psychiatry have been done. More than 70 % found a relationship between level of religious/spiritual involvement and less mental disorder (positive), some found mixed results (positive and negative), and only about 5 % reported more mental disorder (negative), as was originally suggested by Sigmund Freud. There is good evidence that religious involvement is correlated with better mental health in the areas of depression, substance abuse, and suicide; some evidence in stress-related disorders and dementia; insufficient evidence in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and no data in many other mental disorders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Abdel-Hady, Hesham; Nasef, Nehad; Shabaan, Abd Elazeez; Nour, Islam
Caffeine is the most commonly used medication for treatment of apnea of prematurity. Its effect has been well established in reducing the frequency of apnea, intermittent hypoxemia, and extubation failure in mechanically ventilated preterm infants. Evidence for additional short-term benefits on reducing the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and patent ductus arteriosus has also been suggested. Controversies exist among various neonatal intensive care units in terms of drug efficacy compared to other methylxanthines, dosage regimen, time of initiation, duration of therapy, drug safety and value of therapeutic drug monitoring. In the current review, we will summarize the available evidence for the best practice in using caffeine therapy in preterm infants. PMID:26566480
Liu, Xiao-Ming; Li, Rui; Chen, Sheng-Zhi; Sang, Yan; Chen, Jiao; Fan, Cong-Hai
The objective of this study is to explore the incidence of inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) in infants with infantile spasms (IS), with an attempt to improve the early diagnosis and etiological and symptomatic treatment. Urine and blood samples were collected from 60 IS patients and analyzed for the quantification of amino acids, organic acids, and fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrum. Routine urine tests, hepatic function tests, blood biochemistry, brain imaging, as well as examinations of the brain stem auditory/visual evoked potentials were also examined. In addition to antiepileptic therapy, etiological and symptomatic treatments were also conducted in infants with confirmed IMD and the follow-up lasted for 6 months in these pediatric patients. Metabolic disorders were found in 28 (46.67 %) of 60 IS infants, among them 13 (21.67 %) were confirmed to be with IMD. Twelve of these 13 IS patients with definite IMD diagnoses (92.31 %) experienced varying degrees of delayed development of intelligence and motor function, 8 patients (61.54 %) had abnormal cranial CT or MRI findings, 11 patients (84.61 %) had abnormal brain stem evoked potentials, 4 patients (30.77 %) had abnormal hepatic functions, 3 patients (23.07 %) had abnormal blood biochemistry, 2 patients (15.38 %) had positive (+ to ++) results for routine urine ketones, and 2 patients (15.38 %) had skin lesions. After treatment in children who were diagnosed IMD, the well controlled epileptic seizures and the satisfactory developments in mental and motor were found in 4 cases of methylmalonic acidemia, 2 cases of classical phenylketonuria, and one case of biotin deficiency disease, glutaric acidemia type I, and 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria in each. IMD is a key biological cause in IS. Early screening for IMD is warranted in IS infants to facilitate the improvement for the prognosis and an early etiological treatment.
Perez, E M; Carrara, H; Bourne, L; Berg, A; Swanevelder, S; Hendricks, M K
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of massage therapy on the growth and development of infants of HIV-infected mothers in a low socio-economic community in Cape Town. It was a prospective, randomised, controlled intervention trial that included massage therapy and control groups of HIV-infected mothers and their normal birth weight infants who were enrolled in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programme. Participants were recruited at the 6-week clinic visit and followed up every 2 weeks until their infants were 9 months of age. Mother-infant pairs in the massage therapy and control groups included 73 and 88 at 6 weeks and 55 and 58 at 9 months, respectively. Mothers in the intervention group were trained to massage their infants for 15 min daily. The socioeconomic status, immunity, relationship with the partner and mental pain of mothers; the infants' dietary intake, anthropometry and development (Griffiths Mental Development Scales); and haematological and iron status of mothers and infants were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Nine infants (5.3%) were HIV-infected on the HIV DNA PCR test at 6 weeks. Despite significantly higher levels of maternal mental pain, infants in the massage therapy compared to control group scored higher in all five of the Griffiths Scales of Mental Development and significantly higher in the mean quotient (p=0.002) and mean percentile (p=0.004) for the hearing and speech scale at 9 months. Based on the mean difference in scores, the massage therapy group showed greater improvement for all five scales compared to the control group. The mean difference in scores was significantly greater for the hearing and speech quotient (21.9 vs. 11.2) (pmassage therapy compared to the control group. These scales remained significant when adjusting for the relationship with the partner and maternal mental pain. Both groups had lower scores in the performance scale at 9 months although this was significantly worse in
Aloi, J A
Grief that occurs as a result of relinquishing an infant for adoption is explored. Traditional grief models are cited as ineffectual for the satisfactory resolution of grief resulting from the relinquishment of a child for adoption. The reasons for disenfranchised grief are described and narratives of personal interviews provide insight into the grief process of birthmothers and evidence of their disenfranchisement. The role of psychiatric-mental health nurse is discussed and interventions aimed at assisting the birthmother to grieve are suggested.
Freezing breast milk may be protective for the preterm infant until the titer of CMV antibody increases. However clinical importance of CMV infection in premature infants by breast-feeding is still unclear. This minireview focuses on recent advances in the study of CMV infection in premature infants by breastfeeding.
Kennedy, Eileen; Majnemer, Annette; Farmer, Jean-Pierre; Barr, Ronald G; Platt, Robert W
Concurrent with recommendations to place infants to sleep in supine, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of infants with positional plagiocephaly (PP). Recent evidence suggests that infants who have decreased exposure to prone position may have a higher incidence of PP and may be at risk for a delay in the acquisition of certain motor skills. The purpose of this study was to compare motor development between infants with PP and matched peers without PP. We also examined differences in infant positioning practices when asleep and awake between the two groups. Twenty-seven infants with PP, 3 to 8 months of age, were matched by age, gender, and race to infants without PP. Motor performance was evaluated using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS). Parents completed a diary that recorded infant positioning over a 3-day period. Mean AIMS percentile score for infants with PP was 31.1 +/- 21.6 as compared with 42.7 +/- 20.2 in infants without PP (p = .06). Better performance on the AIMS was positively correlated with the amount of time in prone position when awake, for both groups of children (PP r = .52, no PP r = .44, p motor delay when evaluating infants with PP. It is also important for parents to be informed about the importance of supervised prone playtime to enhance the development of early motor skills.
Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; McKee, Caitlin B.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.
Two experiments investigated the influence of socially conveyed emotions and speech on infants' choices among food. After watching films in which two unfamiliar actresses each spoke while eating a different kind of food, 12-month-old infants were allowed to choose between the two foods. In Experiment 1, infants selected a food endorsed by a…
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provisional estimates of infant mortality (deaths of infants under 1 year per 1,000 live births), neonatal mortality (deaths of infants aged 0-27 days per 1,000 live...
Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.
In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that…
McCarty, Michael E.; Clifton, Rachel K.; Ashmead, Daniel H.; Lee, Philip; Goubet, Nathalie
Three experiments examined vision's role in infants' grasping of horizontally and vertically oriented rods. Found that infants differentially oriented their hand regardless of lighting and similar to control conditions where they could see rod and hand throughout reach. Findings suggest that infants may use current sight of object's orientation or…
Based on the feeding pattern in a 24-hour feeding recall by mothers, infants were classified into exclusive and nonexclusive breastfeeding groups. Each of the infant's mothers was provided with a digital thermometer and instructed on how to measure the temperature of her infant. The information about the incidence of fever ...
Kennedy, Eileen; Majnemer, Annette; Farmer, Jean-Pierre; Barr, Ronald G.; Platt, Robert W.
Concurrent with recommendations to place infants to sleep in supine, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of infants with positional plagiocephaly (PP). Recent evidence suggests that infants who have decreased exposure to prone position may have a higher incidence of PP and may be at risk for a delay in the acquisition of certain motor…
The development of effective methods to prevent acute gastroenteritis is an important goal for infant health. Exclusive breastfeeding and postponement of complementary foods until the age of six months is recommended for healthy infants. However, at times, infant formula is required. Various types are commercially ...
Borghini, Ayala; Despars, Josée; Habersaat, Stéphanie; Turpin, Hélène; Monnier, Maryline; Ansermet, François; Hohlfeld, Judith; Muller-Nix, Carole
This study examines the attachment quality and how this changed over time among infants who had cleft lip and palate (CLP), by conducting a prospective longitudinal study addressing the effects of this type of perinatal event on the parent-infant relationship and the emotional development of the infants. At 12 months of age, the Strange Situation Paradigm (SSP; M. Ainsworth, M.C. Blehar, E. Waters, & T. Wall, 1978) was administered to a sample of 38 CLP infants (born between 2003 and 2010) and 17 healthy controls. At 4 years of age, the Attachment Story Completion Task (ASCT; I. Bretherton, D. Ridgeway, & J. Cassidy, 1990) was administered to 32 individuals from the CLP sample and 14 from the control group. As reported in the literature, CLP infants display secure attachment behaviors as frequently as do control infants (55%). However, a more detailed analysis of the attachment scales revealed that CLP infants show more avoidance and less proximity seeking. In addition, a closer examination of the subcategories of attachment styles revealed that most CLP infants (71%) displayed distal attachment strategies such as the B1/B2 or A1/A2 subcategories. At 4 years old, CLP infants clearly displayed more deactivation and less security than did the control sample. Moreover, when detailing the evolution of attachment individually, almost 60% of the CLP children showing distal strategies at 12 months became deactivated or disorganized when they reached 4 years. Indeed, subtle differences in attachment behaviors at 12 months old-which can be considered marginally secure at that age-may reveal attachment vulnerabilities, which seem to be more apparent over the course of development. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Huth-Bocks, Alissa C; Guyon-Harris, Katherine; Calvert, Maegan; Scott, Syreeta; Ahlfs-Dunn, Sarah
Severe disruptions in the caregiving system can lead to disorganized caregiving characterized by maternal helplessness and fear. Such caregivers abdicate their caregiving role and fail to provide protection to the child. The measurement of disorganized caregiving has historically been limited to lengthy, labor-intensive interviews, indicating a need for other feasible tools to assess this important construct. Furthermore, few studies have investigated correlates of disorganized caregiving. Participants included 120 diverse, primarily economically disadvantaged women who were part of a longitudinal study examining psychosocial risk factors before and after the birth of a child. Participants completed the Caregiving Helplessness Questionnaire (CHQ; C. George & J. Solomon, 2011) along with measures assessing maternal mental health, trauma exposure, parenting stress, and infant socioemotional adjustment. Results indicated that caregiver helplessness and fear, based on the CHQ, were positively associated with maternal depression, parenting stress, and perceptions of infant socioemotional problems. Importantly, results also revealed significant associations between current maternal trauma experiences and mothers' reports of helplessness and fear. Findings from the present study indicate that the CHQ may be a valid screening tool for disorganized caregiving among mothers of infants. In addition, a number of maternal experiences may be related to disorganized caregiving following the birth of a child. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Mason-Apps, Emily; Stojanovik, Vesna; Houston-Price, Carmel; Buckley, Sue
Children with Down syndrome (DS) typically have marked delays in language development relative to their general cognitive development, with particular difficulties in expressive compared to receptive language. Although early social communication skills, including gestures and joint attention, have been shown to be related to later language outcomes in DS, knowledge is limited as to whether these factors exclusively predict outcomes, or whether other factors (e.g. perceptual and non-verbal skills) are involved. This study addressed this question. Longitudinal data for a group of infants with DS (n = 14) and a group of typically-developing (TD) infants (n = 35) were collected on measures that have been shown to predict language in TD infants and/or those with developmental delays. These included: non-verbal mental ability, speech segmentation skills, and early social communication skills (initiating and responding to joint attention, initiating behavioural requests). Linear regression analyses showed that speech segmentation and initiating joint attention were the strongest predictors of later language in the TD group, whereas non-verbal mental ability and responding to joint attention were the strongest predictors of later language for infants with DS. Speech segmentation ability may not determine language outcomes in DS, and language acquisition may be more constrained by social communication and general cognitive skills. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Swain, James E
Interacting parenting thoughts and behaviors critically shape human infants' current and future behavior. Indeed, the parent-infant relationship provides infants with their first social environment, forming templates for what they can expect from others and how best to interact with them. This paper focuses on the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments relevant to the study of the brain-basis of parenting. First there is a brief introduction to techniques and a selective review of functional neuroimaging studies that examine fMRI responses to infant stimuli: baby sounds or visuals. Next, there is a sample single-subject set of brain imaging data of brain response to own-baby-cry. Finally, there is a proposed model of how infant stimuli activate parent brain circuits, including sensory analysis brain regions, as well as corticolimbic circuits that regulate motivation, reward, and learning about their infants, and ultimately organize parenting impulses, thoughts, and emotions into coordinated behaviors. It is argued that an integrated understanding of the brain basis of parenting has profound implications for understanding long-term parent and infant mental health risk and resilience.
Thinking about the psychoanalytical process in parent-infant psychotherapy is the purpose of Björn Salomonsson's article. He proposes to consider that containment is the core of the treatment and that musicality is his main vehicle. His thought is linked with the research on primary intersubjectivity and is so exciting for all the parent-infant therapists. For myself, I emphasize the use of the psychoanalytical concept of affects rather than emotions, and I present my understanding of the transference phenomena with the part of the infantile sexuality of all the participants. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Girsen, A I; Do, S C; El-Sayed, Y Y; Hintz, S R; Blumenfeld, Y J
To investigate the association between small-for-gestational age (SGA) and neurocognitive impairment at 2 years of corrected age among infants born at preterm gestational ages. A secondary analysis of a prospectively conducted NICHD/Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units BEAM trial. Non-anomalous pregnancies delivered before 37 weeks of gestation were included in the analysis. Neurocognitive outcomes at 2 years of corrected age were compared between infants who were SGA (years of corrected age among survivors, defined as either mental (MDI) or psychomotor (PDI) developmental index score years of corrected age, SGA and AGA survivors had similar rates of neurocognitive impairment (MDI two years of corrected age among surviving infants.
Ham, Jacob; Tronick, Ed
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is related to infant emotion regulation and resilience. However, few studies have examined RSA of infants and mothers during a stressful experience. Even fewer studies have measured infant and mother skin conductance (SC), which in part reflects anxiety. This pilot study examined RSA, heart rate (HR), and SC patterns of 12 five-month-old infants and their mothers during normal interaction and a stressful perturbation of the interaction in which the mother does not respond to her infant-the Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF) paradigm. Dyads were grouped into four categories by two conditions: whether the infant protested to the Still-Face episode (SF) and whether they "recovered" from the SF by reducing protest when the mother resumed interaction in the Reunion (RE). Infants who recovered from the SF had the largest increase in RSA from SF to RE. Mothers of infants who recovered from the SF showed a decrease in RSA during the RE, suggesting mobilization of infant soothing behaviors. Mothers of infants who did not recover from the SF showed physiologic markers of anxiety in the form of continued increases in RSA and high levels of SC. Furthermore, these mothers behaved in a manner that was not responsive to their infant's disengagement cues. These pilot results demonstrate the feasibility of measuring infant SC, a measure long disregarded in infant research. The findings suggest that maternal psychophysiology may be related to infant resilience and suggest a bidirectional effect of maternal and infant reactivity.
Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…
Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)
Saffran, Jenny R.; Loman, Michelle M.; Robertson, Rachel R. W.
Two experiments examined memory of 7-month-olds after 2-week retention interval for passages of two Mozart movements heard daily for 2 weeks. Results suggested that the infants retained familiarized music in long-term memory and that their listening preferences were affected by the extent to which familiar passages were removed from the musical…
Greisen, Gorm; Andresen, Bjørn; Plomgaard, Anne Mette
Preterm birth constitutes a major cause of death before 5 years of age and it is a major cause of neurodevelopmental impairment across the world. Preterm infants are most unstable during the transition between fetal and newborn life during the first days of life and most brain damage occurs...
Describes the benefits of infant massage, particularly for babies with deafness who have hearing parents. Steps for giving baby massages are provided, including placing a hand on the baby's stomach and making eye contact, starting with the legs, looking for cues, and communicating with the baby. (CR)
... stools because their abdominal muscles are weak. So babies tend to strain, cry, and get red in the face when they have a bowel movement. This does not mean they are constipated. If ... in infants and children may include: Being very fussy and ...
Castilho, Silvia Diez; Barros Filho, Antônio Azevedo
To retrace the history of infant nutrition with the objective of better understanding breastfeeding. Bibliographic searches were run on MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and the Internet. Encyclopedias, scientific textbooks and books for the general public, in addition to literature, art and history, were also used. Texts on child care from several different periods were consulted, in addition to the history of medicine and recent scientific articles on infant nutrition. During the preindustrial period, customs varied little and the likelihood of survival was linked to breastfeeding or its substitution by a wetnurse's milk. Where this was not possible, infants were given animal milk, pre-chewed foods or paps that were poor in nutrients and contaminated, which caused high mortality rates. There was nothing that could successfully substitute breastfeeding and the survival of the species was dependent on breastfeeding. Once the industrial revolution had started, women who had been accustomed to breastfeeding went to work in factories, stimulating the search for alternative infant nutrition. Consumption of animal milk and formulae (diluted, flour-based, powdered milk) and premature introduction of complementary foods compromised children's health. The feminist movement and the contraceptive pill caused a fall in birth rates. Manufacturers in search of profits developed modified formulae and invested in advertising. Society reacted with breastfeeding support movements. Nowadays, the advantages of breastmilk are recognized and exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months, to be supplemented with other foods from this age on and continued until at least 2 years of age. Infant nutrition, whether natural or artificial, has always been determined and conditioned by the social value attributed to breastfeeding.
Ordan, Revital; Shor, Ron; Liebergall-Wischnitzer, Michal; Noble, Lawrence; Noble, Anita
To examine professional stigma and attitudes of parenthood towards postpartum women with severe mental illness and the association between postpartum nurses' attitudes and nursing interventions that promote motherhood. Stigma and attitudes towards parenthood of women with severe mental illness may influence nurses' clinical practices. Cross-sectional, mixed methods. The Stigma among Health Professionals towards People with Severe Mental Illness, Attitudes towards Parenthood among People with Severe Mental Illness and Nursing Interventions that Promote Becoming a Mother Questionnaires were used in the study, as well as qualitative analysis. Sixty-one postpartum nurses participated in the study. Increased stigma was associated with an increase in negative attitudes towards parenthood among people with severe mental illness, in general, and towards their parenthood skills, in particular. Postpartum nurses reported a decrease in nursing interventions and a therapeutic nurse-client relationship that fosters mother's empowerment. Themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis were postpartum nurse's perceptions of inadequacy, difficulty of postpartum nurses taking responsibility for managing women with severe mental illness and a paternalistic approach to these women, rather than empowerment, regarding infant care. Nurses providing care to postpartum women with severe mental illness and their infants may provide fewer routine postpartum interventions due to professional stigma and negative attitudes concerning parenting skills. Nurses should provide individualised, tailored care that allows women with severe mental illness to become a mother to the best of her ability. Not all women with severe mental illness are capable of caring for themselves and/or their baby. Nurses should provide individualised, tailored care that allows the women with severe mental illness to become a mother to the best of her ability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ayoub, Aimina; Fraser, William D; Low, Nancy; Arbour, Laura; Healy-Profitós, Jessica; Auger, Nathalie
We sought to determine the relationship between maternal mental illness and the risk of having an infant with a central nervous system defect. We analyzed a cohort of 654,882 women aged less than 20 years between 1989 and 2013 who later delivered a live born infant in any hospital in Quebec, Canada. The primary exposure was mental illness during pregnancy or hospitalization for mental illness before pregnancy. The outcomes were neural and non-neural tube defects of the central nervous system in any offspring. We computed risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between mental disorders and risk of central nervous system defects in log-binomial regression models adjusted for age at delivery, total parity, comorbidity, socioeconomic deprivation, place of residence, and time period. Maternal mental illness was associated with an increased risk of nervous system defects in offspring (RR 1.76, 95% CI 1.64-1.89). Hospitalization for any mental disorder was more strongly associated with non-neural tube (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.71-1.99) than neural tube defects (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.59). Women at greater risk of nervous system defects in offspring tended to be diagnosed with multiple mental disorders, have more than one hospitalization for mental disease, or be 17 or older at first hospitalization. A history of mental illness is associated with central nervous system defects in offspring. Women hospitalized for mental illness may merit counseling at first symptoms to prevent central nervous system defects at pregnancy.
Cole, Whitney G; Lingeman, Jesse M; Adolph, Karen E
In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that walking is adversely affected by old-fashioned cloth diapers, and that even modern disposable diapers - habitually worn by most infants in the sample - incur a cost relative to walking naked. Infants displayed less mature gait patterns and more missteps and falls while wearing diapers. Thus, infants' own diapers constitute an ongoing biomechanical perturbation while learning to walk. Furthermore, shifts in diapering practices may have contributed to historical and cross-cultural differences in infant walking. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Raiten, D J; Reynolds, R D; Andon, M B; Robbins, S T; Fletcher, A B
The response of premature infants to intravenous pyridoxine or pyridoxal was studied by measuring serum and erythrocyte pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). In the first study serum PLP was measured in 28 infants periodically through day 28. Infants less than 30 wk gestational age (GA) had no serum PLP response to the administration of pyridoxine. Infants greater than or equal to 30 wk GA had significantly greater concentrations of PLP by day 3. In the second study there was a negligible response of serum PLP in nine infants less than or equal to 28 wk GA to supplementation of pyridoxine or pyridoxal. However, erythrocyte PLP and whole-blood total vitamin B-6 concentrations increased in both groups, indicating the presence of a substantial amount of the vitamin in the circulation of the infants. Whereas the functional significance of these observations is not known, it appears that in premature infants, serum PLP may not be an appropriate indicator of vitamin B-6 status.
Sundnes, Anita; Andenaes, Agnes
The sleep-cycle development of infants is influenced by familial and sociocultural conditions, but there is a lack of knowledge on how parental regulation of infant sleep is related to the specific life situation of a family. This article describes a context-sensitive study of parental regulation of infant sleep that includes the whole 24-hr day, parents' intentions, and familial and sociocultural conditions. The results are based on a longitudinal qualitative study in Norway of 51 families. Parents were interviewed in the infants' first year of life and approximately 18 months later. An interpretive analysis in four steps was conducted, informed by cultural psychological perspectives on development. The parents were found to perform five types of regulatory actions: facilitating sleep, letting sleep, letting be awake, keeping awake, and waking. These actions were performed continuously throughout the 24-hr day, each to different extents and at different hours in individual families, forming a regulation cycle. We describe patterns and variations in regulation cycles, changes over time as increased social synchronization, and how the regulation cycle is embedded in familial and sociocultural conditions. Finally, implications for clinical practice are discussed. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Gray, Peter H; Edwards, Dawn M; Gibbons, Kristen
To examine levels of parenting stress in mothers of preterm and term infants when the children were 2 years old; to determine the trajectory of stress over three time periods and to examine the association of maternal and neonatal factors and developmental outcomes with parenting stress. It is a prospective longitudinal study to determine parenting stress in mothers of preterm and term infants with outcomes having been previously obtained at 4 and 12 months. At 2 years, 79 preterm mothers (96 babies) and 64 term mothers (77 babies) participated. The mothers completed the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF), the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS) and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). The infants had a neurological examination and the Bayley-III scales were administered. The mean total PSI-SF at 2 years was significantly higher for the preterm group compared with the term group of mothers (p=0.007). There was a significant increase in the mean total PSI over time for the preterm mothers (pparenting stress and abnormal scores on the DASS (pparenting stress and maternal demographics, neonatal factors or Bayley-III results. Parenting stress in mothers of preterm infants continues to be high at 2 years having increased over time. Maternal mental health problems and infant behavioural issues contribute to the stress. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Goodman, Sherryl H; Lusby, Cara M; Thompson, Katina; Newport, D Jeffrey; Stowe, Zachary N
Both concurrent and prospective associations between maternal depression and father involvement were tested to evaluate support for the spillover model (higher depressive symptom levels associated with lower father involvement) and the compensatory/buffering model (higher depressive symptom levels associated with higher father involvement). Participants in this longitudinal study were women at risk for perinatal depression in association with their histories of mood or anxiety disorders, their husbands/partners, and their infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured with depression rating scales at multiple times over the infants' first year. Paternal involvement was measured with a questionnaire (relative perceived responsibility) and a time diary (accessibility and engagement) inquiring about a recent weekday and a recent weekend, completed in a telephone interview, at infant ages 3, 6, and 12 months. Findings consistently supported the compensatory/buffering model for depression in the first 6 months' postpartum, along with an indication of spillover regarding maternal depressive symptoms that persist into the second half of the infants' first year. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for clinical practice and policy as well as suggestions for future research. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Park, I Sook; Yoon, S Young; Min, J Yeon; Kim, Y Hwue; Ko, J Kok; Kim, K Soo; Seo, D Man; Lee, J Hee
Abnormal neurodevelopment has been reported for infants who were born with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and underwent arterial switch operation (ASO). This study evaluates the cerebral metabolism of TGA infants at birth and before ASO and neurodevelopment 1 year after ASO. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was performed on 16 full-term TGA brains before ASO within 3-6 days after birth. The brain metabolite ratios of [NAA/Cr], [Cho/Cr], and [mI/Cr] evaluated measured. Ten infants were evaluated at 1 year using the Bayley Scales of Infants Development II (BSED II). Cerebral metabolism of infants with TGA was altered in parietal white matter (PWM) and occipital gray matter (OGM) at birth before ASO. One year after ASO, [Cho/Cr] in PWM remained altered, but all metabolic ratios in OGM were normal. The results of BSID II at 1 year showed delayed mental and psychomotor development. This delayed neurodevelopmental outcome may reflect consequences of the altered cerebral metabolism in PWM measured by 1H-MRS. It is speculated that the abnormal hemodynamics due to TGA in utero may be responsible for the impaired cerebral metabolism and the subsequent neurodevelopmental deficit.
Din Osmun, Laila; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Flora, David B
To examine the predictive relationships of early infant and caregiver variables on expressed pain-related negative affect duration at the 12-month immunization. Infants and their caregivers (N = 255) were followed during immunization appointments over the first year of life. Latent growth curve modeling in a structural equation modeling context was used. Higher levels of initial infant pain reactivity at 2 months and caregiver emotional availability averaged across 2, 4, and 6 months of age were related to larger decreases in the duration of infant negative affect over the first 6 months of life. Longer duration of infant negative affect at 2 months and poorer regulation of infant negative affect over the first 6 months of life predicted longer durations of infant negative affect by 12 months. Infant negative affect at 12 months was a function of both infant factors and the quality of caregiver interactive behaviors (emotional availability) in early infancy.
In Great Britain 1-2 million people may be homeless. Most homeless people are men, but about 10-25% are women, of whom about half are accompanied by children. Significant mental illness is present in 30-50% of the homeless: functional psychoses predominate; acute distress and personality dysfunction are also prevalent. Co-morbidity of mental illness and substance abuse occurs in 20%, and physical morbidity rates exceed those of domiciled populations. The homeless mentally ill also have many social needs. Pathways to homelessness are complex; deinstitutionalization may be only one possible cause of the increase in the number of homeless people. There is much recent research estimating the extent of mental illness and the characteristics of selected subgroups of accessible homeless people. The evaluation of potential service solutions has received less attention. This review outlines the research, highlights current views on the definition and classification of homeless populations, and offers some guidelines on avenues which need to be explored.
Soria, Virginia; Uribe, Javiera; Salvat-Pujol, Neus; Palao, Diego; Menchón, José Manuel; Labad, Javier
The immune system is a key element in the organism's defence system and participates in the maintenance of homeostasis. There is growing interest in the aetiopathogenic and prognostic implications of the immune system in mental disorders, as previous studies suggest the existence of a dysregulation of the immune response and a pro-inflammatory state in patients with mental disorders, as well as an increased prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases or receiving immune treatments. This study aims to conduct a narrative review of the scientific literature on the role of Psychoneuroimmunology in mental disorders, with special focus on diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic issues. The development of this body of knowledge may bring in the future important advances in the vulnerability, aetiopathogenic mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of some mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
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Auerbach, John S; Diamond, Diana
Mental representation was a central construct in Sidney Blatt's contributions to psychology and psychoanalysis. This brief review demonstrates that Blatt's understanding of representation was always informed by basic psychoanalytic concepts like the centrality of early caregiver-infant relationships and of unconscious mental processes. Although Blatt's earlier writings were informed by psychoanalytic ego psychology and Piagetian cognitive developmental psychology, they focused nonetheless on how an individual uses bodily and relational experiences to construct an object world; they also consistently presented object representations as having significant unconscious dimensions. From the mid-1980s onward, Blatt's contributions, in dialogue with his many students, moved in an even more experiential/relational direction and manifested the influence of attachment theory, parent-infant interaction research, and intersubjectivity theory. They also incorporated contemporary cognitive psychology, with its emphasis on implicit or procedural, rather than explicit, dimensions as a means of accounting for aspects of object representations that are not in conscious awareness. Throughout his career, however, Blatt regarded mental representation as the construct that mediates between the child's earliest bodily and relational experiences and the mature adult's symbolic, most emotionally profound capacities.
Jardí, Cristina; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Canals, Josefa; Arija, Victoria; Bedmar, Cristina; Voltas, Núria; Aranda, Núria
Breastfeeding (BF) confers numerous benefits on the developing infant in both the short and the long term including psychological development, but there are multiple other factors that must be taken into account when these relationships are studied. To analyse how breastfeeding during the first 4 months of life affects infant mental and psychomotor development (MPD) at 6 and 12 months in a group of healthy infants from a Mediterranean Spanish city considering many important potential confounds. This is a longitudinal study conducted on infants from birth until the age of 12 months. A total of 154 healthy infants were evaluated by Paediatric Unit of Sant Joan University Hospital in Reus, Spain. Type of feeding, clinical history, anthropometry, iron status and mental and psychomotor development were assessed and analysed. At 4 months, 24% of infants received BF and 26% received mixed feeding (MF). Multiple Linear Regression models were applied adjusting for potential prenatal, perinatal and postnatal confounds showing that infants who received BF for at least four months presented higher psychomotor development index (PDI) at 6 and at 12 months of age. Also, gestational age and BMI at 6m were associated positively with PDI at 6 m, and haemoglobin levels at 12m and birth height were associated with PDI and MDI at 12m (respectively). In conclusion, after the adjustment of important potential confounds, BF during at least four months and adequate infant iron status are related to better psychomotor development during the first year. No associations were found between BF and mental development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders.
A brief article discusses mental retardation in children who had been exposed to ionizing radiation in utero. The time of greatest sensitivity is between the 8th and 15th week after conception and the time of lesser sensitivity between the 16th and 25th weeks. An examination of the thresholds for exposure indicate that severe mental retardation would not result from any present environmental exposures of the public. (U.K.)
Wistoft, Karen; Grabowski, Dan
Denne rapport sætter fokus på børn og unges mentale sundhed. Skolen kan gøre en forskel ved at skabe rammerne for en mental sundhedsfremmende skole, der tænker sundhedsbegrebet bredt. Men skolen bør ikke stå alene med ansvaret og derfor er der behov for en samlet strategi. En mentalt sundhedsfrem...
Miller, Thomas A; Zak, Victor; Shrader, Peter; Ravishankar, Chitra; Pemberton, Victoria L; Newburger, Jane W; Shillingford, Amanda J; Dagincourt, Nicholas; Cnota, James F; Lambert, Linda M; Sananes, Renee; Richmond, Marc E; Hsu, Daphne T; Miller, Stephen G; Zyblewski, Sinai C; Williams, Richard V
To assess the variability in asymmetric growth and its association with neurodevelopment in infants with single ventricle (SV). We analyzed weight-for-age z-score minus head circumference-for-age z-score (HCAZ), relative head growth (cm/kg), along with individual growth variables in subjects prospectively enrolled in the Infant Single Ventricle Trial. Associations between growth indices and scores on the Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) and Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II) at 14 months were assessed. Of the 230 subjects enrolled in the Infant Single Ventricle trial, complete growth data and BSID-II scores were available in 168 (73%). Across the cohort, indices of asymmetric growth varied widely at enrollment and before superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC) surgery. BSID-II scores were not associated with these asymmetry indices. In bivariate analyses, greater pre-SCPC HCAZ correlated with higher MDI (r = 0.21; P = .006) and PDI (r = 0.38; P SCPC with higher PDI (r = 0.15; P = .049). In multivariable modeling, pre-SCPC HCAZ was an independent predictor of PDI (P = .03), but not MDI. In infants with SV, growth asymmetry was not associated with neurodevelopment at 14 months, but pre-SCPC HCAZ was associated with PDI. Asymmetric growth, important in other high-risk infants, is not a brain-sparing adaptation in infants with SV. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00113087. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others
This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…
Matthies, Lina Maria; Wallwiener, Stephanie; Müller, Mitho; Doster, Anne; Plewniok, Katharina; Feller, Sandra; Sohn, Christof; Wallwiener, Markus; Reck, Corinna
Maternal self-confidence has become an essential concept in understanding early disturbances in the mother-child relationship. Recent research suggests that maternal self-confidence may be associated with maternal mental health and infant development. The current study investigated the dynamics of maternal self-confidence during the first four months postpartum and the predictive ability of maternal symptoms of depression, anxiety, and early regulatory problems in infants. Questionnaires assessing symptoms of depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and early regulatory problems (Questionnaire for crying, sleeping and feeding) were completed in a sample of 130 women at three different time points (third trimester (T1), first week postpartum (T2), and 4 months postpartum (T3). Maternal self-confidence increased significantly over time. High maternal trait anxiety and early infant regulatory problems negatively contributed to the prediction of maternal self-confidence, explaining 31.8% of the variance (R=.583, F 3,96 =15.950, pconfidence, regulatory problems in infants, and maternal mental distress. There is an urgent need for appropriate programs to reduce maternal anxiety and to promote maternal self-confidence in order to prevent early regulatory problems in infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Samuel, Simcha; Hayton, Barbara; Gold, Ian; Feeley, Nancy; Carter, C Sue; Zelkowitz, Phyllis
Mothers with mood or anxiety disorders exhibit less optimal interactive behavior. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been linked to more optimal interactive behaviors in mothers without mental illness, and it may play a particularly beneficial role in mothers with mood or anxiety disorders given its antidepressant and anxiolytic functions. We compared the relationship between OT and interactive behavior in mothers with and without mental health problems. Participants included 20 women diagnosed with postpartum mood or anxiety disorders (clinical sample) and 90 women with low levels of depression and anxiety during pregnancy and postpartum (community sample). At 2 months' postpartum, blood was drawn to assess maternal OT levels, and mother-infant interaction was coded for maternal sensitivity, intrusiveness, remoteness, and depressiveness. Clinical mothers exhibited less sensitive, more intrusive, and more depressive interactive behaviors than did community mothers. The groups did not differ in OT levels. Mothers with higher OT levels were less intrusive with their infants. Higher OT levels were associated with less depressive interactive behavior only in clinical mothers. OT was associated with positive interactive behaviors in both groups. In clinical mothers, the calming and soothing effects of OT may promote more relaxed, energetic, and infant-focused interactive behaviors. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Verkerk, Gijs; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; Houtzager, Bregje; Koldewijn, Karen; van Wassenaer, Aleid; Nollet, Frans; Kok, Joke
The Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP©) improved motor function at 24 months, and mental and behavioural development in high risk subgroups of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. To determine IBAIP's effects on executive functioning, behaviour and cognition at preschool age. Follow-up of a randomised controlled trial (RCT). At 44 months corrected age, all 176 VLBW infants were invited for follow-up. Forty-one term born children were assessed for comparison. Visual Attention Task (VAT), Gift delay, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III-NL (PPVT), Visual motor integration tests and Miller assessment for preschoolers. Parents completed Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool (BRIEF-P) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). At preschool age, 76 (88%) children of the intervention group and 75 (83%) children of the control group participated. There were no significant differences between the intervention and the control group. However, positive interaction effects between intervention and infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, infants born at gestational agechildren. The 151 VLBW children performed significantly worse than the term born children on the VAT, BRIEF-P and CBCL. IBAIP effects in VLBW children did not sustain until preschool age on executive functioning, behaviour and cognition. However, the most vulnerable children had a clinical relevant profit from IBAIP. VLBW children performed worse than the term born children. This study is a follow-up at preschool age of the multi-centre RCT of IBAIP versus usual care in VLBW infants. The RCT was performed in Amsterdam, The Netherlands (IBAIP). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rominov, Holly; Pilkington, Pamela D; Giallo, Rebecca; Whelan, Thomas A
Interventions targeting parents' mental health in the perinatal period are critical due to potential consequences of perinatal mental illness for the parent, the infant, and their family. To date, most programs have targeted mothers. This systematic review explores the current status and evidence for intervention programs aiming to prevent or treat paternal mental illness in the perinatal period. Electronic databases were systematically searched to identify peer-reviewed studies that described an intervention targeting fathers' mental health in the perinatal period. Mental health outcomes included depression, anxiety, and stress as well as more general measures of psychological functioning. Eleven studies were identified. Three of five psychosocial interventions and three massage-technique interventions reported significant effects. None of the couple-based interventions reported significant effects. A number of methodological limitations were identified, including inadequate reporting of study designs, and issues with the timing of interventions. The variability in outcomes measures across the studies made it difficult to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the interventions. Father-focused interventions aimed at preventing perinatal mood problems will be improved if future studies utilize more rigorous research strategies. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Kristoffersen, Laila; Støen, Ragnhild; Rygh, Hilde; Sognnæs, Margunn; Follestad, Turid; Mohn, Hilde S; Nissen, Ingrid; Bergseng, Håkon
Skin-to-skin care immediately following delivery is a common practice for term infants and has been shown to improve cardiorespiratory stability, facilitate early bonding, and promote breastfeeding. Since 2007, the use of skin-to-skin care has been practiced for preterm infants from 32 weeks of gestation in the delivery room at St. Olav's University Hospital. In the present study we aim to investigate whether skin-to-skin care following delivery is safe, and how it affects early and late outcomes compared to standard care for very preterm infants. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of skin-to-skin care in the delivery room for very preterm infants born at gestational age 28 0 -31 6 weeks with birth weight >1000 grams. Infants with severe congenital malformations or need of intubation in the delivery room are excluded. A detailed checklist and a flowchart were prepared for the study, and all involved professionals (neonatologists, neonatal nurses, obstetricians, anesthesiologists, midwives) participated in medical simulation training prior to study start on February 1, 2014. A consultant in neonatology and a neonatal nurse are present at all deliveries. Infants with birth weight incubator. Primary outcome is cognitive development at 2 years measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition. Secondary outcomes are safety defined as hypothermia, respiratory failure, and/or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, physiological stability after birth and motor, language and cognitive development at 1 year for the child, and mental health measured with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at discharge, and at 3 months and 2 years after expected date of delivery for the mothers. The study may have important implications for the initial care for very preterm infants after delivery and increase our understanding of how early skin-to-skin care affects preterm infants and their mothers. ClinicalTrials, NCT02024854 . Registered on 19 December 2013.
Ghorbani, Maryam; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Shams, Jamal; Alavi-Majd, Hamid
Background: Premature birth is one of the most important unresolved reproductive health problems. Premature birth is often traumatic and a source of distress for parents. Increased parental stress during the first year of their infant's life is a risk factor for later behavioral problems in infants. Objectives: This study was designed to compare anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and social supports in parents of premature and mature infants. Patients and Methods: This was a comparative descriptive study conducted at healthcare centers of Qom city, in 2012. In this study, 82 couples (164 parents) divided into two groups including parents who have preterm and term infants. Questionnaires including items such as demographic characteristics, obstetric and post-traumatic stress disorders, Spielberger anxiety and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were completed two months after childbirth. Data were analyzed using χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test, Mann-Whitney test, independent t-test, and regression logistic using SPSS18 software. Results: The levels of anxiety was not significantly different in mothers and fathers in the two groups, but the trait anxiety level of mothers (P Post-traumatic stress disorder was significantly greater in mothers of preterm infants than those of term infants (P = 0.03), but this amount was not significantly different between the two groups of fathers. Mothers' social support did not differ significantly (P = 0.08), however, it was significantly different in fathers (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Premature infants' parents are more at risk of mental disorders than term infants' parents. This result shows the need of interventions, so these parents can better deal with the problems of premature infants. PMID:24829766
The thesis deals with an incidence of mental stress of college students. The thesis is not only focused on the present, but also on the degree of mental stress and the factors that affect the degree of stress. The first objective is to analyse the incidence and impact of mental stress at students of the faculty. A partial objective is to describe the relation of physical activity and mental load, as many authors state that physically active individuals are mentally more resistant. Furthermore...
Full Text Available Home care, continuous follow-up, and endless post discharge support play vital role in preventing the emergence of mental and physical disabilities and death among preterm infants. Providing necessary care and support for such infants requires huge financial and human resources and exposes heavy costs on hygiene and health system. Internet and information sharing applications, particularly Web 2.0, and social media present innovative techniques to provide a convenient channel to exchange necessary information between infants, parents, and caregivers. Despite the increasingly expanding use of social media in health and medicine, such devices have rarely been applied in more specialized fields, such as the hygiene and health of preterm infants. Thus, the present study aims at investigating studies published on the experiences of parent in regard with the integration of social media in the improvement of preterm infant treatment, determining the function of social media in taking better care of preterm infants, and presenting suggestions for further practical researches in this area of knowledge. This review study was conducted in 2016. To conduct the study, published articles in the years 2005 to 2016, in English with an emphasis on Social media and Preterm infants were studied. Search was done in databases including Pubmed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Proquest. The collected data were analyzed. The role of social media in three areas of preterm infants care, sharing the knowledge of clinical professionals, and sharing parenting experiences was clarified. Social media provide the necessary background for the distribution of the knowledge of medical experts; it also creates the opportunities of exchanging ideas, sharing parenting experiences, and expanding the knowledge of experts and educated individuals in addition to providing a stress free environment. The potential of social media in facilitating medical interventions for preterm infants
Patrick, Stephen W; Warner, Kenneth E; Pordes, Elisabeth; Davis, Matthew M
Maternal smoking increases the risk for preterm birth, low birth weight, and sudden infant death syndrome, which are all causes of infant mortality. Our objective was to evaluate if changes in cigarette taxes and prices over time in the United States were associated with a decrease in infant mortality. We compiled data for all states from 1999 to 2010. Time-series models were constructed by infant race for cigarette tax and price with infant mortality as the outcome, controlling for state per-capita income, educational attainment, time trend, and state random effects. From 1999 through 2010, the mean overall state infant mortality rate in the United States decreased from 7.3 to 6.2 per 1000 live births, with decreases of 6.0 to 5.3 for non-Hispanic white and 14.3 to 11.3 for non-Hispanic African American infants (P increased from $0.84 to $2.37 per pack (P increase per pack in cigarette tax was associated with a change in infant deaths of -0.19 (95% confidence interval -0.33 to -0.05) per 1000 live births overall, including changes of -0.21 (-0.33 to -0.08) for non-Hispanic white infants and -0.46 (-0.90 to -0.01) for non-Hispanic African American infants. Models for cigarette price yielded similar findings. Increases in cigarette taxes and prices are associated with decreases in infant mortality rates, with stronger impact for African American infants. Federal and state policymakers may consider increases in cigarette taxes as a primary prevention strategy for infant mortality. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita
The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854
Minodier, P; Pommier, P; Moulène, E; Retornaz, K; Prost, N; Deharo, L
Star anise is used as herbal tea, for the treatment of colicky pain in infants. It may cause neurological troubles. We report 2 cases of star anise poisoning in infants before 6 months of age. Star anise herbal tea was given by parents. Tremors or spasms, hypertonia, hyperexcitability with crying, nystagmus, and vomiting were observed. Contamination or adulteration of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum Hook), with Japanese star anise (Illicium religiosum) was proved in one child. Confusion or blending between Chinese and Japanese star anise may cause poisoning. Japanese star anise is a neurotoxic plant indeed, because it contains sesquiterpenic lactones. From November 2001, star anise products are theoretically prohibited in France, but they may be still available in some small groceries, or imported by families themselves.
Medical exposures accompanied by an increase in radiation use in the field of pediatrics were described. Basic ideas and countermeasures to radiation injuries were outlined. In order to decrease the medical exposure, it is necessary for the doctor, x-ray technician and manufacturer to work together. The mechanism and characteristics of radio carcinogenesis were also mentioned. Particularly, the following two points were described: 1) How many years does it take before carcinogenesis appears as a result of radiation exposure in infancy 2) How and when does the effect of fetus exposure appear. Radiosensitivity in infants and fetuses is greater than that of an adult. The occurrence of leukemia caused by prenatal exposure was reviewed. The relation between irradiation for therapy and morbidity of thyroid cancer was mentioned. Finally, precautions necessary for infants, pregnant women and nursing mothers when using radioisotopes were mentioned. (K. Serizawa)
Panglao Rajan M
Full Text Available Maria Panglao Rajan,1 Pinkal Patel,1 Lori Cash,1 Anjali Parish,2 Scott Darby,1 Jack Yu,3 Jatinder Bhatia11Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Georgia, Augusta, GA, USA; 2Medical Center of Central Georgia, Augusta, GA, USA; 3Department of Plastic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Georgia, Augusta, GA, USAAbstract: This is an unusual case of necrotizing fasciitis caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in this premature infant, which highlights severity, rapid progression of this disease and shows outcome if intervention is initiated at an early stage. This case also highlights one of the possible serious complications of percutaneous inserted central catheter (PICC line, which can be life threatening.Keywords: necrotizing fasciitis, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, PICC, premature infant
Sadeh, Avi; Juda-Hanael, Michal; Livne-Karp, Efrat; Kahn, Michal; Tikotzky, Liat; Anders, Thomas F; Calkins, Susan; Sivan, Yakov
Parenting behaviours play a major role in the evolution of infant sleep. Sleep problems in infancy have been associated with excessive parental involvement at night-time, and with shorter delays in response to infant night wakings and signalling. Infant crying and sleep problems are linked, yet little is known about the impact of parental responses to crying on infant sleep patterns. This study examined the hypothesis that lower parental tolerance for crying is associated with infant sleep problems. We studied 144 married couples divided into three groups: parents of infants suffering from night-waking problems (i.e. the clinical group), parents of infants without sleep problems and childless couples. Crying tolerance was assessed using questionnaires, audio recordings of crying infants and using a novel paradigm, in which participants were shown a video of a crying infant and asked when they would intervene. Parents in the clinical group demonstrated shorter intervention delays in the crying infant clip (group effect: P sleep-disturbed infants appear to have lower tolerance for infant crying, which may be a predisposition underlying their excessive involvement in soothing their infants to sleep which may lead to the development of sleep problems. These preliminary findings should be explored further to assess their clinical validity and utility. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.
Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita
The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the adverti...
Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Cohen, D.H.; Padovani, J.; Tamaela, L.; Azouz, M.; Bale, P.; Martin, H.C.; Nayanar, V.V.; Arico, M.
Ten cases of primary bone tumours in infants (1 osteosarcoma, 3 Ewing's sarcoma, 1 chondroblastoma and 5 angiomastosis) are reported. All cases of angiomatosis showed characteristic radiographic findings. In all the other tumours the X-ray appearances were different from those usually seen in older children and adolescents. In the auhtors' opinion the precise diagnosis of malignant bone tumours in infancy is very difficult as no characteristic X-ray features are present in this age period.
The relationship between population growth and economic outcomes is an issue of great policy significance. In the era of the Millennium Development Goals, poverty and its correlates have become the compelling issues. Economic growth may not automatically translate into reductions in poverty and its correlates (may not trickle down) if income distribution is at the same time worsening. We therefore investigate the direct effect of population growth on infant mortality for various income catego...
Ramesh; Ramesh; Somasekhara Rao
Stridor is a high-pitched noisy breathing produced due to partial obstruction of either larynx or in the trachea. It may also be the first sign of a life threatening disorder. So, stridor in infants should not be overlooked or minimized as an inconsequential finding. Stridor is a distressing symptom to its victims and their parents and presents a diagnostic challenge to the otolaryngologist .The team work of otolaryngologist, pediatrician, anesthesiologist and other specialty peop...
A number of tests of infant motor development have been described. These include the Milani-Comparetti Motor. Development Screening Test,15 the Chandler Movement. Assessment of Infants Screening Test,,. the Infant Motor. Screen,17 the Infant Neurological International Battery!S and the. Alberta Infant Motor Scale.
Malone, Johanna C; Dayton, Carolyn Joy
"Ghosts in the nursery." "Visitors from the unremembered past." Fraiberg, Adelson, and Shapiro's (1975) words convey the relational "intruders" that they perceived while working with mothers and infants. A mother's unresolved past is a driving force within the treatment of mother-infant dyads. Working with these families, the therapist strives to process and metabolize the distress of the dyad while enabling the mother to contain the infant more fully. This article proposes that Fraiberg et al.'s metaphor may be newly elaborated utilizing Bion's (1962) original theoretical conceptualization of the "container and contained." He posited that an infant projects distressing affective states upon the mother, who contains the experience, transforms the feelings, and then enables the infant to reintroject a more tolerable experience. This lays the foundation for the relational experience of being known by another and facilitates the infant's development of self-knowledge and emotional regulation. We utilize Fraiberg et al.'s original case material to identify ways in which ghosts in the nursery disrupt the processes of the container and contained. Bion's ideas may help enrich our understanding of how the therapeutic relationship enables cycles of containment, transitioning the material "ghosts" from being contained by the infant to being contained by the therapist, and to ultimately being transformed so that the mother can reattribute them to the past. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Leung, Brenda M Y; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Letourneau, Nicole; Field, Catherine J; Bell, Rhonda C; Dewey, Deborah
Mental disorders are one of the leading contributors to the global burden of disease. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study was initiated in 2008 to better understand perinatal environmental impacts on maternal mental health and child development. This pregnancy cohort was established to investigate the relationship between the maternal environment (e.g. nutritional status), maternal mental health status, birth outcomes, and child development. The purpose of this paper is to describe the creation of this longitudinal cohort, the data collection tools and procedures, and the background characteristics of the participants. Participants were pregnant women age 16 or older, their infants and the biological fathers. For the women, data were collected during each trimester of pregnancy and at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36months after the birth of their infant. Maternal measures included diet, stress, current mental and physical health, health history, and lifestyle. In addition, maternal biological samples (DNA, blood, urine, and spot breast milk samples) were banked. Paternal data included current mental and physical health, health history, lifestyle, and banked DNA samples. For infants, DNA and blood were collected as well as information on health, development and feeding behavior. At the end of recruitment in 2012, the APrON cohort included 2140 women, 2172 infants, and 1417 biological fathers. Descriptive statistics of the cohort, and comparison of women who stayed in the study and those who dropped out are discussed. Findings from the longitudinal cohort may have important implications for health policy and clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pin, Tamis W; de Valle, Katy; Eldridge, Bev; Galea, Mary P
The Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) is a standardized motor assessment for young infants. This study aimed to examine the reliability of the AIMS in a group of infants born at or before 29 weeks of gestation. Fifty-nine infants born preterm were recruited. Two experienced pediatric physical therapists participated in this reliability study. Infants were assessed at 4, 8, 12, and 18 months corrected age (CA). Intrarater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] > or =0.99). The ICC for interrater reliability varied from 0.85 to 0.97. The ICC was low at 4 and 18 months CA. The AIMS is reliable in evaluating motor development in infants born preterm. Clinicians should be cautious about using the AIMS in infants at very young ages and those approaching independent ambulation. Accurate placement of the window on a movement repertoire is crucial. Attention is required when using the AIMS in infants developing atypically.
Lindert, Jutta; Bilsen, Johan; Jakubauskiene, Marija
Public mental health (PMH) is a major challenge for public health research and practice. This article is organized in six parts. First, we will highlight the significance of PMH; second, we will define mental health and mental disorders; third, we identify and describe determinants of mental health and mental disorders on which we worked in the past 10 years since the establishment of the PMH section such as social determinants and violence. Fourth, we will describe the development of the EUPHA PMH section and provide details on vulnerable groups in the field of PMH, on violence as a main determinant and on suicide as an outcome which affects all countries in the European region. Fifth, we describe policy and practice implications of the development of PMH and highlight the European dimension of PMH. We will conclude this article by providing an outlook on potential further development of PMH as regards research and policy and practice. Finally, we hope that the EUPHA PMH section will contribute to public health in the next 25 years and we can contribute to improvement of PMH in Europe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
When I am looking at my coffee machine that makes funny noises, this is an instance of multisensory perception - I perceive this event by means of both vision and audition. But very often we only receive sensory stimulation from a multisensory event by means of one sense modality, for example, when I hear the noisy coffee machine in the next room, that is, without seeing it. The aim of this paper is to bring together empirical findings about multimodal perception and empirical findings about (visual, auditory, tactile) mental imagery and argue that on occasions like this, we have multimodal mental imagery: perceptual processing in one sense modality (here: vision) that is triggered by sensory stimulation in another sense modality (here: audition). Multimodal mental imagery is not a rare and obscure phenomenon. The vast majority of what we perceive are multisensory events: events that can be perceived in more than one sense modality - like the noisy coffee machine. And most of the time we are only acquainted with these multisensory events via a subset of the sense modalities involved - all the other aspects of these multisensory events are represented by means of multisensory mental imagery. This means that multisensory mental imagery is a crucial element of almost all instances of everyday perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Taruska Ventorini Vasconcelos
Full Text Available The knowledge of the location, trajectory, and characteristics of the neurovascular bundles in the jaws is fundamental to reduce risk of injuries to this structure during surgical procedures, especially when anatomical variations are present. The presence of anatomical variations associated with the mental foramen has been reported in some cases and is frequently undervalued in clinical procedures. Sensorial disturbances, such as paresthesia in the lower lip or cheeks, may occur as result of pressure on the mental foramen. These anatomical variations can be detected in clinical practice by imaging exams. Computed tomography has been established as a valuable imaging modality capable of providing in-depth information about maxillofacial structures, allowing detailed evaluation of their topography and anatomical variations, such as additional mental foramina. The objective of this article was to describe a case with double mental foramina that only could be observed in computed tomography images. The use of cone beam computed tomography has increased in dentistry, thus anatomical variations that may have an influence on the diagnosis and treatment planning must be recognized. Have a good knowledge of additional mental foramina may contribute to adequate anesthetic techniques and to avoid misdiagnosis of bone lesions and eventual damages to the nerves and vessel during surgical procedures in that region.
Eriksen, Kamilla Gehrt; Christensen, Sophie Hilario; Lind, Mads Vendelbo
studies show that human milk concentrations of protein, fat, and carbohydrate likely have important influence on infant growth and body composition. Furthermore, some observational studies examining human milk oligosaccharides and hormone concentrations suggest functional relevance to infant growth...... interesting potential in understanding infant growth. SUMMARY: Available evidence on human milk composition in relation to infant growth is sparse. This review summarizes recent publications investigating human milk composition; including micro- and macronutrients, human milk oligosaccharides, hormones......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights relevant studies published between 2015 and 2017 on human milk composition and the association with infant growth. RECENT FINDINGS: High-quality studies investigating how human milk composition is related to infant growth are sparse. Recent observational...
Braithwaite, Scott; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne
This paper reviews the research on relationships and mental health. Individuals who are more mentally healthy are more likely to select into relationships, but relationships are also demonstrably associated with mental health. The type of relationship matters - evidence suggests that more established, committed relationships, such as marriage, are associated with greater benefits than less committed unions such as cohabitation. The association between relationships and mental health is clearly bidirectional, however, stronger effects are observed when mental health is the outcome and relationships are the predictor, suggesting that the causal arrow flows more strongly from relationships to mental health than vice versa. Moreover, improving relationships improves mental health, but improving mental health does not reliably improve relationships. Our review of research corroborates the view that relationships are a keystone component of human functioning that have the potential to influence a broad array of mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
To look at the survival pattern of extreme preterm Omani infants (23-26 weeks gestation) and compare it with the western countries. All extreme preterm Omani infants (gestational age of 23 to 26 weeks) admitted from November 1991 to February 1998 at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Sultan Qaboos University Hospital were reviewed. The detailed records of the infants, including name of mother, age, gravidity, parity, route of delivery, Apgar score, time of birth, inborn or outborn, birth weight, gestational age, sex, need for resuscitation, course in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, admission and discharge diagnosis, and outcome were collected from the register. The infants were stratified according to the gestational age and then analyzed for the survival rate among the different gestational ages. A total of 32 extreme preterm infants were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Sultan Qaboos University Hospital from November 1991 to February 1998. The mean birth weight of the cohort was noted to be 798+123 gram (Range 480-1015 grams). The mean gestational age was noted to be 25.5+0.95 weeks (Range 23-26 weeks). An equal number of males and females were noted in the cohort, with male to female ratio of 1:1. A total of 13 infants survived out of 32 infants. The overall survival rate for the cohort was noted to be 41%. For the present study, the western statistics are averaged and than compared with the Omani statistics. The survival rate for western 26 week preterm infants was (on average) 61% as compared to 44% among Omani preterm infants. The same trend of low survival was noted for 23 and 24 week Omani infants, except for only one 25 week infant. The significant lower survival rate suggests the need for more attention and improvement in the management and care provided to the extreme preterm Omani infants.
Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo
Even though motion tracking is a widely used technique to analyze and measure human movements, only a few studies focus on motion tracking of infants. In recent years, a number of studies have emerged focusing on analyzing the motion pattern of infants, using computer vision. Most of these studie...... that resembles the body surface of an infant, where the model is based on simple geometric shapes and a hierarchical skeleton model....
Gliozzi Valentina; Althaus Nadja; Mayor Julien; Plunkett Kim
We provide evidence that primacy and/or recency effects play a crucial role in infant visual categorization. First, we demonstrate that a connectionist model of infant categorization based number and type of categories formed is modulated by the on a self-organizing map (Gliozzi, Mayor, Hu, & Plunkett, 2009) predicts an increased influence of the first and the last stimuli during familiarization on the category boundaries. We then present data from 10-month-old infants which confirm recency e...
Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.
In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants’ poor balance and wide stance. We show that walking is adversely affected by old-fashioned cloth diapers, and that even modern disposable diapers—habitually worn by most infants in the sample—incur...
van Eijk, Anna M.; Ayisi, John G.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Slutsker, Laurence; Shi, Ya Ping; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Otieno, Juliana A.; Kager, Piet A.; Lal, Renu B.; Steketee, Richard W.; Nahlen, Bernard L.
BACKGROUND: HIV and malaria in sub-Saharan Africa are associated with poor pregnancy outcome and infant survival. We studied the association of placental malaria, infant malaria and anemia, and infant HIV status with postneonatal infant mortality (PNIM) among infants of HIV-seropositive women.
Bettler, Jodi; Zimmer, J. Paul; Neuringer, Martha; DeRusso, Patricia A.
Background Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Aim of the study To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein. Methods A prospective, double-masked trial was conducted in healthy term formula-fed infant...
Futagi, Yasuyuki; Yanagihara, Keiko; Mogami, Yukiko; Ikeda, Tae; Suzuki, Yasuhiro
There have been very few studies concerning the Babkin reflex-opening of the mouth and flexion of the arms in response to stimulation of the palms. We attempted to clarify the clinical significance and neural mechanism of the reflex through systematic review. Searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar from their inception through August 2012. In normal term infants, the Babkin reflex can be elicited from the time of birth, becomes increasingly suppressed with age, and disappears in the great majority by the end of the fifth month of age. A marked response in the fourth or fifth month of age and persistence of the reflex beyond the fifth month of age are generally regarded as abnormal. On the other hand, because there are some normal infants showing no response during the neonatal period or early infancy, the absence of the response during these periods is not necessarily an abnormal finding. Infants with these abnormal findings should be carefully observed for the appearance of neurological abnormalities including cerebral palsy and mental retardation. It is most likely that the Babkin reflex is mediated by the reticular formation of the brainstem, which receives inputs from the nonprimary motor cortices. On the basis of the hand-mouth reflex, more adaptive movement develops as control of the nonprimary motor cortices over the reflex mechanism in the reticular formation increases. Soon it evolves into the voluntary eye-hand-mouth coordination necessary for food intake as the control of the prefrontal cortex over the nonprimary motor cortices becomes predominant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hatzinikolaou, Kornilia; Karveli, Vassiliki; Skoubourdi, Aggeliki; Zarokosta, Foteini; Antonucci, Gianluca; Visci, Giovanni; Calheiros, Maria Manuela; MagalhÃes, Eunice; Essau, Cecilia; Allan, Sharon; Pithia, Jayshree; Walji, Fahreen; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Perez-Robles, Ruth; Fanti, Kostas A; Katsimicha, Evita; Hadjicharambous, Maria-Zoe; Nikolaidis, George; Reddy, Vasudevi
The study examined whether the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood, Revised Edition (DC: 0-3R; ZERO TO THREE, 2005) Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS) is applicable to six European countries and contributes to the identification of caregiver-infant/toddler dyads with abusive relationship patterns. The sample consisted of 115 dyads with children's ages ranging from 1 to 47 months. Sixty-four dyads were recruited from community settings without known violence problems, and 51 dyads were recruited from clinical settings and already had been identified with violence problems or as being at risk for violence problems. To classify the dyads on the PIR-GAS categories, caregiver-child interactions were video-recorded and coded with observational scales appropriate for child age. To test whether the PIR-GAS allows for reliable identification of dyads with abusive relationship patterns, PIR-GAS ratings were compared with scores on the the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect's (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool-Parental Version (ICAST-P; D.K. Runyan et al., ), a questionnaire measuring abusive parental disciplinary practices. It was found that PIR-GAS ratings differentiated between the general and the clinical sample, and the dyads with abusive patterns of relationship were identified by both the PIR-GAS and the ICAST-P. Interrater reliability for the PIR-GAS ranged from moderate to excellent. The value of a broader use of tools such as the DC: 0-3R to promote early identification of families at risk for infant and toddler abuse and neglect is discussed. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Full Text Available Implicit mentalizing, a fast, unconscious and rigid way of processing other's mental states has recently received much interest in typical social cognitive development in early childhood and in adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC. This research suggests that already infants implicitly mentalize, and that adults with ASC have a sustained implicit mentalizing deficit. Yet, we have only sparse empirical evidence on implicit mentalizing beyond early childhood, and deviations thereof in children with ASC. Here, we administered an implicit mentalizing eye tracking task to assess the sensitivity to false beliefs to a group of 8-year-old children with and without ASC, matched for chronological age, verbal and nonverbal IQ. As previous research suggested that presenting outcomes of belief-based actions leads to fast learning from experience and false belief-congruent looking behavior in adults with ASC, we were also interested in whether already children with ASC learn from such information. Our results provide support for a persistent implicit mentalizing ability in neurotypical development beyond early childhood. Further, they confirmed an implicit mentalizing deficit in children with ASC, even when they are closely matched to controls for explicit mentalizing skills. In contrast to previous findings with adults, no experience-based modulation of anticipatory looking was observed. It seems that children with ASC have not yet developed compensatory general purpose learning mechanisms. The observed intact explicit, but impaired implicit mentalizing in ASC, and correlation patterns between mentalizing tasks and executive function tasks, are in line with theories on two dissociable mentalizing systems.
Song, Insu; Yellowlees, Peter; Diederich, Joachim
This book introduces approaches that have the potential to transform the daily practice of psychiatrists and psychologists. This includes the asynchronous communication between mental health care providers and clients as well as the automation of assessment and therapy. Speech and language are particularly interesting from the viewpoint of psychological assessment. For instance, depression may change the characteristics of voice in individuals and these changes can be detected by a special form of speech analysis. Computational screening methods that utilise speech and language can detect subtle changes and alert clinicians as well as individuals and caregivers. The use of online technologies in mental health, however, poses ethical problems that will occupy concerned individuals, governments and the wider public for some time. Assuming that these ethical problems can be solved, it should be possible to diagnose and treat mental health disorders online (excluding the use of medication).
hospitalized, but to get inside the contemporary psychiatric institution and to participate in the social world of patients and professionals, I had to experiment with different ethnographic approaches. Ethnographies of mental health have become increasingly rare, and much research on language in psychiatric......In 2010, I began a PhD study to examine how professionals and patients talked to—and about—each other in mental health institutions in Denmark. One year later, I found myself chain-smoking, dressed in baggy clothing, and slouching on a sofa in a closed psychiatric ward. I had not myself been...... institutions is done by interview research. My study involved observing and participating in the day-to-day life at two mental health facilities: an outpatient clinic and an inpatient closed ward. The case study provides an account of some of the specific methodological problems and unanticipated events...
Odio, C; Threlkeld, N; Thomas, M L; McCraken, G H
The pharmacokinetic properties of mezlocillin were evaluated in newborn infants. Mean peak and trough concentrations of drug in plasma, after 75 mg of mezlocillin per kg given intravenously, were 252 and 72 micrograms/ml, respectively, in infants who were less than 38 weeks gestation and less than or equal to 7 days old, compared with 139 and 9 micrograms/ml, respectively, in infants greater than or equal to 38 weeks gestation and greater than 7 days old. The mean elimination half-life values were from 4.5 h in preterm infants who were less than or equal to 7 days old to 1.8 h in term infants greater than or equal to 7 days old. Median peak and trough bactericidal titers of drug in plasma from neonates treated with mezlocillin were 1:8 and 1:4, respectively, against a resistant (minimal bactericidal concentration, 512 micrograms/ml) Escherichia coli strain and 1:64 and 1:32, respectively, against a susceptible (minimal bactericidal concentration, 2 micrograms/ml) E. coli strain. We propose a dosage schedule of 75 mg of mezlocillin per kg administered every 12 h to preterm (gestational age less than 38 weeks) infants less than or equal to 7 days old, every 8 h to preterm infants greater than 7 days old or term infants less than or equal to 7 days old, and every 6 h to term infants greater than 7 days old.
Alexandra L. Bellows
Full Text Available Infant mortality accounts for the majority of child deaths in Tanzania, and malnutrition is an important underlying cause. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to describe the micronutrient status of infants in Tanzania and assess predictors of infant micronutrient deficiency. We analyzed serum vitamin D, vitamin B12, folate, and ferritin levels from 446 infants at two weeks of age, 408 infants at three months of age, and 427 mothers three months post-partum. We used log-Poisson regression to estimate relative risk of being deficient in vitamin D and vitamin B12 for infants in each age group. The prevalence of vitamin D and vitamin B12 deficiency decreased from 60% and 30% at two weeks to 9% and 13% at three months respectively. Yet, the prevalence of insufficiency at three months was 49% for vitamin D and 17% for vitamin B12. Predictors of infant vitamin D deficiency were low birthweight, urban residence, maternal education, and maternal vitamin D status. Maternal vitamin B12 status was the main predictor for infant vitamin B12 deficiency. The majority of infants had sufficient levels of folate or ferritin. Further research is necessary to examine the potential benefits of improving infants’ nutritional status through vitamin D and B12 supplements.
S. V. Belmer
Full Text Available In Ms/her practice, a pediatrician frequently faces ambiguous questions about foods for infants during the first year of life in particular. Not only parents ask pediatricians these questions - the latter naturally arise during work and attempts to pinpoint the problem of adequate nutrition during infancy. These questions are whether complementary foods containing starch cause allergy in an infant; gluten is a detrimental ingredient of infant foods; hydrolysis of cereal polysaccharides is essential; palm oil is dangerous to an infant's health; butter fat as an ingredient infant foods may be harmful to a child. Among other things, butter fat in globules is shown to contain phospholipids, gangliosides, cholesterol, which are essential for a child's development and absent in infant formulas. In this connection, addition of fat globule membranes to foods is promising in terms of the provision of an infant with lipids of full value. There is a need for further in-depth investigations of infant feeding practices, by keeping in mind numerous features of an infant's organism.
Full Text Available Research question: What is the nutritional status of infants in Varanasi? Objectives: To find out the magnitude of PEM among infants of Varanasi district. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Urban slum and rural areas. Participants: 360 infants. Study variables: Age, height (length, weight. Outcome variables: Protein Energy Malnutrition. Statistical analysis: Simple proportions; Chi- square test. Results: As per the height for age criteria; only 10.56% of infants were stunted (<90% of reference standard and according to Seoane Latham classification; 44.96%, 6.05% and 4.03% were suffering from acute malnutrition and nutritional dwarfing respectively (90% of reference standard as entry point
Glenn, Sheila M.; And Others
Eleven infants with Down's syndrome and 10 of 11 nonhandicapped infants operated an automatic device which enabled them to choose to listen to nursery rhymes sung or played on musical instruments. Both groups preferred the singing, and the Down's Syndrome infants had much longer response durations for the more complex auditory stimuli. (Author/DB)
Dietrich, Kim N.; And Others
This study was designed to investigate whether or not degree of child maltreatment is related in some meaningful way to the interactional characteristics of the mother/infant dyad and to the infant's developmental status. A group of 53 mother/infant dyads was divided into five diagnostic groups: nonaccidental trauma combined with…
Valery V. Rozhentsov
Full Text Available The article offers the method for evaluation of mental fatigue, based on the method of paired light pulses. Ten pre-trained test men with normal vision, aged 18–20 participated in the experiment. Testees were showed subsequent paired light pulses at a 200 ms interval, divided by initial interpulse interval of 70 ms, recurring at the fixed time interval of 1 s. Testees determined the threshold interpulse interval, at which the two pulses in a pair merged into one, three times, using the method of successive approximation. Then testees solved algebraic equations with several unknowns for two hours. The threshold interpulse interval was determined three times every 20 minutes in the course of equations solving. The degree of mental fatigue DMF was calculated, using the formula: DMFi = (TPIi – TPI0 100% / TPIi; i = 1, 2, … , n, where DMFi is the degree of mental fatigue at the i-th measurement; TPIi is average arithmetic duration of threshold interpulse interval at the i-th measurement; TPI0 is average arithmetic duration of threshold interpulse interval before algebraic equations solving; n is the dimension of threshold interpulse interval measurement in the course of algebraic equations solving. After 20 minutes of work, the degree of mental fatigue of one of the testees was 9.5 %, rose to 21 % by the end of the first hour and exceeded 39 % by the end of the second hour. Similar dynamics of mental fatigue was observed in all testees, but its development and the degree of fatigue are individual. To prevent fatigue and ensure high level of efficiency one should set the individual schedule and rest pauses duration during mental activity.
Full Text Available In this paper I will discuss some claims made by Marraffa in his article Mindreading and Introspection. Early studies claimed that mentalization (or Theory of Mind – ToM should first be observed during the preschool years. Subsequent research pointed out that ToM seems to be already present in infants. I will try to argue that the apparent inconsistency between these findings can be reduced by distinguishing between implicit and explicit ToM. From an evolutionary perspective the function of the two ToM systems seems to be different. The first is a genetically inherited neurocognitive mechanism which allows accurate expectations about behavior. The second is a culturally inherited skill, needed to modulate more complex social interactions. I will then discuss the relationship between implicit and explicit mentalization and introspection.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Subnational Infant Mortality Rates consists of estimates of infant mortality rates for the year 2000. The infant mortality rate for a region or country is...
Langlois, Judith H.; And Others
Three studies examined infant preferences for attractive faces of White males, White females, Black females, and infants. Infants viewed pairs of faces rated for attractiveness by adults. Preferences for attractive faces were found for all facial types. (BC)
Becker Razuri, Erin; Hiles Howard, Amanda R; Purvis, Karyn B; Cross, David R
Maternal mental state language is thought to influence children's mental state language and sociocognitive understanding (e.g., theory of mind), but the mechanism is unclear. The current study examined the longitudinal development of mental state language in mother-child interactions. The methodology included assessments of the child and/or mother-child dyad at six time points between 12 to 52 months of the child's age. Measures determined child's attachment style and language abilities, and mental state language used by mother and child during a block-building task. Results showed that (a) mental state talk, including belief and desire language, increased over time; (b) there were differences between the type of mental state words used by the mother in insecure versus secure dyads; (c) there were differences in patterns of mental state words used in both mothers and children in insecure versus secure dyads; and (d) attachment appeared to exert a consistent influence over time. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Yelland, Chris; Girke, Teresa; Tottman, Charlotte; Williams, Anne Sved
To describe the clinical population of women admitted to a Mother-Baby Unit in Adelaide, South Australia and to evaluate changes during admission in both Axes I and II diagnoses of maternal mental health, and in mother-infant relationships. Both clinical and self-report assessments of maternal mental health were made at admission and discharge, and self-report comparisons of the mother-infant relationship. Depressive illnesses (46.2%) were found to be the most prevalent conditions leading to admission, with rates of psychosis (10.3%) and bipolar disorder (3.4%) being lower. A high incidence of borderline personality disorder (23.1%) was found clinically, with almost half the admitted women showing features of borderline personality disorder on a self-report measure at admission. Significant improvements in maternal mental health and the mother-infant relationship were found at the time of discharge. Admission to this Mother-Baby Unit on mothers' self-report scales showed improvement in mothers' mental health and the relationship that they have with their infant. Given the high prevalence of borderline personality disorder and emotional dysregulation identified within the population, treatment implications and possible consequences for the infant are discussed for this client group. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Premji, Shahirose S; Pana, Gianella; Currie, Genevieve; Dosani, Aliyah; Reilly, Sandra; Young, Marilyn; Hall, Marc; Williamson, Tyler; Lodha, Abhay K
To examine what it means to be a mother of a late preterm infant including a mother's level of confidence in caring for her late preterm infant over time and the effect of maternal depression of this experience. Little is known about mothers' experiences of caring for their late preterm infants in the community, including their level of confidence and parenting stress within the context of a supported care environment by public health nurses. A mixed methods study, sequential explanatory quantitative and qualitative study. A convenience sample of mothers with LPIs (n = 71) completed questionnaires on maternal confidence (3-4 weeks and 6-8 weeks), parenting stress (6-8 weeks), social support (6-8 weeks) and postpartum depression (6-8 weeks). A purposive sample of mothers (n = 11) underwent in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Maternal confidence decreased from 3-4 weeks-6-8 weeks after delivery, and similar results were found for mothers who reported depressive symptoms. Narratives of the mothers suggested the decrease in maternal confidence over time was influenced by the demanding characteristics of the late preterm infant, the prospect of their rehospitalisation and the mother's reported interactions with public health nurses. Depression had an effect on maternal confidence; that is, the depressed mothers demonstrated less confidence about their caretaking role than the nondepressed mothers at 6-8 weeks. Mothers did not discuss mental health issues, which may reflect the protective effects of social support on emotional instability or an inability to recognise postpartum depression. The confidence of mothers with LPIs decreased over the first 2 months following delivery and being home with their infants. Assisting mothers to meet their personal needs and the needs of their infant should promote maternal skills, which will likely increase maternal confidence related to the care of their late preterm infant. Characteristics of LPIs contributed more to
van den Dries, Linda; Juffer, Femmie; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J
To compare the physical, cognitive, and motor development of infants adopted from foster care with infants adopted from institutions. Forty-two formerly fostered and 50 post-institutionalized girls adopted from China, aged between 11 and 16 months on arrival, were visited 2 and 6 months after adoption. Children's height, weight, and head circumference were measured. Stress regulation was assessed by diurnal salivary cortisol levels, and cognitive and motor development were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-second edition. At both assessments, the (modest) physical growth delays were similar for formerly fostered and post-institutionalized children. For weight and head circumference (but not for height) a catch-up over time was found, with a significant interaction between time and age at arrival, showing a more rapid catch-up for earlier adopted children. The daily cortisol curves of the formerly fostered and post-institutionalized children were similar and did not change over time. At both assessments, the former foster children outperformed the post-institutionalized children on mental and motor skills. Both groups showed a similar catch-up for mental development. For motor development, no catch-up was found. The influence of pre-adoption foster versus institutional rearing seems more pronounced for cognitive and motor development than for physical development and hormonal stress regulation. Our outcomes suggest that pre-adoption foster care is less detrimental to children's cognitive and motor development than institutional rearing.
Shiraishi, Mika; Hirasawa, Kyoko; Shimizu, Satoru; Nishida, Hiroshi; Osawa, Makiko
To evaluate whether using a sitting-type car safety seats for preterm infants is advisable. A total of 65 preterm infants underwent polysomnography in the supine and sitting positions. The infants with position were suspected to cause DS in infants. Sitting-type car safety seats should be used with caution for preterm infants, and all preterm infants need to be screened by polysomnographic examination in the sitting position.
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…
Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…
Weber, Linda R.; Wimmer, Sharon
This brief factsheet presents information on mental illness in mentally retarded persons. The most prevalent disorders found in this population are schizophrenia, organic brain syndrome, adjustment disorders, personality disorders, depression, and behavioral problems. Few standardized methods of assessment exist for the diagnosis of mental illness…
Tereno, S; Guedeney, N; Dugravier, R; Greacen, T; Saïas, T; Tubach, F; Ulgen, S; Matos, I; Guédeney, A
Attachment is a long lasting emotional link established between infants and their caregivers. The quality of early relationships allows infants to safely explore their environment and contribute to the establishment of a broad range of social skills. Several intervention programs targeting infant attachment have been implemented in different contexts, showing diverse degrees of efficacy. The present paper describes, for the first time, children's attachment quality distributions in a French multi-risk population, with a preventive intervention, usual or reinforced. In the CAPEDP study (Parenting and Attachment in Early Childhood: reducing mental health disorder risks and promoting resilience), a sub-sample of 117 women was recruited to assess the effects of this home-visiting program on children's attachment security. With that intent, the Strange Situation Paradigm was used when infants were between 12 and 16 months of age. In the intervention group, 63% (n=41) of the infants were coded as secure, while 15% (n=10) of them were coded as insecure-avoidant and 22% (n=14) as insecure-ambivalent/resistant. 56% (n=29) of control group infants (usual care) were coded as secure, while 27% (n=14) were coded as insecure-avoidant and 17% (n=9) as insecure-ambivalent/resistant. Even if the percentage of children with a secure attachment in the reinforced intervention group was higher than that of the control group, this difference did not reach the threshold of significance [Chi 2 (2)=2.40, P=0.30]. Intervention group distributions were closer to normative samples, and these distributions show the clinical impact of our program. In general, preventive interventions focused on attachment quality have moderate effects but, in our case, several factors might have contributed to lower the statistical impact of the program. Firstly, the control group cannot be considered has having received zero intervention for two reasons: (a) the French usual perinatal health system (Maternal
Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J.; Gallardo, Constance C.; Joseph, Michael H.
Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants’ safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores
Duff, Fiona J; Reen, Gurpreet; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate
history of language/literacy difficulties alongside infant vocabulary levels. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Smith Tyler C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Iodine deficiency is a global problem representing the most common preventable cause of mental retardation. Recently, the impact of subtle deficiencies in iodine intake on children and pregnant women has been questioned. This study was designed to compare hypothyroidism among infants born to US military families in countries of varied iodine nutrition status. Methods A cohort design was used to analyze data from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry for infants born in 2000-04 (n = 447,691. Hypothyroidism was defined using ICD-9-CM codes from the first year of life (n = 698. The impact of birth location on hypothyroidism was assessed by comparing rates in Germany, Japan, and US territories with the United States, while controlling for infant gender, plurality, gestational age, maternal age, maternal military status, and military parent's race/ethnicity. Results Hypothyroidism did not vary by birth location with adjusted odds ratios (OR as follows: Germany (OR 0.82, [95% CI 0.50, 1.35], Japan (OR 0.67, [95% CI 0.37, 1.22], and US territories (OR 1.29, [95% CI 0.57, 2.89]. Hypothyroidism was strongly associated with preterm birth (OR 5.44, [95% CI 4.60, 6.42]. Hypothyroidism was also increased among infants with civilian mothers (OR 1.24, [95% CI 1.00, 1.54], and older mothers, especially ages 40 years and older (OR 2.09, [95% CI 1.33, 3.30]. Conclusions In this study, hypothyroidism in military-dependent infants did not vary by birth location, but was associated with other risk factors, including preterm birth, civilian maternal status, and advanced maternal age.
Full Text Available Recently, extremely humanlike robots called androids have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm—a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android—two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants’ looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.
Tse, Lillian; Mayson, Tanja A; Leo, Sara; Lee, Leanna L S; Harris, Susan R; Hayes, Virginia E; Backman, Catherine L; Cameron, Dianne; Tardif, Megan
We examined concurrent validity of scores for two infant motor screening tools, the Harris Infant Neuromotor Test (HINT) and the Alberta Infant Motor Scale, in 121 Canadian infants. Relationships between the two tests for the overall sample were as follows: r = -.83 at 4 to 6.5 months (n = 121; p < .01) and r = -.85 at 10 to 12.5 months (n = 109; p < .01), suggesting that the HINT, the newer of the two measures, is valid in determining motor delays. Each test has advantages and disadvantages, and practitioners should determine which one best meets their infant assessment needs.
... Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mental health professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...
Gruebner, Oliver; Rapp, Michael A; Adli, Mazda; Kluge, Ulrike; Galea, Sandro; Heinz, Andreas
More than half of the global population currently lives in cities, with an increasing trend for further urbanization. Living in cities is associated with increased population density, traffic noise and pollution, but also with better access to health care and other commodities. This review is based on a selective literature search, providing an overview of the risk factors for mental illness in urban centers. Studies have shown that the risk for serious mental illness is generally higher in cities compared to rural areas. Epidemiological studies have associated growing up and living in cities with a considerably higher risk for schizophrenia. However, correlation is not causation and living in poverty can both contribute to and result from impairments associated with poor mental health. Social isolation and discrimination as well as poverty in the neighborhood contribute to the mental health burden while little is known about specific interactions between such factors and the built environment. Further insights on the interaction between spatial heterogeneity of neighborhood resources and socio-ecological factors is warranted and requires interdisciplinary research.