Sample records for preverbal infants cope

  1. Rudimentary sympathy in preverbal infants: preference for others in distress. (United States)

    Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Okumura, Yuko; Inoue, Yasuyuki; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Itakura, Shoji


    Despite its essential role in human coexistence, the developmental origins and progression of sympathy in infancy are not yet fully understood. We show that preverbal 10-month-olds manifest sympathetic responses, evinced in their preference for attacked others according to their evaluations of the respective roles of victim, aggressor, and neutral party. In Experiment 1, infants viewing an aggressive social interaction between a victim and an aggressor exhibited preference for the victim. In Experiment 2, when comparing the victim and the aggressor to a neutral object, infants preferred the victim and avoided the aggressor. These findings indicate that 10-month-olds not only evaluate the roles of victims and aggressors in interactions but also show rudimentary sympathy toward others in distress based on that evaluation. This simple preference may function as a foundation for full-fledged sympathetic behavior later on.

  2. Belief-based action prediction in preverbal infants. (United States)

    Southgate, Victoria; Vernetti, Angelina


    Successful mindreading entails both the ability to think about what others know or believe, and to use this knowledge to generate predictions about how mental states will influence behavior. While previous studies have demonstrated that young infants are sensitive to others' mental states, there continues to be much debate concerning how to characterize early theory of mind abilities. In the current study, we asked whether 6-month-old infants appreciate the causal role that beliefs play in action. Specifically, we tested whether infants generate action predictions that are appropriate given an agent's current belief. We exploited a novel, neural indication of action prediction: motor cortex activation as measured by sensorimotor alpha suppression, to ask whether infants would generate differential predictions depending on an agent's belief. After first verifying our paradigm and measure with a group of adult participants, we found that when an agent had a false belief that a ball was in the box, motor activity indicated that infants predicted she would reach for the box, but when the agent had a false belief that a ball was not in the box, infants did not predict that she would act. In both cases, infants based their predictions on what the agent, rather than the infant, believed to be the case, suggesting that by 6months of age, infants can exploit their sensitivity to other minds for action prediction. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Origins of Verb Learning: Preverbal and Postverbal Infants' Learning of Word-Action Relations. (United States)

    Gogate, Lakshmi; Maganti, Madhavilatha


    This experiment examined English- or Spanish-learning preverbal (8-9 months, n = 32) and postverbal (12-14 months, n = 40) infants' learning of word-action pairings prior to and after the transition to verb comprehension and its relation to naturally learned vocabulary. Infants of both verbal levels were first habituated to 2 dynamic video displays of novel word-action pairings, the words /wem/ or /bæf/, spoken synchronously with an adult shaking or looming an object, and tested with interchanged (switched) versus same word-action pairings. Mothers of the postverbal infants were asked to report on their infants' vocabulary on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (Fenson et al., 1994). The preverbal infants looked longer to the switched relative to same pairings, suggesting word-action mapping, but not the postverbal infants. Mothers of the postverbal infants reported a noun bias on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories; infants learned more nouns than verbs in the natural environment. Further analyses revealed marginal word-action mapping in postverbal infants who learned fewer nouns and only comprehended verbs (post-verb comprehension), but not in those who learned more nouns and also produced verbs (post-verb production). These findings on verb learning from inside and outside the laboratory suggest a developmental shift from domain-general to language-specific mechanisms. Long before they talk, infants learning a noun-dominant language learn synchronous word-action relations. As a postverbal language-specific noun bias develops, this learning temporarily diminishes.

  4. The Origins of Verb Learning: Preverbal and Postverbal Infants' Learning of Word-Action Relations (United States)

    Gogate, Lakshmi; Maganti, Madhavilatha


    Purpose: This experiment examined English- or Spanish-learning preverbal (8-9 months, n = 32) and postverbal (12-14 months, n = 40) infants' learning of word-action pairings prior to and after the transition to verb comprehension and its relation to naturally learned vocabulary. Method: Infants of both verbal levels were first habituated to 2…

  5. Social interaction facilitates word learning in preverbal infants: Word-object mapping and word segmentation. (United States)

    Hakuno, Yoko; Omori, Takahide; Yamamoto, Jun-Ichi; Minagawa, Yasuyo


    In natural settings, infants learn spoken language with the aid of a caregiver who explicitly provides social signals. Although previous studies have demonstrated that young infants are sensitive to these signals that facilitate language development, the impact of real-life interactions on early word segmentation and word-object mapping remains elusive. We tested whether infants aged 5-6 months and 9-10 months could segment a word from continuous speech and acquire a word-object relation in an ecologically valid setting. In Experiment 1, infants were exposed to a live tutor, while in Experiment 2, another group of infants were exposed to a televised tutor. Results indicate that both younger and older infants were capable of segmenting a word and learning a word-object association only when the stimuli were derived from a live tutor in a natural manner, suggesting that real-life interaction enhances the learning of spoken words in preverbal infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. How Parents Read Counting Books and Non-numerical Books to Their Preverbal Infants: An Observational Study. (United States)

    Goldstein, Alison; Cole, Thomas; Cordes, Sara


    Studies have stressed the importance of counting with children to promote formal numeracy abilities; however, little work has investigated when parents begin to engage in this behavior with their young children. In the current study, we investigated whether parents elaborated on numerical information when reading a counting book to their preverbal infants and whether developmental differences in numerical input exist even in the 1st year of life. Parents and their 5-10 months old infants were asked to read, as they would at home, two books to their infants: a counting book and another book that did not have numerical content. Parents' spontaneous statements rarely focused on number and those that did consisted primarily of counting, with little emphasis on labeling the cardinality of the set. However, developmental differences were observed even in this age range, such that parents were more likely to make numerical utterances when reading to older infants. Together, results are the first to characterize naturalistic reading behaviors between parents and their preverbal infants in the context of counting books, suggesting that although counting books promote numerical language in parents, infants still receive very little in the way of numerical input before the end of the 1st year of life. While little is known regarding the impact of number talk on the cognitive development of young infants, the current results may guide future work in this area by providing the first assessment of the characteristics of parental numerical input to preverbal infants.

  7. How Parents Read Counting Books and Non-Numerical Books to Their Preverbal Infants: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Goldstein


    Full Text Available Studies have stressed the importance of counting with children to promote formal numeracy abilities; however little work has investigated when parents begin to engage in this behavior with their young children. In the current study, we investigated whether parents elaborated on numerical information when reading a counting book to their preverbal infants and whether developmental differences in numerical input exist even in the first year of life. Parents and their 5-10 month old infants were asked to read, as they would at home, two books to their infants: a counting book and another book that did not have numerical content. Parents’ spontaneous statements rarely focused on number and those that did consisted primarily of counting, with little emphasis on labeling the cardinality of the set. However, developmental differences were observed even in this age range, such that parents were more likely to make numerical utterances when reading to older infants. Together, results are the first to characterize naturalistic reading behaviors between parents and their preverbal infants in the context of counting books, suggesting that although counting books promote numerical language in parents, infants still receive very little in the way of numerical input before the end of the first year of life. While little is known regarding the impact of number talk on the cognitive development of young infants, the current results may guide future work in this area by providing the first assessment of the characteristics of parental numerical input to preverbal infants.

  8. Decoding of Baby Calls: Can Adult Humans Identify the Eliciting Situation from Emotional Vocalizations of Preverbal Infants?

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    Jitka Lindová

    Full Text Available Preverbal infants often vocalize in emotionally loaded situations, yet the communicative potential of these vocalizations is not well understood. The aim of our study was to assess how accurately adult listeners extract information about the eliciting situation from infant preverbal vocalizations. Vocalizations of 19 infants aged 5-10 months were recorded in 3 negative (Pain, Isolation, Demand for Food and 3 positive (Play, Reunion, After Feeding situations. The recordings were later rated by 333 adult listeners on the scales of emotional valence and intensity. Subsequently, the listeners assigned the eliciting situations in a forced choice task. Listeners were almost perfectly able to discriminate whether a recording came from a negative or a positive situation. Their discrimination may have been based on perceived valence as they consistently assigned higher valence when listening to positive, and lower valence when listening to negative, recordings. Ability to identify the particular situation within the negative or positive realm was substantially weaker, with only three of the six situations being discriminated above chance. The best discriminated situation, Play, was associated with high perceived intensity. The weak qualitative discrimination of negative situations seemed to be based on graded perception of negative recordings, from the most intense and unpleasant (assigned to Pain to the least intense and least unpleasant (assigned to Demand for Food. Parenthood and younger age, but not gender of listeners, had weak positive effects on the accuracy of judgments. Our results indicate that adults almost flawlessly distinguish positive and negative infant sounds, but are rather inaccurate regarding identification of the specific needs of the infant and may normally employ other sensory channels to gain this information.

  9. Infant Signs as Intervention? Promoting Symbolic Gestures for Preverbal Children in Low-Income Families Supports Responsive Parent-Child Relationships (United States)

    Vallotton, Claire D.


    Gestures are a natural form of communication between preverbal children and parents which support children's social and language development; however, low-income parents gesture less frequently, disadvantaging their children. In addition to pointing and waving, children are capable of learning many symbolic gestures, known as "infant signs," if…

  10. Fathers and grieving: coping with infant death. (United States)

    Cordell, A S; Thomas, N


    As we have listened to parents who have come to our parent support group during the past 10 years, we have become increasingly aware of the differences in the way fathers and mothers grieve. These differences can lead to misunderstanding and to further hurt and confusion for both parents who are grieving the loss of an infant. Role expectations seem to account for many of these differences. Fathers' responses to infant loss tend to coincide with how they believe they should act as men, rather than how they need to act to confront and resolve grief. We conducted a pilot study of parents' experiences following infant death, and sought more detailed insight from several fathers into their experiences. In this article, we explore some of the differences in the way fathers and mothers grieve and the constraints men experience in resolving grief because of their role expectations.

  11. Stress and coping in Japanese mothers whose infants required congenital heart disease surgery. (United States)

    Nakazuru, Aya; Sato, Naho; Nakamura, Nobue


    With the growing number of severe congenital heart disease (CHD) surgeries, some hospitals in Japan are experiencing difficulty meeting the demand for CHD surgery. As a result, CHD surgery preparation is difficult for mothers of these infants. To examine the stress and coping of mothers whose infants needed CHD surgery and to identify the factors that influenced maternal coping. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 11 mothers whose infants had undergone CHD surgery. Qualitative analyses of transcribed interviews were performed. The coping of mothers for surgery began when mothers received news of their infant's CHD diagnosis. Maternal stress appraisal and coping changed as surgery approached. In particular, maternal coping was influenced by diagnosis event, symptoms of their child, anticipated number of surgeries, presence of chromosomal abnormality, and infant age. The stressors and coping challenges of mothers whose infants needed CHD surgery changed as the surgery date approached, and these were influenced by 5 factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Classical Sanskrit Preverb Ordering: A Diachronic Study (United States)

    Papke, Julia Kay Porter


    The Indo-European language family contains many "small words" with various adverbial meanings and functions, including preverbs. The term "preverb" is used to label any of a variety of modifying morphemes that form a close semantic unit with a verb, including both words and prefixes (Booij and Kemenade 2003). Some Indo-European languages not only…

  13. Infant sleep problems: a qualitative analysis of first-time mothers' coping experience. (United States)

    Tsai, Shao-Yu; Hu, Wen-Yu; Lee, Ya-Ling; Wu, Chia-Yi


    to describe the aspects of infant sleep perceived as problematic by first-time Taiwanese mothers and to discover how mothers cope in response to infant sleep concerns. a qualitative approach was used for data collection. in-depth interviews were conducted and audio-taped at mothers' homes. 12 first-time mothers within three months post partum. content analysis was performed to identify patterns, similarities, and differences in the individual and collective interview data. The major themes describing maternal coping experiences were 'self-help' and 'seek-help.' Self-help coping efforts included reception and acceptance of suggestions as well as changing behaviour to allow mothers to feel capable of adapting to infant sleep patterns or problems. Seek-help was a later stage of coping for mothers when they actively utilised formal and informal sources of help to identify and manage infant sleep problems. The majority of mothers sought informal help sources from family members, friends, or online information. Mothers who suspected their infant of suffering from sleep problems either delayed seeking medical advice or did not actively consult a health care provider. nurses and health care providers who work in antenatal, postnatal, and paediatric clinics should actively educate and provide information about infant sleep patterns and sleep management options to first-time mothers and discuss maternal coping strategies. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Parents bereaved by infant death: Sex differences and moderation in PTSD, attachment, coping, and social support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Olff, Miranda; Elklit, Ask


    lost an infant either late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life. Participants filled out questionnaires between 1.2 months and 18 years after the loss (M=3.4 years). Results: Mothers reported significantly more PTSD symptoms, attachment anxiety, emotion-focused coping and feeling let...... down, but significantly lower levels of attachment avoidance than fathers. Attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance and emotion-focused coping were significantly more strongly associated with PTSD severity in mothers than fathers, but only when examined alone. When all variables and time since the loss...... identified for attachment and emotion-focused coping. Overall, more similarities than differences were found between mothers and fathers in the associations between PTSD and covariates. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  15. The preverbal locative NP in lexical functional grammar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Locative inversion construction in Setswana, as in other Bantu languages, defies straightforward analysis in the sense that the preverbal locative NP does not pass the subject hood test, while the post-verbal NP shows features atypical of objects. In the literature in locative inversion constructions, there is a predominant ...

  16. Validation of the Preverbal Visual Assessment (PreViAs) questionnaire. (United States)

    García-Ormaechea, Inés; González, Inmaculada; Duplá, María; Andres, Eva; Pueyo, Victoria


    Visual cognitive integrative functions need to be evaluated by a behavioral assessment, which requires an experienced evaluator. The Preverbal Visual Assessment (PreViAs) questionnaire was designed to evaluate these functions, both in general pediatric population or in children with high risk of visual cognitive problems, through primary caregivers' answers. We aimed to validate the PreViAs questionnaire by comparing caregiver reports with results from a comprehensive clinical protocol. A total of 220 infants (visual development, as determined by the clinical protocol. Their primary caregivers completed the PreViAs questionnaire, which consists of 30 questions related to one or more visual domains: visual attention, visual communication, visual-motor coordination, and visual processing. Questionnaire answers were compared with results of behavioral assessments performed by three pediatric ophthalmologists. Results of the clinical protocol classified 128 infants as having normal visual maturation, and 92 as having abnormal visual maturation. The specificity of PreViAs questionnaire was >80%, and sensitivity was 64%-79%. More than 80% of the infants were correctly classified, and test-retest reliability exceeded 0.9 for all domains. The PreViAs questionnaire is useful to detect abnormal visual maturation in infants from birth to 24months of age. It improves the anamnesis process in infants at risk of visual dysfunctions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Preverbal subjects in null subject languages are not necessarily dislocated

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    João Costa


    Full Text Available In recent work on null subject languages it has been claimed that preverbal subjects are always (clitic-left dislocated. In this paper, we argue against this claim, on the grounds of empirical evidence from European Portuguese concerning agreement facts, asymmetries between preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs with respect to minimality effects, the existence of languages with a mixed system (null expletive subjects and full referential ones, language acquisition data, the behavior of negative QPs and interpretation facts, and propose a non-uniform analysis of preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs that derives their topic interpretation from a predication rule stated configurationally (section 2. Our account of the SVO and VSO orders displayed in European Portuguese relies on a specific formulation of the EPP parameter, on the locality constraint Attract Closest X and on the independently motivated claim that V-movement targets T in European Portuguese (section 3. Under our analysis, the computational system generates equally economical SVO and VSO derivations and discourse considerations, at the appropriate interface, rule out the unfelicitous ones.

  18. Use of spiritual coping strategies by gender, race/ethnicity, and religion at 1 and 3 months after infant's/child's intensive care unit death. (United States)

    Hawthorne, Dawn M; Youngblut, JoAnne M; Brooten, Dorothy


    In the United States, 57,000 children (newborn to 18 years) die annually. Bereaved parents may rely on religious or spiritual beliefs in their grief. The study's purpose was to examine differences in parents' use of spiritual and religious coping practices by gender, race/ethnicity, and religion at 1 and 3 months after infant/ICU death. The sample consisted of 165 bereaved parents, 78% minority. The Spiritual Coping Strategies Scale was used to measure religious and spiritual coping practices, separately. One-way ANOVAs indicated that Black non-Hispanic mothers used significantly more religious coping practices at 3 months than White non-Hispanic mothers. Protestant and Catholic parents used more religious coping practices than the "no" and "other" religion groups at 1 and 3 months. Within the 30 mother-father dyads (paired t-tests), mothers reported significantly greater use of religious coping practices at 1 and 3 months and spiritual coping practices at 3 months than fathers. Religious coping practices were most commonly used by Black mothers and Protestant and Catholic parents. Within dyads, mothers used more spiritual and religious coping practices than fathers. These findings are beneficial for healthcare personnel in providing support to bereaved parents of diverse races/ethnicities and religions. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  19. Predicting Intentional Communication in Preverbal Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder. (United States)

    Sandbank, Micheal; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Watson, Linda R; Gardner, Elizabeth; Keçeli Kaysili, Bahar; Yoder, Paul


    Intentional communication has previously been identified as a value-added predictor of expressive language in preverbal preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder. In the present study, we sought to identify value-added predictors of intentional communication. Of five theoretically-motivated putative predictors of intentional communication measured early in the study (at study entry and 4 months after), three had significant zero-order correlations with later intentional communication (12 months after study entry) and were thus added to a linear model that predicted later intentional communication scores controlling for initial intentional communication scores at study entry. After controlling for initial intentional communication, early motor imitation was the only predictor that accounted for a significant amount of variance in children's later intentional communication.

  20. [Cultural strategies for coping with infant death in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit]. (United States)

    González Gil, T


    To analyze what is the conceptualization the nurses have of child death in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) and identify sociocultural strategies for coping with it. qualitative methodology. Etnography. PICU University Hospital Gregorio Marañón. Madrid. nurses and nursing assistants who work in the PICU. Observation participant and semi-structured in-depth interview. Organization and analysis of the data: the analytic procedure posed from the Established Theory. SOFTWARE OF SUPPORT: Atlas-ti. Child death acquires specific meanings in the PICU context. Cognitive classifications and symbols give meaning to a reality to which the nursing professionals adapt through the creation of cultural coping strategies. Based on the data, 5 strategies could be identified: redefinition of the death concept, delay in identity assignment of the children, (funeral rituals), discharge metaphor, and avoidable condensed symbols. Hidden behind the indifferent aspects of our daily life, difficult social and cultural constructs support our living and working efforts. Through daily life Anthropology we can know and understand our relationship with all our surroundings. When we are aware of them, we can develop new resources and strategies to adapt to the difficult circumstances they cause, in this case, within the context of critical ill child care.

  1. Selective breeding for infant rat separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations: developmental precursors of passive and active coping styles. (United States)

    Brunelli, Susan A; Hofer, Myron A


    Human depression and anxiety disorders show inherited biases across generations, as do antisocial disorders characterized by aggression. Each condition is preceded in children by behavioral inhibition or aggressive behavior, respectively, and both are characterized by separation anxiety disorders. In affected families, adults and children exhibit different forms of altered autonomic nervous system regulation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in response to stress. Because it is difficult to determine mechanisms accounting for these associations, animal studies are useful for studying the fundamental relationships between biological and behavioral traits. Pharmacologic and behavioral studies suggest that infant rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) are a measure of an early anxiety-like state related to separation anxiety. However, it was not known whether or not early ultrasound emissions in infant rats are markers for genetic risk for anxiety states later in life. To address these questions, we selectively bred two lines of rats based on high and low rates of USV to isolation at postnatal (P) 10 days of age. To our knowledge, ours is the only laboratory that has ever selectively bred on the basis of an infantile trait related to anxiety. The High and Low USV lines show two distinct sets of patterns of behavior, physiology and neurochemistry from infancy through adulthood. As adults High line rats demonstrate "anxious"/"depressed" phenotypes in behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation to standard laboratory tests. In Lows, on the other hand, behavior and autonomic regulation are consistent with an "aggressive" phenotype. The High and Low USV lines are the first genetic animal models implicating long-term associations of contrasting "coping styles" with early attachment responses. They thus present a potentially powerful model for examining gene-environment interactions in the development of life-long affective regulation.

  2. Risk factors for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and coping strategies in mothers and fathers following infant hospitalisation in the neonatal intensive care unit. (United States)

    Aftyka, Anna; Rybojad, Beata; Rosa, Wojciech; Wróbel, Aleksandra; Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Hanna


    The aim of this study was to identify the potential risk factors for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in mothers and fathers following infant hospitalisation in the neonatal intensive care unit. The development of neonatal intensive care units has increased the survival rate of infants. However, one of the major parental problems is post-traumatic stress disorder. An observational study covered 125 parents (72 mothers and 53 fathers) of infants aged 3-12 months who were hospitalised in the neonatal intensive care unit during the neonatal period. Third-referral neonatal intensive care unit. Several standardised and self-reported research tools were used to estimate the level of post-traumatic stress symptoms (Impact Event Scale-Revised), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and coping strategies (COPE Inventory). The respondents also completed a Parent and Infant Characteristic Questionnaire. The mothers and fathers did not differ in their parental and infant characteristics. Post-traumatic stress disorder was present in 60% of the mothers and 47% of the fathers. Compared to the fathers, the mothers felt greater stress (p = .020) and presented a higher severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (p post-traumatic stress disorder in the mothers. In the fathers, an Apgar test at 1 min after birth (p = .030) and a partner's post-traumatic stress disorder (p = .038) were related to post-traumatic stress disorder. The mothers compared to the fathers were more likely to use strategies such as: positive reinterpretation and growth, focusing on and venting of emotions, instrumental social support, religious coping and acceptance. In the fathers, the predictors included an Apgar score at 1 min after birth, a lack of congenital anomalies in the child and mental disengagement. Risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as coping strategies, differ in women compare to men. Knowledge of risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder

  3. Early Predictors of Growth in Diversity of Key Consonants Used in Communication in Initially Preverbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    Woynaroski, Tiffany; Watson, Linda; Gardner, Elizabeth; Newsom, Cassandra R.; Keceli-Kaysili, Bahar; Yoder, Paul J.


    Diversity of key consonants used in communication (DKCC) is a value-added predictor of expressive language growth in initially preverbal children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studying the predictors of DKCC growth in young children with ASD might inform treatment of this under-studied aspect of prelinguistic development. Eighty-seven…


    D'Agata, Amy L; Sanders, Marilyn R; Grasso, Damion J; Young, Erin E; Cong, Xiaomei; Mcgrath, Jacqueline M


    Infants who begin early life in the medicalized environment of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) experience disruption to numerous fundamental expectancies. In the NICU, infants are exposed to chronic, extreme stressors that include painful medical procedures and parental separation. Due to their preverbal stage of development, infants are unable to fully express these experiences, and linking these experiences to long-term outcomes has been difficult. This clinical article proposes the terminology Infant Medical Trauma in the NICU (IMTN) to describe the infant experience. Following a discussion of the NICU as an adverse childhood event, the article has three sections: (a) the unique and critical factors that define the newborn period, (b) a review of the IMTN conceptual model, and (c) recommendations for supportive neuroprotective strategies to moderate the intensity of adverse NICU infant experiences. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  5. Mothers' Coping and Hope in Early Intervention (United States)

    Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka


    The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…

  6. Early Predictors of Growth in Diversity of Key Consonants Used in Communication in Initially Preverbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. (United States)

    Woynaroski, Tiffany; Watson, Linda; Gardner, Elizabeth; Newsom, Cassandra R; Keceli-Kaysili, Bahar; Yoder, Paul J


    Diversity of key consonants used in communication (DKCC) is a value-added predictor of expressive language growth in initially preverbal children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studying the predictors of DKCC growth in young children with ASD might inform treatment of this under-studied aspect of prelinguistic development. Eighty-seven initially preverbal preschoolers with ASD and their parents were observed at five measurement periods. In this longitudinal correlational investigation, we found that child intentional communication acts and parent linguistic responses to child leads predicted DKCC growth, after controlling for two other predictors and two background variables. As predicted, receptive vocabulary mediated the association between the value-added predictors and endpoint DKCC.

  7. The Family Coping Inventory Applied to Parents with New Babies. (United States)

    Ventura, Jacqueline N.; Boss, Pauline G.


    Investigated parent coping behaviors in a sample of 100 mothers and 100 fathers of infants using the Family Coping Inventory. Factor analyses yielded three coping patterns: seeking social support and self-development; maintaining family integrity; and being religious, thankful, and content. Coping patterns were affected by respondent gender. (JAC)

  8. Flexible learning of multiple speech structures in bilingual infants. (United States)

    Kovács, Agnes Melinda; Mehler, Jacques


    Children acquire their native language according to a well-defined time frame. Surprisingly, although children raised in bilingual environments have to learn roughly twice as much about language as their monolingual peers, the speed of acquisition is comparable in monolinguals and bilinguals. Here, we show that preverbal 12-month-old bilingual infants have become more flexible at learning speech structures than monolinguals. When given the opportunity to simultaneously learn two different regularities, bilingual infants learned both, whereas monolinguals learned only one of them. Hence, bilinguals may acquire two languages in the time in which monolinguals acquire one because they quickly become more flexible learners.

  9. Infants distinguish antisocial actions directed towards fair and unfair agents.

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    Marek Meristo

    Full Text Available Three experiments provide evidence of an incipient sense of fairness in preverbal infants. Ten-month-old infants were shown cartoon videos with two agents, the 'donors', who distributed resources to two identical recipients. One donor always distributed the goods equally, while the other performed unequal distributions by giving everything to one recipient. In the test phase, a third agent hit or took resources away from either the fair or the unfair donor. We found that infants looked longer when the antisocial actions were directed towards the unfair rather than the fair donor. These findings support the view that infants are able to evaluate agents based on their distributive actions and suggest that the foundations of human socio-moral competence are acquired independently of parental feedback and linguistic experience.

  10. Adult language use and infant comprehension of English: associations with encoding and generalization across cues at 20 months. (United States)

    Phung, Janice N; Milojevich, Helen M; Lukowski, Angela F


    Adult-provided language shapes event memory in children who are preverbal and in those who are able to discuss the past using language. The research conducted to date, however, has not yet established whether infant language comprehension abilities moderate the extent to which preverbal infants benefit from adult-provided supportive language. The present study was conducted to address this question by examining immediate imitation and 1-week delayed generalization across cues in 20-month-old infants as a function of (a) variability in adult-provided linguistic support at encoding and test, (b) infant language comprehension abilities, and (c) their interaction. The provision of supportive adult language at encoding and test was associated with delayed generalization across cues although supportive adult language at encoding did not influence performance at immediate imitation. Infant language comprehension abilities were associated with performance at immediate imitation and delayed generalization across cues. In addition, infant language comprehension abilities moderated the extent to which infants benefited from adult-provided supportive language at encoding and test. The findings contribute to the literature by demonstrating that adult language use and infant language comprehension are independently and differentially associated with immediate imitation and 1-week delayed generalization across cues but also serve to jointly structure event memory in the second year of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Healthy Coping (United States)

    ... help you find healthy ways to cope that work with your lifestyle, including: Your diabetes educator also can offer some tips for dealing ... 3633 Contact Us Privacy Policy | Terms of Use | Social Media Policy | Contact ... 2018 American Association of Diabetes Educators. All rights reserved. The AADE logo is ...

  12. Parent Support Programs and Coping Mechanisms in NICU Parents. (United States)

    Huenink, Ellen; Porterfield, Susan


    Many neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) parents experience emotional distress leading to adverse infant outcomes. Parents may not cope positively in stressful situations, and support programs often are underutilized. To determine coping mechanisms utilized by NICU parents, and types of support programs parents are likely to attend. To determine whether sociodemographic and length-of-stay differences impact coping mechanisms utilized, and types of support programs preferred. A correlational cross-sectional survey design was used. The 28-item Brief COPE tool, questions about demographics and preferred support program styles, was distributed to a convenience sample of NICU parents in a level IV NICU in the southeastern United States. One hundred one NICU parents used coping mechanisms, with acceptance emotional support, active coping, positive reframing, religion, planning, and instrumental support being the most common. Preferred support classes were infant development and talking with other NICU parents. Caucasians more commonly coped using active coping, planning, emotional support, acceptance, instrumental support, and venting compared with other races. Women utilized self-blame coping mechanisms more often compared with men. Younger parents were more likely to use venting and denial coping mechanisms. Parents with a shorter stay utilized self-distraction coping and preferred the class of talking with other parents. Support program preference, type of coping mechanism utilized, and sociodemographic factors may be used to guide the creation of NICU support programs. Additional studies are needed to determine whether support program offering according to preferences and sociodemographic characteristics increases attendance and decreases emotional distress.

  13. Listening preference for child-directed speech versus nonspeech stimuli in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired infants after cochlear implantation. (United States)

    Segal, Osnat; Kishon-Rabin, Liat


    The main purpose of the present study was to determine listening preference for child-directed speech (CDS) over static (white noise, WN) and dynamic (time-reversed speech, TRS) nonspeech stimuli in both normal-hearing (NH) infants and hearing-impaired infants with cochlear implants (CIs). A second purpose was to investigate the effect of auditory experience on listening preference for speech in both groups. A total of 64 infants, 43 NH (age 6 to 20 mos) and 21 CI users (age 14 to 33 mos), were tested. Twenty-two NH infants and 12 infants with CIs were tested on their listening preference for CDS compared with WN. In addition, 21 NH infants and 9 infants with CIs were tested on their listening preference for CDS compared with TRS using the central fixation preference procedure. NH infants and infants with CIs preferred listening to speech compared with WN and TRS. This preference was shown in infants with limited listening experience and increased significantly with auditory exposure for both NH infants and infants with CIs. The extent of preference for speech versus nonspeech among infants with CIs was significantly correlated with gross auditory and preverbal production skills (as measured by ITMAIS and PRISE tests, respectively) as well as with duration of auditory experience. The CI device provides sufficient information for the infants with CIs to follow early language processes similarly to NH infants.

  14. Coping with Feelings

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  15. The origins of probabilistic inference in human infants. (United States)

    Denison, Stephanie; Xu, Fei


    Reasoning under uncertainty is the bread and butter of everyday life. Many areas of psychology, from cognitive, developmental, social, to clinical, are interested in how individuals make inferences and decisions with incomplete information. The ability to reason under uncertainty necessarily involves probability computations, be they exact calculations or estimations. What are the developmental origins of probabilistic reasoning? Recent work has begun to examine whether infants and toddlers can compute probabilities; however, previous experiments have confounded quantity and probability-in most cases young human learners could have relied on simple comparisons of absolute quantities, as opposed to proportions, to succeed in these tasks. We present four experiments providing evidence that infants younger than 12 months show sensitivity to probabilities based on proportions. Furthermore, infants use this sensitivity to make predictions and fulfill their own desires, providing the first demonstration that even preverbal learners use probabilistic information to navigate the world. These results provide strong evidence for a rich quantitative and statistical reasoning system in infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Coping in normal pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Robles de Medina, P.G.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Visser, G.H.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.


    Background: In high-risk populations (e.g., adolescents, substance abusers), coping strategies in pregnancy have been :studied. Avoidance of the stressful situation and aggressive coping are frequently used and related to postnatal depression and other negative outcomes. Little is known about coping

  17. Theoretical Approaches to Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga


    Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.

  18. Do infants discriminate non-linguistic vocal expressions of positive emotions? (United States)

    Soderstrom, Melanie; Reimchen, Melissa; Sauter, Disa; Morgan, James L


    Adults are highly proficient in understanding emotional signals from both facial and vocal cues, including when communicating across cultural boundaries. However, the developmental origin of this ability is poorly understood, and in particular, little is known about the ontogeny of differentiation of signals with the same valence. The studies reported here employed a habituation paradigm to test whether preverbal infants discriminate between non-linguistic vocal expressions of relief and triumph. Infants as young as 6 months who had habituated to relief or triumph showed significant discrimination of relief and triumph tokens at test (i.e. greater recovery to the unhabituated stimulus type), when exposed to tokens from a single individual (Study 1). Infants habituated to expressions from multiple individuals showed less consistent discrimination in that consistent discrimination was only found when infants were habituated to relief tokens (Study 2). Further, infants tested with tokens from individuals from different cultures showed dishabituation only when habituated to relief tokens and only at 10-12 months (Study 3). These findings suggest that discrimination between positive emotional expressions develops early and is modulated by learning. Further, infants' categorical representations of emotional expressions, like those of speech sounds, are influenced by speaker-specific information.

  19. Theoretical Approaches to Coping


    Sofia Zyga; Evmorfia Koukia; Antonios Travlos; Stavroula Mitrousi


    Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar ...

  20. The impact of infant crying on the parent-infant relationship. (United States)

    Oldbury, Sarah; Adams, Karen


    Infant crying is distressing for parents, evoking a range of difficult feelings. Infants who cry often maybe perceived as difficult by their parents, with negative effects on bonding and attachment. Infant crying as a stimulus for child-abuse is also highlighted, as parents' feelings of frustration may provoke harmful responses towards the child. A non-exhaustive literature review was conducted, exploring the impact of infant crying on parents, using CASP tools to support the analysis of twenty qualitative and quantitative studies, published between 2003 and 2013. This paper reports the findings of the review, with a specific focus on the effects of infant crying on the parent-infant relationship. The findings suggest parents may experience anxiety, depression, helplessness, anger and frustration in response to infant crying. Negative effects on bonding and parental perception of the baby are identified. Parents may also experience thoughts of harming their baby, and subsequent feelings of guilt and shame. Universal interventions to help parents prepare for parenthood, and to respond positively to crying are strongly recommended. Opportunities for parents to discuss their feelings towards their infant should be maximised, reducing the impact of infant crying on bonding and attachment. Parents should be empowered to develop strategies and sources of support to help them cope. Early identification of parents experiencing difficulties in coping with infant crying is essential, and risk in relation to potential abuse must be assessed. Health visitors have a key role in providing such support.

  1. Infant Mortality (United States)

    ... Midwest. Top of Page Infant Mortality Rates by Race and Ethnicity, 2015 *Source: Table 1 (p. 79) ... 1.27MB] . In 2015, infant mortality rates by race and ethnicity were as follows: Non-Hispanic black ...

  2. [Coping in transplantated patients]. (United States)

    Telles-Correia, Diogo; Mega, Inês; Barbosa, António; Barroso, Eduardo; Monteiro, Estela


    The theoretical model of coping mechanisms (CM), is based on a discussion between it's main determinant factors: individual and situational (related to the 2 approaches of coping: dispositional and constitutional). Actually the most used classification of CM is based on the division of CM in two main dimensions: coping focused on emotions and coping focused on problem resolution. It is essential that classification methods of CM have in consideration the coexistence of stable dispositional elements with a situational variability. Some instruments to evaluate CM are introduced, based on different theories. Coping can influence health threw different mechanisms (neuroendocrine system, health threatening behaviours and adherence) and is included in two of the more important theoretical models applied to health (Moos & Schafer's and Leventhal's). Based on a systematic literature review we concluded that the most prevalent CM in pre transplantation period are acceptance, active coping, seeking support, and the less used are self-blame and avoidance. In post transplantation period the more prevalent CM continue to be active coping and seeking support associated to confrontation, selfconfidence, religion and coping focused in the problem. Evasive, emotive and fatalistic CM are associated to less control sensed by patients. Confrontation is associated to a better quality of life and avoidance to a reduction of quality of life and higher depression levels and denial to non-adherence increase. Control sensed by patients, CM related to the expression of emotions and denial change threw clinical evolution of transplanted patients.

  3. Do animals and furniture items elicit different brain responses in human infants? (United States)

    Jeschonek, Susanna; Marinovic, Vesna; Hoehl, Stefanie; Elsner, Birgit; Pauen, Sabina


    One of the earliest categorical distinctions to be made by preverbal infants is the animate-inanimate distinction. To explore the neural basis for this distinction in 7-8-month-olds, an equal number of animal and furniture pictures was presented in an ERP-paradigm. The total of 118 pictures, all looking different from each other, were presented in a semi-randomized order for 1000ms each. Infants' brain responses to exemplars from both categories differed systematically regarding the negative central component (Nc: 400-600ms) at anterior channels. More specifically, the Nc was enhanced for animals in one subgroup of infants, and for furniture items in another subgroup of infants. Explorative analyses related to categorical priming further revealed category-specific differences in brain responses in the late time window (650-1550ms) at right frontal channels: Unprimed stimuli (preceded by a different-category item) elicited a more positive response as compared to primed stimuli (preceded by a same-category item). In sum, these findings suggest that the infant's brain discriminates exemplars from both global domains. Given the design of our task, we conclude that processes of category identification are more likely to account for our findings than processes of on-line category formation during the experimental session. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Coping with Feelings

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  5. Coping with Feelings

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  8. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... and manage it, but sometimes feelings such as depression may stay with you and require you to ... it. Medical reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions John Hammarley ...

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  10. Coping with Feelings

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  12. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... emotions John Hammarley talks about coping with emotions Learn more about these emotions: Fear After any illness, ... including anti-anxiety medications. Depression When you first learn you have heart disease, it's normal to feel ...

  13. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Coping with Feelings Updated:Mar 8,2018 Your healthcare ... programs in your community. Tips Keep an anger journal. Write down the people and situations that make ...

  15. Coping with Feelings (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Coping with Feelings Updated:Mar 8,2018 Your healthcare ... programs in your community. Tips Keep an anger journal. Write down the people and situations that make ...

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    Full Text Available ... Aneurysm More Coping with Feelings Updated:Mar 8,2018 Your healthcare professionals may not have talked to ... heart survivors . This content was last reviewed March 2018. Cardiac Rehab Tools & Resources Cardiac Rehab Referral Card | ...

  18. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... at people who are in your way in daily situations, such as at work, in traffic or ... Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Popular Articles ...

  19. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... about coping with emotions Learn more about these emotions: Fear After any illness, it's normal to feel ... off, then take action. Hope Many of the emotions you may feel after a heart disease diagnosis ...

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  1. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... or ask your healthcare professionals about anger or stress management programs in your community. Tips Keep an ... Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & ...

  2. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... you need it. Medical reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions ... and information that can make you feel better. Anxiety Do you often feel restless and worried? This ...

  3. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... coping with emotions Learn more about these emotions: Fear After any illness, it's normal to feel afraid ... life. Every heart patient has some degree of fear, but if your fear is overwhelming, it can ...

  4. Muenster Parental Programme empowers parents in communicating with their infant with hearing loss. (United States)

    Glanemann, Reinhild; Reichmuth, Karen; Matulat, Peter; Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette Am


    With the implementation of the Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS), the age of diagnosis of children with hearing loss (HL) has been steadily declining in the past years. Consequently, there is a need for early educational intervention methods that are suitable for infants at the preverbal level. To meet this need we have developed and evaluated the Muenster Parental Programme (MPP), a responsive parenting programme for parents of children with HL aged 3-18 months. It aims at enhancing the parents' communicative skills towards their child. The MPP is introduced following confirmation of a HL. Flanked by two individual counselling sessions, the programme comprises six group sessions and two single training sessions with video feedback. The focus of the programme lies in enhancing parents' responsive behaviour and in reducing inappropriate initiative behaviour. The present study involved 29 parents of 24 children aged 6.6 (mean, range: 3-12) months at the outset of the MPP. The children's degree of HL ranged from moderate to profound. Parents of children with unilateral HL and/or risk for an additional developmental delay were included. The prospective study compared parent communication skills of a trained (N = 15) versus a control group (N = 14) before and after the MPP. For this purpose, instances of responsive behaviour to the signals of the child and total time of initiative behaviour within a 4-min video-sample were measured before and after completion of the study in both groups. Trained parents could enhance their responsiveness to vocal and preverbal signals of the child (Wilcoxon test, p = .002) and also their responsiveness to non-verbal signals (Wilcoxon test, p communication skills. The MPP constitutes the first evaluated group concept for parents of infants with HL in the German-speaking countries and equally meets the needs of parents and professionals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pain coping strategies: Neonatal intensive care unit survivors in adolescence. (United States)

    van Ganzewinkel, Christ-Jan; Been, Jasper V; Dieleman, Jeanne P; Katgert, Titia; Boelen-van der Loo, Tera; van der Pal, Sylvia M; van Dijk, Monique; Kramer, Boris W; Andriessen, Peter


    Data on long-term consequences of preterm birth on pain coping later in life are limited. To assess whether gestational age, birth weight and neonatal disease severity have effect on pain coping style in adolescents born preterm or with low birth weight. Observational, longitudinal study (Project On Preterm and SGA-infants, POPS-19). We analyzed data of 537 adolescents at the age of 19 years, who were born at a gestational age pain coping questionnaire (PCQ) that assesses pain coping strategies in three higher-order factors: approach ("to deal with pain"), problem-focused avoidance ("to disengage from pain") and emotion-focused avoidance ("expression of pain"). Furthermore, their pain coping effectiveness, pain controllability and emotional reactions to pain were assessed. All participants completed an IQ test. Univariate analysis showed no significant correlation between length of stay, sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis and any of the higher-order factors. Approach was only correlated with IQ. Problem-focused avoidance was, in the multiple regression analysis (including gestational age, IVH and IQ), only correlated with IQ. For emotion-focused avoidance (including birth weight, SGA, IVH, respiratory support and IQ) three independent predictors remained: IVH was positively correlated, while respiratory support and IQ were negatively correlated with emotion-focused avoidance. Early neonatal characteristics and neonatal disease severity have limited effect on pain coping style in adolescence. Higher IQ was associated with the use of adaptive coping strategies, while maladaptive strategies were used less. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Coping during pregnancy: a systematic review and recommendations (United States)

    Guardino, Christine M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel


    Extensive evidence documents that prenatal maternal stress predicts a variety of adverse physical and psychological health outcomes for the mother and baby. However, the importance of the ways that women cope with stress during pregnancy is less clear. We conducted a systematic review of the English-language literature on coping behaviors and coping styles in pregnancy using PsycInfo and PubMed to identify 45 cross-sectional and longitudinal studies involving 16,060 participants published between January 1990 and June 2012. Although results were often inconsistent across studies, the literature provides some evidence that avoidant coping behaviors or styles and poor coping skills in general are associated with postpartum depression, preterm birth, and infant development. Variability in study methods including differences in sample characteristics, timing of assessments, outcome variables, and measures of coping styles or behaviors may explain the lack of consistent associations. In order to advance the scientific study of coping in pregnancy, we call attention to the need for a priori hypotheses and greater use of pregnancy-specific, daily process, and skills-based approaches. There is promise in continuing this area of research, particularly in the possible translation of consistent findings to effective interventions, but only if the conceptual basis and methodological quality of research improve. PMID:24489596

  7. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.


    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  8. Sacred Spaces: Religious and Secular Coping and Family Relationships in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. (United States)

    Brelsford, Gina M; Ramirez, Joshua; Veneman, Kristin; Doheny, Kim K


    Preterm birth is an unanticipated and stressful event for parents. In addition, the unfamiliar setting of the intensive care nursery necessitates strategies for coping. The primary study objective of this descriptive study was to determine whether secular and religious coping strategies were related to family functioning in the neonatal intensive care unit. Fifty-two parents of preterm (25-35 weeks' gestation) infants completed the Brief COPE (secular coping), the Brief RCOPE (religious coping), and the Family Environment Scale within 1 week of their infant's hospital admission. This descriptive study found that parents' religious and secular coping was significant in relation to family relationship functioning. Specifically, negative religious coping (ie, feeling abandoned or angry at God) was related to poorer family cohesion and use of denial. These findings have relevance for interventions focused toward enhancing effective coping for families. Further study of religious and secular coping strategies for neonatal intensive care unit families is warranted in a larger more diverse sample of family members.

  9. Strategi Coping: Teori Dan Sumberdayanya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Maryam


    Full Text Available Coping behavior is defined as individuals’ transactions to cope with the various demands (internal and external. Coping strategies aim to address the situation and demands which pressing, challenging, taxing and exceed the resources (resources. Coping resources affects the coping strategies that will be done in addressing the issue. The aim of this article was to explore further coping stategies mentioned by several scholars, including Stuart and Sundeen (1991, Lazarus and Folkman (1984, as well as Friedman (1998.  Method used was literature review. Result found that coping strategies have two basic forms, namely problem focused form of coping mechanism/direct action and emotion focused of coping/palliative form

  10. Coping with Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Waldemar, Gunhild


    -living with a spouse. The analysis revealed that the basic social psychological problem faced by patients with mild AD was their awareness of decline in personal dignity and value. Coping strategies used to meet these problems were adaptations to the altered situation in order to maintain a feeling of well......-being. The spouse appeared to be the most important social relation. The most significant worries of the patients were about communication in relation to their spouse, and about the reaction of the spouse to the consequences of the disease. Keywords coping; dementia; everyday life; patients’ perspective; social......Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse how patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cope with the changes they face concerning everyday life and social relations. This study used a grounded theory approach in the analysis of interview data from 11 persons with mild AD, home...

  11. Coping changes the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M. Nechvatal


    Full Text Available One of the earliest and most consistent findings in behavioral neuroscience research is that learning changes the brain. Here we consider how learning as an aspect of coping in the context of stress exposure induces neuroadaptations that enhance emotion regulation and resilience. A systematic review of the literature identified 15 brain imaging studies in which humans with specific phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder were randomized to stress exposure therapies that diminished subsequent indications of anxiety. Most of these studies focused on functional changes in the amygdala and anterior corticolimbic brain circuits that control cognitive, motivational, and emotional aspects of physiology and behavior. Corresponding structural brain changes and the timing, frequency, and duration of stress exposure required to modify brain functions remain to be elucidated in future research. These studies will advance our understanding of coping as a learning process and provide mechanistic insights for the development of new interventions that promote stress coping skills.

  12. What is Skilled Coping?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høffding, Simon


    The paper uses a phenomenological analysis of interviews with a professional string quartet to critique the notion of ‘skilled coping’ as used by Hubert Dreyfus. According to Dreyfus, skilled coping is a way of being and acting in which one is immersed in one’s actions such that one is not thinking...... or reflecting. He uses examples from various experts, such a chess-, baseball-, and soccer players, to illustrate this. I argue that his account suffers from a reductive dualism between coping and reflection and further from a lack of clarity. I use my work with the string quartet to illustrate that so...

  13. Impact of Age, and Cognitive and Coping Resources on Coping (United States)

    Trouillet, Raphael; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie


    To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data…

  14. Coping with Feelings

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  15. Coping with Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    explicitly refers to the actually existing economy or comments upon or relates to the question of theorizing versus reality. By analyzing (or generalizing) this empirical material it is demonstrated that Keynes copes with reality by generalizing from experience, giving priority to the most important parts...

  16. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... you need it. Medical reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions John Hammarley ... or she can recommend treatment, perhaps including anti-anxiety medications. Depression When you first learn you have heart disease, ...

  17. Coping with Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Waldemar, Gunhild


    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse how patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cope with the changes they face concerning everyday life and social relations. This study used a grounded theory approach in the analysis of interview data from 11 persons with mild AD, home-living with ......Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse how patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cope with the changes they face concerning everyday life and social relations. This study used a grounded theory approach in the analysis of interview data from 11 persons with mild AD, home......-living with a spouse. The analysis revealed that the basic social psychological problem faced by patients with mild AD was their awareness of decline in personal dignity and value. Coping strategies used to meet these problems were adaptations to the altered situation in order to maintain a feeling of well......-being. The spouse appeared to be the most important social relation. The most significant worries of the patients were about communication in relation to their spouse, and about the reaction of the spouse to the consequences of the disease. Keywords coping; dementia; everyday life; patients’ perspective; social...

  18. Coping with power dispersion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    how the actors involved cope with the new configurations. In this introduction, we discuss the conceptualization of power dispersion and highlight the ways in which the contributions add to this research agenda. We then outline some general conclusions and end by indicating future avenues of research...

  19. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... Advocate for Giving for Media for Arrhythmia About Arrhythmia Why Arrhythmia ... Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Popular Articles ...

  20. Creatively Coping with Stress. (United States)

    Williams, Roger T.; And Others


    The authors suggest that the best way to deal effectively with stress is better management of one's life style. Some of the coping strategies include developing good eating and exercise habits, learning relaxation techniques, building an emotional support system, and anticipating and managing stressful life events. (SK)

  1. Coping with Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Waldemar, Gunhild


    -being. The spouse appeared to be the most important social relation. The most significant worries of the patients were about communication in relation to their spouse, and about the reaction of the spouse to the consequences of the disease. Keywords coping; dementia; everyday life; patients’ perspective; social...

  2. Coping with climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuan; Byg, Anja


    found across villages regarding the degree of perceived sensitivity and responses despite similar exposure to climate extremes. These differences are partly related to the nature of events and varied socio-economic characteristics of households, which influence their vulnerability and ability to cope...

  3. Coping with Coastal Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nichols, Robert J.; Stive, Marcel J.F.; Tol, Richard S.J.


    This chapter focuses on how to cope with coastal change and its implications. There are two major types of response: mitigation representing source control of drivers, such as greenhouse gas emissions and groundwater withdrawal, and adaptation referring to behavioral changes that range from

  4. Infant reflexes (United States)

    ... twitch their hips toward the touch in a dancing movement. GRASP REFLEX This reflex occurs if you ... Infant reflexes can occur in adults who have: Brain damage Stroke When to Contact a Medical Professional ...

  5. CPR - infant (United States)

    ... as 4 to 6 minutes later. Machines called automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can be found in many ... side down. Follow the guidelines for using infant car seats. Teach your baby the meaning of "don' ...

  6. Infant Constipation (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Infant Constipation Page Content Parents also worry that their babies ... without success? These signs can all suggest actual constipation. What parents can do: After the first month ...

  7. Perfectionsism, Coping, and Emotional Adjustment. (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Lapsley, Daniel K.


    Undergraduates (N=204) completed three scales of the student adaptation to college questionnaire. Measures of coping and emotional adjustment revealed differences among the three groups of students labeled adaptive, maladaptive, and non-perfectionists. Perfectionism and coping predicted emotional adjustment but coping as a moderator or mediator in…

  8. Children's Coping with Academic Failure (United States)

    Raftery-Helmer, Jacquelyn N.; Grolnick, Wendy S.


    There is little consensus on how to conceptualize coping after perceived failure and less is known about the contextual resources that may support or undermine the use of specific coping strategies. This study examined parenting in relation to coping using the framework of self-determination theory and examined the motivational processes through…

  9. Infant Care and Infant Health (United States)

    ... Research Information Find a Study Resources and Publications Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find ... How many infants are born each year? What steps can help promote an infant’s health before birth? ...

  10. Parents' views about infant pain in neonatal intensive care. (United States)

    Franck, Linda S; Allen, Alison; Cox, Susanne; Winter, Ira


    The purpose of this study was to describe parents' perceptions and feelings about their infant's pain experience and pain care in the neonatal intensive care unit. Thematic content analysis was used to encode the qualitative information contained in parents' written comments on a questionnaire about their views on infant pain and pain care. The questionnaire was completed by 257 parents from 9 neonatal units in the United Kingdom (n = 196) and 2 neonatal units in the United States (n = 61). Parents' comments indicated that they saw medical procedures as the major source of their infant's pain, wanted more information, and generally desired more involvement in this aspect of their infant's care. Parents' comments indicated that their infant's pain affected them emotionally and that they worried about their future relationship with their infant. Parents also articulated specific ways in which health care professionals could assist them and their infants in coping with neonatal intensive care unit-related pain. The findings from this study expand knowledge about how parents understand and respond to the difficult situation in which their newborn infant is subjected to essential but painful procedures. The findings provide direction for research and clinical practice interventions aimed at: 1) helping parents to gain knowledge and correct their misperceptions; 2) engaging parents in meaningful dialog about their concerns and preferences for involvement; and 3) helping parents to develop effective coping strategies to reduce psychologic distress related to their infant's pain.

  11. Human infants' preference for left-to-right oriented increasing numerical sequences. (United States)

    de Hevia, Maria Dolores; Girelli, Luisa; Addabbo, Margaret; Macchi Cassia, Viola


    While associations between number and space, in the form of a spatially oriented numerical representation, have been extensively reported in human adults, the origins of this phenomenon are still poorly understood. The commonly accepted view is that this number-space association is a product of human invention, with accounts proposing that culture, symbolic knowledge, and mathematics education are at the roots of this phenomenon. Here we show that preverbal infants aged 7 months, who lack symbolic knowledge and mathematics education, show a preference for increasing magnitude displayed in a left-to-right spatial orientation. Infants habituated to left-to-right oriented increasing or decreasing numerical sequences showed an overall higher looking time to new left-to-right oriented increasing numerical sequences at test (Experiment 1). This pattern did not hold when infants were presented with the same ordinal numerical information displayed from right to left (Experiment 2). The different pattern of results was congruent with the presence of a malleable, context-dependent baseline preference for increasing, left-to-right oriented, numerosities (Experiment 3). These findings are suggestive of an early predisposition in humans to link numerical order with a left-to-right spatial orientation, which precedes the acquisition of symbolic abilities, mathematics education, and the acquisition of reading and writing skills.

  12. Coping with Distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærenholdt, Jørgen Ole

    Coping with distances - Producing Nordic Atlantic Societies Mennesker håndterer afstande og producerer derved samfund. Dette er det grundlæggende synspunkt i en afhandling, hvor samfund ikke tages for givet. Samfund er tværtimod noget som hele tiden må produceres, genproduceres og forandres, og det...... været afgørende. Afhandlingen tages sit afsæt i en teoretisk diskussion af begreberne samfund, håndtering (coping på engelsk), social kapital, territorialitet, mobilitet, bonding (stærke identitetsbærende bånd) og bridging (svage, brobyggende forbindelser). Der gås på tværs af vante skel mellem kultur...... trussel mod samfundsbygningen. Men kap. 6 viser de mange måder hvori gennem turismen bidrager til samfundsbygningen, og det er en historie som indledes med en grundig diskussion af opdagelsesrejsernes grundlæggende betydning, også kulturelt. Begge disse kapitler tilføjer coping tilgangen flere analytiske...

  13. Look who’s talking: Pre-verbal infants’ perception of face-to-face and back-to-back social interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie Augusti


    Full Text Available Four-, 6-, and 11-month old infants were presented with movies in which two adult actors conversed about everyday events, either by facing each other or looking in opposite directions. Infants from 6 months of age made more gaze shifts between the actors, in accordance with the flow of conversation, when the actors were facing each other. A second experiment demonstrated that gaze following alone did not cause this difference. Instead the results are consistent with a social cognitive interpretation, suggesting that infants perceive the difference between face-to-face and back-to-back conversations and that they prefer to attend to a typical pattern of social interaction from 6 months of age.

  14. The subject, it is here! The varying structural positions of preverbal subjects O Sujeito, ele está aqui! A posição variável dos sujeitos preverbais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acrisio Pires


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes preverbal overt subjects, comparing Brazilian Portuguese to (other null-subject languages, especially within Romance. It explores syntactic and semantic properties, including resumption, ellipsis, quantifiers and scope, variable binding, ordering restrictions, pronominal distinctions, minimality violations, bare nouns and definiteness. It concludes that preverbal subjects in Brazilian Portuguese can be realized both in argumental positions (Specifier of the Inflectional or Tense Phrase and non-argumental positions (Topic Phrase specifiers, with the possibility that both types of positions are filled by the subject in the same clause, incorporating properties that have been argued not to be found together in other languages.Esse artigo analiza sujeitos preverbais manifestos, comparando o português do Brasil com (outras línguas de sujeitos nulos. O artigo investiga propriedades sintáticas e semânticas, incluindo pronomes resumptivos, elipse, quantificadores e escopo, ligação de variáveis, restrições de ordem, distinções pronominais, violações de minimalidade, nomes sem determinantes, e definitude. Concluo que esses sujeitos preverbais podem realizar-se tanto em posição argumental (especificador do sintagma flexional ou temporal quanto em posições não-argumentais (posições de tópico, com a possibilidade de os dois tipos de posições serem preenchidos pelo sujeito na mesma oração, incorporando propriedades que são tidas como não ocorrendo juntas em outras línguas.

  15. Maternal Coping with Baby Hospitalization at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Pinheiro Ramos

    Full Text Available Abstract: Coping is defined by actions of self-regulation of emotions, cognitions, behaviors, and motivational orientation under stress. This study analyzed the maternal coping with hospitalization of premature and low birth weight infants at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU, using the Motivational Theory of Coping. A questionnaire, a scale and an interview were applied to 25 mothers three times between birth and hospital discharge. The results showed that the mothers’ first visit to the NICU had strong emotional impact; longer hospitalization periods were linked to the decrease in Delegation coping strategies. There was more Support Seeking after the hospital discharge. Multiparous mothers and those who had a job appeared to be more vulnerable to stress. Predominantly adaptive coping responses were identified, even among two mothers whose babies had died, including Self-Reliance strategies, which were mediated by religious beliefs.

  16. Infant Formula (United States)

    ... iron-fortified formula.Some formulas are made from soy milk instead of cow’s milk. If your baby seems ... cow’s milk, your doctor may suggest using a soy-milk formula.If you’re not breastfeeding, use infant ...

  17. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  18. Frontal Integration and Coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben


    and risk minimizing Rationalists dominated by dlPFC • R correlates both with your own level of education and that of your parents 3 Conclusion: Empirical verification of the first derivative of NeM uncovers four different coping patterns within the range of normal behaviors with an obvious analogue...... to the classical tempers. In prospect, differentiating the Frontal integration pattern by temper (General risk attitude) opens an evidence-based pathway for individually tailored neural training towards advanced social objectives as multidisciplinary collaboration and healthy living. References 1. Larsen T...... et al. Gender difference in neural response to psychological stress. SCAN 2 2007, 227–233...





    Introduction. Stress coping skills is one of the most important factors in prediction of addictive behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine this pattern and to compare them with those of non-addicts. Methods. One hundred subjects with substance dependency and 100 non-addict subjects were selected. Both groups were matched on the basis of their socioeconomic state. Stress coping skills of study participants were examined using CS-R scale. Results. Stress coping skills in ...

  20. Infant positioning in daily life may mediate associations between physiotherapy and child development-video-analysis of an early intervention RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, T.; Hielkema, T.; Hamer, E.G.; Reinders-Messelink, H.A.; Hadders-Algra, M.


    BACKGROUND: Paediatric physiotherapy (PPT) in high-risk infants comprises family involvement, but it is unclear whether parents mediate the intervention effect. We demonstrated in a randomized controlled trial in high-risk infants comparing the family centred programme Coping and Caring for infants

  1. Fears, coping and perceived efficacy of coping mechanisms among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The present study examined common childhood fears, coping strategies and perceived efficacy of coping mechanisms among 8- to 13-year-old South African children (n = 141) living in four children\\'s homes. Method: Fears were assessed by means of the Fear List Method (FLM) and the Fear Survey Schedule ...

  2. Development of the Coping Flexibility Scale: Evidence for the Coping Flexibility Hypothesis (United States)

    Kato, Tsukasa


    "Coping flexibility" was defined as the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping) and produce and implement an alternative coping strategy (i.e., adaptive coping). The Coping Flexibility Scale (CFS) was developed on the basis of this definition. Five studies involving approximately 4,400 Japanese…

  3. Coping with an Alcoholic Parent (United States)

    ... Español Coping With an Alcoholic Parent KidsHealth / For Teens / Coping With an Alcoholic Parent What's in this article? Why Do People Drink Too Much? How Does Alcoholism Affect Families? What If a Parent Doesn't ...

  4. School Principals' Emotional Coping Process (United States)

    Poirel, Emmanuel; Yvon, Frédéric


    The present study examines the emotional coping of school principals in Quebec. Emotional coping was measured by stimulated recall; six principals were filmed during a working day and presented a week later with their video showing stressful encounters. The results show that school principals experience anger because of reproaches from staff…

  5. Coping with a Breast Cancer Diagnosis (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Coping With a Breast Cancer Diagnosis Coping with breast cancer A breast cancer diagnosis can cause a wide range of ... as normal a routine as possible. Be patient. Coping with breast cancer requires time, acceptance, a fighting ...

  6. Coping with Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, Ines Marques

    is to provide insights into the ecological role of soil microbes living in a community and its capabilities to cope with short- and long-term stresses. In the introduction, the problem of using RNA based approaches in soil ecology is presented in parallel with the importance of soil microbes for the ecosystem...... research directions is presented. This PhD-thesis resulted in four draft-manuscripts where RNA sequencing techniques were used to answer different research questions related to the response of soil microorganisms to different types of stress: MANUSCRIPT 1 explores the effect of soil sieving...... towards microwaving-heat were detected and corresponded to traits conserved at high taxonomical level. Moreover, using the detected tolerance ranges, it was possible to point nitrification as “at risk” in systems exposed to rapid heat stress, even though some functional redundancy may have occurred...

  7. Cotidiano da família no enfrentamento da condição crônica na infância Lo cotidiano de la familia en el enfrentamiento de una condición crónica en infantes The everyday of the family in coping with a chronic condition on infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica de Assis Salviano Silva


    el cuidado y en hablar sobre sus sentimientos, resaltándose la importancia de un escuchar sensible. Establecer vínculos y formar alianzas es uno de los caminos para la reconstrucción humanizadora de las prácticas en salud.OBJECTIVE: To identify, in the family, the daily changes unleashed by experiencing a chronic disease on infants. METHODS: Is a qualitative research, descriptive and exploratory. The field work was conducted in a teaching hospital in the State of Paraiba, the research was performed on six companions of children hospitalized for chronic illness. Data were collected through a semi-structured interview and analyzed using the principles of thematic analysis. RESULTS: The most significant changes experienced by families include financial difficulties to meet the new demands of the child, and the access to health services. In the home environment were found feelings of fear, doubt and insecurity. CONCLUSION: We highlight that families showed interest in being included in the care and in talking about their feelings; stressing the importance of a sensitive listening. One of the ways to rebuild humanizing health practices is to establish linkages and the construction of alliances.

  8. Coping and Sexual Harassment: How Victims Cope across Multiple Settings. (United States)

    Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Sheff, Sarah E; Smith, Mathew


    The ways sexual harassment occurs both online and in face-to-face settings has become more complicated. Sexual harassment that occurs in cyberspace or online sexual harassment adds complexity to the experiences of victims, current research understandings, and the legal dimensions of this phenomenon. Social networking sites (SNS) are a type of social media that offer unique opportunities to users and sometimes the communication that occurs on SNS can cross the line from flirtation into online sexual harassment. Victims of sexual harassment employ communicative strategies such as coping to make sense of their experiences of sexual harassment. The current study qualitatively examined problem-focused, active emotion-focused, and passive emotion-focused coping strategies employed by sexual harassment victims across multiple settings. We conducted 26 in-depth interviews with victims that had experienced sexual harassment across multiple settings (e.g., face-to-face and SNS). The findings present 16 types of coping strategies-five problem-focused, five active emotion-focused, and six passive emotion-focused. The victims used an average of three types of coping strategies during their experiences. Theoretical implications extend research on passive emotion-focused coping strategies by discussing powerlessness and how victims blame other victims. Furthermore, theoretically the findings reveal that coping is a complex, cyclical process and that victims shift among types of coping strategies over the course of their experience. Practical implications are offered for victims and for SNS sites.

  9. The Meaning of Coping for Psychiatric Patients. (United States)

    Ryan, Jacqueline; Rapley, Mark; Dziurawiec, Suzanne


    Contemporary psychiatric theory holds that a precipitant of major mental illness is the inability of some vulnerable individuals to cope with the difficulties of everyday life. Such mentally ill people are characterized as having deficient, dysfunctional, or absent coping skills. Recently, researchers have exerted considerable effort to distinguish between productive and nonproductive coping. In this article, we argue that not only are such conceptualizations reliant on reductive, circular logic, but they also miss the essentially rational, local, and individual nature of coping in psychiatric patients' lives. We used semistructured interviews and thematic analyses of psychiatric patients' descriptions of their coping. Patients reported that professional intervention reduced their ability to cope, that they distrusted the mental health system and its professionals, that coping mechanisms were misinterpreted, that situational crises modulated coping, and that sometimes coping was just "not coping." We argue for a more respectful, nuanced understanding of coping among mental health professionals. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Coping measurement in occupational setting


    Pinheiro, Fernanda Amaral; Tróccoli, Bartholomeu Tôrres; Tamayo, Mauricio Robayo


    Coping pode ser definido pela forma como as pessoas comumente reagem ao estresse. Estas reações estão relacionadas a fatores pessoais, demandas situacionais e recursos disponíveis (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Entretanto, medidas de coping geral raramente contemplam os fatores situacionais. A mensuração de coping no ambiente ocupacional deve considerar os recursos e estratégias disponíveis, permitir agilidade ao preenchimento e satisfazer critérios psicométricos usuais. O objetivo deste trabalho...

  11. Right Frontoinsular Cortex and Subcortical Activity to Infant Cry Is Associated with Maternal Mental State Talk. (United States)

    Hipwell, Alison E; Guo, Chaohui; Phillips, Mary L; Swain, James E; Moses-Kolko, Eydie L


    The study objective was to examine neural correlates of a specific component of human caregiving: maternal mental state talk, reflecting a mother's proclivity to attribute mental states and intentionality to her infant. Using a potent, ecologically relevant stimulus of infant cry during fMRI, we tested hypotheses that postpartum neural response to the cry of "own" versus a standard "other" infant in the right frontoinsular cortex (RFIC) and subcortical limbic network would be associated with independent observations of maternal mental state talk. The sample comprised 76 urban-living, low socioeconomic mothers (82% African American) and their 4-month-old infants. Before the fMRI scan, mothers were filmed in face-to-face interaction with their infant, and maternal behaviors were coded by trained researchers unaware of all other information about the participants. The results showed higher functional activity in the RFIC to own versus other infant cry at the group level. In addition, RFIC and bilateral subcortical neural activity (e.g., thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, putamen) was associated positively with maternal mental state talk but not with more global aspects of observed caregiving. These findings held when accounting for perceptual and contextual covariates, such as maternal felt distress, urge to help, depression severity, and recognition of own infant cry. Our results highlight the need to focus on specific components of caregiving to advance understanding of the maternal brain. Future work will examine the predictive utility of this neural marker for mother-child function. The current study advances extant literature examining the neural underpinning of early parenting behavior. The findings highlight the special functional importance of the right frontoinsular cortex-thalamic-limbic network in a mother's proclivity to engage in mental state talk with her preverbal infant, a circumscribed aspect of maternal caregiving purported to be a prerequisite of

  12. Identity style and coping strategies. (United States)

    Berzonsky, M D


    This study examined the relationship between identity style and strategies used to cope with stressors that potentially threaten one's sense of identity. Identity style refers to differences in the way individuals construct and revise or maintain their sense of identity. An informational style involves actively seeking out, evaluating, and utilizing self-relevant information. A normative style highlights the expectations and standards of significant others. A diffuse/avoidant style is characterized by procrastination and situation-specific reactions. Late-adolescent college subjects were administered measures of identity style, ways of coping with academic stressors, and test anxiety. Within this self-as-student context, subjects with diffuse and normative identity styles employed avoidant-oriented coping strategies (wishful thinking, distancing, and tension reduction). An informational style was associated with deliberate, problem-focused coping. Findings are discussed in terms of a process model of identity development.

  13. For Caregivers: Coping with Burnout (United States)

    ... Your Community Advocate Get Involved Donate Coping With Burnout Being a caregiver of someone with ALS is ... Solutions in Dealing with Burnout Common Causes of Burnout Perfectionism: A perfectionist continually focuses on what needs ...

  14. Differences Between the Family-Centered "COPCA" Program and Traditional Infant Physical Therapy Based on Neurodevelopmental Treatment Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, Tineke; Blauw-Hospers, Cornill H.; Hulshof, Lily J.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Background. Evidence for effectiveness of pediatric physical therapy in infants at high risk for developmental motor disorders is limited. Therefore, "Coping With and Caring for Infants With Special Needs" (COPCA), a family-centered, early intervention program, was developed. The COPCA program is

  15. Effects of infant massage on state anxiety in mothers of preterm infants prior to hospital discharge. (United States)

    Afand, Nahid; Keshavarz, Maryam; Fatemi, Naiemeh Seyed; Montazeri, Ali


    This study evaluated the effect of infant massage on anxiety in mothers of preterm infants who discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit. Birth of preterm infants commonly leads to great levels of distress and anxiety in mothers. Although various methods have been suggested to help mothers cope with such stressful conditions, the effects of infant massage have not been adequately studied in mothers. This was a quasi-experimental clinical trial. Overall, in 70 mothers and their preterm infants who scheduled to be discharged within 24 hours, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scale (Spielberger) was completed for mothers in both groups in the morning of the day before discharge. The experimental group received eight minutes of massage including two standard similar parts (each part four minutes). The massage was repeated in two parts on the day of discharge, and then, state anxiety was re-measured using Spielberg's scale for all mothers. The control group received no intervention. The results showed that on the day of discharge, there was a significant difference in the overall mean score of maternal state anxiety between the two groups (p anxiety. In both groups, the mean score of maternal state anxiety was significantly decreased on the day of discharge (p anxiety of mothers of preterm infants, so it is recommended that mothers apply massage for preterm infants to improve their mental health. Mothers of preterm infants can promote mental health by continuing massage of their infants at home. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Coping strategies in melanoma patients. (United States)

    Trapp, Michael; Trapp, Eva-Maria; Richtig, Erika; Egger, Josef Wilhelm; Zampetti, Anna; Sampogna, Francesca; Rohrer, Peter Michael; Komericki, Peter; Strimitzer, Tanja; Linder, Michael Dennis


    An observational, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study was performed to assess whether differences in coping behaviour (positive and negative strategies) between patients with either a recent diagnosis of malignant melanoma (MM) or with benign dermatological disease, were predictive of the diagnosis. Coping strategies were assessed with the German version of the stress-coping questionnaire (SVF 120) in 46 inpatients for whom surgery was planned at the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Austria. Subjects were divided into two groups: patients with non-metastatic MM, and patients with benign dermatological diseases (controls). The risk for the diagnosis "melanoma" decreased with higher values of "situation control" (p = 0.007) and increased with higher values of resignation (p = 0.035) and trivialisation (p = 0.039). More-over, the risk for having a MM with thickness > 1 mm decreased in patients with higher values in positive coping strategies (p psychological interventions to improve coping in patients with MM, as differences in coping behaviour seem to appear even in the non-metastatic stage of the disease.

  17. Retirement Transition in Ballet Dancers: "Coping Within and Coping Without"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Roncaglia


    Full Text Available Retirement transitions in ballet dancers have been under researched. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of career transition in ballet dancers, from a life course perspective. Drawing upon existing transition models (SCHLOSSBERG, 1981 and sport literature (TAYLOR & OGILVIE, 1994, the paper investigates how ballet dancers cope (or not with the transition and explores the different factors influencing the coping process. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews from fourteen international ballet dancers were used adopting an idiographic approach through interpretative phenomenological analysis and tenets of grounded theory methodology. The results identified a main theme "Coping strategies: Coping within & without" and eight sub-categories: Denial, alienation, indecision, severance, acceptance, letting go, renegotiation and reconstruction. The individual can experience different responses, which trigger different coping processes and subsequently different types of support are sought. Finally the paper briefly discusses some of the implications for future career development and career guidance. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100210

  18. Coping, social relations, and communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thastum, Mikael; Jensen-Johansen, Mikael Birkelund; Gubba, Lotte


    and concerns for the child. Twenty-one children from 15 families and their parents were interviewed. In 13 families the mother was ill, in two the father. Children were aware of the facts of the illness, but there was limited emotional communication between the generations. The children were very observant...... examples of parentification were found. Communication patterns and parental coping seemed to be highly related to the child's coping repertoire. Even though most children seemed to manage rather well, all children were strongly affected by the illness. The `healthiest' adaptation related to factors within...

  19. Religiosity and coping with loneliness. (United States)

    Rokach, Ami; Chin, Jackie; Sha'ked, Ami


    Loneliness is a universal experience which transcends age, sex, geography, and culture. Religion, and often one's religiosity, are known to affect one's approach to life, behaviour, and social involvement. The present, preliminary study aimed to explore whether coping with loneliness is influenced by one's religious observance. The present study focused on Israeli Jews. 250 participants identified themselves as Secular, Conservative, or Orthodox, by answering a 34-item yes/no questionnaire on loneliness. The three groups statistically significantly differed in their manner of coping with loneliness only on the Religion and Faith subscale, as hypothesized. Similar studies with people of other religious denominations could further highlight that issue.



    Oleksiy Kuznetsov


    The paper characterizes the adaptation of Assessment of Beliefs and Behaviors in Coping. Its validity and reliability are shown. The scales of religious copings have been studied, namely: “Religion as a source of personal relationship with a higher power”, “Religion as a source of worldview that makes sense of life”, “Religion as a source of a sense of control in life”, “Religion as a source of a sense of community”, “Religion as a source of a sense of community”, “Religion as a source of a s...

  1. Infant Mortality and African Americans (United States)

    ... Profiles > Black/African American > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 ... to receive late or no prenatal care. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  2. Percutaneously inserted central catheter - infants (United States)

    PICC - infants; PQC - infants; Pic line - infants; Per-Q cath - infants ... A percutaneously inserted central catheter (PICC) is a long, very thin, soft plastic tube that is put into a small blood vessel. This article addresses PICCs in ...

  3. Evoking communication in Rett syndrome: comparisons with conversations and games in mother-infant interaction. (United States)

    Burford, B; Trevarthen, C


    Girls with Rett syndrome retain a responsiveness with care-givers that corresponds in many respects with the preverbal communication observed with normal infants. This has characteristic rhythmic patterns and phrases, mutual imitation, reciprocal emotional phases and rudimentary oral, vocal and gestural expressions. After individuals with Rett syndrome have passed the critical stage in dissolution of their attention, co-ordination and voluntary control, they retain positive orientation to human faces and eyes with smiling. Video analyses show that they can engage with rhythms and phrases of conversation, sometimes showing a sense of humour and sensitivity to playful teasing. They respond to repeated patterns of expression in rhythmic/prosodic play and to certain forms in music. It is suggested that sensitive and appropriately attuned support for the rudimentary motives for human contact that survive in Rett syndrome can help stabilisation of self-regulatory states, alleviate panic and confusion and facilitate learning. The effects of the disorder may be a consequence of a genetic fault in the elaboration of an Intrinsic Motive Formation in the reticular core of the embryo brain, leading to dysregulation of differentiation in higher cognitive systems and learning, but leaving partially intact motive principles for human intersubjective response.

  4. Left hemisphere EEG coherence in infancy predicts infant declarative pointing and preschool epistemic language. (United States)

    Kühn-Popp, N; Kristen, S; Paulus, M; Meinhardt, J; Sodian, B


    Pointing plays a central role in preverbal communication. While imperative pointing aims at influencing another person's behavior, declarative gestures serve to convey epistemic information and to share interest in an object. Further, the latter are hypothesized to be a precursor ability of epistemic language. So far, little is known about their underlying brain maturation processes. Therefore, the present study investigated the relation between brain maturation processes and the production of imperative and declarative motives as well as epistemic language in N = 32 infants. EEG coherence scores were measured at 14 months, imperative and declarative point production at 15 months and epistemic language at 48 months. Results of correlational analyses suggest distinct behavioral and neural patterns for imperative and declarative pointing, with declarative pointing being associated with the maturation of the left hemisphere. Further, EEG coherence measures of the left hemisphere at 14 months and declarative pointing at 15 months are related to individual differences in epistemic language skills at 48 months, independently of child IQ. In regression analyses, coherence measures of the left hemisphere prove to be the most important predictor of epistemic language skills. Thus, neural processes of the left hemisphere seem particularly relevant to social communication.

  5. Coping with acute stress in the military : The influence of coping style, coping self-efficacy and appraisal emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delahaij, R.; Dam, K. van


    It is of utmost importance to better understand how professionals in high-risk organizations, such as the military and police, appraise and cope with acute stress situations. The goal of this two-wave study was to investigate the role of two individual characteristics, coping style and coping

  6. Osteopenia - premature infants (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... AW, Diamond FB. Disorders of mineral homeostasis in children and adolescents. In: Sperling MA ed. Pediatric Endocrinology . ...

  7. Mechanical ventilator - infants (United States)

    Ventilator - infants; Respirator - infants ... WHY IS A MECHANICAL VENTILATOR USED? A ventilator is used to provide breathing support for ill or immature babies. Sick or premature babies are often ...

  8. Urinary catheter - infants (United States)

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... A urinary catheter is a small, soft tube placed in the bladder. This article addresses urinary catheters in babies. WHY IS ...

  9. High blood pressure - infants (United States)

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... blood vessel of the kidney) In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  10. Stress and the Athlete: Coping with Exercise. (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick


    Athletes, including recreational athletes, must cope with stress, both from within and from others. The causes of stress, identifying the distressed athlete, and coping with stress are dealt with. (MT)

  11. Coping with Unexpected Events: Depression and Trauma (United States)

    ... Read more... Coping With Unexpected Events: Depression and Trauma Responding to Traumatic Events When we ... immediately. back to top How to Cope with Depression After Trauma The healing process after a traumatic ...

  12. Coping with public value conflicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, G.; Huberts, L.W.J.C.; Smulders, R.


    Good governance involves managing conflicting values, leading to the main research question, which consists of three parts: Which public value profiles do public administrators have, which value conflicts do they experience, and which coping strategies are used? Here, previous literature on public

  13. Parent Coping with Adolescent Trichotillomania (United States)

    Stevens, Marcia S.; O'Conner-Von, Susan


    Adolescents who struggle with trichotillomania (TTM; hairpulling disorder) are not alone, their parents also struggle. The focus of this qualitative study was to identify what parents (N = 30) perceive as stressful about parenting an adolescent with TTM and how they cope with these stressors. Parents described uncertainty about the course of the…

  14. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms (United States)

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari


    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  15. Coping with Fear of Recurrence (United States)

    ... to Content Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f on Facebook t on Twitter q on YouTube g on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship About Cancer ...

  16. Pain and Coping in Rituals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt

    by biological, psychological, social and cultural factors, which indicates that a bottom-up and a top-down approach in the study of pain and religion should interact instead of co-exist. This paper presents the initial framework of an interdisciplinary study of pain and coping in the religious mind...

  17. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C


    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months.......Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  18. Coping with Crying in Babies and Toddlers (United States)

    High, Pamela


    Pamela High, MS, MD, co-director of the Infant Behavior, Cry and Sleep Clinic at the Brown Center for the Study of Children at Risk, discusses the phenomena of infant crying and the impact it has on families. In most cases, infant crying will peak and resolve in the early months, but infant irritability can increase the risk of maternal…

  19. Theoretical aspects of coping strategies study


    Kabiyeva, M.; Kasen, G. A.


    In article based on a thorough analysis of classical and modern foreign and domestic literature examines the notion of coping strategies, approaches to the understanding of coping. Theoretically proved that coping is an individual way to interact with the situation according to its own logic, psychological capabilities and its importance in human life, the level of development of coping resources provides a successful adaptation to stress. From the analysis of theoretical literature, we saw t...

  20. Infant crying and abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Wal, M.F.V.D.; Brugman, E.; Sing, R.A.H.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.


    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5·6% (95% CI 4·2-7·0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  1. Dyadic coping and relationship functioning in couples coping with cancer: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traa, M.J.; de Vries, J.; Bodenmann, G.; den Oudsten, B.L.


    Objectives Cancer not only affects the patient but also the partner. In fact, couples may react as a unit rather than as individuals while coping with cancer (i.e., dyadic coping). We assessed (1) the relationship between dyadic coping and relationship functioning in couples coping with cancer and

  2. Development of an Academic Anxiety Coping Instrument. (United States)

    Ottens, Allen J.; Hruby, Paula J.

    This article documents the development of an instrument that would allow researchers and clinicians to assess the ways in which students differ qualitatively with respect to how they cope with the demands of evaluative situations. The Academic Anxiety Coping Scale identifies modal types of coping cognitions and behaviors that students employ…

  3. Coping with Schizophrenia: Patterns in Later Adulthood. (United States)

    Solano, Nancy H.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss


    Investigated whether the coping framework developed with younger adults with schizophrenia could be applied to people over 50 with schizophrenia. Results indicated that coping strategies used by older people were similar to those of younger populations. However, it was reported that efficacy of coping strategies had increased as participants had…

  4. Coping with complexity: past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, E.


    In 1981, a technical report was published with the somewhat enigmatic title 'Coping with complexity.' Its purpose was to discuss how computers could be used to assist process plant operators in coping with complex situations during plant disturbances. Today, coping with complexity is a problem...

  5. Predicting coping styles in adolescence following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask


    , there is a lack of research investigating the interplay between these individual characteristics and their combined effect on different coping styles. It is of special importance to identify maladaptive coping styles in adolescents because they may be prone to use these coping styles for the rest of their lives...

  6. Predicting coping style in adolescence following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    of research investigating the combined effect of several individual characteristics coping. It is of special importance to identify maladaptive coping in adolescents, because they are likely to use these coping styles for the rest of their lives. The present study used a cross-sectional design to investigate...

  7. Feeding methods, sleep arrangement, and infant sleep patterns: a Chinese population-based study. (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Na; Wang, Hui-Shan; Chang, Jen-Jen; Wang, Lin-Hong; Liu, Xi-Cheng; Jiang, Jing-Xiong; An, Lin


    Findings from prior research into the effect of feeding methods on infant sleep are inconsistent. The objectives of this study were to examine infants' sleep patterns by feeding methods and sleep arrangement from birth to eight months old. This longitudinal cohort study enrolled 524 pregnant women at 34-41 weeks of gestation and their infants after delivery in 2006 and followed up until eight months postpartum. The study subjects were recruited from nine women and children hospitals in nine cities in China (Beijing, Chongqing, Wuhan, Changsha, Nanning, Xiamen, Xi'an, Jinan, and Hailin). Participating infants were followed up weekly during the first month and monthly from the second to the eighth month after birth. Twenty-four hour sleep diaries recording infants' sleeping and feeding methods were administered based on caregiver's self-report. Multivariable mixed growth curve models were fitted to estimate the effects of feeding methods and sleep arrangement on infants' sleep patterns over time, controlling for maternal and paternal age, maternal and paternal education level, household income, supplementation of complementary food, and infant birth weight and length. Exclusively formula fed infants had the greatest sleep percentage/24 h, followed by exclusively breast milk fed infants and partially breast milk fed infants (Ppattern. However, the differences in sleep percentage and night waking frequency between exclusively formula and exclusively breast milk fed infants weakened over time as infants developed. In addition, compared to infants with bed-sharing sleep arrangement, those with room sharing sleep arrangement had greater daytime and 24-hour infant sleep percentage, whereas those with sleeping alone sleep arrangement had greater nighttime sleep percentage. Our data based on caregiver's self-report suggested that partial breastfeeding and bed-sharing may be associated with less sleep in infants. Health care professionals need to work with parents of newborns

  8. Coping as a mediator of emotion. (United States)

    Folkman, S; Lazarus, R S


    There is widespread conviction among health care professionals that coping affects emotion. Yet theory and research have traditionally emphasized the effects of emotion on coping. The present research addresses this imbalance by evaluating the extent to which coping mediated emotions during stressful encounters in two Caucasian, community-residing samples. Subjects' recently experienced stressful encounters, the ways they coped with the demands of those encounters, and the emotions they experienced during two stages of those encounters were assessed repeatedly. The extent to which eight forms of coping mediated each of four sets of emotions was evaluated with a series of hierarchical regression analyses (of residuals). Coping was associated with changes in all four sets of emotions, with some forms of coping associated with increases in positive emotions and other forms associated with increases in negative emotions.

  9. The social epidemiology of coping with infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L; Christensen, Ulla; Holstein, B E


    BACKGROUND: To analyse the cross-sectional association between coping responses with infertility and occupational social class. Infertility is evenly distributed across social classes in Denmark, and there is free access to high-quality assisted reproduction technology. METHODS: Data were based...... was developed in four categories: active-avoidance coping; active-confronting coping; passive-avoidance coping; meaning-based coping. These subscales were later confirmed by factor analysis. Occupational social class was measured in a standardized way. RESULTS: Contrary to expectations, the logistic regression...... analyses showed that women from lower social classes V + VI and men from social classes III + IV used significantly more active-confronting coping. Women from lower social classes V + VI used significantly more meaning-based coping. Both men and women from social classes III - VI used significantly more...

  10. Executive function and coping in stroke survivors. (United States)

    Kegel, Jessica; Dux, Moira; Macko, Richard


    Stroke is a leading cause of disability and sequelae may include physical, emotional, and cognitive impairments. The methods employed to cope with distress, both emotional and cognitive, have not been evaluated in individuals post-stroke. However, research in traumatic brain injury (TBI) suggests that executive function is positively correlated with adaptive coping and negatively correlated with maladaptive coping strategies (Krpan et al., 2007). Examination of these constructs post-stroke may assist with enriching our understanding of cognitive and emotional symptomatology and optimize rehabilitation strategies. The present study aimed to assess the association between executive function and coping strategies in a sample of chronic stroke survivors. The researchers hypothesized that executive function would be positively correlated with adaptive coping strategies and negatively correlated with maladaptive coping strategies. Fifteen stroke survivors were administered a battery of cognitive tests assessing executive function and also completed the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WAYS), a self-report coping measure. Analyses indicated that executive function deficits were related to increased avoidant coping. Contrary to expectations, executive function was not significantly related to active coping. In addition, post hoc analyses revealed that executive function was a significant predictor of avoidant coping after controlling for demographics. Our data, in accordance with prior work in TBI, suggests that executive function and aspects of coping are associated. Rehabilitation strategies that improve executive function may also lead to utilization of adaptive coping strategies. Research has shown that aerobic exercise increases activation in the frontal lobe and improves executive function (Colcombe & Kramer, 2003; Colcombe et al., 2004). Future studies should examine whether aerobic exercise positively affects executive function and coping in stroke survivors.

  11. Developmental Trajectories of Hand Movements in Typical Infants and Those at Risk of Developmental Disorders: An Observational Study of Kinematics during the First Year of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ouss


    are significantly associated with age in cohorts of typical and at-risk infantsdiffer significantly at 5–6 months of age, depending on the context: relating either with an object or a person.Environmental and developmental factors shape the developmental trajectories of hand movements in different cohorts: environment for infants with VIMs; stage of development for premature infants and those with West syndrome; and both factors for infants with orality disorders.The curvature of hand movements specifically reflects atypical development in infants with West syndrome when developmental age is considered.We aimed to discriminate between typical and atypical developmental trajectory patterns of at-risk infants in an interactive setting in this observational and longitudinal study, with the assumption that hand movements (HM reflect preverbal communication and its disorders. We examined the developmental trajectories of HM in five cohorts of at-risk infants and one control cohort, followed from ages 2 to 10 months: 25 West syndrome (WS, 13 preterm birth (PB, 16 orality disorder (OD, 14 with visually impaired mothers (VIM, 7 early hospitalization (EH, and 19 typically developing infants (TD. Video-recorded data were collected in three different structured interactive contexts. Descriptors of the hand motion were used to examine the extent to which HM were associated with age and cohort. We obtained four principal results: (i the kinematics of HM (spatial use, curvature, acceleration, and velocity were significantly associated with age in all cohorts; (ii HM significantly differed at 5–6 months of age in TD infants, depending on the context; (iii environmental and developmental factors shaped the developmental trajectories of HM in different cohorts: environment for VIM, development for PB and WS, and both factors for OD and; (iv the curvatures of HM showed atypical development in WS infants when developmental age was considered. These findings support the importance

  12. College students coping with interpersonal stress: Examining a control-based model of coping. (United States)

    Coiro, Mary Jo; Bettis, Alexandra H; Compas, Bruce E


    The ways that college students cope with stress, particularly interpersonal stress, may be a critical factor in determining which students are at risk for impairing mental health disorders. Using a control-based model of coping, the present study examined associations between interpersonal stress, coping strategies, and symptoms. A total of 135 undergraduate students from 2 universities. Interpersonal stress, coping strategies, depression, anxiety, and somatization were assessed via self-report. Students reporting more interpersonal stress reported more depression, anxiety, and somatization, and they reported less use of engagement coping strategies and greater use of disengagement coping strategies. Engagement coping strategies accounted for a significant portion of the association between interpersonal stress and mental health symptoms. Unexpectedly, coping strategies did not moderate the association between stress and mental health symptoms. Interventions designed to improve students' coping strategies may be an effective way to reduce mental health problems on college campuses.

  13. Coping strategies in anxious surgical patients. (United States)

    Aust, Hansjoerg; Rüsch, Dirk; Schuster, Maike; Sturm, Theresa; Brehm, Felix; Nestoriuc, Yvonne


    Anaesthesia and surgery provoke preoperative anxiety and stress. Patients try to regain control of their emotions by using coping efforts. Coping may be more effective if supported by specific strategies or external utilities. This study is the first to analyse coping strategies in a large population of patients with high preoperative anxiety. We assessed preoperative anxiety and coping preferences in a consecutive sample of 3087 surgical patients using validated scales (Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale/Visual Analogue Scale). In the subsample of patients with high preoperative anxiety, patients' dispositional coping style was determined and patients' coping efforts were studied by having patients rate their agreement with 9 different coping efforts on a four point Likert scale. Statistical analysis included correlational analysis between dispositional coping styles, coping efforts and other variables such as sociodemographic data. Statistical significance was considered for p < 0.05. The final analysis included 1205 patients with high preoperative anxiety. According to the initial self-assessment, about two thirds of the patients believed that information would help them to cope with their anxiety ("monitors"); the remainder declined further education/information and reported self-distraction to be most helpful to cope with anxiety ("blunters"). There was no significant difference between these two groups in anxiety scores. Educational conversation was the coping effort rated highest in monitors whereas calming conversation was the coping effort rated highest in blunters. Coping follows no demographic rules but is influenced by the level of education. Anxiolytic Medication showed no reliable correlation to monitoring and blunting disposition. Both groups showed an exactly identical agreement with this coping effort. Demand for medical anxiolysis, blunting or the desire for more conversation may indicate increased anxiety. The use of the

  14. Coping in sport: A systematic review. (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Polman, Remco C J


    The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature on coping in sport, examining evidence for both the trait and process perspectives, the types of coping strategies used by athletes, gender differences, age-related differences, and coping effectiveness. A comprehensive literature search of SPORTdiscus, PsychLIT, and PsychINFO in November 2004 yielded 64 studies spanning 16 years (1988 - 2004). The results indicated that athletes use a variety of coping strategies. Forty-six papers supported or adopted the process perspective (Lazarus, 1999; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). There were also gender and age-related differences. Evidence was found to support three of the different models of coping effectiveness (goodness-of-fit approach, choice of coping strategy, and automacity). Based on this evidence, future research should address some of the methodological and measurement limitations of the sport psychology coping literature. In particular, prospective research designs that minimize the time delay between recall and the stressful experience are required to assess how coping changes over time. More attention to developmental issues to guide the formulation of sport-specific models to enhance our theoretical understanding is also required. Finally, coping effectiveness should be examined both in the short and long term, as a greater understanding of coping effectiveness has the potential to make a significant impact on applied practice.

  15. Coping and schizophrenia: a re-analysis. (United States)

    Rudnick, Abraham; Martins, Jennifer


    Standard notions of coping have not been particularly fruitful in the study of schizophrenia. However, facilitation of adaptive coping with serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia is an important part of mental health care in general and of psychiatric nursing in particular. This study explored factors of coping and examined their relation with symptom severity and with quality of life of outpatients with schizophrenia. Data were analyzed from a previous cross-sectional study, using the Ways of Coping Checklist, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the Wisconsin Quality of Life Index. A principal component factor analysis was performed on the Ways of Coping Checklist scores, and the resulting six coping factors were then tested for correlations with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Wisconsin Quality of Life Index scores. Factors conceptually linked with emotion-focused coping were more strongly associated with symptom severity and with quality of life than were factors conceptually linked with problem-focused coping. The emotion-focused versus problem-focused coping framework was only partly explanatory. It may be fruitful to study whether supportive counseling enhances beneficial factors conceptually linked with emotion-focused coping of individuals with schizophrenia.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Sulistyo Wardani


    Full Text Available Autis merupakan grey area dibidang kedokteran, yang artinya masih merupakan suatu hal yang penyebab, mekanisme, dan terapinya belum jelas benar. Permasalahan yang dihadapi oleh orang tua yang mempunyai anak autis ini memerlukan pemecahan sebagai upaya untuk beradaptasi terhadap masalah dari tekanan yang menimpa mereka. Konsep untuk memecahkan masalah ini disebut coping. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui orientasi strategi coping yang digunakan oleh orang tua untuk menghadapi anak penderita autis, bagaimana bentuk perilaku coping yang digunakan, dan apa dampak perilaku coping tersebut bagi orang tua. Subjek penelitian ini adalah orang tua yang mempunyai anak autis yang bersekolah di SD PLUS Harmony. Metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah interview, sedangkan teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis induktif deskriptif. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa strategi coping pada orang tua yang mempunyai anak autis berorientasi pada penyelesaian masalah yang dihadapi (Problem Focused Coping, sedangkan bentuk perilaku coping yang muncul yaitu Instrumental Action yang termasuk dalam Problem Focused Coping dan Self-Controlling, Denial, dan Seeking Meaning yang termasuk dalam Emotion Focused Coping. Dampak positif dari perilaku coping yang dilakukan oleh orang tua yaitu Exercised Caution dan Seeking Meaning, sedangkan dampak negatif yang muncul diatasi orang tua dengan Intropersitive, Negotiation, dan Accepting Responbility.

  17. Frequently Used Coping Scales: A Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Kato, Tsukasa


    This article reports the frequency of the use of coping scales in academic journals published from 1998 to 2010. Two thousand empirical journal articles were selected from the EBSCO database. The COPE, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Religious-COPE and Coping Response Inventory were frequently mentioned. In particular, the COPE (20.2%) and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (13.6%) were used the most frequently. In this literature reviewed, coping scales were most often used to assess coping with health issues (e.g. illness, pain and medical diagnoses) over other types of stressors, and patients were the most frequent participants. Further, alpha coefficients were estimated for the COPE subscales, and correlations between the COPE subscales and coping outcomes were calculated, including depressive symptoms, anxiety, negative affect, psychological distress, physical symptoms and well-being. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Open Adoption of Infants: Adoptive Parents' Perceptions of Advantages and Disadvantages. (United States)

    Siegel, Deborah H.


    Conducted qualitative study of adoptive parents' (n=21 couples) reactions to recent open adoptions of their infants. Findings indicated overwhelmingly positive feelings about open adoption. Respondents often noted that issue of openness was eclipsed by other concerns: coping with infertility, finding a baby, dealing with personnel, and dealing…

  19. Infant Gastroesophageal Reflux Information on the World Wide Web. (United States)

    Balgowan, Regina; Greer, Leah C; D'Auria, Jennifer P


    The purpose of this study was to describe the type and quality of health information about infant gastroesophageal reflux (GER) that a parent may find on the World Wide Web. The data collection tool included evaluation of Web site quality and infant GER-specific content on the 30 sites that met the inclusion criteria. The most commonly found content categories in order of frequency were management strategies, when to call a primary care provider, definition, and clinical features. The most frequently mentioned strategies included feeding changes, infant positioning, and medications. Thirteen of the 30 Web sites included information on both GER and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Mention of the use of medication to lessen infant symptoms was found on 15 of the 30 sites. Only 10 of the 30 sites included information about parent support and coping strategies. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) should utilize well-child visits to address the normalcy of physiologic infant GER and clarify any misperceptions parents may have about diagnosis and the role of medication from information they may have found on the Internet. It is critical for PNPs to assist in the development of Web sites with accurate content, advise parents on how to identify safe and reliable information, and provide examples of high-quality Web sites about child health topics such as infant GER. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Balabolkin


    Full Text Available The article deals with the etiology, growth mechanisms, clinical implications, diagnostics and treatment of the infant food allergy. The author highlights the status of the allergy to the proteins of cow milk within this age group of children. Alongside the article describes the modern approaches to the diet therapy of the infants with the allergy to the proteins of cow milk.Key words: infant, food allergy, allergy to the proteins of cow milk, diet therapy.

  1. Child coping, parent coping assistance, and post-traumatic stress following paediatric physical injury. (United States)

    Marsac, M L; Donlon, K A; Winston, F K; Kassam-Adams, N


    Following a physical injury, many children exhibit long-term psychological reactions such as post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Children's coping strategies, and the ways that others help them cope with injury (i.e. coping assistance), are understudied, potentially malleable variables that could be targeted in preventive interventions. The objectives of the current research were to describe child coping behaviour and parent coping assistance following a child's injury, and to investigate the relationships among coping, coping assistance and child PTSS. Participants included 82 children with injuries and one parent of each child. Children completed measures of coping and coping assistance 2 weeks after their injury (T1). Children also completed measures of coping and PTSS at a 3-month follow-up (T2). Parents reported on the coping assistance they provided to their child at T1. Children reported using an average of six coping strategies (out of 10) with wishful thinking, social support, distraction, and cognitive restructuring endorsed most frequently. Child-reported social withdrawal and resignation 2 weeks after his or her injury (T1) were related to subsequent PTSS (T2). Social withdrawal at T2 was related to concurrent child PTSS (T2). Children were more likely to seek social support when their parents reported helping their child cope. No relationships were identified between active coping behaviours or parent coping assistance and PTSS outcomes. Findings suggest that children's coping strategies (particularly social withdrawal and resignation) play a possibly important, complex role in the development of traumatic stress symptoms. When parents help their child cope, children are more likely to seek out social support, suggesting that they will be more able to ask their parents for help as needed. Future research should identify effective strategies to prevent PTSS including how parents can best support their child following paediatric injury. © 2011

  2. Coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Karen

    Publikationen er en ny type manual til kvalitative analyser af stressprocesser, som omfatter personlige betydninger, emotioner, copingindsatser og udviklingsmæssige resultater af forløbene. Endelig giver manualen også et bud på, hvorledes man kan foretage og analysere et livshistorisk interview f...

  3. The South American catfish genus Brochis Cope, 1872 (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.; Isbrücker, I.J.H.


    Examination of the type specimens of Callichthys splendens Castelnau, 1855, Brochis coeruleus Cope, 1872 (type species of Brochis Cope, 1872), Brochis dipterus Cope, 1872, Corydoras semiscutatus Cope, 1872, Chaenothorax bicarinatus Cope, 1878 (type species of Chaenothorax Cope, 1878), and

  4. Genital Problems in Infants (Female) (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  5. Coping styles of headache sufferers. (United States)

    Siniatchkin, M; Riabus, M; Hasenbring, M


    Psychological factors are important in the chronification and aggravation of headaches. We studied 90 patients suffering from migraine, chronic daily headache (CDH) evolved from migraine, and episodic or chronic tension-type headache (TTH). Emotional, cognitive, and behavioral pain coping were assessed using the Kiel Pain Inventory (KPI), Beck's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory, and Quality of Life Questionnaire. In addition, the clinical course of headache was analyzed using a validated headache diary. The results were as follows. Firstly, the KPI is reliable internally for the assessment of pain-coping strategy employment among headache patients. Secondly, migraine sufferers were characterized by pronounced psychological abnormalities during the headache phase, demonstrating a less adaptive coping behavior. This was in contrast to the TTH patients, who showed more general distress manifesting in elevated anxiety and lower quality of life. The only factor which appeared to be essential for differentiating between migraine and TTH was the intensity of headache. Thirdly, chronic TTH and CDH evolved from migraine demonstrated more pronounced psychological disabilities and more severe clinical courses of headaches than episodic TTH or nontransformed migraine. The predictor variable for transformation of migraine was impairment of well-being/quality of life, and for transformation of TTH, the frequency of headaches and depression. Finally, analgesic misuse seems to be less important for chronification and transformation of headaches than the degree of psychological disability. This study draws attention to the role of psychological factors in the chronification of TTH and transformation of migraine and provides some recommendations for the behavioral treatment of chronic headaches.

  6. Insight, distress and coping styles in schizophrenia


    Cooke, Michael; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P.P.; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena


    Background The stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated. Method We examined the associations between insight, distress and a number of coping styles in 65 outpatients with schizophrenia (final n = 57) in a ...

  7. The long-term changes in coping strategies in schizophrenia: temporal coping types. (United States)

    Ritsner, Michael S; Ratner, Yael


    This prospective study aimed to define the long-term changes in coping strategies used by schizophrenia patients and their relation to clinical and psychosocial factors. The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, psychiatric scales, and self-report questionnaires were administered to 148 schizophrenia patients at admission and 16 months thereafter. Based on trends of individual coping patterns to show change over time, four temporal coping types were distinguished: stable favorable and unfavorable, and becoming favorable and unfavorable. We found that coping patterns of 62.2% of patients remained stable over time, became unfavorable among 19.6% of patients, and became favorable among 18.2% of patients. Each temporal coping type is associated with a specific pattern of changes in clinical and psychosocial variables. The findings underscore the clinical relevance of temporal coping types and corroborate the appropriateness of focusing on aspects of coping behavior in treatment and rehabilitation of schizophrenia patients.

  8. Stress and coping with discrimination and stigmatization. (United States)

    Berjot, Sophie; Gillet, Nicolas


    The aim of this article is to briefly review the literature on stigmatization and more generally identity threats, to focus more specifically of the way people appraise and cope with those threatening situations. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping of Lazarus and Folkman (1984), we propose a model of coping with identity threats that takes into accounts the principle characteristic of stigma, its devaluing aspect. We present a model with specific antecedents, a refined appraisal phase and a new classification of coping strategies based on the motives that may be elicited by the threatening situation, those of protecting and/or enhancing the personal and/or social identity.

  9. With a little coping from my friends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Tanja; Waldstrøm, Christian; Andersen, Johan Hviid


    In this study, we explore the distributed nature of coping and thereby expand the understanding of coping as more than a transaction between the individual and a specific stressful situation. We argue that coping is not just an individual process, but is embedded in the organizational and thereby...... social and cultural environment, the employees form part of. Results from a longitudinal mixed methods study at one department in a large Danish company indicate that specific ways of coping are socially distributed among employees due to organizational, cultural and managerial characteristics...

  10. Coping in patients with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farcaş, A.D.


    Full Text Available The outcome of patients with chronic heart failure is influencedby the type of coping with chronic heart disease. We employed the COPEquestionnaire to identify the mechanisms of coping and analyze theparameters involved. Our results show that heart failure patients use mainly emotion-based coping (acceptance, seeking emotional support, religion. Independent variables that influence the type of coping mechanisms include gender, anxiety, depression and decreased quality of life. Identification of disadaptive mechanisms should become an important step in a complex management program devised by a multidisciplinary team.

  11. Quality of Maternal Parenting of 9-Month-Old Infants Predicts Executive Function Performance at 2 and 3 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanhua Cheng


    Full Text Available Whereas the effects of maternal parenting quality during infants’ 2nd year on later executive function (EF have been studied extensively, less is known about the impact of maternal parenting quality during the 1st year. The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal parenting during infants’ 1st year predicted EF performance at 2 and 3 years of age in a Chinese sample. Data were collected from 96 mother-infant dyads (42 males when the infants were 6, 9, 25, and 38 months old. Cognitive development as a control variable was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II at 6 months. At 9 months, three aspects of maternal parenting quality (sensitivity, mind-mindedness, and encouragement of autonomy were assessed with MBQS, mind-mindedness coding system, and encouragement of autonomy coding schema within a 15-min mother–infant interaction. Three aspects of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, and delay EF were measured at 25 and 38 months with age-appropriate tasks. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that maternal mind-mindedness had a more important effect than did the encouragement of autonomy and maternal sensitivity during infants’ preverbal period. More precisely, maternal mind-mindedness at 9 months predicted inhibitory control at 2 and 3 years, and maternal encouragement of autonomy predicted performance on delay EF tasks at 3 years, maternal sensitivity had no observed effect on children’s EF. This study suggests that maternal parenting quality during the 1st year (maternal mind-mindedness and encouragement of autonomy, but not maternal sensitivity impacts later EF development.

  12. How Dyslexic Teenagers Cope: An Investigation of Self-Esteem, Coping and Depression (United States)

    Alexander-Passe, Neil


    Research into how dyslexics cope and the effects of their coping has received little attention in the 100 years since dyslexia has been recognized. Why is this? Well it is not an easy area to investigate, partly as most qualitative studies have looked only at coping strategies of specific dyslexics. These are individuals and are unsuitable for…

  13. College Students Coping with Interpersonal Stress: Examining a Control-Based Model of Coping (United States)

    Coiro, Mary Jo; Bettis, Alexandra H.; Compas, Bruce E.


    Objective: The ways that college students cope with stress, particularly interpersonal stress, may be a critical factor in determining which students are at risk for impairing mental health disorders. Using a control-based model of coping, the present study examined associations between interpersonal stress, coping strategies, and symptoms.…

  14. A Systematic Review of Studies Using the Brief COPE: Religious Coping in Factor Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian U. Krägeloh


    Full Text Available Religion is generally recognized as a major resource for dealing with stressful events, but its relationship with secular coping strategies continues to be debated. The present article provides a systematic review of the way in which analyses of the sub-scale turning to religion of the widely used Brief COPE [1] instrument are presented in peer-reviewed research articles, in order to investigate how the wealth of data published using this instrument can inform how religious coping relates to other coping strategies. Of the 212 identified articles that included turning to religion in their analyses, 80 combined sub-scale scores to form higher-order coping factors, 38 of which based on exploratory factor analyses of their own datasets. When factor analyses had used individual items as indicators, religious coping was more likely to load together with maladaptive coping strategies, and more likely with adaptive coping strategies when analyses were conducted at sub-scale level. To a large extent, the variation in the results from exploratory factor analyses appears to be due to the diverse and often inappropriate factor analytic techniques used to determine the factor structure of the Brief COPE instrument. Reports from factor analyses of the Brief COPE therefore have very little value when trying to make general conclusions about the role of religious coping in relation to secular coping methods.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvan Vandenplas


    Full Text Available Microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract is different in breastfed infants and in children receiving standard infant formulas. While breast milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and can also contain some probiotics, standard infant formulas contain neither one thing nor the other. The formulation of an infant formula includes various prebiotic ingredients: galacto- and fructooligosaccharides, polydextrose and their combinations. There is evidence that the addition of prebiotics to baby food makes the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of infants receiving infant formulas more similar to the microbiota of breastfed children. Prebiotics alter the metabolic activity of the intestinal microflora (lower stool pH and increase the amount of short-chain fatty acids, have a bifidogenic effect and provide a stool consistency and bowel movement frequency that are similar to these parameters in breastfed infants. There is limited evidence that such changes in microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract may have some influence on the development of an infant's immune system. Adverse events are extremely rare in the application of prebiotics. 

  16. Stillbirth and Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard


    mechanisms behind these associations remain largely unknown. Although maternal obesity is associated with a wide range of complications in the mother and neonate that may impair fetal and infant survival, the increased risk of stillbirth and infant mortality is virtually unchanged when accounting...

  17. Coping and cognition in schizophrenia and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vandenBosch, RJ; Rombouts, RP


    We examined the stable relations between coping style and cognitive function in schizophrenic and depressed patients and in patient and normal controls on two test occasions. The results show that a poor self-report of coping style is independent of psychiatric diagnosis, but there are associations

  18. Ethnographic assessment of pain coping responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, R.


    of these Ss. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). Medline: A sample consisting of 54 patients and 31 dentists of Chinese, Anglo-American, and Scandinavian ethnic origin were interviewed about their ways of coping with pain. Instruments designed to assess pain coping were constructed from...

  19. Age differences in stress and coping processes. (United States)

    Folkman, S; Lazarus, R S; Pimley, S; Novacek, J


    The dramatic increase in the numbers of people who are living into old age has been accompanied by a growing interest among psychologists and health care professionals in their sources of stress and how they cope with them. Despite this interest, little is known about normative stress and coping patterns and the ways in which these patterns differ in older and younger people. This study, which draws on stress and coping theory, compares younger and older community-dwelling adults in daily hassles and eight kinds of coping. Two interpretations of age differences are evaluated: a developmental interpretation, which says that there are inherent, stage-related changes in the ways people cope as they age, and a contextual interpretation, which says that age differences in coping result from changes in what people must cope with. The findings indicate that there are clear age differences in hassles and coping. Overall, the findings tend to support the developmental interpretation, although the contextual interpretation also applies.

  20. Mindfulness, Stress, and Coping among University Students (United States)

    Palmer, Angele; Rodger, Susan


    A sample of 135 first-year university students living in residence completed questionnaires that measured individual differences in mindfulness, coping styles, and perceived stress. Findings revealed significant positive relationships between mindfulness and rational coping, and significant negative relationships with emotional and avoidant coping…

  1. Risk Coping by Firms during the Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guimbert, S; Oostendorp, R.H.


    In this paper, we analyze risk coping behavior of Cambodian firms during the global financial crisis. Among various risk coping strategies, we specifically analyze input smoothing (labor, raw materials, or capital). If it is costly to adjust inputs, firms will prefer to smooth the path of adjusting

  2. Teaching Practice generated stressors and coping mechanisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching Practice generated stressors and coping mechanisms among student teachers in Zimbabwe. ... South African Journal of Education ... We sought to establish stressors and coping mechanisms for student teachers on Teaching Practice from a Christian-related university and a government-owned teachers' college ...

  3. Childhood Stress : Stressors, Coping, and Factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, J.M.


    Burnout is a matter of imbalance in life very often (Nijboer, 2006). In order to know more about imbalance and exhaustion in children, stress and coping in children will be investigated in this literature study. The goal is to identify common childhood stressors, the ways children cope with stress,

  4. Coping responses as predictors of psychosocial functioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: One hundred and seventy-two individuals suffering from chronic pain completed both the West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory and the Coping Responses Inventory – Adult Form. The prevalence of the use of Avoidance and Approach Coping, and the relationship between these responses and ...

  5. Coping responses as predictors of psychosocial functioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory and the Coping Responses Inventory – Adult Form. The prevalence of the use of Avoidance and Approach Coping, and the relationship between these responses and psychosocial functioning (Pain Severity, Interference, Support, Life Control, and Affective Distress) were ...

  6. Interpersonal Coping among Boys with ADHD (United States)

    Hampel, Petra; Manhal, Simone; Roos, Thomas; Desman, Christiane


    Objective: The authors investigate self-reported coping with interpersonal stressors among boys with and without ADHD in two studies and provide initial evidence for effects of different subgroups of ADHD on coping in Study 2. Method: In Study 1, 20 Austrian adolescents with ADHD were compared to 20 healthy controls. In Study 2, 44 German children…

  7. Relationship between religiosity, religious coping and socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Religion is a powerful coping strategy. Diabetes and depression are common conditions in our environment that induce psychological distress, thus requiring coping for better outcome. Studies indicate that increased religiosity is associated with better outcome in clinical and general populations. Therefore ...

  8. Adolescent Strategies for Coping with Cultural Diversity. (United States)

    Coleman, Hardin L. K.; Casali, Sherry B.; Wampold, Bruce E.


    Tests Coleman's (1995) hypotheses that the strategies adolescents use to cope with cultural diversity will be organized in a sequential manner and that adolescents will use different strategies depending on the situation. To test these hypotheses, 398 adolescents rated the likelihood of using 6 strategies for coping with cultural diversity. Makes…

  9. The consequences of coping with stalking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Katrine Bindesbøl Holm; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine


    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to explore: (1) how victims of stalking experience the phenomenon in their daily life, (2) how the nature of stalking informs the victim's internal coping strategies, and (3) how the victims' internal coping strategies negatively affect their daily life...... indicate that rather than the stalkers' harassment itself; it is the unpredictability of the stalkers' potential actions that inform the victims' primary coping strategy-self-regulation. Self-regulation consists of various strategies victims employ to avoid the stalker. Our analysis shows that self......-regulation as a coping strategy has social and psychological consequences for the victims, leading to various degrees of social isolation and apprehension. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that it is necessary to consider how professionals advise victims to cope with their situation as how legal measures should focus...

  10. Insight, distress and coping styles in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Cooke, Michael; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P P; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena


    The stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated. We examined the associations between insight, distress and a number of coping styles in 65 outpatients with schizophrenia (final n=57) in a cross-sectional study. We found that (i) awareness of symptoms and problems correlated with greater distress, (ii) 'preference for positive reinterpretation and growth' coping style correlated with lower distress and with lower symptom awareness (re-labelling), (iii) 'preference for mental disengagement' coping style correlated with greater distress and lower awareness of problems, and (iv) 'social support-seeking' coping style correlated with greater awareness of illness, but not distress. No relationship occurred between the use of 'denial' as a coping style and insight or distress. Our findings demonstrate that awareness of illness and related problems is associated with greater distress in schizophrenia. However, this investigation has not supported a simple psychological denial explanation for this relationship, as complex relationships emerged between different dimensions of insight and coping styles. The negative association between 'positive reinterpretation and growth' and distress suggests that adopting this style may lead to re-labelling symptoms in a less distressing way. Avoidant and isolating styles of coping both appear unhelpful. Psychological interventions should aim to promote more active coping such as discussing a mental health problem with others.

  11. When Infants Talk, Infants Listen: Pre-Babbling Infants Prefer Listening to Speech with Infant Vocal Properties (United States)

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie


    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to…

  12. Ptosis - infants and children (United States)

    Blepharoptosis - children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping - children; Eyelid drooping - amblyopia; Eyelid drooping - astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  13. Abbott Infant Formula Recall (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  14. Urine collection - infants (United States)

    ... page: // Urine collection - infants To use the sharing features on this ... collect the urine at home, have some extra collection bags available. How the Test will Feel There ...

  15. Total parenteral nutrition - infants (United States)

    ... Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  16. Cow's milk - infants (United States)

    ... this page: // Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... year old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  17. Diarrhea in infants (United States)

    When your infant has diarrhea; When your baby has diarrhea; BRAT diet; Diarrhea in children ... Children who have diarrhea may have less energy, dry eyes, or a dry, sticky mouth. They may also not wet their diaper as ...

  18. Diarrhea in infants (United States)

    ... water down Pedialyte or Infalyte. Do not give sports drinks to young infants. Try giving your baby ... gastrointestinal tract infections and food poisoning. In Cherry JD, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach WJ, Hotez PJ, ...

  19. Coping and adaptation process during puerperium. (United States)

    Ospina Romero, Angélica María; Muñoz de Rodríguez, Lucy; Ruiz de Cárdenas, Carmen Helena


    The puerperium is a stage that produces changes and adaptations in women, couples and family. Effective coping, during this stage, depends on the relationship between the demands of stressful or difficult situations and the recourses that the puerperal individual has. Roy (2004), in her Middle Range Theory about the Coping and Adaptation Processing, defines Coping as the ''behavioral and cognitive efforts that a person makes to meet the environment demands''. For the puerperal individual, the correct coping is necessary to maintain her physical and mental well being, especially against situations that can be stressful like breastfeeding and return to work. According to Lazarus and Folkman (1986), a resource for coping is to have someone who receives emotional support, informative and / or tangible. To review the issue of women coping and adaptation during the puerperium stage and the strategies that enhance this adaptation. SEARCH AND SELECTION OF DATABASE ARTICLES: Cochrane, Medline, Ovid, ProQuest, Scielo, and Blackwell Synergy. Other sources: unpublished documents by Roy, published books on Roy´s Model, Websites from of international health organizations. the need to recognize the puerperium as a stage that requires comprehensive care is evident, where nurses must be protagonist with the care offered to women and their families, considering the specific demands of this situation and recourses that promote effective coping and the family, education and health services.

  20. Hubungan Kecerdasan Emosi dengan Kemampuan Coping Adaptif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Saptoto


    Full Text Available This study was aimed to analyze the correlation between adaptive coping and emotional intelligence (EI. The subject of this study (N=69 are high school students in SMU Negeri 8 Yogyakarta, whose age ranged from 15 to 17 years old. Adaptive coping is measured by adaptive coping scale, and EI is measured by EI scale. Researcher developed both scale. Data was analyzed using Pearson’s product moment correlation. Results show that there are: positive correlation between EI and problem focused coping (PFC part I (r=0,302; p=0,006, negative correlation between EI and emotional focused coping (EFC and confrontative coping (CC part I (r=‐0,322; p=0,004, and negative correlation between EI and PFC and CC part II (r=‐0,366; p=0,001. Spearman’s test correlation used to analyze correlation between EI and EPC part II, because this correlation did not meet linearity assumption. Spearman’s test correlation show that there is no correlation between EI and EPC part II (p=0,337. Based on these minor hypothesis, it is concluded that generally there is correlation between EI and adaptive coping ability.

  1. Ways of coping in adolescents with schizophrenia. (United States)

    Lee, H; Schepp, K G


    The purpose of this study was to explore ways of coping and its association with specific stress responses in adolescents with schizophrenia. Additionally, subjects and healthy controls were compared to identify stress responses. Forty subjects were drawn from a self-management therapy study for youth with schizophrenia. Thirty community-dwelling controls were selected. A revised Ways of Coping scale and the Symptom of Stress at baseline, 6, 30 and 54 weeks measured coping and stress response. Descriptive statistics, cluster analysis and Pearson correlation provided data analysis. Thirty-two subjects were male, and eight were female. Average age was 17.25 (SD=1.37) years. Twenty-two (55%) were Caucasian; 18 (45%) were non-Caucasian. Seventeen (57%) of the 30 controls were female. The mean age was 17.10 years old (SD=1.16). Adolescents with schizophrenia used emotion-focused coping more than problem-focused coping at baseline and 6 weeks (Pcoping with emotional stress responses (r=0.34, P=0.05). Adolescent coping strategies may persist into adulthood unless new skills are introduced. Developing effective coping skills for adolescents with schizophrenia is important for practice and future studies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  2. The Development of a Self-Report Questionnaire on Coping with Cyberbullying: The Cyberbullying Coping Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels C.L. Jacobs


    Full Text Available The negative effects and the continuation of cyberbullying seem to depend on the coping strategies the victims use. To assess their coping strategies, self-report questionnaires (SRQs are used. However, these SRQs are often subject to several shortcomings: the (single and topological categorizations used in SRQs do not always adequately differentiate among various coping responses, in addition the strategies of general SRQs fail to accurately measure coping with cyberbullying. This study is therefore aimed to develop a SRQ that specifically measures coping with cyberbullying (i.e., Cyberbullying Coping Questionnaire; CCQ and to discover whether other, not single and topological, categorizations of coping strategies can be found. Based on previous SRQs used in the (cyberbullying (i.e., traditional and cyberbullying literature (i.e., 49 studies were found with three different SRQs measuring coping with traditional bullying, cyberbullying or (cyberbullying items and categorizations were selected, compared and merged into a new questionnaire. In compliance with recommendations from the classical test-theory, a principal component analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis were done, and a final model was constructed. Seventeen items loaded onto four different coping categorizations: mental-, passive-, social-, and confrontational-coping. The CCQ appeared to have good internal consistency, acceptable test-retest reliability, good discriminant validity and the development of the CCQ fulfilled many of the recommendations from classical test-theory. The CCQ omits working in single and topological categorizations and measures cognitive, behavioral, approach and avoidance strategies.

  3. Coping in residual schizophrenia: Re-analysis of ways of Coping checklist. (United States)

    Shah, Ruchita; Grover, Sandeep; Kulhara, Parmanand


    Persons with schizophrenia use various coping strategies to adapt to distressing symptoms as well as to deal with daily stressors. Efforts have been made to explore alternative frameworks of coping using Ways of Coping Checklist (WCC) in persons with schizophrenia. This study aimed to re-analyze (factor analysis) the revised-WCC in Indian patients with residual schizophrenia. The secondary aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship of new framework of coping with psychopathology, disability and quality of life (QOL). Using a cross-sectional design, 103 patients with residual schizophrenia were assessed on WCC. A principal component analysis with varimax rotation was carried out to determine the factor structure of WCC. Factor analysis yielded six factors which explained 51.6 per cent of the total variance and had acceptable-to-good internal consistency. Based on the type of items loaded, the six factors were named as follows: active and growth-oriented coping, accepting and fantasizing, reflective and confrontative coping, detachment, seeking social support and negative emotional coping. Patients most often used coping strategy of seeking social support, followed by 'accepting and fantasizing' and 'active and growth-oriented coping'. Correlation analysis showed that those who more often used 'active and growth-oriented coping' had less negative symptoms, lower level of disability and higher spiritual and overall QOL. The factor structure of revised-WCC was different among patients with schizophrenia when compared with individuals without mental illness, living in the community. It was evident that use of certain adaptive coping strategies was associated with better QOL and lower level of psychopathology. Our findings provided a framework of coping in patients with residual schizophrenia and suggested that promotion of certain coping strategies might be useful in improving the QOL and reduction of psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia.

  4. Ways of coping with premenstrual change: development and validation of a premenstrual coping measure. (United States)

    Read, Jennifer R; Perz, Janette; Ussher, Jane M


    Negative premenstrual change can result in distress for a significant proportion of women. Previous research has suggested that women employ a range of coping strategies and behaviours in order to manage and reduce premenstrual distress. However, as yet there has been no specific scale available to measure premenstrual coping. This research aimed to develop and validate a measure of premenstrual coping which can be used in future investigations of negative premenstrual experience. A sample of 250 women living in Australia, reporting mild to severe premenstrual distress, completed an online survey containing 64 items related to premenstrual coping. The items were generated by reviewing past literature related to premenstrual experience, in particular recent qualitative research on premenstrual coping. A principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted to determine item clusters that would form a measure. Reliability and validity were tested using calculations of Cronbach alphas, correlational analysis with psychological coping scales and a content analysis of participant reports of coping strategies. The factor analysis, which involved two principal component analyses, resulted in five factors containing 32 premenstrual coping behaviours. Interpretation of the factor solution drew on empirical and theoretical accounts of premenstrual coping and the emergent factors were labelled Avoiding Harm, Awareness and Acceptance of Premenstrual Change, Adjusting Energy, Self-Care, and Communicating. These factors form the subscales of the Premenstrual Coping Measure (PMCM). The subscales demonstrated acceptable to very good reliability and tests of construct, concurrent and content validity were supportive of sound validity. The PMCM provides a valid and reliable scale for quantifying ways of coping specific to negative premenstrual change. Conceptual similarity was found between some coping behaviours and behaviours positioned as symptoms of

  5. Coping strategies in teachers with vocal complaint. (United States)

    Zambon, Fabiana; Moreti, Felipe; Behlau, Mara


    To understand the coping strategies used by teachers with vocal complaints, compare the differences between those who seek and those who do not seek voice therapy, and investigate the relationships among coping and voice perceptual analysis, coping and signs and symptoms of voice, and coping and participation restrictions and limitations in vocal activities. Cross-sectional nonrandomized prospective study with control group. Ninety female teachers participated in the study, of similar ages, divided into three groups: group 1 (G1) comprised 30 teachers with vocal complaints who sought voice therapy, group 2 (G2) comprised 30 teachers with vocal complaints who never sought voice therapy, and group 3 (G3) comprised 30 teachers without vocal complaints. The following analysis were conducted: identification and characterization questionnaire, addressing personal and occupational description, recording speech material for voice perceptual analysis, Voice Signs and Symptoms Questionnaire, Voice Activity and Participation Profile (VAPP), and Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire (VDCQ)-Brazilian Version. In relation to the voice perceptual analysis, there was statistically significant difference between the groups with vocal complaint (G1+G2), which had showed voices with mild-to-moderate deviation, and the group without vocal complaint (G1), which showed voices within the normal variability of voice quality (mean for G1 = 49.9, G2 = 43.7, and G3 = 32.3, P Teachers with vocal complaints who looked for voice therapy use more coping strategies. Moreover, they present a tendency to use more problem-focused coping strategies. Voice symptoms prompt the teachers into seeking treatment; however, they are not correlated with the coping itself. In general, the higher the perception of limitation and restriction of participating in vocal activities, the greater the use of coping strategies. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. From alienation to familiarity: experiences of mothers and fathers of preterm infants. (United States)

    Jackson, Karin; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie; Schollin, Jens


    The birth of a preterm infant has a long-term impact on both parents. Mothers report more stress and poor adjustment compared with fathers. Influencing factors, such as family situation and health status of the child, can support or weaken the coping ability of the parents. Studies on experiences of fathers are sparse. The aim of this research was to study how mothers and fathers of preterm infants describe their experiences of parenthood during the infant's first 18 months of life. Seven consecutively selected sets of parents of preterm infants born at alienation, responsibility, confidence and familiarity. Within the syntheses, similarities in how mothers and fathers described their parental roles involved concern for the child, insecurity, adjustment and relationship with the child. Regarding differences, mothers experienced having more responsibility and control of the care and a need to be confirmed as a mother, while fathers described confidence in leaving the care to the staff and wanted to find a balance between work and family life. Important turning points in parenthood experiences often occurred when the infant could be removed from the incubator, discharged from the ward, and when the infant looked normal compared to full-term infants. The structure of the phenomenon of parenthood was formed by the integration of the syntheses of alienation, responsibility, confidence and familiarity. The structure seems to be based on the parents' expectations of the parental role, the infant's health condition and the health care environment. These interacting factors are influenced by cultural beliefs.

  7. Understanding recovery in children following traffic-related injuries: exploring acute traumatic stress reactions, child coping, and coping assistance. (United States)

    Marsac, Meghan L; Donlon, Katharine A; Hildenbrand, Aimee K; Winston, Flaura K; Kassam-Adams, Nancy


    Millions of children incur potentially traumatic physical injuries every year. Most children recover well from their injury but many go on to develop persistent traumatic stress reactions. This study aimed to describe children's coping and coping assistance (i.e., the ways in which parents and peers help children cope) strategies and to explore the association between coping and acute stress reactions following an injury. Children (N = 243) rated their acute traumatic stress reactions within one month of injury and reported on coping and coping assistance six months later. Parents completed a measure of coping assistance at the six-month assessment. Children used an average of five to six coping strategies (out of 10), with wishful thinking, social support, and distraction endorsed most frequently. Child coping was associated with parent and peer coping assistance strategies. Significant acute stress reactions were related to subsequent child use of coping strategies (distraction, social withdrawal, problem-solving, blaming others) and to child report of parent use of distraction (as a coping assistance strategy). Findings suggest that children's acute stress reactions may influence their selection of coping and coping assistance strategies. To best inform interventions, research is needed to examine change in coping behaviors and coping assistance over time, including potential bidirectional relationships between trauma reactions and coping.

  8. Coping patterns as a valid presentation of the diversity of coping responses in schizophrenia patients. (United States)

    Ritsner, Michael S; Gibel, Anatoly; Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Shinkarenko, Evgeny; Ratner, Yael; Kurs, Rena


    This study aimed to identify coping patterns used by schizophrenia inpatients in comparison with those used by healthy individuals, and to explore their association with selected clinical and psychosocial variables. The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) was used to assess coping strategies among 237 inpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia and 175 healthy individuals. Severity of psychopathology and distress, insight into illness, feelings of self-efficacy and self-esteem (self-construct variables), social support, and quality of life were also examined. Factor analysis, analysis of covariance and correlations were used to examine the relationships between the parameters of interest. Using dimensional measures, we found that emotion-oriented coping style and emotional distress were significantly higher in the schizophrenia group, whereas the task-oriented coping style, self-efficacy, perceived social support and satisfaction with quality of life were lower compared with controls. When eight CISS coping patterns were defined, the results revealed that patients used emotion coping patterns 5.5 times more frequently, and task and task-avoidance coping patterns significantly less often than healthy subjects. Coping patterns have different associations with current levels of dysphoric mood and emotional distress, self-construct variables, and satisfaction with quality of life. Thus, the identified coping patterns may be an additional useful presentation of the diversity of coping strategies used by schizophrenia patients. Coping patterns may be considered an important source of knowledge for patients who struggle with the illness and for mental health professionals who work with schizophrenia patients.

  9. Coping in residual schizophrenia: Re-analysis of ways of Coping checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchita Shah


    Interpretation & conclusions: The factor structure of revised-WCC was different among patients with schizophrenia when compared with individuals without mental illness, living in the community. It was evident that use of certain adaptive coping strategies was associated with better QOL and lower level of psychopathology. Our findings provided a framework of coping in patients with residual schizophrenia and suggested that promotion of certain coping strategies might be useful in improving the QOL and reduction of psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia.

  10. Dysmenorrhoea and coping strategies among secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Its prevalence varies greatly in different populations and ethnic groups. Adolescents with severe dysmenorrhoea may miss classes and other social activities. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and coping strategies for ...

  11. Stress and coping with discrimination and stigmatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eBerjot


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the literature on stigmatization and more generally identity threats, to focus more specifically of the way people appraise and cope with those threatening situations. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984, we propose a model of coping with identity threats that takes into accounts the principle characteristic of stigma, its devaluing aspect. We present a model with specific antecedents, a refined appraisal phase and a new classification of coping strategies based on the motives that may be elicited by the threatening situation, those of protecting and/or enhancing the personal and/or social identity.

  12. Coping with Test Pain, Discomfort, and Anxiety (United States)

    ... Subscribe Search Coping with Test Pain, Discomfort and Anxiety Send Us Your Feedback This article was last ... can relax you. Anyone who suffers from high anxiety about medical tests should talk with a healthcare ...

  13. Fibromyalgia, Spirituality, Coping and Quality of Life. (United States)

    Biccheri, Eliane; Roussiau, Nicolas; Mambet-Doué, Constance


    The aim of this study is to identify the impact of spirituality on coping strategies and on the quality of life of fibromyalgia patients. The study was carried out on 590 people suffering from fibromyalgia. The data were collected with the French version of the WCC-R (The Ways of Coping Checklist: Cousson et al. 1996), the questionnaire of spirituality (Evaluation de La Spiritualité: Renard and Roussiau, 2016) and Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaire, translated into French (Blais et al. 1989). An analysis carried out with the software SPSS and Hayes' models showed that both problem-focused coping and coping through social support seeking are mediating variables that enable an indirect link between spirituality and quality of life.

  14. Help your teen cope with stress (United States)

    Adolescents - stress; Anxiety - cope with stress ... Common sources of stress in teens include: Worrying about schoolwork or grades Juggling responsibilities, such as school and work or sports Having problems ...

  15. Linking fearfulness and coping styles in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Silva, P.I.M.; Conceição, L.E.C.; Costas, B.; Höglund, E.; Overli, O.; Schrama, J.W.


    Consistent individual differences in cognitive appraisal and emotional reactivity, including fearfulness, are important personality traits in humans, non-human mammals, and birds. Comparative studies on teleost fishes support the existence of coping styles and behavioral syndromes also in

  16. Coping with the African Business Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.; Langevang, Thilde; Rutashobya, Lettice


    Weak institutions, endemic market failures and low trust permeate the Tanzanian business environment. Nevertheless, some local enterprises overcome these challenges. Based on case studies of Tanzanian food processing enterprises, this paper identifies a number of coping strategies that contrasts...



    Desi Sulistyo Wardani


    Autis merupakan grey area dibidang kedokteran, yang artinya masih merupakan suatu hal yang penyebab, mekanisme, dan terapinya belum jelas benar. Permasalahan yang dihadapi oleh orang tua yang mempunyai anak autis ini memerlukan pemecahan sebagai upaya untuk beradaptasi terhadap masalah dari tekanan yang menimpa mereka. Konsep untuk memecahkan masalah ini disebut coping. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui orientasi strategi coping yang digunakan oleh orang tua untuk menghadapi anak pend...

  18. Coping With Uncertainty in International Business


    Briance Mascarenhas


    International business, as compared with domestic business, is usually characterized by increased uncertainty. A study of 10 multinational companies uncovered several methods of coping with uncertainty. This paper focuses on 2 methods which may not be apparent control and flexibility. A framework of analysis suggesting appropriate methods for coping with uncertainty is also developed.© 1982 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1982) 13, 87–98

  19. Coping with stress, coping with violence: Links to mental health outcomes among at-risk youth (United States)

    Boxer, Paul; Sloan-Power, Elizabeth; Schappell, Ignacio Mercado and Ashley


    Coping reactions to stressful events are important links between difficult experiences and the emergence of psychopathology. In this study we compared youths' negative coping with stress in general to their negative coping with violence in particular, and utilized a person-centered analytic approach to examine how patterns of coping relate to various mental health outcomes. We utilized survey interview measures to collect data from a sample of 131 youth (ages 11–14, 100% ethnic minority) residing in an economically distressed metropolitan area of the northeast. We observed significant relations between youths' tendencies to cope with stress and violence via externalized-internalized strategies (e.g., yelling to let off steam, crying) and their mental health symptoms. However, we generally did not observe relations between engagement in distancing coping strategies (e.g., making believe nothing happened) and any problematic outcomes. Negative coping does not appear be a monolithic construct uniformly associated with negative outcomes for youth. Distancing coping might represent an especially useful short-term coping response for youth living in socioeconomically distressed conditions from the standpoint of inhibiting symptom development. PMID:23002323

  20. Ways of coping with asthma in everyday life: validation of the Asthma Specific Coping Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Härkäpää, Kristiina; Aro, Arja R


    OBJECTIVE: This study examines the validity of the Asthma Specific Coping Scale. METHODS: Study samples were comprised of persons with drug-treated asthma (n=3464) drawn from the Drug Reimbursement Registry and asthma rehabilitation participants [brief (n=278) and comprehensive (n=316) intervention....... Concurrent validity was supported by meaningful correlations between asthma coping scales and psychosocial resources, health-related quality of life, and general coping. The asthma coping scales discriminated between the intervention participants and the population-based sample. Four out of six subscales...

  1. Relations among stress, coping strategies, coping motives, alcohol consumption and related problems: a mediated moderation model. (United States)

    Corbin, William R; Farmer, Nicole M; Nolen-Hoekesma, Susan


    Although prominent models of alcohol use and abuse implicate stress as an important motivator of alcohol consumption, research has not consistently identified a relationship between stress and drinking outcomes. Presumably stress leads to heavier alcohol consumption and related problems primarily for individuals who lack other adaptive methods for coping effectively with stressful experiences. To test this hypothesis, we examined four adaptive coping approaches (active coping, planning, suppression of competing activities, and restraint), as predictors of alcohol use and related problems as well as moderators of relations between stress and drinking outcomes in an undergraduate population (N=225). Further, we examined coping motives for drinking as potential mediators of the effects of coping strategies as well as stress by coping strategy interactions. Analyses supported both restraint and suppression of competing activities as moderators of the influence of stress on alcohol use but not problems. The stress by restraint interaction was also evident in the prediction of coping motives, and coping motives were related to higher levels of both weekly drinking and alcohol-related problems. Finally, coping motives for drinking served to mediate the stress by restraint interaction on weekly drinking. Overall, these results suggest that efforts to suppress competing activities and restrain impulsive responses in the face of stress may reduce the risk for heavy drinking during the transition from high school to college. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Personality and Coping among Caregivers of Spouses with Dementia. (United States)

    Hooker, Karen; And Others


    Examined personality factors and coping strategies among 50 spouse caregivers of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease or related dementia. Results showed that personality traits explained 60% of variance in emotion-focused coping, 30% of variance in problem-focused coping, and 15% of variance associated with social support coping.…

  3. Depression and coping in subthreshold eating disorders. (United States)

    Dennard, E Eliot; Richards, C Steven


    The eating disorder literature has sought to understand the role of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses and coping in relation to eating disorders. The present research extends these findings by studying the relationships among depression, coping, and the entire continuum of disordered eating behaviors, with an emphasis on subthreshold eating disorders. 109 undergraduate females completed questionnaires to assess disordered eating symptoms, depressive symptoms, and the use of active and avoidant coping mechanisms. Hypotheses were tested using bivariate linear regression and multivariate linear regression. Results indicated that depression was a significant predictor of disordered eating symptoms after controlling for relationships between depression and coping. Although avoidant coping was positively associated with disordered eating, it was not a significant predictor after controlling for depression and coping. Previous research has found associations between depression and diagnosable eating disorders, and this research extends those findings to the entire continuum of disordered eating. Future research should continue to investigate the predictors and correlates of the disordered eating continuum using more diverse samples. Testing for mediation and moderation among these variables may also be a fruitful area of investigation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Coping with breathlessness among people with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Lomborg, Kirsten; Dahl, Ronald


    Identifying indicators on predominant types of coping with breathlessness may facilitate the possibility for qualified individualised advice on how to live with breathing difficulties. This paper reports the statistical findings on several parameters constituting possible coping-type-specific ind......Identifying indicators on predominant types of coping with breathlessness may facilitate the possibility for qualified individualised advice on how to live with breathing difficulties. This paper reports the statistical findings on several parameters constituting possible coping......-type-specific indicators with the ability to discriminate between four previously identified types of coping with breathlessness. Data were collected from 12 patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in relation to body care during hospital stay and at home. Data consisted of: (a......) Bedside forced expiratory volume in 1 s of predicted; (b) scores on the Modified Borg Scale; (c) respiratory rate; (d) peripheral oxygen saturation and (e) use of breaks from activity and break time duration. We found that the following parameters were able to discriminate between the four coping types...

  5. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Asian American > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific ... as compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  6. The new approaches in investigation of coping with stressful situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana


    Full Text Available If somebody want to investigate stress and coping with stressful situations it is very important to take in account the time dimension or chronological order of stressful event an coping. According to traditional oppinion, stress must be appeared before or, at least, at the moment of coping appearance if we want to speak about coping process. In this paper, we argued about new conceptualization of stress and coping - preventive and proactive coping. Coping process could start even before stressful event occurred. Person could take a several steps (preventive meassures which are going to make her to be able to cope some future event that could be interpreted like threat, risk or loss, and that would be preventive coping. Also, person could set to herself a goals and ambitions to whom she will going to, trying to see a chance for new development and grow, and that would be proactive coping.

  7. Dyadic coping and relationship functioning in couples coping with cancer: a systematic review. (United States)

    Traa, Marjan J; De Vries, Jolanda; Bodenmann, Guy; Den Oudsten, Brenda L


    Cancer not only affects the patient but also the partner. In fact, couples may react as a unit rather than as individuals while coping with cancer (i.e., dyadic coping). We assessed (1) the relationship between dyadic coping and relationship functioning in couples coping with cancer and (2) whether intervention studies aimed at improving dyadic coping were able to enhance the relationship functioning of these couples. Recommendations for future studies are provided. A systematic search was conducted to identify all eligible papers between January 1990 and September 2012. The databases PubMed, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE were screened. Most studies (n = 33) used an appropriate study design, adequate measurements, adequate analytical techniques, and a sufficient number of included participants to answer addressed research questions. However, the definition and assessment of dyadic coping strategies differed, which hampered comparison. Coping styles characterized by open and constructive (cancer-related) communication, supportive behaviours, positive dyadic coping, and joint problem solving were related to higher relationship functioning, whereas dysfunctional communication patterns (e.g., protective buffering, demand-withdraw communication), unsupportive behaviours, and negative dyadic coping were related to lower relationship functioning. The results of the intervention studies were inconsistent: while some studies reported a beneficial effect on relationship functioning, other studies report no such effect, or only found a positive effect in couples with fewer personal relationship resources. This review showed that adequate dyadic coping may improve relationship functioning, while dysfunctional dyadic coping may impede relationship functioning. In order to increase the comparability of the reported findings, a more uniformly conceptualized perspective on dyadic coping is needed. A better understanding of the dyadic challenges couples coping with

  8. Cooperative Group Performance in Graduate Research Methodology Courses: The Role of Study Coping and Examination-Taking Coping Strategies (United States)

    Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.


    This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research methodology…

  9. Infant nutrition in Saskatoon: barriers to infant food security. (United States)

    Partyka, Brendine; Whiting, Susan; Grunerud, Deanna; Archibald, Karen; Quennell, Kara


    We explored infant nutrition in Saskatoon by assessing current accessibility to all forms of infant nourishment, investigating challenges in terms of access to infant nutrition, and determining the use and effectiveness of infant nutrition programs and services. We also examined recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Semi-structured community focus groups and stakeholder interviews were conducted between June 2006 and August 2006. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to infant feeding practices and barriers, as well as recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Our study showed that infant food security is a concern among lower-income families in Saskatoon. Barriers that limited breastfeeding sustainability or nourishing infants through other means included knowledge of feeding practices, lack of breastfeeding support, access and affordability of infant formula, transportation, and poverty. Infant nutrition and food security should be improved by expanding education and programming opportunities, increasing breastfeeding support, and identifying acceptable ways to provide emergency formula. If infant food security is to be addressed successfully, discussion and change must occur in social policy and family food security contexts.

  10. Infant Statistical Learning (United States)

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Kirkham, Natasha Z.


    Perception involves making sense of a dynamic, multimodal environment. In the absence of mechanisms capable of exploiting the statistical patterns in the natural world, infants would face an insurmountable computational problem. Infant statistical learning mechanisms facilitate the detection of structure. These abilities allow the infant to compute across elements in their environmental input, extracting patterns for further processing and subsequent learning. In this selective review, we summarize findings that show that statistical learning is both a broad and flexible mechanism (supporting learning from different modalities across many different content areas) and input specific (shifting computations depending on the type of input and goal of learning). We suggest that statistical learning not only provides a framework for studying language development and object knowledge in constrained laboratory settings, but also allows researchers to tackle real-world problems, such as multilingualism, the role of ever-changing learning environments, and differential developmental trajectories. PMID:28793812

  11. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  12. Patterns of coping among family caregivers of frail older adults. (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen; Wu, Hsueh-Sheng


    Past studies have extensively examined factors associated with coping strategies that caregivers use to ameliorate distress or solve problems. While these studies have found that stressors and individual resources influence choices of coping strategies, they have tended to overlook caregivers' social resources and have rarely considered the possibility that distinct groups of caregivers may use different sets of coping strategies. We conducted latent-class analyses to identify distinct groups of caregivers: those using no particular patterns of coping (unpatterned-coping), those centering on ameliorating distress (emotional-coping), and those focusing on both ameliorating distress and solving problems (hybrid-coping). Stressors distinguished all three coping groups, individual resources differentiated the hybrid-coping group from the emotional-coping group and the unpatterned-coping group, and social resources separated the emotional-coping group and the hybrid-coping group from the unpatterned-coping group. These findings indicate different factors contributing to caregivers' use of different coping styles and suggest ways to better help caregivers. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Breastfeeding the preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Corvaglia


    Full Text Available Due to its peculiar nutritional and non-nutritional contents, which include long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids (LC-PUFA, prebiotics, immunological factors, hormones and growth factors, breast milk shows significant advantages over infant formulas in nourishing preterm infants. Better neurocognitive outcomes, which are reported to persist far beyond the early childhood, have been largely observed in breastfed preterm infants; a role of LC-PUFA in promoting neural and retinal development is assumed. As far as the gastrointestinal tract is concerned, several evidences have reported a dose-related reduction in NEC incidence among preterm infants fed on human milk. Moreover, the higher amount of immunological factors as secretory IgA within preterm breast milk might play a remarkable role in reducing the overall infections. Despite breastfeeding in preterm infants is generally linked with lowered growth rates which might potentially affect neurocognitive outcomes, the beneficial effects of human milk on neurodevelopment prevail. Fortified human milk might better fulfill the particular nutritional needs of preterm infants. However, as breast milk fortification is difficult to carry out after the achievement of full oral feeding, some concerns on the nutritional adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding during hospitalization as well as after discharge have been raised. Finally, breastfeeding also entails maternal psychological beneficial effects, as promoting the motherhood process and the mother-child relationship, which could be undermined in those women experiencing preterm delivery. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  14. Development and Validation of an Exploratory Measure to Assess Student Coping: The Student Coping Scale (United States)

    Boujut, Emile


    Students is a very specific population according to their manner to cope with stress. A coping questionnaire for students was developed and administered to 1100 French students at the beginning of the term (T1). Principal Component Analysis of responses, followed by varimax rotations, yielded three factors accounting for 50.5% of the total…

  15. Coping with examinations: exploring relationships between students' coping strategies, implicit theories of ability, and perceived control. (United States)

    Doron, Julie; Stephan, Yannick; Boiché, Julie; Le Scanff, Christine


    Relatively little is known about the contribution of students' beliefs regarding the nature of academic ability (i.e. their implicit theories) on strategies used to deal with examinations. This study applied Dweck's socio-cognitive model of achievement motivation to better understand how students cope with examinations. It was expected that students' implicit theories of academic ability would be related to their use of particular coping strategies to deal with exam-related stress. Additionally, it was predicted that perceived control over exams acts as a mediator between implicit theories of ability and coping. Four hundred and ten undergraduate students (263 males, 147 females), aged from 17 to 26 years old (M=19.73, SD=1.46) were volunteers for the present study. Students completed measures of coping, implicit theories of academic ability, and perception of control over academic examinations during regular classes in the first term of the university year. Multiple regression analyses revealed that incremental beliefs of ability significantly and positively predicted active coping, planning, venting of emotions, seeking social support for emotional and instrumental reasons, whereas entity beliefs positively predicted behavioural disengagement and negatively predicted active coping and acceptance. In addition, analyses revealed that entity beliefs of ability were related to coping strategies through students' perception of control over academic examinations. These results confirm that exam-related coping varies as a function of students' beliefs about the nature of academic ability and their perceptions of control when approaching examinations.

  16. Adolescents Coping with Poverty-Related Family Stress: Prospective Predictors of Coping and Psychological Symptoms (United States)

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Berger, Lauren E.


    Examined prospective associations among poverty-related family stress, coping, involuntary stress reactivity, and psychological symptoms in a sample of 79 rural, low-income adolescents. Poverty-related family stress predicted adolescents' anxious/depressed and aggressive behavior 8 months later, controlling for prior symptoms. Coping interacted…

  17. Predictors of mobilizing online coping versus offline coping resources after negative life events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ingen, E.J.; Wright, K.B.


    This exploratory study drew upon the social compensation/social enhancement hypotheses and weak tie network theory to predict what kind of people supplement offline coping resources with online coping resources more than others. Using a large, representative survey the authors found that low

  18. Sexual Coping, General Coping and Cognitive Distortions in Incarcerated Rapists and Child Molesters (United States)

    Feelgood, Steven; Cortoni, Franca; Thompson, Anthony


    Sexual coping, general coping and cognitive distortions were investigated in 25 rapists, 36 child molesters and 25 violent offenders. Rapists did not report more support for rape-supportive distortions than the violent offender comparison group. Child molesters scored higher than the other groups on the measure of molestation-supportive…

  19. Hope in Parents of Very-Low Birth Weight Infants and its Association with Parenting Stress and Quality of Life. (United States)

    Nordheim, Trond; Rustøen, Tone; Solevåg, Anne Lee; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Nakstad, Britt

    Being a parent of a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infant can be stressful. We aimed to describe parental hope 42months after the birth of a VLBW infant and determine whether there is an association between hope and parenting stress with quality of life (QoL), respectively. Fifty-nine parents of VLBW infants completed questionnaires about hope, parenting stress and QoL. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between the selected variables. To compare groups, t-test was used and Cohen's d for effect size was calculated. Parents of VLBW infants were more hopeful than the general population (phope were both independently associated with QoL (phope (p=0.041) and higher parenting stress (p=0.041) than parents of infants with birth weight 1000-1500g. Hope and parenting stress were both independent determinants of QoL. Parents of the presumably sickest infants had less hope and higher parenting stress than parents of VLBW infants with a birth weight over 1000g. Hope should be further explored as a coping mechanism in parents of VLBW infants. The clinical implications of the strong association between hope, parenting stress and QoL remain to be determined, but reducing stress and strengthening hope seem to be important. This should be taken into account both at hospital discharge and at follow-up, especially for lower-birth-weight infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants. (United States)

    Fyfe, Karinna L; Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wong, Flora Y; Odoi, Alexsandria; Walker, Adrian M; Horne, Rosemary S C


    Prone sleeping is a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and preterm infants are at significantly increased risk. In term infants, prone sleeping is associated with reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cerebral tissue oxygenation index (TOI). However, little is known about the effects of sleeping position on TOI and MAP in preterm infants. We aimed to examine TOI and MAP in preterm infants after term-equivalent age, during the period of greatest SIDS risk. Thirty-five preterm and 17 term infants underwent daytime polysomnography, including measurement of TOI (NIRO-200 spectrophotometer, Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Japan) and MAP (Finapress Medical Systems, Amsterdam, Netherlands) at 2 to 4 weeks, 2 to 3 months, and 5 to 6 months postterm age. Infants slept prone and supine in active and quiet sleep. The effects of sleep state and position were determined by using 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance and of preterm birth by using 2-way analysis of variance. In preterm infants, TOI was significantly lower when prone compared with supine in both sleep states at all ages (P preterm compared with term infants at 2 to 4 weeks, in both positions (P preterm infants in the prone position at 2 to 3 months (P position in preterm infants and is lower compared with age-matched term infants, predominantly in the prone position when MAP is also reduced. This may contribute to their increased SIDS risk. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Fever in Infants and Children (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Fever in Infants and ChildrenBecause young children are not ... Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants and Children Fever Fever in Infants and Children Foot Problems Genital ...

  2. [Multidimensional assessment of coping: validation of the Brief COPE among French population]. (United States)

    Muller, L; Spitz, E


    This Article aims to introduce the translation and the validation of a multidimensional measure of coping strategies: the Brief COPE, in a French population. The coping concept comes from psychological studies that were conducted on stress. In the conceptual analysis of stress by Lazarus and Folkman, coping works with two cognitive appraisals performed by the person concerning the perception of a threatening situation and his or her available resources to deal with it. Coping is defined as "cognitive and behavioural efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the internal and/or external demands that are created by the stressful transaction". The Brief COPE is the abridged version of the COPE inventory and presents fourteen scales all assessing different coping dimensions: 1) active coping, 2) planning, 3) using instrumental support, 4) using emotional support, 5) venting, 6) behavioural disengagement, 7) self-distraction, 8) self-blame, 9) positive reframing, 10) humor, 11) denial, 12) acceptance, 13) religion, and 14) substance use. Each scale contains two items (28 altogether). This inventory has the advantage of being built from acknowledged theoretical models (Lazarus' transactional model of stress, 1984; behavioral self-regulation model, Carver and Scheier, 1981, 1998). It can be used to assess trait coping (the usual way people cope with stress in everyday life) and state coping (the particular way people cope with a specific stressful situation). As is the COPE inventory, the Brief COPE is a measure used for many health-relevant studies: drugs addiction, ageing, breast cancer, depression, AIDS. Both measures are widely used in Anglophone countries and translated in many Languages. Today, the COPE inventory has been validated among Estonian, Croatian, Chinese, and Italian populations and the Brief COPE is also validated among Spanish people. Thus, the worldwide use of this coping inventory should allow a broad comparison of medical and psychological research for

  3. Coping in Parkinson's disease: an examination of the coping inventory for stressful situations. (United States)

    Hurt, C S; Thomas, B A; Burn, D J; Hindle, J V; Landau, S; Samuel, M; Wilson, K C M; Brown, R G


    Parkinson's disease (PD) brings with it a range of stresses and challenges with which a patient must cope. The type of coping strategies employed can impact upon well-being, although findings from coping studies in PD remain inconsistent. The variety of coping scales used without validation in PD has been cited as a possible cause of this inconsistency. The present study sought to examine the validity of the coping inventory for stressful situations (CISS) in a sample of patients with PD. Five hundred and twenty-five patients with PD were recruited as part of a longitudinal investigation of mood states in PD. Four hundred and seventy-one participants completed the CISS. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to explore the structural validity of the scale. Internal reliability, test-retest reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity were assessed using Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlations and Pearson's correlations. Both three and four factor solutions were examined. The four factor model was found to provide a better fit of the data than the three factor model. The internal reliability, discriminant validity, convergent validity, and test-retest reliability of the CISS scales were shown to be good. Use of emotion-focused coping was associated with greater depression and anxiety whilst, task-oriented coping was associated with better psychological well-being. The results provide support for the validity and reliability of the CISS as a measure of coping in patients with PD. Further research into the relationship between coping and well-being is warranted. The identification of helpful and unhelpful coping strategies may guide the development of evidence-based therapies to improve well-being in patients with PD. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Resilience and Coping After Hospital Mergers. (United States)

    Russo, Cynthia; Calo, Oriana; Harrison, Georgia; Mahoney, Kathleen; Zavotsky, Kathleen Evanovich

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between resilience and coping in frontline nurses working in a healthcare system that has recently undergone a merger. Hospital mergers are common in the current healthcare environment. Mergers can provide hospital nurses the opportunity to use and develop positive coping strategies to help remain resilient during times of change. An anonymous-survey, quantitative, exploratory, descriptive study design was used. Data were obtained from an electronic survey that was made available to all nurses working in a 3-hospital system located in the northeast. Overall, the results showed that, when nurses reported using positive coping strategies, they report higher levels of resilience. The levels of resilience also varied from campus to campus. The campus that has been through 2 recent mergers reported the highest levels of resilience. This study suggests that, during times of change in the workplace, if nurses are encouraged to use positive coping strategies, they may have higher levels of resilience. This changing environment provides the clinical nurse specialists/clinical nurse educators the opportunity to foster and support frontline nurses in the use of healthy coping strategies and to help improve and maintain a high level of resilience, which is critical in today's healthcare environment.

  5. Appraisal, coping, health status, and psychological symptoms. (United States)

    Folkman, S; Lazarus, R S; Gruen, R J; DeLongis, A


    In this study we examined the relation between personality factors (mastery and interpersonal trust), primary appraisal (the stakes a person has in a stressful encounter), secondary appraisal (options for coping), eight forms of problem- and emotion-focused coping, and somatic health status and psychological symptoms in a sample of 150 community-residing adults. Appraisal and coping processes should be characterized by a moderate degree of stability across stressful encounters for them to have an effect on somatic health status and psychological symptoms. These processes were assessed in five different stressful situations that subjects experienced in their day-to-day lives. Certain processes (e.g., secondary appraisal) were highly variable, whereas others (e.g., emotion-focused forms of coping) were moderately stable. We entered mastery and interpersonal trust, and primary appraisal and coping variables (aggregated over five occasions), into regression analyses of somatic health status and psychological symptoms. The variables did not explain a significant amount of the variance in somatic health status, but they did explain a significant amount of the variance in psychological symptoms. The pattern of relations indicated that certain variables were positively associated and others negatively associated with symptoms.

  6. Coping strategies in patients following subarachnoid haemorrhage. (United States)

    Tomberg, T; Orasson, A; Linnamägi, U; Toomela, A; Pulver, A; Asser, T


    To assess psychological coping strategies and their relationship with outcome in patients after primary subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). In 51 unselected patients (24 males, 27 females; mean age 46 years) in an average 15.7+/-12.0 months after SAH usage of coping strategies were assessed by means of Estonian COPE-D test with 15 four-items scales and compared to those obtained from 51 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy persons. The data were analysed according to age, sex and education of the patients, initial severity of disease, localization of aneurysm and outcome characteristics. Patients after SAH reported using social support strategy less than control persons (Pcoping styles were less used (Pdisability and dependence in daily living. Healthy women used social support more than men; patients and control persons 50 years or older used task-oriented strategies less than younger persons (Pcoping strategies used by patients after SAH differs compared to healthy persons. The differences in using coping strategies are related to age of the patients, functional state and degree of adaptation after SAH.

  7. Acculturation and coping strategies in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristova Stoyanka


    Full Text Available The paper presents empirical study of the level of organizational acculturation and the frequency of use of coping strategies in Bulgarian sample. The relationship between them and their dependence on socio-demographic factors were also examined. The aim of the research conducted was to verify the hypotheses that certain socio-demographic factors had a statistically significant impact on the phenomena studied, and that the use of control-oriented coping strategies was related to higher levels of acculturation in organization. The results obtained when applying analysis of variance indicated statistically significant differences in the level of acculturation and the frequency of use of coping strategies depending on part of the socio-demographic factors observed, confirming partially the first hypothesis formulated. The second hypothesis was fully confirmed. The findings of correlation analysis indicated that high levels of acculturation in organization correlated statistically significantly with the coping strategies of Increasing efforts, Confidence in success, Change of situation and Time management, all of which are part of the control-oriented coping.

  8. Coping with Workplace Interpersonal Stress among Japanese Employees. (United States)

    Kato, Tsukasa


    The current study examined the relationship between coping with workplace interpersonal stress (WIS) and psychological dysfunction (i.e. depressive symptoms, burnout, general distress and daytime sleepiness). Three hundred twenty-four Japanese full-time workers completed measures assessing coping strategies with WIS and psychological dysfunction. Three strategies of coping with WIS were measured: distancing coping, reassessing coping and constructive coping. Multiple regression analyses revealed that distancing coping, which reflects strategies to actively damage, disrupt and dissolve a stressful relationship, was related to high levels of depressive symptoms, burnout, general distress and daytime sleepiness. Reassessing coping, which incorporates efforts to patiently wait for an appropriate opportunity to act, such as a change or improvement in the situation, was related to low levels of depressive symptoms, burnout, general distress and daytime sleepiness. Constructive coping was not significantly associated with psychological dysfunction. Implications for workplace stress are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Infant formulas - overview (United States)

    ... to cow's milk may also be allergic to soy milk. Soy-based formulas should be used for infants with galactosemia , a rare condition. These formulas can also be used ... have allergies to milk protein and for those with skin rashes or ...

  10. Hip Problems in Infants (United States)

    ... A hip problem in infants is known as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). It is when the ball of the ... later in life? Resources International Hip Dysplasia Institute, Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) International Hip Dysplasia Institute, Hip-Healthy Swaddling ...

  11. Colic in infants. (United States)

    Lucassen, Peter


    Colic in infants causes one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for colic in infants? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 27 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: advice to increase carrying, advice to reduce stimulation, casein hydrolysate milk, cranial osteopathy, crib vibrator device, focused counselling, gripe water, infant massage, low-lactose milk, simethicone, soya-based infant feeds, spinal manipulation, and whey hydrolysate milk.

  12. Chikungunya infection in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra Duarte

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: the infection of chikungunya virus presents clinical manifestations variables, particularly in infants in which may present multiple cutaneous manifestations. Description: a case series study was carried out in an analytical character of 14 infants (>28 days to < 2 years old admitted in a hospital between November 2015 and January 2016 with suspected case of chikungunya, by a specific IgM reactive serology. Patients positive for dengue fever, Zika virus, bacterial infections and other exanthematic diseases were excluded. Fever and cutaneous alterations were the most frequent clinical manifestations in 100% of the cases, followed by irritability (64.3%, vomits and arthralgia/arthritis in 35.7% each. Three children presented alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid compatible to meningitis. Anemia frequency was 85.7%. The median white blood cells count was 7.700/mm3 (2.600 to 20.300/mm3. High levels of aminotransferases were observed in three cases (230 to 450 U/L. Antibiotic therapy was indicated in 64.3% of the cases. Two infants needed opioid derivatives for analgesia while others took acetaminophen and/or dipyrone. Discussion: the study shows evident multi-systemic involvement of chikungunya infection in infants. The treatment is supportive, giving special attention to hydration, analgesia, skin care, and rational use of antibiotic therapy.

  13. Parenting Your Infant (United States)

    ... Sing songs. Show and talk about simple picture books. This is the way your baby learns how to talk. Infants Love To Explore You may have noticed that your baby is becoming interested in everything within reach, especially simple toys with bright colors and ...

  14. Milk Allergy in Infants (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth / For Parents / Milk Allergy in ... Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a milk ...

  15. Ultrasound: Infant Hip (United States)

    ... the womb (breech position) babies with a family history of DDH Also, DDH occurs more frequently in girls than boys and among first-born infants. Doctors will consider all of these factors when deciding whether a baby's hips should be checked by ultrasound. In addition, a ...

  16. Family Functionality and Coping Attitudes of Patients with Bipolar Disorder. (United States)

    Çuhadar, Döndü; Savaş, Haluk Asuman; Ünal, Ahmet; Gökpınar, Fatma


    The coping of patients with prodromal syndromes prevents relapses, and the differences in coping strategies affect the results of bipolar disorder. The various functionality levels of bipolar disorder patients such as work, marital relations, parental abilities and social presentation are significantly related with how well they cope. The objective of this study was to determine the family functionality and coping attitudes of bipolar disorder patients. The study planned as a descriptive one was carried with 81 bipolar disorder patients. Personal description form, family assessment device and Coping Attitudes Scale were used as data acquisition tools. It was determined that the adaptive coping attitudes used most frequently by the patients were religious coping, positive reinterpretation, active coping, problem-focused coping and emotional focused coping, beneficial social support use, emotional social support use, planning, suppression of competing activities and restraint coping; maladaptive coping attitudes used most frequently by the patients were "focusing on the problem and venting of emotions and mental disengagement." It was determined that family functions affected the coping attitudes of patients and that the patients who evaluated family functions in a healthy manner made use of adaptive coping strategies more at a statistically significant level.

  17. Coping Responses Among Hospice Family Caregivers: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis. (United States)

    Washington, Karla T; Rakes, Christopher R


    Hospice family caregivers must often cope with significant stressors. Research into the ways caregivers attempt to cope with these stressors has been challenged by pronounced difficulties conceptualizing, measuring, and categorizing caregiver coping. The purpose of this study was to begin addressing these challenges by determining the structure of coping among hospice family caregivers. Hospice family caregivers (n = 223) residing in the midsouthern U.S. completed the Ways of Coping Questionnaire as part of a cross-sectional survey. To examine the validity of various coping response factor structures, researchers conducted multiple confirmatory factor analyses. Although individual coping behaviors were able to be sorted into broader "ways of coping" (i.e., first-order factors), data did not support the further grouping of ways of coping into more general "families of coping" (i.e., second-order factors). Folkman and Lazarus's proposed structure of coping, which comprises eight first-order factors or subscales, better fit the data than the tested alternatives. Despite its broad appeal, grouping ways of coping responses into families of coping based on the presupposed nature of the responses (e.g., positive or negative) lacked empirical support for this sample of hospice family caregivers, which suggests that relying on families of coping may oversimplify complex responses from caregivers. Rather than trying to characterize coping responses into broader families, hospice support for caregiver coping strategies may be more effective when based on individualized assessments of each caregiver's ways of coping and the consequences of those coping responses on their quality of life. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  19. Infant Neurobehavioral Development (United States)

    Lester, Barry M.; Miller, Robin J.; Hawes, Katheleen; Salisbury, Amy; Bigsby, Rosemarie; Sullivan, Mary C.; Padbury, James F.


    The trend toward single-room neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) is increasing; however scientific evidence is, at this point, mostly anecdotal. This is a critical time to assess the impact of the single-room NICU on improving medical and neurobehavioral outcomes of the preterm infant. We have developed a theoretical model that may be useful in studying how the change from an open-bay NICU to a single-room NICU could affect infant medical and neurobehavioral outcome. The model identifies mediating factors that are likely to accompany the change to a single-room NICU. These mediating factors include family centered care, developmental care, parenting and family factors, staff behavior and attitudes, and medical practices. Medical outcomes that plan to be measured are sepsis, length of stay, gestational age at discharge, weight gain, illness severity, gestational age at enteral feeding, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Neurobehavioral outcomes include the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) scores, sleep state organization and sleep physiology, infant mother feeding interaction scores, and pain scores. Preliminary findings on the sample of 150 patients in the open-bay NICU showed a “baseline” of effects of family centered care, developmental care, parent satisfaction, maternal depression, and parenting stress on the neurobehavioral outcomes of the newborn. The single-room NICU has the potential to improve the neurobehavioral status of the infant at discharge. Neurobehavioral assessment can assist with early detection and therefore preventative intervention to maximize developmental outcome. We also present an epigenetic model of the potential effects of maternal care on improving infant neurobehavioral status. PMID:21255702

  20. Psychosocial coping strategies in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprah, L.; Sostaric, M.


    Background. The aim of this review is to present common psychosocial problems in cancer patients and their possible coping strategies. Cancer patients are occupied with many psychosocial problems, which are only partially related to their health state and medical treatments. They are faced with a high social pressure, based on prejudices and stereotypes of this illness. The review presents the process of confrontation with the cancer diagnosis and of managing the psychological consequences of cancer. The effects of specific coping styles, psychosocial interventions and a social support on initiation, progression and recurrence of cancer are also described. Conclusions. Although some recent meta-analysis could not provide scientific evidence for the association between coping strategies and the cancer initiation, the progression or the recurrence (neither have studies rejected the thesis of association), the therapeutic window for the psychosocial intervention is still wide and shows an important effect on the quality of lives of many cancer patients. (author)

  1. Coping with Rainfall Variability in Northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte


    This paper explores a potential relationship between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern Tanzania. In addition, correlations...... of household reported harvest shocks differs significantly between districts and correspond to the observed variability in local climate patterns. Coping strategies are focused on spreading risks and include reduced consumption, casual employment, new crops, external support and the selling of assets....... There are no large differences in applied coping strategies across the region, but district-level data demonstrate how local strategies differ between localities within the districts. The results emphasize that in order to target rural policies and make them efficient, it is important to take into account the local...

  2. Nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickie A Lambert


    Full Text Available Prior research has suggested that nurses, regardless of workplace or culture, are confronted with a variety of stressors. As the worldwide nursing shortage increases, the aged population becomes larger, there is an increase in the incidence of chronic illnesses and technology continues to advance, nurses continually will be faced with numerous workplace stressors. Thus, nurses, especially palliative care nurses, need to learn how to identify their workplace stressors and to cope effectively with these stressors to attain and maintain both their physical and mental health. This article describes workplace stressors and coping strategies, compares and contrasts cross-cultural literature on nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies, and delineates a variety of stress management activities that could prove helpful for contending with stressors in the workplace.

  3. Stress, coping and satisfaction in nursing students. (United States)

    Gibbons, Chris; Dempster, Martin; Moutray, Marianne


    This article is a report of a study conducted to explore the relationship between sources of stress and psychological well-being and to consider how different sources of stress and coping resources might function as moderators and mediators on well-being. In most research exploring sources of stress and coping in nursing students, stress has been construed as psychological distress. Sources of stress likely to enhance well-being and, by implication, learning have not been considered. A questionnaire was administered to 171 final year nursing students in 2008. Questions were asked to measure sources of stress when rated as likely to contribute to distress (a hassle) and rated as likely to help one achieve (an uplift). Support, control, self-efficacy and coping style were also measured, along with their potential moderating and mediating effects on well-being, operationalized using the General Health Questionnaire and measures of course and career satisfaction. Sources of stress likely to lead to distress were more often predictors of well-being than were sources of stress likely to lead to positive, eustress states, with the exception of clinical placement demands. Self-efficacy, dispositional control and support were important predictors, and avoidance coping was the strongest predictor of adverse well-being. Approach coping was not a predictor of well-being. The mere presence of support appeared beneficial as well as the utility of that support to help a student cope. Initiatives to promote support and self-efficacy are likely to have immediate benefits for student well-being. In course reviews, nurse educators need to consider how students' experiences might contribute not just to potential distress, but to eustress as well. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Gardanova


    Full Text Available Diagnostics of psycho-emotional disorders of patients with malignant diseases of the prostate is not doubt, because timely correction contributes to the shortening of rehabilitation period and restoration of the quality of life of patients after treatment. Detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer for many patients is stressful and causes changes in the affective sphere, and manifests itself in increased levels of anxiety and depression in men. To cope with stress is possible due to the used coping strategies.Purpose. Studying the coping mechanisms in prostate cancer patients.Materials and methods. 56 men treated in FGBU "LRTS" Russian Ministry of Health. The average age was 65.7 ± 6.1 years. The average duration of the disease prostate cancer is 3 ± 2 months. All men were subjected to the standard algorithm for the evaluation of hormonal status, the PSA, taking a history, inspection and physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy of bones of a skeleton. All the patients underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Psychological testing with the use of the method of "Coping test" the scale of reactive and personal anxiety for the differentiated evaluation of anxiety. Results. The most common for prostate cancer revealed constructive coping strategies are "planning solve", "selfcontrol" and "search of social support". According to the scale Spielberg–Hanin a high level of situational anxiety was revealed.Conclusion. According to the results of the research, patients with prostate cancer are likely to use constructive coping strategies, that leads to stabilization of psycho-emotional state of men and promotes more effective adaptation in the terms of stress, that is caused by treatment of prostate cancer.

  5. Personality, sense of coherence and the coping of working mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lettie Herbst


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between personality dimensions, sense of coherence and coping styles among working mothers. The OPQ, OLQ and COPE questionnaires were administered to 120 married, working mothers. In view of contrasting results obtained by other researchers regarding the dimensionality of the COPE, its factorial validity and internal consistency were assessed. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the COPE measured five factors with high degrees of internal consistency. Several personality dimensions and sense of coherence variables correlated significantly with the dependent variables (coping styles. It appeared that these independent variables predicted substantial percentages of the variability in the coping styles.

  6. Coping with Fear of and Exposure to Terrorism among Expatriates. (United States)

    Beutell, Nicholas J; O'Hare, Marianne M; Schneer, Joy A; Alstete, Jeffrey W


    This paper examines existing research on the impact of terrorism on expatriate coping strategies. We consider pre-assignment fear of terrorism, in-country coping strategies, and anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with repatriation. The extant research is small but growing. Our model for expatriate coping at the pre-departure, in-country, and repatriation stages includes strategies specific to each stage. Preparation using proactive coping, systematic desensitization, problem and emotion focused coping, social support, and virtual reality explorations are recommended. Selecting expatriate candidates who are well-adjusted, emotionally intelligent, and possessing good coping skills is essential for successful assignments in terror-prone regions.

  7. Alzheimer's aggression: influences on caregiver coping and resilience. (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Little, Kristina G; Gough, Heather R; Spurlock, Wanda J


    This study assessed impact of Alzheimer's patients' aggressive behavior (AD aggression) on caregiver coping strategies (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-focused) and caregiver resilience, and examined whether coping strategy moderated the AD aggression-caregiver resilience relationship. Informal caregivers across Louisiana (N = 419) completed surveys with measures of demographics, AD aggression, caregiver coping strategies, and caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping positively related to resilience. Aggression negatively predicted caregiver resilience. Emotion- and avoidance-focused coping strategies separately interacted with aggression and increased its negative relationship to caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping showed no moderation. Implications for social work professionals are discussed.

  8. Coping with Fear of and Exposure to Terrorism among Expatriates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Beutell


    Full Text Available This paper examines existing research on the impact of terrorism on expatriate coping strategies. We consider pre-assignment fear of terrorism, in-country coping strategies, and anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD associated with repatriation. The extant research is small but growing. Our model for expatriate coping at the pre-departure, in-country, and repatriation stages includes strategies specific to each stage. Preparation using proactive coping, systematic desensitization, problem and emotion focused coping, social support, and virtual reality explorations are recommended. Selecting expatriate candidates who are well-adjusted, emotionally intelligent, and possessing good coping skills is essential for successful assignments in terror-prone regions.

  9. Young children's grief: parents' understanding and coping. (United States)

    Bugge, Kari E; Darbyshire, Philip; Røkholt, Eline Grelland; Haugstvedt, Karen Therese Sulheim; Helseth, Solvi


    The grief experiences of young children and the interactional dynamics between parents and children leading to healthy grieving remain comparatively under researched. This article reports a qualitative evaluation of a Norwegian Bereavement Support Program where 8 parents described their young child's grief reactions and coping and how these intersected with their own grief. Successful parental coping with their child's grief involves understanding the child's genuine concerns following the death and an intricately holistic balance between shielding and including, between informing and frightening, and between creating a new life while cherishing the old.

  10. How we cope with digital technology

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Phil


    Digital technology has become a defining characteristic of modern life. Almost everyone uses it, we all rely on it, and many of us own a multitude of devices. What is more, we all expect to be able to use these technologies ""straight out the box."" This lecture discusses how we are able to do this without apparent problems. We are able to use digital technology because we have learned to cope with it. ""To cope"" is used in philosophy to mean ""absorbed engagement,"" that is, we use our smart phones and tablet computers with little or no conscious effort. In human-computer interaction this ki

  11. Intacting Integrity in coping with health issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Stine Leegaard; Bastrup Jørgensen, Lene; Fridlund, Bengt


    The aim of this study was to develop a formal substantive theory (FST) on the multidimensional behavioral process of coping with health issues. Intacting integrity while coping with health issues emerged as the core category of this FST. People facing health issues strive to safeguard and keep...... intact their integrity not only on an individual level but also as members of a group or a system. This intacting process is executed by attunement, continuously minimizing the discrepancy between personal values, personal health, self-expectations and external conditions as health- and cultural...

  12. Coping with infertility: a transcultural perspective. (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Botao; Li, Min


    To review the most important and interesting articles in infertility published in the last year. This systematic review covers 60 studies published in journals or dissertations in Science Direct and PubMed in the last year, including those related to prevention and treatment as well as related psychosocial services in infertility. We also propose some suggestions about coping with infertility in China. Infertility is a multidisciplinary problem that requires medical, social, and political efforts to prevent and offer infertile patients the best diagnostic, therapeutic, and psychosocial services. Cultural factors should be taken into consideration when designing coping strategies.

  13. Coping with inflammatory breast cancer: women's experiences. (United States)

    Bond, Barbara E; Connolly, April; Asci, Susan


    The American Cancer Society estimates that 200,000 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer each year. Among these, 1-6% will be diagnosed with a far more aggressive and little studied form, inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). Because its presenting symptoms are atypical, IBC is often mistaken for mastitis or other conditions, resulting in dangerous delay in accurate diagnosis and treatment. Little is written about coping with IBC. This qualitative study explores stressors and challenges women face in coping with diagnosis, treatment and living with IBC, in order to help providers understand and meet the unique needs of women with this disease.

  14. Nonreligious coping and religious coping as predictors of expressed emotion in relatives of patients with schizophrenia (United States)

    Wasserman, Stephanie; Weisman, Amy; Suro, Giulia


    Expressed emotion (EE) is a measure of the amount of criticism and emotional over involvement expressed by a key relative towards a relative with a disorder or illness (Hooley, 2007). Research has established that living in a high EE environment, which is characterized by increased levels of critical and emotionally exaggerated communication, leads to a poorer prognosis for patients with a mental illness when compared to low EE environments. Despite evidence that EE is a strong predictor of course of illness, there continue to be questions concerning why some family members express excessive levels of high EE attitudes about their mentally ill relatives while others do not. Based on indirect evidence from previous research, the current study tested whether religious and nonreligious coping serve as predictors of EE. A sample of 72 family members of patients with schizophrenia completed an EE interview, along with questionnaires assessing situational nonreligious coping and religious coping. In line with hypotheses, results indicated that nonreligious coping predicted EE. Specifically, less use of adaptive emotion-focused coping predicted high EE. Also consistent with predictions, maladaptive religious coping predicted high EE above and beyond nonreligious coping. PMID:23393424

  15. Affecting coping: does neurocognition predict approach and avoidant coping strategies within schizophrenia spectrum disorders? (United States)

    MacAulay, Rebecca; Cohen, Alex S


    According to various diathesis-stress models of schizophrenia, life stress plays a defining role in the onset and course of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. In this regard, individual differences in coping strategies and affective traits, variables related to the management and experience of stress, may play a large role in susceptibility to the disorder and symptom exacerbation. Furthermore, it has been posited that cognitive deficits may limit an individuals' ability to effectively respond to stressful situations. We investigated the relationships between attention, immediate memory, trait negative affect (NA), trait positive affect (PA) and specific coping strategies within three groups: chronic schizophrenia patients (n=27), psychometrically-defined schizotypy (n=89), and schizotypy demographically-matched controls (n=26). As hypothesized affective traits displayed predictable relationships with specific coping strategies, such that NA was associated with the greater use of avoidant coping strategies within the schizophrenia and schizotypy group, while PA was associated with greater use of approach coping styles within all groups. The schizotypy group reported significantly higher levels of NA and also greater use of avoidant coping strategies than both the control and schizophrenia group. As expected group differences were found in trait affect, coping strategies, and cognitive functioning. Importantly, these group differences remained significant even when demographic variables were entered as covariates. Contrary to our expectations, cognitive functioning displayed only a few tenuous relationships with coping strategies within the schizophrenia and schizotypy groups. Overall, results support the notion that affective traits and not cognitive functioning is the best predictor of approach and avoidant coping strategies. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Developing the musical brain to boost early pre-verbal, communication and listening skills: The implications for musicality development pre- and post-cochlear implantation. It is not just about Nursery Rhymes! (United States)

    Rocca, Christine


    A growing body of evidence suggests that musical activities can enhance the listening brain and develop higher cognitive functions, including linguistic abilities. The BabyBeats™ early intervention resource, a musical habilitation resource, was designed to improve early parent interaction, early listening behaviour, early communication skills, and social and emotional development, pre- and post-implantation. A feasibility study was conducted on families from the UK. There were two groups: seven babies 12 months old. Audit data were collected based on a simple parental and professional feedback questionnaire, completed at the end of an 8-month trial. Parental feedback was positive and ideas from the resource were carried over into the family's everyday routines. Parents and professionals observed increased vocalisation, attention, and anticipation of the activities in their babies. Parents also reported increased confidence in singing, moving, and playing with their baby. These preliminary outcomes suggest that this type of intervention may lead to earlier development of communication and listening skills when used in combination with appropriate amplification. The next steps will be to include more infants, match the groups regarding age and developmental stage, to observe the infants for a longer period and to compare outcomes over time.

  17. Coping with chronic renal failure in Hong Kong. (United States)

    Mok, Esther; Lai, Claudia; Zhang, Zhi-Xue


    The purpose of the study was to investigate the coping behaviours of Chinese patients with chronic renal failure. The study, based on Lazarus and Folkman (Stress, Appraisal and Coping, Springer, New York, 1984) model of coping, was conducted to identify the process by which 11 chronic renal failure patients cope with their disease. The identified themes are coping with fluctuating feelings and concerns, motivation to cope, interdependent relationships between patients and their family members and modes of coping strategies. The significance of the results indicates that coping is the consequence not only of situational demands but also of life goals. Meaning in life is an important motivator in the coping process. Besides problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping, another important element is relationship-focused coping. The interdependent influences of families on patients and patients on families are also important factors. The role of family and cultural factors is discussed as it affects how patients with chronic renal failure cope with their illness.

  18. Coping with weight stigma: development and validation of a Brief Coping Responses Inventory


    Hayward, L. E.; Vartanian, L. R.; Pinkus, R. T.


    Summary People who are overweight or obese are frequently stigmatized because of their weight, but there has been limited exploration of how people cope with these experiences. The Coping Responses Inventory (CRI) assesses a wide range of coping strategies in response to weight stigma; however, its length (99 items) may have prevented it from being widely used. The aim of the current research (four studies; total N = 1,391) was to develop and validate a Brief CRI. This 10‐item measure consist...

  19. Coping with cancer -- finding the support you need (United States)

    ... this page: // Coping with cancer - finding the support you need To ... Counseling. Web site. . Accessed ...

  20. Coping with Chronic Illness in Childhood and Adolescence (United States)

    Compas, Bruce E.; Jaser, Sarah S.; Dunn, Madeleine J.; Rodriguez, Erin M.


    Chronic illnesses and medical conditions present millions of children and adolescents with significant stress that is associated with risk for emotional and behavioral problems and interferes with adherence to treatment regimens. We review research on the role of child and adolescent coping with stress as an important feature of the process of adaptation to illness. Recent findings support a control-based model of coping that includes primary control or active coping (efforts to act on the source of stress or one’s emotions), secondary control or accommodative coping (efforts to adapt to the source of stress), and disengagement or passive coping (efforts to avoid or deny the stressor). Evidence suggests the efficacy of secondary control coping in successful adaptation to chronic illness in children and adolescents, disengagement coping is associated with poorer adjustment, and findings for primary control coping are mixed. Avenues for future research are highlighted. PMID:22224836

  1. Coping Skills Development: A New Service for Elderly Clients. (United States)

    Porter, Kay


    Describes a model project developed to teach effective coping skills to the aged. Lists objectives of the program workshops and describes approaches to coping with stress due to life transitions. (Author/RC)

  2. Coping Styles and Depression Among Undocumented Hispanic Immigrants. (United States)

    Cobb, Cory L; Xie, Dong; Sanders, Gardiner L


    This cross-sectional study examined coping strategies and their relationship with depression among undocumented Hispanic immigrants. A community sample of 122 self-identified undocumented Hispanics filled out questionnaires measuring coping and depression. The authors categorized coping strategies as problem-focused, active-emotional, or avoidant-emotional. Findings indicated that coping through "prayer and meditation" (problem-focused), "get comfort from someone" (active-emotional), and "see bad things positively" (active-emotional) were more frequently used by undocumented Hispanics. Contrary to past research and predictions, problem-focused and active-emotional coping were both positively related to depression. What is more, problem-focused coping accounted for additional variance of depression above and beyond active-emotional coping. The insoluble nature of many of the problems faced by undocumented immigrants may explain the counterintuitive finding that as problem-focused and active-emotional coping increased, so too did depression.

  3. Cognitive coping and defense styles in patients with personality disorders. (United States)

    van Wijk-Herbrink, Marjolein; Andrea, Helene; Verheul, Roel


    This study investigates the associations between cognitive coping (as measured with the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; CERQ), defense mechanisms (as measured with the Defense Style Questionnaire-60; DSQ-60) and personality disorders (PDs; as measured with the SIDP-IV interview) in a large sample of patients with PDs (n = 1,435). Explorative factor analyses indicated that the nine CERQ subscales can be clustered into three higher-order factors (adaptive coping, non-adaptive coping and external attribution style). When compared to a general population sample, the PD sample particularly scored higher on nonadaptive coping styles. A higher number of PDs was related to a particularly higher level of nonadaptive coping and less mature defensive functioning, but also to lower levels of adaptive coping and external attribution. This study is the first to suggest that three higher-order coping styles can be identified among PD patients, and that these coping styles are related to the presence and number of PDs.

  4. Helping Children with Disabilities Cope with Disaster and Traumatic Events (United States)

    ... Trauma Wandering Information For… Media Policy Makers CDC Employees and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Coping with Disaster and Traumatic Events Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Helping Children with Disabilities Cope ...

  5. Religiousness and religious coping in a secular society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel


    . Information about demographics, religiousness and religious coping was obtained through a web-based questionnaire. We organized religiousness in the three dimensions: Cognition, Practice and Importance, and we assessed religious coping using the brief RCOPE questionnaire. We found substantial gender...

  6. Christchurch earthquakes: how did former refugees cope? (United States)

    Osman, Mohamud; Hornblow, Andrew; Macleod, Sandy; Coope, Pat


    This study investigated how former refugees now living in Christchurch (Canterbury Province, New Zealand) communities coped after the 4 September 2010 and subsequent earthquakes. A systematic sample of one in three former refugees from five ethnic groupings (Afghanistan, Kurdistan, Ethiopia, Somalia and Bhutan) was selected from a list of 317 refugees provided by the Canterbury Refugee Council and invited to participate in the study. Seventy-two out of 105 potential participants completed a 26 item questionnaire regarding the impact of the quakes, their concerns and anxieties, coping strategies and social supports. The methodology was complicated by ongoing aftershocks, particularly that of 22 February 2011. Three-quarters of participants reported that they had coped well, spirituality and religious practice being an important support for many, despite less then 20% receiving support from mainstream agencies. Most participants (72%) had not experienced a traumatic event or natural disaster before. Older participants and married couples with children were more likely to worry about the earthquakes and their impact than single individuals. There was a significant difference in the level of anxiety between males and females. Those who completed the questionnaire after the 22 February 2011 quake were more worried overall than those interviewed before this. Overall, the former refugees reported they had coped well despite most of them not experiencing an earthquake before and few receiving support from statutory relief agencies. More engagement from local services is needed in order to build trust and cooperation between the refugee and local communities.

  7. Rural Adolescent Loneliness and Coping Strategies. (United States)

    Woodward, John C.; Frank, Barbara D.


    Investigated loneliness of rural Nebraskan adolescents (n=387)) in relation to aspects of their self-esteem. Gathered data using the Loneliness Inventory (Woodward, 1967), Bachman's (1970) Self Esteem Scale, and Coping Strategies Inventory (Woodward, 1987). Results indicated that rural adolescents had extremely high loneliness scores and that 10…

  8. Children of Torture Victims: Reactions and Coping. (United States)

    Montgomery, Edith; And Others


    Evaluation of 11 children from 5 exile families with at least 1 parent having been subjected to torture found children were anxious, depressive, and regressive with psychosomatic symptoms, sleep disorders, and family and school problems. Coping strategies including isolation and withdrawal, mental flight, eagerness to acclimatize, and strength of…

  9. Helping Gifted Adolescents Cope with Social Stigma. (United States)

    Swiatek, Mary Ann


    Examines ways of helping gifted adolescents cope with a perceived stigma. Research is cited showing that many gifted adolescents believe they are treated differently because of their abilities and behave differently because of this belief, including denial of one's giftedness. The school's role, ability grouping, and special needs of gifted girls…

  10. Coping under pressure: Strategies for maintaining confidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 11, 2010 ... Coping under pressure: Strategies for maintaining confidence amongst South African soccer coaches. Authors: Jhalukpreya Surujlal1. Sheila Nguyen2. Affiliations: 1Faculty of Management. Sciences, Vaal University of. Technology, South Africa. 2Faculty of Business and Law, School of. Management and.

  11. Cognitive coping in anxiety-disordered adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Garnefski, Nadia; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.


    The present study investigated differences in cognitive coping strategies between anxiety-disordered and non-anxious adolescents. In addition, the interaction effect with gender as well as differences between specific anxiety diagnoses was examined. A clinical sample of 159 anxiety-disordered

  12. Coping and resilience resources in early adolescents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karaffová, Eva


    Roč. 27, Sup. 1 (2012), s. 240-240 ISSN 0887-0446. [Conference of European Health Psychology Society: Resilience and Health /26./. 21.08.2012-25.08.2012, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/12/2325 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : resilience * coping * adolescents Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  13. Coping with osgood-schlatter disease. (United States)

    Meisterling, R C; Wall, E J; Meisterling, M R


    If your doctor has told you that your knee pain is caused by Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD), you're not alone. OSD is common in active, rapidly growing teens. It usually goes away on its own within 12 to 24 months, but during its course, you and your doctor can work together to cope with the symptoms.

  14. Coping Experience among Students in Higher Education (United States)

    Heiman, Tali; Kariv, Dafna


    The study examines the coping strategies among 130 undergraduate college and university students with learning disabilities (LD) and 146 students without learning disabilities (NLD). Students completed self-reported instruments designed to measure stress, support and strategies. The findings revealed that students without LD reported higher work…

  15. Relationship between religiosity, religious coping and socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tially damaging physiological responses to stress through its unique coping efforts; fostering greater social support, hope and optimism; enhancing positive emotions and preventing depression and suicide.20 Many researchers have advocated for the inclusion of religious/spiritual di- mensions in our everyday medical and ...

  16. Coping with rainfall variability in northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte


    This chapter explores a potential relationship between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern Tanzania. In addition, correlations...

  17. Spatial hearing in Cope's gray treefrog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caldwell, Michael S; Lee, Norman; Schrode, Katrina M


    Anuran ears function as pressure difference receivers, and the amplitude and phase of tympanum vibrations are inherently directional, varying with sound incident angle. We quantified the nature of this directionality for Cope's gray treefrog, Hyla chrysoscelis. We presented subjects with pure tones...

  18. Stress in College Athletics: Causes, Consequences, Coping. (United States)

    Humphrey, James H.; Yow, Deborah A.; Bowden, William W.

    This book addresses the causes and consequences of stress in college sports and offers effective coping mechanisms to help individuals understand and control stressors and emotions in their environment. The chapters are: (1) "Understanding Stress"; (2) "Perceptions of Stress in College Athletics"; (3) "Stress among College Athletes"; (4) "Stress…

  19. Coping & Caring: Living with Alzheimer's Disease. (United States)

    Leroux, Charles

    This guide on Alzheimer's disease is for those who care for Alzheimer's patients, as well as those who want to learn more about the disease. It answers these questions: (1) what is Alzheimer's? (2) how does the disease progress and how long does it last? (3) how do families cope? and (4) who can provide assistance and information? The guide also…

  20. Vulnerability, poverty and coping in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin; Bird, Kate

    This paper uses five life histories from three locations in Zimbabwe—one peri-urban, one urban and one rural—to provide a window on current processes of impoverishment and adverse coping. Each case and location highlight key aspects of Zimbabwe’s recent economic and political turmoil. Together th...

  1. Infertility, psychological distress, and coping strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relatively little is known about infertility and its consequences in Mali, West Africa where the context and culture are different from those of previously studied settings. This study therefore aimed to specifically examine infertility induced psychological distress and coping strategies among women in Mali. A convergent ...

  2. Emotional and Cognitive Coping in Relationship Dissolution (United States)

    Wrape, Elizabeth R.; Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Callahan, Jennifer L.; Nowlin, Rachel B.


    Dissolution of a romantic relationship can adversely affect functioning among college students and represents one primary reason for seeking campus counseling. This study examined the associations among common coping strategies and distress following relationship dissolution. Avoidance and repetitive negative thinking (RNT) were significantly…

  3. A Theoretical Perspective on Coping with Stigma. (United States)

    Miller, Carol T.; Kaiser, Cheryl R.


    Uses existing theory and research on general stress and coping responses to describe responses to stigma-related stressors and discuss the adaptiveness of these responses. Research suggests that different stressors evoke different responses from different individuals. Stigmatized people have different life experiences than nonstigmatized people,…

  4. Psychobiology of coping and defence strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursin, H.; Olff, M.


    The stress response should be regarded as an alarm system, occurring whenever there is something missing. Lack of information (uncertainty), and the absence or loss of control produce alarm, presence of information and control (coping), or cognitive defence mechanisms (distorted stimulus

  5. Coping with crisis risk in European agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.


    This article summarizes the major findings of an international workshop on coping with crisis risk in European agriculture. The workshop took place as part of an EU sixth framework project entitled: Income stabilisation: Design and economic impact of risk management tools for European agriculture.

  6. Secretaries' Perceived Strategies for Coping with Occupational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results revealed that bank secretaries perceived work functions as cause of stress; these stressors had great effect on their performance, and the coping strategies as effective. Also respondents did not differ significantly in their mean response based on gender, work experience and marital status. Consequently, it was ...

  7. Stress--Teaching Children To Cope. (United States)

    Miller, Susan; McCormick, James, Eds.


    Presents five articles by teachers who have incorporated stress management concepts into their preschool and elementary curricula. Educators and parents are given information about the stress process and how to help children cope with inevitable stressors. The gymnasium environment is recommended as well suited for teaching children how to handle…

  8. Coping with extreme climate events: Institutional flocking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, van C.S.A.; Mol, A.P.J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.


    The article explores the governance structures that would be needed to cope with extreme and unpredictable climate change. The impacts on the Netherlands of a Gulf Stream collapse in the Northern Atlantic are taken as a case. This hypothetical situation of serious risks and high uncertainties

  9. Stress, Adaptive Coping, and Life Satisfaction (United States)

    Buser, Juleen K.; Kearney, Anne


    The authors examined the relationship between stress, adaptive coping, and life satisfaction among college students who reported having a friend or family member with eating disorder symptomatology. A hierarchical regression confirmed the study's hypotheses. Higher stress was linked with less life satisfaction. After stress was controlled, plan…

  10. Stress and Coping among Ghanaian School Teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigated the type of stressors that Ghanaian schoolteachers encounter on their job and the coping strategies they use in dealing with the stressors. Three hundred and fifty five (355) teachers from five regions of the country participated in the study. The Teachers Job Stress Questionnaire and the Ways ...

  11. The Impact of Neighborhood Environment, Social Support, and Avoidance Coping on Depressive Symptoms of Pregnant African-American Women. (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Templin, Thomas N; Engeland, Christopher G; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang Gi; Kavanaugh, Karen; Dieber, William; Misra, Dawn P


    Although depressive symptoms during pregnancy have been related to negative maternal and child health outcomes such as preterm birth, low birth weight infants, postpartum depression, and maladaptive mother-infant interactions, studies on the impact of neighborhood environment on depressive symptoms in pregnant women are limited. Pregnant women residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods reported higher levels of depressive symptoms and lower levels of social support. No researchers have examined the relationship between neighborhood environment and avoidance coping in pregnant women. Guided by the Ecological model and Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping, we examined whether social support and avoidance coping mediated associations between the neighborhood environment and depressive symptoms in pregnant African-American women. Pregnant African-American women (n = 95) from a medical center in Chicago completed the instruments twice during pregnancy between 15 and 25 weeks and between 25 and 37 weeks. The self-administered instruments measured perceived neighborhood environment, social support, avoidance coping, and depressive symptoms using items from existing scales. Objective measures of the neighborhood environment were derived using geographic information systems. Perceived neighborhood environment, social support, avoidance coping, and depressive symptoms were correlated significantly in the expected directions. Objective physical disorder and crime were negatively related to social support. Social support at time 1 (20 ± 2.6 weeks) mediated associations between the perceived neighborhood environment at time 1 and depressive symptoms at time 2 (29 ± 2.7 weeks). An increase in avoidance coping between times 1 and 2 also mediated the effects of perceived neighborhood environment at time 1 on depressive symptoms at time 2. Pregnant African-American women's negative perceptions of their neighborhoods in the second trimester were related to

  12. The Coexistence of Coping Resources and Specific Coping Styles in Stress: Evidence from Full Information Item Bifactor Analysis (United States)

    Cui, Meng; Wu, Qing; Zhu, Xia; Miao, Danmin; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Xi; Xiao, Wei


    Background Knowledge of coping styles is useful in clinical diagnosis and suggesting specific therapeutic interventions. However, the latent structures and relationships between different aspects of coping styles have not been fully clarified. A full information item bifactor model will be beneficial to future research. Objective One goal of this study is identification of the best fit statistical model of coping styles. A second goal is entails extended analyses of latent relationships among different coping styles. In general, such research should offer greater understanding of the mechanisms of coping styles and provide insights into coping with stress. Methods Coping Styles Questionnaire (CSQ) and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) were administrated to officers suffering from military stress. Confirmatory Factor Analyses was performed to indentify the best fit model. A hierarchical item response model (bifactor model) was adopted to analyze the data. Additionally, correlations among coping styles and self-efficacy were compared using both original and bifactor models. Results Results showed a bifactor model best fit the data. Item loadings on general and specific factors varied among different coping styles. All items loaded significantly on the general factor, and most items also had moderate to large loadings on specific factors. The correlation between coping styles and self-efficacy and the correlation among different coping styles changed significantly after extracting the general factor of coping stress using bifactor analysis. This was seen in changes from positive (r = 0.714, pstyles have a bifactor structure. They also provide direct evidence of coexisting coping resources and styles. This further clarifies that dimensions of coping styles should include coping resources and specific coping styles. This finding has implications for measurement of coping mechanisms, health maintenance, and stress reduction. PMID:24787952

  13. Coping with delusions in schizophrenia and affective disorder with psychotic symptoms: the relationship between coping strategies and dimensions of delusion. (United States)

    Rückl, Sarah; Gentner, Nana Christina; Büche, Liesa; Backenstrass, Matthias; Barthel, Andreas; Vedder, Helmut; Bürgy, Martin; Kronmüller, Klaus-Thomas


    Self-generated coping strategies and the enhancement of coping strategies are effective in the treatment of psychotic symptoms. Evaluating these strategies can be of clinical interest to develop better coping enhancement therapies. Cognitive models consider delusions as multidimensional phenomena. Using a psychometric approach, the relationship between coping and the dimensions of delusion were examined. Thirty schizophrenia spectrum patients with delusions and 29 patients with affective disorder with psychotic symptoms were interviewed using the Heidelberg Coping Scales for Delusions and the Heidelberg Profile of Delusional Experience. Analyses of variance were conducted to investigate differences between the groups, and Spearman's rank-based correlations were used to examine the correlations between coping factors and the dimensions of delusion. Schizophrenia spectrum patients used more medical care and symptomatic coping, whereas patients with affective disorder engaged in more depressive coping. In the schizophrenia spectrum sample, the action-oriented, the cognitive, and the emotional dimensions of delusion were related to coping factors. In patients with affective disorder, only the action-oriented dimension was related to coping factors. Patients with schizophrenia and affective disorder cope differently with delusions. The dimensions of delusion are related to coping and should be regarded when using cognitive therapy approaches to enhance coping strategies. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova


    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  15. Peritoneal dialysis in infants.


    Donaldson, M D; Spurgeon, P; Haycock, G B; Chantler, C


    A commercially available closed dialysis system and a new peritoneal cannula with potential advantages for infants have been developed. The dialysis set includes three dialysate bags that may be connected to the filling burette; the warming coil of the set is placed in a thermostatically controlled water bath. The peritoneal catheter comprises a flexible tube with side holes and a sharp short bevelled needle with obturator. Advantages of the new equipment over previously available equipment a...

  16. Infant and toddler nutrition. (United States)

    Marks, Katie


    General practitioners (GPs) are often the first point of advice about nutrition and feeding concerns in infants and toddlers. The aim of this article is to discuss the assessment of breastfed infants and address commonly presenting issues such as regurgitation, vomiting and bowel habits. Recommendations for starting solids and management of fussy eating are also outlined in this article. Breastfeeding should be supported by all healthcare professionals. Intake is difficult to quantify, but can be assessed using growth and urine output, with support from lactation consultants and/or child and family health nurses. Regurgitation is common, and usually resolves itself. If there are clinical concerns about a child's vomiting, they should be investigated medically. Consti-pation can be caused by insufficient fluid intake and should be managed medically; dietary interventions are not recommended as first-line treatment. Solid foods should be introduced around six months of age, when the infant is developmentally ready. Delaying the introduction of solids or allergenic foods does not prevent allergies. Fussy eating is common in toddlers exerting their independence, and behavioural management is essential.

  17. Preference for infant-directed speech in preterm infants. (United States)

    Butler, Samantha C; O'Sullivan, Laura P; Shah, Bhavesh L; Berthier, Neil E


    The current study explores the effects of exposure to maternal voice on infant sucking in preterm infants. Twenty-four preterm infants averaging 35 weeks gestational age were divided randomly into two groups. A contingency between high-amplitude sucking and presentation of maternal voice was instituted for one group while the other group served as a yoked control. No significant differences were observed in sucking of the two groups, but the degree of pitch modulation of the maternal voice predicted an increase in the rate of infant sucking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stress and neurobiology of coping styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod V. Nemets


    Full Text Available In stressful environment, animal can use different coping strategies. Passive animals manifest freezing behaviour at predator attacks, active ones are trying to have an impact on a stressful situation. Each coping style is presupposed to have a neurobiological basis and it helps animals to survive in aggressive and mutable environment. Being under a long lasting stress, leaders can be affected by cardiovascular and ulcer diseases, but a short term impact can cheer them up, improve neuroendocrine stress response more than passive coping style in animals. This paper analyzes animal pattern of coping behaviour, their inheritance based on gender, social status and age. The research shows how anxiety affects social behaviour of people individuals and typological reactions were compared. These patterns can be used by people in a situation of uncontrolled stress to prevent diseases and depressive disorders through altering one’s type of behavior to the one which is more effective. In addition, knowledge of behavioural types can assist teachers in implementing the learning process as in stress situations (e.g. taking exams, working on course papers, doing tests not all students are able to effectively perceive and present the resulting material. On the other hand, active students could encourage short-term rather than long-term stressor irritation. It is necessary to pay special attention to students with low social economic status who display active response to stress. According to statistics, problem students often become aggressors and commit antisocial and sometimes criminal acts. The coping styles mentioned here above are not polar, there are no clear boundaries of personality. In addition, behaving according to the active / non-active type is identified by customary and inherited behaviour patterns.

  19. Occupational Stress and Coping Resources in Air Traffic Control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored the coping resources that air traffic controllers used to cope with work-related stress, and determined if there are statistically significant differences in the coping resources of air traffic control staff from different demographic sub-groups. Air travel has increased and is expected to continue to increase as ...

  20. Appraisal and Coping Strategy Use in Victims of School Bullying (United States)

    Hunter, S. C.; Boyle, J. M. E.


    Background: Transactional models of coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) can contribute to our understanding of why some children cope effectively with bullying while others suffer negative outcomes. However, previous research has relied on coping measures that are not comparable with adult measures, restricting investigation of developmental trends.…

  1. Coping and personality in older patients with bipolar disorder. (United States)

    Schouws, Sigfried N T M; Paans, Nadine P G; Comijs, Hannie C; Dols, Annemiek; Stek, Max L


    Little is known about coping styles and personality traits in older bipolar patients. Adult bipolar patients show a passive coping style and higher neuroticism scores compared to the general population. Our aim is to investigate personality traits and coping in older bipolar patients and the relationship between coping and personality. 75 Older patients (age > 60) with bipolar I or II disorder in a euthymic mood completed the Utrecht Coping List and the NEO Personality Inventory FFI and were compared to normative data. Older bipolar patients show more passive coping styles compared to healthy elderly. Their personality traits are predominated by openness, in contrast conscientiousness and altruism are relatively sparse. Neuroticism was related to passive coping styles, whereas conscientiousness was related to an active coping style. Older bipolar patients have more passive coping styles. Their personality is characterized by openness and relatively low conscientiousness and altruism. Our sample represents a survival cohort; this may explain the differences in personality traits between older patients in this study and in adult bipolar patients in other studies. The association between coping styles and personality traits is comparable to reports of younger adult patients with bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies are warranted to explore if coping and personality change with ageing in bipolar patients and to determine which coping style is most effective in preventing mood episodes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychopathology and coping in recently diagnosed HIV / AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    order, and to use coping strategies of planning and religion to deal with the illness. There were no significant gender differ- ences in disability. Conclusion. ..... You want to measure coping but your protocol's too long: consider the brief. COPE. Int J Behav Med 1997; 4: 92-100. 8. Sheehan DV. The Anxiety Disease.

  3. Reflexivity as a control factor of personal coping behavior




    The article deals with the issue of coping behavior control. The author defines the criteria, levels and aspects of reflexivity within the framework of personal coping behavior. In conclusion the author describes the key facets of coping behavior control and how reflexivity affects them.

  4. Coping and Late-Deafness: An Examination of Two Measures (United States)

    Meyer, Jill M.; Kashubeck-West, Susan


    Purpose: To examine the psychometric properties of two measures of coping in a sample of individuals with acquired hearing loss, specifically late-deafness. Methods: Using a quantitative descriptive design, coping of participants (N = 277) with late-deafness was measured to examine the reliability and validity of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire…

  5. Coping and personality in older patients with bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouws, S.N.T.M.; Paans, N.P.G.; Comijs, H.C.; Dols, A.; Stek, M.L.


    Abstract Background Little is known about coping styles and personality traits in older bipolar patients. Adult bipolar patients show a passive coping style and higher neuroticism scores compared to the general population. Our aim is to investigate personality traits and coping in older bipolar

  6. Coping behaviour in pigs : consequences for welfare and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp-van der Kooij, Elaine van


    In this study we have investigated individual differences in coping with management-related stressors such as cross-fostering, weaning and mixing. Animals differ in the way they cope with stressors. An active coping strategy is characterized by an autonomous response, with higher heart rate, blood

  7. Awareness of climate change and indigenous coping strategies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the awareness and indigenous coping mechanism employed by women crop farmers to cope with climate change in Kogi State, Nigeria. Respondents' socioeconomic characteristic, level of awareness about climate change, and indigenous coping strategies to climate change as well as activities of ...

  8. Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants (United States)

    Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.


    Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…

  9. Coping with fibromialgia: usefulness of the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42. (United States)

    Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Pascual, Aida; Alda, Marta; Gonzalez Ramirez, Monica Teresa


    There are few studies on coping with fibromyalgia (FM). The aim of the present study was to assess the usefulness of a Spanish version of the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42 (CPCI-42) in patients with FM. A random sample (N=402) of patients with FM was obtained from the Fibromyalgia Association of Aragon, Spain. Patients were assessed with the CPCI-42, the Fibrofatigue Scale (FFS), the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The psychometric properties of the CPCI-42 were valid and factor analyses supported the eight-factor structure described in patients with chronic pain. Illness-focused coping strategies (i.e., guarding, resting, and asking for assistance) were strongly correlated with each other, positively correlated with disability and depression, and negatively correlated with quality of life, indicating construct validity. Seeking social support was weakly correlated with any other scale or outcome, confirming it belongs to a different group of coping strategies. The wellness-focused group of coping strategies was the most incoherent group. Task persistence correlated with illness-focused strategies and negative outcomes, indicating that it should be included in the illness-focused group. However, other wellness-focused strategies, including relaxation, exercise, and coping self-statements, were correlated with each other, negatively correlated with depression, and positively correlated with quality of life. Future research directions and clinical implications are discussed.

  10. Infant mental health in Malaysia. (United States)

    Toran, Hasnah; Squires, Jane; Lawrence, Karen


    The Infant Mental Health system in Malaysia is described, beginning with cultural and religious practices that influence mental health practices. Second, a description of the Malaysian mental health system, including historical influences, is given. Third, policy and services for young children with mental health problems are described. Finally, recommendations for future steps for developing an effective infant mental health system are presented, including the development of infant mental health policies by the government, increased personnel training, increased community mental health resources, integration of culture into the mental health system, and finally, development of appropriate screening and assessment instruments and systems. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants Share Tweet Linkedin ... infants has only been available in a stronger concentration that doesn’t require giving the infants as ...

  12. Elimination Problems in Infants and Children (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  13. Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  14. Religious Coping and Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment After Hurricane Katrina. (United States)

    Henslee, Amber M; Coffey, Scott F; Schumacher, Julie A; Tracy, Melissa; Norris, Fran H; Galea, Sandro


    Positive and negative religious coping are related to positive and negative psychological adjustment, respectively. The current study examined the relation between religious coping and PTSD, major depression, quality of life, and substance use among residents residing in Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina. Results indicated that negative religious coping was positively associated with major depression and poorer quality of life and positive religious coping was negatively associated with PTSD, depression, poorer quality of life, and increased alcohol use. These results suggest that mental health providers should be mindful of the role of religious coping after traumatic events such as natural disasters.

  15. Infants' Behavioral and Physiological Profile and Mother-Infant Interaction (United States)

    Costa, Raquel; Figueiredo, Barbara


    This study aims to (a) identify and profile groups of infants according to their behavioral and physiological characteristics, considering their neurobehavioral organization, social withdrawal behavior, and endocrine reactivity to stress, and to (b) analyze group differences in the quality of mother-infant interaction. Ninety-seven 8-week-old…

  16. Challenges Facing Early Infant Diagnosis of HIV among Infants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The health systems also face a lot of challenges while implementing these programmes that would promptly identify HIV exposed babies as well as enrolment into care. This review examined challenges facing early infant diagnosis of HIV among infants in Nigeria. Résumé Le nombre d'enfants qui sont atteints du VIH ne ...

  17. Challenges Facing Early Infant Diagnosis of HIV among Infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    The number of children who have HIV continues to grow. Studies have confirmed dramatic survival benefits and mortality reduction for infants confirmed and managed as early as possible after diagnosis. With the advent of the Polymerase Chain. Reaction technology, early infant diagnosis of HIV among children is easier ...

  18. Deciphering infant mortality (United States)

    Berrut, Sylvie; Pouillard, Violette; Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.


    This paper is about infant mortality. In line with reliability theory, "infant" refers to the time interval following birth during which the mortality (or failure) rate decreases. This definition provides a systems science perspective in which birth constitutes a sudden transition falling within the field of application of the Transient Shock (TS) conjecture put forward in Richmond and Roehner (2016c). This conjecture provides predictions about the timing and shape of the death rate peak. It says that there will be a death rate spike whenever external conditions change abruptly and drastically and also predicts that after a steep rise there will be a much longer hyperbolic relaxation process. These predictions can be tested by considering living organisms for which the transient shock occurs several days after birth. Thus, for fish there are three stages: egg, yolk-sac and young adult phases. The TS conjecture predicts a mortality spike at the end of the yolk-sac phase and this timing is indeed confirmed by observation. Secondly, the hyperbolic nature of the relaxation process can be tested using very accurate Swiss statistics for postnatal death rates spanning the period from one hour immediately after birth through to age 10 years. It turns out that since the 19th century despite a significant and large reduction in infant mortality, the shape of the age-specific death rate has remained basically unchanged. Moreover the hyperbolic pattern observed for humans is also found for small primates as recorded in the archives of zoological gardens. Our overall objective is to identify a series of cases which start from simple systems and move step by step to more complex organisms. The cases discussed here we believe represent initial landmarks in this quest.

  19. Disseminated histoplasmosis in infants. (United States)

    Odio, C M; Navarrete, M; Carrillo, J M; Mora, L; Carranza, A


    Disseminated histoplasmosis usually occurs in immunocompromised patients who reside in Histoplasma capsulatum-endemic regions. It has also been described in immunocompetent infants after exposure to a large inoculum of the pathogen resulting in case fatality rates of 40 to 50%. From 1983 through 1996 all infants with documented disseminated histoplasmosis were treated with amphotericin B followed by daily ketoconazole for 3 months. Immunologic workups were performed at the time of diagnosis and at 4 to 6 weeks of therapy. Surviving patients were followed for at least 1 year. Time to resolution of signs and symptoms was recorded, as were complications. We managed 40 patients with disseminated histoplasmosis. The age in months at diagnosis was 15.3+/-10.2 (mean +/- SD), and 24 were male. All patients were from endemic regions and they presented with fever, spleen and/or liver enlargement and hematologic abnormalities. Diagnosis was made by histology and culture of bone marrow, spleen, lymph node, bronchoalveolar or liver samples. Twenty patients presented with T cell deficiency that resolved at 4 to 6 weeks of therapy in all of the retested patients, and 10 of 12 tested patients had hyperglobulinemia that resolved. Thirty-five (88%) patients were cured by treatment; 4 died and 1 relapsed. Disseminated histoplasmosis should be considered in infants from endemic areas who present with fever, hepatosplenomegaly and hematologic abnormalities. These patients develop transient hyperglobulinemia and T cell deficiency that resolve with treatment. Treatment with amphotericin B followed by an oral azole for 3 months is effective in most patients.

  20. Religious coping moderates the relationship between emotional functioning and obesity. (United States)

    Pirutinsky, Steven; Rosmarin, David H; Holt, Cheryl L


    Prospective research indicates that poor emotional functioning predicts obesity. The maladaptive coping hypothesis proposes that unhealthy eating is used to regulate emotion, leading to obesity. Given research suggesting that many utilize religion to cope with distress, we hypothesized that positive and negative religious coping would moderate links between emotional functioning and obesity. In addition, previous research focused on Christians and the relevance of religious coping to the Jewish context, where obesity may be of particular concern, was examined. 212 Jewish participants completed self-report health and emotional functioning measures as well as the Jewish Religious Coping scale. Moderation analysis indicated that negative coping had no effect, while positive coping was a significant moderator. Specifically, poor emotional functioning predicted increased obesity among those with low, but not high, positive religious coping. This effect remained even after several possible confounding factors were controlled for, and the effect was large. These findings further support the maladaptive coping hypothesis, indicating that religious coping may provide an alternative strategy to maladaptive eating. They also illustrate a possible mechanism by which religiosity correlates with better health and support the relevance of religious coping to the Jewish context.

  1. Coping and work engagement in selected South African organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan Rothmann


    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coping strategies and work engagement in three occupational groups in South Africa. Motivation for the study: There is little understanding of the relationship between effective forms of coping and positive outcomes (like work engagement. Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a survey design. They drew random and stratified samples (N = 3178 from three occupational groups. These were technical employees in an electricity provider, professional and enrolled nurses and police officers. They administered the Coping Orientations to the Problems Experienced (COPE and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES. Main findings: The results showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between work engagement, problem-focused coping, positive reinterpretation and growth. In the nursing sample, high problem-focused coping, low avoidance and low ventilation of emotions predicted work engagement best. In the police sample, four coping strategies (problem-focused coping, seeking social support, turning to religion and low ventilation of emotions predicted work engagement best. In the technician sample, problem-focused coping and low ventilation of emotions predicted work engagement best. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should consider employees’ coping strategies when they introduce interventions to improve work engagement. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the knowledge about the relationship between coping strategies and work engagement in South African organisations.

  2. Religious Coping in Caregivers of Family Members With Dementia. (United States)

    Rathier, Lucille A; Davis, Jennifer Duncan; Papandonatos, George D; Grover, Christine; Tremont, Geoffrey


    The degree of depression experienced by caregivers of individuals with dementia was examined in relation to religious coping strategies, religious practice, and spirituality in the framework of the stress and coping model. Caregivers of 191 persons with dementia completed the Religious Coping Scale, self-report measures of religious practices and spirituality, burden, and depression. There was no evidence that any religious coping strategy or religious practice moderated the relationship between caregiving stress and depression. Certain types of religious coping strategies had a direct effect on depression. Higher levels of religious coping working with God were associated with decreased depression, whereas higher levels of religious coping working through God were associated with increased depression. Higher burden, lower overall caregiver health rating, and worse reactions to memory and behavior problems were associated with higher levels of depression. Frequency of prayer and the importance of spirituality were weakly associated with lower levels of depression. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Bacterial meningitis in infants. (United States)

    Ku, Lawrence C; Boggess, Kim A; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael


    Neonatal bacterial meningitis is uncommon but devastating. Morbidity among survivors remains high. The types and distribution of pathogens are related to gestational age, postnatal age, and geographic region. Confirming the diagnosis is difficult. Clinical signs are often subtle, lumbar punctures are frequently deferred, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures can be compromised by prior antibiotic exposure. Infants with bacterial meningitis can have negative blood cultures and normal CSF parameters. Promising tests such as the polymerase chain reaction require further study. Prompt treatment with antibiotics is essential. Clinical trials investigating a vaccine for preventing neonatal Group B Streptococcus infections are ongoing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Coping With Psoriasis : Need for Consultation - Liaison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Anand


    Full Text Available A comparative study between patients of psoriasis and matched control group was carried out at a municipal hospital. They were administered a semistructured proforma and psychiatric comorbidity was clinically assessed. The scales used were: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Hindi version of Factor C of the 16PF questionnaire, presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale and Mechanism of Coping Scale. It was found that psoriasis had a significant impact on the patient’s day life in various areas. There was a significant prevalence of anxiety and depression in these patients. As compared to the control group, emotional factor and coping skills rather than stressful events played important role in the development of psychopathology. The significant psychiatric comorbidity in patients of psoriasis greatly affects the quality of life and the course of the disease. The clinical implications of the study are discussed in the paper.

  5. Cancer, acute stress disorder, and repressive coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Zachariae, Robert


    Reaction Questionnaire, and repressive coping was assessed by a combination of scores from the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, and the Bendig version of the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. Significantly fewer patients classified as "repressors" were diagnosed with ASD compared to patients......The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between repressive coping style and Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) in a sample of cancer patients. A total of 112 cancer patients recently diagnosed with cancer participated in the study. ASD was assessed by the Stanford Acute Stress...... classified as "non-repressors". However, further investigations revealed that the lower incidence of ASD in repressors apparently was caused by a low score on anxiety and not by an interaction effect between anxiety and defensiveness. Future studies have to investigate whether different psychological...

  6. Coping with anxiety in later life. (United States)

    Frazier, Leslie D; Waid, Lisa D; Fincke, Candy


    The goal of this study was to determine how older adults cope with three forms of anxiety, and potential avenues for applied interventions. Although the findings shed light on some interesting findings with potential psychosocial applications, several limitations need to be noted. First, this study was based on two assumptions. The assumption, based on earlier work (Carver et al., 1989; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; Zeidner & Saklofske, 1996), that certain coping strategies are more effective than others, and an assumption of the direction of influence in which anxiety is a precursor of coping strategies. Because this was an exploratory study, the research questions did not directly test these assumptions. Second, this study is correlational in nature. Therefore, conclusions cannot be drawn about the causality of these associations. Third, as with any self-report data and self-selected sample, one needs to interpret the findings with caution. Similarly, for the purposes of the study, a non-clinical sample of older adults was examined using three distinct conceptualizations of anxiety. Suggestions for future research include: Replication of this study using a multidimensional measure of anxiety appropriate for clinical samples. A longitudinal replication of this study identifying patterns of coping that facilitate adjustment over time. Finally, a more general purpose of this study was to focus attention on a neglected issue in gerontology--the experience of anxietY in later life (Frazier & Waid, 1999; Gatz, 1995; Rabins, 1992; Shamoian, 1991; Sheikh, 1992; Smyer, 1995; Stanley & Beck, 1998), and, most importantly, the role of gerontological nurses in early assessment and intervention for successful treatment of anxiety in older adults.

  7. Experiencing and coping with psychological trauma


    Bizjak, Manca


    The emphasis of this diploma thesis is on experiencing and coping with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological trauma can do a lot of harm to a person and can have physiological, emotional, cognitive and behavioral effects. If traumatic event is too intense, it can lead to a posttraumatic stress disorder which can have negative impact on every aspect of person's life. Therefore it is crucial that they search for help and start a new life. The aim of this diploma thesis is to present...

  8. Coping with Crisis in Eastern Europe's Environment


    Alcamo, J.


    Along with the winds of political change in Central and Eastern Europe have come the realities of severely polluted air, water and soil. Among the greatest challenges for Eastern Europeans will be how to cope with these environmental problems during a period of difficult economic and political transition. This book is one of the first published since the revolutions of 1989 giving the views of top environmental experts from six Central and Eastern European countries on these issues. In...

  9. Coping with low incomes and cold homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Will; White, Vicki; Finney, Andrea


    This paper presents findings from a study of low-income households in Great Britain which explored households’ strategies for coping both with limited financial resources in the winter months, when demand for domestic energy increases, and, in some cases, with cold homes. The study combined a national survey of 699 households with an income below 60 per cent of national median income with in-depth interviews with a subsample of 50 households. The primary strategy adopted by low-income households to cope with financial constraint was to reduce spending, including spending on essentials such as food and fuel, and thereby keep up with core financial commitments. While spending on food was usually reduced by cutting the range and quality of food purchased, spending on energy was usually reduced by cutting consumption. Sixty-three per cent of low-income households had cut their energy consumption in the previous winter and 47 per cent had experienced cold homes. Improvements to the thermal performance of homes reduced but did not eliminate the risk of going cold as any heating cost could be a burden to households on the lowest incomes. Householders’ attitudes were central to their coping strategies, with most expressing a determination to ‘get by’ come what may.

  10. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors. (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po


    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Determinants of Infant Behaviour IV. (United States)

    Foss, B. M., Ed.

    This volume consists of reports of individual studies and surveys of research work on mother-infant interactions. It is divided into two parts. The first section presents a wide range of studies on mother-infant relations as exhibited in the behavior of animals. The second part, concerning human behavior, includes studies on the natural history of…

  12. What Is Infant Mental Health? (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace


    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  13. Selectivity in Infant Social Referencing (United States)

    Stenberg, Gunilla


    In laboratory studies of social referencing, infants as young as 12 months have been reported to prefer looking at the experimenter over the caregiver for clarifying information. From an expertise perspective, such behavior could be interpreted as if the infant seeks information from others and can discriminate between persons who have or do not…

  14. Infant Mortality: An American Tragedy. (United States)

    Hale, Christiane B.


    Assesses the complex problem of infant deaths in America and reviews the policy options before the nation. High infant mortality rates have been attributed to population heterogeneity, poverty, or differences in the way health services are organized. Links health policy issues to the larger issue of social and economic equity. (AF)

  15. Coping with stress and types of burnout: explanatory power of different coping strategies. (United States)

    Montero-Marin, Jesus; Prado-Abril, Javier; Piva Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos; Gascon, Santiago; García-Campayo, Javier


    Burnout occurs when professionals use ineffective coping strategies to try to protect themselves from work-related stress. The dimensions of 'overload', 'lack of development' and 'neglect', belonging to the 'frenetic', 'under-challenged' and 'worn-out' subtypes, respectively, comprise a brief typological definition of burnout. The aim of the present study was to estimate the explanatory power of the different coping strategies on the development of burnout subtypes. This was a cross-sectional survey with a random sample of university employees, stratified by occupation (n = 429). Multivariate linear regression models were constructed between the 'Burnout Clinical Subtypes Questionnaire', with its three dimensions -overload, lack of development and neglect- as dependent variables, and the 'Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences', with its fifteen dimensions, as independent variables. Adjusted multiple determination coefficients and beta coefficients were calculated to evaluate and compare the explanatory capacity of the different coping strategies. The 'Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences' subscales together explained 15% of the 'overload' (pstress in the workplace.

  16. Daily frustration, cognitive coping and coping efficacy in adolescent headache: a daily diary study. (United States)

    Massey, Emma K; Garnefski, Nadia; Gebhardt, Winifred A; van der Leeden, Rien


    To investigate both concurrent and prospective relationships between daily frustration, cognitive coping and coping efficacy on the one hand and daily headache occurrence on the other. Eighty-nine adolescents aged 13-21 completed an online daily diary for 3 weeks. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Daily frustration of goal pursuits was significantly related to both same day and next day headache occurrence. Coping efficacy beliefs were significantly related to lower next day headache occurrence (no same day relationship was found). None of the cognitive coping strategies used in response to daily frustration were related to headache occurrence on the same or next day. Daily frustration to goal pursuit is suggested to be an important stressor contributing to concurrent and prospective headache occurrence. Furthermore, the extent to which adolescents believe in their ability to cope also appears to influence experience of subsequent headache. Further prospective studies are necessary to confirm these findings and to further unravel the possibly reciprocal relations between these factors. These findings offer useful insights into the dynamic interplay between daily stressful experiences and headache in youths.

  17. Primary hyperoxaluria in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Jellouli


    Full Text Available The infantile form of primary hyperoxaluria type-1 (PH-1 is characterized by a rapid progression to the end-stage renal disease (ESRD due to both increased oxalate load and reduced glomerular filtration rate. In the literature, data on this form are limited. The purpose of this study is to analyze retrospectively the clinical, biological, and radiological features of children who were diagnosed with PH-1 during the 1styear of life. We reviewed the records of all children with PH-1 diagnosed and followed-up at our department between January 1995 and December 2013. Among them, only infants younger than 12 months of age were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Fourteen infants with the median age of two months were enrolled in the study. At diagnosis, 11 patients had ESRD. All patients had nephrocalcinosis and two of them had calculi. The diagnosis was established in nine patients on the basis of the positive family history of PH-1, bilateral nephrocalcinosis, and quantitative crystalluria. In four patients, the diagnosis was made with molecular analysis of DNA. Kidney biopsy contributed to the diagnosis in one patient. During follow-up, two patients were pyridoxine sensitive and preserved renal function. Seven among 11 patients who had ESRD died, four patients are currently undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Children with infantile PH and ESRD are at high risk of early death. Peritoneal dialysis is not a treatment of choice. Combined liver-kidney transplantation is mandatory.

  18. Healthful environments for hospitalized infants. (United States)

    Marshall-Baker, Anna


    Medical and technological advances dominate the design of infant incubators because of their essential role in the survival of critically ill neonates. Yet other important design considerations, such as caregiver interaction, discomfort at bedside, and harmful materials, often are overlooked. The purpose of this paper is to consider the effects of existing incubator designs and to suggest criteria for the next generation of infant incubators. Incubators of the mid-1940s established an industry standard that exists to this day: portholes in an infant chamber positioned over a mechanical system, resting on top of storage cabinets or drawers. This design is unresponsive to many of the infants' needs and significantly influences parent/infant interaction. The physical effects and social barriers that the incubator presents to the health and well-being of infants are compounded by the use of unhealthful substances and materials such as formaldehyde. Collectively, these conditions call for an incubator that not only ameliorates physical and social obstacles, but also uses benign materials. Simple alterations to existing incubator design, such as introducing color and pattern, providing arm rests, and freeing space beneath the infant chamber to accommodate seated caregivers, would encourage more prolonged periods of contact with the infant occupants, thereby improving their behavioral organization and recovery. Replacing harmful materials with alternatives such as formaldehyde-free substrates in the cabinetry also will improve the developmental outcomes of the infant occupants. These types of recommended changes embrace the intent of the incubator to provide a controlled, secure environment while acknowledging that incubators are not merely medical equipment, but the living spaces of their infant occupants.

  19. Personality traits and styles of coping with stress in physicians. (United States)

    Kwarta, Paulina; Pietrzak, Joanna; Miśkowiec, Dawid; Stelmach, Iwona; Górski, Paweł; Kuna, Piotr; Antczak, Adam; Pietras, Tadeusz


    The stress of being a doctor and being responsible for own decisions is one of the most intense feelings the doctors have to cope with. The stress coping styles are determined by the factors dependent on psychological variables such as personality. The aim of study was to assess the relation between personality traits and stress coping among physicians. The study group consisted of 50 physicians (males n=25; 50%) employed in Norbert Barlicki Memorial Medical University Teaching Hospital No 1 in Lodz. The stress coping styles were assessed using Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, whereas the tool used for personality assessment was NEO Five Factor Inventory of Personality. Task-oriented coping (TOC) was the predominant stress coping style among physicians (mean sten value 6.7±2.0; high sten scores - 8-10 in 38%). Among all dimensions of the doctors' personality, extraversion predominated significantly (mean sten value 9.7±0.7). Neuroticism correlated positively with emotional oriented coping (EOC) (r=0.43). Extraversion influenced more infrequent adoption of EOC by males (r=-0.43) and older subjects (≥44years) (r=-0.52). Conscientiousness influenced more frequent adoption of TOC by females (r=0.46). Both the doctors' age (r=-0.49 padoption of emotional oriented coping with stress. The tendency to choose the avoidance oriented coping decreases with the physicians' age and duration of employment. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  20. The Relationship Between Stress and Coping in Table Tennis. (United States)

    Kurimay, Dora; Pope-Rhodius, Alison; Kondric, Miran


    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cognitive competitive anxiety intensity and coping strategies in table tennis players. One hundred and two (102) US competitive table tennis players of age range from 10 to 60 filled out a Revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2R, Cox et al., 2003) at least 30 minutes before the start of their tournament match and a Modified Cope questionnaire (MCOPE; Crocker and Graham, 1995) 15 minutes after they finished their match. Our study found significant differences between low and high cognitive competitive anxiety groups with regard to the use of coping strategies. The high cognitive competitive anxiety intensity group used significantly more behavioral disengagement (avoidance coping, p ≤ 0.05), denial coping strategies (emotion focused coping, p ≤ 0.01) compared to the low cognitive anxiety intensity group. Our results suggest that there is some connection between anxiety intensity and coping strategies. If the cognitive anxiety intensity (for example, intensity from worrying) is very high, an athlete might be more likely to use avoidance coping (such as behavioral disengagement) and emotion-focused coping (such as denial and venting of emotions) compared to athletes who have low cognitive competitive anxiety. Furthermore, gender differences in cognitive anxiety and direction were found. Confidence management techniques such as positive self-talk, breathing techniques and visualization should be taught to athletes to assist them in coping with their competitive anxiety better and to enhance their performance.

  1. The Relationship Between Stress and Coping in Table Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurimay Dora


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cognitive competitive anxiety intensity and coping strategies in table tennis players. One hundred and two (102 US competitive table tennis players of age range from 10 to 60 filled out a Revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2R, Cox et al., 2003 at least 30 minutes before the start of their tournament match and a Modified Cope questionnaire (MCOPE; Crocker and Graham, 1995 15 minutes after they finished their match. Our study found significant differences between low and high cognitive competitive anxiety groups with regard to the use of coping strategies. The high cognitive competitive anxiety intensity group used significantly more behavioral disengagement (avoidance coping, p ≤ 0.05, denial coping strategies (emotion focused coping, p ≤ 0.01 compared to the low cognitive anxiety intensity group. Our results suggest that there is some connection between anxiety intensity and coping strategies. If the cognitive anxiety intensity (for example, intensity from worrying is very high, an athlete might be more likely to use avoidance coping (such as behavioral disengagement and emotion-focused coping (such as denial and venting of emotions compared to athletes who have low cognitive competitive anxiety. Furthermore, gender differences in cognitive anxiety and direction were found. Confidence management techniques such as positive self-talk, breathing techniques and visualization should be taught to athletes to assist them in coping with their competitive anxiety better and to enhance their performance.

  2. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in hospitalized infants. (United States)

    Hornik, Christoph P; Graham, Eric M; Hill, Kevin; Li, Jennifer S; Ofori-Amanfo, George; Clark, Reese H; Smith, P Brian


    Hospitalized infants requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) represent a high-risk group. Recent data on risk factors for mortality following CPR in this population are lacking. We hypothesized that infant demographic characteristics, diagnoses, and levels of cardiopulmonary support at the time of CPR requirement would be associated with survival to hospital discharge following CPR. Retrospective cohort study. All infants receiving CPR on day of life 2 to 120 admitted to 348 Pediatrix Medical Group neonatal intensive care units from 1997 to 2012. We collected data on demographics, interventions, center volume, and death prior to NICU discharge. We evaluated predictors of death after CPR using multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering of the data by center. Our cohort consisted of 2231 infants receiving CPR. Of these, 1127 (51%) survived to hospital discharge. Lower gestational age, postnatal age, 5-min APGAR, congenital anomaly, and markers of severity of illness were associated with higher mortality. Mortality after CPR did not change significantly over time (Cochran-Armitage test for trend p=0.35). Mortality following CPR in infants is high, particularly for less mature, younger infants with congenital anomalies and those requiring cardiopulmonary support prior to CPR. Continued focus on at risk infants may identify targets for CPR prevention and improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimizing Nutrition in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-Horng Su


    Full Text Available Extrauterine growth restriction is common in very preterm infants. The incidence in very-low-birth-weight infants ranges between 43% and 97% in various centers, with a wide variability due to the use of different reference growth charts and nonstandard nutritional strategies. Extrauterine growth restriction is associated with an increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcome. Inadequate postnatal nutrition is an important factor contributing to growth failure, as most very preterm infants experience major protein and energy deficits during neonatal intensive care unit hospitalization. First-week protein and energy intake are associated with 18-month developmental outcomes in very preterm infants. Early aggressive nutrition, including parenteral and enteral, is well tolerated in the very preterm infant and is effective in improving growth. Continued provision of appropriate nutrition (fortified human milk or premature formula is important throughout the growing care during the hospitalization. After discharge, exclusively breast-fed infants require additional supplementation. If formula-fed, nutrient-enriched postdischarge formula should be continued for approximately 9 months corrected age. Supplementation of the preterm formulas with protein would increase the protein/energy ratio (3 g/100 kcal, leading to increased lean mass with relatively decreased fat deposition. Further research is required to optimize the nutritional needs of preterm infants and to evaluate the effects of nutritional interventions on long-term growth, neurodevelopment, and other health outcomes.

  4. Tuned in Parenting and Infant Sleep Patterns (United States)

    Priddis, Lynn E.


    This paper focuses on infant sleep behaviour that is of concern to mothers of young infants, and disruptive to families. It reports on the incidence of sleep problems in dyads that self-referred to a specialist clinic, and the relationship between the mother's sensitive responsiveness and infant sleep patterns in a sample of 65 Australian infants.…

  5. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.


    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

  6. Organizational behavior of the premature infant. (United States)

    Neal, M V


    The ability of the premature infant to organize behavior was described in relation to auditory, kinesthetic, and vestibular stimulation. Twenty infants from 31--36 weeks gestation were shown to have heart rate responses to auditory stimuli. The 31 week infant showed deceleration, while 32--36 week infants showed comparable patterns of acceleration followed by deceleration.

  7. How religious coping is used relative to other coping strategies depends on the individual's level of religiosity and spirituality. (United States)

    Krägeloh, Christian U; Chai, Penny Pei Minn; Shepherd, Daniel; Billington, Rex


    Results from empirical studies on the role of religiosity and spirituality in dealing with stress are frequently at odds, and the present study investigated whether level of religiosity and spirituality is related to the way in which religious coping is used relative to other coping strategies. A sample of 616 university undergraduate students completed the Brief COPE (Carver in Int J Behav Med 4:92-100, 1997) questionnaire and was classified into groups of participants with lower and higher levels of religiosity and spirituality, as measured by the WHOQOL-SRPB (WHOQOL-SRPB Group in Soc Sci Med 62:1486-1497, 2006) instrument. For participants with lower levels, religious coping tended to be associated with maladaptive or avoidant coping strategies, compared to participants with higher levels, where religious coping was more closely related to problem-focused coping, which was also supported by multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. The results of the present study thus illustrate that investigating the role of religious coping requires more complex approaches than attempting to assign it to one higher order factor, such as problem- or emotion-focused coping, and that the variability of findings reported by previous studies on the function of religious coping may partly be due to variability in religiosity and spirituality across samples.

  8. Infantes, Infantaticum. Remarques introductives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Henriet


    Full Text Available Ce texte commence par donner un chapitre des Miracles d’Isidore de Séville écrits par Lucas de Tuy (années 1220-1230. On y voit le saint expulser du monastère de Saint-Isidore l’infante Sancha, sœur d’Alphonse VII et maîtresse de l’Infantaticum. Une époque se termine, qui, depuis le Xe siècle, avait été marquée par le rôle éminent de certaines infantes (filles et soeurs de rois, placées à la tête d’un ensemble de possessions structurées par un ou plusieurs monastères. A la mort des infantes, ces « infantats » (infantaticum revenaient à la couronne. Cette pratique, qu’il serait sans doute exagéré de qualifier d’institution, ne nous est clairement présentée que chez les chroniqueurs du début du XIIIe siècle, lorsqu’elle disparaît en tant que telle. L’histoire de l’Infantaticum invite donc à s’interroger sur le rôle des femmes dans les stratégies de pouvoir propres à l’Espagne du Moyen Âge central, en même temps qu’elle contraint l’historien à ne pas imaginer les infantes comme les incarnations successives d’un personnage type et invariant à travers les siècles.Este texto empieza con un capítulo de los Milagros de Isidoro de Sevilla escritos por Lucas de Tuy en los años 1220-1230. Se ve al santo expulsar del monasterio de San Isidoro a la infanta Sancha, hermana de Alfonso VII y domina del Infantazgo (Infantaticum. Se acaba una época, que desde el siglo X habia sido marcada por el papel eminente de ciertas infantas (hijas y hermanas de reyes que dominaban un conjunto de posesiones estructuradas por uno o varios monasterios. A la muerte de las infantas, estos « infantazgos » volvían a la corona. Esta práctica, que dificilmente se puede calificar de « institución », no se nos presenta de manera totalmente clara antes de las crónicas de principios del XIII, momento en el cual desaparece como tal. La historia del Infantazgo nos invita a interrogarnos sobre el

  9. Dating fractures in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, K.E., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Broderick, N.J.; Somers, J.M. [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hawkes, R. [Department of Radiology, Paul O' Gorman Building, Bristol (United Kingdom)


    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  10. [Acute bronchiolitis in infants]. (United States)

    Deschildre, A; Thumerelle, C; Bruno, B; Dubos, F; Santos, C; Dumonceaux, A


    Bronchiolitis is the most common disease of the respiratory tract during the first year of life, and occurs in annual epidemics in winter. The etiology is viral, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the commonest agent. Respiratory symptoms remain generally mild, and treatment just supportive and at home. Certain infants are at high risk of severe illness (age less than 3 months, preterm birth, neonatal respiratory disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, underlying chronic diseases), and require hospitalisation. Most treatments are of unproved (corticosteroids), or limited benefit (inhaled bronchodilators, antibiotics). Chest physiotherapy is indicated in case of bronchial secretion. Vaccine are not now available, but prophylaxis with human RSV immunoglobulin or monoclonal antibodies has to be considered for children at increased risk for severe disease.

  11. [Adaptation and psychometric proprieties study for the Portuguese version of the Adolescent Coping Scale - Escala de Coping para Adolescentes]. (United States)

    Guerreiro, Diogo Frasquilho; Cruz, Diana; Figueira, Maria Luísa; Sampaio, Daniel


    Coping is a psychological process that prompts the individual to adapt to stressful situations. The Adolescent Coping Scale is a widely used research and clinical tool. This study aimed to develop a Portuguese version of the Adolescent Coping Scale and to analyze the strategies and coping styles of young people in our sample. An anonymous questionnaire comprising the Adolescent Coping Scale was submitted and replied by 1 713 students (56% female, from 12 to 20 years, average age 16) The validity study of the scale included: principal component and reliability analysis; confirmatory analysis using structural equation modelling Subsequently, a gender comparison of both the strategies and the coping styles was conducted through independent samples t tests. The final structure of the Adolescent Coping Scale adaptation retained 70 items assessing 16 coping strategies grouped into three major styles. The scales showed good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha values between 0.63. and 0.86, with the exception of one dimension that as shown a value of 0.55) and the confirmatory model showed a good fit (goodness of fit index values between 0.94 e 0.96). Two coping strategies were eliminated on statistical grounds (insufficient saturations of items in the corresponding dimensions). We found that the style of coping focused on problem solving is the most used by youths from our sample, in both sexes. Females had higher mean values in non-productive coping style and reference to others. This adapted version has high similarity with the original scale, with expectable minor changes, given that coping is influenced by cultural, geographical and socio-economic variables. The present study represents an important part of the validation protocol Portuguese Adolescent Coping Scale, including its linguistic adaptation and its internal consistency and factor structure studies.

  12. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Review the literature on excessive crying in young infants, also known as infantile colic, and its effects on family dynamics, its pathophysiology, and new treatment interventions. Data source: The literature review was carried out in the Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO, and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “excessive crying,” and “infantile colic,” as well technical books and technical reports on child development, selecting the most relevant articles on the subject, with emphasis on recent literature published in the last five years. Summary of the findings: Excessive crying is a common symptom in the first 3 months of life and leads to approximately 20% of pediatric consultations. Different prevalence rates of excessive crying have been reported, ranging from 14% to approximately 30% in infants up to 3 months of age. There is evidence linking excessive crying early in life with adaptive problems in the preschool period, as well as with early weaning, maternal anxiety and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other behavioral problems. Several pathophysiological mechanisms can explain these symptoms, such as circadian rhythm alterations, central nervous system immaturity, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Several treatment alternatives have been described, including behavioral measures, manipulation techniques, use of medication, and acupuncture, with controversial results and effectiveness. Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative

  13. Parents bereaved by infant death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda


    Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentially traumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic posttraumatic...... stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study. Participants...

  14. Parents Bereaved by Infant Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda


    Objective: Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentiallytraumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic...... posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)´symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Methods: Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Zakharova


    Full Text Available The article deals with the concept of food programming according to which the type of nourishment of an infant programs peculiarities of his metabolism all along his entire future life, and as a consequence, predisposition to certain diseases and characteristics of their run. The work gives an estimate of the hazards and consequences of improper infant feeding and explains the advantages of the breast feeding. The authors present modern information on preparation of baby milk formulas.Key words: infants, health, feeding, adapted milk formulas, nucleotides, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, oligosaccharides.

  16. Denial and acceptance coping styles and medication adherence in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Aldebot, Stephanie; de Mamani, Amy G Weisman


    Antipsychotics are often the first line of treatment for individuals with schizophrenia (). One challenge to effective treatment is lack of adherence to prescribed medication. Lower rates of adherence are associated with considerably higher rates of relapse and poorer course of illness. Therefore studying the characteristics that may be related to medication adherence is important. Coping styles may be one such factor. Individuals use a variety of coping mechanisms to manage and navigate difficult life events, including mental illness (). In the present study, 40 individuals with schizophrenia were assessed regarding their coping styles and medication adherence practices. As hypothesized, it was found that denial coping was inversely related to medication adherence. However, contrary to expectations, acceptance coping was not related to medication adherence. These findings suggest that targeting denial coping strategies in treatment may help foster more optimal strategies for managing schizophrenia.

  17. Coping strategies of hospitalized people with psychiatric disabilities in Taiwan. (United States)

    Wu, Hui-Ching; Wu, Ching-Kuan; Liao, Jing-Wei; Chang, Li-Hsin; I-Chen, Tang


    Research has found that people with psychiatric disabilities Taiwan tended to utilize passive and emotional-focused strategies to cope with their illness unlike Western studies. A self-reported questionnaire that incorporated categories: socio-demographic characteristics, the self-impact of illness, illness adaptation, and coping strategy scale was administrated to 140 persons with psychiatric disabilities routinely hospitalized over a long period of time to explore the strategies of coping with their mental disorders. Analysis of survey data found the sense of helplessness and the overall illness adaptation significantly impact negative emotion coping utilization. Those who felt highly impact by the illness, more sense of helplessness, less actively managing their illness, and more social support availability were more likely to use positive emotion as a coping strategy. The better overall adaption to the illness significantly impact procrastination and previous illness experience utilization. Only a positive coping strategy was found significantly to manage the illness.

  18. Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel


    Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy...... individuals. One hundred twelve high-risk and 78 low-risk individuals were identified through nation-wide registers and invited to participate in an extensive psychiatric evaluation including the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The high-risk individuals used more Emotion-oriented (p = 0.......001) and Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving...

  19. Coping Strategies of Family Members of Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis M. Eaton


    Full Text Available This exploratory research paper investigated the coping strategies of families of hospitalized psychiatric patients and identified their positive and negative coping strategies. In this paper, the coping strategies of 45 family members were examined using a descriptive, correlational, mixed method research approach. Guided by the Neuman Systems Model and using the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales and semistructured interviews, this paper found that these family members used more emotion-focused coping strategies than problem-focused coping strategies. The common coping strategies used by family members were communicating with immediate family, acceptance of their situation, passive appraisal, avoidance, and spirituality. The family members also utilized resources and support systems, such as their immediate families, mental health care professionals, and their churches.

  20. Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel


    Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy.......001) and Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving...... maladaptive coping styles may be a target for selective prevention focusing on subgroups at high risk of developing an affective disorder....

  1. Coping strategies and anxiety in caregivers of palliative cancer patients. (United States)

    Perez-Ordóñez, F; Frías-Osuna, A; Romero-Rodríguez, Y; Del-Pino-Casado, R


    The study purpose was to determine the relationship between coping strategies and anxiety in primary family caregivers of palliative cancer patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a Pain and Palliative Care Unit in Spain. Data were collected through interviews from fifty primary family caregivers of palliative cancer patients. Main research variables were: (1) dependent variable: anxiety (subscale of anxiety from Goldberg's scale); (2) independent variable: coping (Brief COPE); (3) control variables: functional capacity and perceived burden. Analyses comprised descriptive statistics, correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression. Anxiety was present in the majority of caregivers surveyed (76%). Anxiety was related to the perception of perceived burden (β = 0.42, P anxiety, while dysfunctional coping is positively associated with anxiety. Problem-focused coping is not related to anxiety. Assessment of coping should be done in a systematic way in caregivers of palliative cancer patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Тhe role of time perspective in coping behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolotova, Alla K.


    Full Text Available This article describes research on the role of time perspective in a person’s choice of coping strategies in interpersonal conflicts. The interrelationship between different types of coping strategies (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral and the orientation of time perspective are considered. P. G. Zimbardo’s technique, which defines the orientation of time perspective, and E. Heim’s technique, which is directed at exploring coping strategies, are used in our research. The sample consisted of 295 participants: 156 women and 139 men, with an average age of 32 years. The research shows that a future orientation is directly connected with the choice of cognitive and behavioral coping strategies in interpersonal conflicts, while an orientation to the negative past results in emotional coping strategies. A person’s orientation to the fatalistic present engenders retreat and avoidance of conflict resolution, which are nonadaptive behavioral strategies that include few coping techniques.

  3. Evaluation of a coping skills group following traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Anson, Katie; Ponsford, Jennie


    To examine the impact of a cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) based intervention programme, termed the Coping Skills Group (CSG), on coping strategy use and emotional adjustment. Thirty-one individuals with TBI participated and a wait-list control design was used. The CSG ran twice a week, for 5 weeks and focused on developing adaptive coping skills for the management of emotional and adjustment issues. Following the CSG, the majority of participants subjectively reported that they had a better understanding of emotional issues and an improved ability to implement strategies to manage these issues. Adaptive coping, as measured on the Coping Scale for Adults, increased significantly immediately following intervention. However, no significant changes in anxiety, depression, self-esteem and psychosocial function were observed on the measures used. The results suggest that it may be possible to modify coping strategy use following brain injury, through CBT.

  4. Mothers of IVF twins: the mediating role of employment and social coping resources in maternal stress. (United States)

    Baor, Liora; Soskolne, Varda


    Twin pregnancies and births resulting from assisted reproductive technologies have been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and maternal health complications leading to psychologically complex parenting. In the current study the authors assess the prevalence of clinical levels of maternal stress among mothers of twins resulting from in vitro fertilization and examine the association of social coping resources with three maternal stress sub-scales. During the years 2003-2005, 88 primiparous Israeli mothers of in vitro fertilization-conceived twins provided socio-demographic data during their third trimester of pregnancy, and at 6 months after birth provided data on delivery and medical condition of infants, coping resources (social support and marital quality), and a maternal stress scale. Forty-one percent of the mothers reached a clinically significant level of maternal stress. Social support and maternal employment were the most significant variables associated with experience of the stress in the early stages of adaptation to mothering in vitro fertilization twins. Primiparous mothers of in vitro fertilization twins are vulnerable to maternal stress in early stages of adaptation to the maternal role, some of whom reach clinical levels that may require professional interventions. Unemployed mothers with low social support were the most susceptible to the deleterious effects of in vitro fertilization treatment.

  5. O estresse e o coping no esporte


    Aroni, André; Batista, Marco; Rebustini, Flávio; Machado, Afonso; Gomes, A. Rui


    O estresse é entendido como um desequilíbrio substancial entre uma demanda e a capacidade de resposta, sob condições em que a falha em satisfazer a exigência tem consequências significativas. No esporte, esse assunto tem sido alvo de estudos a mais de quarenta anos, contudo, ainda há muito o que se entender sobre esse complexo tema. Assim, o objetivo dessa pesquisa foi realizar uma revisão sistemática de literatura sobre o estresse e coping no esporte, identificando as principais teorias, sua...

  6. Night terrors: strategies for family coping. (United States)

    Gates, D; Morwessel, N


    This article discusses the occurrence of night terrors (parvor nocturnus) in children. The characteristics of a typical night terror incident are described, as are the common parental reactions to such frightening events. Nurses who work with children and families need to know about the etiology and clinical course of night terrors. They need to be able to differentiate night terrors from other sleep disturbances and determine possible ways to alleviate the occurrences. This article emphasizes assessment, anticipatory guidance, education, and counseling. A practical guide for parents is included to provide families with information on ways to cope with night terrors.

  7. Coping with instabilities - lessons from Japanese architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    This paper offers insight into the role of architecture in coping with instabilities. At its centre is a second generation of Japanese architects who came to maturity after World War II. They questioned the International Style, and asked for a return to architecture in the image of the early...... twentieth century, a born-again modernism that, while being modern in the Western sense of the term, attempted to combine modernism with tradition. It offers particular attention to the architect Arata Isozaki (born 1931) who contributed with insight into the puzzle of Tokyo’s robustness and its unique...

  8. Coping Work Strategies and Job Satisfaction Among Iranian Nurses


    Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Adera Gebra, Addis


    Context: Nursing is a stressful job that could create physical and psychological disorders. Many studies presented information on stress, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction of nurses within health setting. We aimed to identify and describe nursing stresses, coping strategies and job satisfaction of Iranian nurses who are working or worked in different wards. Evidence Acquisition: In this review, we studied peer-reviewed journal articles on the field of stress, coping strategie...

  9. Gambaran Coping Stress pada Wanita Madya dalam Menghadapi Pramenopause


    Nasution, Hilmayani


    The research is the descriptive research aim to see how is the description of women in the middle age of coping stress to face premenopause. Lazarus & Folkman (1986) were definited that coping as all effort to decrease stress that is a manage process (external and internal) demand that evaluate overlooked burden for someone. Lazarus & Folkman (1986) identified all kind of coping strategies, in problem-focused or emotion-focused, such as: (1) Planful problem solving, (2) Conf...

  10. Coping, pain and disability in osteoarthritis: a longitudinal study.


    Dekker, J.; Steultjens, M.P.; Bijlsma, J.W.


    This study aimed at establishing the role of coping styles as prospective determinants of pain and disability in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee or hip. Data were used on 87 patients with OS of the hip and 129 patients with OA of the knee. Coping styles were assessed with a questionnaire, pain was assessed with a VAS, and disability was assessed using an observational method. Regression analysis was used to analyze relationships between the use of active and passive coping style...

  11. Correlations between coping styles and symptom expectation for rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Ferrari, Robert; Russell, Anthony S


    In pain conditions, active coping has been found to be associated with less severe depression, increased activity level and less functional impairment. Studies indicate that there is a high expectation for chronic disability following a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. The objective of this study was to compare both the expectations and the coping style for rheumatoid arthritis in disease-naïve subjects. The Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory was administered to university students. Subjects who had not yet experienced rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and did not know a person with RA were given a vignette concerning a new onset diagnosis of RA and were asked to indicate how likely they were to have thoughts or behaviours indicated in the coping style questionnaire. Subjects also completed expectations regarding daily functioning according to the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) for RA. The mean active coping style score for RA was 27.3 ± 4.6 (40 is the maximum score for active coping). The mean passive coping style score was 26.2 ± 7.0 (50 is the maximum score for passive coping). Those with high passive coping styles had a higher mean expectation score (higher HAQ score) of disability from rheumatoid arthritis. The correlation between passive coping style score and expectation score was 0.48, while the correlation between active coping style score and expectation was -0.34. Both expectations and coping styles may interact or be co-modifiers in the outcomes of RA patients. Further studies of coping styles and expectations in RA are required.

  12. Alcohol Outcome Expectancies and Drinking to Cope with Social Situations


    Carrigan, Maureen H.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Thomas, Suzanne E.; Randall, Carrie L.


    Repeated use of alcohol as a coping strategy to reduce anxiety or discomfort increases one's risk of developing alcohol dependence. Previous studies have found alcohol outcome expectancies (AOE) strongly predict drinking behavior, in general, and also are related to drinking to cope. The purpose of the current study was to examine AOE that may be related to drinking to cope with discomfort in social situations. It was hypothesized that positive AOE, especially related to assertion and tension...

  13. Stress coping strategies in hearing-impaired students


    Bahman Akbari; Zohreh Teymori; Shahnam Abolghasemi; Hamidreza Khorshidiyan


    Background and Aim: The majority of people experience problems and stressors, such as job layoffs and illnesses during their lives. However, the way people cope with stress varies. According to previous research, use of effective coping strategies can significantly reduce stress and tension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of stress coping strategies on hearing-impaired students.Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test, and control...

  14. Coping Strategies of Family Members of Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients


    Eaton, Phyllis M.; Davis, Bertha L.; Hammond, Pamela V.; Condon, Esther H.; McGee, Zina T.


    This exploratory research paper investigated the coping strategies of families of hospitalized psychiatric patients and identified their positive and negative coping strategies. In this paper, the coping strategies of 45 family members were examined using a descriptive, correlational, mixed method research approach. Guided by the Neuman Systems Model and using the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales and semistructured interviews, this paper found that these family members used m...

  15. Patterns of Coping Among Family Caregivers of Frail Older Adults


    Lin, I-Fen; Wu, Hsueh-Sheng


    Past studies have extensively examined factors associated with coping strategies that caregivers use to ameliorate distress or solve problems. While these studies have found that stressors and individual resources influence choices of coping strategies, they have tended to overlook caregivers’ social resources and have rarely considered the possibility that distinct groups of caregivers may use different sets of coping strategies. We conducted latent-class analyses to identify distinct groups...

  16. Maternal-infant bonding in homeless adolescents and their infants. (United States)

    Rich, O J


    Adolescent pregnancy is a major problem in our society today. A special subset of adolescents who are becoming mothers are those who are homeless--those who have no dependable, on-going place to live. These homeless teen mothers are a special at-risk group in terms of mothering. The focus of this study is to study maternal-infant bonding in a subset of homeless adolescents who are becoming mothers. This is a longitudinal, descriptive study for which the overall research questions are: What is the process of maternal-infant bonding in homeless teens during the first year of the infant's life? What are the mother-infant interactions around the feeding experience during this first year of life? Mother-infant pairs (N = 19), who are clients in a residential home, are videotaped (videotaped segments, N = 30) during the feeding situation. Time/event periods for data gathering according to the infant's age are: 1-3 weeks; 6-8 weeks; 4 months; 6 months; 8 months; 10 months; 12 months. Content analysis of the tapes used Barnard's Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS), a 73-item binary scale divided into 6 subscales. A descriptive profile of the clients on admission to the program includes measures of empathy, self-esteem, depression, social support, and social network. The findings are compared with the NCAFS norms for homeless teen mothers.

  17. Effect of the Holy Month of Ramadan on Coping Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Akuchekian


    Full Text Available Background: Stress is one of the risk factors for the development of so many physical and especially psychological disorders. Now, the impression is focused on coping strategies versus previous emphasis on nature and severity of stress. The present study was performed to evaluate if fasting, not only as a religious behavior but also as a coping strategy can influence the way of coping with stress in humans. Methods: In a pre-test / post-test survey, 100 medical students were evaluated for stress coping strategies before and after the holy month of Ramadan using CS-R scale. Results: The results revealed that the use of ineffective coping strategies was significantly decreased after the holy month with no alterations in other strategies. In details, uses of superstitiousness, wishful thinking and self-medication coping strategies were statistically lower after Ramadan compared to values before it (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The present study showed that Ramadan fasting (a religious behavior or belief as a coping strategy has beneficial effect on the way of coping with stress in humans. Keywords: Stress, Coping Strategies, Religion, Ramadan, Medical Student

  18. Experience of Caregiving and Coping in Caregivers of Schizophrenia. (United States)

    Doval, Nimisha; Sharma, Eesha; Agarwal, Manu; Tripathi, Adarsh; Nischal, Anil


    Caregivers of schizophrenia play a major role in community-based care of patients. Recent studies have shed light on positive aspects of caregiving, in contrast to caregiving burden. There is limited research on this area in India. To assess the 'experience of caregiving' and 'coping strategies' in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, and to study associations, if any, between them. 102 caregivers, of out- and in-patients with schizophrenia were assessed on 'Experience of Caregiving Inventory' (ECI) and 'COPE Inventory' (COPE). Socio-demographic profiles, of patients and caregivers, and clinical histories of patients were also collected. Maximum perceived negative experience of caregiving was 'effects on family' while 'stigma' was the lowest. Other domains had moderate scores. Among positive experiences, 'good aspects of relationship' scored higher than 'positive personal experiences'. A wide range of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies were used. Statistically significant positive correlations emerged between positive experiences of caregiving and adaptive coping strategies, and between negative experiences of caregiving and maladaptive coping strategies. The association between experiences of caregiving and coping strategies suggests that caregiving experiences are influenced not only by the illness but also by the coping methods employed. Helping caregivers cope better might improve caregiving experience.

  19. Religious/Spiritual Coping in Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease (United States)

    Cotton, Sian; Grossoehme, Daniel; Rosenthal, Susan L.; McGrady, Meghan E.; Roberts, Yvonne Humenay; Hines, Janelle; Yi, Michael S.; Tsevat, Joel


    Religious/spiritual (R/S) coping has been associated with health outcomes in chronically ill adults; however, little is known about how adolescents use R/S to cope with a chronic illness such as sickle cell disease (SCD). Using a mixed method approach (quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews), we examined R/S coping, spirituality, and health-related quality of life in 48 adolescents with SCD and 42 parents of adolescents with SCD. Adolescents reported high rates of religious attendance and belief in God, prayed often, and had high levels of spirituality (e.g., finding meaning/peace in their lives and deriving comfort from faith). Thirty-five percent of adolescents reported praying once or more a day for symptom management. The most common positive R/S coping strategies used by adolescents were: “Asked forgiveness for my sins” (73% of surveys) and “Sought God’s love and care” (73% of surveys). Most parents used R/S coping strategies to cope with their child’s illness. R/S coping was not significantly associated with HRQOL (p = NS). R/S coping, particularly prayer, was relevant for adolescents with SCD and their parents. Future studies should assess adolescents’ preferences for discussing R/S in the medical setting and whether R/S coping is related to HRQOL in larger samples. PMID:19415008

  20. Avoiding and nonexpressing: coping styles of patients with paragangliomas. (United States)

    van Hulsteijn, L T; Kaptein, A A; Louisse, A; Smit, J W A; Corssmit, E P M


    Paraganglioma (PGL) patients and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) gene mutation carriers at risk for PGLs have a decreased quality of life (QoL). QoL may be affected by the strategy an individual uses when dealing with a stressful situation, ie, specific coping styles. Understanding the various approaches to coping may allow the development of targeted interventions to improve patient QoL. The objective of the study was to assess coping styles in PGL patients and SDH mutation carriers. This was a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral center. Coping styles were assessed using the Utrecht Coping List. The results from the study cohort were compared with a control group and data derived from the literature. Potential differences in coping styles between the various SDH mutation carriers and PGL patients without an SDH mutation were explored. Of the 174 patients who responded, 122 were SDHD, 25 SDHB, and 2 SDHC mutation carriers. An additional 25 patients lacked an SDH mutation. They recruited 100 peers as controls. Compared with the general population, the study cohort was more avoidant of problems (P coping styles between the various categories of mutation carriers or PGL patients lacking a mutation. Coping styles of PGL patients and SDH mutation carriers differ from those of control and reference groups and include an avoidant coping style and a lack of emotional expression.

  1. Avoiding ethics pitfalls in publishing: a perspective from COPE. (United States)

    Pierson, C A


    The mission of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) is to promote integrity in research publication. COPE was started in 1997 with a small group of editors and now has a membership of more than 10 000. Throughout its history, COPE has provided a forum for discussion about ethical issues related to all aspects of scholarly publishing and developed resources to assist those who write, review, and edit scholarly work. This concise review provides examples of ethical issues related to authoring, reviewing, and editing scholarly manuscripts from the perspective of COPE. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Couples’ Coping in Prodromal Huntington Disease: A Mixed Methods Study (United States)

    Downing, Nancy R.; Williams, Janet K.; Leserman, Anne L.; Paulsen, Jane S.


    Huntington disease (HD) includes a prodromal phase with behavioral, cognitive, and motor function decline occurring up to 15 years prior to diagnosis. This study used mixed methods to examine how people with prodromal HD and their companions coped with noticed changes. Twenty-three couples completed a semi-structured interview and Brief COPE. Participants with prodromal HD used acceptance, emotional support, and planning most frequently; companions used acceptance, planning, and active coping. Least frequently used coping strategies for each were denial, behavioral disengagement, and substance use. Qualitative interviews revealed coping strategies not included in the Brief COPE. Participants with prodromal HD used prescription medications, coping as a couple, hope, and self-monitoring; companions used hope and helping their partners. Many of the coping procedures were rated as effective, especially when changes were not severe. Couples may benefit from prodromal HD counseling that emphasizes using active coping strategies for changes that can be compensated for and acceptance for changes that cannot. Findings from this study may be helpful for counseling patients and significant others facing other neurodegenerative conditions with prodromal or early phases, such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. PMID:22278219

  3. Couples' coping in prodromal Huntington disease: a mixed methods study. (United States)

    Downing, Nancy R; Williams, Janet K; Leserman, Anne L; Paulsen, Jane S


    Huntington disease (HD) includes a prodromal phase with behavioral, cognitive, and motor function decline occurring up to 15 years prior to diagnosis. This study used mixed methods to examine how people in the prodromal phase and their companions coped with noticed changes. Twenty-three couples completed a semi-structured interview and Brief COPE. Participants with prodromal HD used acceptance, emotional support, and planning most frequently; companions used acceptance, planning, and active coping. Least frequently used coping strategies for each were denial, behavioral disengagement, and substance use. Qualitative interviews revealed coping strategies not included in the Brief COPE. Participants with prodromal HD used prescription medications, coping as a couple, hope, and self-monitoring; companions used hope and helping their partners. Many of the coping procedures were rated as effective, especially when changes were not severe. Couples may benefit from counseling that emphasizes using active coping strategies for changes that can be compensated for and acceptance for changes that cannot in prodromal HD. Findings from this study may be helpful for counseling patients and significant others facing other neurodegenerative conditions with prodromal or early phases, such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease.

  4. Gratitude and Drug Misuse: Role of Coping as Mediator. (United States)

    Leung, Chi-Ching; Tong, Eddie M W


    Positive emotions, such as gratitude has been found to be beneficial to both physical and mental well-being but so far, drug misuse research has yet to identify important emotive predictors related to drug use. This study aimed to examine the relationship between gratitude and drug use among a group of drug misusers. It was hypothesized that greater dispositional gratitude was associated with lesser drug use through greater use of adaptive coping methods and lesser use of maladaptive coping methods. This study utilized a cross-sectional design to examine the relationship between gratitude, coping, and drug use among a sample of drug misusers (N = 105) at a drug rehabilitation center. Participants completed the gratitude questionnaire (GQ-6), the joy subscale of the Dispositional Positive Emotion Scale (DPES), the Brief COPE, and a questionnaire on their drug use. Data were collected in 2015. Mediation analysis supported the hypothesis and found that adaptive coping mediated the relationship between gratitude and drug use. However, mediation was not found for maladaptive coping. Additional analysis found that adaptive coping as a mediator was not found for joy. Results suggested that gratitude has utility in reducing drug use through the use of more adaptive coping strategies and this relationship was not simply due to positive affect. Interventions targeting drug use behavior could consider introducing gratitude to increase adaptive coping abilities to reduce drug use.

  5. [The emotional intelligence and coping with stress among medical students]. (United States)

    Wons, Agata; Bargiel-Matusiewicz, Kamilla


    The emotional intelligence is a basis for active, adaptive coping with stress. The persons with high emotional intelligence can better recognize potential stressors, can use emotions in coping with problem, as far as they cope in better way with negative emotions evoking in stressful situation. The authors verify the thesis that individual style of coping with stress is connected with the level of emotional intelligence. The study was conducted among second year students of The School of Medicine. Two standardized instruments were used in the study: Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (INTE) which measures emotional intelligence understood as an ability to recognize, understand and control emotions and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) which measures scoping with stress style understood as a trait of personality. The results confirm that persons with high level of emotional intelligence are more flexible in coping with stressors. It has been stated that people with higher results in case of emotional intelligence undertake more willingly active acts confronting with problem. Persons who have low results in case of emotional intelligence use mainly strategies focused on coping with their own emotions, as far as on escape style of coping. The results of the presented study may become a stimulus to creating prevention projects addressed to future physicians and also to the people who are now active on professional level. The projects could prevent preserving unconstructive ways of coping with occupational stress and indirectly improve efficacy and satisfaction connected with medical care.

  6. Correlates of Coping Styles in an Adolescent Trauma Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask


    Abstract Individuals generally use the same coping styles across situations. It is important to identify maladaptive cop- ing in adolescents as coping patterns may persist into adult- hood, and are associated with mental health. The present study used a cross-sectional design to investigate...... the combined effect of personality traits, attachment, locus of control, and social support on rational (problem-focused), avoidant, and emotion-focused coping in 320 trauma-exposed adolescents. The combined variables only explained 20-23 % of the vari- ance in avoidant and rational coping, and 49...

  7. Infant temperament contributes to early infant growth: A prospective cohort of African American infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Barbara


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective studies linking infant temperament, or behavioral style, to infant body composition are lacking. In this longitudinal study (3 to 18 months, we seek to examine the associations between two dimensions of infant temperament (distress to limitations and activity level and two anthropometric indicators (weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ and skin fold (SF measures in a population at high risk of overweight. Methods Data are from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Project, a longitudinal study of North Carolina low income African American mother-infant dyads (n = 206. Two temperament dimensions were assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. A high distress to limitations score denotes an infant whose mother perceives that s/he often cries or fusses, and a high activity level score one who moves his/her limbs and squirms frequently. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using ordinary least squares regression. Fixed effects longitudinal models were used to estimate anthropometric outcomes as a function of time varying infant temperament. Results In longitudinal models, increased activity levels were associated with later decreased fatness and WLZ. In contrast, high levels of distress to limitations were associated with later increased fatness at all time points and later increased WLZ at 12 months. Conclusion Infant temperament dimensions contribute to our understanding of the role of behavior in the development of the risk of overweight in the formative months of life. Identification of modifiable risk factors early in life may help target strategies for establishing healthy lifestyles prior to the onset of overweight.

  8. Recruitment and reasons for non-participation in a family-coping-orientated palliative home care trial (FamCope)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammari, ABH; Hendriksen, Carsten; Rydahl Hansen, Susan


    Cancer patients and their family caregivers need support to cope with physical, psychosocial, and existential problems early in the palliative care trajectory. Many interventions target patient symptomatology, with health care professionals acting as problem-solvers. Family coping, however......, is a new research area within palliative care. The FamCope intervention was developed to test if a nurse-led family-coping-orientated palliative home care intervention would help families cope with physical and psychosocial problems at home--together as a family and in interaction with health care...... to participate in research aimed at family coping early in the palliative care trajectory. Patients with advanced cancer and their closest relative were recruited from medical, surgical, and oncological departments. Reasons for non-participation were registered and characteristics of participants and non...

  9. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  10. Clival chordoma in an infant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel A


    Full Text Available An unusual case of clival chordoma seen in a 7 month 16 day old infant is presented. The literature on this subject, clinical course of such tumours and the management strategy in paediatric age group is reviewed.

  11. Hexachlorophene lesions in newborn infants. (United States)

    Gowdy, J M; Ulsamer, A G


    Vacuolization of the white matter of the brain is produced by a number of disease entities and chemicals, including hexachlorophene. Brains of 135 stillborn infants and infants dying in the neonatal period were examined for vacuole formation in the white matter to determine if any hexachlorophene-like lesions could be found. A nonsignificant excess of vaculoes was found in infants bathed in hexachlorophene at birth compared with infants not bathed in it. Analysis of 11 brains for hexachlorophene showed that detectable levels were present in five, all of which showed vacuolization. None was detected in the remaining six, three of which also showed vacuolization. In two of these there was no hexachlorophene exposure.

  12. Home apnea monitor use - infants (United States)

    ... this page: // Home apnea monitor use - infants To use the sharing ... portable. Why is an Apnea Monitor Used at Home? A monitor may be needed when: Your baby ...

  13. Infant Care Suggestions for Parents (United States)

    ... bones, that are in various stages of healing. Handling Suggestions • All movements should be slow, methodical and ... holding, lifting, diapering, and general infant care. The return demonstration will ensure that the parents are comfortable ...

  14. Reflux and GERD in Infants (United States)

    ... when the infant begins to show symptoms including refusal to feed, poor weight gain, breathing problems and ... medical advice. It is not a substitute for care by a trained medical provider. GIKids is not ...

  15. How do individuals cope with stress? Behavioural, physiological and neuronal differences between proactive and reactive coping styles in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A; Gorissen, Marnix; Höglund, Erik


    Despite the use of fish models to study human mental disorders and dysfunctions, knowledge of regional telencephalic responses in non-mammalian vertebrates expressing alternate stress coping styles is poor. Since perception of salient stimuli associated with stress coping in mammals is mainly under...... in the Dl, in line with active coping neuro-profiles reported in the mammalian literature. We present novel evidence of proposed functional equivalences in the fish forebrain with mammalian limbic structures....

  16. Coping with incest: the relationship between recollections of childhood coping and adult functioning in female survivors of incest. (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Alexander, Pamela C


    One hundred and one adult female survivors' recollections of coping with childhood incest, abuse characteristics, and current functioning in adulthood were studied. Analyses controlling for characteristics of the trauma indicated that recollections of using avoidance coping and seeking social support were related to poor adult functioning whereas recollections of using distancing coping were related to better functioning. As a set of variables, abuse characteristics also predicted a significant amount of variance in adult functioning. Implications for future research were discussed.

  17. Treatment with paracetamol in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana, A; Morton, N S; Hansen, Tom Giedsing


    Paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-amino-phenol) or acetaminophen has become the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. However, there is a wide discrepancy between the extent to which paracetamol is used and the limited available pharmacological data in small infants. The purpose...... of this article is to present a review of the current literature regarding the use of paracetamol in neonates and infants with a particular emphasis on pharmacological issues....

  18. Social theory and infant feeding (United States)


    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  19. Personality and methods of coping with stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Cieślik


    Full Text Available Good health and well-being are the natural desires of every human being. However, people have to cope with various kinds of stress in everyday life. Most people are under stress due to: the situation in the world, unemployment, traffic jam, their manager’s opinion, illness, divorce, etc. The level of stress increases particularly in situ ations when people sense danger of physical, social or psychological risks. This phenomenon is very common, and many people have come to think that this is something normal in modern life. Stress can cause depression and frustration, and it does not help in achieving goals and being successful. Ordinary people have a negative concept of stress, but stress response also helps one to rise to meet challenges. Some level of stress is recommended because it helps people to solve problems. While under stress one can function better and work faster, it sharpens concentration and increases brain efficiency. At the beginning of the third millennium, stress has become the people’s enemy, so they should learn how to cope with it. It is common knowledge that one cannot avoid stress, so it is important to learn how to control and deal with it.

  20. Coping focus counselling in mental health nursing. (United States)

    Shanley, Eamon; Jubb-Shanley, Maureen


    The aim of this paper was to describe a newly-developed system of mental health nurse counselling (coping focus counselling (CFC)) for people with serious and complex mental health needs. The system is based on the recovery alliance theory (RAT) of mental health nursing. The paper identifies shortcomings in current practices in psychotherapy and counselling in the exclusive use of techniques from a single approach, for example, cognitive behaviour therapy, client-centred therapy, attachment theory, or Gestalt theory. It also discusses the opposite dangers of the use of many techniques from different approaches, without a clear rationale for their selection. CFC was developed to avoid these practices. It accommodates the selective use of techniques from different approaches. Techniques selected are viewed as deriving their meanings from the theoretical framework into which they are assimilated, namely RAT, and no longer take the same meaning from the theory from which they originated. Central to this integrative process is the use of the concept of coping. Other distinguishing features of CFC are the use of everyday language in using the system and the reaffirmation of the nurse-client relationship within a working alliance as the basis in which the CFC operates. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  1. Mastication as a Stress-Coping Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin-ya Kubo


    Full Text Available Exposure to chronic stress induces various physical and mental effects that may ultimately lead to disease. Stress-related disease has become a global health problem. Mastication (chewing is an effective behavior for coping with stress, likely due to the alterations chewing causes in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system. Mastication under stressful conditions attenuates stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone and catecholamines, as well as the expression of stress-related substances, such as neurotrophic factors and nitric oxide. Further, chewing reduces stress-induced changes in central nervous system morphology, especially in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. In rodents, chewing or biting on wooden sticks during exposure to various stressors reduces stress-induced gastric ulcer formation and attenuates spatial cognitive dysfunction, anxiety-like behavior, and bone loss. In humans, some studies demonstrate that chewing gum during exposure to stress decreases plasma and salivary cortisol levels and reduces mental stress, although other studies report no such effect. Here, we discuss the neuronal mechanisms that underline the interactions between masticatory function and stress-coping behaviors in animals and humans.

  2. Coping and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents with a Chronic Medical Condition: A Search for Intervention Targets (United States)

    Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia


    The aim of the present study was to find relevant coping factors for the development of psychological intervention programs for adolescents with a chronic medical condition. A wide range of coping techniques were studied, including cognitive coping, behavioral coping and goal adjustment coping. A total of 176 adolescents participated. They were…

  3. Positioning of Preterm Infants for Optimal Physiological Development: a systematic review. (United States)

    Picheansathian, Wilawan; Woragidpoonpol, Patcharee; Baosoung, Chavee


    delayed developmental musculature. The combined use of a postural support roll and a postural nappy while very preterm infants are nursed, improved hip and shoulder posture up to term postmenstrual age. The change in body position from horizontal to head-up tilt in very immature and unstable infants may affect the cerebral homodynamic. The management of position per se may not be sufficient for assisting preterm neonates to cope with the painful procedure. Furthermore, preterm infants are susceptible to oxygen desaturation in car seats and carrying slings. Prone positioning was shown to have many advantages for prematurely born infants. But the longer, deep sleep period and fewer awakenings associated with a prone position would support higher vulnerability for preterm infants to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Therefore, all preterm infants placed in the prone position should have continuous cardio-respiratory and oxygen saturation monitoring. Preterm infants should be placed in a properly supported position to ensure functional support of all parts of the body as well as ensuring physical safety. In addition, preterm infants should not be left unattended in car safety seats and carrying slings.

  4. Infants' Speech Segmentation: The Impact of Mother-Infant Facial Synchrony


    Kish, Allison; Courtaney, Katie; Dilger, Adi; Gallo, Tori; King, Lauren; Jarvis, Amy; Roberson, Ambry; Smith, Meredith; Thottichira, Serina


    Various measures of infant responsiveness have been shown to predict child outcomes. Despite this extensive research, there is no work examining links between infant responsiveness during caregiver-infant interactions with infants' ability to perform basic linguistic tasks. One key task in early linguistic development is word segmentation, an achievement that allows infants to build their mental dictionaries. We hypothesized that infants' responsiveness to caregiver facial expressions might b...

  5. Lower Extremity Abscess Formation in Premature Infants due to Routine Infant Vaccinations


    Sun, Yuhang; Mundluru, Surya N.; Chu, Alice


    Since the introduction of vaccines, the impact of vaccinations has been immeasurable. Under the current immunization guidelines, infants receive the first of their routine infant vaccinations at 2 months of age. While the benefits of routine infant vaccinations in premature infants have been demonstrated, there is relatively little data on the dosing of these vaccines in premature infants. The medical records of two premature infants who developed intramuscular abscesses after receiving their...

  6. [Coping styles in schizophrenia: study of clinical and functional variables as determinants of strategies to cope with stress]. (United States)

    Zappia, Serena; Montemagni, Cristiana; Macrì, Antonio; Sandei, Luisa; Sigaudo, Monica; Rocca, Paola


    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between coping styles, and both clinical and functional variables in a sample of patients with stable schizophrenia. Forty-seven consecutive outpatients were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. A clinical assessment was performed and included: the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), the Scale for the Assessment of Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Quality of Life Scale (QLS) and the questionnaire Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36). Coping strategies were assessed with the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), identifying three main coping styles: task-, emotion- and avoidance-oriented. Three different multiple regression models with backward elimination were performed in order to discover contributing factors to coping styles. From the results of multiple regression, depressive symptoms and objective quality of life were contributing factors to task-oriented coping style, explaining about 32% of variance. Negative symptoms, subjective quality of life, self-esteem, awareness of symptomatology and attribution of symptoms to illness resulted to be contributing factors to emotion-oriented coping strategies, explaining about 60% of variance. These results suggested the role of some clinical and functional variables as contributing factors to coping styles. In this context, supportive and rehabilitative interventions and cognitive-behavioral therapy focused to manage psychotic symptoms and to decrease distress could help patients to employ more adaptive coping strategies and improve their outcomes.

  7. The fit between stress appraisal and dyadic coping in understanding perceived coping effectiveness for adolescents with type 1 diabetes. (United States)

    Berg, Cynthia A; Skinner, Michelle; Ko, Kelly; Butler, Jorie M; Palmer, Debra L; Butner, Jonathan; Wiebe, Deborah J


    This study examined whether perceived coping effectiveness (PCE) was associated with better diabetes management and was higher when adolescents' dyadic coping was matched to shared stress appraisals. There were 252 adolescents with Type 1 diabetes who completed stress and coping interviews where they appraised mothers' and fathers' involvement in stress ownership (mine, indirectly shared, directly shared with parent), in coping (uninvolved, supportive, collaborative, or controlling), and rated their effectiveness in coping. Adolescents completed assessments of depressive symptoms (Children's Depression Inventory), self-care behaviors (Self-Care Inventory), and efficacy of disease management (Diabetes Self-Efficacy). Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were obtained from medical records. Higher PCE was associated with fewer depressive symptoms, self-care behaviors, and efficacy across age and, more strongly for older adolescents' metabolic control. Appraisals of support or collaboration from parents were more frequent when stressors were appraised as shared. PCE was enhanced when dyadic coping with mothers (but not fathers) was consistent with stress appraisals (e.g., shared stressors together with collaborative coping). Stress and coping is embedded within a relational context and this context is useful in understanding the coping effectiveness of adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. [Infants wearing teething necklaces]. (United States)

    Taillefer, A; Casasoprana, A; Cascarigny, F; Claudet, I


    Numerous infants wear teething necklaces, a quack remedy with a real risk of strangulation or aspiration of small beads. Evaluate parental perceptions and beliefs about the use of teething necklaces and analyze parental knowledge about the associated dangers. Between March and July 2011, in three different pediatric units of a tertiary children's hospital and a general hospital in Toulouse and Montauban (southwest France), voluntary parents were invited to be interviewed about their child wearing a teething necklace. The interviews were conducted following an anthropological approach: they were recorded and then fully transcribed and analyzed. Parents were informed that the conversation was recorded. During the study period, 48 children were eligible. Eleven families refused to participate, 29 parents were interviewed face to face. The children's mean age was 14 years ± 7 months, the male:female ratio was equal to 0.8 (12 boys, 15 girls). The mean age of children when necklace wearing was started was equal to 4 ± 2 months. The mean mother's age was 31 ± 5 years and 33 ± 4 years for fathers. The parents' religion was mostly Catholic (60%). Teething necklaces were mainly made of amber (n=23). Sales information about the risks associated with the necklaces was for the most part absent (92%). The most frequent positive parental perceptions were analgesic properties and a soothing remedy (73%); a birth accessory and memory (64%); an esthetic accessory (60%); a protective amulet (60%); and an alternative or additional element to other traditional therapeutics (55%). The negative parental perceptions (n=4) were an unnecessary accessory, costume jewelry, a pure commercial abuse of a popular belief, a dangerous item with a risk of strangulation, and the absence of proof of its efficacy. Although parents concede that teeth eruption is benign, they fear its related symptoms. To a natural phenomenon a natural response: they use a necklace to satisfy the analogy. The

  9. Maternal postnatal psychiatric symptoms and infant temperament affect early mother-infant bonding. (United States)

    Nolvi, Saara; Karlsson, Linnea; Bridgett, David J; Pajulo, Marjukka; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Karlsson, Hasse


    Postnatal mother-infant bonding refers to the early emotional bond between mothers and infants. Although some factors, such as maternal mental health, especially postnatal depression, have been considered in relation to mother-infant bonding, few studies have investigated the role of infant temperament traits in early bonding. In this study, the effects of maternal postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms and infant temperament traits on mother-infant bonding were examined using both mother and father reports of infant temperament. Data for this study came from the first phase of the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study (n=102, father reports n=62). After controlling for maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, mother-reported infant positive emotionality, measured by infant smiling was related to better mother-infant bonding. In contrast, infant negative emotionality, measured by infant distress to limitations was related to lower quality of bonding. In regards to father-report infant temperament, only infant distress to limitations (i.e., frustration/anger) was associated with lower quality of mother-infant bonding. These findings underline the importance of infant temperament as one factor contributing to early parent-infant relationships, and counseling parents in understanding and caring for infants with different temperament traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Coping Skills Training with Adolescents at Risk for Substance Abuse. (United States)

    Brondino, Michael J.; And Others

    Primary prevention programs aimed at helping adolescents develop personal and social coping skills have received empirical support as methods capable of reducing the incidence of substance use. This study examined the effectiveness of school-based coping skills training with adolescents at high-risk for substance abuse. Students (N=279) at 29…

  11. Consultant Jokes about Managing Uncertainty: Coping by Humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, O.


    Consultants and clients who experience difficulties in coping with challenges might start making coping jokes. This might happen, for example, when facing a challenge such as managing uncertainty. A content analysis of consultants' jokes reveals that both consultants and clients apply tactics to

  12. Self-Esteem and Coping Strategies among Deaf Students (United States)

    Jambor, Edina; Elliott, Marta


    Research studies on the determinants of self-esteem of deaf individuals often yield inconsistent findings. The current study assessed the effects on self-esteem of factors related to deafness, such as the means of communication at home and severity of hearing loss with hearing aid, as well as the coping styles that deaf people adopt to cope with…

  13. Pain coping strategies: Neonatal intensive care unit survivors in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzewinkel, C.J. van; Been, J.V.; Dielemane, J.P.; Katgert, T.; Boelen-van der Loo, T.; Pal, S.M. van der; Dijk, M. van; Kramer, P.W.; Andriessena, P.


    Background Data on long-term consequences of preterm birth on pain coping later in life are limited. Aim The aim of this study was to assess whether gestational age, birth weight and neonatal disease severity have an effect on the pain coping strategy in adolescents born preterm or with low birth

  14. Coping responses as predictors of satisfaction with life amongst a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All participants completed the Coping Responses Inventory – Adult Version, as well as the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Initially, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relationship between the predictor variables (coping responses) and the criterion variable(satisfaction with life).

  15. Pain severity, coping and satisfaction with life in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcome measures: Participants completed measures of pain severity (Pain Severity Scale of the West-Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory), satisfaction with life (Satisfaction with Life Scale) and coping responses (Coping Responses Inventory-Adult version). Analysis: Pearson correlation coefficients were ...

  16. Assessing the influence of stress, work and age on coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing the influence of stress, work and age on coping behaviour patten of selected breast-feeding mothers in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. ... Two major psychological instruments, Breast-Feeding Associated Distress scale (BFDS) and Coping Behaviour Inventory (CBI) designed by the researcher were administered on ...

  17. A Stress and Coping Approach to Intervention with Abused Women. (United States)

    Carlson, Bonnie E.


    Presents an ecological model of intervention for physical abuse based on the Lazarus and Folkman conceptualization of stress and coping. Claims that the model identifies the stages that abused women may experience in their appraisal of the abuse experience. Focuses on barriers to ending abuse, stress and coping, and effective interventions. (RJM)

  18. [Defensive pessimists and coping: the goodness of fit hypothesis]. (United States)

    Hosogoshi, Hiroki; Kodama, Masahiro


    The goodness of fit hypothesis (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) posits that it is adaptive to use emotion-focused coping and not to use problem-focused coping in uncontrollable situations. This study examines the coping skills that defensive pessimists (DPs) tend to use in uncontrollable situations. The participants were 282 Japanese college students, from which 61 DPs and 64 strategic optimists (SOs) were identified. Based on the controllability they reported about recalled stress situations, they were classified into controllable or uncontrollable subgroups. Eight coping skills, which are concerned with emotion-focused or problem-focused coping, were compared. T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that DPs in uncontrollable situations tended not to use emotion-focused coping, which is not consistent with the goodness of fit hypothesis, but they also tended not to use problem-focused coping, which is consistent with the hypothesis. These results imply that DPs can control their behavior adaptively so they do not increase stress more in uncontrollable situations, although they have a vulnerability to feel stress easily because they can not use emotion-focused coping effectively.

  19. Beyond Host Language Proficiency: Coping Resources Predicting International Students' Satisfaction (United States)

    Mak, Anita S.; Bodycott, Peter; Ramburuth, Prem


    As international students navigate in a foreign educational environment, having higher levels of coping or stress-resistance resources--both internal and external--could be related to increased satisfaction with personal and university life. The internal coping resources examined in this study were host language proficiency, self-esteem,…

  20. Recovering from Alcoholism: The Role of Coping with Stressful Events. (United States)

    Billings, Andrew G.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    Although stressful life change events are thought to influence the development of alcoholism and to enhance the probability of relapse after treatment, the actual coping responses to specific events among alcoholics remain largely unexplored. Efforts were made to operationalize and classify coping responses and to explore their relationship to…

  1. Teacher Stress and Coping Strategies: A National Snapshot (United States)

    Richards, Jan


    This national survey of 1,201 kindergarten through Grade-12-U.S. teachers focused on three related areas: (1) sources of teacher stress, (2) manifestations of stress, and (3) suggested coping strategies. The survey instrument was adapted from the Teacher Stress Inventory and the Coping Scale for Adults. Results indicated that teachers nationwide…

  2. Perceptions of Resiliency and Coping: Homeless Young Adults Speak Out (United States)

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin


    This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…

  3. Academic Stress and Coping Strategies among Students with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the level of academic stress among university students with disabilities and the nature of coping strategies they used to deal with stress. It also examined if there existed significant differences in stress and coping strategies among students with different disabilities and between students with and without ...

  4. Filipino Americans and Racism: A Multiple Mediation Model of Coping (United States)

    Alvarez, Alvin N.; Juang, Linda P.


    Although the literature on Asian Americans and racism has been emerging, few studies have examined how coping influences one's encounters with racism. To advance the literature, the present study focused on the psychological impact of Filipino Americans' experiences with racism and the role of coping as a mediator using a community-based sample of…

  5. Tales of the Unexpected: Coping among Female Collegiate Volleyball Players (United States)

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Berg, Kylie-Joy; Tamminen, Katherine A.


    The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of appraisal, coping, and coping effectiveness in sport. Ten players from a collegiate female volleyball team were interviewed on two occasions, first in the week before a provincial final playoff tournament and in the week following the tournament. Data were transcribed verbatim and subjected to…

  6. Differential effects of active and passive coping on secretory immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, JA; de Geus, E.J.C.; Kelder, A.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Hoogstraten, J.; van Nieuw Amerongen, A.


    This study examined the acute immunological effects of two laboratory stressors, expected to evoke distinct patterns of cardiac autonomic activity; namely an "active coping" time-paced memory test, and a "passive coping" stressful video showing surgical operations. We measured salivary S-IgA,

  7. Matching Alcoholics to Coping Skills or Interactional Therapies: Posttreatment Results. (United States)

    Kadden, Ronald M.; And Others


    Randomly assigned 96 persons from inpatient alcoholism treatment program to aftercare group treatment consisting of either coping skills training or interactional therapy. Found that coping skills training was more effective for subjects higher in sociopathy or psychopathology; interactional therapy was more effective for subjects lower in…

  8. Depression and coping strategies among women with infertility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infertility is a crisis that leads to a psychological imbalance. Depression as a consequence of infertility seems to be on the increase. Depressed clients are extremely vulnerable but adequate coping strategies could play valuable role inemotional response.There is adearth of literature on depression and coping modalities ...

  9. Coping Behaviors of Parents with Children with Congenital Heart Disease. (United States)

    Strobino, Jane

    The study addresses parental coping patterns of children with congenital heart disease in the state of Hawaii. Attention was given to geography and ethnicity as well as parental and child characteristics as factors impacting on the coping pattern. Telephone interviews with parents (N=32) obtained data concerning parent characteristics, their…

  10. Coping Styles of Learning Disabled Adolescents and Their Parents. (United States)

    Shulman, Shmuel; And Others


    Coping styles of 50 learning-disabled and non-learning-disabled adolescents and their parents were compared. Learning-disabled adolescents showed less ability to appraise a source of stress and to seek information about their stressful situations and showed greater pessimism about academic concerns. Coping patterns of parents did not clearly…

  11. Behavioral Coping Styles of Mentally Retarded and Learning Disabled Pupils. (United States)

    Price, Barrie Jo; Marsh, George E., II

    The Coping Analysis Schedule for Educational Settings (CASES), an observation instrument to identify students' primary coping or interaction styles, was evaluated with 44 educable mentally retarded (EMR), learning disabled (LD), or normal children (7 to 11 years old). CASES is intended to be a quantitative tool for collecting the data required…

  12. Coping, pain and disability in osteoarthritis: a longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Steultjens, M.P.; Bijlsma, J.W.


    This study aimed at establishing the role of coping styles as prospective determinants of pain and disability in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee or hip. Data were used on 87 patients with OS of the hip and 129 patients with OA of the knee. Coping styles were assessed with a

  13. Coping predicts depression and disability in heart transplant candidates. (United States)

    Burker, Eileen J; Evon, Donna M; Marroquin Loiselle, Marci; Marroquin Losielle, Marci; Finkel, Jerry B; Mill, Michael R


    The aim of this study was to describe the coping strategies used by cardiac patients who are pursuing heart transplant and to determine which coping strategies are related to depression and self-reported disability. This is a cross-sectional design with 50 cardiac patients (74% male) who were inpatients being evaluated for heart transplant at a large medical center. Coping styles were measured using the COPE Inventory (Carver CS, Scheier MF, Weintraub, JK. Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. J Pers Soc Psychol 1989;56:267-83). Depression was assessed with the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-SIGH-D; Hamilton M. A rating scale for depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1960;23:56-62), and disability was assessed using the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP; Bergner M, Bobbitt R, Carter W, Gilson B. The Sickness Impact Profile: development and final revision of a health status measure. Med Care 1981;19:787-805). Patients reported using a variety of adaptive coping strategies, but depression and disability were only significantly correlated with maladaptive coping strategies. Multiple regressions demonstrated that denial had the strongest association with depression, and focusing on and venting emotions had the strongest association with disability. Maladaptive coping styles, such as denial and focusing and venting of emotions, can serve as markers of emotional distress and disability that may identify patients who may benefit from psychologic and psychiatric interventions.

  14. Sources of stress and coping strategies of Kenyan university athletes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sources of stress and coping strategies utilized by Kenyan university athletes. It was predicted that the sources of stress and coping strategies will not differ based on the university athletes' gender, age, and level of study. Data were collected through the use of modified version of ...

  15. Coping with Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Kvillemo, Pia; Bränström, Richard


    Objective The primary aim of this study was to examine the associations between different types of coping and psychological well-being and physical health among women with breast cancer. A second aim was to explore the potential moderating influences of situational and measurement factors on the associations between coping and psychological well-being and physical health. Methods On 14 February 2011, a literature search was made for articles published in the PubMed and PsycINFO databases before January 2010. On 5 September 2013, a repeated literature search was made for articles published before May 2013. In the final analyses, 78 studies with 11 948 participants were included. Results Efforts to facilitate adaptation to stress, such as Acceptance and Positive Reappraisal, were related to higher well-being and health. Disengagement and avoidance types of coping were associated with lower well-being and health. The analyses indicated that, in several circumstances, coping effectiveness was dependent on cancer stage, treatment, disease duration, and type of coping measure. Conclusions Use of coping targeting adjustment and avoiding use of disengagement forms of coping were related to better psychological well-being and physical health. Adaptive strategies and avoiding disengagement forms of coping seemed particularly beneficial for women undergoing treatment. PMID:25423095

  16. Stress Coping Techniques For Female Doctors Encountering Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress Coping Techniques For Female Doctors Encountering Sexual Harassment From Their Patients. ... Nigerian Journal of Guidance and Counselling ... The findings of these study indicated that stress coping techniques is an effective method in the reduction of stress posed by sexual harassment on female doctors from ...

  17. Small holder farmers coping strategies to household food insecurity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small holder farmers coping strategies to household food insecurity and hunger in Southern Ethiopia. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... The study further showed that households in the study area employ a range of coping strategies to respond to the high and sustained food insecurity and ...

  18. Academic Resourcefulness, Coping Strategies and Doubting in University Undergraduates (United States)

    Xuereb, Sharon


    This study hypothesised that academic resourcefulness and coping strategies would predict doubting amongst university undergraduates. Doubting refers to the serious consideration of prematurely withdrawing from university. It was predicted that mature students would report higher levels of academic resourcefulness and adaptive coping strategies,…

  19. The correlates of stress, coping styles and psychiatric morbidity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The correlates of stress, coping styles and psychiatric morbidity in the first year of medical education at a Nigerian University. ... African Journal of Psychiatry ... used included socio demographic, sources of stress, the general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), Maslachfs burnout inventory (MBI), and Brief COPE. Data were ...

  20. Stress, Coping and Suicide Ideation in Chinese College Students (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Haiping; Xia, Yan; Liu, Xiaohong; Jung, Eunju


    The study was to examine 1) whether stress and coping styles could significantly predict the probability of suicide ideation; 2) and whether coping styles were mediators or moderators on the association between life stress and suicide ideation. The survey was conducted in a sample of 671 Chinese college students. Approximately twenty percent…

  1. Validating Work Discrimination and Coping Strategy Models for Sexual Minorities (United States)

    Chung, Y. Barry; Williams, Wendi; Dispenza, Franco


    The purpose of this study was to validate and expand on Y. B. Chung's (2001) models of work discrimination and coping strategies among lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. In semistructured individual interviews, 17 lesbians and gay men reported 35 discrimination incidents and their related coping strategies. Responses were coded based on Chung's…

  2. Health Education Strategies for Coping with Academic Stress (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid


    The purpose of the study was to find out the significance of health education strategies for coping with academic stress. Comprehensive health education strategies for coping with academic stress can help students obtain the greatest benefits from education and become healthy and productive adults .One child out of four has an emotional, social,…

  3. Workplace harassment, active coping, and alcohol-related outcomes. (United States)

    Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M; Flaherty, J A; Freels, S


    While sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse (GWA) have been linked with alcohol use and abuse, active problem-focused coping has been shown to lessen vulnerability to deleterious mental health consequences of varied social stressors. At the same time, active coping is relatively more efficacious in response to stressors, which are amenable to change by personal actions. However, the moderating role that coping plays in relation to harassment and drinking is unknown. Using data from a two-wave survey of university employees (N=2038), we addressed the extent to which (1) active coping was utilized by harassed and abused employees, (2) whether coping impacted on the continuation or cessation of harassment and abuse, and (3) the extent to which nonsuccessful coping was predictive of alcohol use and abuse. Active coping had no significant impact on the ability to end harassing or abusive experiences. Moreover, the use of problem-focused coping that was unsuccessful predicted some drinking outcomes for both men and women, controlling for Wave I drinking and sociodemographic characteristics. The data suggest that increased institutional attention to the prevention of workplace harassment and abuse might impact on decreasing alcohol use and abuse.

  4. Coping Strategies Used by Distance Rehabilitation Counseling Interns (United States)

    Kampfe, Charlene M.; Smith, Mae S.; Manyibe, Edward O.; Sales, Amos P.; Moore, Susan F.


    This study investigated coping strategies used by distance master's level student interns from one rehabilitation counseling program. Analysis of variance revealed a significant difference among five coping strategies. Post hoc comparisons showed that interns used problem-focused and seeking social support more frequently than self-blame, wishful…

  5. Cancer patients' coping styles and doctor-patient communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, L. M.; Visser, M. R.; van Zuuren, F. J.; Rietbroek, R. C.; Lammes, F. B.; de Haes, J. C.


    Monitoring and blunting styles have become relevant concepts regarding their potential impact on patients' and doctors' behaviors. The present study aimed at investigating the relation between cancer patients' coping styles and doctor-patient communication and global affect. Coping styles were

  6. Personality profile and coping resources of family medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They lacked insight regarding the symptoms they were experiencing that warranted management, e.g. depression and anxiety. The medical practitioners in this study did not utilise their social and physical coping resources optimally and reported poor help-seeking behaviour. Keywords: personality; coping resources; family ...

  7. Personality profile and coping resources of family medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 14, 2009 ... not utilise their social and physical coping resources optimally and reported poor help-seeking behaviour. ... anxiety. In addition to stress, risk-taking behaviour and negative coping strategies have also been documented in healthcare professionals. The UK Registrar General indicated in 1978 that doctors ...

  8. Stress and coping mechanisms of nursing students during clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress impacts negatively and positively depending on how effectively the individual experiencing the phenomenon is able to cope. The objective of this study was to identify the stressors in clinical practice for nursing students and the coping mechanisms used. Eighty-nine (89) students from the Department of Nursing, ...

  9. How place attachments influence recreation conflict and coping behavior (United States)

    Cheng-Ping Wang; Yin-Hsun. Chang


    The purpose of this study was to explore how place attachment influences recreation conflict and coping behaviors based on the Transactional Stress/Coping Model. The interference between bikers and walkers in Bali Zon-An Park in Taipei County, Taiwan was investigated in May and June of 2007. A total of 384 valid questionnaires were collected.

  10. School Moves, Coping, and Achievement: Models of Possible Interactions (United States)

    Boon, Helen Joanna


    A sample of 1,050 regional Australian secondary students participated in a study investigating the relationship between mobility and academic achievement. Measures of mobility, academic achievement, suspensions, coping strategies, parental education, and family structure were used to test the hypothesis that academic coping strategies interact…

  11. Goal Orientations, Coping with School Failure and School Achievement (United States)

    Brdar, Ingrid; Rijavec, Majda; Loncaric, Darko


    The present study examined the relationship between goal orientation, coping with school failure and school achievement. Two questionnaires. Goal Orientation (Niemivirta, 1996a) and The School Failure Coping Scale (Rijavec & Brdar, 1997), were administered to 1057 high school students (aged from 15 to 17 years). The first goal of this study…

  12. Consumer education and inflation-coping strategies of nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study, aiming at identifying the strategies used by women to cope with inflation, and to determine the influence of consumer education acquired at secondary and post secondary institution on strategies used by women in the study area to cope with inflation,adopted an ex post facto research approach. It found that ...

  13. Investigating payment coping mechanisms used for the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Given the enormous economic burden of malaria in Nigeria and in sub-Saharan Africa, it is important to determine how different population groups cope with payment for malaria treatment. This paper provides new information about the differences in household coping mechanisms for expenditures on malaria ...

  14. Coping strategies of households in the Timane community of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reported on in this article examined the coping strategies of households in the rural community of Timane. A cross-sectional survey design was used, in which a Coping Strategy Index questionnaire, designed by Maxwell and Caldwell (2008:2) was used to gather the data. Respondents were randomly selected ...

  15. Contribution of microfinance in enhancing food access and coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution of microfinance in enhancing food access and coping strategy in AIDS-affected households in Kakamega county, Kenya. ... In response, households develop various coping strategies, especially in the context of food shortages. ... Key words: AIDS, Microfinance, Food, Security, Access, Affected, Non–affected,

  16. Genetic selection for coping style predicts stressor susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, AH; Meijer, OC; de Kloet, ER; Koolhaas, JM

    Genetically selected aggressive (SAL) and nonaggressive (LAL) male wild house-mice which show distinctly different coping styles, also display a differential regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis after exposure to an acute stressor. To test the hypothesis that coping style predicts

  17. Cognitive Distortions, Coping Behavior, and Depression in College Students. (United States)

    Warren, Nancy J.; And Others


    This study explored the relationship of cognitive distortions and coping strategies to depression in college students. A measure of cognitive distortions (the Interpretation Inventory) and a measure of strategies for coping with depression (the Active Checklist) were developed and used for this study. Results are discussed. (CJ)

  18. An Evaluation Of Academic Stress And Coping Mechanism Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed and evaluated academic stress coping mechanisms adopted by married female students in Nigerian tertiary institutions. This was with the aim of exploring the influence of academic stress on married female students‟ academic performance and their coping strategies used to enhance their academic ...

  19. Principal Components Analysis of Job Burnout and Coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The component structure of a 44-item scale measuring different aspects of job burnout incidence and 31-item scale on coping strategies were investigated, among extension officers in North West Province, South Africa. Items on job burnout and coping strategies s were measured at interval level and analyzed with Principal ...

  20. Coping Strategies and IQ in Psychogenic Movement Disorders and Paralysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, M.; Griffioen, Brecht T.; Leenders, Klaus L.


    Inadequate coping strategies may cause some patients to develop psychogenic symptoms in periods of stress. This may be more prominent in patients with lower intelligence levels. Twenty-six patients with psychogenic neurological disorders (PND) were tested for coping abilities and intelligence and

  1. Coping strategies of Nigerian Military Service Personnel: A Survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol/drug use (mean:- 5.65 ±2.566) was the least used coping strategy among respondents. A statistically significant relationship was found between some coping strategies and gender (“Emotion Focussed Coping” greater among females, P= 0.017), educational status (“Denial”:- P=0.004, “Mental Disengagement ...

  2. Numerical simulation of lateral-torsional buckling of coped girders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Steenbergen, H.M.G.M.; Stark, J.W.B.; Abspoel, R.


    The lateral torsional buckling resistance of girders depends on the support conditions. In floor structures for buildings, coped girders are often used. A numerical model was developed to research the influence of copes on lateral buckling resistance. The model is successfully validated with tests.

  3. Psychological distress and coping in military cadre candidates. (United States)

    Nakkas, Can; Annen, Hubert; Brand, Serge


    Soldiers must cope with stressors during both military operations and training if they are to accomplish their missions successfully and stay mentally stable. This holds true particularly for military superiors, as they bear greater responsibilities and must meet greater demands during both deployment and training. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated whether recruits chosen for further promotion at the end of basic training differed with regard to psychological distress and coping strategies from those not chosen for promotion, and whether recruits' coping styles and distress levels were associated. A total of 675 Swiss recruits took part in the study. At the beginning of basic training, recruits filled out self-rating questionnaires covering demographic data, psychological distress (depression, somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility), and coping styles. Results were compared between those recruits who received a recommendation for further promotion at the end of basic training and those who did not. Recruits selected for promotion had lower scores for depressive symptoms and hostility, engaged more in active coping, and considered their coping to be more effective. Dysfunctional and functional coping were associated with higher and lower distress levels, respectively. Recruits recommended for promotion exhibited less psychological distress during basic training and exhibited a socially more conducive profile of distress. They also endorsed more efficient and more prosocial coping strategies than those recruits not recommended for promotion. These cognitive-emotional features not only contribute to resilience but are also consistent with leadership research, indicating the importance of emotional stability and prosocial behavior in successful leaders.

  4. Farm Households' Food Insecurity and their Coping Strategies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that understanding farm households' perceptions of food security, food security status, its causes and coping strategies across wealth status and agro-ecology are prerequisites to improve food security status and coping ability. The study is based on data collected from Arsi Negele District in 2009.

  5. Optimism, Social Comparisons, and Coping with Vision Loss in Israel (United States)

    Ben-Zur, Hasida; Debi, Zoharit


    This study of 90 adults (aged 55?80) who lost their vision assessed their dispositional optimism, social comparisons, coping strategies, and wellbeing. The findings suggest that optimism and positive social comparisons play an important role in stimulating the motivation to cope adaptively with vision loss and that enhancing optimism and social…

  6. Coping strategies: a prospective study of patterns, stability, and relationships with psychological distress. (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten B; Knardahl, Stein


    The aims of this article are: (1) to explore patterns (clusters) of coping strategies; (2) to examine the stability of individual coping strategies and patterns of coping over time; and (3) to establish long term associations between coping and psychological distress. Coping strategies were assessed with the Brief Cope questionnaire, whereas psychological distress was measured with the ten-item version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist, in a two-year prospective sample comprising 3,738 employees. Based on TwoStep cluster analysis of the Brief Cope, three different coping patterns were identified: low coping, engagement coping, and disengagement coping. Analyses of long-term stability indicated malleable properties for the individual coping strategies as well as the three clusters. Disengagement coping strategies in the form of self-blame and self-distraction were most strongly associated with distress at follow-up, whereas baseline distress was related to increased use of these strategies two years later. Coping patterns at baseline had no main effects on later levels of distress, but levels of distress at baseline predicted subsequent use of engagement and disengagement coping patterns. The finding that specific coping strategies are malleable suggests that it is possible to modify and develop dysfunctional strategies. The associations between disengagement coping strategies and distress indicate that this kind of coping is especially problematic with regard to mental health problems. A main contribution of this study is that it establishes cluster analytic techniques as beneficial in the assessment of coping.

  7. Early gross motor development of preterm infants according to the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. (United States)

    van Haastert, I C; de Vries, L S; Helders, P J M; Jongmans, M J


    To systematically examine gross motor development in the first 18 months of life of preterm infants. A total of 800 preterm infants (356 boys), ages between 1 and 18 months and corrected for degree of prematurity, were assessed with the use of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. Comparison of the mean Alberta Infant Motor Scale scores of the preterm infants with the norm-referenced values derived from term infants revealed that as a group, the preterm infants scored significantly lower at all age levels, even with full correction for degree of prematurity. In general, preterm infants exhibit different gross motor developmental trajectories compared with term infants in the first 18 months of life. The gross motor developmental profile of preterm infants may reflect a variant of typical gross motor development, which seems most likely to be specific for this population. As a consequence, adjusted norms should be used for proper evaluation and clinical decision-making in relation to preterm infants.

  8. The Adolescent Coping Process Interview: measuring temporal and affective components of adolescent responses to peer stress. (United States)

    Feagans Gould, Laura; Hussong, Andrea M; Keeley, Mary L


    The way in which adolescents cope with stressors in their lives has been established as an important correlate of adjustment. While most theoretical models of coping entail unfolding transactions between coping strategies and emotional arousal, the majority of coping measures tap only trait-level coping styles, ignoring both temporal and affective components of the coping process. The current study fills this gap by establishing the psychometric properties of a newly developed measure, the Adolescent Coping Process Interview (ACPI), that is more in line with transactional and developmental models of coping. Results indicate that the ACPI displays good psychometric properties, captures significant intra-individual variability in coping over the process, and points to emotional arousal as informing several coping-adjustment relationships. Moreover, the ACPI and similar approaches may help promote the development of more adaptive patterns of coping in adolescents by helping to identify specific points within the coping process at which to intervene.

  9. Stakeholder demands and corporate environmental coping strategies in China. (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Tang, Shui-Yan; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Zhan, Xueyong


    This paper examines how stakeholder demand and compliance capacity jointly shape corporate environmental coping strategies and subsequently environmental protection practices. A four-dimensional classification of coping strategies-formalism, accommodation, referencing, and self-determination-is conceptualized. Drawing on survey and interview data collected from manufacturing enterprises in China between 2010 and 2012, the paper shows that compared with formalism and accommodation, coping strategies of referencing and self-determination are associated with stronger environmental protection practices. Enterprises adjust their coping strategies by taking into account the constraints defined by both their internal and external environments. The results also demonstrate the potential synergetic effects of state and non-state stakeholders working together in promoting better corporate environmental coping strategies and environmental practices in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring coping strategies of business leaders during an economic downturn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise van Zyl


    Full Text Available As a large part of South Africa’s economy is based on the mining industry, this research focused on exploring the coping strategies of business leaders in the mining industry during an economic downturn. Using qualitative research within a constructivist-interpretive paradigm, the researchers sought a deeper understanding of how mining leaders cope during an economic downturn. A purposive sample of seven executive mining leaders of different mining houses was interviewed and data was analysed using Atlas.ti. A conceptual framework for understanding coping strategies at the individual, group and organisational levels for business leaders during an economic downturn was developed and is discussed here. This study contributed to theory and practice by focusing on coping responses to specific situations within a specific context instead of on general coping strategies.

  11. Stressing factors and coping strategies used by oncology nurses. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Andrea Bezerra; Chaves, Eliane Corrêa


    In the oncology specialty, many factors can result in occupational stress in nursing professionals. As an attempt to controlling this situation, individuals may use coping strategies. Coping is a cognitive and behavioral effort one uses to face a stressful situation. The aims of this study were to identify the stressful factors regarding oncology nurses, and to verify what coping strategies they use. Two questionnaires were used: a demographic data inventory, designed by the researcher, and the Folkman and Lazarus coping strategies inventory. The results showed that the main stressful factors for oncology nurses are patient death (28.6%), emergency situations (16.9%), relationship issues with the nursing team (15.5%), and work-process situations (15.5%). In the studied population, the main coping strategy used was positive reappraisal.

  12. Personality and Coping in Peruvian volunteers for poverty alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Gastelumendi Gonçalves


    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between coping styles and strategies, and personality styles in a sample of 41 young volunteers of an institution that alleviates poverty in Lima. Peruvian adaptations of COPE and MIPS scales were administered. The results show that volunteers have higher scores on adaptive coping strategies. High scores in some particular personality styles were reported, which allowed to establish a personality profile of this group. According with theoretical framework, most coping strategies correlated with most personality styles, revealing four particular tendencies in these volunteers: they wish to have contact with other people, they usually see positive aspects of situations, they look forward for challenges, and they developed adaptive coping strategies.

  13. Dyadic coping within couples dealing with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottmann, Nina; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Larsen, Pia Veldt


    coping as a couple were associated with change in relationship quality and depressive symptoms over time. METHOD: Women with breast cancer and their male partners (N = 538 couples) participated in a longitudinal study (Time 1, ≤ 4 months after surgery; Time 2, 5 months later). Dyadic coping was assessed......OBJECTIVE: The way couples deal with stressors is likely to influence their adjustment after breast cancer diagnosis. Based on the systemic-transactional model, this study examined whether the supportive, delegated and negative dyadic coping provided by patients and partners and their common dyadic...... using the Dyadic Coping Inventory (Bodenmann, 2008). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (Radloff, 1977) and the Relationship Ladder (Kuijer, Buunk, De Jong, Ybema, & Sanderman, 2004) measured depressive symptoms and relationship quality, respectively. RESULTS: Negative dyadic coping...

  14. Workplace mobbing: How the victim's coping behavior influences bystander responses. (United States)

    Mulder, Roelie; Bos, Arjan E R; Pouwelse, Mieneke; van Dam, Karen


    Victims of workplace mobbing show diverse coping behavior. We investigated the impact of this behavior on bystander cognitions, emotions, and helping toward the victim, integrating coping literature with attribution theory. Adult part-time university students (N = 161) working at various organizations participated in a study with a 3(Coping: approach/avoidance/neutral) × 2(Gender Victim: male/female) × 2(Gender Bystander: male/female) design. Victims showing approach (vs. avoidance) coping were considered to be more self-reliant and less responsible for the continuation of the mobbing, and they elicited less anger. Continuation responsibility and self-reliance mediated the relationship between the victim's coping behavior and bystanders' helping intentions. Female (vs. male) participants reported more sympathy for the victim and greater willingness to help, and female (vs. male) victims elicited less anger. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. Predictors of Coping Strategies Employed by Iraqi Refugees in Jordan. (United States)

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala; Alzoubi, Fatmeh Ahmad; Slater, Paul


    The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by Iraqi refugees in Jordan based on their demographic details. A cross-sectional design was used. A representative sample of 333 refugees living in Jordan participated in the study. The Cope inventory and the demographic details were compiled to produce and collate the relevant data. Being older, female, educated, single, and living with more than three family members was associated with greater use of the problem solving coping strategy. Being female, educated, and unemployed was associated with greater use of the active emotional coping strategy. In addition, being older, male, illiterate, unemployed, and living with less than three family members was associated with greater use of the avoidant emotional coping strategy. This study recommends a multidisciplinary approach intervention as being the best method of addressing and fulfilling the health and socioeconomic needs of older, male, illiterate, unemployed people.

  16. Coping style in schizophrenia: associations with neurocognitive deficits and personality. (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Bryson, Gary J; Marks, Kriscinda; Greig, Tamasine C; Bell, Morris D


    It is widely recognized that persons with schizophrenia tend to cope with stress in a relatively avoidant and ineffectual manner. Less is understood, however, about the factors that affect coping style in schizophrenia. To determine the extent to which various neurocognitive deficits and personality dimensions are related to coping style in schizophrenia, measures of visual memory, verbal memory, executive function, neuroticism, and extroversion were correlated with concurrent self-reports of preference for a range of active and avoidant coping strategies. Participants were 71 persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders enrolled in outpatient psychiatric care. Stepwise multiple regressions indicated that neurocognition and personality were independently related to coping style. Specifically, higher levels of various forms of neurocognitive impairment and neuroticism predicted greater reliance on passive avoidant strategies and reduced reliance on active problem solving. Higher levels of extroversion were related to greater social support seeking. Implications for understanding the genesis of psychosocial dysfunction and for the development of rehabilitative interventions are discussed.

  17. Couples coping with discordant HIV status. (United States)

    Beckerman, Nancy L


    As we start the third decade of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic, how does HIV/AIDS affect the emotional lives of couples of mixed HIV status? This is a case report based on the findings of an exploratory research study of serodiscordant couples in the New York City area. It focuses on the issues confronting a particular couple who represent the salient issues in the lives of serodiscordant couples. This case report discusses the findings of a study that attempted to ascertain the central emotional challenges facing couples of mixed HIV status and discusses one case in particular that illustrates how these issues might commonly manifest themselves. Fear of HIV transmission, coping with uncertainty of potential illness, shifts in emotional intimacy, and dilemmas regarding how HIV has impacted reproductive alternatives were identified as the most commonly experienced emotional issues for the serodiscordant couple.

  18. Coping with ecological catastrophe: crossing major thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns, Jr.


    Full Text Available The combination of human population growth and resource depletion makes catastrophes highly probable. No long-term solutions to the problems of humankind will be discovered unless sustainable use of the planet is achieved. The essential first step toward this goal is avoiding or coping with global catastrophes that result from crossing major ecological thresholds. Decreasing the number of global catastrophes will reduce the risks associated with destabilizing ecological systems, which could, in turn, destabilize societal systems. Many catastrophes will be local, regional, or national, but even these upheavals will have global consequences. Catastrophes will be the result of unsustainable practices and the misuse of technology. However, avoiding ecological catastrophes will depend on the development of eco-ethics, which is subject to progressive maturation, comments, and criticism. Some illustrative catastrophes have been selected to display some preliminary issues of eco-ethics.

  19. Coping with subjectivity in vulnerability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renis, T.A.; Cardwell, R.G.


    Vulnerability assessment models are widely used to systematically evaluate the performance of complex safeguards systems against a variety of threats. These models require varying levels of detail and input data about the physical design of a facility and its safeguards operations and procedures. However, to evaluate safeguards effectiveness and give a performance rating, these models require additional performance data reflecting probabilities of detection, assessment, interruption, and neutralization, as well as the associated times for various adversary scenarios. These data may be attained from equipment design specifications, laboratory testing, expert judgment, or component testing. Regardless of how these data are obtained, they are inherently subjective. This paper addresses the uses of various vulnerability assessment models and the nature of subjectivity in those models. The paper also describes methods for coping with subjective data

  20. The psychobiology of PTSD: coping with trauma. (United States)

    Olff, Miranda; Langeland, Willie; Gersons, Berthold P R


    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the few psychiatric conditions where a specific psychosocial stressor is explicitly tied to etiology. Although a majority of people experience a traumatic event in their life, most of them will not develop PTSD or other mental health problems such as depressive or anxiety disorders. Emotional and neurobiological responses to psychosocial stressors show striking individual variation. In this paper cognitive appraisal and coping factors are explored as potential sources of individual differences in the neuroendocrinological stress response, and subsequently in mental health outcome. Continued study of the psychobiology of trauma and PTSD will enhance our understanding of adaptation to psychosocial stressors and support efforts to treat associated psychological and biological sequelae.