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Sample records for prevents transgenerational amplification

  1. Preventing PCR amplification carryover contamination in a clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, Jaber

    2004-01-01

    During the past two decades PCR and several other DNA/RNA amplification techniques have become important diagnostic tools in clinical laboratories. Amplification products contamination has been the main impediment to using these techniques routinely in diagnostic laboratories. Over the years, several creative pre- and post-amplification methods have been developed that prevent amplicon carryover contamination. These procedures, coupled with automated systems that employ real-time amplification and simultaneous detection in a closed system, have substantially reduced the possibility of false positive results due to amplification products carryover contamination.

  2. Realizing the Potential of Adolescence to Prevent Transgenerational Conditioning of Noncommunicable Disease Risk: Multi-Sectoral Design Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquie L. Bay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from the field of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD demonstrates that early life environmental exposures impact later-life risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs. This has revealed the transgenerational nature of NCD risk, thus demonstrating that interventions to improve environmental exposures during early life offer important potential for primary prevention of DOHaD-related NCDs. Based on this evidence, the prospect of multi-sectoral approaches to enable primary NCD risk reduction has been highlighted in major international reports. It is agreed that pregnancy, lactation and early childhood offer significant intervention opportunities. However, the importance of interventions that establish positive behaviors impacting nutritional and non-nutritional environmental exposures in the pre-conceptual period in both males and females, thus capturing the full potential of DOHaD, must not be overlooked. Adolescence, a period where life-long health-related behaviors are established, is therefore an important life-stage for DOHaD-informed intervention. DOHaD evidence underpinning this potential is well documented. However, there is a gap in the literature with respect to combined application of theoretical evidence from science, education and public health to inform intervention design. This paper addresses this gap, presenting a review of evidence informing theoretical frameworks for adolescent DOHaD interventions that is accessible collectively to all relevant sectors.

  3. Transgenerational epigenetics and environmental justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A; Harrell, Heather L; Marchant, Gary E

    2017-07-01

    Human transmission to offspring and future generations of acquired epigenetic modifications has not been definitively established, although there are several environmental exposures with suggestive evidence. This article uses three examples of hazardous substances with greater exposures in vulnerable populations: pesticides, lead, and diesel exhaust. It then considers whether, if there were scientific evidence of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, there would be greater attention given to concerns about environmental justice in environmental laws, regulations, and policies at all levels of government. To provide a broader perspective on environmental justice the article discusses two of the most commonly cited approaches to environmental justice. John Rawls's theory of justice as fairness, a form of egalitarianism, is frequently invoked for the principle that differential treatment of individuals is justified only if actions are designed to benefit those with the greatest need. Another theory, the capabilities approach of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, focuses on whether essential capabilities of society, such as life and health, are made available to all individuals. In applying principles of environmental justice the article considers whether there is a heightened societal obligation to protect the most vulnerable individuals from hazardous exposures that could adversely affect their offspring through epigenetic mechanisms. It concludes that unless there were compelling evidence of transgenerational epigenetic harms, it is unlikely that there would be a significant impetus to adopt new policies to prevent epigenetic harms by invoking principles of environmental justice.

  4. Transgenerational developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Catherine E; Ozanne, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    The concept of developmental programming suggests that the early life environment influences offspring characteristics in later life, including the propensity to develop diseases such as the metabolic syndrome. There is now growing evidence that the effects of developmental programming may also manifest in further generations without further suboptimal exposure. This review considers the evidence, primarily from rodent models, for effects persisting to subsequent generations, and evaluates the mechanisms by which developmental programming may be transmitted to further generations. In particular, we focus on the potential role of the intrauterine environment in contributing to a developmentally programmed phenotype in subsequent generations. The literature was systematically searched at http://pubmed.org and http://scholar.google.com to identify published findings regarding transgenerational (F2 and beyond) developmental programming effects in human populations and animal models. Transmission of programming effects is often viewed as a form of epigenetic inheritance, either via the maternal or paternal line. Evidence exists for both germline and somatic inheritance of epigenetic modifications which may be responsible for phenotypic changes in further generations. However, there is increasing evidence for the role of both extra-genomic components of the zygote and the interaction of the developing conceptus with the intrauterine environment in propagating programming effects. The contribution of a suboptimal reproductive tract environment or maternal adaptations to pregnancy may be critical to inheritance of programming effects via the maternal line. As the effects of age exacerbate the programmed metabolic phenotype, advancing maternal age may increase the likelihood of developmental programming effects being transmitted to further generations. We suggest that developmental programming effects could be propagated through the maternal line de novo in generations

  5. Accessing Transgenerational Themes Through Dreamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jennifer; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Proposes use of dreamwork to evoke historical patterns or transgenerational themes. Describes new variant of dreamwork which combines aspects of both gestalt and family systems therapies. Implications of therapeutic dramatization for couple therapy are suggested. Examples are included. (Author/NB)

  6. Epigenetic and transgenerational mechanisms in infection-mediated neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Stadlbauer, U

    2017-05-02

    Prenatal infection is an environmental risk factor for various brain disorders with neurodevelopmental components, including autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Modeling this association in animals shows that maternal immune activation negatively affects fetal brain development and leads to the emergence of behavioral disturbances later in life. Recent discoveries in these preclinical models suggest that epigenetic modifications may be a critical molecular mechanism by which prenatal immune activation can mediate changes in brain development and functions, even across generations. This review discusses the potential epigenetic mechanisms underlying the effects of prenatal infections, thereby highlighting how infection-mediated epigenetic reprogramming may contribute to the transgenerational transmission of pathological traits. The identification of epigenetic and transgenerational mechanisms in infection-mediated neurodevelopmental disorders appears relevant to brain disorders independently of existing diagnostic classifications and may help identifying complex patterns of transgenerational disease transmission beyond genetic inheritance. The consideration of ancestral infectious histories may be of great clinical interest and may be pivotal for developing new preventive treatment strategies against infection-mediated neurodevelopmental disorders.

  7. Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance: an open discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Corina; Turecki, Gustavo

    2015-08-01

    Much controversy surrounds the idea of transgenerational epigenetics. Recent papers argue that epigenetic marks acquired through experience are passed to offspring, but as in much of the field of epigenetics, there is lack of precision in the definitions and perhaps too much eagerness to translate animal research to humans. Here, we review operational definitions of transgenerational inheritance and the processes of epigenetic programing during early development. Subsequently, based on this background, we critically examine some recent findings of studies investigating transgenerational inheritance. Finally, we discuss possible mechanisms that may explain transgenerational inheritance, including transmission of an epigenetic blueprint, which may predispose offspring to specific epigenetic patterning. Taken together, we conclude that presently, the evidence suggesting that acquired epigenetic marks are passed to the subsequent generation remains limited.

  8. Stress transgenerationally programs metabolic pathways linked to altered mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Douglas; Ambeskovic, Mirela; Montina, Tony; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2016-12-01

    Stress is among the primary causes of mental health disorders, which are the most common reason for disability worldwide. The ubiquity of these disorders, and the costs associated with them, lends a sense of urgency to the efforts to improve prediction and prevention. Down-stream metabolic changes are highly feasible and accessible indicators of pathophysiological processes underlying mental health disorders. Here, we show that remote and cumulative ancestral stress programs central metabolic pathways linked to mental health disorders. The studies used a rat model consisting of a multigenerational stress lineage (the great-great-grandmother and each subsequent generation experienced stress during pregnancy) and a transgenerational stress lineage (only the great-great-grandmother was stressed during pregnancy). Urine samples were collected from adult male F4 offspring and analyzed using 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The results of variable importance analysis based on random variable combination were used for unsupervised multivariate principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis, as well as metabolite set enrichment analysis (MSEA) and pathway analysis. We identified distinct metabolic profiles associated with the multigenerational and transgenerational stress phenotype, with consistent upregulation of hippurate and downregulation of tyrosine, threonine, and histamine. MSEA and pathway analysis showed that these metabolites are involved in catecholamine biosynthesis, immune responses, and microbial host interactions. The identification of metabolic signatures linked to ancestral programming assists in the discovery of gene targets for future studies of epigenetic regulation in pathogenic processes. Ultimately, this research can lead to biomarker discovery for better prediction and prevention of mental health disorders.

  9. Incorporating transgenerational testing and epigenetic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of environmental chemicals have been shown to alter markers of epigenetic change. Some published multi-generation rodent studies have identified effects on F2 and greater generations after chemical exposures solely to F0 dams, but were not focused on chemical safety. We were interested in how outcomes related to epigenetic changes could be identified and incorporated into chemical testing and risk assessment. To address this question, we conducted a systematic literature review to identify transgenerational (TG) epigenetic studies in rodents. These were analyzed to characterize the methods and observed outcomes, and to evaluate strengths, limitations, and biases. Our analysis found that test substances were administered to pregnant F0 dams; endpoints assessed in F1 to F4 generation offspring included growth, puberty timing, steroid hormone levels, abdominal adiposity, organ weights, histopathology, and epigenetic biomarkers. Biases were minimized through, e.g., randomization procedures, avoiding sibling or cousin matings, and independent multiple reviews of histopathology data. However, the numbers of litters assigned to control and test groups were not always transparently reported, nested statistical analyses of data was not always utilized to address litter effects, and “blind” testing was seldom performed. Many of these studies identified chemicals or combinations of chemicals that produced TG effects and/or adult-onset diseases, but there is a

  10. The placental gateway of maternal transgenerational epigenetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several examples of transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic features with potential impact onembryonic development and subsequent adult life have come to light. In placental mammals, the placenta is an additional route for epigenetic information flow. This information does not go through any meiotic reprogramming ...

  11. A Regulatory RNA Inducing Transgenerationally Inherited Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lea Møller

    . The variation in Arabidopsis enables different regulatory networks and mechanisms to shape the phenotypic characteristics. The thesis describes the identification of regulatory RNA encoded by an enzyme encoding gene. The RNA regulates by inducing transgenerationally inherited phenotypes. The function of the RNA...... is dependent on the genetic background illustrating that polymorphisms are found in either interactors or target genes of the RNA. Furthermore, the RNA provides a mechanistic link between accumulation of glucosinolate and onset of flowering....

  12. False-positive results and contamination in nucleic acid amplification assays : Suggestions for a prevent and destroy strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, A; Box, ATA; Fluit, AC

    Contamination of samples with DNA is still a major problem in microbiology laboratories, despite the wide acceptance of PCR and other amplification techniques for the detection of frequently low amounts of target DNA. This review focuses on the implications of contamination in the diagnosis and

  13. Drought-induced trans-generational tradeoff between stress tolerance and defence: consequences for range limits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdurf, Jacob D; Ripley, Tayler J; Matzner, Steven L; Siemens, David H

    2013-01-01

    Areas just across species range boundaries are often stressful, but even with ample genetic variation within and among range-margin populations, adaptation towards stress tolerance across range boundaries often does not occur. Adaptive trans-generational plasticity should allow organisms to circumvent these problems for temporary range expansion; however, range boundaries often persist. To investigate this dilemma, we drought stressed a parent generation of Boechera stricta (A.Gray) A. Löve & D. Löve, a perennial wild relative of Arabidopsis, representing genetic variation within and among several low-elevation range margin populations. Boechera stricta is restricted to higher, moister elevations in temperate regions where generalist herbivores are often less common. Previous reports indicate a negative genetic correlation (genetic tradeoff) between chemical defence allocation and abiotic stress tolerance that may prevent the simultaneous evolution of defence and drought tolerance that would be needed for range expansion. In growth chamber experiments, the genetic tradeoff became undetectable among offspring sib-families whose parents had been drought treated, suggesting that the stress-induced trans-generational plasticity may circumvent the genetic tradeoff and thus enable range expansion. However, the trans-generational effects also included a conflict between plastic responses (environmental tradeoff); offspring whose parents were drought treated were more drought tolerant, but had lower levels of glucosinolate toxins that function in defence against generalist herbivores. We suggest that either the genetic or environmental tradeoff between defence allocation and stress tolerance has the potential to contribute to range limit development in upland mustards.

  14. Transgenerational acclimation of fishes to climate change and ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Philip L

    2014-01-01

    There is growing concern about the impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on marine organisms and ecosystems, yet the potential for acclimation and adaptation to these threats is poorly understood. Whereas many short-term experiments report negative biological effects of ocean warming and acidification, new studies show that some marine species have the capacity to acclimate to warmer and more acidic environments across generations. Consequently, transgenerational plasticity may be a powerful mechanism by which populations of some species will be able to adjust to projected climate change. Here, I review recent advances in understanding transgenerational acclimation in fishes. Research over the past 2 to 3 years shows that transgenerational acclimation can partially or fully ameliorate negative effects of warming, acidification, and hypoxia in a range of different species. The molecular and cellular pathways underpinning transgenerational acclimation are currently unknown, but modern genetic methods provide the tools to explore these mechanisms. Despite the potential benefits of transgenerational acclimation, there could be limitations to the phenotypic traits that respond transgenerationally, and trade-offs between life stages, that need to be investigated. Future studies should also test the potential interactions between transgenerational plasticity and genetic evolution to determine how these two processes will shape adaptive responses to environmental change over coming decades.

  15. Transgenerational epigenetic programming of the brain transcriptome and anxiety behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K Skinner

    Full Text Available Embryonic exposure to the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin during gonadal sex determination promotes an epigenetic reprogramming of the male germ-line that is associated with transgenerational adult onset disease states. Further analysis of this transgenerational phenotype on the brain demonstrated reproducible changes in the brain transcriptome three generations (F3 removed from the exposure. The transgenerational alterations in the male and female brain transcriptomes were distinct. In the males, the expression of 92 genes in the hippocampus and 276 genes in the amygdala were transgenerationally altered. In the females, the expression of 1,301 genes in the hippocampus and 172 genes in the amygdala were transgenerationally altered. Analysis of specific gene sets demonstrated that several brain signaling pathways were influenced including those involved in axon guidance and long-term potentiation. An investigation of behavior demonstrated that the vinclozolin F3 generation males had a decrease in anxiety-like behavior, while the females had an increase in anxiety-like behavior. These observations demonstrate that an embryonic exposure to an environmental compound appears to promote a reprogramming of brain development that correlates with transgenerational sex-specific alterations in the brain transcriptomes and behavior. Observations are discussed in regards to environmental and transgenerational influences on the etiology of brain disease.

  16. Transgenerational teratogenesis and carcinogenesis by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Taisei

    2000-01-01

    This paper thoroughly reviews studies on transgenerational teratogenesis and carcinogenesis induced by radiation and summarizes currently available data from animal studies. The discussions focus on the incidence of tumors, malformations, and mutations in the offspring after parental exposure to radiation, as well as estimated relative risks of congenital malformations and stillbirths in the offspring after parental X-ray exposure. The data suggest that different types of tumors are induced in offspring, because of strain differences in the experimental animals. The results of epidemiological studies in human populations, such as the children of atomic bomb survivors, conflict with the findings in animal studies. The author points to the following reasons for the differences between the results in animals and humans: differences in radiation doses, timing of exposure, and genetic predisposition, etc. While pointing out issues that need to be investigated further, the author indicates that clear strain differences exist in types of tumors induced and in tumor incidences in the offspring of animals that were irradiated before the offspring were conceived, and that genetic predisposition is therefore important in transgenerational carcinogenesis. (K.H.)

  17. Transgenerational teratogenesis and carcinogenesis by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Taisei [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2000-07-01

    This paper thoroughly reviews studies on transgenerational teratogenesis and carcinogenesis induced by radiation and summarizes currently available data from animal studies. The discussions focus on the incidence of tumors, malformations, and mutations in the offspring after parental exposure to radiation, as well as estimated relative risks of congenital malformations and stillbirths in the offspring after parental X-ray exposure. The data suggest that different types of tumors are induced in offspring, because of strain differences in the experimental animals. The results of epidemiological studies in human populations, such as the children of atomic bomb survivors, conflict with the findings in animal studies. The author points to the following reasons for the differences between the results in animals and humans: differences in radiation doses, timing of exposure, and genetic predisposition, etc. While pointing out issues that need to be investigated further, the author indicates that clear strain differences exist in types of tumors induced and in tumor incidences in the offspring of animals that were irradiated before the offspring were conceived, and that genetic predisposition is therefore important in transgenerational carcinogenesis. (K.H.)

  18. The importance of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Woestmann, Luisa; Saastamoinen, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    The importance of trans-generational effects in shaping an individuals' phenotype and fitness, and consequently even impacting population dynamics is increasingly apparent. Most of the research on trans-generational effects still focuses on plants, mammals, and birds. In the past few years, however, increasing number of studies, especially on maternal effects, have highlighted their importance also in many insect systems. Lepidoptera, specifically butterflies, have been used as model systems ...

  19. Local adaptation in transgenerational responses to predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Matthew R.; Castoe, Todd; Holmes, Julian; Packer, Michelle; Biles, Kelsey; Walsh, Melissa; Munch, Stephan B.; Post, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental signals can induce phenotypic changes that span multiple generations. Along with phenotypic responses that occur during development (i.e. ‘within-generation’ plasticity), such ‘transgenerational plasticity’ (TGP) has been documented in a diverse array of taxa spanning many environmental perturbations. New theory predicts that temporal stability is a key driver of the evolution of TGP. We tested this prediction using natural populations of zooplankton from lakes in Connecticut that span a large gradient in the temporal dynamics of predator-induced mortality. We reared more than 120 clones of Daphnia ambigua from nine lakes for multiple generations in the presence/absence of predator cues. We found that temporal variation in mortality selects for within-generation plasticity while consistently strong (or weak) mortality selects for increased TGP. Such results provide us the first evidence for local adaptation in TGP and argue that divergent ecological conditions select for phenotypic responses within and across generations. PMID:26817775

  20. Transgenerational Social Stress, Immune Factors, Hormones, and Social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Anthony Murgatroyd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A social signal transduction theory of depression has been proposed that states that exposure to social adversity alters the immune response and these changes mediate symptoms of depression such as anhedonia and impairments in social behavior. The exposure of maternal rats to the chronic social stress (CSS of a male intruder depresses maternal care and impairs social behavior in the F1 and F2 offspring of these dams. The objective of the present study was to characterize basal peripheral levels of several immune factors and related hormone levels in the adult F2 offspring of CSS exposed dams and assess whether changes in these factors are associated with previously reported deficits in allogrooming behavior. CSS decreased acid glycoprotein (α1AGP and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in F2 females, and increased granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF in F2 males. There were also sex dependent changes in IL-18, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Progesterone was decreased and alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH was increased in F2 males, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF was decreased in F2 females. Changes in α1AGP, GM-CSF, progesterone and α-MSH were correlated with decreased allogrooming in the F2 offspring of stressed dams. These results support the hypothesis that transgenerational social stress affects both the immune system and social behavior, and also support previous studies on the adverse effects of early life stress on immune functioning and stress associated immunological disorders, including the increasing prevalence of asthma. The immune system may represent an important transgenerational etiological factor in disorders which involve social and/or early life stress associated changes in social behavior, such as depression, anxiety, and autism, as well as comorbid immune disorders. Future studies involving immune and

  1. Transgenerational epigenetic effects on innate immunity in broilers: An underestimated field to be explored?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghof, T.V.L.; Parmentier, H.K.; Lammers, A.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenerational epigenetics is becoming more and more important for understanding the variation of physiological responses of individuals to the environment and the inheritance of these responses based on all mechanisms other than the actual DNA nucleotide sequence. Transgenerational epigenetics

  2. The importance of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestmann, Luisa; Saastamoinen, Marjo

    2016-10-01

    The importance of trans-generational effects in shaping an individuals' phenotype and fitness, and consequently even impacting population dynamics is increasingly apparent. Most of the research on trans-generational effects still focuses on plants, mammals, and birds. In the past few years, however, increasing number of studies, especially on maternal effects, have highlighted their importance also in many insect systems. Lepidoptera, specifically butterflies, have been used as model systems for studying the role of phenotypic plasticity within generations. As ectotherms, they are highly sensitive to environmental variation, and indeed many butterflies show adaptive phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental conditions. Here, we synthesize what is known about trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera, compile evidence for different environmental cues that are important drivers of trans-generational effects, and point out which offspring traits are mainly impacted. Finally, we emphasize directions for future research that are needed for better understanding of the adaptive nature of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera in particular, but potentially also in other organisms.

  3. Transgenerational epigenetic effects on animal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Per

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade a shift in paradigm has occurred with respect to the interaction between environment and genes. It is now clear that animal genomes are regulated to a large extent as a result of input from environmental events and experiences, which cause short- and long-term modifications in epigenetic markings of DNA and histones. In this review, the evidence that such epigenetic modifications can affect the behaviour of animals is explored, and whether such acquired behaviour alterations can transfer across generation borders. First, the mechanisms by which experiences cause epigenetic modifications are examined. This includes, for example, methylation of cytosine in CpG positions and acetylation of histones, and studies showing that this can be modified by early experiences. Secondly, the evidence that specific modifications in the epigenome can be the cause of behaviour variation is reviewed. Thirdly, the extent to which this phenotypically active epigenetic variants can be inherited either through the germline or through reoccurring environmental conditions is examined. A particularly interesting observation is that epigenetic modifications are often linked to stress, and may possibly be mediated by steroid effects. Finally, the idea that transgenerationally stable epigenetic variants may serve as substrates for natural selection is explored, and it is speculated that they may even predispose for directed, non-random mutations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Trans-generational immune priming in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández López, Javier; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Crailsheim, Karl; Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike

    2014-06-22

    Maternal immune experience acquired during pathogen exposure and passed on to progeny to enhance resistance to infection is called trans-generational immune priming (TgIP). In eusocial insects like honeybees, TgIP would result in a significant improvement of health at individual and colony level. Demonstrated in invertebrates other than honeybees, TgIP has not yet been fully elucidated in terms of intensity and molecular mechanisms underlying this response. Here, we immune-stimulated honeybee queens with Paenibacillus larvae (Pl), a spore-forming bacterium causing American Foulbrood, the most deadly bee brood disease worldwide. Subsequently, offspring of stimulated queens were exposed to spores of Pl and mortality rates were measured to evaluate maternal transfer of immunity. Our data substantiate the existence of TgIP effects in honeybees by direct evaluation of offspring resistance to bacterial infection. A further aspect of this study was to investigate a potential correlation between immune priming responses and prohaemocytes-haemocyte differentiation processes in larvae. The results point out that a priming effect triggers differentiation of prohaemocytes to haemocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying TgIP responses are still elusive and require future investigation.

  5. Analysis of the transgenerational iron deficiency stress memory in Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRENE eMURGIA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the existence of the transgenerational memory of iron (Fe deficiency stress, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were grown under Fe deficiency/sufficiency, and so were their offspring. The frequency of Somatic Homologous Recombination (SHR events, of DNA strand breaks as well as the expression of the transcription elongation factor TFIIS-like gene increase when plants are grown under Fe deficiency. However, SHR frequency, DNA strand break events and TFIIS-like gene expression do not increase further when plants are grown for more than one generation under the same stress, and furthermore, they decrease back to control values within two succeeding generations grown under control conditions, regardless of the Fe deficiency stress history of the mother plants.Seedlings produced from plants grown under Fe deficiency evolve more oxygen than control seedlings, when grown under Fe sufficiency: however, this trait is not associated with any change in the protein profile of the photosynthetic apparatus and is not transmitted to more than one generation. Lastly, plants grown for multiple generations under Fe deficiency produce seeds with greater longevity: however this trait is not inherited in offspring generations unexposed to stress. These findings suggest the existence of multiple-step control of mechanisms to prevent a genuine and stable transgenerational transmission of Fe deficiency stress memory, with the tightest control on DNA integrity.

  6. Molecular processes of transgenerational acclimation to a warming ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Veilleux, Heather D.

    2015-07-20

    Some animals have the remarkable capacity to acclimate across generations to projected future climate change1, 2, 3, 4; however, the underlying molecular processes are unknown. We sequenced and assembled de novo transcriptomes of adult tropical reef fish exposed developmentally or transgenerationally to projected future ocean temperatures and correlated the resulting expression profiles with acclimated metabolic traits from the same fish. We identified 69 contigs representing 53 key genes involved in thermal acclimation of aerobic capacity. Metabolic genes were among the most upregulated transgenerationally, suggesting shifts in energy production for maintaining performance at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, immune- and stress-responsive genes were upregulated transgenerationally, indicating a new complement of genes allowing the second generation of fish to better cope with elevated temperatures. Other differentially expressed genes were involved with tissue development and transcriptional regulation. Overall, we found a similar suite of differentially expressed genes among developmental and transgenerational treatments. Heat-shock protein genes were surprisingly unresponsive, indicating that short-term heat-stress responses may not be a good indicator of long-term acclimation capacity. Our results are the first to reveal the molecular processes that may enable marine fishes to adjust to a future warmer environment over multiple generations.

  7. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ; SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and

  8. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ;SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and can

  9. The secret language of destiny: stress imprinting and transgenerational origins of disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchi, Fabiola C. R.; Yao, Youli; Metz, Gerlinde A.

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation modulates gene expression without altering the DNA sequence to facilitate rapid adjustments to dynamically changing environmental conditions. The formation of an epigenetic memory allows passing on this information to subsequent generations. Here we propose that epigenetic memories formed by adverse environmental conditions and stress represent a critical determinant of health and disease in the F3 generation and beyond. Transgenerational programming of epigenetic regulation may represent a key to understand adult-onset complex disease pathogenesis and cumulative effects of life span and familial disease etiology. Ultimately, the mechanisms of generating an epigenetic memory may become of potentially promising diagnostic and therapeutic relevance due to their reversible nature. Exploring the role of environmental factors, such as stress, in causing variations in epigenetic profiles may lead to new avenues of personalized, preventive medicine based on epigenetic signatures and interventions. PMID:22675331

  10. Transgenerational genomic instability in children of irradiated parents as a result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghajanyan, Anna, E-mail: ann-aghajanyan@yandex.ru [Cytogenetics Laboratory, FSI Russian Scientific Center of Roentgenology and Radiology, Profsoyuznaya 86, GSP-7, Moscow, 117997 (Russian Federation); Suskov, Igor [Laboratory of Ecological Genetics, N.I. Vavilov Institute of General Genetics Russian Academy of Sciences, Gybkin st. 3, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-01

    The study of families irradiated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant revealed significantly increased aberrant genomes frequencies (AGFs) not only in irradiated parents (n = 106, p < 0.01), but also in their children born after the accident (n = 159, p < 0.05). This is an indicative of the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability. To elucidate this phenomenon, experiments were undertaken to model genomic instability by using single and fractional in vitro {gamma}-irradiation ({sup 137}Cs) of peripheral blood samples from the children and their parents at doses of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 Gy. The spectrum and frequency of chromosome aberrations were studied in the 1st and 2nd cell generations. The average AGF was significantly increased at all doses (except 0.1 Gy) in children of irradiated parents, as compared to children born from non-irradiated parents. Amplification of cells with single-break chromosome aberrations in mitosis 2, as compared to mitosis 1, suggests the replication mechanism of realization of potential damage in DNA and the occurrence of genomic instability in succeeding cell generations.

  11. Transgenerational Adaptation to Heavy Metal Salts in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Rahavi, Mohammad Reza; Migicovsky, Zoë; Titov, Viktor; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to abiotic and biotic stress results in changes in plant physiology and triggers genomic instability. Recent reports suggest that the progeny of stressed plants also exhibit changes in genome stability, stress tolerance, and methylation. Here we analyzed whether exposure to Ni2+, Cd2+, and Cu2+ salts leads to transgenerational changes in homologous recombination frequency and stress tolerance. We found that the immediate progeny of stressed plants exhibited an increased rate of recom...

  12. Transgenerational effects and the cost of ant tending in aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegelaar, Karolina; Glinwood, Robert; Pettersson, Jan; Leimar, Olof

    2013-11-01

    In mutualistic interactions, partners obtain a net benefit, but there may also be costs associated with the provision of benefits for a partner. The question of whether aphids suffer such costs when attended by ants has been raised in previous work. Transgenerational effects, where offspring phenotypes are adjusted based on maternal influences, could be important in the mutualistic interaction between aphids and ants, in particular because aphids have telescoping generations where two offspring generations can be present in a mature aphid. We investigated the immediate and transgenerational influence of ant tending on aphid life history and reproduction by observing the interaction between the facultative myrmecophile Aphis fabae and the ant Lasius niger over 13 aphid generations in the laboratory. We found that the effect of ant tending changes dynamically over successive aphid generations after the start of tending. Initially, total aphid colony weight, aphid adult weight and aphid embryo size decreased compared with untended aphids, consistent with a cost of ant association, but these differences disappeared within four generations of interaction. We conclude that transgenerational effects are important in the aphid-ant interactions and that the costs for aphids of being tended by ants can vary over generations.

  13. Individual and person: The possible collapse of transgenerational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Pontalti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the transgenerational dimension requires to deal with "multipersonal fields" during the psychotherapeutic situation, in order make speakable the stories and collective memory. This device is especially important in therapy with children, adolescents and young adults suffering from serious psychopathological problems because the narrative capacity is reduced further and it becomes necessary to hear other witnesses and narrators of the family scene.In human culture, the transgenerational has always had that enormous therapeutic power of storytelling that creates connections to the passing of eras, such as myths and fairy tales.As we are taught by anthropological sciences in the last 150 years occurred substantial cultural changes: the life stories are no longer fixed in a territorial unit within conservative culture with stable and ancestral myths organizers of social, but we are all moving between migration and displacement, and this determines a distance from the community places where the transgenerational has been staged and formed our primitive root of identity. The story of this migration has to do with the construction of the mind.These issues are developed through the description of a clinical case where the adoption of a multipersonal therapeutic field can resume ancestral traces of these cultural objects hidden and become tellable.

  14. Transgenerational effects of ocean warming on the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chong; Zhang, Lisheng; Shi, Dongtao; Ding, Jingyun; Yin, Donghong; Sun, Jiangnan; Zhang, Baojing; Zhang, Lingling; Chang, Yaqing

    2018-04-30

    Transgenerational effects, which involve both selection and plasticity, are important for the evolutionary adaptation of echinoderms in the changing ocean. Here, we investigated the effects of breeding design and water temperature for offspring on fertilization, hatchability, larval survival, size, abnormality and metamorphosis of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius, whose dams and sires were exposed to long-term (~15 months) elevated temperature (~3°C above ambient) or ambient temperature. There was no transgenerational effect on fertilization and metamorphosis of S. intermedius, while negative transgenerational effects were found in hatchability and most traits of larval size. Dam and sire effects were highly trait and developmental stage dependent. Interestingly, we found S. intermedius probably cannot achieve transgenerational acclimation to long-term elevated temperature for survival provided their offspring were exposed to an elevated temperature. The present study enriches our understanding of transgenerational effects of ocean warming on sea urchins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Epigenetics of drought-induced trans-generational plasticity: consequences for range limit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdurf, Jacob; Anderson, Cynthia; Siemens, David H

    2015-12-18

    Genetic variation gives plants the potential to adapt to stressful environments that often exist beyond their geographic range limits. However, various genetic, physiological or developmental constraints might prevent the process of adaptation. Alternatively, environmentally induced epigenetic changes might sustain populations for several generations in stressful areas across range boundaries, but previous work on Boechera stricta, an upland mustard closely related to Arabidopsis, documented a drought-induced trans-generational plastic trade-off that could contribute to range limit development. Offspring of parents who were drought treated had higher drought tolerance, but lower levels of glucosinolate toxins. Both drought tolerance and defence are thought to be needed to expand the range to lower elevations. Here, we used methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphisms to determine whether environmentally induced DNA methylation and thus epigenetics could be a mechanism involved in the observed trans-generational plastic trade-off. We compared 110 offspring from the same self-fertilizing lineages whose parents were exposed to experimental drought stress treatments in the laboratory. Using three primer combinations, 643 polymorphic epi-loci were detected. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) on the amount of methylation detected resulted in significant combinations of epi-loci that distinguished the parent drought treatments in the offspring. Principal component (PC) and univariate association analyses also detected the significant differences, even after controlling for lineage, planting flat, developmental differences and multiple testing. Univariate tests also indicated significant associations between the amount of methylation and drought tolerance or glucosinolate toxin concentration. One epi-locus that was implicated in DFA, PC and univariate association analysis may be directly involved in the trade-off because increased methylation at this

  16. Rescuing Our Warriors from Chronic Pain: A Battlefield-to-Nondeployment Means to Prevent Opioid-induced Amplification of Neuropathic Pain from Traumatic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    agility, suggesting that the decrease in voluntary exercise is due to loss of motivation or pain amplification rather than physical disability . We... disability 15 Sep 2016 - 14 Sep 2017 15. SUBJECT TERMS chronic pain, opioid analgesics, non-opioid analgesics, toll-like receptor 4, return to duty 16...of the project? 1. Define whether deleterious effects of opioids extend beyond neuropathic pain to other indices of disability . Determine

  17. Can trans-generational experiments be used to enhance species resilience to ocean warming and acidification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Leela J; Jarrold, Michael D; Gibbin, Emma M; Christen, Felix; Massamba-N'Siala, Gloria; Blier, Pierre U; Calosi, Piero

    2016-10-01

    Human-assisted, trans-generational exposure to ocean warming and acidification has been proposed as a conservation and/or restoration tool to produce resilient offspring. To improve our understanding of the need for and the efficacy of this approach, we characterized life-history and physiological responses in offspring of the marine polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica exposed to predicted ocean warming (OW: + 3°C), ocean acidification (OA: pH -0.5) and their combination (OWA: + 3°C, pH -0.5), following the exposure of their parents to either control conditions ( within-generational exposure ) or the same conditions ( trans-generational exposure ). Trans-generational exposure to OW fully alleviated the negative effects of within-generational exposure to OW on fecundity and egg volume and was accompanied by increased metabolic activity. While within-generational exposure to OA reduced juvenile growth rates and egg volume, trans-generational exposure alleviated the former but could not restore the latter. Surprisingly, exposure to OWA had no negative impacts within- or trans-generationally. Our results highlight the potential for trans-generational laboratory experiments in producing offspring that are resilient to OW and OA. However, trans-generational exposure does not always appear to improve traits and therefore may not be a universally useful tool for all species in the face of global change.

  18. Grandpaternal-induced transgenerational dietary reprogramming of the unfolded protein response in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter S. Alm

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Grandpaternal HFD-induced obesity transgenerationally affected the skeletal muscle transcriptome. This finding further highlights the impact of parental exposure to environmental factors on offspring's development and health.

  19. Transgenerational latent early-life associated regulation unites environment and genetics across generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Debomoy K; Maloney, Bryan; Bayon, Baindu L; Chopra, Nipun; White, Fletcher A; Greig, Nigel H; Nurnberger, John I

    2016-03-01

    The origin of idiopathic diseases is still poorly understood. The latent early-life associated regulation (LEARn) model unites environmental exposures and gene expression while providing a mechanistic underpinning for later-occurring disorders. We propose that this process can occur across generations via transgenerational LEARn (tLEARn). In tLEARn, each person is a 'unit' accumulating preclinical or subclinical 'hits' as in the original LEARn model. These changes can then be epigenomically passed along to offspring. Transgenerational accumulation of 'hits' determines a sporadic disease state. Few significant transgenerational hits would accompany conception or gestation of most people, but these may suffice to 'prime' someone to respond to later-life hits. Hits need not produce symptoms or microphenotypes to have a transgenerational effect. Testing tLEARn requires longitudinal approaches. A recently proposed longitudinal epigenome/envirome-wide association study would unite genetic sequence, epigenomic markers, environmental exposures, patient personal history taken at multiple time points and family history.

  20. Trans?generational plasticity in response to immune challenge is constrained by heat stress

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Olivia; Landis, Susanne H.

    2017-01-01

    Trans-generational plasticity is the adjustment of phenotypes to changing habitat conditions that persist longer than the individual lifetime. Fitness benefits (adaptive TGP) are expected upon matching parent-offspring environments. In a global change scenario, several performance-related environmental factors are changing simultaneously. This lowers the predictability of offspring environmental conditions, potentially hampering the benefits of trans-generational plasticity. For the first tim...

  1. Transgenerational epigenetic effects on innate immunity in broilers: an underestimated field to be explored?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghof, T V L; Parmentier, H K; Lammers, A

    2013-11-01

    Transgenerational epigenetics is becoming more and more important for understanding the variation of physiological responses of individuals to the environment and the inheritance of these responses based on all mechanisms other than the actual DNA nucleotide sequence. Transgenerational epigenetics is the phenomenon that the information of the environment of (usually) a female animal is translated into memory-like responses preparing the offspring. As a consequence, individuals of the next generation may show different phenotypic traits depending whether their mothers were kept under different environmental conditions. This may result in either positive or negative effects on the next-generation individuals, which is different from individuals from mothers that have been kept in a different environment. Transgenerational epigenetic effects have been proposed and indicated for specific immune (T cell and antibody) responses (especially in mammals, but also in birds) and innate immunity (nonvertebrates), but surprisingly very little is known of transgenerational effects on innate immunity in chickens. Given the short lifespan of the chicken and therefore the likely dependence of chicken on innate immune mechanisms, more attention should be given to this arm of immunity and mechanisms of inheritance including transgenerational effects that can be initiated in the breeder generation. In addition, it is becoming evident that innate immunity also underlies metabolic disorders in broilers. In the current paper, we will argue that although very little is known of transgenerational effects of innate immunity in poultry, more attention should be given to this type of study. We will illustrate examples of transgenerational epigenetics, and finally propose strategies that should reveal the presence of transgenerational epigenetic effects on innate immunity in chickens and strategies to modulate breeder birds such that these effects positively affect innate immunity of broilers

  2. Non-genomic transgenerational inheritance of disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, Peter D; Hanson, Mark A; Beedle, Alan S

    2007-02-01

    That there is a heritable or familial component of susceptibility to chronic non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease is well established, but there is increasing evidence that some elements of such heritability are transmitted non-genomically and that the processes whereby environmental influences act during early development to shape disease risk in later life can have effects beyond a single generation. Such heritability may operate through epigenetic mechanisms involving regulation of either imprinted or non-imprinted genes but also through broader mechanisms related to parental physiology or behaviour. We review evidence and potential mechanisms for non-genomic transgenerational inheritance of 'lifestyle' disease and propose that the 'developmental origins of disease' phenomenon is a maladaptive consequence of an ancestral mechanism of developmental plasticity that may have had adaptive value in the evolution of generalist species such as Homo sapiens. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance: adaptation through the germline epigenome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopuk, Lexie; Western, Patrick S; Stringer, Jessica M

    2015-08-01

    Epigenetic modifications direct the way DNA is packaged into the nucleus, making genes more or less accessible to transcriptional machinery and influencing genomic stability. Environmental factors have the potential to alter the epigenome, allowing genes that are silenced to be activated and vice versa. This ultimately influences disease susceptibility and health in an individual. Furthermore, altered chromatin states can be transmitted to subsequent generations, thus epigenetic modifications may provide evolutionary mechanisms that impact on adaptation to changed environments. However, the mechanisms involved in establishing and maintaining these epigenetic modifications during development remain unclear. This review discusses current evidence for transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, confounding issues associated with its study, and the biological relevance of altered epigenetic states for subsequent generations.

  4. Transgenerational stress memory is not a general response in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pecinka

    Full Text Available Adverse conditions can trigger DNA damage as well as DNA repair responses in plants. A variety of stress factors are known to stimulate homologous recombination, the most accurate repair pathway, by increasing the concentration of necessary enzymatic components and the frequency of events. This effect has been reported to last into subsequent generations not exposed to the stress. To establish a basis for a genetic analysis of this transgenerational stress memory, a broad range of treatments was tested for quantitative effects on homologous recombination in the progeny. Several Arabidopsis lines, transgenic for well-established recombination traps, were exposed to 10 different physical and chemical stress treatments, and scored for the number of somatic homologous recombination (SHR events in the treated generation as well as in the two subsequent generations that were not treated. These numbers were related to the expression level of genes involved in homologous recombination and repair. SHR was enhanced after the majority of treatments, confirming previous data and adding new effective stress types, especially interference with chromatin. Compounds that directly modify DNA stimulated SHR to values exceeding previously described induction rates, concomitant with an induction of genes involved in SHR. In spite of the significant stimulation in the stressed generations, the two subsequent non-treated generations only showed a low and stochastic increase in SHR that did not correlate with the degree of stimulation in the parental plants. Transcripts coding for SHR enzymes generally returned to pre-treatment levels in the progeny. Thus, transgenerational effects on SHR frequency are not a general response to abiotic stress in Arabidopsis and may require special conditions.

  5. Atrazine induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease, lean phenotype and sperm epimutation pathology biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaux McBirney

    Full Text Available Ancestral environmental exposures to a variety of environmental toxicants and other factors have been shown to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The current study examined the potential transgenerational actions of the herbicide atrazine. Atrazine is one of the most commonly used herbicides in the agricultural industry, in particular with corn and soy crops. Outbred gestating female rats were transiently exposed to a vehicle control or atrazine. The F1 generation offspring were bred to generate the F2 generation and then the F2 generation bred to generate the F3 generation. The F1, F2 and F3 generation control and atrazine lineage rats were aged and various pathologies investigated. The male sperm were collected to investigate DNA methylation differences between the control and atrazine lineage sperm. The F1 generation offspring (directly exposed as a fetus did not develop disease, but weighed less compared to controls. The F2 generation (grand-offspring was found to have increased frequency of testis disease and mammary tumors in males and females, early onset puberty in males, and decreased body weight in females compared to controls. The transgenerational F3 generation rats were found to have increased frequency of testis disease, early onset puberty in females, behavioral alterations (motor hyperactivity and a lean phenotype in males and females. The frequency of multiple diseases was significantly higher in the transgenerational F3 generation atrazine lineage males and females. The transgenerational transmission of disease requires germline (egg or sperm epigenetic alterations. The sperm differential DNA methylation regions (DMRs, termed epimutations, induced by atrazine were identified in the F1, F2 and F3 generations. Gene associations with the DMRs were identified. For the transgenerational F3 generation sperm, unique sets of DMRs (epimutations were found to be associated with the lean phenotype

  6. Transgenerational actions of environmental compounds on reproductive disease and identification of epigenetic biomarkers of ancestral exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Tracey, Rebecca; Haque, Md M; Skinner, Michael K

    2012-01-01

    Environmental factors during fetal development can induce a permanent epigenetic change in the germ line (sperm) that then transmits epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in the absence of any subsequent exposure. The epigenetic transgenerational actions of various environmental compounds and relevant mixtures were investigated with the use of a pesticide mixture (permethrin and insect repellant DEET), a plastic mixture (bisphenol A and phthalates), dioxin (TCDD) and a hydrocarbon mixture (jet fuel, JP8). After transient exposure of F0 gestating female rats during the period of embryonic gonadal sex determination, the subsequent F1-F3 generations were obtained in the absence of any environmental exposure. The effects on the F1, F2 and F3 generations pubertal onset and gonadal function were assessed. The plastics, dioxin and jet fuel were found to promote early-onset female puberty transgenerationally (F3 generation). Spermatogenic cell apoptosis was affected transgenerationally. Ovarian primordial follicle pool size was significantly decreased with all treatments transgenerationally. Differential DNA methylation of the F3 generation sperm promoter epigenome was examined. Differential DNA methylation regions (DMR) were identified in the sperm of all exposure lineage males and found to be consistent within a specific exposure lineage, but different between the exposures. Several genomic features of the DMR, such as low density CpG content, were identified. Exposure-specific epigenetic biomarkers were identified that may allow for the assessment of ancestral environmental exposures associated with adult onset disease.

  7. Transgenerational actions of environmental compounds on reproductive disease and identification of epigenetic biomarkers of ancestral exposures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Manikkam

    Full Text Available Environmental factors during fetal development can induce a permanent epigenetic change in the germ line (sperm that then transmits epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in the absence of any subsequent exposure. The epigenetic transgenerational actions of various environmental compounds and relevant mixtures were investigated with the use of a pesticide mixture (permethrin and insect repellant DEET, a plastic mixture (bisphenol A and phthalates, dioxin (TCDD and a hydrocarbon mixture (jet fuel, JP8. After transient exposure of F0 gestating female rats during the period of embryonic gonadal sex determination, the subsequent F1-F3 generations were obtained in the absence of any environmental exposure. The effects on the F1, F2 and F3 generations pubertal onset and gonadal function were assessed. The plastics, dioxin and jet fuel were found to promote early-onset female puberty transgenerationally (F3 generation. Spermatogenic cell apoptosis was affected transgenerationally. Ovarian primordial follicle pool size was significantly decreased with all treatments transgenerationally. Differential DNA methylation of the F3 generation sperm promoter epigenome was examined. Differential DNA methylation regions (DMR were identified in the sperm of all exposure lineage males and found to be consistent within a specific exposure lineage, but different between the exposures. Several genomic features of the DMR, such as low density CpG content, were identified. Exposure-specific epigenetic biomarkers were identified that may allow for the assessment of ancestral environmental exposures associated with adult onset disease.

  8. Environmentally induced transgenerational epigenetic reprogramming of primordial germ cells and the subsequent germ line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K Skinner

    Full Text Available A number of environmental factors (e.g. toxicants have been shown to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation. Transgenerational inheritance requires the germline transmission of altered epigenetic information between generations in the absence of direct environmental exposures. The primary periods for epigenetic programming of the germ line are those associated with primordial germ cell development and subsequent fetal germline development. The current study examined the actions of an agricultural fungicide vinclozolin on gestating female (F0 generation progeny in regards to the primordial germ cell (PGC epigenetic reprogramming of the F3 generation (i.e. great-grandchildren. The F3 generation germline transcriptome and epigenome (DNA methylation were altered transgenerationally. Interestingly, disruptions in DNA methylation patterns and altered transcriptomes were distinct between germ cells at the onset of gonadal sex determination at embryonic day 13 (E13 and after cord formation in the testis at embryonic day 16 (E16. A larger number of DNA methylation abnormalities (epimutations and transcriptional alterations were observed in the E13 germ cells than in the E16 germ cells. These observations indicate that altered transgenerational epigenetic reprogramming and function of the male germline is a component of vinclozolin induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease. Insights into the molecular control of germline transmitted epigenetic inheritance are provided.

  9. Gene amplification in carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimari Bizari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene amplification increases the number of genes in a genome and can give rise to karyotype abnormalities called double minutes (DM and homogeneously staining regions (HSR, both of which have been widely observed in human tumors but are also known to play a major role during embryonic development due to the fact that they are responsible for the programmed increase of gene expression. The etiology of gene amplification during carcinogenesis is not yet completely understood but can be considered a result of genetic instability. Gene amplification leads to an increase in protein expression and provides a selective advantage during cell growth. Oncogenes such as CCND1, c-MET, c-MYC, ERBB2, EGFR and MDM2 are amplified in human tumors and can be associated with increased expression of their respective proteins or not. In general, gene amplification is associated with more aggressive tumors, metastases, resistance to chemotherapy and a decrease in the period during which the patient stays free of the disease. This review discusses the major role of gene amplification in the progression of carcinomas, formation of genetic markers and as possible therapeutic targets for the development of drugs for the treatment of some types of tumors.

  10. Social amplification of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperson, R.E.; Renn, O.; Slovic, P.; Kasperson, J.X.; Emani, S.

    1989-01-01

    The risks associated with radioactive and other hazardous waste disposal may be expected to interact with societal processes to enlarge or attenuate the consequences of risks and risk events. This article summarizes a conceptual framework that depicts the social amplification of risk. Using a data base of 128 hazard events that have occurred largely over the past ten years, the authors examine the role of physical consequences, media coverage, and public perceptions of risk in generating social and economic impacts. The analysis concludes that social amplification processes substantially shape the nature and magnitude of those impacts but also that such social amplification appears to be systematically related to characteristics of the risks and risk events

  11. Transgenerational adaptation to heavy metal salts in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eReza Rahavi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to abiotic and biotic stress results in changes in plant physiology and triggers genomic instability. Recent reports suggest that the progeny of stressed plants also exhibit changes in genome stability, stress tolerance and methylation.Here we analyzed whether exposure to Ni2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ salts leads to transgenerational changes in the homologous recombination frequency and in the stress tolerance. We found that immediate progeny of stressed plants indeed exhibit increased recombination frequency. When the progeny of stressed plants was propagated without stress, the recombination frequency changed back to normal. Exposure of plants to heavy metals for five consecutive generations (S1-S5 showed that recombination frequency was maintained at high level. Skipping stress after propagation on 50 mM Ni2+ or Cd2+ for 2-3 generations did not decrease the recombination frequency, suggesting certain acclimation to upregulated recombination. Analysis of the progeny of plants exposed to Cu2+ and Ni2+ showed that the plants had higher stress tolerance to the same heavy metal salts. The tolerance was higher in plants propagated on stress for 3-5 generations, which had longer roots than plants propagated on heavy metals only for 1-2 generations. Also the tolerance was more prominent upon exposure to higher concentration of salts. The progeny of stressed plants was also more tolerant to NaCl and MMS.

  12. [E. M. Jellinek's silenced and silencing transgenerational story].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Gábor; Márk, Mónika

    2013-01-01

    Jellinek is a kind of archetypal character for future generations in the field of addiction studies. His implosion in the arena of alcoholism around the age of 50 was an unexpected challenge to medical science. We know very little about his own role models giving an intellectual and moral compass to his pragmatic creativity. More than 30 years has passed since Jellinek's death when an American sociologist Ron Roizen started unearthing his silent story. Roizen discerned that there are a lot of unsaid and muted issues in his personal Hungarian past. Our paper, based on the authors' research in Hungarian archives and other sources reveals that not just Jellinek's personal but his transgenerational narrative has been not-yet-said. This silenced and silencing history appears an unfinished business of acculturation of the family, which started prior to four generations. Authors have been concluding that the issue of religious conversion is a critical point in the process of acculturation. They examine the counter move of loyalty to family values and driving force of assimilation making their story unspeakable.

  13. Extended evolutionary psychology: the importance of transgenerational developmental plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Karola

    2014-01-01

    What kind mechanisms one deems central for the evolutionary process deeply influences one's understanding of the nature of organisms, including cognition. Reversely, adopting a certain approach to the nature of life and cognition and the relationship between them or between the organism and its environment should affect one's view of evolutionary theory. This paper explores this reciprocal relationship in more detail. In particular it argues that the view of living and cognitive systems, especially humans, as deeply integrated beings embedded in and transformed by their genetic, epigenetic (molecular and cellular), behavioral, ecological, socio-cultural and cognitive-symbolic legacies calls for an extended evolutionary synthesis that goes beyond either a theory of genes juxtaposed against a theory of cultural evolution and or even more sophisticated theories of gene-culture coevolution and niche construction. Environments, particularly in the form of developmental environments, do not just select for variation, they also create new variation by influencing development through the reliable transmission of non-genetic but heritable information. This paper stresses particularly views of embodied, embedded, enacted and extended cognition, and their relationship to those aspects of extended inheritance that lie between genetic and cultural inheritance, the still gray area of epigenetic and behavioral inheritance systems that play a role in parental effect. These are the processes that can be regarded as transgenerational developmental plasticity and that I think can most fruitfully contribute to, and be investigated by, developmental psychology.

  14. Transgenerational transmission of an anticholinergic endophenotype with memory dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehner, Wolfram; Praße, Lieselotte; Wolpers, James; Brückner, Martina K; Ueberham, Uwe; Arendt, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Impaired cholinergic neurotransmission associated with cognitive dysfunction occurs in various mental disorders of different etiologies including Alzheimer's disease and postalcoholic dementia and others. To address the question whether there exists a common endophenotype with a defined genetic and/or epigenetic signature causing mental dysfunction in these disorders, we investigated 2 generations of offspring born to alcohol-treated mothers. Here, we show that memory impairment and reduced synthesis of acetylcholine occurs in both F1 (exposed to ethanol in utero) and F2 generation (never been exposed to ethanol). Effects in the F2 generation are most likely consequences of transgenerationally transmitted epigenetic modifications in stem cells induced by alcohol. This clearly documents the role of ancestral history of drug abuse on the brain development of subsequent generations. The results further suggest an epigenetic trait for an anticholinergic endophenotype associated with cognitive dysfunction which might be relevant to our understanding of mental impairment in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transgenerational effects of proton beam irradiation on Caenorhabditis elegans germline apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hyemin; Sung, Minhee; Son, Miseol; Kawasaki, Ichiro; Shim, Yhong-Hee

    2017-08-26

    When treating cancer using radiation therapy, it is critical to increase patient survival rates and to reduce side effects. In this respect, proton beam radiation treatment performs better than other radiation treatments because of its high target specificity. However, complications still remain after proton beam radiation treatment. Among them, the risk to progeny after irradiation of their parents is a major concern. In this study, we analyzed the transgenerational effects of proton beam irradiation using the model organism Caenorhabditis. elegans. We found that germline apoptosis increased after proton beam irradiation and its effects were sustained transgenerationally. Moreover, we identified that a germline-specific histone methyltransferase component, SET-2, has a critical role in transmitting the transgenerational effect on germline apoptosis to the next generation after proton beam irradiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of Non-Coding RNAs in the Transgenerational Epigenetic Transmission of the Effects of Reprotoxicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Larriba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs are regulatory elements of gene expression and chromatin structure. Both long and small ncRNAs can also act as inductors and targets of epigenetic programs. Epigenetic patterns can be transmitted from one cell to the daughter cell, but, importantly, also through generations. Diversity of ncRNAs is emerging with new and surprising roles. Functional interactions among ncRNAs and between specific ncRNAs and structural elements of the chromatin are drawing a complex landscape. In this scenario, epigenetic changes induced by environmental stressors, including reprotoxicants, can explain some transgenerationally-transmitted phenotypes in non-Mendelian ways. In this review, we analyze mechanisms of action of reprotoxicants upon different types of ncRNAs and epigenetic modifications causing transgenerationally transmitted characters through germ cells but affecting germ cells and reproductive systems. A functional model of epigenetic mechanisms of transgenerational transmission ncRNAs-mediated is also proposed.

  17. Ancestral TCDD exposure promotes epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of imprinted gene Igf2: Methylation status and DNMTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jing; Chen, Xi; Liu, Yanan; Xie, Qunhui; Sun, Yawen; Chen, Jingshan; Leng, Ling; Yan, Huan; Zhao, Bin; Tang, Naijun

    2015-01-01

    Ancestral TCDD exposure could induce epigenetic transgenerational phenotypes, which may be mediated in part by imprinted gene inheritance. The aim of our study was to evaluate the transgenerational effects of ancestral TCDD exposure on the imprinted gene insulin-like growth factor-2 (Igf2) in rat somatic tissue. TCDD was administered daily by oral gavage to groups of F0 pregnant SD rats at dose levels of 0 (control), 200 or 800 ng/kg bw during gestation day 8–14. Animal transgenerational model of ancestral exposure to TCDD was carefully built, avoiding sibling inbreeding. Hepatic Igf2 expression of the TCDD male progeny was decreased concomitantly with hepatic damage and increased activities of serum hepatic enzymes both in the F1 and F3 generation. Imprinted Control Region (ICR) of Igf2 manifested a hypermethylated pattern, whereas methylation status in the Differentially Methylated Region 2 (DMR2) showed a hypomethylated manner in the F1 generation. These epigenetic alterations in these two regions maintained similar trends in the F3 generation. Meanwhile, the expressions of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B) changed in a non-monotonic manner both in the F1 and F3 generation. This study provides evidence that ancestral TCDD exposure may promote epigenetic transgenerational alterations of imprinted gene Igf2 in adult somatic tissue. - Highlights: • Ancestral TCDD exposure induces epigenetic transgenerational inheritance. • Ancestral TCDD exposure affects methylation status in ICR and DMR2 region of Igf2. • DNMTs play a role in TCDD induced epigenetic transgenerational changes of Igf2.

  18. On soliton amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovich, S.; Randall, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper considers a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation that permits wave amplification or damping. A 'terminal similarity' solution is identified for large times in amplified systems. Numerical results are given which confirm that the terminal similarity solution is a valid local approximation for mu t sufficiently large and positive, even though the approximation is not uniformly valid in space.

  19. Transgenerational interactions between pesticide exposure and warming in a vector mosquito

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Tam T.; Janssens, Lizanne; Dinh, Khuong Van

    2018-01-01

    While transgenerational plasticity may buffer ectotherms to warming and pesticides separately, it remains unknown how combined exposure to warming and pesticides in the parental generation shapes the vulnerability to these stressors in the offspring. We studied the transgenerational effects...... the offspring experienced the same stressor as the parents. Within both the parental and offspring generations, warming made the pesticide more toxic in terms of survival. Yet, this synergism disappeared in the offspring of parents exposed to both stressors simultaneously because in this condition the pesticide...... and pesticides across generations, hence to assess the efficacy of vector control in a warming world...

  20. Biomaterials in light amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw; Cyprych, Konrad; Sznitko, Lech; Miniewicz, Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    Biologically produced or inspired materials can serve as optical gain media, i.e. they can exhibit the phenomenon of light amplification. Some of these materials, under suitable dye-doping and optical pumping conditions, show lasing phenomena. The emerging branch of research focused on obtaining lasing action in highly disordered and highly light scattering materials, i.e. research on random lasing, is perfectly suited for biological materials. The use of biomaterials in light amplification has been extensively reported in the literature. In this review we attempt to report on progress in the development of biologically derived systems able to show the phenomena of light amplification and random lasing together with the contribution of our group to this field. The rich world of biopolymers modified with molecular aggregates and nanocrystals, and self-organized at the nanoscale, offers a multitude of possibilities for tailoring luminescent and light scattering properties that are not easily replicated in conventional organic or inorganic materials. Of particular importance and interest are light amplification and lasing, or random lasing studies in biological cells and tissues. In this review we will describe nucleic acids and their complexes employed as gain media due to their favorable optical properties and ease of manipulation. We will report on research conducted on various biomaterials showing structural analogy to nucleic acids such as fluorescent proteins, gelatins in which the first distributed feedback laser was realized, and also amyloids or silks, which, due to their dye-doped fiber-like structure, allow for light amplification. Other materials that were investigated in that respect include polysaccharides, like starch exhibiting favorable photostability in comparison to other biomaterials, and chitosan, which forms photonic crystals or cellulose. Light amplification and random lasing was not only observed in processed biomaterials but also in living

  1. Trans-generational parasite protection associated with paternal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; de Roode, Jacobus C; Hunter, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Multiple generations of hosts are often exposed to the same pathogens, favouring the evolution of trans-generational defences. Because females have more opportunities to transfer protective molecules to offspring, many studies have focused on maternally derived protection. However, males of many species can transfer compounds along with sperm, including chemicals that could provide protection. Here, we assess maternally and paternally derived protection in a monarch butterfly-protozoan parasite system where parasite resistance is heavily influenced by secondary plant chemicals, known as cardenolides, present in the larval diet of milkweed plants. We reared monarch butterflies on medicinal and non-medicinal milkweed species and then measured resistance of their offspring to infection. We also measured cardenolide content in adult monarchs reared on the two species, and in the eggs that they produced. We found that offspring were more resistant to infection when their fathers were reared on medicinal milkweed, while maternal diet had less of an effect. We also found that eggs contained the highest levels of cardenolides when both parents were reared on the medicinal species. Moreover, females reared on non-medicinal milkweed produced eggs with significantly higher levels of cardenolides if they mated with males reared on the medicinal milkweed species. However, we found an equivocal relationship between the cardenolides present in eggs and parasite resistance in the offspring. Our results demonstrate that males reared on medicinal plants can transfer protection to their offspring, but the exact mechanism remains unresolved. This suggests that paternal protection from parasitism might be important, particularly when there are environmental sources of parasite resistance and when males transfer spermatophores during mating. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  2. Dissecting the dynamics of trans-generational immune priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Joachim; Armitage, Sophie A O

    2017-08-01

    The transfer of immunity from mother to offspring is a central way to endow the offspring with increased protection against pathogens. This phenomenon is not only found within the vertebrate domain: in some circumstances, invertebrate mothers can also give their offspring an immune kick-start, which is termed trans-generational immune priming (TGIP). TGIP has been uncovered for a number of invertebrate species, but it is not ubiquitously evident. The reasons for which are not known. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Tate, Andolfatto, Demuth, and Graham () probe the molecular underpinnings of TGIP in concert with the temporal dynamics of the response in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, infected with the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Figure ). They provide previously lacking evidence for the repeatability of TGIP, meaning that when averaged across several experiments, the offspring of mothers infected with heat-killed bacteria had better survival when they themselves were infected with live bacteria than offspring from mothers that had not encountered the bacterium. In a detailed temporal examination of the offspring's acute infection phase (zero to 24 hr after infection), Tate et al. () follow T. castaneum's gene regulation responses to infection while simultaneously documenting bacterial load. Such an approach gives considerable insight into the physiological processes that occur in primed offspring, and a first glance at a potential role for tolerance and effects on host metabolism that might even resemble trained immunity, which is a form of innate immune memory in vertebrates. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The role of adaptive trans-generational plasticity in biological invasions of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trans-generational plasticity (TGP) that confers greater offspring fitness is likely to be an important mechanism contributing to the spread of some invasive plant species. TGP is predicted for populations found in habitats with predictable spatial or temporal resource heterogeneity, and that have ...

  4. Transgenerational effects of maternal immune challenge in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, G.A.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    The fact that avian eggs contain antibody of maternal origin is well documented, but only recently has this phenomenon been considered in an ecological context. We used tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) to examine the possibility of transgenerational immunity and its effect on nestling growth and

  5. Transgenerational Authenticity Measurement: A Comment on Ito et al. (2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, James; Wick, Daniel T

    2016-08-01

    The authors examined their previously published studies of transgenerational authenticity in a Japanese cohort (Ito, Horikoshi, & Kodama). In the previous paper, the authors addressed semantic and semiotic concerns. In this paper, design flaws and statistical flaws are examined. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Transgenerational Defense Priming for Crop Protection against Plant Pathogens: A Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Carrasco, Gabriela; Martínez-Aguilar, Keren; Alvarez-Venegas, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    Throughout evolution, plants have developed diverse mechanisms of defense that "prime" their innate immune system for more robust and active induction of defense responses against different types of stress. Nowadays there are numerous reports concerning the molecular bases of priming, as well as the generational priming mechanisms. Information concerning transgenerational priming, however, remains deficient. Some reports have indicated, nonetheless, that the priming status of a plant can be inherited to its offspring. Here, we show that the priming agent β-aminobutyric acid induced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola infection in the common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) We have analyzed the transgenerational patterns of gene expression of the PvPR1 gene ( Phaseolus vulgaris PR1 ), a highly responsive gene to priming, and show that a transgenerational priming response against pathogen attack can last for at least two generations. We hypothesize that a defense-resistant phenotype and easily identifiable, generational and transgenerational, "primed patterns" of gene expression are excellent indicators of the priming response in crop plants. Furthermore, we propose here that modern plant breeding methods and crop improvement efforts must include the use of elicitors to prime induced resistance in the field and, above all, to select for induced heritable states in progeny that is primed for defense.

  7. Dioxin (TCDD induces epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and sperm epimutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Manikkam

    Full Text Available Environmental compounds can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in subsequent generations following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study examined the ability of dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo[p]dioxin, TCDD to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to dioxin during fetal day 8 to 14 and adult-onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. The incidences of total disease and multiple disease increased in F1 and F3 generations. Prostate disease, ovarian primordial follicle loss and polycystic ovary disease were increased in F1 generation dioxin lineage. Kidney disease in males, pubertal abnormalities in females, ovarian primordial follicle loss and polycystic ovary disease were increased in F3 generation dioxin lineage animals. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome identified 50 differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR in gene promoters. These DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures. Observations demonstrate dioxin exposure of a gestating female promotes epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and sperm epimutations.

  8. Transgenerational plasticity as an important mechanism affecting response of clonal species to changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzbergová, Zuzana; Hadincová, Věroslava

    2017-07-01

    In spite of the increasing number of studies on the importance of transgenerational plasticity for species response to novel environments, its effects on species ability to respond to climate change are still largely unexplored. We study the importance of transgenerational plasticity for response of a clonal species Festuca rubra . Individuals from four natural populations representing two levels of temperature and two levels of precipitation were cultivated in four growth chambers that simulate the temperature and precipitation of origin of the populations (maternal phase). Each population was represented in each growth chamber. After 6 months, single young ramets of these plants were reshuffled among the growth chambers and let to grow for additional 2 months (offspring phase). The results show that transgenerational effects (i.e., maternal phase conditions) significantly modify species response to novel climates, and the direction and intensity of the response depend on the climate of origin of the plants. For traits related to recourse acquisition, the conditions of maternal phase, either alone or in interaction mainly with climate of origin, had stronger effect than the conditions of cultivation. Overall, the maternal climate interacted more intensively with the climate of origin than with the offspring climate. The direction of the effect of the maternal climate was of different directions and intensities depending on plant origin and trait studied. The data demonstrated strong significant effects of conditions during maternal phase on species response to novel climates. These transgenerational affects were, however, not adaptive. Still, transgenerational plasticity may be an important driver of species response to novel conditions across clonal generations. These effects thus need to be carefully considered in future studies exploring species response to novel climates. This will also have strong effects on species performance under increasingly variable

  9. Transgenerational isotopic marking of carp Cyprinus carpio, L. using a 86Sr /84Sr double spike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitek, Andreas; Cervicek, Magdalena; Irrgeher, Johanna; Horsky, Monika; Kletzl, Manfred; Weismann, Thomas; Prohaska, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Transgenerational isotopic marking has been recognized recently as an effective tool for mass marking and tracking of individual fish to their original source. Compared to other conventional marking techniques, transgenerational marking offers several advantages. Most importantly, it is possible to mark all offspring of one individual female without the necessity of handling eggs or larval fish. Furthermore it is possible to vary the concentrations of individual isotopes to obtain specific marks for individual female fish. An enriched isotopic spike solution is usually applied to gravid female spawners by injection into the body cavity for transgenerational marking. The isotope is then incorporated into the central otolith region of the offspring which is known to be built up by maternally derived material. Within this study transgenerational marking of a typical cyprinid fish species, Cyprinus carpio, L., was tested using a 86Sr /84Sr double spike. Buffered solutions with different isotopic composition and concentrations were administered to 4 female individuals by intraperitoneal injection 5 days before spawning, while one female was injected a blank solution. After spawning, otoliths (Lapilli) from juvenile fish were sampled at the age of about 5 months at fish sizes between 3 and 4 cm and analyzed for their isotopic composition by LA-ICPMS applying cross sectional line scans. Central otolith regions of the progeny showed a shift in the natural isotope ratios for the administered isotopes. Deconvolution of the blank corrected measurement data of the Sr isotopes was done to trace back the original spike ratio. The different spike ratios could be well distinguished reflecting the original composition of the spike solution. This study proved that it is possible to create batch-specific unique transgenerational marks in otolith cores by varying the concentrations of two naturally occurring Sr isotopes. This method has high potential to reduce the marking effort for

  10. Trans-generational responses to low pH depend on parental gender in a calcifying tubeworm

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Ackley; Campanati, Camilla; Dupont, Sam; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2015-01-01

    The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 emissions by oceans has started decreasing pH and carbonate ion concentrations of seawater, a process called ocean acidification (OA). Occurring over centuries and many generations, evolutionary adaptation and epigenetic transfer will change species responses to OA over time. Trans-generational responses, via genetic selection or trans-generational phenotypic plasticity, differ depending on species and exposure time as well as differences between individuals su...

  11. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  12. Hardness amplification in nondeterministic logspace

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Sushmita

    2007-01-01

    A hard problem is one which cannot be easily computed by efficient algorithms. Hardness amplification is a procedure which takes as input a problem of mild hardness and returns a problem of higher hardness. This is closely related to the task of decoding certain error-correcting codes. We show amplification from mild average case hardness to higher average case hardness for nondeterministic logspace and worst-to-average amplification for nondeterministic linspace. Finally we explore possible ...

  13. Evidence of high-elevation amplification versus Arctic amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qixiang; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Mengben

    2016-01-12

    Elevation-dependent warming in high-elevation regions and Arctic amplification are of tremendous interest to many scientists who are engaged in studies in climate change. Here, using annual mean temperatures from 2781 global stations for the 1961-2010 period, we find that the warming for the world's high-elevation stations (>500 m above sea level) is clearly stronger than their low-elevation counterparts; and the high-elevation amplification consists of not only an altitudinal amplification but also a latitudinal amplification. The warming for the high-elevation stations is linearly proportional to the temperature lapse rates along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, as a result of the functional shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law in both vertical and latitudinal directions. In contrast, neither altitudinal amplification nor latitudinal amplification is found within the Arctic region despite its greater warming than lower latitudes. Further analysis shows that the Arctic amplification is an integrated part of the latitudinal amplification trend for the low-elevation stations (≤500 m above sea level) across the entire low- to high-latitude Northern Hemisphere, also a result of the mathematical shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law but only in latitudinal direction.

  14. Evidence of high-elevation amplification versus Arctic amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qixiang; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Mengben

    2016-01-01

    Elevation-dependent warming in high-elevation regions and Arctic amplification are of tremendous interest to many scientists who are engaged in studies in climate change. Here, using annual mean temperatures from 2781 global stations for the 1961-2010 period, we find that the warming for the world’s high-elevation stations (>500 m above sea level) is clearly stronger than their low-elevation counterparts; and the high-elevation amplification consists of not only an altitudinal amplification but also a latitudinal amplification. The warming for the high-elevation stations is linearly proportional to the temperature lapse rates along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, as a result of the functional shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law in both vertical and latitudinal directions. In contrast, neither altitudinal amplification nor latitudinal amplification is found within the Arctic region despite its greater warming than lower latitudes. Further analysis shows that the Arctic amplification is an integrated part of the latitudinal amplification trend for the low-elevation stations (≤500 m above sea level) across the entire low- to high-latitude Northern Hemisphere, also a result of the mathematical shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law but only in latitudinal direction.

  15. Efficient audio power amplification - challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where extensive research and development are needed is covered. (au)

  16. Efficient Audio Power Amplification - Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where...... extensive research and development are needed is covered....

  17. Back to the future: transgenerational transmission of xenobiotic-induced epigenetic remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Chillarón, Josep C; Nijland, Mark J; Ascensão, António A; Sardão, Vilma A; Magalhães, José; Hitchler, Michael J; Domann, Frederick E; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics, or regulation of gene expression independent of DNA sequence, is the missing link between genotype and phenotype. Epigenetic memory, mediated by histone and DNA modifications, is controlled by a set of specialized enzymes, metabolite availability, and signaling pathways. A mostly unstudied subject is how sub-toxic exposure to several xenobiotics during specific developmental stages can alter the epigenome and contribute to the development of disease phenotypes later in life. Furthermore, it has been shown that exposure to low-dose xenobiotics can also result in further epigenetic remodeling in the germ line and contribute to increase disease risk in the next generation (multigenerational and transgenerational effects). We here offer a perspective on current but still incomplete knowledge of xenobiotic-induced epigenetic alterations, and their possible transgenerational transmission. We also propose several molecular mechanisms by which the epigenetic landscape may be altered by environmental xenobiotics and hypothesize how diet and physical activity may counteract epigenetic alterations. PMID:25774863

  18. Germ Cell Origins of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Risk: The Transgenerational Impact of Parental Stress Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Ali B; Bale, Tracy L

    2015-09-01

    Altered stress reactivity is a predominant feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may reflect disease vulnerability, increasing the probability that an individual will develop PTSD following trauma exposure. Environmental factors, particularly prior stress history, contribute to the developmental programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. Critically, the consequences of stress experiences are transgenerational, with parental stress exposure impacting stress reactivity and PTSD risk in subsequent generations. Potential molecular mechanisms underlying this transmission have been explored in rodent models that specifically examine the paternal lineage, identifying epigenetic signatures in male germ cells as possible substrates of transgenerational programming. Here, we review the role of these germ cell epigenetic marks, including posttranslational histone modifications, DNA methylation, and populations of small noncoding RNAs, in the development of offspring stress axis sensitivity and disease risk. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Trans-generational plasticity in response to immune challenge is constrained by heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Olivia; Landis, Susanne H

    2017-06-01

    Trans-generational plasticity (TGP) is the adjustment of phenotypes to changing habitat conditions that persist longer than the individual lifetime. Fitness benefits (adaptive TGP) are expected upon matching parent-offspring environments. In a global change scenario, several performance-related environmental factors are changing simultaneously. This lowers the predictability of offspring environmental conditions, potentially hampering the benefits of TGP. For the first time, we here explore how the combination of an abiotic and a biotic environmental factor in the parental generation plays out as trans-generational effect in the offspring. We fully reciprocally exposed the parental generation of the pipefish Syngnathus typhle to an immune challenge and elevated temperatures simulating a naturally occurring heatwave. Upon mating and male pregnancy, offspring were kept in ambient or elevated temperature regimes combined with a heat-killed bacterial epitope treatment. Differential gene expression (immune genes and DNA- and histone-modification genes) suggests that the combined change of an abiotic and a biotic factor in the parental generation had interactive effects on offspring performance, the temperature effect dominated over the immune challenge impact. The benefits of certain parental environmental conditions on offspring performance did not sum up when abiotic and biotic factors were changed simultaneously supporting that available resources that can be allocated to phenotypic trans-generational effects are limited. Temperature is the master regulator of trans-generational phenotypic plasticity, which potentially implies a conflict in the allocation of resources towards several environmental factors. This asks for a reassessment of TGP as a short-term option to buffer environmental variation in the light of climate change.

  20. Drought-induced trans-generational tradeoff between stress tolerance and defence: consequences for range limits?

    OpenAIRE

    Alsdurf, Jacob D.; Ripley, Tayler J.; Matzner, Steven L.; Siemens, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Areas just across species range boundaries are often stressful, but even with ample genetic variation within and among range-margin populations, adaptation towards stress tolerance across range boundaries often does not occur. Adaptive trans-generational plasticity should allow organisms to circumvent these problems for temporary range expansion; however, range boundaries often persist. To investigate this dilemma, we drought stressed a parent generation of Boechera stricta (A.Gray) A. L?ve &...

  1. Within- and trans-generational plasticity affects the opportunity for selection in barbed goatgrass (Aegilops triuncialis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeland, Erin K; Rice, Kevin J

    2012-12-01

    Environments are composed of selective agents, and environments may also modify the efficacy of these agents. Environments affect the rate of maximum evolutionary change by influencing variation in relative fitness (i.e., the opportunity for selection, or I). Within- and transgenerational plastic environmental responses may affect I, speeding or slowing processes of local adaptation. • We determined whether environmental factors affected the opportunity for selection (I) in Aegilops triuncialis (barbed goatgrass) by measuring I as a within- and transgenerational plastic response to two maternal glasshouse environments (serpentine/dry and loam/moist). We also determined whether this species' two most common genetic lineages (determined by DNA microsatellite length polymorphism) varied in response to glasshouse treatments. • Opportunity for selection was less for plants grown in the dry serpentine environment than for plants grown in the moist loam environment. This response varied between genetic lineages. The east lineage exhibited a within-generation response to the dry serpentine environment. For both seed mass and average seed weight in this lineage, the opportunity for selection was lower in dry serpentine than in moist loam. The west lineage had a transgenerational response to the dry serpentine such that the opportunity for selection for seed number and seed mass was lower for plants produced by mothers grown in dry serpentine than for plants produced by mothers in moist loam. • Phenotypic variation in relative fitness is constrained by the dry serpentine environment, which leads to lower evolvability in this environment. Within- and transgenerational effects of the environment may slow local adaptation to serpentine soils.

  2. Roads Leading to Self-Employment: Comparing Transgenerational Entrepreneurs and Self-Made Start-Ups

    OpenAIRE

    Blumberg, Boris; Pfann, Gerard Antonie

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the event history of business foundation and distinguishes between transgenerational entrepreneurship and self-made start-ups. Three theoretical concepts of human, financial and social capital are linked to investigate variations over time in the decision process to become self-employed. Data from a cohort of Dutch inhabitants born in 1939/1940 who have been interviewed three times during their lives in 1952, 1983, and 1993 allows testing theoretical hypotheses that state c...

  3. Effect of the transgenerational exposure to elevated CO2 on the drought response of winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yafei; Li, Xiangnan; Yu, Jingjie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Climate change predicts more frequent drought spells along with an elevation in atmospheric CO2 concentration (e[CO2]). Although the responses of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants to drought or a single generation exposure to e[CO2] have been well documented, the transgeneration...... water status could have contributed to the enhanced DM and WUE. These findings provide new insights into the response of wheat plants to a future drier and CO2-enriched environment....

  4. Transgenerational transmission of trauma and resilience: a qualitative study with Brazilian offspring of Holocaust survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Luciana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past five decades, clinicians and researchers have debated the impact of the Holocaust on the children of its survivors. The transgenerational transmission of trauma has been explored in more than 500 articles, which have failed to reach reliable conclusions that could be generalized. The psychiatric literature shows mixed findings regarding this subject: many clinical studies reported psychopathological findings related to transgenerational transmission of trauma and some empirical research has found no evidence of this phenomenon in offspring of Holocaust survivors. Method This qualitative study aims to detect how the second generation perceives transgenerational transmission of their parents’ experiences in the Holocaust. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with fifteen offspring of Holocaust survivors and sought to analyze experiences, meanings and subjective processes of the participants. A Grounded Theory approach was employed, and constant comparative method was used for analysis of textual data. Results The development of conceptual categories led to the emergence of distinct patterns of communication from parents to their descendants. The qualitative methodology also allowed systematization of the different ways in which offspring can deal with parental trauma, which determine the development of specific mechanisms of traumatic experience or resilience in the second generation. Conclusions The conceptual categories constructed by the Grounded Theory approach were used to present a possible model of the transgenerational transmission of trauma, showing that not only traumatic experiences, but also resilience patterns can be transmitted to and developed by the second generation. As in all qualitative studies, these conclusions cannot be generalized, but the findings can be tested in other contexts.

  5. Perception of transgenerational family relationships: Comparison of eating-disordered patients and their parents

    OpenAIRE

    Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech; J?zefik, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background Disturbances in various elements of transgenerational family functioning patterns are not uncommon in studies of eating disorders. We examined the relationship between patients? perception of autonomy and intimacy in their families of origin and that of their parents in their own families of origin. Material/Methods The sample consisted of 112 girls who had a diagnosis of an eating disoder and their parents; 54 of the girls were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa restrictive subtype, ...

  6. Transgenerational transmission of trauma and resilience: a qualitative study with Brazilian offspring of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Luciana Lorens; Mello, Marcelo Feijó; Fiks, José Paulo

    2012-09-03

    Over the past five decades, clinicians and researchers have debated the impact of the Holocaust on the children of its survivors. The transgenerational transmission of trauma has been explored in more than 500 articles, which have failed to reach reliable conclusions that could be generalized. The psychiatric literature shows mixed findings regarding this subject: many clinical studies reported psychopathological findings related to transgenerational transmission of trauma and some empirical research has found no evidence of this phenomenon in offspring of Holocaust survivors. This qualitative study aims to detect how the second generation perceives transgenerational transmission of their parents' experiences in the Holocaust. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with fifteen offspring of Holocaust survivors and sought to analyze experiences, meanings and subjective processes of the participants. A Grounded Theory approach was employed, and constant comparative method was used for analysis of textual data. The development of conceptual categories led to the emergence of distinct patterns of communication from parents to their descendants. The qualitative methodology also allowed systematization of the different ways in which offspring can deal with parental trauma, which determine the development of specific mechanisms of traumatic experience or resilience in the second generation. The conceptual categories constructed by the Grounded Theory approach were used to present a possible model of the transgenerational transmission of trauma, showing that not only traumatic experiences, but also resilience patterns can be transmitted to and developed by the second generation. As in all qualitative studies, these conclusions cannot be generalized, but the findings can be tested in other contexts.

  7. Exposure to endocrine disruptor induces transgenerational epigenetic deregulation of microRNAs in primordial germ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Brieño-Enríquez

    Full Text Available In mammals, germ cell differentiation is initiated in the Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs during fetal development. Prenatal exposure to environmental toxicants such as endocrine disruptors may alter PGC differentiation, development of the male germline and induce transgenerational epigenetic disorders. The anti-androgenic compound vinclozolin represents a paradigmatic example of molecule causing transgenerational effects on germ cells. We performed prenatal exposure to vinclozolin in mice and analyzed the phenotypic and molecular changes in three successive generations. A reduction in the number of embryonic PGCs and increased rate of apoptotic cells along with decrease of fertility rate in adult males were observed in F1 to F3 generations. Blimp1 is a crucial regulator of PGC differentiation. We show that prenatal exposure to vinclozolin deregulates specific microRNAs in PGCs, such as miR-23b and miR-21, inducing disequilibrium in the Lin28/let-7/Blimp1 pathway in three successive generations of males. As determined by global maps of cytosine methylation, we found no evidence for prominent changes in DNA methylation in PGCs or mature sperm. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors induces transgenerational epigenetic deregulation of expression of microRNAs affecting key regulatory pathways of germ cells differentiation.

  8. Transgenerational plasticity in Silene vulgaris in response to three types of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandner, T M; van Braak, J L; Matthies, D

    2018-03-23

    The environment experienced by plants can influence the phenotype of their offspring. Such transgenerational plasticity can be adaptive when it results in higher fitness of the offspring under conditions correlated with those experienced by the mother plant. However, it has rarely been tested if such anticipatory parental effects may be induced with different environments. We grew clonal replicates of Silene vulgaris under control conditions and three types of stress (nutrient deficiency, copper addition and drought), which are known from natural populations of the species. We then subjected offspring from differently treated mother plants to each of the different stress treatments to analyse the influence of maternal and offspring environment on performance and several functional traits. Current stress treatments strongly influenced biomass and functional traits of the plants, mostly in line with responses predicted by the theory of functional equilibrium. Plant performance was also influenced by maternal stress treatments, and some effects independent of initial size differences remained until harvest. In particular, stressed mothers produced offspring of higher fitness than control plants. However, there was no evidence for treatment-specific adaptive transgenerational plasticity, as offspring from a mother plant that had grown in a specific environment did not grow better in that environment than other plants. Our results indicate that the maternal environment may affect offspring traits and performance, but also that this transgenerational plasticity is not necessarily adaptive. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. The transgenerational inheritance of autism-like phenotypes in mice exposed to valproic acid during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang Soon; Gonzales, Edson Luck; Kim, Ki Chan; Yang, Sung Min; Kim, Ji-Woon; Mabunga, Darine Froy; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Han, Seol-Heui; Bahn, Geon Ho; Shin, Chan Young

    2016-11-07

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneously pervasive developmental disorder in which various genetic and environmental factors are believed to underlie its development. Recently, epigenetics has been suggested as a novel concept for ASD aetiology with a proposition that epigenetic marks can be transgenerationally inherited. Based on this assumption of epigenetics, we investigated the transgenerational inheritance of ASD-like behaviours and their related synaptic changes in the VPA animal model of ASD. The first generation (F1) VPA-exposed offspring exhibited autistic-like impaired sociability and increased marble burying. They also showed increased seizure susceptibility, hyperactivity and decreased anxiety. We mated the VPA-exposed F1 male offspring with naïve females to produce the second generation (F2), and then similarly mated the F2 to deliver the third generation (F3). Remarkably, the autism-like behavioural phenotypes found in F1 persisted to the F2 and F3. Additionally, the frontal cortices of F1 and F3 showed some imbalanced expressions of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic markers, suggesting a transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. These results open the idea that E/I imbalance and ASD-like behavioural changes induced by environmental insults in mice can be epigenetically transmitted, at least, to the third generation. This study could help explain the unprecedented increase in ASD prevalence.

  10. Transgenerational plasticity mitigates the impact of global warming to offspring sex ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelson, Jennifer M; Munday, Philip L

    2015-08-01

    Global warming poses a threat to organisms with temperature-dependent sex determination because it can affect operational sex ratios. Using a multigenerational experiment with a marine fish, we provide the first evidence that parents developing from early life at elevated temperatures can adjust their offspring gender through nongenetic and nonbehavioural means. However, this adjustment was not possible when parents reproduced, but did not develop, at elevated temperatures. Complete restoration of the offspring sex ratio occurred when parents developed at 1.5 °C above the present-day average temperature for one generation. However, only partial improvement in the sex ratio occurred at 3.0 °C above average conditions, even after two generations, suggesting a limitation to transgenerational plasticity when developmental temperature is substantially increased. This study highlights the potential for transgenerational plasticity to ameliorate some impacts of climate change and that development from early life may be essential for expression of transgenerational plasticity in some traits. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The maternal transfer of bacteria can mediate trans-generational immune priming in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitak, Dalial; Schmidtberg, Henrike; Dickel, Franziska; Lochnit, Günther; Vogel, Heiko; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2014-05-15

    Parents invest in their offspring by preparing them for defense against pathogens and parasites that only the parents have encountered, a phenomenon known as trans-generational immune priming. We investigated the underlying mechanism using the established lepidopteran model host Galleria mellonella. When larvae were fed with non-pathogenic bacteria, or the entomopathogenic species Pseudomonas entomophila and Serratia entomophila, the activity of lysozyme and phenoloxidase increased in the hemolymph, and immunity-related genes encoding antibacterial proteins such as gloverin were induced. Remarkably, the ingestion of bacteria by female larvae resulted in the differential expression of immunity-related genes in the eggs subsequently laid by the same females, providing evidence for trans-generational immune priming in G. mellonella. To determine the fate of these ingested microbes, the larval diet was supplemented with bacteria carrying a fluorescent label. We observed these bacteria crossing the midgut epithelium, their entrapment within nodules in the hemocoel, their accumulation within the ovary, and ultimately their deposition in the eggs. Therefore, we propose that trans-generational immune priming in Lepidoptera can be mediated by the maternal transfer of bacteria or bacterial fragments to the developing eggs.

  12. Impact of transgenerational immune priming on the defence of insect eggs against parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauer-Kizilelma, Ute; Hilker, Monika

    2015-07-01

    Insects are known to prime the immune state of their offspring. However, although the beginning of insect life, the egg stage, is often greatly endangered by parasitism, no knowledge is available regarding whether transgenerational immune priming improves the immune responses of insect eggs to actual parasitoid attacks. Our study revealed suppression of the development of parasitoids in transgenerationally immune-primed Manduca sexta eggs and reduced emergence rates of parasitoids from these eggs. The higher defence efficiency of immune-primed M. sexta eggs against parasitoids was in agreement with the increased antibacterial activity and phenoloxidase activity of these eggs in response to parasitism compared to the eggs of control parents. Our study showed that immunochallenged insect parents could enable their offspring already in the egg stage to defend more efficiently against parasitic invaders. We discuss whether M. sexta benefits from transgenerational immune priming of eggs by limiting the population growth of egg parasitoids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transgenerational inheritance or resetting of stress-induced epigenetic modifications: two sides of the same coin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny J Tricker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transgenerational inheritance of stress-induced epigenetic modifications is still controversial. Despite several examples of defence ‘priming’ and induced genetic rearrangements, the involvement and persistence of transgenerational epigenetic modifications is not known to be general. Here I argue that non-transmission of epigenetic marks through meiosis may be regarded as an epigenetic modification in itself, and that we should understand the implications for plant evolution in the context of both selection for and selection against transgenerational epigenetic memory. Recent data suggest that both epigenetic inheritance and resetting are mechanistically directed and targeted. Stress-induced epigenetic modifications may buffer against DNA sequence-based evolution to maintain plasticity, or may form part of plasticity’s adaptive potential. To date we have tended to concentrate on the question of whether and for how long epigenetic memory persists. I argue that we should now re-direct our question to investigate the differences between where it persists and where it does not, to understand the higher order evolutionary methods in play and their contribution.

  14. Brief Communication: Sexual dimorphic expression of myostatin and follistatin like-3 in a rat trans-generational under-nutrition model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Murray D

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The detrimental effects of maternal under-nutrition during gestation on fetal development are well known with an increased propensity of metabolic disorders identified in the adult offspring. Understanding exactly how and by which molecular pathways inadequate nutrition can impact upon offspring phenotype is critical and necessary for the development of treatment methods and ultimately prevention of any negative health effects. Myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle development, has recently been shown to effect glucose homeostasis and fat deposition. The involvement of myostatin in glucose metabolism and adipogenesis thus supports its ability to act in the continued alterations to the postnatal phenotype of the offspring. This hypothesis was examined in the current study using a trans-generational gestationally under-nourished rat model exposed to a high-fat (HF diet post-weaning. The body weight, body fat, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations of the offspring, both male and female, were investigated in relation to the protein expression of myostatin and its main inhibitor; follistatin like-3 (FSTL-3, in skeletal muscle of mature offspring. Sexual dimorphism was clearly evident in the majority of these measures, including myostatin and FSTL-3 expression. Generally males displayed higher (P myostatin precursor and dimer expression than females, which was especially apparent (P in both chow and HF trans-generationally undernourished (UNAD groups. In females only, myostatin precursor and dimer expression was altered by both trans-generational under-nutrition and postnatal diet. Overall FSTL-3 expression did not differ between sexes, although difference between sexes within certain treatments and diets were evident. Most notably, HF fed UNAD females had higher (P FSTL-3 expression than HF fed UNAD males. The former group also displayed higher (P FSTL-3 expression compared to all other female groups. In summary, myostatin may prove

  15. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  16. Transgenerational adaptation of Arabidopsis to stress requires DNA methylation and the function of Dicer-like proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Boyko

    Full Text Available Epigenetic states and certain environmental responses in mammals and seed plants can persist in the next sexual generation. These transgenerational effects have potential adaptative significance as well as medical and agronomic ramifications. Recent evidence suggests that some abiotic and biotic stress responses of plants are transgenerational. For example, viral infection of tobacco plants and exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to UVC and flagellin can induce transgenerational increases in homologous recombination frequency (HRF. Here we show that exposure of Arabidopsis plants to stresses, including salt, UVC, cold, heat and flood, resulted in a higher HRF, increased global genome methylation, and higher tolerance to stress in the untreated progeny. This transgenerational effect did not, however, persist in successive generations. Treatment of the progeny of stressed plants with 5-azacytidine was shown to decrease global genomic methylation and enhance stress tolerance. Dicer-like (DCL 2 and DCL3 encode Dicer activities important for small RNA-dependent gene silencing. Stress-induced HRF and DNA methylation were impaired in dcl2 and dcl3 deficiency mutants, while in dcl2 mutants, only stress-induced stress tolerance was impaired. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that stress-induced transgenerational responses in Arabidopsis depend on altered DNA methylation and smRNA silencing pathways.

  17. DNAzyme Feedback Amplification: Relaying Molecular Recognition to Exponential DNA Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Yin, Qingxin; McConnell, Erin M; Chang, Yangyang; Brennan, John D; Li, Yingfu

    2018-03-26

    Technologies capable of linking DNA amplification to molecular recognition are very desirable for ultrasensitive biosensing applications. We have developed a simple but powerful isothermal DNA amplification method, termed DNAzyme feedback amplification (DFA), that is capable of relaying molecular recognition to exponential DNA amplification. The method incorporates both an RNA-cleaving DNAzyme (RCD) and rolling circle amplification (RCA) carried out by a special DNA polymerase using a circular DNA template. DFA begins with a stimulus-dependent RCA reaction, producing tandemly linked RCDs in long-chain DNA products. These RCDs cleave an RNA-containing DNA sequence to form additional primers that hybridize to the circular DNA molecule, giving rise to DNA assemblies that act as the new inputs for RCA. The RCA reaction and the cleavage event keep on feeding each other autonomously, resulting in exponential growth of repetitive DNA sequences that can be easily detected. This method can be used for the detection of both nucleic acid based targets and non-nucleic acid analytes. In this article, we discuss the conceptual framework of the feedback amplification approach, the essential features of this method as well as remaining challenges and possible solutions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Next generation Chirped Pulse Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nees, J.; Biswal, S.; Mourou, G. [Univ. Michigan, Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Nishimura, Akihiko; Takuma, Hiroshi

    1998-03-01

    The limiting factors of Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA) are discussed and experimental results of CPA in Yb:glass regenerative amplifier are given. Scaling of Yb:glass to the petawatt level is briefly discussed. (author)

  19. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  20. A temperature shock can lead to trans-generational immune priming in the Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Hendrik; Diddens-de Buhr, Maike F; Kurtz, Joachim

    2015-03-01

    Trans-generational immune priming (TGIP) describes the transfer of immune stimulation to the next generation. As stress and immunity are closely connected, we here address the question whether trans-generational effects on immunity and resistance can also be elicited by a nonpathogen stress treatment of parents. General stressors have been shown to induce immunity to pathogens within individuals. However, to our knowledge, it is as of yet unknown whether stress can also induce trans-generational effects on immunity and resistance. We exposed a parental generation (mothers, fathers, or both parents) of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, a species where TGIP has been previously been demonstrated, to either a brief heat or cold shock and examined offspring survival after bacterial infection with the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis. We also studied phenoloxidase activity, a key enzyme of the insect innate immune system that has previously been demonstrated to be up-regulated upon TGIP. We quantified parental fecundity and offspring developmental time to evaluate whether trans-generational priming might have costs. Offspring resistance was found to be significantly increased when both parents received a cold shock. Offspring phenoloxidase activity was also higher when mothers or both parents were cold-shocked. By contrast, parental heat shock reduced offspring phenoloxidase activity. Moreover, parental cold or heat shock delayed offspring development. In sum, we conclude that trans-generational priming for resistance could not only be elicited by pathogens or pathogen-derived components, but also by more general cues that are indicative of a stressful environment. The interaction between stress responses and the immune system might play an important role also for trans-generational effects.

  1. A large ungated TPC with GEM amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M.; Ball, M.; Fabbietti, L.; Ketzer, B.; Arora, R.; Beck, R.; Böhmer, F. V.; Chen, J.-C.; Cusanno, F.; Dørheim, S.; García, F.; Hehner, J.; Herrmann, N.; Höppner, C.; Kaiser, D.; Kis̆, M.; Kleipa, V.; Konorov, I.; Kunkel, J.; Kurz, N.; Leifels, Y.; Müllner, P.; Münzer, R.; Neubert, S.; Rauch, J.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmitz, R.; Soyk, D.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Voss, B.; Walther, D.; Zmeskal, J.

    2017-10-01

    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is an ideal device for the detection of charged particle tracks in a large volume covering a solid angle of almost 4 π. The high density of hits on a given particle track facilitates the task of pattern recognition in a high-occupancy environment and in addition provides particle identification by measuring the specific energy loss for each track. For these reasons, TPCs with Multiwire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) amplification have been and are widely used in experiments recording heavy-ion collisions. A significant drawback, however, is the large dead time of the order of 1 ms per event generated by the use of a gating grid, which is mandatory to prevent ions created in the amplification region from drifting back into the drift volume, where they would severely distort the drift path of subsequent tracks. For experiments with higher event rates this concept of a conventional TPC operating with a triggered gating grid can therefore not be applied without a significant loss of data. A continuous readout of the signals is the more appropriate way of operation. This, however, constitutes a change of paradigm with considerable challenges to be met concerning the amplification region, the design and bandwidth of the readout electronics, and the data handling. A mandatory prerequisite for such an operation is a sufficiently good suppression of the ion backflow from the avalanche region, which otherwise limits the tracking and particle identification capabilities of such a detector. Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) are a promising candidate to combine excellent spatial resolution with an intrinsic suppression of ions. In this paper we describe the design, construction and the commissioning of a large TPC with GEM amplification and without gating grid (GEM-TPC). The design requirements have driven innovations in the construction of a light-weight field-cage, a supporting media flange, the GEM amplification and the readout system, which are

  2. Prenatal caffeine ingestion induces transgenerational neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in second generation rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Hanwen; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Lian; Shen, Lang; Kou, Hao; He, Zheng; Ping, Jie; Xu, Dan; Ma, Lu; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine ingestion induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome with alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic phenotypes in adult first generation (F1) of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats, and the underlying mechanism is originated from a hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in utero. This study aims to investigate the transgenerational effects of this programming alteration in adult second generation (F2). Pregnant Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. Four groups in F2 were set according to the cross-mating between control and caffeine-induced IUGR rats. F2 were subjected to a fortnight ice water swimming stimulus on postnatal month 4, and blood samples were collected before and after stress. Results showed that the majority of the activities of HPA axis and phenotypes of glucose and lipid metabolism were altered in F2. Particularly, comparing with the control group, caffeine groups had an enhanced corticosterone levels after chronic stress. Compared with before stress, the serum glucose levels were increased in some groups whereas the triglyceride levels were decreased. Furthermore, total cholesterol gain rates were enhanced but the high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol gain rates were decreased in most caffeine groups after stress. These transgenerational effects were characterized partially with gender and parental differences. Taken together, these results indicate that the reproductive and developmental toxicities and the neuroendocrine metabolic programming mechanism by prenatal caffeine ingestion have transgenerational effects in rats, which may help to explain the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases in F2. - Highlights: • Caffeine-induced neuroendocrine metabolic programming of HPA has hereditary effect. • Caffeine

  3. Transgenerational effects of maternal and grandmaternal age on offspring viability and performance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch Qazi, Margaret C; Miller, Paige B; Poeschel, Penny M; Phan, Mai H; Thayer, Joseph L; Medrano, Christian L

    2017-07-01

    In non-social insects, fitness is determined by relative lifetime fertility. Fertility generally declines with age as a part of senescence. For females, senescence has profound effects on fitness by decreasing viability and fertility as well as those of her offspring. However, important aspects of these maternal effects, including the cause(s) of reduced offspring performance and carry-over effects of maternal age, are poorly understood. Drosophila melanogaster is a useful system for examining potential transgenerational effects of increasing maternal age, because of their use as a model system for studying the physiology and genetic architecture of both reproduction and senescence. To test the hypothesis that female senescence has transgenerational effects on offspring viability and development, we measured the effects of maternal age on offspring survival over two generations and under two larval densities in two laboratory strains of flies (Oregon-R and Canton-S). Transgenerational effects of maternal age influence embryonic viability and embryonic to adult viability in both strains. However, the generation causing the effects, and the magnitude and direction of those effects differed by genotype. The effects of maternal age on embryonic to adult viability when larvae are stressed was also genotype-specific. Maternal effects involve provisioning: older females produced smaller eggs and larger offspring. These results show that maternal age has profound, complex, and multigenerational consequences on several components of offspring fitness and traits. This study contributes to a body of work demonstrating that female age is an important condition affecting phenotypic variation and viability across multiple generations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid transcriptional acclimation following transgenerational exposure of oysters to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Priscila; Anderson, Kelli; Thompson, Emma L; Melwani, Aroon; Parker, Laura M; Ross, Pauline M; Raftos, David A

    2016-10-01

    Marine organisms need to adapt in order to cope with the adverse effects of ocean acidification and warming. Transgenerational exposure to CO2 stress has been shown to enhance resilience to ocean acidification in offspring from a number of species. However, the molecular basis underlying such adaptive responses is currently unknown. Here, we compared the transcriptional profiles of two genetically distinct oyster breeding lines following transgenerational exposure to elevated CO2 in order to explore the molecular basis of acclimation or adaptation to ocean acidification in these organisms. The expression of key target genes associated with antioxidant defence, metabolism and the cytoskeleton was assessed in oysters exposed to elevated CO2 over three consecutive generations. This set of target genes was chosen specifically to test whether altered responsiveness of intracellular stress mechanisms contributes to the differential acclimation of oyster populations to climate stressors. Transgenerational exposure to elevated CO2 resulted in changes to both basal and inducible expression of those key target genes (e.g. ecSOD, catalase and peroxiredoxin 6), particularly in oysters derived from the disease-resistant, fast-growing B2 line. Exposure to CO2 stress over consecutive generations produced opposite and less evident effects on transcription in a second population that was derived from wild-type (nonselected) oysters. The analysis of key target genes revealed that the acute responses of oysters to CO2 stress appear to be affected by population-specific genetic and/or phenotypic traits and by the CO2 conditions to which their parents had been exposed. This supports the contention that the capacity for heritable change in response to ocean acidification varies between oyster breeding lines and is mediated by parental conditioning. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Ingestional and transgenerational effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the pale grass blue butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Wataru; Hiyama, Atsuki; Nohara, Chiyo; Sakauchi, Ko; Otaki, Joji M.

    2015-01-01

    One important public concern in Japan is the potential health effects on animals and humans that live in the Tohoku-Kanto districts associated with the ingestion of foods contaminated with artificial radionuclides from the collapsed Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Additionally, transgenerational or heritable effects of radiation exposure are also important public concerns because these effects could cause long-term changes in animal and human populations. Here, we concisely review our findings and implications related to the ingestional and transgenerational effects of radiation exposure on the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, which coexists with humans. The butterfly larval ingestion of contaminated leaves found in areas of human habitation, even at low doses, resulted in morphological abnormalities and death for some individuals, whereas other individuals were not affected, at least morphologically. This variable sensitivity serves as a basis for the adaptive evolution of radiation resistance. The distribution of abnormality and mortality rates from low to high doses fits well with a Weibull function model or a power function model. The offspring generated by morphologically normal individuals that consumed contaminated leaves exhibited high mortality rates when fed contaminated leaves; importantly, low mortality rates were restored when they were fed non-contaminated leaves. Our field monitoring over 3 years (2011–2013) indicated that abnormality and mortality rates peaked primarily in the fall of 2011 and decreased afterwards to normal levels. These findings indicate high impacts of early exposure and transgenerationally accumulated radiation effects over a specific period; however, the population regained normality relatively quickly after ∼15 generations within 3 years. PMID:26661851

  6. Direct but no transgenerational effects of decitabine and vorinostat on male fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kläver

    Full Text Available Establishment and maintenance of the correct epigenetic code is essential for a plethora of physiological pathways and disturbed epigenetic patterns can provoke severe consequences, e.g. tumour formation. In recent years, epigenetic drugs altering the epigenome of tumours actively have been developed for anti-cancer therapies. However, such drugs could potentially also affect other physiological pathways and systems in which intact epigenetic patterns are essential. Amongst those, male fertility is one of the most prominent. Consequently, we addressed possible direct effects of two epigenetic drugs, decitabine and vorinostat, on both, the male germ line and fertility. In addition, we checked for putative transgenerational epigenetic effects on the germ line of subsequent generations (F1-F3. Parental adult male C57Bl/6 mice were treated with either decitabine or vorinostat and analysed as well as three subsequent untreated generations derived from these males. Treatment directly affected several reproductive parameters as testis (decitabine & vorinostat and epididymis weight, size of accessory sex glands (vorinostat, the height of the seminiferous epithelium and sperm concentration and morphology (decitabine. Furthermore, after decitabine administration, DNA methylation of a number of loci was altered in sperm. However, when analysing fertility of treated mice (fertilisation, litter size and sex ratio, no major effect of the selected epigenetic drugs on male fertility was detected. In subsequent generations (F1-F3 generations only subtle changes on reproductive organs, sperm parameters and DNA methylation but no overall effect on fertility was observed. Consequently, in mice, decitabine and vorinostat neither affected male fertility per se nor caused marked transgenerational effects. We therefore suggest that both drugs do not induce major adverse effects-in terms of male fertility and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance-when used in anti-cancer-therapies.

  7. Direct but no transgenerational effects of decitabine and vorinostat on male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kläver, Ruth; Sánchez, Victoria; Damm, Oliver S; Redmann, Klaus; Lahrmann, Elisabeth; Sandhowe-Klaverkamp, Reinhild; Rohde, Christian; Wistuba, Joachim; Ehmcke, Jens; Schlatt, Stefan; Gromoll, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Establishment and maintenance of the correct epigenetic code is essential for a plethora of physiological pathways and disturbed epigenetic patterns can provoke severe consequences, e.g. tumour formation. In recent years, epigenetic drugs altering the epigenome of tumours actively have been developed for anti-cancer therapies. However, such drugs could potentially also affect other physiological pathways and systems in which intact epigenetic patterns are essential. Amongst those, male fertility is one of the most prominent. Consequently, we addressed possible direct effects of two epigenetic drugs, decitabine and vorinostat, on both, the male germ line and fertility. In addition, we checked for putative transgenerational epigenetic effects on the germ line of subsequent generations (F1-F3). Parental adult male C57Bl/6 mice were treated with either decitabine or vorinostat and analysed as well as three subsequent untreated generations derived from these males. Treatment directly affected several reproductive parameters as testis (decitabine & vorinostat) and epididymis weight, size of accessory sex glands (vorinostat), the height of the seminiferous epithelium and sperm concentration and morphology (decitabine). Furthermore, after decitabine administration, DNA methylation of a number of loci was altered in sperm. However, when analysing fertility of treated mice (fertilisation, litter size and sex ratio), no major effect of the selected epigenetic drugs on male fertility was detected. In subsequent generations (F1-F3 generations) only subtle changes on reproductive organs, sperm parameters and DNA methylation but no overall effect on fertility was observed. Consequently, in mice, decitabine and vorinostat neither affected male fertility per se nor caused marked transgenerational effects. We therefore suggest that both drugs do not induce major adverse effects-in terms of male fertility and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance-when used in anti-cancer-therapies.

  8. Prenatal caffeine ingestion induces transgenerational neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in second generation rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hanwen [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Deng, Zixin; Liu, Lian; Shen, Lang; Kou, Hao; He, Zheng [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ping, Jie; Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Lu [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Public Health School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, Liaobin, E-mail: lbchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-02-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine ingestion induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome with alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic phenotypes in adult first generation (F1) of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats, and the underlying mechanism is originated from a hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in utero. This study aims to investigate the transgenerational effects of this programming alteration in adult second generation (F2). Pregnant Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. Four groups in F2 were set according to the cross-mating between control and caffeine-induced IUGR rats. F2 were subjected to a fortnight ice water swimming stimulus on postnatal month 4, and blood samples were collected before and after stress. Results showed that the majority of the activities of HPA axis and phenotypes of glucose and lipid metabolism were altered in F2. Particularly, comparing with the control group, caffeine groups had an enhanced corticosterone levels after chronic stress. Compared with before stress, the serum glucose levels were increased in some groups whereas the triglyceride levels were decreased. Furthermore, total cholesterol gain rates were enhanced but the high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol gain rates were decreased in most caffeine groups after stress. These transgenerational effects were characterized partially with gender and parental differences. Taken together, these results indicate that the reproductive and developmental toxicities and the neuroendocrine metabolic programming mechanism by prenatal caffeine ingestion have transgenerational effects in rats, which may help to explain the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases in F2. - Highlights: • Caffeine-induced neuroendocrine metabolic programming of HPA has hereditary effect. • Caffeine

  9. Politics, doctors, assisted reproductive technologies & religion: Transgenerational understandings and experiences of single motherhood in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Moreno, Ana

    2017-10-01

    The aim is to achieve a transgenerational view of single motherhood in Spain, to look at which contexts it arises in, how it changes with the introduction of assisted reproduction, and how the role of religion in Spanish society permeates medical practice and affects the lives of women patients. I examine single motherhood and investigate two interconnected themes: (a) being a mother and being mothered are both permeated with sociocultural, political, religious, economic and psychological significance; (b) Spain led Europe in multiple births due to assisted reproduction, thus ethical conflicts and patient rights are analyzed.

  10. DNA repair efficiency in germ cells and early mouse embryos and consequences for radiation-induced transgenerational genomic damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2009-01-18

    Exposure to ionizing radiation and other environmental agents can affect the genomic integrity of germ cells and induce adverse health effects in the progeny. Efficient DNA repair during gametogenesis and the early embryonic cycles after fertilization is critical for preventing transmission of DNA damage to the progeny and relies on maternal factors stored in the egg before fertilization. The ability of the maternal repair machinery to repair DNA damage in both parental genomes in the fertilizing egg is especially crucial for the fertilizing male genome that has not experienced a DNA repair-competent cellular environment for several weeks prior to fertilization. During the DNA repair-deficient period of spermatogenesis, DNA lesions may accumulate in sperm and be carried into the egg where, if not properly repaired, could result in the formation of heritable chromosomal aberrations or mutations and associated birth defects. Studies with female mice deficient in specific DNA repair genes have shown that: (i) cell cycle checkpoints are activated in the fertilized egg by DNA damage carried by the sperm; and (ii) the maternal genotype plays a major role in determining the efficiency of repairing genomic lesions in the fertilizing sperm and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also growing evidence that implicates DNA damage carried by the fertilizing gamete as a mediator of postfertilization processes that contribute to genomic instability in subsequent generations. Transgenerational genomic instability most likely involves epigenetic mechanisms or error-prone DNA repair processes in the early embryo. Maternal and embryonic DNA repair processes during the early phases of mammalian embryonic development can have far reaching consequences for the genomic integrity and health of subsequent generations.

  11. Does classroom amplification aid comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, P; Canning, D

    1999-06-01

    Many classrooms are noisy and this interferes with listening and teaching. FM soundfield (FM) amplification systems have been developed which provide a uniform soundfield throughout the classroom and increase the speech-signal:noise ratio. The effect on comprehension of such a system was investigated. Forty-nine pupils (comprising the two top classes of a mainstream primary school) participated in this study, with a mean age of 9.92 years (range 8.58-11.42 years). The Neale Analysis of Reading Ability (Neale, 1988a, b) was modified and administered as a spoken comprehension test. Tests of nonverbal intelligence, auditory memory and a questionnaire were given. The passages spoken though the FM amplification system were understood better than the comparable unamplified passages. Auditory memory, sex and non-verbal intelligence had no effect on improved comprehension. FM amplification significantly improved comprehension and could be considered for use in other schools.

  12. [The transgenerational transmission of traumatic experiences of the Second World War over three generations--a psychoanalytical perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silke, Wiegand-Grefe; Möller, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents some reflections on the transgenerational transmission of traumatic experiences of war and in particular bombing during Second World War. These theoretical considerations are based on a case study (family interview) deriving from the research project "Kriegskindheit im Hamburger Feuersturm" additionally illustrated and complemented with impressions based on interviews with three generations in context of the project.

  13. Can transgenerational plasticity contribute to the invasion success of annual plant species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenesi, Annamária; Dyer, Andrew R; Geréd, Júliánna; Sándor, Dorottya; Ruprecht, Eszter

    2014-09-01

    Adaptive transgenerational plasticity (TGP), i.e., significantly higher fitness when maternal and offspring conditions match, might contribute to the population growth of non-native species in highly variable environments. However, comparative studies that directly test this hypothesis are lacking. Therefore, we performed a reciprocal split-brood experiment to compare TGP in response to N and water availability in single populations of two invasive (Amaranthus retroflexus, Galinsoga parviflora) and two congeneric non-invasive introduced species (Amaranthus albus, Galinsoga ciliata). We hypothesized that the transgenerational effect is adaptive: (1) in invasive species compared with non-invasive adventives, and (2) in stressful conditions compared with resource-rich environments. The phenotypic variation among offspring was generated, in large part, by our experimental treatments in the maternal generation; therefore, we demonstrated a direct TGP effect on the offspring's adult fitness. We found evidence, for the first time, that invasive and non-invasive adventive species differ regarding the expression of TGP in the adult stage, as adaptive responses were found exclusively in the invasive species. The manifestation of TGP was more explicit under resource-rich conditions; therefore, it might contribute to the population dynamics of non-native species in resource-rich sites rather than to their ecological tolerance spectra.

  14. Trans-generational effect of radiation. Finding a tomorrow guide by the past lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Masatake

    2004-01-01

    This review describes findings concerning the trans-generational effect of radiation in animals and man. In experimental animals, there are findings of the effect in Drosophila irradiated by X-ray in 1927 and in mice by X- and gamma rays in 1982. Thereafter, many studies have been done on genetic stability of hypervariable minisatellite locus Ms6-hm in mice. In man, epidemiological findings are related with the effect. Although many studies are conducted on the epidemiology of people living in the high background radiation areas in China, of leukemia in radiation-exposed father's children, of Japanese A-bomb survivors and their descendants, and of people after Chernobyl accident, a possible trans-generational effect has been seen only in one of reports concerned with Chernobyl accident. Dynamic mutations of regions of hypervariable repeated sequence in man are discussed in relation with its genetic instability associated with hereditary diseases like fragile X syndrome. The author mentions that findings of the effect should provide answers for people's anxiety and questions. (N.I.)

  15. Transgenerational metamorphosis in Shakespeare’s Winter’s tale and the eurozone crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Wooster

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale – set in Palermo, and also Bohemia - suggests that where there is close affection and love there also may be more exposure to envy, jealousy, uncontrolled anger,attempts to punish, and guilt. It involves inter-sibling and inter-group dynamics, attributions, misattributions, but also transgenerational metapmorphosis creating new meanings, and how envy and jealousy - if reconciled – may redeem guilt and generate psychic surpluses rather than only deficits. The paper outlines these but also relates such dynamics to the current crisis of the Eurozone and Kleinian splitting and projective identification. It suggests that the crisis is the first time Germany that Germany has been able to split from guilt (Schuld – especially for the Holocaust – and been able to project guilt for debt (also Schuld in German onto the peripheral European countries, and that transgenerational metapmorphosis will depend on recovering the good in credit as the inverse of debt. Key words: Jealousy, Guilt, Debt.

  16. Transgenerational metamorphosis in Shakespeare’s Winter’s tale and the eurozone crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Wooster

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale – set in Palermo, and also Bohemia - suggests that where there is close affection and love there also may be more exposure to envy, jealousy, uncontrolled anger,attempts to punish, and guilt. It involves inter-sibling and inter-group dynamics, attributions, misattributions, but also transgenerational metapmorphosis creating new meanings, and how envy and jealousy - if reconciled – may redeem guilt and generate psychic surpluses rather than only deficits. The paper outlines these but also relates such dynamics to the current crisis of the Eurozone and Kleinian splitting and projective identification. It suggests that the crisis is the first time Germany that Germany has been able to split from guilt (Schuld – especially for the Holocaust – and been able to project guilt for debt (also Schuld in German onto the peripheral European countries, and that transgenerational metapmorphosis will depend on recovering the good in credit as the inverse of debt. Keywords: Jealousy; Guilt; Debt 

  17. Species-specific and transgenerational responses to increasing salinity in sympatric freshwater gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suski, Jamie G; Salice, Christopher J; Patiño, Reynaldo

    2012-11-01

    Freshwater salinization is a global concern partly attributable to anthropogenic salt contamination. The authors examined the effects of increased salinity (as NaCl, 250-4,000 µS/cm, specific conductance) on two sympatric freshwater gastropods (Helisoma trivolvis and Physa pomillia). Life stage sensitivities were determined by exposing naive eggs or naive juveniles (through adulthood and reproduction). Additionally, progeny eggs from the juvenile-adult exposures were maintained at their respective parental salinities to examine transgenerational effects. Naive H. trivolvis eggs experienced delayed development at specific conductance > 250 µS/cm; reduced survivorship and reproduction were also seen in juvenile H. trivolvis at 4,000 µS/cm. Survival and growth of P. pomilia were not affected by increased salinity following egg or juvenile exposures. Interestingly, the progeny of H. trivolvis exposed to higher salinity may have gained tolerance to increased salinity whereas P. pomilia progeny may have experienced negative transgenerational effects. The present study demonstrates that freshwater snail species vary in their tolerance to salinization and also highlights the importance of multigenerational studies, as stressor impacts may not be readily apparent from shorter term exposures. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  18. Direct and trans-generational effects of male and female gut microbiota inDrosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Juliano; Simpson, Stephen J; Ponton, Fleur

    2017-07-01

    There is increasing evidence of the far-reaching effects of gut bacteria on physiological and behavioural traits, yet the fitness-related consequences of changes in the gut bacteria composition of sexually interacting individuals remain unknown. To address this question, we manipulated the gut microbiota of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster , by monoinfecting flies with either Acetobacter pomorum ( AP ) or Lactobacillus plantarum ( LP ) . Re-inoculated individuals were paired in all treatment combinations. LP- infected males had longer mating duration and induced higher short-term offspring production in females compared with AP -infected males. Furthermore, females of either re-inoculation state mated with AP- infected males were more likely to have zero offspring after mating, suggesting a negative effect of AP on male fertility . Finally, we found that the effects of male and female gut bacteria interacted to modulate their daughters', but not sons' body mass, revealing a new trans-generational effect of parental gut microbiota. In conclusion, this study shows direct and trans-generational effects of the gut microbiota on mating and reproduction. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Evidence for biological roots in the transgenerational transmission of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, M I; Poirier, G L; Marquez, C; Veenit, V; Fontana, X; Salehi, B; Ansermet, F; Sandi, C

    2012-04-24

    Intimate partner violence is a ubiquitous and devastating phenomenon for which effective interventions and a clear etiological understanding are still lacking. A major risk factor for violence perpetration is childhood exposure to violence, prompting the proposal that social learning is a major contributor to the transgenerational transmission of violence. Using an animal model devoid of human cultural factors, we showed that male rats became highly aggressive against their female partners as adults after exposure to non-social stressful experiences in their youth. Their offspring also showed increased aggression toward females in the absence of postnatal father-offspring interaction or any other exposure to violence. Both the females that cohabited with the stressed males and those that cohabited with their male offspring showed behavioral (including anxiety- and depression-like behaviors), physiological (decreased body weight and basal corticosterone levels) and neurobiological symptoms (increased activity in dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons in response to an unfamiliar male) resembling the alterations described in abused and depressed women. With the caution required when translating animal work to humans, our findings extend current psychosocial explanations of the transgenerational transmission of intimate partner violence by strongly suggesting an important role for biological factors.

  20. Within and transgenerational immune priming in an insect to a DNA virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidbury, Hannah J; Pedersen, Amy B; Boots, Mike

    2011-03-22

    Invertebrates mount a sophisticated immune response with the potential to exhibit a form of immune memory through 'priming'. Increased immune protection following early exposure to bacteria has been found both later in life (within generation priming) and in the next generation (transgeneration priming) in a number of invertebrates. However, it is unclear how general immune priming is and whether immune priming occurs in response to different parasites, including viruses. Here, using Plodia interpuctella (Lepidoptera) and its natural DNA virus, Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus, we find evidence for both within generation and transgeneration immune priming. Individuals previously exposed to low doses of virus, as well as the offspring of exposed individuals, are subsequently less susceptible to viral challenge. Relatively little is known about the mechanisms that underpin viral immunity but it is probable that the viral immune response is somewhat different to that of bacteria. We show that immune priming may, however, be a characteristic of both responses, mediated through different mechanisms, suggesting that immune memory may be a general phenomenon of insect immunity. This is important because immune priming may influence both host-parasite population and evolutionary dynamics.

  1. Microbiome assembly of avian eggshells and their potential as transgenerational carriers of maternal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veelen, H Pieter J; Salles, Joana Falcão; Tieleman, B Irene

    2018-02-14

    The microbiome is essential for development, health and homeostasis throughout an animal's life. Yet, the origins and transmission processes governing animal microbiomes remain elusive for non-human vertebrates, oviparous vertebrates in particular. Eggs may function as transgenerational carriers of the maternal microbiome, warranting characterisation of egg microbiome assembly. Here, we investigated maternal and environmental contributions to avian eggshell microbiota in wild passerine birds: woodlark Lullula arborea and skylark Alauda arvensis. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we demonstrated in both lark species, at the population and within-nest levels, that bacterial communities of freshly laid eggs were distinct from the female cloacal microbiome. Instead, soil-borne bacteria appeared to thrive on freshly laid eggs, and eggshell microbiota composition strongly resembled maternal skin, body feather and nest material communities, sources in direct contact with laid eggs. Finally, phylogenetic structure analysis and microbial source tracking underscored species sorting from directly contacting sources rather than in vivo-transferred symbionts. The female-egg-nest system allowed an integrative assessment of avian egg microbiome assembly, revealing mixed modes of symbiont acquisition not previously documented for vertebrate eggs. Our findings illuminated egg microbiome origins, which suggested a limited potential of eggshells for transgenerational transmission, encouraging further investigation of eggshell microbiome functions in vertebrates.

  2. The effects of in utero irradiation on mutation induction and transgenerational instability in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Ruth C.; Hardwick, Robert J.; Shanks, Morag E.; Glen, Colin D.; Mughal, Safeer K.; Voutounou, Mariel; Dubrova, Yuri E.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that the deleterious effects of prenatal irradiation can manifest during childhood, resulting in an increased risk of leukaemia and solid cancers after birth. However, the mechanisms underlying the long-term effects of foetal irradiation remain poorly understood. This study was designed to analyse the impact of in utero irradiation on mutation rates at expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) DNA loci in directly exposed mice and their first-generation (F 1 ) offspring. ESTR mutation frequencies in the germline and somatic tissues of male and female mice irradiated at 12 days of gestation remained highly elevated during adulthood, which was mainly attributed to a significant increase in the frequency of singleton mutations. The prevalence of singleton mutations in directly exposed mice suggests that foetal irradiation results in genomic instability manifested both in utero and during adulthood. The frequency of ESTR mutation in the F 1 offspring of prenatally irradiated male mice was equally elevated across all tissues, which suggests that foetal exposure results in transgenerational genomic instability. In contrast, maternal in utero exposure did not affect the F 1 stability. Our data imply that the passive erasure of epigenetic marks in the maternal genome can diminish the transgenerational effects of foetal irradiation and therefore provide important clues to the still unknown mechanisms of radiation-induced genomic instability. The results of this study offer a plausible explanation for the effects of in utero irradiation on the risk of leukaemia and solid cancers after birth.

  3. The effects of maternal irradiation during adulthood on mutation induction and transgenerational instability in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouzeid Ali, Hamdy E.; Barber, Ruth C.; Dubrova, Yuri E.

    2012-01-01

    The long-term genetic effects of maternal irradiation remain poorly understood. To establish the effects of radiation exposure on mutation induction in the germline of directly exposed females and the possibility of transgenerational effects in their non-exposed offspring, adult female BALB/c and CBA/Ca mice were given 1 Gy of acute X-rays and mated with control males. The frequency of mutation at expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci in the germline of directly exposed females did not differ from that of controls. Using a single-molecule PCR approach, ESTR mutation frequency was also established for both germline and somatic tissues in the first-generation offspring of irradiated parents. While the frequency of ESTR mutation in the offspring of irradiated males was significantly elevated, maternal irradiation did not affect stability in their F 1 offspring. Considering these data and the results of our previous study, we propose that, in sharp contrast to paternal exposure to ionising radiation, the transgenerational effects of maternal high-dose acute irradiation are likely to be negligible.

  4. Multigenerational contaminant exposures produce non-monotonic, transgenerational responses in Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimberly, David A.; Salice, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Generally, ecotoxicologists rely on short-term tests that assume populations to be static. Conversely, natural populations may be exposed to the same stressors for many generations, which can alter tolerance to the same (or other) stressors. The objective of this study was to improve our understanding of how multigenerational stressors alter life history traits and stressor tolerance. After continuously exposing Daphnia magna to cadmium for 120 days, we assessed life history traits and conducted a challenge at higher temperature and cadmium concentrations. Predictably, individuals exposed to cadmium showed an overall decrease in reproductive output compared to controls. Interestingly, control D. magna were the most cadmium tolerant to novel cadmium, followed by those exposed to high cadmium. Our data suggest that long-term exposure to cadmium alter tolerance traits in a non-monotonic way. Because we observed effects after one-generation removal from cadmium, transgenerational effects may be possible as a result of multigenerational exposure. - Highlights: • Daphnia magna exposed to cadmium for 120 days. • D. magna exposed to cadmium had decreased reproductive output. • Control D. magna were most cadmium tolerant to novel cadmium stress. • Long-term exposure to cadmium alter tolerance traits in a non-monotonic way. • Transgenerational effects observed as a result of multigenerational exposure. - Adverse effects of long-term cadmium exposure persist into cadmium free conditions, as seen by non-monotonic responses when exposed to novel stress one generation removed.

  5. Transgenerational healing: Educating children in genesis of healthy children, with focus on nutrition, emotion, and epigenetic effects on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Simon H

    2013-01-01

    before conception prevents both structural faults and wrong setting of gene-switches. Children's habits set. Once courting most are preoccupied and many pregnant unintentionally. Childhood is the time to be adopting a healthy lifestyle, the way to healthy babies The mother's nutritional and emotional status throughout pregnancy continues to affect her child's future physical and mental health, behaviour and ability. Before conception a woman needs to build her appropriate body stores - vitamins and minerals, proteins, docosahexaenoic acid. Before bearing another child, a replenishment time of 3 years is desirable. A return to childbearing in the 20s and early 30s could reduce risks that have risen with the recent shift towards conception by school children and by women in their late 30s or more. Governments, schoolteachers, health professionals, need to adopt this policy of transgenerational health. Empowerment with knowledge is the one way to fend off the growing pandemic of mental ill health and related disorders and to make the most of a nation's genetic potential. Financially there could be no better investment, let alone in enhancing people's lives. Childhood is the most appropriate time for education in this way to generating a healthy, able and peaceful human race. Essential to our amazing genetic systems are the resources of land, sea and air. We are one with our biosphere. We need urgently to follow up the vital work of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, and of Far East initiatives in sea-bed and sea husbandry. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Genome position and gene amplification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsová, Pavla; Snijders, A.M.; Kwek, S.; Roydasgupta, R.; Fridlyand, J.; Tokuyasu, T.; Pinkel, D.; Albertson, D. G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 6 (2007), r120 ISSN 1474-760X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : gene amplification * array comparative genomic hybridization * oncogene Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.589, year: 2007

  7. Plastics derived endocrine disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP induce epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of obesity, reproductive disease and sperm epimutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Manikkam

    Full Text Available Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in subsequent generations (F1-F3 following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study was designed to determine if a mixture of plastic derived endocrine disruptor compounds bisphenol-A (BPA, bis(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP at two different doses promoted epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and associated DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to either the "plastics" or "lower dose plastics" mixture during embryonic days 8 to 14 of gonadal sex determination and the incidence of adult onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. There were significant increases in the incidence of total disease/abnormalities in F1 and F3 generation male and female animals from plastics lineages. Pubertal abnormalities, testis disease, obesity, and ovarian disease (primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovaries were increased in the F3 generation animals. Kidney and prostate disease were only observed in the direct fetally exposed F1 generation plastic lineage animals. Analysis of the plastics lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome previously identified 197 differential DNA methylation regions (DMR in gene promoters, termed epimutations. A number of these transgenerational DMR form a unique direct connection gene network and have previously been shown to correlate with the pathologies identified. Observations demonstrate that a mixture of plastic derived compounds, BPA and phthalates, can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The sperm DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and/or ancestral environmental exposures.

  8. Plastics derived endocrine disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP) induce epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of obesity, reproductive disease and sperm epimutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Tracey, Rebecca; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Skinner, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in subsequent generations (F1-F3) following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study was designed to determine if a mixture of plastic derived endocrine disruptor compounds bisphenol-A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at two different doses promoted epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and associated DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to either the "plastics" or "lower dose plastics" mixture during embryonic days 8 to 14 of gonadal sex determination and the incidence of adult onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. There were significant increases in the incidence of total disease/abnormalities in F1 and F3 generation male and female animals from plastics lineages. Pubertal abnormalities, testis disease, obesity, and ovarian disease (primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovaries) were increased in the F3 generation animals. Kidney and prostate disease were only observed in the direct fetally exposed F1 generation plastic lineage animals. Analysis of the plastics lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome previously identified 197 differential DNA methylation regions (DMR) in gene promoters, termed epimutations. A number of these transgenerational DMR form a unique direct connection gene network and have previously been shown to correlate with the pathologies identified. Observations demonstrate that a mixture of plastic derived compounds, BPA and phthalates, can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The sperm DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and/or ancestral environmental exposures.

  9. A simple analytical expression to describe tidal damping or amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenije, H. H. G.

    2001-03-01

    Can a single line describe tidal damping or amplification? Tidal damping and amplification in alluvial estuaries are constrained by an implicit feedback mechanism. The time lag ɛ between the occurrence of high water and high water slack is crucial in this regard. An analytical solution of the St. Venant equations appears to result in a surprisingly simple explicit relation for the tidal range, consisting of an exponential and a linear term. In alluvial estuaries, the linear term is dominant, particularly in the case of tidal amplification. In the case of tidal damping the exponential term only becomes important in the upper reaches of the estuary (preventing the expression for the tidal range from becoming negative). In tidal amplification, the exponential term is suppressed by the newly defined tidal Froude Number which (as it contains sin ɛ) tends to zero when the tidal wave gets a predominantly standing wave character. This negative feedback prevents the development of an exponentially increasing tidal range. Finally, the expression obtained is a very useful explicit equation to determine estuary parameters that are difficult to determine from direct observations, such as the roughness and the mean water depth.

  10. Transgenerational Transmission of the Effect of Gestational Ethanol Exposure on Ethanol Use-Related Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhnikov, Michael E; Popoola, Daniel O; Cameron, Nicole M

    2016-03-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) enhances the risk for alcoholism by increasing the propensity to consume alcohol and altering neurophysiological response to alcohol challenge. Trans-generationally transmittable genetic alterations have been implicated in these behavioral changes. To date, transgenerational transmission of PAE-induced behavioral responses to alcohol has never been experimentally investigated. Therefore, we explored the transgenerational transmission of PAE-induced behavioral effects across 3 generations. Pregnant Sprague Dawley dams received 1 g/kg ethanol (EtOH) or water daily on gestational days 17 through 20 via gavage, or remained untreated in their home cages. To produce second filial (F2) or F3 generations, similarly treated adult F1 or F2 offspring were mated and left undisturbed through gestation. On postnatal day (PND) 14, male and female F1, F2, and F3 offspring were tested for consumption of 5% (w/v) EtOH (in water), or water. Using the loss of righting reflex (LORR) paradigm on PND 42, F1 and F2 adolescent male offspring were tested for sensitivity to acute EtOH-induced sedation-hypnosis at 3.5 or 4.5 g/kg dose. F3 male adolescents were similarly tested at 3.5 g/kg dose. Blood EtOH concentration (BEC) was measured at waking. EtOH exposure increased EtOH consumption compared to both water and untreated control groups in all generations. EtOH-treated group F1 and F2 adolescents displayed attenuated LORR duration compared to the water group. No attenuated LORR was observed in the F3 generation. BEC at waking corroborated with the significant LORR duration differences while also revealing differences between untreated control and water groups in F1 and F2 generations. Our results provide novel behavioral evidence attesting that late gestational moderate EtOH exposure increases EtOH intake across 3 generations and may alter sensitivity to EtOH-induced sedation-hypnosis across 2 generations. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on

  11. Accelerator for amplification of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yoshiharu

    1998-01-01

    As a forming method of new nuclear energy, an energy amplification system using accelerator driven subcritical reactor is focussed. In order to realize amplification of energy driven by accelerator, development of an accelerator with excellent electric power efficiency is one of the most important problems. The necessary beam power of accelerator is 10 MW, and when reducing used electric power of the accelerator to under 25% of total power generation, more than 30% of electric power efficiency is required for the accelerator. Therefore, an accelerator with excellent electric power efficiency without experiencing before now is required to realize such an aim. A prominent candidate of the accelerator is FFAG (Fixed Field Alternating Gradient) synchrotron (may be called ring synchrotron). In this paper, some simple considerations of electric power efficiency of accelerators and basic parameter of FFAG synchrotron were described. (G.K.)

  12. Laser amplification in excited dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Thomas; Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse; Sarpe, Cristian; Zielinski, Bastian; Götte, Nadine; Senftleben, Arne; Balling, Peter; Baumert, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Wide-bandgap dielectrics such as glasses or water are transparent at visible and infrared wavelengths. This changes when they are exposed to ultrashort and highly intense laser pulses. Different interaction mechanisms lead to the appearance of various transient nonlinear optical phenomena. Using these, the optical properties of dielectrics can be controlled from the transparent to the metal-like state. Here we expand this range by a yet unexplored mechanism in excited dielectrics: amplification. In a two-colour pump-probe experiment, we show that a 400 nm femtosecond laser pulse is coherently amplified inside an excited sapphire sample on a scale of a few micrometres. Simulations strongly support the proposed two-photon stimulated emission process, which is temporally and spatially controllable. Consequently, we expect applications in all fields that demand strongly localized amplification.

  13. Frequency domain optical parametric amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Bruno E; Thiré, Nicolas; Boivin, Maxime; Laramée, Antoine; Poitras, François; Lebrun, Guy; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Ibrahim, Heide; Légaré, François

    2014-05-07

    Today's ultrafast lasers operate at the physical limits of optical materials to reach extreme performances. Amplification of single-cycle laser pulses with their corresponding octave-spanning spectra still remains a formidable challenge since the universal dilemma of gain narrowing sets limits for both real level pumped amplifiers as well as parametric amplifiers. We demonstrate that employing parametric amplification in the frequency domain rather than in time domain opens up new design opportunities for ultrafast laser science, with the potential to generate single-cycle multi-terawatt pulses. Fundamental restrictions arising from phase mismatch and damage threshold of nonlinear laser crystals are not only circumvented but also exploited to produce a synergy between increased seed spectrum and increased pump energy. This concept was successfully demonstrated by generating carrier envelope phase stable, 1.43 mJ two-cycle pulses at 1.8 μm wavelength.

  14. Laser amplification in excited dielectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Thomas; Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse; Sarpe, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    Wide-bandgap dielectrics such as glasses or water are transparent at visible and infrared wavelengths. This changes when they are exposed to ultrashort and highly intense laser pulses. Different interaction mechanisms lead to the appearance of various transient nonlinear optical phenomena. Using...... these, the optical properties of dielectrics can be controlled from the transparent to the metal-like state. Here we expand this range by a yet unexplored mechanism in excited dielectrics: amplification. In a two-colour pump-probe experiment, we show that a 400nm femtosecond laser pulse is coherently...... amplified inside an excited sapphire sample on a scale of a few micrometres. Simulations strongly support the proposed two-photon stimulated emission process, which is temporally and spatially controllable. Consequently, we expect applications in all fields that demand strongly localized amplification....

  15. Differential voltage amplification from ferroelectric negative capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif I.; Hoffmann, Michael; Chatterjee, Korok; Lu, Zhongyuan; Xu, Ruijuan; Serrao, Claudy; Smith, Samuel; Martin, Lane W.; Hu, Chenming; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate that a ferroelectric can cause a differential voltage amplification without needing an external energy source. As the ferroelectric switches from one polarization state to the other, a transfer of energy takes place from the ferroelectric to the dielectric, determined by the ratio of their capacitances, which, in turn, leads to the differential amplification. This amplification is very different in nature from conventional inductor-capacitor based circuits where an oscillatory amplification can be observed. The demonstration of differential voltage amplification from completely passive capacitor elements only has fundamental ramifications for next generation electronics.

  16. Spheromak Impedance and Current Amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T K; Hua, D D; Stallard, B W

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that high current amplification can be achieved only by injecting helicity on the timescale for reconnection, τ REC , which determines the effective impedance of the spheromak. An approximate equation for current amplification is: dI TOR 2 /dt ∼ I 2 /τ REC - I TOR 2 /τ closed where I is the gun current, I TOR is the spheromak toroidal current and τ CLOSED is the ohmic decay time of the spheromak. Achieving high current amplification, I TOR >> I, requires τ REC CLOSED . For resistive reconnection, this requires reconnection in a cold zone feeding helicity into a hot zone. Here we propose an impedance model based on these ideas in a form that can be implemented in the Corsica-based helicity transport code. The most important feature of the model is the possibility that τ REC actually increases as the spheromak temperature increases, perhaps accounting for the ''voltage sag'' observed in some experiments, and a tendency toward a constant ratio of field to current, B ∝ I, or I TOR ∼ I. Program implications are discussed

  17. Developmental systems of plasticity and trans-generational epigenetic inheritance in nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serobyan, Vahan; Sommer, Ralf J

    2017-08-01

    Several decades of research provided detailed insight into how genes control development and evolution, whereas recent studies have expanded this purely genetic perspective by presenting strong evidence for environmental and epigenetic influences. We summarize examples of phenotypic plasticity and trans-generational epigenetic inheritance in the nematode model organisms Pristionchus pacificus and Caenorhabditis elegans, which indicate that the response of developmental systems to environmental influences is hardwired into the organismś genome. We argue that genetic programs regulating these organismal-environmental interactions are themselves subject to natural selection. Indeed, macro-evolutionary studies of nematode feeding structures indicate evolutionary trajectories in which plasticity followed by genetic assimilation results in extreme diversity highlighting the role of plasticity as major facilitator of phenotypic diversification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thoughts on the cultural evolution of man. Developmental imprinting and transgenerational effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2007-01-01

    The biological evolution of man stopped since it has been conveyed to the objects, created by man. This paper introduces the concept of "conveyed evolution". Being part of the cultural evolution, the conveyed evolution is a continuation of the biological one. There are several similarities between the laws of biological and conveyed evolution, albeit the differences are important as well. Some laws of the conveyed evolution are described here. The conveyed evolution has man-made repair mechanisms (medicine, protection of environment) which defend man from harm. Man's fragility limits the progress of conveyed evolution. However, artificial compounds or environmental pollutants which are provoked by the conveyed evolution induce chemical (hormonal) imprinting in the developmental critical periods, which is transmitted to the progeny generations (transgenerational effect). This could cause evolutionary alterations without mutation.

  19. Transgenerational interactions between a pesticide and warming in a vector mosquito

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, T.; Dinh, Khuong Van; Stoks, R.

    Climate change imposes a strong pressure on the persistence of natural populations and together with pollution it exerts a global threat to biodiversity. While many transgenerational studies have revealed the capacity of species to adapt to a temperature increase, it remains unknown if this ability...... studied effects on larval survival and age and size at metamorphosis. In both generations, warming and the pesticide reduced larval survival and accelerated development in the survivors. While warming reduced size at metamorphosis, pesticide exposure did not affect size. As expected, the effect...... of chlorpyrifos on mortality was stronger under warming. We could show delayed effects of parental rearing temperature on their offspring with parents reared at 24°C producing offspring with a lower survival, slower development, but a larger size at metamorphosis. For survival the effect was particularly strong...

  20. Evolutionary learning of adaptation to varying environments through a transgenerational feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bingkan; Leibler, Stanislas

    Organisms can adapt to a randomly varying environment by creating phenotypic diversity in their population, a phenomenon often referred to as evolutionary bet-hedging\\x9D. The favorable level of phenotypic diversity depends on the statistics of local environmental variations. Often, the timescale of environmental variations can be much longer than the lifespan of individual organisms. How could organisms collect such long-term environmental information to adjust their phenotypic diversity? We propose here a general mechanism of evolutionary learning based on a transgenerational feedback: the frequency of the parent phenotype is progressively reinforced in the distribution of phenotypes among the offspring. This mechanism can in principle be realized through known molecular processes of epigenetic inheritance, observed in some model organisms. Thus, our theory may provide a perspective for understanding the evolutionary significance of such processes. BKX is funded by the Schmidt Membership in Biology at IAS.

  1. Transgenerational epigenetics of parental exposure to ionising radiation and other mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrova, Yuri E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have established that epigenetic changes play an important role in many common human diseases, including cancer. Given that the epigenetic landscape of the mammalian cell is not fixed and undergoes massive reprogramming during development, it can potentially be affected by a variety of environmental factors. As the majority of the de novo epigenetic marks, including DNA methylation, are faithfully reproduced during DNA replication, they are transmissible through many cell divisions and, in some cases, can be passed from parents to their offspring. An increasing body of experimental evidence from animal and human studies suggests that environmentally-induced epigenetic changes can be inherited by subsequent generations and can result in transgenerational phenotypic alterations, including predisposition to common diseases

  2. Transgenerational Effects of Trauma in Midlife: Evidence for Resilience and Vulnerability in Offspring of Holocaust Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, Amit; Palgi, Yuval; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Shmotkin, Dov

    2010-01-01

    Despite abundant research on offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS), it is relatively unknown how they function in middle-age. Transgenerational effects of the Holocaust may be stronger among middle-aged OHS as they previously suffered from early inclement natal and postnatal environment and now face age-related decline. Yet, middle-aged OHS may successfully maintain the resilience they demonstrated at younger age. This study performed a wide-spectrum functional assessment of middle-aged OHS and comparisons (N = 364) drawn from the Israeli component of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-Israel). OHS, and especially those with two survivor parents, reported a higher sense of well-being, but more physical health problems than comparisons. The discussion provides possible explanations for this mixed functional profile. PMID:22267975

  3. [Revival of transgenerational traumas (TGT) in psychotherapeutic context. Some possibilities of interpretation in four cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Pál József; Zseni, Annamária

    2007-01-01

    The authors think that the destructive factors that influence one's destiny in life could be the transmissions of collective, familial, and other factors coming from the clan system. This transmission is described by the concept of transgenerational trauma. A burdensome heritage can either directly, or indirectly, be passed on, even through several generations, as it can be seen in the presented cases. Also cases of intrauterine catastrophes are presented. A catastrophe like this is the case of vanishing twins. Four psychotherapy cases are analyzed in which the patients' sufferings may be attributed to the intrauterine death of their twin. In two of the cases the loss of a twin sibling is a proven biological fact. In the other two cases there is a high probability that the same has happened. A novel element introduced by the authors in the interpretation of this phenomenon is the concept that the fetus and the embrio may be able to preserve the memories of the experienced catastrophes, which as state-dependent memories will be revived in stress situations in the form of physical symptoms and feelings connected to the trauma. However, at this point in time traditional medical thinking is unable to explain the process through which a burdensome heritage is taken over from previous generations. The authors present Bert Hellinger's family constellation and Rupert Sheldrake's theory of morphic resonance as well as the uncertainty principle of quantum psychology. All these consider the multi-dimensional, topological reality that is beyond time and not the four-dimensional geometrical space as the medium in which transgenerational pieces of information spread.

  4. Gene bionetworks involved in the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of altered mate preference: environmental epigenetics and evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Michael K; Savenkova, Marina I; Zhang, Bin; Gore, Andrea C; Crews, David

    2014-05-16

    Mate preference behavior is an essential first step in sexual selection and is a critical determinant in evolutionary biology. Previously an environmental compound (the fungicide vinclozolin) was found to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of an altered sperm epigenome and modified mate preference characteristics for three generations after exposure of a gestating female. The current study investigated gene networks involved in various regions of the brain that correlated with the altered mate preference behavior in the male and female. Statistically significant correlations of gene clusters and modules were identified to associate with specific mate preference behaviors. This novel systems biology approach identified gene networks (bionetworks) involved in sex-specific mate preference behavior. Observations demonstrate the ability of environmental factors to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of this altered evolutionary biology determinant. Combined observations elucidate the potential molecular control of mate preference behavior and suggests environmental epigenetics can have a role in evolutionary biology.

  5. Translocation of bacteria from the gut to the eggs triggers maternal transgenerational immune priming in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Eileen; Schmidtberg, Henrike; Arslan, Derya; Bingsohn, Linda; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Invertebrates can be primed to enhance their protection against pathogens they have encountered before. This enhanced immunity can be passed maternally or paternally to the offspring and is known as transgenerational immune priming. We challenged larvae of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum by feeding them on diets supplemented with Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus or Pseudomonas entomophila, thus mimicking natural exposure to pathogens. The oral uptake of bacteria induced immunity-related genes in the offspring, but did not affect the methylation status of the egg DNA. However, we observed the translocation of bacteria or bacterial fragments from the gut to the developing eggs via the female reproductive system. Such translocating microbial elicitors are postulated to trigger bacterial strain-specific immune responses in the offspring and provide an alternative mechanistic explanation for maternal transgenerational immune priming in coleopteran insects. © 2015 The Authors.

  6. Intra- and trans-generational costs of reduced female body size caused by food limitation early in life in mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Food limitation early in life may be compensated for by developmental plasticity resulting in accelerated development enhancing survival at the expense of small adult body size. However and especially for females in non-matching maternal and offspring environments, being smaller than the standard may incur considerable intra- and trans-generational costs. Here, we evaluated the costs of small female body size induced by food limitation early in life in the sexually size-dimorphic predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Females are larger than males. These predators are adapted to exploit ephemeral spider mite prey patches. The intra- and trans-generational effects of small maternal body size manifested in lower maternal survival probabilities, decreased attractiveness for males, and a reduced number and size of eggs compared to standard-sized females. The trans-generational effects of small maternal body size were sex-specific with small mothers producing small daughters but standard-sized sons. Small female body size apparently intensified the well-known costs of sexual activity because mortality of small but not standard-sized females mainly occurred shortly after mating. The disadvantages of small females in mating and egg production may be generally explained by size-associated morphological and physiological constraints. Additionally, size-assortative mate preferences of standard-sized mates may have rendered small females disproportionally unattractive mating partners. We argue that the sex-specific trans-generational effects were due to sexual size dimorphism - females are the larger sex and thus more strongly affected by maternal stress than the smaller males - and to sexually selected lower plasticity of male body size.

  7. Trans-generational maternal effect: temperature influences egg size of the offspring in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, B; Jonsson, N

    2016-08-01

    Effect of increased temperature during egg maturation on the mass of single eggs produced by the offspring was investigated experimentally in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Mass of eggs produced by next-generation females was larger when their mothers experienced warmer water during the last two months of egg maturation, relative to those that experienced unheated river water. There was no similar trans-generational paternal effect on offspring egg mass. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Intra- and Trans-Generational Costs of Reduced Female Body Size Caused by Food Limitation Early in Life in Mites

    OpenAIRE

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Food limitation early in life may be compensated for by developmental plasticity resulting in accelerated development enhancing survival at the expense of small adult body size. However and especially for females in non-matching maternal and offspring environments, being smaller than the standard may incur considerable intra- and trans-generational costs. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we evaluated the costs of small female body size induced by food limitation early in life i...

  9. Offspring reaction norms shaped by parental environment: interaction between within- and trans-generational plasticity of inducible defenses

    OpenAIRE

    Luquet, Emilien; Tariel, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    Background Within-generational plasticity (WGP) and transgenerational plasticity (TGP) are mechanisms allowing rapid adaptive responses to fluctuating environments without genetic change. These forms of plasticity have often been viewed as independent processes. Recent evidence suggests that WGP is altered by the environmental conditions experienced by previous generations (i.e., TGP). In the context of inducible defenses, one of the most studied cases of plasticity, the WGP x TGP interaction...

  10. Intra- and trans-generational costs of reduced female body size caused by food limitation early in life in mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Walzer

    Full Text Available Food limitation early in life may be compensated for by developmental plasticity resulting in accelerated development enhancing survival at the expense of small adult body size. However and especially for females in non-matching maternal and offspring environments, being smaller than the standard may incur considerable intra- and trans-generational costs.Here, we evaluated the costs of small female body size induced by food limitation early in life in the sexually size-dimorphic predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Females are larger than males. These predators are adapted to exploit ephemeral spider mite prey patches. The intra- and trans-generational effects of small maternal body size manifested in lower maternal survival probabilities, decreased attractiveness for males, and a reduced number and size of eggs compared to standard-sized females. The trans-generational effects of small maternal body size were sex-specific with small mothers producing small daughters but standard-sized sons.Small female body size apparently intensified the well-known costs of sexual activity because mortality of small but not standard-sized females mainly occurred shortly after mating. The disadvantages of small females in mating and egg production may be generally explained by size-associated morphological and physiological constraints. Additionally, size-assortative mate preferences of standard-sized mates may have rendered small females disproportionally unattractive mating partners. We argue that the sex-specific trans-generational effects were due to sexual size dimorphism - females are the larger sex and thus more strongly affected by maternal stress than the smaller males - and to sexually selected lower plasticity of male body size.

  11. Insight into the transgenerational effect of benzo[a]pyrene on bone formation in a teleost fish (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Frauke; Peterson, Drew R; Witten, P Eckhard; Guo, Bao-Sheng; Shanthanagouda, Adamane H; Ye, Rui R; Zhang, Ge; Au, Doris W T

    2015-12-01

    Recent cross-generational studies in teleost fish have raised the awareness that high levels of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) could affect skeletal integrity in the directly exposed F0 and their F1-F2. However, no further details were provided about the causes for abnormalities on the molecular and cellular level and the persistence of such sub-organismal impairments at the transgenerational scale (beyond F2). Adult Oryzias latipes were exposed to 1μg/L BaP for 21days. The F1-F3 were examined for skeletal deformities, histopathological alterations of vertebral bodies and differential expression of key genes of bone metabolism. Significant increase of dorsal-ventral vertebral compression was evident in ancestrally exposed larvae. Histopathological analysis revealed abnormal loss of notochord sheath, a lack of notochord epithelial integrity, reduced bone tissue and decreased osteoblast abundance. A significant downregulation of ATF4 and/or osterix and a high biological variability of COL10, coupled with a significant deregulation of SOX9a/b in the F1-F3 suggest that ancestral BaP exposure most likely perturbed chordoblasts, chondroblast and osteoblast differentiation, resulting in defective notochord sheath repair and rendering the vertebral column more vulnerable to compression. The present findings provide novel molecular and cellular insights into BaP-induced transgenerational bone impairment in the unexposed F3. From the ecological risk assessment perspective, BaP needs to be regarded as a transgenerational skeletal toxicant, which exerts a far-reaching impact on fish survival and fitness. Given that basic mechanisms of cartilage/bone formation are conserved between medaka and mammals, the results may also shed light on the potential transgenerational effect of BaP on the genesis of skeletal diseases in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Resonant primordial gravitational waves amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunshan Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a mechanism to evade the Lyth bound in models of inflation. We minimally extend the conventional single-field inflation model in general relativity (GR to a theory with non-vanishing graviton mass in the very early universe. The modification primarily affects the tensor perturbation, while the scalar and vector perturbations are the same as the ones in GR with a single scalar field at least at the level of linear perturbation theory. During the reheating stage, the graviton mass oscillates coherently and leads to resonant amplification of the primordial tensor perturbation. After reheating the graviton mass vanishes and we recover GR.

  13. Transgenerational effects of mild heat in Arabidopsis thaliana show strong genotype specificity that is explained by climate at origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, Maartje P; Kubisch, Alexander; Ouborg, N Joop; Pagel, Jörn; Schmid, Karl J; Vergeer, Philippine; Lampei, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Transgenerational environmental effects can trigger strong phenotypic variation. However, it is unclear how cues from different preceding generations interact. Also, little is known about the genetic variation for these life history traits. Here, we present the effects of grandparental and parental mild heat, and their combination, on four traits of the third-generation phenotype of 14 Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes. We tested for correlations of these effects with climate and constructed a conceptual model to identify the environmental conditions that favour the parental effect on flowering time. We observed strong evidence for genotype-specific transgenerational effects. On average, A. thaliana accustomed to mild heat produced more seeds after two generations. Parental effects overruled grandparental effects in all traits except reproductive biomass. Flowering was generally accelerated by all transgenerational effects. Notably, the parental effect triggered earliest flowering in genotypes adapted to dry summers. Accordingly, this parental effect was favoured in the model when early summer heat terminated the growing season and environments were correlated across generations. Our results suggest that A. thaliana can partly accustom to mild heat over two generations and genotype-specific parental effects show non-random evolutionary divergence across populations that may support climate change adaptation in the Mediterranean. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Transgenerational changes in plant physiology and in transposon expression in response to UV-C stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migicovsky, Zoe; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Stress has a negative impact on crop yield by altering a gain in biomass and affecting seed set. Recent reports suggest that exposure to stress also influences the response of the progeny. In this paper, we analyzed seed size, leaf size, bolting time and transposon expression in 2 consecutive generations of Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to moderate UV-C stress. Since previous reports suggested a potential role of Dicer-like (DCL) proteins in the establishment of transgenerational response, we used dcl2, dcl3 and dcl4 mutants in parallel with wild-type plants. These studies revealed that leaf number decreased in the progeny of UV-C stressed plants, and bolting occurred later. Transposons were also re-activated in the progeny of stressed plants. Changes in the dcl mutants were less prominent than in wild-type plants. DCL2 and DCL3 appeared to be more important in the transgenerational stress memory than DCL4 because transgenerational changes were less profound in the dcl2 and dcl3 mutants.

  15. Cumulative effects of transgenerational induction on plant palatability to generalist and specialist herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Neylan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbivore damage can induce anti-herbivore traits in plants. However, there is little data regarding how these induced traits affect a plant's palatability (an important factor in determining the likelihood and magnitude of herbivore damage across multiple generations post-induction, or whether the effect of transgenerational induction differs between generalist and specialist herbivores. Here we used palatability as a measure of the effects of transgenerational defensive induction in wild radish plants. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to determine whether generalist (slugs and specialist (caterpillars of the white cabbage butterfly herbivores' preference for wild radish differed depending on the number of previous generations that experienced herbivory. We found lowered palatability in plants with two or three inductions in their past in the case of generalist slugs, while palatability to a specialist herbivore was not affected by transgenerational induction. We conclude that the history of herbivory experienced by a plant's ancestors over multiple generations may play an important role in its ability to defend itself against generalist herbivores, but not against the specialists with whom they have co-evolved. Our findings suggest that the effects that multiple past inductions may have on palatability down the family line can be expected to have ecological and evolutionary implications.

  16. Transgenerational transmission of a stress-coping phenotype programmed by early-life stress in the Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Cédric; Larriva, Maria; Boogert, Neeltje J.; Spencer, Karen A.

    2017-01-01

    An interesting aspect of developmental programming is the existence of transgenerational effects that influence offspring characteristics and performance later in life. These transgenerational effects have been hypothesized to allow individuals to cope better with predictable environmental fluctuations and thus facilitate adaptation to changing environments. Here, we test for the first time how early-life stress drives developmental programming and transgenerational effects of maternal exposure to early-life stress on several phenotypic traits in their offspring in a functionally relevant context using a fully factorial design. We manipulated pre- and/or post-natal stress in both Japanese quail mothers and offspring and examined the consequences for several stress-related traits in the offspring generation. We show that pre-natal stress experienced by the mother did not simply affect offspring phenotype but resulted in the inheritance of the same stress-coping traits in the offspring across all phenotypic levels that we investigated, shaping neuroendocrine, physiological and behavioural traits. This may serve mothers to better prepare their offspring to cope with later environments where the same stressors are experienced. PMID:28387355

  17. Transgenerational effects from early developmental exposures to bisphenol A or 17α-ethinylestradiol in medaka, Oryzias latipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Ramji K.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    The transgenerational consequences of environmental contaminant exposures of aquatic vertebrates have the potential for broad ecological impacts, yet are largely uninvestigated. Bisphenol A (BPA) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) are two ubiquitous estrogenic chemicals present in aquatic environments throughout the United States and many other countries. Aquatic organisms, including fish, are exposed to varying concentrations of these chemicals at various stages of their life history. Here, we tested the ability of embryonic exposure to BPA or EE2 to cause adverse health outcomes at later life stages and transgenerational abnormalities in medaka fish. Exposures of F0 medaka to either BPA (100 μg/L) or EE2 (0.05 μg/L) during the first 7 days of embryonic development, when germ cells are differentiating, did not cause any apparent phenotypic abnormalities in F0 or F1 generations, but led to a significant reduction in the fertilization rate in offspring two generations later (F2) as well as a reduction of embryo survival in offspring three generations later (F3). Our present observations suggest that BPA or EE2 exposure during development induces transgenerational phenotypes of reproductive impairment and compromised embryonic survival in fish of subsequent generations. These adverse outcomes may have negative impacts on populations of fish inhabiting contaminated aquatic environments.

  18. Chirped pulse Raman amplification in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieux, G; Lyachev, A; Yang, X; Ersfeld, B; Farmer, J P; Brunetti, E; Issac, R C; Raj, G; Welsh, G H; Wiggins, S M; Jaroszynski, D A, E-mail: d.a.jaroszynski@strath.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Raman amplification in plasma has been proposed to be a promising method of amplifying short radiation pulses. Here, we investigate chirped pulse Raman amplification (CPRA) where the pump pulse is chirped and leads to spatiotemporal distributed gain, which exhibits superradiant scaling in the linear regime, usually associated with the nonlinear pump depletion and Compton amplification regimes. CPRA has the potential to serve as a high-efficiency high-fidelity amplifier/compressor stage.

  19. Risk Perception and Social Amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper seeks to consider social amplification as it applies to risk perception. Perceptions of the magnitude of a risk are conditioned by issues such as the degree of uncertainty in probability and consequences, the nature of the consequences and the relative weightings placed on probability and consequences. Risk perceptions are also influenced by factors such as confidence in the operator of an industrial process, trust in the regulator and the perceived fairness of regulatory decision-making. Different people may hold different views about these issues and there may also be difficulties in communication. The paper identifies and discusses self-reinforcing mechanisms, which will be labelled 'lock-in' here. They appear to apply in many situations where social amplification is observed. Historically, the term 'lock-in' has been applied mainly in the technological context but, in this paper, four types of lock-in are identified, namely scientific/technological, economic, social and institutional lock-in. One type of lock-in tends to lead to the next and all are buttressed by people's general acceptance of the familiar, fear of the unknown and resistance to change. The regulator seeks to make decisions which achieve the common good rather than supporting or perpetuating any set of vested interests. In this regard the locked-in positions of stakeholders, whether organisations, interest groups, or individual members of the public, are obstacles and challenges. Existing methods of consultation are unsatisfactory in terms of achieving a proper and productive level of dialogue with stakeholders

  20. Baculovirus-challenge and poor nutrition inflict within-generation fitness costs without triggering transgenerational immune priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Ikkei; Hua, Kevin Ngoc; Cory, Jenny S

    2016-05-01

    Invertebrate hosts that survive pathogen challenge can produce offspring that are more resistant to the same pathogen via immune priming, thereby improving the fitness of their offspring in the same pathogen environment. Most evidence for immune priming comes from exposure to bacteria and there are limited data on other groups of pathogens. Poor parental nutrition has also been shown to result in the transgenerational transfer of pathogen resistance and increased immunocompetence. Here, we combine exposure to an insect DNA virus with a change in the parental diet to examine both parental costs and transgenerational immune priming. We challenged the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, with a low dose of the baculovirus, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and altered dietary protein to carbohydrate ratio (p:c ratio) after virus exposure. Insects fed a low protein diet had lower haemolymph protein concentrations, and exhibited costs of smaller pupae and slower development, while survivors of virus challenge developed more slowly, irrespective of p:c ratio, and those that were virus-challenged and fed on a low protein diet showed a reduction in haemocyte density. In addition, AcMNPV-challenged parents laid fewer eggs earlier in egg laying although egg size was the same as for unchallenged parents. There was no evidence for increased resistance to AcMNPV (immune priming) or changes in haemocyte number (as proxy for constitutive cellular immunity) in the offspring either as a result of parental AcMNPV-challenge or low dietary p:c ratio. Therefore, although pathogen-challenge and nutritional changes can affect host development and reproduction, this does not necessarily translate into transgenerational immune priming. Our findings contrast with an earlier study on another type of baculovirus, a granulovirus, where immune priming was suggested. This indicates that transgenerational immune priming is not universal in invertebrates and is likely to

  1. Trans-generational effects induced by alpha and gamma ionizing radiations at Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisot, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities related to the nuclear industry contribute to continuous discharges of radionuclides into terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Over the past decades, the ecological risk of ionizing radiation has become a growing public, regulatory and scientific concern for ecosystems protection. Until recently, only few studies focus on exposure situations at low doses of irradiation, although these situations are representative of realistic environmental conditions. Understanding how ionizing radiation affects species over several generations and at various levels of biological organization is a major research goal in radioecology. The aim of this PhD was to bring new knowledge on the effects of ionizing radiation during a multi-generational expose of the aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna. A two-step strategy was implemented. First, an external gamma radiation at environmentally relevant dose rates was performed on D. magna over three successive generations (F0, F1 and F2). The objective of this experiment was to examine whether low dose rates of radiation induced increasing effects on survival, growth and reproduction of daphnids over generations and to test a possible accumulation and transmission of DNA alterations from adults to offspring. Results showed an accumulation and a transmission of DNA alterations over generations, together with an increase in effect severity on growth and reproduction from generation F0 to generation F2. Transiently more efficient DNA repair leading to some recovery at the organism level was suggested in generation F1. Second, data from the external gamma irradiation and those from an earlier study of internal alpha contamination were analyzed with DEBtox models (Dynamic Energy Budget applied to toxicology), to identify and compare the causes of the trans-generational increase in effect severity between the two types of radiation. In each case, two distinct metabolic modes of action were necessary to explain effects on

  2. Trans-generational effects of parental exposure to ionizing radiation in Daphnia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarapultseva, Elena I. [Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering National Research Nuclear University ' MEPhI' - INPE NRNU MEPhI, Studgorodok,1, Obninsk, Kaluga region, 249040 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    We are currently studying the direct and trans-generational effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on fecundity and reproductive success of the exposed Daphnia magna and their non-exposed progeny. As the long-term survival of species strongly depends on the individual fertility and survival of their offspring, changes in the reproductive process are regarded as one of the most significant sub-lethal effects of environmental pollution. We have recently shown that?-irradiation at doses of 100 and 1000 mGy significantly compromised fecundity and reproductive success of the directly exposed D. magna and their non-exposed first-generation offspring. We have also observed the decrease in the size of the irradiated Daphnia. These effects were also observed among the non-exposed first-generation progeny of irradiated parents, thus implying the manifestation of trans-generational effects in Daphnia. As the compromised fertility was observed among majority of the offspring of irradiated parents, it cannot be attributed to segregation of deleterious mutations induced in the germ line of irradiated parents and is most likely underlined by epigenetic mechanisms. The results of our study also provide further support for the hypothesis of non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation. We have recently shown that compromised viability of irradiated D. magna can be attributed cytotoxic effects of irradiation. Our results suggest that the observed cytotoxic effects are mostly attributed to substantially elevated levels of free-radicals detected in the irradiated parents and their first-generation offspring. It would therefore appear that the compromised viability may be attributed to the cytotoxic effects resulted from epigenetic changes affecting some metabolic pathways involved in detoxification of free-radicals. Additionally we have analyzed more distant progeny of irradiated in doses of 100 and 1000 mGy Daphnia. Some potential mechanisms underlying non-targeted effects

  3. Multiscale image contrast amplification (MUSICA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuylsteke, Pieter; Schoeters, Emile P.

    1994-05-01

    This article presents a novel approach to the problem of detail contrast enhancement, based on multiresolution representation of the original image. The image is decomposed into a weighted sum of smooth, localized, 2D basis functions at multiple scales. Each transform coefficient represents the amount of local detail at some specific scale and at a specific position in the image. Detail contrast is enhanced by non-linear amplification of the transform coefficients. An inverse transform is then applied to the modified coefficients. This yields a uniformly contrast- enhanced image without artefacts. The MUSICA-algorithm is being applied routinely to computed radiography images of chest, skull, spine, shoulder, pelvis, extremities, and abdomen examinations, with excellent acceptance. It is useful for a wide range of applications in the medical, graphical, and industrial area.

  4. Risk Perception and Social Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E. [Environment Agency (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    This paper seeks to consider social amplification as it applies to risk perception. Perceptions of the magnitude of a risk are conditioned by issues such as the degree of uncertainty in probability and consequences, the nature of the consequences and the relative weightings placed on probability and consequences. Risk perceptions are also influenced by factors such as confidence in the operator of an industrial process, trust in the regulator and the perceived fairness of regulatory decision-making. Different people may hold different views about these issues and there may also be difficulties in communication. The paper identifies and discusses self-reinforcing mechanisms, which will be labelled 'lock-in' here. They appear to apply in many situations where social amplification is observed. Historically, the term 'lock-in' has been applied mainly in the technological context but, in this paper, four types of lock-in are identified, namely scientific/technological, economic, social and institutional lock-in. One type of lock-in tends to lead to the next and all are buttressed by people's general acceptance of the familiar, fear of the unknown and resistance to change. The regulator seeks to make decisions which achieve the common good rather than supporting or perpetuating any set of vested interests. In this regard the locked-in positions of stakeholders, whether organisations, interest groups, or individual members of the public, are obstacles and challenges. Existing methods of consultation are unsatisfactory in terms of achieving a proper and productive level of dialogue with stakeholders.

  5. Metformin inhibits age-related centrosome amplification in Drosophila midgut stem cells through AKT/TOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyun-Jin; Park, Joung-Sun; Pyo, Jung-Hoon; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Kim, Young-Shin; Arking, Robert; Yoo, Mi-Ae

    2015-07-01

    We delineated the mechanism regulating the inhibition of centrosome amplification by metformin in Drosophila intestinal stem cells (ISCs). Age-related changes in tissue-resident stem cells may be closely associated with tissue aging and age-related diseases, such as cancer. Centrosome amplification is a hallmark of cancers. Our recent work showed that Drosophila ISCs are an excellent model for stem cell studies evaluating age-related increase in centrosome amplification. Here, we showed that metformin, a recognized anti-cancer drug, inhibits age- and oxidative stress-induced centrosome amplification in ISCs. Furthermore, we revealed that this effect is mediated via down-regulation of AKT/target of rapamycin (TOR) activity, suggesting that metformin prevents centrosome amplification by inhibiting the TOR signaling pathway. Additionally, AKT/TOR signaling hyperactivation and metformin treatment indicated a strong correlation between DNA damage accumulation and centrosome amplification in ISCs, suggesting that DNA damage might mediate centrosome amplification. Our study reveals the beneficial and protective effects of metformin on centrosome amplification via AKT/TOR signaling modulation. We identified a new target for the inhibition of age- and oxidative stress-induced centrosome amplification. We propose that the Drosophila ISCs may be an excellent model system for in vivo studies evaluating the effects of anti-cancer drugs on tissue-resident stem cell aging. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Transgenerational plasticity and climate change experiments: Where do we go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelson, Jennifer M; Salinas, Santiago; Munday, Philip L; Shama, Lisa N S

    2018-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity, both within and across generations, is an important mechanism that organisms use to cope with rapid climate change. While an increasing number of studies show that plasticity across generations (transgenerational plasticity or TGP) may occur, we have limited understanding of key aspects of TGP, such as the environmental conditions that may promote it, its relationship to within-generation plasticity (WGP) and its role in evolutionary potential. In this review, we consider how the detection of TGP in climate change experiments is affected by the predictability of environmental variation, as well as the timing and magnitude of environmental change cues applied. We also discuss the need to design experiments that are able to distinguish TGP from selection and TGP from WGP in multigenerational experiments. We conclude by suggesting future research directions that build on the knowledge to date and admit the limitations that exist, which will depend on the way environmental change is simulated and the type of experimental design used. Such an approach will open up this burgeoning area of research to a wider variety of organisms and allow better predictive capacity of the role of TGP in the response of organisms to future climate change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The role of adaptive trans-generational plasticity in biological invasions of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Andrew R; Brown, Cynthia S; Espeland, Erin K; McKay, John K; Meimberg, Harald; Rice, Kevin J

    2010-03-01

    High-impact biological invasions often involve establishment and spread in disturbed, high-resource patches followed by establishment and spread in biotically or abiotically stressful areas. Evolutionary change may be required for the second phase of invasion (establishment and spread in stressful areas) to occur. When species have low genetic diversity and short selection history, within-generation phenotypic plasticity is often cited as the mechanism through which spread across multiple habitat types can occur. We show that trans-generational plasticity (TGP) can result in pre-adapted progeny that exhibit traits associated with increased fitness both in high-resource patches and in stressful conditions. In the invasive sedge, Cyperus esculentus, maternal plants growing in nutrient-poor patches can place disproportional number of propagules into nutrient-rich patches. Using the invasive annual grass, Aegilops triuncialis, we show that maternal response to soil conditions can confer greater stress tolerance in seedlings in the form of greater photosynthetic efficiency. We also show TGP for a phenological shift in a low resource environment that results in greater stress tolerance in progeny. These lines of evidence suggest that the maternal environment can have profound effects on offspring success and that TGP may play a significant role in some plant invasions.

  8. Heat priming induces trans-generational tolerance to high temperature stress in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao eWang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat plants are very sensitive to high temperature stress during grain filling. Effects of heat priming applied to the first generation on tolerance of the successive generation to post-anthesis high temperature stress were investigated. Compared with the progeny of non-heat primed plants (NH, the progeny of heat-primed plants (PH possessed higher grain yield, leaf photosynthesis and activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower cell membrane damage under high temperature stress. In the transcriptome profile, 1430 probes showed obvious difference in expression between PH and NH. These genes were related to signal transduction, transcription, energy, defense, and protein destination and storage, respectively. The gene encoding the lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1 which was involved in histone demethylation related to epigenetic modification was up-regulated in the PH compared with NH. The proteome analysis indicated that the proteins involved in photosynthesis, energy production and protein destination and storage were up-regulated in the PH compared with NH. In short, thermos-tolerance was induced through heritable epigenetic alternation and signaling transduction, both processes further triggered prompt modifications of defense related responses in anti-oxidation, transcription, energy production, and protein destination and storage in the progeny of the primed plants under high temperature stress. It was concluded that trans-generation thermo-tolerance was induced by heat priming in the first generation, and this might be an effective measure to cope with severe high-temperature stresses during key growth stages in wheat production.

  9. Heat Priming Induces Trans-generational Tolerance to High Temperature Stress in Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Xin, Caiyun; Cai, Jian; Zhou, Qin; Dai, Tingbo; Cao, Weixing; Jiang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Wheat plants are very sensitive to high temperature stress during grain filling. Effects of heat priming applied to the first generation on tolerance of the successive generation to post-anthesis high temperature stress were investigated. Compared with the progeny of non-heat primed plants (NH), the progeny of heat-primed plants (PH) possessed higher grain yield, leaf photosynthesis and activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower cell membrane damage under high temperature stress. In the transcriptome profile, 1430 probes showed obvious difference in expression between PH and NH. These genes were related to signal transduction, transcription, energy, defense, and protein destination and storage, respectively. The gene encoding the lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1) which was involved in histone demethylation related to epigenetic modification was up-regulated in the PH compared with NH. The proteome analysis indicated that the proteins involved in photosynthesis, energy production and protein destination and storage were up-regulated in the PH compared with NH. In short, thermos-tolerance was induced through heritable epigenetic alternation and signaling transduction, both processes further triggered prompt modifications of defense related responses in anti-oxidation, transcription, energy production, and protein destination and storage in the progeny of the primed plants under high temperature stress. It was concluded that trans-generation thermo-tolerance was induced by heat priming in the first generation, and this might be an effective measure to cope with severe high-temperature stresses during key growth stages in wheat production.

  10. Transgenerational programming of longevity and reproduction by post-eclosion dietary manipulation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Brian; de Belle, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that early-life diet may program one's health status by causing permanent alternations in specific organs, tissues, or metabolic or homeostatic pathways, and such programming effects may propagate across generations through heritable epigenetic modifications. However, it remains uninvestigated whether postnatal dietary changes may program longevity across generations. To address this question of important biological and public health implications, newly-born flies (F0) were collected and subjected to various post-eclosion dietary manipulations (PDMs) with different protein-carbohydrate (i.e., LP, IP or HP for low-, intermediate- or high-protein) contents or a control diet (CD). Longevity and fecundity analyses were performed with these treated F0 flies and their F1, F2 and F3 offspring, while maintained on CD at all times. The LP and HP PDMs shortened longevity, while the IP PDM extended longevity significantly up to the F3 generation. Furthermore, the LP reduced while the IP PDM increased lifetime fecundity across the F0-F2 generations. Our observations establish the first animal model for studying transgenerational inheritance of nutritional programming of longevity, making it possible to investigate the underlying epigenetic mechanisms and identify gene targets for drug discovery in future studies. PMID:27025190

  11. Molecular signatures of transgenerational response to ocean acidification in a species of reef fish

    KAUST Repository

    Schunter, Celia Marei

    2016-07-29

    The impact of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems will depend on species capacity to adapt. Recent studies show that the behaviour of reef fishes is impaired at projected CO levels; however, individual variation exists that might promote adaptation. Here, we show a clear signature of parental sensitivity to high CO in the brain molecular phenotype of juvenile spiny damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, primarily driven by circadian rhythm genes. Offspring of CO -tolerant and CO -sensitive parents were reared at near-future CO (754 μatm) or present-day control levels (414 μatm). By integrating 33 brain transcriptomes and proteomes with a de novo assembled genome we investigate the molecular responses of the fish brain to increased CO and the expression of parental tolerance to high CO in the offspring molecular phenotype. Exposure to high CO resulted in differential regulation of 173 and 62 genes and 109 and 68 proteins in the tolerant and sensitive groups, respectively. Importantly, the majority of differences between offspring of tolerant and sensitive parents occurred in high CO conditions. This transgenerational molecular signature suggests that individual variation in CO sensitivity could facilitate adaptation of fish populations to ocean acidification.

  12. Influence the technogenic disaster at radionuclide contaminated Chernobyl zone on transgeneration changes of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashydov, N.

    2017-01-01

    Some of the territories have naturally increased level of radiation as areas of native radioecological anomalies, but others were polluted as a result of nuclear weapon testing, nuclear waste leakage, and nuclear power plants disasters, such as Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) and Fukushima. Eventually, the large areas have been strong contaminated with radioactivity isotopes for long term. Despite more than thirty years aftermath the explosion of the CNPP accident, the problems coming from the high radionuclide contamination of the environment and the effects of chronic radiation on living organisms still remain relevant. Because the recent tragedy at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in Japan is chillingly reminiscent of the world's worst nuclear disaster at Chernobyl, Ukraine in 1986. Our research addressing the effects of chronic ionizing radiation on plants, the ongoing success of plants adaptation and transgeneration changes in radio-contaminated Chernobyl area was revealed. The focus our investigation is on a role of the small dose chronic radiation due to plant biodiversity processes because it is a common adverse environmental toxicology factor. In order to characterize proteomes of plants adapting to biodiversity at radio-contaminated Chernobyl area we established non-radioactive and radio-contaminated experimental fields.

  13. Transgenerational inheritance of heart disorders caused by paternal bisphenol A exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombó, Marta; Fernández-Díez, Cristina; González-Rojo, Silvia; Navarro, Claudia; Robles, Vanesa; Herráez, María Paz

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor used in manufacturing of plastic devices, resulting in an ubiquitous presence in the environment linked to human infertility, obesity or cardiovascular diseases. Both transcriptome and epigenome modifications lie behind these disorders that might be inherited transgenerationally when affecting germline. To assess potential effects of paternal exposure on offspring development, adult zebrafish males were exposed to BPA during spermatogenesis and mated with non-treated females. Results showed an increase in the rate of heart failures of progeny up to the F2, as well as downregulation of 5 genes involved in cardiac development in F1 embryos. Moreover, BPA causes a decrease in F0 and F1 sperm remnant mRNAs related to early development. Results reveal a paternal inheritance of changes in the insulin signaling pathway due to downregulation of insulin receptor β mRNAs, suggesting a link between BPA male exposure and disruption of cardiogenesis in forthcoming generations. - Highlights: • We examine the effects of adult male exposure to BPA on the progeny (F1 and F2). • Paternal exposure promotes similar cardiac malformations to those caused by direct exposure. • BPA applied during spermatogenesis decrease the insra and insrb transcripts in spermatozoa. • Sperm insrb transcript controls embryonic expression being the downregulation inherited by F1. • Paternal BPA exposure impairs heart development in F1 and F2 disrupting insulin signaling pathway. - Paternal bisphenol A exposure impairs cardiac development throughout generations.

  14. A statistical design for testing transgenerational genomic imprinting in natural human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Li

    Full Text Available Genomic imprinting is a phenomenon in which the same allele is expressed differently, depending on its parental origin. Such a phenomenon, also called the parent-of-origin effect, has been recognized to play a pivotal role in embryological development and pathogenesis in many species. Here we propose a statistical design for detecting imprinted loci that control quantitative traits based on a random set of three-generation families from a natural population in humans. This design provides a pathway for characterizing the effects of imprinted genes on a complex trait or disease at different generations and testing transgenerational changes of imprinted effects. The design is integrated with population and cytogenetic principles of gene segregation and transmission from a previous generation to next. The implementation of the EM algorithm within the design framework leads to the estimation of genetic parameters that define imprinted effects. A simulation study is used to investigate the statistical properties of the model and validate its utilization. This new design, coupled with increasingly used genome-wide association studies, should have an immediate implication for studying the genetic architecture of complex traits in humans.

  15. Transgenerationally precipitated meiotic chromosome instability fuels rapid karyotypic evolution and phenotypic diversity in an artificially constructed allotetraploid wheat (AADD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Xiaowan; Bian, Yao; Zhang, Ai; Zhang, Huakun; Wang, Bin; Lv, Ruili; Li, Juzuo; Zhu, Bo; Gong, Lei; Liu, Bao

    2018-01-22

    Whereas a distinct karyotype with defined chromosome number and structure characterizes each biological species, it is intrinsically labile. Polyploidy or whole genome duplication (WGD) has played a pervasive and ongoing role in the evolution of all eukaryotes, and is the most dramatic force known to cause rapid karyotypic reconfiguration, especially at the initial stage. However, issues concerning transgenerational propagation of karyotypic heterogeneity and its translation to phenotypic diversity in nascent allopolyploidy, at the population level, have yet to be studied in detail. Here, we report a large-scale examination of transgenerationally propagated karyotypic heterogeneity and its phenotypic manifestation in an artificially constructed allotetraploid with a genome composition of AADD, i.e., involving two of the three progenitor genomes of polyploid wheat. Specifically, we show that (i) massive organismal karyotypic heterogeneity is precipitated after 12 consecutive generations of selfing from a single euploid founder individual; (ii) there exist dramatic differences in aptitudes between subgenomes and among chromosomes for whole-chromosome gain and/or loss and structural variations; (iii) majority of the numerical and structural chromosomal variations are concurrent due to mutual contingency and possible functional constraint; (iv) purposed and continuous selection and propagation for euploidy over generations did not result in enhanced karyotype stabilization; and (v) extent of karyotypic variation correlates with variability of phenotypic manifestation. Together, our results document that allopolyploidization catalyzes rampant and transgenerationally heritable organismal karyotypic heterogeneity that drives population-level phenotypic diversification, which lends fresh empirical support to the still contentious notion that WGD enhances organismal evolvability. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular

  16. Trans-generational radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the female enhances the action of chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camats, Nuria; Garcia, Francisca; Parrilla, Juan Jose; Calaf, Joaquim; Martin, Miguel; Caldes, Montserrat Garcia

    2008-01-01

    Genomic instability can be produced by ionising radiation, so-called radiation-induced genomic instability, and chemical mutagens. Radiation-induced genomic instability occurs in both germinal and somatic cells and also in the offspring of irradiated individuals, and it is characterised by genetic changes including chromosomal rearrangements. The majority of studies of trans-generational, radiation-induced genomic instability have been described in the male germ line, whereas the authors who have chosen the female as a model are scarce. The aim of this work is to find out the radiation-induced effects in the foetal offspring of X-ray-treated female rats and, at the same time, the possible impact of this radiation-induced genomic instability on the action of a chemical mutagen. In order to achieve both goals, the quantity and quality of chromosomal damage were analysed. In order to detect trans-generational genomic instability, a total of 4806 metaphases from foetal tissues from the foetal offspring of X-irradiated female rats (5 Gy, acute dose) were analysed. The study's results showed that there is radiation-induced genomic instability: the number of aberrant metaphases and the breaks per total metaphases studied increased and were found to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05), with regard to the control group. In order to identify how this trans-generational, radiation-induced chromosomal instability could influence the chromosomal behaviour of the offspring of irradiated rat females in front of a chemical agent (aphidicolin), a total of 2481 metaphases were studied. The observed results showed that there is an enhancement of the action of the chemical agent: chromosomal breaks per aberrant metaphases show significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in the X-ray- and aphidicolin-treated group as regards the aphidicolin-treated group. In conclusion, our findings indicate that there is trans-generational, radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the foetal cells

  17. Trans-generational radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the female enhances the action of chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camats, Nuria [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, Francisca [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Parrilla, Juan Jose [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 El Palmar, Murcia (Spain); Calaf, Joaquim [Servei de Ginecologia i Obstetricia, Hospital Universitari de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Martin, Miguel [Departament de Pediatria, d' Obstetricia i Ginecologia i de Medicina Preventiva, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Caldes, Montserrat Garcia [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: Montserrat.Garcia.Caldes@uab.es

    2008-04-02

    Genomic instability can be produced by ionising radiation, so-called radiation-induced genomic instability, and chemical mutagens. Radiation-induced genomic instability occurs in both germinal and somatic cells and also in the offspring of irradiated individuals, and it is characterised by genetic changes including chromosomal rearrangements. The majority of studies of trans-generational, radiation-induced genomic instability have been described in the male germ line, whereas the authors who have chosen the female as a model are scarce. The aim of this work is to find out the radiation-induced effects in the foetal offspring of X-ray-treated female rats and, at the same time, the possible impact of this radiation-induced genomic instability on the action of a chemical mutagen. In order to achieve both goals, the quantity and quality of chromosomal damage were analysed. In order to detect trans-generational genomic instability, a total of 4806 metaphases from foetal tissues from the foetal offspring of X-irradiated female rats (5 Gy, acute dose) were analysed. The study's results showed that there is radiation-induced genomic instability: the number of aberrant metaphases and the breaks per total metaphases studied increased and were found to be statistically significant (p {<=} 0.05), with regard to the control group. In order to identify how this trans-generational, radiation-induced chromosomal instability could influence the chromosomal behaviour of the offspring of irradiated rat females in front of a chemical agent (aphidicolin), a total of 2481 metaphases were studied. The observed results showed that there is an enhancement of the action of the chemical agent: chromosomal breaks per aberrant metaphases show significant differences (p {<=} 0.05) in the X-ray- and aphidicolin-treated group as regards the aphidicolin-treated group. In conclusion, our findings indicate that there is trans-generational, radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the foetal

  18. Amplification of chirality in liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, Rienk; Feringa, Ben L.

    2006-01-01

    The amplification of molecular chirality by liquid crystalline systems is widely applied in investigations towards enantioselective solvent - solute interactions, chiral supramolecular assemblies, smart materials, and the development of liquid crystal displays. Here we present an overview of recent

  19. Privacy amplification for quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yodai

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines classical privacy amplification using a universal family of hash functions. In quantum key distribution, the adversary's measurement can wait until the choice of hash functions is announced, and so the adversary's information may depend on the choice. Therefore the existing result on classical privacy amplification, which assumes the independence of the choice from the other random variables, is not applicable to this case. This paper provides a security proof of privacy amplification which is valid even when the adversary's information may depend on the choice of hash functions. The compression rate of the proposed privacy amplification can be taken to be the same as that of the existing one with an exponentially small loss in secrecy of a final key. (fast track communication)

  20. Simple system for isothermal DNA amplification coupled to lateral flow detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Roskos

    Full Text Available Infectious disease diagnosis in point-of-care settings can be greatly improved through integrated, automated nucleic acid testing devices. We have developed an early prototype for a low-cost system which executes isothermal DNA amplification coupled to nucleic acid lateral flow (NALF detection in a mesofluidic cartridge attached to a portable instrument. Fluid handling inside the cartridge is facilitated through one-way passive valves, flexible pouches, and electrolysis-driven pumps, which promotes a compact and inexpensive instrument design. The closed-system disposable prevents workspace amplicon contamination. The cartridge design is based on standard scalable manufacturing techniques such as injection molding. Nucleic acid amplification occurs in a two-layer pouch that enables efficient heat transfer. We have demonstrated as proof of principle the amplification and detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb genomic DNA in the cartridge, using either Loop Mediated Amplification (LAMP or the Exponential Amplification Reaction (EXPAR, both coupled to NALF detection. We envision that a refined version of this cartridge, including upstream sample preparation coupled to amplification and detection, will enable fully-automated sample-in to answer-out infectious disease diagnosis in primary care settings of low-resource countries with high disease burden.

  1. Simple System for Isothermal DNA Amplification Coupled to Lateral Flow Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskos, Kristina; Hickerson, Anna I.; Lu, Hsiang-Wei; Ferguson, Tanya M.; Shinde, Deepali N.; Klaue, Yvonne; Niemz, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease diagnosis in point-of-care settings can be greatly improved through integrated, automated nucleic acid testing devices. We have developed an early prototype for a low-cost system which executes isothermal DNA amplification coupled to nucleic acid lateral flow (NALF) detection in a mesofluidic cartridge attached to a portable instrument. Fluid handling inside the cartridge is facilitated through one-way passive valves, flexible pouches, and electrolysis-driven pumps, which promotes a compact and inexpensive instrument design. The closed-system disposable prevents workspace amplicon contamination. The cartridge design is based on standard scalable manufacturing techniques such as injection molding. Nucleic acid amplification occurs in a two-layer pouch that enables efficient heat transfer. We have demonstrated as proof of principle the amplification and detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) genomic DNA in the cartridge, using either Loop Mediated Amplification (LAMP) or the Exponential Amplification Reaction (EXPAR), both coupled to NALF detection. We envision that a refined version of this cartridge, including upstream sample preparation coupled to amplification and detection, will enable fully-automated sample-in to answer-out infectious disease diagnosis in primary care settings of low-resource countries with high disease burden. PMID:23922706

  2. Rolling circle amplification of metazoan mitochondrialgenomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simison, W. Brian; Lindberg, D.R.; Boore, J.L.

    2005-07-31

    Here we report the successful use of rolling circle amplification (RCA) for the amplification of complete metazoan mt genomes to make a product that is amenable to high-throughput genome sequencing techniques. The benefits of RCA over PCR are many and with further development and refinement of RCA, the sequencing of organellar genomics will require far less time and effort than current long PCR approaches.

  3. Four-photon parametric amplification in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, M.; Gersten, J.; Tzoar, N.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical study of four-photon parametric amplification in narrow-band-gap semiconductors is made. It is shown that phase matching is achievable in a linear geometry if a magnetic field is employed. Furthermore, a substantial cyclotron resonance enhancement occurs in the presence of a magnetic field. We calculate the growth rates and threshold fields associated with the parametric amplification and conclude that an efficient laser may be designed based on this process

  4. Transgenerational shifts in reproduction hormesis in green peach aphid exposed to low concentrations of imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali-Mohan Ayyanath

    Full Text Available Hormesis is a biphasic phenomenon that in toxicology is characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. It has been observed in a wide range of organisms in response to many chemical stressors, including insects exposed to pesticides, with potential repercussions for agriculture and pest management. To address questions related to the nature of the dose-response and potential consequences on biological fitness, we examined transgenerational hormesis in the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, when exposed to sublethal concentrations of the insecticide imidacloprid. A hormetic response in the form of increased reproduction was consistently observed and a model previously developed to test for hormesis adequately fit some of our data. However, the nature of the dose-response differed within and across generations depending upon the duration and mode of exposure. Decreased reproduction in intermediate generations confirmed that fitness tradeoffs were a consequence of the hormetic response. However, recovery to levels of reproduction equal to that of controls in subsequent generations and significantly greater total reproduction after four generations suggested that biological fitness was increased by exposure to low concentrations of the insecticide, even when insects were continuously exposed to the stressor. This was especially evident in a greenhouse experiment where the instantaneous rate of population increase almost doubled and total aphid production more than quadrupled when aphids were exposed to potato plants systemically treated with low amounts of imidacloprid. Our results show that although fitness tradeoffs do occur with hormetic responses, this does not necessarily compromise overall biological fitness.

  5. Individual-specific transgenerational marking of fish populations based on a barium dual-isotope procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelga-Suarez, Gonzalo; Moldovan, Mariella; Garcia-Valiente, America; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Alonso, J Ignacio Garcia

    2012-01-03

    The present study focuses on the development and evaluation of an individual-specific transgenerational marking procedure using two enriched barium isotopes, (135)Ba and (137)Ba, mixed at a given and selectable molar ratio. The method is based on the deconvolution of the isotope patterns found in the sample into four molar contribution factors: natural xenon (Xe nat), natural barium (Ba nat), Ba135, and Ba137. The ratio of molar contributions between Ba137 and Ba135 is constant and independent of the contribution of natural barium in the sample. This procedure was tested in brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) kept in captivity. Trout were injected with three different Ba137/Ba135 isotopic signatures ca. 7 months and 7 days before spawning to compare the efficiency of the marking procedure at long and short term, respectively. The barium isotopic profiles were measured in the offspring by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Each of the three different isotopic signatures was unequivocally identified in the offspring in both whole eggs and larvae. For 9 month old offspring, the characteristic barium isotope signatures could also be detected in the otoliths even in the presence of a high and variable amount of barium of natural isotope abundance. In conclusion, it can be stated that the proposed dual-isotope marking is inheritable and can be detected after both long-term and short-term marking. Furthermore, the dual-isotope marking can be made individual-specific, so that it allows identification of offspring from a single individual or a group of individuals within a given fish group. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Persistence and transgenerational effect of plant-mediated RNAi in aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, A D; Wouters, R H M; Mugford, S T; Hogenhout, S A

    2015-02-01

    Plant-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) has been successfully used as a tool to study gene function in aphids. The persistence and transgenerational effects of plant-mediated RNAi in the green peach aphid (GPA) Myzus persicae were investigated, with a focus on three genes with different functions in the aphid. Rack1 is a key component of various cellular processes inside aphids, while candidate effector genes MpC002 and MpPIntO2 (Mp2) modulate aphid-plant interactions. The gene sequences and functions did not affect RNAi-mediated down-regulation and persistence levels in the aphids. Maximal reduction of gene expression was ~70% and this was achieved at between 4 d and 8 d of exposure of the aphids to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-producing transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. Moreover, gene expression levels returned to wild-type levels within ~6 d after removal of the aphids from the transgenic plants, indicating that a continuous supply of dsRNA is required to maintain the RNAi effect. Target genes were also down-regulated in nymphs born from mothers exposed to dsRNA-producing transgenic plants, and the RNAi effect lasted twice as long (12-14 d) in these nymphs. Investigations of the impact of RNAi over three generations of aphids revealed that aphids reared on dsMpC002 transgenic plants experienced a 60% decline in aphid reproduction levels compared with a 40% decline of aphids reared on dsRack1 and dsMpPIntO2 plants. In a field setting, a reduction of the aphid reproduction by 40-60% would dramatically decrease aphid population growth, contributing to a substantial reduction in agricultural losses. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Parental legacy in insects: variation of transgenerational immune priming during offspring development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Trauer

    Full Text Available In insects, a parental immune challenge can prepare and enhance offspring immune activity. Previous studies of such transgenerational immune priming (TGIP mainly focused on a single offspring life stage. However, different developmental stages may be exposed to different risks and show different susceptibility to parental immune priming. Here we addressed the question (i whether TGIP effects on the immunity of Manduca sexta offspring vary among the different developmental offspring stages. We differentiated between unchallenged and immunochallenged offspring; for the latter type of offspring, we further investigated (ii whether TGIP has an impact on the time that enhanced immune levels persist after offspring immune challenge. Finally, we determined (iii whether TGIP effects on offspring performance depend on the offspring stage. Our results show that TGIP effects on phenoloxidase (PO activity, but not on antibacterial activity, vary among unchallenged offspring stages. In contrast, TGIP effects on PO and antibacterial activity did not vary among immunochallenged offspring stages. The persistence of enhanced immune levels in immunochallenged offspring was dependent on the parental immune state. Antibacterial (but not PO activity in offspring of immunochallenged parents decreased over five days after pupal immune challenge, whereas no significant change over time was detectable in offspring of control parents. Finally, TGIP effects on the developmental time of unchallenged offspring varied among stages; young larvae of immunochallenged parents developed faster and gained more weight than larvae of control parents. However, offspring females of immunochallenged parents laid fewer eggs than females derived from control parents. These findings suggest that the benefits which the offspring gains from TGIP during juvenile development are paid by the adults with reduced reproductive power. Our study shows that TGIP effects vary among offspring stages

  8. Parental legacy in insects: variation of transgenerational immune priming during offspring development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauer, Ute; Hilker, Monika

    2013-01-01

    In insects, a parental immune challenge can prepare and enhance offspring immune activity. Previous studies of such transgenerational immune priming (TGIP) mainly focused on a single offspring life stage. However, different developmental stages may be exposed to different risks and show different susceptibility to parental immune priming. Here we addressed the question (i) whether TGIP effects on the immunity of Manduca sexta offspring vary among the different developmental offspring stages. We differentiated between unchallenged and immunochallenged offspring; for the latter type of offspring, we further investigated (ii) whether TGIP has an impact on the time that enhanced immune levels persist after offspring immune challenge. Finally, we determined (iii) whether TGIP effects on offspring performance depend on the offspring stage. Our results show that TGIP effects on phenoloxidase (PO) activity, but not on antibacterial activity, vary among unchallenged offspring stages. In contrast, TGIP effects on PO and antibacterial activity did not vary among immunochallenged offspring stages. The persistence of enhanced immune levels in immunochallenged offspring was dependent on the parental immune state. Antibacterial (but not PO) activity in offspring of immunochallenged parents decreased over five days after pupal immune challenge, whereas no significant change over time was detectable in offspring of control parents. Finally, TGIP effects on the developmental time of unchallenged offspring varied among stages; young larvae of immunochallenged parents developed faster and gained more weight than larvae of control parents. However, offspring females of immunochallenged parents laid fewer eggs than females derived from control parents. These findings suggest that the benefits which the offspring gains from TGIP during juvenile development are paid by the adults with reduced reproductive power. Our study shows that TGIP effects vary among offspring stages and depend on

  9. Investigations on transgenerational epigenetic response down the male line in F2 pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Braunschweig

    Full Text Available We investigated the nutritional effects on carcass traits, gene expression and DNA methylation in a three generation Large White pig feeding experiment. A group of experimental (E F0 boars were fed a standard diet supplemented with high amounts of methylating micronutrients whereas a control group (C of F0 boars received a standard diet. These differentially fed F0 boars sired F1 boars which then sired 60 F2 pigs. Carcass traits were compared between 36 F2 descendants of E F0 boars and 24 F2 descendants of C F0 boars. The two F2 offspring groups differed with respect to backfat percentage (P = 0.03 and tended to differ with respect to adipose tissue (P = 0.09, fat thickness at the 10(th rib (P = 0.08 and at the croup (P = 0.09 as well as percentages of shoulder (P = 0.07. Offspring from the experimental F0 boars had a higher percentage of shoulder and were leaner compared to the control group. Gene expression profiles showed significant twofold differences in mRNA level between 8 C F2 offspring and 8 E F2 offspring for 79, 64 and 53 genes for muscle, liver and kidney RNA, respectively. We found that in liver and muscle respective pathways of lipid metabolism and metabolic pathway were over-represented for the differentially expressed genes between these groups. A DNA methylation analysis in promoters of differentially expressed genes indicated a significant difference in DNA methylation at the IYD gene. If these responses on carcass traits, gene expression and DNA methylation withstand verification and can indeed be attributed to transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, it would open up pioneering application in pork production and would have implications for human health.

  10. Reproductive and transgenerational toxicities of phenanthrene on female marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lingbin; Zuo, Zhenghong; Chen, Meng; Chen, Yixin; Wang, Chonggang

    2015-05-01

    Phenanthrene (PHE) is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the aquatic environment and often results from oil spills. To assess the effects of PHE on fish, marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) was exposed to PHE at 0.06, 0.6, 6 and 60 μg/L. The reproductive functions and transgenerational effects were investigated. After 80 days exposure, the percentage of previtellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes in the ovary showed a significant decrease in the 0.06 and 60 μg/L groups. The mRNA levels of salmon-type gonadotropin releasing hormone, the follicle-stimulating hormone FSHβ, and the luteinizing hormone LHβ in the brain; the cytochrome P450 aromatase gene CYP19A and the estrogen receptor α (ERα) in the ovary; and ERα and vitellogenin VTG1 and 2 in the liver all exhibited significant down-regulation in the 0.06 and 60 μg/L groups, but did not significantly change in the 6 μg/L group compared to the control, which was quite consistent with development of the oocytes. A significant elevation of PHE accumulation in the brain in the 0.06 and 60 μg/L groups gave a reasonable explanation for the nonmonotonic dose-response and also elucidated the action pathway via the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis. The reduction of the time to hatch and the increased cardiac rhythm of embryos were in accord with the PHE accumulative levels in the eggs. The results demonstrated that exposure to PHE at both low and high concentrations can inhibit ovary development. In addition, PHE can be maternally transferred to embryos and influence the health and sustainability of the next generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Within- and Trans-Generational Effects of Variation in Dietary Macronutrient Content on Life-History Traits in the Moth Plodia interpunctella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that parental environment can play an important role in determining offspring phenotype. These “transgenerational effects” have been linked to many different components of the environment, including toxin exposure, infection with pathogens and parasites, temperature and food quality. In this study, we focus on the latter, asking how variation in the quantity and quality of nutrition affects future generations. Previous studies have shown that artificial diets are a useful tool to examine the within-generation effects of variation in macronutrient content on life history traits, and could therefore be applied to investigations of the transgenerational effects of parental diet. Synthetic diets varying in total macronutrient content and protein: carbohydrate ratios were used to examine both within- and trans-generational effects on life history traits in a generalist stored product pest, the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella. The macronutrient composition of the diet was important for shaping within-generation life history traits, including pupal weight, adult weight, and phenoloxidase activity, and had indirect effects via maternal weight on fecundity. Despite these clear within-generation effects on the biology of P. interpunctella, diet composition had no transgenerational effects on the life history traits of offspring. P. interpunctella mothers were able to maintain their offspring quality, possibly at the expense of their own somatic condition, despite high variation in dietary macronutrient composition. This has important implications for the plastic biology of this successful generalist pest. PMID:28033396

  12. Protective effects of green tea polyphenols against benzo[a]pyrene-induced reproductive and trans-generational toxic effects in Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Chuankui; Wang, Yanli; Xiao, Zhengcao; Xiao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the protective effect of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-induced reproductive and trans-generational toxicity, Japanese Medaka was injected intraperitoneally with BaP alone and co-injected with both BaP and GTP of different concentrations, respectively.

  13. Trans-generational responses to low pH depend on parental gender in a calcifying tubeworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Ackley; Campanati, Camilla; Dupont, Sam; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2015-06-03

    The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 emissions by oceans has started decreasing pH and carbonate ion concentrations of seawater, a process called ocean acidification (OA). Occurring over centuries and many generations, evolutionary adaptation and epigenetic transfer will change species responses to OA over time. Trans-generational responses, via genetic selection or trans-generational phenotypic plasticity, differ depending on species and exposure time as well as differences between individuals such as gender. Males and females differ in reproductive investment and egg producing females may have less energy available for OA stress responses. By crossing eggs and sperm from the calcareous tubeworm Hydroides elegans (Haswell, 1883) raised in ambient (8.1) and low (7.8) pH environments, we observed that paternal and maternal low pH experience had opposite and additive effects on offspring. For example, when compared to offspring with both parents from ambient pH, growth rates of offspring of fathers or mothers raised in low pH were higher or lower respectively, but there was no difference when both parents were from low pH. Gender differences may result in different selection pressures for each gender. This may result in overestimates of species tolerance and missed opportunities of potentially insightful comparisons between individuals of the same species.

  14. The Role of DNA Methylation Changes in Radiation-Induced Transgenerational Genomic Instability and Bystander Effects in cranial irradiated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Sun, Yeqing; Gao, Yinglong; Zhang, Baodong

    Heavy-ion radiation could lead to genome instability in the germline, and therefore to transgenerational genome and epigenome instability in offspring of exposed males. The exact mechanisms of radiation-induced genome instability in directly exposed and in bystander organ remain obscure, yet accumulating evidence points to the role of DNA methylation changes in genome instability development. The potential of localized body-part exposures to affect the germline and thus induce genome and epigenome changes in the progeny has not been studied. To investigate whether or not the paternal cranial irradiation can exert deleterious changes in the protected germline and the offsprings, we studied the alteration of DNA methylation in the shielded testes tissue. Here we report that the localized paternal cranial irradiation results in a significant altered DNA methylation in sperm cells and leads to a profound epigenetic dysregulation in the unexposed progeny conceived 3 months after paternal exposure. The possible molecular mechanisms and biological consequences of the observed changes are discussed. Keywords: Heavy-ion radiation; Transgenerational effect; Genomic Instability Bystander Effects; DNA methylation.

  15. Different effects of paternal trans-generational immune priming on survival and immunity in step and genetic offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Hendrik; Kurtz, Joachim; Diddens-de Buhr, Maike F

    2014-12-22

    Paternal trans-generational immune priming, whereby fathers provide immune protection to offspring, has been demonstrated in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum exposed to the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis. It is currently unclear how such protection is transferred, as in contrast to mothers, fathers do not directly provide offspring with a large amount of substances. In addition to sperm, male flour beetles transfer seminal fluids in a spermatophore to females during copulation. Depending on whether paternal trans-generational immune priming is mediated by sperm or seminal fluids, it is expected to either affect only the genetic offspring of a male, or also their step offspring that are sired by another male. We therefore conducted a double-mating experiment and found that only the genetic offspring of an immune primed male show enhanced survival upon bacterial challenge, while phenoloxidase activity, an important insect immune trait, and the expression of the immune receptor PGRP were increased in all offspring. This indicates that information leading to enhanced survival upon pathogen exposure is transferred via sperm, and thus potentially constitutes an epigenetic effect, whereas substances transferred with the seminal fluid could have an additional influence on offspring immune traits and immunological alertness.

  16. Heat induces gene amplification in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Bin; Ouyang, Ruoyun; Huang, Chenghui; Liu, Franklin; Neill, Daniel; Li, Chuanyuan; Dewhirst, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study discovered that heat exposure (hyperthermia) results in gene amplification in cancer cells. ► Hyperthermia induces DNA double strand breaks. ► DNA double strand breaks are considered to be required for the initiation of gene amplification. ► The underlying mechanism of heat-induced gene amplification is generation of DNA double strand breaks. -- Abstract: Background: Hyperthermia plays an important role in cancer therapy. However, as with radiation, it can cause DNA damage and therefore genetic instability. We studied whether hyperthermia can induce gene amplification in cancer cells and explored potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Materials and methods: (1) Hyperthermia: HCT116 colon cancer cells received water-submerged heating treatment at 42 or 44 °C for 30 min; (2) gene amplification assay using N-(phosphoacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA) selection of cabamyl-P-synthetase, aspartate transcarbarmylase, dihydro-orotase (cad) gene amplified cells; (3) southern blotting for confirmation of increased cad gene copies in PALA-resistant cells; (4) γH2AX immunostaining to detect γH2AX foci as an indication for DNA double strand breaks. Results: (1) Heat exposure at 42 or 44 °C for 30 min induces gene amplification. The frequency of cad gene amplification increased by 2.8 and 6.5 folds respectively; (2) heat exposure at both 42 and 44 °C for 30 min induces DNA double strand breaks in HCT116 cells as shown by γH2AX immunostaining. Conclusion: This study shows that heat exposure can induce gene amplification in cancer cells, likely through the generation of DNA double strand breaks, which are believed to be required for the initiation of gene amplification. This process may be promoted by heat when cellular proteins that are responsible for checkpoints, DNA replication, DNA repair and telomere functions are denatured. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide direct evidence of hyperthermia induced gene amplification.

  17. Health Risk Information Engagement and Amplification on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Yulia A

    2017-04-01

    Emerging pandemics call for unique health communication and education strategies in which public health agencies need to satisfy the public's information needs about possible risks while preventing risk exaggeration and dramatization. As a route to providing a framework for understanding public information behaviors in response to an emerging pandemic, this study examined the characteristics of communicative behaviors of social media audiences in response to Ebola outbreak news. Grounded in the social amplification of risks framework, this study adds to an understanding of information behaviors of online audiences by showing empirical differences in audience engagement with online health information. The data were collected from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Facebook channel. The final data set included 809 CDC posts and 35,916 audience comments. The analysis identified the differences in audience information behaviors in response to an emerging pandemic, Ebola, and health promotion posts. While the CDC had fewer posts on Ebola than health promotion topics, the former received more attention from active page users. Furthermore, audience members who actively engaged with Ebola news had a small overlap with those who engaged with non-Ebola information during the same period. Overall, this study demonstrated that information behavior and audience engagement is topic dependent. Furthermore, audiences who commented on news about an emerging pandemic were homogenous and varied in their degree of information amplification.

  18. Genome-Wide Locations of Potential Epimutations Associated with Environmentally Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Disease Using a Sequential Machine Learning Prediction Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M Muksitul; Holder, Lawrence B; Skinner, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation involves germline transmitted epimutations. The primary epimutations identified involve altered differential DNA methylation regions (DMRs). Different environmental toxicants have been shown to promote exposure (i.e., toxicant) specific signatures of germline epimutations. Analysis of genomic features associated with these epimutations identified low-density CpG regions (machine learning computational approach to predict all potential epimutations in the genome. A number of previously identified sperm epimutations were used as training sets. A novel machine learning approach using a sequential combination of Active Learning and Imbalance Class Learner analysis was developed. The transgenerational sperm epimutation analysis identified approximately 50K individual sites with a 1 kb mean size and 3,233 regions that had a minimum of three adjacent sites with a mean size of 3.5 kb. A select number of the most relevant genomic features were identified with the low density CpG deserts being a critical genomic feature of the features selected. A similar independent analysis with transgenerational somatic cell epimutation training sets identified a smaller number of 1,503 regions of genome-wide predicted sites and differences in genomic feature contributions. The predicted genome-wide germline (sperm) epimutations were found to be distinct from the predicted somatic cell epimutations. Validation of the genome-wide germline predicted sites used two recently identified transgenerational sperm epimutation signature sets from the pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and methoxychlor (MXC) exposure lineage F3 generation. Analysis of this positive validation data set showed a 100% prediction accuracy for all the DDT-MXC sperm epimutations. Observations further elucidate the genomic features associated with transgenerational germline epimutations and identify a genome

  19. Global transgenerational gene expression dynamics in two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Bao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alteration in gene expression resulting from allopolyploidization is a prominent feature in plants, but its spectrum and extent are not fully known. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum was formed via allohexaploidization about 10,000 years ago, and became the most important crop plant. To gain further insights into the genome-wide transcriptional dynamics associated with the onset of common wheat formation, we conducted microarray-based genome-wide gene expression analysis on two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat lines with chromosomal stability and a genome constitution analogous to that of the present-day common wheat. Results Multi-color GISH (genomic in situ hybridization was used to identify individual plants from two nascent allohexaploid wheat lines between Triticum turgidum (2n = 4x = 28; genome BBAA and Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14; genome DD, which had a stable chromosomal constitution analogous to that of common wheat (2n = 6x = 42; genome BBAADD. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression was performed for these allohexaploid lines along with their parental plants from T. turgidum and Ae. tauschii, using the Affymetrix Gene Chip Wheat Genome-Array. Comparison with the parental plants coupled with inclusion of empirical mid-parent values (MPVs revealed that whereas the great majority of genes showed the expected parental additivity, two major patterns of alteration in gene expression in the allohexaploid lines were identified: parental dominance expression and non-additive expression. Genes involved in each of the two altered expression patterns could be classified into three distinct groups, stochastic, heritable and persistent, based on their transgenerational heritability and inter-line conservation. Strikingly, whereas both altered patterns of gene expression showed a propensity of inheritance, identity of the involved genes was highly stochastic, consistent with the involvement of diverse Gene Ontology (GO

  20. Environmentally induced transgenerational changes in seed longevity: maternal and genetic influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondoni, A; Orsenigo, S; Donà, M; Balestrazzi, A; Probert, R J; Hay, F R; Petraglia, A; Abeli, T

    2014-06-01

    Seed longevity, a fundamental plant trait for ex situ conservation and persistence in the soil of many species, varies across populations and generations that experience different climates. This study investigates the extent to which differences in seed longevity are due to genetic differences and/or modified by adaptive responses to environmental changes. Seeds of two wild populations of Silene vulgaris from alpine (wA) and lowland (wL) locations and seeds originating from their cultivation in a lowland common garden for two generations (cA1, cL1, cA2 and cL2) were exposed to controlled ageing at 45 °C, 60 % relative humidity and regularly sampled for germination and relative mRNA quantification (SvHSP17.4 and SvNRPD12). The parental plant growth environment affected the longevity of seeds with high plasticity. Seeds of wL were significantly longer lived than those of wA. However, when alpine plants were grown in the common garden, longevity doubled for the first generation of seeds produced (cA1). Conversely, longevity was similar in all lowland seed lots and did not increase in the second generation of seeds produced from alpine plants grown in the common garden (cA2). Analysis of parental effects on mRNA seed provisioning indicated that the accumulation of gene transcripts involved in tolerance to heat stress was highest in wL, cL1 and cL2, followed by cA1, cA2 and wA. Seed longevity has a genetic basis, but may show strong adaptive responses, which are associated with differential accumulation of mRNA via parental effects. Adaptive adjustments of seed longevity due to transgenerational plasticity may play a fundamental role in the survival and persistence of the species in the face of future environmental challenges. The results suggest that regeneration location may have important implications for the conservation of alpine plants held in seed banks. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All

  1. ESTIMATION OF AMPLIFICATION FACTOR IN EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarov Yuriy Pavlovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors are the developers of Odyssey Software (Eurosoft Co. for the analysis of seismological data and computing of seismic loads and their parameters. While communicating with the users of the software, the authors have revealed some uncertainty about both understanding of the term "amplification factor (AF" and calculation of the amplification factor using various methods. In this article, a simple example shows that the determination of the amplification factor as the ratio of the acceleration’s spectrum to the maximal acceleration is derived from the classical definition of AF in the form of the ratio of maximal dynamic displacement to the displacement by the action of static load. Deterministic and probabilistic ap-proaches for the calculating of the AF were discussed. There was an example of AFs calculation and their envelopes for translational and rotational components of seismic impact by using Odyssey Software.

  2. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubey, Manvendra K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen [DALLHOUSIE U; Wang, Muyin [NOAA/JISAO

    2009-01-01

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  3. Amplification, Redundancy, and Quantum Chernoff Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Riedel, C. Jess; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2014-04-01

    Amplification was regarded, since the early days of quantum theory, as a mysterious ingredient that endows quantum microstates with macroscopic consequences, key to the "collapse of the wave packet," and a way to avoid embarrassing problems exemplified by Schrödinger's cat. Such a bridge between the quantum microworld and the classical world of our experience was postulated ad hoc in the Copenhagen interpretation. Quantum Darwinism views amplification as replication, in many copies, of the information about quantum states. We show that such amplification is a natural consequence of a broad class of models of decoherence, including the photon environment we use to obtain most of our information. This leads to objective reality via the presence of robust and widely accessible records of selected quantum states. The resulting redundancy (the number of copies deposited in the environment) follows from the quantum Chernoff information that quantifies the information transmitted by a typical elementary subsystem of the environment.

  4. Thermostable Mismatch-Recognizing Protein MutS Suppresses Nonspecific Amplification during Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiki Kuramitsu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymerase chain reaction (PCR-related technologies are hampered mainly by two types of error: nonspecific amplification and DNA polymerase-generated mutations. Here, we report that both errors can be suppressed by the addition of a DNA mismatch-recognizing protein, MutS, from a thermophilic bacterium. Although it had been expected that MutS has a potential to suppress polymerase-generated mutations, we unexpectedly found that it also reduced nonspecific amplification. On the basis of this finding, we propose that MutS binds a mismatched primer-template complex, thereby preventing the approach of DNA polymerase to the 3' end of the primer. Our simple methodology improves the efficiency and accuracy of DNA amplification and should therefore benefit various PCR-based applications, ranging from basic biological research to applied medical science.

  5. Gravitational Wave Detection via Weak Measurements Amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Meng-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    A universal amplification scheme of ultra-small phase based on weak measurements is given and a weak measurements amplification based laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory (WMA-LIGO) is suggested. The WMA-LIGO has potential to amplify the ultra-small phase signal to at least $10^{3}$ order of magnitude such that the sensitivity and bandwidth of gravitational-wave detector can be further improved. Our results not only shed a new light on the quantum measurement but also open a ne...

  6. "Trans-generational immune priming": specific enhancement of the antimicrobial immune response in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Yannick

    2006-06-07

    Encounters with parasites and pathogens are often unpredictable in time. However, experience of an infection may provide the host with reliable cues about the future risk of infection for the host itself or for its progeny. If the parental environment predicts the quality of the progeny's environment, then parents may further enhance their net reproductive success by differentially providing their offspring with phenotypes to cope with potential hazards such as pathogen infection. Here, I test for the occurrence of such an adaptive transgenerational phenotypic plasticity in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor. A pathogenic environment was mimicked by injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharides for two generations of insects. I found that parental challenge enhanced offspring immunity through the inducible production of antimicrobial peptides in the haemolymph.

  7. High-fat diet reprograms the epigenome of rat spermatozoa and transgenerationally affects metabolism of the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Castro Barbosa, Thais; Ingerslev, Lars R; Alm, Petter S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic and high consumption of fat constitutes an environmental stress that leads to metabolic diseases. We hypothesized that high-fat diet (HFD) transgenerationally remodels the epigenome of spermatozoa and metabolism of the offspring. METHODS: F0-male rats fed either HFD or chow diet...... for 12 weeks were mated with chow-fed dams to generate F1 and F2 offspring. Motile spermatozoa were isolated from F0 and F1 breeders to determine DNA methylation and small non-coding RNA (sncRNA) expression pattern by deep sequencing. RESULTS: Newborn offspring of HFD-fed fathers had reduced body weight......1 male offspring showed common DNA methylation and small non-coding RNA expression signatures. Altered expression of sperm miRNA let-7c was passed down to metabolic tissues of the offspring, inducing a transcriptomic shift of the let-7c predicted targets. CONCLUSION: Our results provide insight...

  8. Optical Pattern Recognition With Self-Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1994-01-01

    In optical pattern recognition system with self-amplification, no reference beam used in addressing mode. Polarization of laser beam and orientation of photorefractive crystal chosen to maximize photorefractive effect. Intensity of recognition signal is orders of magnitude greater than other optical correlators. Apparatus regarded as real-time or quasi-real-time optical pattern recognizer with memory and reprogrammability.

  9. Social amplification of risk: a conceptual framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperson, R.E.; Renn, O.; Slovic, P.; Brown, H.S.; Emel, J.; Goble, R.; Kasperson, J.X.; Ratick, S.

    1988-01-01

    One of the most perplexing problems in risk analysis is why some relatively minor risks or risk events, as assessed by technical experts, often elicit strong public concerns and result in substantial impacts upon society and economy. This article sets forth a conceptual framework that seeks to link systematically the technical assessment of risk with psychological, sociological, and cultural perspectives of risk perception and risk-related behavior. The main thesis is that hazards interact with psychological, social, institutional, and cultural processes in ways that may amplify or attenuate public responses to the risk or risk event. A structural description of the social amplification of risk is now possible. Amplification occurs at two stages: in the transfer of information about the risk, and in the response mechanisms of society. Signals about risk are processed by individual and social amplification stations, including the scientist who communicates the risk assessment, the news media, cultural groups, interpersonal networks, and others. Key steps of amplifications can be identified at each stage. The amplified risk leads to behavioral responses, which, in turn, result in secondary impacts. Models are presented that portray the elements and linkages in the proposed conceptual framework

  10. Desert Amplification in a Warming Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950–2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest warming consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a warming climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global warming associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface warming rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor. PMID:27538725

  11. Intelligence amplification framework for enhancing scheduling processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrkovic, Andrej; Liu, Luyao; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2016-01-01

    The scheduling process in a typical business environment consists of predominantly repetitive tasks that have to be completed in limited time and often containing some form of uncertainty. The intelligence amplification is a symbiotic relationship between a human and an intelligent agent. This

  12. Optical parametric amplification beyond the slowly varying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The coupled-wave equations describing optical parametric amplification (OPA) are usually solved in the slowly varying amplitude (SVA) approximation regime, in which the second-order derivatives of the signal and idler amplitudes are ignored and in fact the electromagnetic effects due to exit face of the medium is not ...

  13. (PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-26

    Mar 26, 2014 ... better alternative for PCR, even in low technology laboratories. In addition, these findings revealed that the possibility of fatal fusariosis due to F. solani is not so rare in HIV positive patients. Key words: Fusarium solani, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), HIV, polymerase chain reaction. (PCR).

  14. Desert Amplification in a Warming Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liming

    2016-08-19

    Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950-2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest warming consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a warming climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global warming associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface warming rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor.

  15. Trans-generational effects of mild heat stress on the life history traits of an aphid parasitoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ismaeil

    Full Text Available Temperature changes are common in nature and insects are particularly exposed and sensitive to such variations which can be potential stresses, ultimately affecting life history traits and overall fitness. Braconids have been widely used to study the effects of temperature on host-parasitoid interactions and the present work focused on the solitary endoparasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae Aphidiidae, an efficient biological control agent commercially used against aphids such as the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae. Contrary to previous studies using heat shocks at extreme temperatures, we evaluated the effects of mild heat stresses by transferring young parasitoid adults from the constant temperature of 20°C to either a warm (25°C or hot (28°C temperature, for either 1 h or 48 h. Such treatments are consistent with situations commonly experienced by parasitoids when moved from their rearing conditions to greenhouses or field conditions. The effects were evaluated both on the heat stressed A. ervi adults (G0 (immediate effects and on their first generation (G1 progeny (trans-generational effects. G0 wasps' mortality was significantly affected by the temperature in interaction with the duration of the stress. Longevity of G0 wasps surviving the heat stress was negatively affected by the temperature and females lived longer than males. Heat stress applied to A. ervi parents also had consequences on their G1 progeny whose developmental time, rates of mummification and percentage of parasitoid completing total development were negatively affected. Surprisingly, the egg load at emergence of the G1 female progeny was increased when their mothers had been submitted to a mild heat stress of 25°C or 28°C. These results clearly demonstrate trans-generational phenotypic plasticity, showing that adaptation to thermal stresses may be achieved via maternal effects. This study also sheds light on

  16. Trans-generational effects of mild heat stress on the life history traits of an aphid parasitoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaeil, Ibrahim; Doury, Géraldine; Desouhant, Emmanuel; Dubois, Françoise; Prevost, Geneviève; Couty, Aude

    2013-01-01

    Temperature changes are common in nature and insects are particularly exposed and sensitive to such variations which can be potential stresses, ultimately affecting life history traits and overall fitness. Braconids have been widely used to study the effects of temperature on host-parasitoid interactions and the present work focused on the solitary endoparasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae Aphidiidae), an efficient biological control agent commercially used against aphids such as the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae). Contrary to previous studies using heat shocks at extreme temperatures, we evaluated the effects of mild heat stresses by transferring young parasitoid adults from the constant temperature of 20°C to either a warm (25°C) or hot (28°C) temperature, for either 1 h or 48 h. Such treatments are consistent with situations commonly experienced by parasitoids when moved from their rearing conditions to greenhouses or field conditions. The effects were evaluated both on the heat stressed A. ervi adults (G0) (immediate effects) and on their first generation (G1) progeny (trans-generational effects). G0 wasps' mortality was significantly affected by the temperature in interaction with the duration of the stress. Longevity of G0 wasps surviving the heat stress was negatively affected by the temperature and females lived longer than males. Heat stress applied to A. ervi parents also had consequences on their G1 progeny whose developmental time, rates of mummification and percentage of parasitoid completing total development were negatively affected. Surprisingly, the egg load at emergence of the G1 female progeny was increased when their mothers had been submitted to a mild heat stress of 25°C or 28°C. These results clearly demonstrate trans-generational phenotypic plasticity, showing that adaptation to thermal stresses may be achieved via maternal effects. This study also sheds light on the complexity

  17. Adolescent opiate exposure in the female rat induces subtle alterations in maternal care and transgenerational effects on play behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. Johnson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The non-medical use of prescription opiates, such as Vicodin® and MSContin®, has increased dramatically over the past decade. Of particular concern is the rising popularity of these drugs in adolescent female populations. Use during this critical developmental period could have significant long-term consequences for both the female user as well as potential effects on her future offspring. To address this issue, we have begun modeling adolescent opiate exposure in female rats and have observed significant transgenerational effects despite the fact that all drugs are withdrawn several weeks prior to pregnancy. The purpose of the current set of studies was to determine whether adolescent morphine exposure modifies postpartum care. In addition, we also examined juvenile play behavior in both male and female offspring. The choice of the social play paradigm was based on previous findings demonstrating effects of both postpartum care and opioid activity on play behavior. The findings revealed subtle modifications in the maternal behavior of adolescent morphine-exposed females, primarily related to the amount of time females’ spend nursing and in non-nursing contact with their young. In addition, male offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed mothers (MOR-F1 demonstrate decreased rough and tumble play behaviors, with no significant differences in general social behaviors (i.e. social grooming and social exploration. Moreover, there was a tendency toward increased rough and tumble play in MOR-F1 females, demonstrating the sex-specific nature of these effects. Given the importance of the postpartum environment on neurodevelopment, it is possible that modifications in maternal-offspring interactions, related to a history of adolescent opiate exposure, plays a role in the observed transgenerational effects. Overall, these studies indicate that the long-term consequences of adolescent opiate exposure can impact both the female and her future offspring.

  18. Natural dissolved humic substances increase the lifespan and promote transgenerational resistance to salt stress in the cladoceran Moina macrocopa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhett, Albert L; Steinberg, Christian E W; Santangelo, Jayme M; Bozelli, Reinaldo L; Farjalla, Vinicius F

    2011-07-01

    Evidence has accumulated that humic substances (HS) are not inert biogeochemicals. Rather, they cause stress symptoms and may modulate the life history of aquatic organisms. Nevertheless, it is still not clear how HS interact with additional stressors and if their effects are transgenerational. We tested the interactive effects of HS and salt to cladocerans, discussing their consequences for the persistence in fluctuating environments, such as coastal lagoons. We used life-table experiments to test the effects of natural HS from a polyhumic coastal lagoon (0, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mg dissolved organic carbon (DOC) L(-1)) on the life-history of the cladoceran Moina macrocopa. We further tested the effects of HS (10 mg DOC L(-1)), within and across generations, on the resistance of M. macrocopa to salt stress (5.5 g L(-1)). HS at 5-20 mg DOC L(-1) extended the mean lifespan of M. macrocopa by ~30%. HS also increased body length at maturity by ~4% at 5-50 mg DOC L(-1) and stimulated male offspring production at all tested concentrations. Exposure to HS (even maternal only) alleviated the salt-induced reduction of somatic growth. Co-exposure to HS increased body volume by 12-22% relative to salt-only treatments, while pre-exposure to HS increased body volume by 40-56% in treatments with salt presence, when compared to non-pre-exposed animals. HS at environmentally realistic concentrations, by acting as mild chemical stressors, modify crucial life-history traits of M. macrocopa, favoring its persistence in fluctuating environments. Some of the effects of HS are even transgenerational.

  19. Transgenerational exposure of North Atlantic bivalves to ocean acidification renders offspring more vulnerable to low pH and additional stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Andrew W; Gobler, Christopher J

    2017-09-12

    While early life-stage marine bivalves are vulnerable to ocean acidification, effects over successive generations are poorly characterized. The objective of this work was to assess the transgenerational effects of ocean acidification on two species of North Atlantic bivalve shellfish, Mercenaria mercenaria and Argopecten irradians. Adults of both species were subjected to high and low pCO 2 conditions during gametogenesis. Resultant larvae were exposed to low and ambient pH conditions in addition to multiple, additional stressors including thermal stress, food-limitation, and exposure to a harmful alga. There were no indications of transgenerational acclimation to ocean acidification during experiments. Offspring of elevated pCO 2 -treatment adults were significantly more vulnerable to acidification as well as the additional stressors. Our results suggest that clams and scallops are unlikely to acclimate to ocean acidification over short time scales and that as coastal oceans continue to acidify, negative effects on these populations may become compounded and more severe.

  20. Plasmonic Terahertz Amplification in Graphene-Based Asymmetric Hyperbolic Metamaterial

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    Igor Nefedov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose and theoretically explore terahertz amplification, based on stimulated generation of plasmons in graphene asymmetric hyperbolic metamaterials (AHMM, strongly coupled to terahertz radiation. In contrast to the terahertz amplification in resonant nanocavities, AHMM provides a wide-band THz amplification without any reflection in optically thin graphene multilayers.

  1. RNA amplification for successful gene profiling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ena

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of clinical samples is often limited by the amount of material available to study. While proteins cannot be multiplied in their natural form, DNA and RNA can be amplified from small specimens and used for high-throughput analyses. Therefore, genetic studies offer the best opportunity to screen for novel insights of human pathology when little material is available. Precise estimates of DNA copy numbers in a given specimen are necessary. However, most studies investigate static variables such as the genetic background of patients or mutations within pathological specimens without a need to assess proportionality of expression among different genes throughout the genome. Comparative genomic hybridization of DNA samples represents a crude exception to this rule since genomic amplification or deletion is compared among different specimens directly. For gene expression analysis, however, it is critical to accurately estimate the proportional expression of distinct RNA transcripts since such proportions directly govern cell function by modulating protein expression. Furthermore, comparative estimates of relative RNA expression at different time points portray the response of cells to environmental stimuli, indirectly informing about broader biological events affecting a particular tissue in physiological or pathological conditions. This cognitive reaction of cells is similar to the detection of electroencephalographic patterns which inform about the status of the brain in response to external stimuli. As our need to understand human pathophysiology at the global level increases, the development and refinement of technologies for high fidelity messenger RNA amplification have become the focus of increasing interest during the past decade. The need to increase the abundance of RNA has been met not only for gene specific amplification, but, most importantly for global transcriptome wide, unbiased amplification. Now gene

  2. Comparison of the Soil Dynamic Amplification Factor and Soil Amplification by Using Microtremor and MASW Methods Respectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncel, Aykut; Cevdet Özdag, Özkan; Pamuk, Eren; Akgün, Mustafa

    2017-12-01

    Single Station Microtremor method, which is widely used nowadays, is an effective and easy applicable method. In this study, dynamic amplification factor distributions of the study area were obtained using scenario earthquake parameters with single station microtremor data gathered at 112 points. In addition, a surface wave active method, which is known as MASW (Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves), was applied at 43 profiles to calculate the soil amplification values. Dynamic amplification factor (DAF), soil amplification, the predominant soil period (PSP), geology and topography data of the study area were analysed together. Dynamic amplification factor and soil amplification values were obtained 2 or higher at about sea level parts of the study area which are generally composed of alluvial units. Additionally, in high altitude regions that are composed of volcanic rocks, relatively lower dynamic amplification factor and soil amplification values were obtained. The minimum amplification value in the study area was 1.15, while the maximum amplification value was 3.05 according to the dynamic amplification results and the soil amplification values were between 1.16 and 3.85 in harmony. It is seen that the obtained DAF values and the soil amplification values calculated from the seismic velocities are very similar to each other numerically and regionally. Because of this, it is concluded that the values of the soil amplification obtained by the MASW method and the calculated DAF values in this study are in harmony with each other. Although the depths of research in these two calculation methods are different from each other, the similarity of the results allows us to arrive at the result of how effective the ground layer is on the amplification. It has a great importance to calculate the amplification values and other dynamic parameters by in situ measurements for a planned plot because geological units can vary even at very short distances in heterogeneously

  3. Parametric nanomechanical amplification at very high frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabalin, R B; Feng, X L; Roukes, M L

    2009-09-01

    Parametric resonance and amplification are important in both fundamental physics and technological applications. Here we report very high frequency (VHF) parametric resonators and mechanical-domain amplifiers based on nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Compound mechanical nanostructures patterned by multilayer, top-down nanofabrication are read out by a novel scheme that parametrically modulates longitudinal stress in doubly clamped beam NEMS resonators. Parametric pumping and signal amplification are demonstrated for VHF resonators up to approximately 130 MHz and provide useful enhancement of both resonance signal amplitude and quality factor. We find that Joule heating and reduced thermal conductance in these nanostructures ultimately impose an upper limit to device performance. We develop a theoretical model to account for both the parametric response and nonequilibrium thermal transport in these composite nanostructures. The results closely conform to our experimental observations, elucidate the frequency and threshold-voltage scaling in parametric VHF NEMS resonators and sensors, and establish the ultimate sensitivity limits of this approach.

  4. Digital Microfluidics for Nucleic Acid Amplification

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    Beatriz Coelho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital Microfluidics (DMF has emerged as a disruptive methodology for the control and manipulation of low volume droplets. In DMF, each droplet acts as a single reactor, which allows for extensive multiparallelization of biological and chemical reactions at a much smaller scale. DMF devices open entirely new and promising pathways for multiplex analysis and reaction occurring in a miniaturized format, thus allowing for healthcare decentralization from major laboratories to point-of-care with accurate, robust and inexpensive molecular diagnostics. Here, we shall focus on DMF platforms specifically designed for nucleic acid amplification, which is key for molecular diagnostics of several diseases and conditions, from pathogen identification to cancer mutations detection. Particular attention will be given to the device architecture, materials and nucleic acid amplification applications in validated settings.

  5. Digital Microfluidics for Nucleic Acid Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Beatriz; Veigas, Bruno; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Águas, Hugo; Igreja, Rui; Baptista, Pedro V

    2017-06-25

    Digital Microfluidics (DMF) has emerged as a disruptive methodology for the control and manipulation of low volume droplets. In DMF, each droplet acts as a single reactor, which allows for extensive multiparallelization of biological and chemical reactions at a much smaller scale. DMF devices open entirely new and promising pathways for multiplex analysis and reaction occurring in a miniaturized format, thus allowing for healthcare decentralization from major laboratories to point-of-care with accurate, robust and inexpensive molecular diagnostics. Here, we shall focus on DMF platforms specifically designed for nucleic acid amplification, which is key for molecular diagnostics of several diseases and conditions, from pathogen identification to cancer mutations detection. Particular attention will be given to the device architecture, materials and nucleic acid amplification applications in validated settings.

  6. Amplification of trace amounts of nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, George M [Brookline, MA; Zhang, Kun [Brighton, MA

    2008-06-17

    Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).

  7. Genome-Wide Locations of Potential Epimutations Associated with Environmentally Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Disease Using a Sequential Machine Learning Prediction Approach.

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    M Muksitul Haque

    Full Text Available Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation involves germline transmitted epimutations. The primary epimutations identified involve altered differential DNA methylation regions (DMRs. Different environmental toxicants have been shown to promote exposure (i.e., toxicant specific signatures of germline epimutations. Analysis of genomic features associated with these epimutations identified low-density CpG regions (<3 CpG / 100bp termed CpG deserts and a number of unique DNA sequence motifs. The rat genome was annotated for these and additional relevant features. The objective of the current study was to use a machine learning computational approach to predict all potential epimutations in the genome. A number of previously identified sperm epimutations were used as training sets. A novel machine learning approach using a sequential combination of Active Learning and Imbalance Class Learner analysis was developed. The transgenerational sperm epimutation analysis identified approximately 50K individual sites with a 1 kb mean size and 3,233 regions that had a minimum of three adjacent sites with a mean size of 3.5 kb. A select number of the most relevant genomic features were identified with the low density CpG deserts being a critical genomic feature of the features selected. A similar independent analysis with transgenerational somatic cell epimutation training sets identified a smaller number of 1,503 regions of genome-wide predicted sites and differences in genomic feature contributions. The predicted genome-wide germline (sperm epimutations were found to be distinct from the predicted somatic cell epimutations. Validation of the genome-wide germline predicted sites used two recently identified transgenerational sperm epimutation signature sets from the pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT and methoxychlor (MXC exposure lineage F3 generation. Analysis of this positive validation

  8. Errors, uncertainties and other problems associated with the interpretation of transgenerational epidemiological studies with special reference to postulated ionising radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, A.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The transgenerational effects debate of recent years can, in the light of current knowledge, be seen as a working example of the operation of a powerful range of errors, biases and confounders. These have often helped to obfuscate the issues addressed to the disbenefit of interested parties such as vicinity populations and workforces. The possibility of transgenerational effects has been entertained as a theoretical constant throughout the history of radiation science being given particular direction and focus by the work of Mueller in the 1920's. The absence of such effect in bomb survivors was therefore somewhat surprising to researchers even though this relative radio resistance was confirmed by later animal studies, such as by Russell and Selby. For emotive and situational reasons the renewed transgenerational debate of the last couple of decades has focused largely on childhood leukaemia, a very late, even remote-manifesting putative, transgenerational effect. This effect has now been demonstrated to be mainly due to confounding, most likely by population mixing, even in the sentinel study population of Seascale, near Sellafield. Little attention had been paid to the nature of the biological plausibility of putative transgenerational effects of ionizing radiation in terms of likelihood and closeness of fit. Thus there is a likelihood gradient of expected magnitude of effect which may be predicted to run from early to late manifesting defects. This would be expected to be high for pre-implantation loss and low for stillbirths or childhood cancer. Cited biological concordance also seldom takes regard of dose and dose rate. This is a particular problem because many epidemiological studies use more or less crude surrogate of dose such as monitored/never monitored or mechanical proportionalisation of annual dose summaries to shorter critical periods (such as spermatogenesis). In questionnaire studies, which are often regarded as inescapable in reproductive

  9. Impact of micropollutants on the life-history traits of the mosquito Aedes aegypti: On the relevance of transgenerational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Sophie M; Chaumot, Arnaud; Cassar, Eva; David, Jean-Philippe; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Hazard assessment of chemical contaminants often relies on short term or partial life-cycle ecotoxicological tests, while the impact of low dose throughout the entire life cycle of species across multiple generations has been neglected. This study aimed at identifying the individual and population-level consequences of chronic water contamination by environmental concentrations of three organic micropollutants, ibuprofen, bisphenol A and benzo[a]pyrene, on Aedes aegypti mosquito populations in experimental conditions. Life-history assays spanning the full life-cycle of exposed individuals and their progeny associated with population dynamics modelling evidenced life-history traits alterations in unexposed progenies of individuals chronically exposed to 1 μg/L ibuprofen or 0.6 μg/L benzo[a]pyrene. The progeny of individuals exposed to ibuprofen showed an accelerated development while the progeny of individuals exposed to benzo[a]pyrene showed a developmental acceleration associated with an increase in mortality rate during development. These life-history changes due to pollutants exposure resulted in relatively shallow increase of Ae. aegypti asymptotic population growth rate. Multigenerational exposure for six generations revealed an evolution of population response to ibuprofen and benzo[a]pyrene across generations, leading to a loss of previously identified transgenerational effects and to the emergence of a tolerance to the bioinsecticide Bacillus turingiensis israelensis (Bti). This study shed light on the short and long term impact of environmentally relevant doses of ibuprofen and benzo[a]pyrene on Ae. aegypti life-history traits and insecticide tolerance, raising unprecedented perspectives about the influence of surface water pollution on vector-control strategies. Overall, our approach highlights the importance of considering the entire life cycle of organisms, and the necessity to assess the transgenerational effects of pollutants in ecotoxicological

  10. The Protein Phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit Twins stabilizes Plk4 to induce centriole amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Christopher W; Klebba, Joey E; Buster, Daniel W; Rogers, Gregory C

    2011-10-17

    Centriole duplication is a tightly regulated process that must occur only once per cell cycle; otherwise, supernumerary centrioles can induce aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. Plk4 (Polo-like kinase 4) activity initiates centriole duplication and is regulated by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Throughout interphase, Plk4 autophosphorylation triggers its degradation, thus preventing centriole amplification. However, Plk4 activity is required during mitosis for proper centriole duplication, but the mechanism stabilizing mitotic Plk4 is unknown. In this paper, we show that PP2A (Protein Phosphatase 2A(Twins)) counteracts Plk4 autophosphorylation, thus stabilizing Plk4 and promoting centriole duplication. Like Plk4, the protein level of PP2A's regulatory subunit, Twins (Tws), peaks during mitosis and is required for centriole duplication. However, untimely Tws expression stabilizes Plk4 inappropriately, inducing centriole amplification. Paradoxically, expression of tumor-promoting simian virus 40 small tumor antigen (ST), a reported PP2A inhibitor, promotes centrosome amplification by an unknown mechanism. We demonstrate that ST actually mimics Tws function in stabilizing Plk4 and inducing centriole amplification.

  11. Shear stress with appropriate time-step and amplification enhances endothelial cell retention on vascular grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haifeng; Gong, Xianghui; Jing, Xiaohui; Ding, Xili; Yao, Yuan; Huang, Yan; Fan, Yubo

    2017-11-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are sensitive to changes in shear stress. The application of shear stress to ECs has been well documented to improve cell retention when placed into a haemodynamically active environment. However, the relationship between the time-step and amplification of shear stress on EC functions remains elusive. In the present study, human umbilical cord veins endothelial cells (HUVECs) were seeded on silk fibroin nanofibrous scaffolds and were preconditioned by shear stress at different time-steps and amplifications. It is shown that gradually increasing shear stress with appropriate time-steps and amplification could improve EC retention, yielding a complete endothelial-like monolayer both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of this improvement is mediated, at least in part, by an upregulation of integrin β1 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression, which contributed to fibronectin (FN) assembly enhancement in ECs in response to the shear stress. A modest gradual increase in shear stress was essential to allow additional time for ECs to gradually acclimatize to the changing environment, with the goal of withstanding the physiological levels of shear stress. This study recognized that the time-steps and amplifications of shear stress could regulate EC tolerance to shear stress and the anti-thrombogenicity function of engineered vascular grafts via an extracellular cell matrix-specific, mechanosensitive signalling pathway and might prevent thrombus formation in vivo. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Comparison Between Vocal Function Exercises and Voice Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Letícia Caldas; Behlau, Mara

    2015-11-01

    To compare the effectiveness of vocal function exercises (VFEs) versus voice amplification (VA) after a 6-week therapy for teachers diagnosed with behavioral dysphonia. A total of 162 teachers with behavioral dysphonia were randomly allocated into two intervention groups and one control group (CG). Outcomes were assessed using auditory-perceptual evaluation of voice, laryngeal status assessment, self-ratings of the impact of dysphonia, and acoustic analysis. The VFE group showed effective changes across treatment outcome measures: overall severity of dysphonia relative to the CG, laryngeal evaluation, and self-perceived dysphonia. The VA group showed positive outcomes in some measures of self-rated dysphonia. The CG had poorer outcomes across self-assessment dimensions. The VFE method is effective in treating the behavioral dysphonia of teachers, can change the overall severity and the self-perception of the impact of dysphonia, and the laryngeal evaluation outcomes. The use of a voice amplifier is effective as a preventive measure because it results in an improved self-perception of dysphonia, especially in the work-related dimension. One case of dysphonia aggravation can be prevented in every three patients with behavioral dysphonia engaged in VFE, and one case in every five patients using VA. The lack of a therapeutic intervention worsens teachers' behavioral dysphonia in a period of 6 weeks. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Does the Arctic Amplification peak this decade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Torge; Haine, Thomas W. N.

    2017-04-01

    Temperatures rise faster in the Arctic than on global average, a phenomenon known as Arctic Amplification. While this is well established from observations and model simulations, projections of future climate (here: RCP8.5) with models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) also indicate that the Arctic Amplification has a maximum. We show this by means of an Arctic Amplification factor (AAF), which we define as the ratio of Arctic mean to global mean surface air temperature (SAT) anomalies. The SAT anomalies are referenced to the period 1960-1980 and smoothed by a 30-year running mean. For October, the multi-model ensemble-mean AAF reaches a maximum in 2017. The maximum moves however to later years as Arctic winter progresses: for the autumn mean SAT (September to November) the maximum AAF is found in 2028 and for winter (December to February) in 2060. Arctic Amplification is driven, amongst others, by the ice-albedo feedback (IAF) as part of the more general surface albedo feedback (involving clouds, snow cover, vegetation changes) and temperature effects (Planck and lapse-rate feedbacks). We note that sea ice retreat and the associated warming of the summer Arctic Ocean are not only an integral part of the IAF but are also involved in the other drivers. In the CMIP5 simulations, the timing of the AAF maximum coincides with the period of fastest ice retreat for the respective month. Presence of at least some sea ice is crucial for the IAF to be effective because of the contrast in surface albedo between ice and open water and the need to turn ocean warming into ice melt. Once large areas of the Arctic Ocean are ice-free, the IAF should be less effective. We thus hypothesize that the ice retreat significantly affects AAF variability and forces a decline of its magnitude after at least half of the Arctic Ocean is ice-free and the ice cover becomes basically seasonal.

  14. Amplification Effects and Unconventional Monetary Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile BASTIDON GILLES

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Global financial crises trigger off amplification effects, which allow relatively small shocks to propagate through the whole financial system. For this reason, the range of Central banks policies is now widening beyond conventional monetary policies and lending of last resort. The aim of this paper is to establish a rule for this practice. The model is based on the formalization of funding conditions in various types of markets. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of the “unconventional monetary policies”, and especially quantify government bonds purchases by the Central bank.

  15. Offspring reaction norms shaped by parental environment: interaction between within- and trans-generational plasticity of inducible defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquet, Emilien; Tariel, Juliette

    2016-10-12

    Within-generational plasticity (WGP) and transgenerational plasticity (TGP) are mechanisms allowing rapid adaptive responses to fluctuating environments without genetic change. These forms of plasticity have often been viewed as independent processes. Recent evidence suggests that WGP is altered by the environmental conditions experienced by previous generations (i.e., TGP). In the context of inducible defenses, one of the most studied cases of plasticity, the WGP x TGP interaction has been poorly investigated. We provide evidence that TGP can alter the reaction norms of inducible defenses in a freshwater snail. The WGP x TGP interaction patterns are trait-specific and lead to decreased slope of reaction norms (behaviour and shell thickness). Offspring from induced parents showed a higher predator avoidance behaviour and a thicker shell than snails from non-induced parents in no predator-cue environment while they reached similar defenses in predator-cue environment. The WGP x TGP interaction further lead to a switch from a plastic towards a constitutive expression of defenses for shell dimensions (flat reaction norm). WGP-alteration by TGP may shape the adaptive responses to environmental change and then has a substantial importance to understand the evolution of plasticity.

  16. Silencing the expression of the salivary sheath protein causes transgenerational feeding suppression in the aphid Sitobion avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatef, Eltayb; Will, Torsten; Koch, Aline; Imani, Jafargholi; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2015-08-01

    Aphids produce gel saliva during feeding which forms a sheath around the stylet as it penetrates through the apoplast. The sheath is required for the sustained ingestion of phloem sap from sieve elements and is thought to form when the structural sheath protein (SHP) is cross-linked by intermolecular disulphide bridges. We investigated the possibility of controlling aphid infestation by host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) targeting shp expression in the grain aphid Sitobion avenae. When aphids were fed on transgenic barley expressing shp double-stranded RNA (shp-dsRNA), they produced significantly lower levels of shp mRNA compared to aphids feeding on wild-type plants, suggesting that the transfer of inhibitory RNA from the plant to the insect was successful. shp expression remained low when aphids were transferred from transgenic plants and fed for 1 or 2 weeks, respectively, on wild-type plants, confirming that silencing had a prolonged impact. Reduced shp expression correlated with a decline in growth, reproduction and survival rates. Remarkably, morphological and physiological aberrations such as winged adults and delayed maturation were maintained over seven aphid generations feeding on wild-type plants. Targeting shp expression therefore appears to cause strong transgenerational effects on feeding, development and survival in S. avenae, suggesting that the HIGS technology has a realistic potential for the control of aphid pests in agriculture. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Detection of transgenerational barium dual-isotope marks in salmon otoliths by means of LA-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelga-Suarez, Gonzalo; Fernández, Beatriz; Moldovan, Mariella; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2013-03-01

    The present study evaluates the use of an individual-specific transgenerational barium dual-isotope procedure and its application to salmon specimens from the Sella River (Asturias, Spain). For such a purpose, the use of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in combination with multiple linear regression for the determination of the isotopic mark in the otoliths of the specimens is presented. In this sense, a solution in which two barium-enriched isotopes ((137)Ba and (135)Ba) were mixed at a molar ratio of ca. 1:3 (N Ba137/N Ba135) was administered to eight returning females caught during the spawning period. After injection, these females, as well as their offspring, were reared in a governmental hatchery located in the council of Cangas de Onís (Asturias, Spain). For comparison purposes, as well as for a time-monitoring control, egg and larva data obtained by solution analysis ICP-MS are also given. Otoliths (9-month-old juveniles) of marked offspring were analysed by LA-ICP-MS demonstrating a 100 % marking efficacy of this methodology. The capabilities of the molar fraction approach for 2D imaging of fish otoliths are also addressed.

  18. Reduction in maternal Polycomb levels contributes to transgenerational inheritance of a response to toxic stress in flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Shay; Snir, Orli; Mizrachi, Eran; Galili, Matana; Zaltsman, Inbal; Soen, Yoav

    2014-06-01

    Transgenerational persistence of parental responses to environmental stimuli has been reported in various organisms, but the underlying mechanisms remain underexplored. In one of these reported examples, we have shown that exposure of fly larvae to G418 antibiotic leads to non-Mendelian inheritance of ectopic induction of certain developmental genes. Here we investigate if this inheritance involves changes in mRNA composition within the early, maternal-stage offspring embryos of exposed flies. Exposure to G418 in F1 modified the maternal RNA levels of many genes in their early (F2) embryos. This includes reduction of maternal Polycomb group genes which persisted in the following generation of embryos (F3). To investigate the functional meaning of this reduction, we compared genetically normal embryos of Polycomb mutant females to normal embryos of normal females. Analysis with two different alleles of Polycomb, Pc1 and Pc3, revealed that maternal reduction in Polycomb gene dosage has a positive influence on the inheritance of induced expression. Together, this shows that exposure to G418 stress reduces the maternal levels of Polycomb in the offspring embryos and this reduction contributes to the inheritance of induced expression. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  19. Mother-derived trans-generational immune priming in the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera, Dryophthoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z H; Lin, Y T; Hou, Y M

    2014-12-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) is the most destructive pest of palm trees worldwide containing it invasive areas, such as the southern part of China. It is always emphasized to develop integrated pest management based on biological agents, but their success is not very exciting. Presently, the immune defenses of this pest against biological agents attract scarce attention. It is still unclear whether immune priming also generally occurs in insect pests and in response to different pathogens. Our results indicated that previous challenge of bacteria pathogen enhanced the magnitude of phenoloxidase activity and antibacterial activity in R. ferrugineus larvae against the secondary infection. Furthermore, trans-generational immune priming was also determined in this pest, and only challenged R. ferrugineus mothers transferred the immune protection to their offspring which suggested males and females of this pest might have evolved different strategies on the investment of delivering immune protection to their offspring. Importantly, our data provide the evidence to suggest that different kinds of biological control agents might be used alternatively or in combination to fight against R. ferrugineus because of the existence of immune priming with low species-specific level. On the other hand, for this invasive pest, the immune priming may also facilitate its adaptation and dispersal in the new regions.

  20. Trans-generational Immune Priming Protects the Eggs Only against Gram-Positive Bacteria in the Mealworm Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuffet, Aurore; Zanchi, Caroline; Boutet, Gwendoline; Moreau, Jérôme; Teixeira, Maria; Moret, Yannick

    2015-10-01

    In many vertebrates and invertebrates, offspring whose mothers have been exposed to pathogens can exhibit increased levels of immune activity and/or increased survival to infection. Such phenomena, called "Trans-generational immune priming" (TGIP) are expected to provide immune protection to the offspring. As the offspring and their mother may share the same environment, and consequently similar microbial threats, we expect the immune molecules present in the progeny to be specific to the microbes that immune challenged the mother. We provide evidence in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor that the antimicrobial activity found in the eggs is only active against Gram-positive bacteria, even when females were exposed to Gram-negative bacteria or fungi. Fungi were weak inducers of TGIP while we obtained similar levels of anti-Gram-positive activity using different bacteria for the maternal challenge. Furthermore, we have identified an antibacterial peptide from the defensin family, the tenecin 1, which spectrum of activity is exclusively directed toward Gram-positive bacteria as potential contributor to this antimicrobial activity. We conclude that maternal transfer of antimicrobial activity in the eggs of T. molitor might have evolved from persistent Gram-positive bacterial pathogens between insect generations.

  1. Trans-generational Immune Priming Protects the Eggs Only against Gram-Positive Bacteria in the Mealworm Beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Dubuffet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In many vertebrates and invertebrates, offspring whose mothers have been exposed to pathogens can exhibit increased levels of immune activity and/or increased survival to infection. Such phenomena, called "Trans-generational immune priming" (TGIP are expected to provide immune protection to the offspring. As the offspring and their mother may share the same environment, and consequently similar microbial threats, we expect the immune molecules present in the progeny to be specific to the microbes that immune challenged the mother. We provide evidence in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor that the antimicrobial activity found in the eggs is only active against Gram-positive bacteria, even when females were exposed to Gram-negative bacteria or fungi. Fungi were weak inducers of TGIP while we obtained similar levels of anti-Gram-positive activity using different bacteria for the maternal challenge. Furthermore, we have identified an antibacterial peptide from the defensin family, the tenecin 1, which spectrum of activity is exclusively directed toward Gram-positive bacteria as potential contributor to this antimicrobial activity. We conclude that maternal transfer of antimicrobial activity in the eggs of T. molitor might have evolved from persistent Gram-positive bacterial pathogens between insect generations.

  2. Parametric amplification in MoS2drum resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Parmeshwar; Arora, Nishta; Naik, A K

    2017-11-30

    Parametric amplification is widely used in diverse areas from optics to electronic circuits to enhance low level signals by varying relevant system parameters. Parametric amplification has also been performed in several micro-nano resonators including nano-electromechanical system (NEMS) resonators based on a two-dimensional (2D) material. Here, we report the enhancement of mechanical response in a MoS 2 drum resonator using degenerate parametric amplification. We use parametric pumping to modulate the spring constant of the MoS 2 resonator and achieve a 10 dB amplitude gain. We also demonstrate quality factor enhancement in the resonator with parametric amplification. We investigate the effect of cubic nonlinearity on parametric amplification and show that it limits the gain of the mechanical resonator. Amplifying ultra-small displacements at room temperature and understanding the limitations of the amplification in these devices is key for using these devices for practical applications.

  3. Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beam Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Govind

    2015-01-01

    The Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beam Amplification (SOCLBA) project will provide a capability to amplify a laser beam that is received in a modulating retro-reflector (MRR) located in a satellite in low Earth orbit. It will also improve the pointing procedure between Earth and spacecraft terminals. The technology uses laser arrays to strengthen the reflected laser beam from the spacecraft. The results of first year's work (2014) show amplification factors of 60 times the power of the signal beam. MMRs are mirrors that reflect light beams back to the source. In space optical communications, a high-powered laser interrogator beam is directed from the ground to a satellite. Within the satellite, the beam is redirected back to ground using the MMR. In the MMR, the beam passes through modulators, which encode a data signal onto the returning beam. MMRs can be used in small spacecraft for optical communications. The SOCLBA project is significant to NASA and small spacecraft due to its application to CubeSats for optical data transmission to ground stations, as well as possible application to spacecraft for optical data transmission.

  4. Primordial magnetic field amplification from turbulent reheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzetta, Esteban; Kandus, Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the possibility of primordial magnetic field amplification by a stochastic large scale kinematic dynamo during reheating. We consider a charged scalar field minimally coupled to gravity. During inflation this field is assumed to be in its vacuum state. At the transition to reheating the state of the field changes to a many particle/anti-particle state. We characterize that state as a fluid flow of zero mean velocity but with a stochastic velocity field. We compute the scale-dependent Reynolds number Re(k), and the characteristic times for decay of turbulence, t d and pair annihilation t a , finding t a d . We calculate the rms value of the kinetic helicity of the flow over a scale L and show that it does not vanish. We use this result to estimate the amplification factor of a seed field from the stochastic kinematic dynamo equations. Although this effect is weak, it shows that the evolution of the cosmic magnetic field from reheating to galaxy formation may well be more complex than as dictated by simple flux freezing

  5. Electronic cyclotron radiation amplification in thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziebell, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    The amplified emission of electron cyclotron radiation near the fundamental frequency from an inhomogeneous, anisotropic plasma slab is investigated in a linear theory. Plasma polarization effects are consistently included. Expressions are developed in the WKB approximation for emission in the ordinary and the extraordinary modes, for propagation perpendicular to the magnetic field. Numerical results are given for the extraordinary mode, for which effects are strongest. For the case of a loss-cone-type electron momentum distribution, it is shown that the amplification is sensitively dependent on the ratio of parallel-to-perpendicular temperature and on inhomogeneities in the magnetic field. The dependence of the amplification on the distribution is further investigated by considering superpositions of loss-cone and Maxwellian components. It is show that the presence of a Maxwellian component in general reduces the emission relative to the pure loss-cone case, and situations occur in which a layer in the slab very effectively absorbs all the radiation amplified elsewhere. A peculiar behaviour of the refractive index, which occurs in the transition from the pure loss-cone to the pure Maxwellian case, is discussed. (author)

  6. Earthquake acceleration amplification based on single microtremor test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya Syahbana, Arifan; Kurniawan, Rahmat; Soebowo, Eko

    2018-02-01

    Understanding soil dynamics is needed to understand soil behaviour, including the parameters of earthquake acceleration amplification. Many researchers now conduct single microtremor tests to obtain amplification of velocity and natural periods of soil at test sites. However, these amplification parameters are rarely used, so a method is needed to convert the velocity amplification to acceleration amplification. This paper will discuss the proposed process of changing the value of amplification. The proposed method is to integrate the time histories of the synthetic earthquake acceleration of the soil surface under the deaggregation at that location so the time histories of the velocity earthquake will be obtained. Next is to conduct a “fitting curve” between amplification by a single microtremor test with amplification of the synthetic earthquake velocity time histories. After obtaining the fitting curve time histories of velocity, differentiation will be conducted to obtain fitting curve acceleration time histories. The final step after obtaining the fitting curve is to compare the acceleration of the “fitting curve” against the histories time of the acceleration of synthetic earthquake at bedrocks to obtain single microtremor acceleration amplification factor.

  7. Improved PCR Amplification of Broad Spectrum GC DNA Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Nicholas; Starostina, Elena; Leake, Devin; Saaem, Ishtiaq

    2016-01-01

    Many applications in molecular biology can benefit from improved PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. Conventional PCR amplification of DNA sequences with regions of GC less than 30%, or higher than 70%, is complex due to secondary structures that block the DNA polymerase as well as mispriming and mis-annealing of the DNA. This complexity will often generate incomplete or nonspecific products that hamper downstream applications. In this study, we address multiplexed PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. In order to mitigate amplification complications due to high or low GC regions, we tested a combination of different PCR cycling conditions and chemical additives. To assess the fate of specific oligonucleotide (oligo) species with varying GC content in a multiplexed PCR, we developed a novel method of sequence analysis. Here we show that subcycling during the amplification process significantly improved amplification of short template pools (~200 bp), particularly when the template contained a low percent of GC. Furthermore, the combination of subcycling and 7-deaza-dGTP achieved efficient amplification of short templates ranging from 10-90% GC composition. Moreover, we found that 7-deaza-dGTP improved the amplification of longer products (~1000 bp). These methods provide an updated approach for PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a broad range of GC content.

  8. C-MET overexpression and amplification in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yoonjin; Kim, Seong-Ik; Park, Chul-Kee; Paek, Sun Ha; Lee, Soon-Tae; Park, Sung-Hye

    2015-01-01

    We investigated c-Met overexpression and MET gene amplification in gliomas to determine their incidence and prognostic significance. c-Met immunohistochemistry and MET gene fluorescence in situ hybridization were carried out on tissue microarrays from 250 patients with gliomas (137 grade IV GBMs and 113 grade II and III diffuse gliomas). Clinicopathological features of these cases were reviewed. c-Met overexpression and MET gene amplification were detected in 13.1% and 5.1% of the GBMs, respectively. All the MET-amplified cases showed c-Met overexpression, but MET amplification was not always concordant with c-Met overexpression. None of grade II and III gliomas demonstrated c-Met overexpression or MET gene amplification. Mean survival of the GBM patients with MET amplification was not significantly different from patients without MET amplification (P=0.155). However, GBM patients with c-Met overexpression survived longer than patients without c-Met overexpression (P=0.035). Although MET amplification was not related to poor GBM prognosis, it is partially associated with the aggressiveness of gliomas, as MET amplification was found only in grade IV, not in grade II and III gliomas. We suggest that MET inhibitor therapy may be beneficial in about 5% GBMs, which was the incidence of MET gene amplification found in the patients included in this study.

  9. Recombinase polymerase amplification: Emergence as a critical molecular technology for rapid, low-resource diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ameh; Macdonald, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Isothermal molecular diagnostics are bridging the technology gap between traditional diagnostics and polymerase chain reaction-based methods. These new techniques enable timely and accurate testing, especially in settings where there is a lack of infrastructure to support polymerase chain reaction facilities. Despite this, there is a significant lack of uptake of these technologies in developing countries where they are highly needed. Among these novel isothermal technologies, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) holds particular potential for use in developing countries. This rapid nucleic acid amplification approach is fast, highly sensitive and specific, and amenable to countries with a high burden of infectious diseases. Implementation of RPA technology in developing countries is critically required to assess limitations and potentials of the diagnosis of infectious disease, and may help identify impediments that prevent adoption of new molecular technologies in low resource- and low skill settings. This review focuses on approaching diagnosis of infectious disease with RPA.

  10. Molecular characterization of a rice mutator-phenotype derived from an incompatible cross-pollination reveals transgenerational mobilization of multiple transposable elements and extensive epigenetic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chunming

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inter-specific hybridization occurs frequently in plants, which may induce genetic and epigenetic instabilities in the resultant hybrids, allopolyploids and introgressants. It remains unclear however whether pollination by alien pollens of an incompatible species may impose a "biological stress" even in the absence of genome-merger or genetic introgression, whereby genetic and/or epigenetic instability of the maternal recipient genome might be provoked. Results We report here the identification of a rice mutator-phenotype from a set of rice plants derived from a crossing experiment involving two remote and apparently incompatible species, Oryza sativa L. and Oenothera biennis L. The mutator-phenotype (named Tong211-LP showed distinct alteration in several traits, with the most striking being substantially enlarged panicles. Expectably, gel-blotting by total genomic DNA of the pollen-donor showed no evidence for introgression. Characterization of Tong211-LP (S0 and its selfed progenies (S1 ruled out contamination (via seed or pollen or polyploidy as a cause for its dramatic phenotypic changes, but revealed transgenerational mobilization of several previously characterized transposable elements (TEs, including a MITE (mPing, and three LTR retrotransposons (Osr7, Osr23 and Tos17. AFLP and MSAP fingerprinting revealed extensive, transgenerational alterations in cytosine methylation and to a less extent also genetic variation in Tong211-LP and its immediate progenies. mPing mobility was found to correlate with cytosine methylation alteration detected by MSAP but not with genetic variation detected by AFLP. Assay by q-RT-PCR of the steady-state transcript abundance of a set of genes encoding for the various putative DNA methyltransferases, 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases, and small interference RNA (siRNA pathway-related proteins showed that, relative to the rice parental line, heritable perturbation in expression of 12 out of

  11. Raman amplification in optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    Fiber Raman amplifiers are investigated with the purpose of identifying new applications and limitations for their use in optical communication systems. Three main topics are investigated, namely: New applications of dispersion compensating Raman amplifiers, the use Raman amplification to increase...... støjtal under 4,5 dB og en samlet udgangseffekt på 22 dBm. Med henblik på at forlænge rækkevidden af fremtidige access-netværk foreslås en ny arkitektur for såkaldte langdistance passive optiske netværk (PON). Dette system evalueres både teoretisk og eksperimentelt. Distribueret Raman-forstærkning bruges...

  12. Parametric Amplification of a Superconducting Plasma Wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, S; Casandruc, E; Laplace, Y; Nicoletti, D; Gu, G D; Clark, S R; Jaksch, D; Cavalleri, A

    2016-11-01

    Many applications in photonics require all-optical manipulation of plasma waves1, which can concentrate electromagnetic energy on sub-wavelength length scales. This is difficult in metallic plasmas because of their small optical nonlinearities. Some layered superconductors support Josephson plasma waves (JPWs)2,3, involving oscillatory tunneling of the superfluid between capacitively coupled planes. Josephson plasma waves are also highly nonlinear4, and exhibit striking phenomena like cooperative emission of coherent terahertz radiation5,6, superconductor-metal oscillations7 and soliton formation8. We show here that terahertz JPWs can be parametrically amplified through the cubic tunneling nonlinearity in a cuprate superconductor. Parametric amplification is sensitive to the relative phase between pump and seed waves and may be optimized to achieve squeezing of the order parameter phase fluctuations9 or single terahertz-photon devices.

  13. Parametric amplification by coupled flux qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehák, M.; Neilinger, P.; Grajcar, M. [Department of Experimental Physics, Comenius University, SK-84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Science, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Oelsner, G.; Hübner, U.; Meyer, H.-G. [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, P.O. Box 100239, D-07702 Jena (Germany); Il' ichev, E. [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, P.O. Box 100239, D-07702 Jena (Germany); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 K. Marx Ave., 630092 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-21

    We report parametric amplification of a microwave signal in a Kerr medium formed from superconducting qubits. Two mutually coupled flux qubits, embedded in the current antinode of a superconducting coplanar waveguide resonator, are used as a nonlinear element. Shared Josephson junctions provide the qubit-resonator coupling, resulting in a device with a tunable Kerr constant (up to 3 × 10{sup −3}) and a measured gain of about 20 dB. This arrangement represents a unit cell which can be straightforwardly extended to a quasi one-dimensional quantum metamaterial with large tunable Kerr nonlinearity, providing a basis for implementation of wide-band travelling wave parametric amplifiers.

  14. Heralded amplification of path entangled quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, F.; Verbanis, E.; Caprara Vivoli, V.; Martin, A.; Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H.; Thew, R. T.

    2017-06-01

    Device-independent quantum key distribution (DI-QKD) represents one of the most fascinating challenges in quantum communication, exploiting concepts of fundamental physics, namely Bell tests of nonlocality, to ensure the security of a communication link. This requires the loophole-free violation of a Bell inequality, which is intrinsically difficult due to losses in fibre optic transmission channels. Heralded photon amplification (HPA) is a teleportation-based protocol that has been proposed as a means to overcome transmission loss for DI-QKD. Here we demonstrate HPA for path entangled states and characterise the entanglement before and after loss by exploiting a recently developed displacement-based detection scheme. We demonstrate that by exploiting HPA we are able to reliably maintain high fidelity entangled states over loss-equivalent distances of more than 50 km.

  15. Introduction to quantum noise, measurement, and amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerk, A. A.; Devoret, M. H.; Girvin, S. M.; Marquardt, Florian; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2010-04-01

    The topic of quantum noise has become extremely timely due to the rise of quantum information physics and the resulting interchange of ideas between the condensed matter and atomic, molecular, optical-quantum optics communities. This review gives a pedagogical introduction to the physics of quantum noise and its connections to quantum measurement and quantum amplification. After introducing quantum noise spectra and methods for their detection, the basics of weak continuous measurements are described. Particular attention is given to the treatment of the standard quantum limit on linear amplifiers and position detectors within a general linear-response framework. This approach is shown how it relates to the standard Haus-Caves quantum limit for a bosonic amplifier known in quantum optics and its application to the case of electrical circuits is illustrated, including mesoscopic detectors and resonant cavity detectors.

  16. Controlled Microwave Heating Accelerates Rolling Circle Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Takeo; Suzuki, Takamasa; Mineki, Shigeru; Ohuchi, Shokichi

    2015-01-01

    Rolling circle amplification (RCA) generates single-stranded DNAs or RNA, and the diverse applications of this isothermal technique range from the sensitive detection of nucleic acids to analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Microwave chemistry is widely applied to increase reaction rate as well as product yield and purity. The objectives of the present research were to apply microwave heating to RCA and indicate factors that contribute to the microwave selective heating effect. The microwave reaction temperature was strictly controlled using a microwave applicator optimized for enzymatic-scale reactions. Here, we showed that microwave-assisted RCA reactions catalyzed by either of the four thermostable DNA polymerases were accelerated over 4-folds compared with conventional RCA. Furthermore, the temperatures of the individual buffer components were specifically influenced by microwave heating. We concluded that microwave heating accelerated isothermal RCA of DNA because of the differential heating mechanisms of microwaves on the temperatures of reaction components, although the overall reaction temperatures were the same.

  17. Raman Amplification with a Flying Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, D.; Bucht, S.; Davies, A.; Haberberger, D.; Kessler, T.; Shaw, J. L.; Froula, D. H.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a new laser amplifier scheme utilizing stimulated Raman scattering in plasma in conjunction with a "flying focus"—a chromatic focusing system combined with a chirped pump beam that provides spatiotemporal control over the pump's focal spot. Pump intensity isosurfaces are made to propagate at v =-c so as to be in sync with the injected counterpropagating seed pulse. By setting the pump intensity in the interaction region to be just above the ionization threshold of the background gas, an ionization wave is produced that travels at a fixed distance ahead of the seed. Simulations show that this will make it possible to optimize the plasma temperature and mitigate many of the issues that are known to have impacted previous Raman amplification experiments, in particular, the growth of precursors.

  18. Social and political amplification of technological hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibitayo, Olurominiyi O.; Mushkatel, Alvin; Pijawka, K. David

    2004-01-01

    Using an industrial explosion in Henderson, Nevada, as a case study, this paper examines three main issues: the efficacy of a technological hazard event in amplifying otherwise latent issues, the extent to which the hazard event can serve as a focusing event for substantive local and state policy initiatives, and the effect of fragmentation of political authority in managing technological hazards. The findings indicate that the explosion amplified several public safety issues and galvanized the public into pressing for major policy initiatives. However, notwithstanding the amplification of several otherwise latent issues, and the flurry of activities by the state and local governments, the hazard event did not seem to be an effective focusing event or trigger mechanism for substantive state and local policy initiatives. In addition, the study provides evidence of the need for a stronger nexus between political authority, land-use planning and technological hazard management

  19. Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification of Infectious Prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, are a group of incurable disorders caused by the accumulation of an abnormally folded prion protein (PrP Sc ) in the brain. According to the "protein-only" hypothesis, PrP Sc is the infectious agent able to propagate the disease by acting as a template for the conversion of the correctly folded prion protein (PrP C ) into the pathological isoform. Recently, the mechanism of PrP C conversion has been mimicked in vitro using an innovative technique named protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). This technology represents a great tool for studying diverse aspects of prion biology in the field of basic research and diagnosis. Moreover, PMCA can be expanded for the study of the misfolding process associated to other neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Markovian Dynamics of Josephson Parametric Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kaiser

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we derive the dynamics of the lossy DC pumped non-degenerate Josephson parametric amplifier (DCPJPA. The main element in a DCPJPA is the superconducting Josephson junction. The DC bias generates the AC Josephson current varying the nonlinear inductance of the junction. By this way the Josephson junction acts as the pump oscillator as well as the time varying reactance of the parametric amplifier. In quantum-limited amplification, losses and noise have an increased impact on the characteristics of an amplifier. We outline the classical model of the lossy DCPJPA and derive the available noise power spectral densities. A classical treatment is not capable of including properties like spontaneous emission which is mandatory in case of amplification at the quantum limit. Thus, we derive a quantum mechanical model of the lossy DCPJPA. Thermal losses are modeled by the quantum Langevin approach, by coupling the quantized system to a photon heat bath in thermodynamic equilibrium. The mode occupation in the bath follows the Bose-Einstein statistics. Based on the second quantization formalism, we derive the Heisenberg equations of motion of both resonator modes. We assume the dynamics of the system to follow the Markovian approximation, i.e. the system only depends on its actual state and is memory-free. We explicitly compute the time evolution of the contributions to the signal mode energy and give numeric examples based on different damping and coupling constants. Our analytic results show, that this model is capable of including thermal noise into the description of the DC pumped non-degenerate Josephson parametric amplifier.

  1. Ground amplification determined from borehole accelerograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archuleta, R.J.; Seale, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Garner Valley downhole array (GVDA) consists of one surface accelerometer and four downhole accelerometers at depths of 6 m, 15 m, 22m, and 220 m. The five, three-component vertical array of dual-gain accelerometers are capable of measuring accelerations from 3 x 10 -6 g to 2.0 g over a frequency range from 0.0 Hz (0.025, high-gain) Hz to 100 Hz. The site (33 degree 41.60' N, 116 degree 40.20 degree W) is only seven kilometers off the trace of the San Jacinto fault, the most active strand of the San Andreas fault system in southern California and only about 35 km from the San Andreas fault itself. Analysis of individual spectra and spectral ratios for the various depths shows that the zone of weathered granite has a pronounced effect on the spectral amplitudes for frequencies greater than 40 Hz. The soil layer impedance may amplify the high frequencies more than it attenuates. This result must be checked more thoroughly with special consideration of the spectra of the P-wave coda on the horizontal components. Analysis of the P-wave spectra and the spectral ratios shows an increased amplification in the same frequency range (60-90 Hz) where the S-wave spectral ratios imply a change in the attenuation. Comparison of acceleration spectra from two earthquakes, M L 4.2 and M L 2.5 that have nearly the same hypocenter, shows that the near surface amplification and attenuation is nearly the same for both earthquakes. However, the earthquakes themselves are different if we can assume that the recording at 220 m reflects the source spectra with a slight attenuation. The M L 2.5 earthquake has significantly greater high frequency content if the spectra are normalized at the low frequency, i.e., normalization by seismic moment

  2. Evaluation of loop mediated isothermal amplification for diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important global public health problem. The lack of rapid and accurate diagnostic testing is an important impediment to global tuberculosis control. Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a rapid method for nucleic acid amplification. In this study, we assessed the performance of an ...

  3. Whole genome amplification: Use of advanced isothermal method

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-12-29

    Dec 29, 2010 ... example, hydrodynamic shearing machine (Arneson et al., 2008b). For validation of whole genome amplification,. Tanabe et al. (2003) have used exon amplification and genotyping of 307 microsatellites, in addition to array CGH. Analyzing of 307 microsatellites distributed throughout the genome revealed ...

  4. The rolling circle amplification and next generation sequencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Titus

    2016-09-14

    Sep 14, 2016 ... Rolling circle amplification is a simple approach of enriching populations of single-stranded DNA plant begomovirus ... sequencing by enriching it using rolling circle amplification then determination of the diversity of the cassava mosaic .... pair ended reads while 4 libraries had less than 0.06 ng/ul and had ...

  5. The rolling circle amplification and next generation sequencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rolling circle amplification is a simple approach of enriching populations of single-stranded DNA plant begomovirus genomes (genus, Begomovirus; family, Geminiviridae). This is an innovative approach that utilizes the robustness of the bacteriophage phi29 DNA polymerase used in circle amplification, together with deep ...

  6. Broadening and Amplification of an Infrared Femtosecond Pulse for Optical Parametric Chirped-Pulse Amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang He-Lin; Yang Ai-Jun; Leng Yu-Xin

    2011-01-01

    A high-average-power diode-pumped narrowband regenerative chirped pulse amplifier is developed using the thin-rod Nd:YAG laser architecture for optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA). The effect of the etalons on the amplified pulse in the regenerative cavity is studied experimentally and theoretically. By inserting glass etalons of thickness 1 mm and 5 mm into the regenerative cavity, the pre-stretching pulse from an Öffner stretcher is further broadened to above 200ps, which matches the amplification windows of the signal pulses in OPCPA and is suitable for use as a pump source in the OPCPA system. The bandwidth of the amplified pulse is 1.5 nm, and an output energy of 2mJ is achieved at a repetition rate of 10Hz. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  7. Gestational Exposure to Sidestream (Secondhand) Cigarette Smoke Promotes Transgenerational Epigenetic Transmission of Exacerbated Allergic Asthma and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shashi P; Chand, Hitendra S; Langley, Raymond J; Mishra, Neerad; Barrett, Ted; Rudolph, Karin; Tellez, Carmen; Filipczak, Piotr T; Belinsky, Steve; Saeed, Ali I; Sheybani, Aryaz; Exil, Vernat; Agarwal, Hemant; Sidhaye, Venkataramana K; Sussan, Thomas; Biswal, Shyam; Sopori, Mohan

    2017-05-15

    Embryonic development is highly sensitive to xenobiotic toxicity and in utero exposure to environmental toxins affects physiological responses of the progeny. In the United States, the prevalence of allergic asthma (AA) is inexplicably rising and in utero exposure to cigarette smoke increases the risk of AA and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in children and animal models. We reported that gestational exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke (SS), or secondhand smoke, promoted nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent exacerbation of AA and BPD in mice. Recently, perinatal nicotine injections in rats were reported to induce peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-dependent transgenerational transmission of asthma. Herein, we show that first generation and second generation progeny from gestationally SS-exposed mice exhibit exacerbated AA and BPD that is not dependent on the decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ levels. Lungs from these mice show strong eosinophilic infiltration, excessive Th2 polarization, marked airway hyperresponsiveness, alveolar simplification, decreased lung compliance, and decreased lung angiogenesis. At the molecular level, these changes are associated with increased RUNX3 expression, alveolar cell apoptosis, and the antiangiogenic factor GAX, and decreased expression of HIF-1α and proangiogenic factors NF-κB and VEGFR2 in the 7-d first generation and second generation lungs. Moreover, the lungs from these mice exhibit lower levels of microRNA (miR)-130a and increased levels of miR-16 and miR-221. These miRs regulate HIF-1α-regulated apoptotic, angiogenic, and immune pathways. Thus the intergenerational effects of gestational SS involve epigenetic regulation of HIF-1α through specific miRs contributing to increased incidence of AA and BPD in the progenies. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Assessing triclosan-induced ecological and trans-generational effects in natural phytoplankton communities: a trait-based field method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomati, Francesco; Nizzetto, Luca

    2013-07-01

    We exposed replicated phytoplankton communities confined in semi-permeable membrane-based mesocosms to 0, 0.1, 1 and 10 μg L(-1) triclosan (TCS) and placed them back in their original environment to investigate the occurrence of trans-generational responses at individual, population and community levels. TCS diffused out of mesocosms with a half-life of less than 8 h, so that only the parental generation was directly stressed. At the beginning of the experiment and after 7 days (approximately 2 generations) we analysed responses in the phytoplankton using scanning flow-cytometry. We acquired information on several individually expressed phenotypic traits, such as size, biovolume, pigment fluorescence and packaging, for thousands of individuals per replicated population and derived population and community aggregated traits. We found significant changes in community functioning (increased productivity in terms of biovolume and total fluorescence), with maximal effects at 1 μg L(-1) TCS. We detected significant and dose-dependent responses on population traits, such as changes in abundance for several populations, increased average size and fluorescence of cells, and strong changes in within-population trait mean and variance (suggesting micro-evolutionary effects). We applied the Price equation approach to partition community effects (changes in biovolume or fluorescence) in their physiological and ecological components, and quantified the residual component (including also evolutionary responses). Our results suggested that evolutionary or inheritable phenotypic plasticity responses may represent a significant component of the total observed change following exposure and over relatively small temporal scales.

  9. Chronic transgenerational vitamin B12 deficiency of severe and moderate magnitudes modulates adiposity-probable underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shampa; Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Muralikrishna, Bojanapalli; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Raghunath, Manchala

    2017-05-06

    We have demonstrated previously that severe but not moderate vitamin B12 deficiency altered body composition and induced adiposity in female C57BL/6 mice. This study aims to elucidate the effects of chronic transgenerational dietary vitamin B12 restriction on body composition and various biochemical parameters in the F1 generation offspring of our mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiency established earlier. Female weanling C57BL/6 mice received, ad libitum, for 4 weeks a (i) control diet, (ii) vitamin B12-restricted diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severely deficient diet), or (iii) vitamin B12-restricted diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderately deficient diet) and then mated with control males. The offspring of control and severely deficient dams continued on the respective diets of their mothers. Few moderately deficient dams were rehabilitated to control diet from parturition and their pups were weaned to control diet. Also, some offspring born to moderately B12 deficient dams were weaned to control diet, while others continued on the same diet as their mothers. Various parameters were determined in the F1 offspring after 12 and 36 weeks of feeding. The results indicate that both severe and moderate maternal vitamin B12 restrictions were associated with accelerated catch-up growth, increased body fat percentage, visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia, fasting hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in the F1 offspring. Inflammation, increased glucocorticoid and oxidative stress and poor antioxidant defence probably underlie these adverse effects. Rehabilitation from parturition but not weaning was beneficial in delaying the onset of the adverse outcomes in the offspring. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(3):400-414, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Impaired Maternal Behavior in Usp46 Mutant Mice: A Model for Trans-Generational Transmission of Maternal Care.

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    Shoya Umemura

    Full Text Available Usp46 mutant mice (congenic strain on a B6 genetic background; MT mice have a low weaning rate and display poor maternal behavior compared to C57BL/6J mice (B6 mice. Based on these observations, we examined how maternal behavior is shaped by cross-fostering and in-fostering MT and B6 mice. The experiments consisted of six groups: B6 mice fostered by their biological mother (B6-CO; MT mice fostered by their biological mother (MT-CO; B6 mice fostered by a different B6 mother (B6-IF; MT mice fostered by a different MT mother (MT-IF; B6 mice fostered by an MT mother (B6-CF; and MT mice fostered by a B6 mother (MT-CF. Maternal behavior was assessed using the pup-retrieval test in adult female offspring, and four parameters, time nursing pups in the nest, time sniffing or licking pups, rearing behavior, and latency to retrieve pups, were measured. Cross-fostering significantly reduced time spent nursing and sniffing/licking pup, and increased the number of instances of rearing in the B6-CF group, and improved three parameters of maternal behaviors (nursing, rearing and latency in the MT-CF group. These results indicate that the level of maternal care is transmitted to their pups and proper maternal behaviors can be shaped if adequate postpartum maternal care is given, even in genetically vulnerable mice. However, the offspring's genotype may also influence the development of maternal behaviors in adulthood. Thus, MT mice may prove useful as a model for trans-generational transmission of maternal care, and these findings may provide insight into the mechanisms of maltreating behaviors in human child abuse.

  11. Transgenerational effects of maternal care interact with fetal growth and influence attention skills at 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwald, Marla F; Agranonik, Marilyn; Portella, André K; Fleming, Alison; Wazana, Ashley; Steiner, Meir; Levitan, Robert D; Meaney, Michael J; Silveira, Patrícia P

    2014-05-01

    Evidence suggests that there is an association between being born small for gestational age (SGA) and an increased risk of internalizing and externalizing problems, such as ADHD. Additionally, individuals who report having received a lower quality of maternal care show an increased prevalence of depression and anxiety, and they are generally worse caregivers of their offspring. Therefore, an interaction between the birth weight status and the quality of maternal care perceived by the mother could affect behavioral outcomes of the children. Evaluate the influence of being born SGA and parental bonding, as perceived by the mother during her infancy, on the children's behavior at 18 months of age. Nested cross-sectional study within a Canadian prenatal cohort (MAVAN, Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment) recruited from 2003 to 2010. Data from 305 children who were evaluated at 18 months of age. Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire--ECBQ and Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment--ITSEA) were included. Children born SGA whose mothers reported low maternal care during her infancy (using the Parental Bonding Instrument--PBI) showed lower scores in the attentional set shifting trait (ECBQ, p=0.002) and attention construct (ITSEA, p=0.05) at 18 months of age. We also found that SGA increases decreases cuddliness (p=0.011) and poor perceived maternal care decreases low intensity pleasure (p=0.016) on the ECBQ. These findings suggest a complex transgenerational transmission whereby mother's own care interacts with the fetal growth of her offspring to predict its attentional skills at 18 months of age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transgenerational effects of genocide exposure on the risk and course of schizophrenia: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen Z; Levav, Itzhak; Pugachova, Inna; Yoffe, Rinat; Becher, Yifat

    2016-10-01

    Hypotheses about the sequel of parental genocide exposures on the offspring's risk and course of schizophrenia remain untested. To test hypotheses related to the transgenerational transmission of parental genocide exposure on the risk and course of schizophrenia. Data were extracted from the National Population Register on all offspring (N=51.233; born: 1948-1989) whose parents were born (1922 to 1945) in Nazi- dominated European nations. Both parents either immigrated before (indirect exposure: n=1627, 3.2%) or after (direct exposure: n=49.606, 96.8%) the Nazi era. Offspring subgroups were identified from the initial timing of parental exposure (e.g., likely in utero, combined in utero and postnatal, or postnatal). Schizophrenia disorders were ascertained (1950-2014) from the National Psychiatric Case Registry. Cox models were computed to compare the offspring groups with respect to the risk and the adverse course of schizophrenia, adjusting for confounders. The offspring rates on the risk and course of schizophrenia did not differ by parental affiliation to the direct and indirect exposure groups. Cox models showed that offspring subgroups with maternal Holocaust exposures in utero only (HR=1.74, 1.13, 2.66) and combined in utero and postnatal (HR=1.48, 1.05, 2.10); as well as paternal Holocaust exposures combined in utero and postnatal (HR=1.48, 1.08, 2.05), and early postnatal (aged 1-2; HR=1.49, 1.10, 2.00) had a significantly (Pgenocide exposure was unrelated to the risk of schizophrenia in the offspring, but was related to a course of deterioration during selected critical periods of early life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical application of somatosensory amplification in psychosomatic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakao Mutsuhiro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many patients with somatoform disorders are frequently encountered in psychosomatic clinics as well as in primary care clinics. To assess such patients objectively, the concept of somatosensory amplification may be useful. Somatosensory amplification refers to the tendency to experience a somatic sensation as intense, noxious, and disturbing. It may have a role in a variety of medical conditions characterized by somatic symptoms that are disproportionate to demonstrable organ pathology. It may also explain some of the variability in somatic symptomatology found among different patients with the same serious medical disorder. It has been assessed with a self-report questionnaire, the Somatosensory Amplification Scale. This instrument was developed in a clinical setting in the U.S., and the reliability and validity of the Japanese and Turkish versions have been confirmed as well. Many studies have attempted to clarify the specific role of somatosensory amplification as a pathogenic mechanism in somatization. It has been reported that somatosensory amplification does not correlate with heightened sensitivity to bodily sensations and that emotional reactivity exerts its influence on somatization via a negatively biased reporting style. According to our recent electroencephalographic study, somatosensory amplification appears to reflect some aspects of long-latency cognitive processing rather than short-latency interoceptive sensitivity. The concept of somatosensory amplification can be useful as an indicator of somatization in the therapy of a broad range of disorders, from impaired self-awareness to various psychiatric disorders. It also provides useful information for choosing appropriate pharmacological or psychological therapy. While somatosensory amplification has a role in the presentation of somatic symptoms, it is closely associated with other factors, namely, anxiety, depression, and alexithymia that may also influence the same

  14. Clinical application of somatosensory amplification in psychosomatic medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Barsky, Arthur J

    2007-01-01

    Many patients with somatoform disorders are frequently encountered in psychosomatic clinics as well as in primary care clinics. To assess such patients objectively, the concept of somatosensory amplification may be useful. Somatosensory amplification refers to the tendency to experience a somatic sensation as intense, noxious, and disturbing. It may have a role in a variety of medical conditions characterized by somatic symptoms that are disproportionate to demonstrable organ pathology. It may also explain some of the variability in somatic symptomatology found among different patients with the same serious medical disorder. It has been assessed with a self-report questionnaire, the Somatosensory Amplification Scale. This instrument was developed in a clinical setting in the U.S., and the reliability and validity of the Japanese and Turkish versions have been confirmed as well. Many studies have attempted to clarify the specific role of somatosensory amplification as a pathogenic mechanism in somatization. It has been reported that somatosensory amplification does not correlate with heightened sensitivity to bodily sensations and that emotional reactivity exerts its influence on somatization via a negatively biased reporting style. According to our recent electroencephalographic study, somatosensory amplification appears to reflect some aspects of long-latency cognitive processing rather than short-latency interoceptive sensitivity. The concept of somatosensory amplification can be useful as an indicator of somatization in the therapy of a broad range of disorders, from impaired self-awareness to various psychiatric disorders. It also provides useful information for choosing appropriate pharmacological or psychological therapy. While somatosensory amplification has a role in the presentation of somatic symptoms, it is closely associated with other factors, namely, anxiety, depression, and alexithymia that may also influence the same. The specific role of

  15. Trans-generational immune priming in the mealworm beetle protects eggs through pathogen-dependent mechanisms imposing no immediate fitness cost for the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinaut, Julien; Chogne, Manon; Moret, Yannick

    2018-02-01

    Immune-challenged mothers can improve their offspring immunity through trans-generational immune priming (TGIP). In insects, TGIP endows the offspring with lifetime immunity, including the eggs, which are likely exposed soon after maternal infection. Egg protection may rely on the transfer of maternal immune effectors to the egg or/and the induction of egg immune genes. These respective mechanisms are assumed to have early-life fitness costs of different magnitude for the offspring. We provide evidence in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor that enhanced egg immunity following a maternal immune challenge is achieved by both of these mechanisms but in a pathogen-dependent manner. While previously found having late-life fitness costs for the offspring, TGIP here improved egg hatching success and early larval survival, in addition of improving offspring immunity. These results suggest that early-life of primed offspring is critical in the optimization of life history trajectory of this insect under trans-generational pathogenic threats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of progressive visual error amplification on human motor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Cynthia; O'Malley, Marcia K

    2011-01-01

    Amplification of error has been shown to be an effective technique in increasing the rate and extent of learning for motor tasks and has the potential to accelerate rehabilitation following motor impairment. However, current error amplification methods suffer from reduced effectiveness towards the end of training. In this paper, we propose a new approach, progressive error amplification, in which error gains increase as a trainee's performance improves. We tested this approach against conventional error augmentation in a controlled experiment wherein 30 subjects adapted to a visually distorted environment by performing target-hitting tasks under one of three conditions (control, constant error amplification, progressive error amplification). Our results showed that compared with repeated practice, error amplification does not accelerate learning or result in improved task performance with respect to trajectory error, although progressive error amplification does produce lower trajectory errors when training conditions are in effect. These results indicate a need for further tuning of error augmentation methods in order to determine their true potential as a training method. © 2011 IEEE

  17. Nucleic acid amplification: Alternative methods of polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Fakruddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid amplification is a valuable molecular tool not only in basic research but also in application oriented fields, such as clinical medicine development, infectious diseases diagnosis, gene cloning and industrial quality control. A comperehensive review of the literature on the principles, applications, challenges and prospects of different alternative methods of polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed. PCR was the first nucleic acid amplification method. With the advancement of research, a no of alternative nucleic acid amplification methods has been developed such as loop mediated isothermal amplification, nucleic acid sequence based amplification, strand displacement amplification, multiple displacement amplification. Most of the alternative methods are isothermal obviating the need for thermal cyclers. Though principles of most of the alternate methods are relatively complex than that of PCR, they offer better applicability and sensitivity in cases where PCR has limitations. Most of the alternate methods still have to prove themselves through extensive validation studies and are not available in commercial form; they pose the potentiality to be used as replacements of PCR. Continuous research is going on in different parts of the world to make these methods viable technically and economically.

  18. HER2 amplification, overexpression and score criteria in esophageal adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yingchuan; Bandla, Santhoshi; Godfrey, Tony E.; Tan, Dongfeng; Luketich, James D.; Pennathur, Arjun; Qiu, Xing; Hicks, David G.; Peters, Jeffrey; Zhou, Zhongren

    2011-01-01

    The HER2 oncogene was recently reported to be amplified and overexpressed in esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the relationship of HER2 amplification in esophageal adenocarcinoma with prognosis has not been well defined. The scoring systems for clinically evaluating HER2 in esophageal adenocarcinoma are not established. The aims of the study were to establish a HER2 scoring system and comprehensively investigate HER2 amplification and overexpression in esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesion. Using a tissue microarray, containing 116 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma, 34 cases of BE, 18 cases of low grade dysplasia and 15 cases of high grade dysplasia, HER2 amplification and overexpression were analyzed by HercepTest and CISH methods. The amplification frequency in an independent series of 116 esophageal adenocarcinoma samples was also analyzed using Affymetrix SNP 6.0 microarrays. In our studies, we have found that HER2 amplification does not associate with poor prognosis in total 232 esophageal adenocarcinoma patients by CISH and high density microarrays. We further confirm the similar frequency of HER2 amplification by CISH (18.10%; 21/116) and SNP 6.0 microarrays (16.4%, 19/116) in esophageal adenocarcinoma. HER2 protein overexpression was observed in 12.1 % (14/116) of esophageal adenocarcinoma and 6.67% (1/15) of HGD. No HER2 amplification or overexpression was identified in BE or LGD. All HER2 protein overexpression cases showed HER2 gene amplification. Gene amplification was found to be more frequent by CISH than protein overexpression in esophageal adenocarcinoma (18.10% vs 12.9%). A modified two-step model for esophageal adenocarcinoma HER-2 testing is recommend for clinical esophageal adenocarcinoma HER-2 trial. PMID:21460800

  19. A mechanism of gene amplification driven by small DNA fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntal Mukherjee

    Full Text Available DNA amplification is a molecular process that increases the copy number of a chromosomal tract and often causes elevated expression of the amplified gene(s. Although gene amplification is frequently observed in cancer and other degenerative disorders, the molecular mechanisms involved in the process of DNA copy number increase remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that small DNA fragments could be the trigger of DNA amplification events. Following our findings that small fragments of DNA in the form of DNA oligonucleotides can be highly recombinogenic, we have developed a system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to capture events of chromosomal DNA amplification initiated by small DNA fragments. Here we demonstrate that small DNAs can amplify a chromosomal region, generating either tandem duplications or acentric extrachromosomal DNA circles. Small fragment-driven DNA amplification (SFDA occurs with a frequency that increases with the length of homology between the small DNAs and the target chromosomal regions. SFDA events are triggered even by small single-stranded molecules with as little as 20-nt homology with the genomic target. A double-strand break (DSB external to the chromosomal amplicon region stimulates the amplification event up to a factor of 20 and favors formation of extrachromosomal circles. SFDA is dependent on Rad52 and Rad59, partially dependent on Rad1, Rad10, and Pol32, and independent of Rad51, suggesting a single-strand annealing mechanism. Our results reveal a novel molecular model for gene amplification, in which small DNA fragments drive DNA amplification and define the boundaries of the amplicon region. As DNA fragments are frequently found both inside cells and in the extracellular environment, such as the serum of patients with cancer or other degenerative disorders, we propose that SFDA may be a common mechanism for DNA amplification in cancer cells, as well as a more general cause of DNA copy number variation

  20. Parametric amplification of waves in non-stationary plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivitskij, V.S.; Vladimirov, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    Using plasma as a nonlinear medium which can provide an amplification of electromagnetic radiation is of a sufficiently great interest now. Parametric amplification of oscillations connected with a nonstationary of the medium parameters is one of such mechanisms which may result in waves growing. To find a growth rate of such a 'parametric' wave amplification (resulting from the dependence ε ωk (vector) (t) it is necessary to clarify how does the dielectric permittivity depend upon time. Namely, the general form of the (linear) connection between an induction D(t) and an intensity Ε(vector) (t) of the electric field is given. (Author)

  1. Amplification and chromosomal dispersion of human endogenous retroviral sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, P.E.; Martin, M.A.; Rabson, A.B.; Bryan, T.; O' Brien, S.J.

    1986-09-01

    Endogenous retroviral sequences have undergone amplification events involving both viral and flanking cellular sequences. The authors cloned members of an amplified family of full-length endogenous retroviral sequences. Genomic blotting, employing a flanking cellular DNA probe derived from a member of this family, revealed a similar array of reactive bands in both humans and chimpanzees, indicating that an amplification event involving retroviral and associated cellular DNA sequences occurred before the evolutionary separation of these two primates. Southern analyses of restricted somatic cell hybrid DNA preparations suggested that endogenous retroviral segments are widely dispersed in the human genome and that amplification and dispersion events may be linked.

  2. Amplification and chromosomal dispersion of human endogenous retroviral sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, P.E.; Martin, M.A.; Rabson, A.B.; Bryan, T.; O'Brien, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Endogenous retroviral sequences have undergone amplification events involving both viral and flanking cellular sequences. The authors cloned members of an amplified family of full-length endogenous retroviral sequences. Genomic blotting, employing a flanking cellular DNA probe derived from a member of this family, revealed a similar array of reactive bands in both humans and chimpanzees, indicating that an amplification event involving retroviral and associated cellular DNA sequences occurred before the evolutionary separation of these two primates. Southern analyses of restricted somatic cell hybrid DNA preparations suggested that endogenous retroviral segments are widely dispersed in the human genome and that amplification and dispersion events may be linked

  3. PCR amplification on microarrays of gel immobilized oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizhkov, Boris; Tillib, Sergei; Mikhailovich, Vladimir; Mirzabekov, Andrei

    2003-11-04

    The invention relates two general methods for performing PCR amplification, combined with the detection and analysis of the PCR products on a microchip. In the first method, the amplification occurs both outside and within a plurality of gel pads on a microchip, with at least one oligonucleotide primer immobilized in a gel pad. In the second method, PCR amplification also takes place within gel pads on a microchip, but the pads are surrounded by a hydrophobic liquid such as that which separates the individual gel pads into environments which resemble micro-miniaturized test tubes.

  4. Kinematic amplification strategies in plants and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Victor; Hannequart, Philippe; Adriaenssens, Sigrid; Baverel, Olivier; Viglino, Emmanuel; Eisenman, Sasha

    2017-06-01

    While plants are primarily sessile at the organismal level, they do exhibit a vast array of movements at the organ or sub-organ level. These movements can occur for reasons as diverse as seed dispersal, nutrition, protection or pollination. Their advanced mechanisms generate a myriad of movement typologies, many of which are not fully understood. In recent years, there has been a renewal of interest in understanding the mechanical behavior of plants from an engineering perspective, with an interest in developing novel applications by up-sizing these mechanisms from the micro- to the macro-scale. This literature review identifies the main strategies used by plants to create and amplify movements and anatomize the most recent mechanical understanding of compliant engineering mechanics. The paper ultimately demonstrates that plant movements, rooted in compliance and multi-functionality, can effectively inspire better kinematic/adaptive structures and materials. In plants, the actuators and the deployment structures are fused into a single system. The understanding of those natural movements therefore starts with an exploration of mechanisms at the origins of movements. Plant movements, whether slow or fast, active or passive, reversible or irreversible, are presented and detailed for their mechanical significance. With a focus on displacement amplification, the most recent promising strategies for actuation and adaptive systems are examined with respect to the mechanical principles of shape morphing plant tissues.

  5. KASER: Knowledge Amplification by Structured Expert Randomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stuart H; Murthy, S N Jayaram; Smith, Michael H; Trajković, Ljiljana

    2004-12-01

    In this paper and attached video, we present a third-generation expert system named Knowledge Amplification by Structured Expert Randomization (KASER) for which a patent has been filed by the U.S. Navy's SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego, CA (SSC SD). KASER is a creative expert system. It is capable of deductive, inductive, and mixed derivations. Its qualitative creativity is realized by using a tree-search mechanism. The system achieves creative reasoning by using a declarative representation of knowledge consisting of object trees and inheritance. KASER computes with words and phrases. It possesses a capability for metaphor-based explanations. This capability is useful in explaining its creative suggestions and serves to augment the capabilities provided by the explanation subsystems of conventional expert systems. KASER also exhibits an accelerated capability to learn. However, this capability depends on the particulars of the selected application domain. For example, application domains such as the game of chess exhibit a high degree of geometric symmetry. Conversely, application domains such as the game of craps played with two dice exhibit no predictable pattern, unless the dice are loaded. More generally, we say that domains whose informative content can be compressed to a significant degree without loss (or with relatively little loss) are symmetric. Incompressible domains are said to be asymmetric or random. The measure of symmetry plus the measure of randomness must always sum to unity.

  6. Small sample whole-genome amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Christine; Nguyen, Christine; Wheeler, Elizabeth; Sorensen, Karen; Arroyo, Erin; Vrankovich, Greg; Christian, Allen

    2005-11-01

    Many challenges arise when trying to amplify and analyze human samples collected in the field due to limitations in sample quantity, and contamination of the starting material. Tests such as DNA fingerprinting and mitochondrial typing require a certain sample size and are carried out in large volume reactions; in cases where insufficient sample is present whole genome amplification (WGA) can be used. WGA allows very small quantities of DNA to be amplified in a way that enables subsequent DNA-based tests to be performed. A limiting step to WGA is sample preparation. To minimize the necessary sample size, we have developed two modifications of WGA: the first allows for an increase in amplified product from small, nanoscale, purified samples with the use of carrier DNA while the second is a single-step method for cleaning and amplifying samples all in one column. Conventional DNA cleanup involves binding the DNA to silica, washing away impurities, and then releasing the DNA for subsequent testing. We have eliminated losses associated with incomplete sample release, thereby decreasing the required amount of starting template for DNA testing. Both techniques address the limitations of sample size by providing ample copies of genomic samples. Carrier DNA, included in our WGA reactions, can be used when amplifying samples with the standard purification method, or can be used in conjunction with our single-step DNA purification technique to potentially further decrease the amount of starting sample necessary for future forensic DNA-based assays.

  7. Trans-generational epigenetic regulation of C. elegans primordial germ cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furuhashi Hirofumi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The processes through which the germline maintains its continuity across generations has long been the focus of biological research. Recent studies have suggested that germline continuity can involve epigenetic regulation, including regulation of histone modifications. However, it is not clear how histone modifications generated in one generation can influence the transcription program and development of germ cells of the next. Results We show that the histone H3K36 methyltransferase maternal effect sterile (MES-4 is an epigenetic modifier that prevents aberrant transcription activity in Caenorhabditis elegans primordial germ cells (PGCs. In mes-4 mutant PGCs, RNA Pol II activation is abnormally regulated and the PGCs degenerate. Genetic and genomewide analyses of MES-4-mediated H3K36 methylation suggest that MES-4 activity can operate independently of ongoing transcription, and may be predominantly responsible for maintenance methylation of H3K36 in germline-expressed loci. Conclusions Our data suggest a model in which MES-4 helps to maintain an 'epigenetic memory' of transcription that occurred in germ cells of previous generations, and that MES-4 and its epigenetic product are essential for normal germ cell development.

  8. Transgenerational developmental effects and genomic instability after X-irradiation of preimplantation embryos: Studies on two mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, P.; Buset, J.; Neefs, M.; Vankerkom, J.; Benotmane, M.A.; Derradji, H.; Hildebrandt, G.; Baatout, S.

    2010-01-01

    Recent results have shown that irradiation of a single cell, the zygote or 1-cell embryo of various mouse strains, could lead to congenital anomalies in the fetuses. In the Heiligenberger strain, a link between the radiation-induced congenital anomalies and the development of a genomic instability was also suggested. Moreover, further studies showed that in that strain, both congenital anomalies and genomic instability could be transmitted to the next generation. The aim of the experiments described in this paper was to investigate whether such non-targeted transgenerational effects could also be observed in two other radiosensitive mouse strains (CF1 and ICR), using lower radiation doses. Irradiation of the CF1 and ICR female zygotes with 0.2 or 0.4 Gy did not result in a decrease of their fertility after birth, when they had reached sexual maturity. Moreover, females of both strains that had been X-irradiated with 0.2 Gy exhibited higher rates of pregnancy, less resorptions and more living fetuses. Additionally, the mean weight of living fetuses in these groups had significantly increased. Exencephaly and dwarfism were observed in CF1 fetuses issued from control and X-irradiated females. In the control group of that strain, polydactyly and limb deformity were also found. The yields of abnormal fetuses did not differ significantly between the control and X-irradiated groups. Polydactyly, exencephaly and dwarfism were observed in fetuses issued from ICR control females. In addition to these anomalies, gastroschisis, curly tail and open eye were observed at low frequencies in ICR fetuses issued from X-irradiated females. Again, the frequencies of abnormal fetuses found in the different groups did not differ significantly. In both CF1 and ICR mouse strains, irradiation of female zygotes did not result in the development of a genomic instability in the next generation embryos. Overall, our results suggest that, at the moderate doses used, developmental defects

  9. Transgenerational developmental effects and genomic instability after X-irradiation of preimplantation embryos: Studies on two mouse strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, P., E-mail: pjacquet@sckcen.be [Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Buset, J.; Neefs, M. [Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Vankerkom, J. [Division of Environmental Research, VITO, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Benotmane, M.A.; Derradji, H. [Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Hildebrandt, G. [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University of Leipzig, Stephanstrasse 9a, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy, University of Rostock, Suedring 75, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Baatout, S. [Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2010-05-01

    Recent results have shown that irradiation of a single cell, the zygote or 1-cell embryo of various mouse strains, could lead to congenital anomalies in the fetuses. In the Heiligenberger strain, a link between the radiation-induced congenital anomalies and the development of a genomic instability was also suggested. Moreover, further studies showed that in that strain, both congenital anomalies and genomic instability could be transmitted to the next generation. The aim of the experiments described in this paper was to investigate whether such non-targeted transgenerational effects could also be observed in two other radiosensitive mouse strains (CF1 and ICR), using lower radiation doses. Irradiation of the CF1 and ICR female zygotes with 0.2 or 0.4 Gy did not result in a decrease of their fertility after birth, when they had reached sexual maturity. Moreover, females of both strains that had been X-irradiated with 0.2 Gy exhibited higher rates of pregnancy, less resorptions and more living fetuses. Additionally, the mean weight of living fetuses in these groups had significantly increased. Exencephaly and dwarfism were observed in CF1 fetuses issued from control and X-irradiated females. In the control group of that strain, polydactyly and limb deformity were also found. The yields of abnormal fetuses did not differ significantly between the control and X-irradiated groups. Polydactyly, exencephaly and dwarfism were observed in fetuses issued from ICR control females. In addition to these anomalies, gastroschisis, curly tail and open eye were observed at low frequencies in ICR fetuses issued from X-irradiated females. Again, the frequencies of abnormal fetuses found in the different groups did not differ significantly. In both CF1 and ICR mouse strains, irradiation of female zygotes did not result in the development of a genomic instability in the next generation embryos. Overall, our results suggest that, at the moderate doses used, developmental defects

  10. Amplification of surface temperature trends and variability in thetropical atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santer, B.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.; Mears, C.; Wentz, F.J.; Klein,S.A.; Seidel, D.J.; Taylor, K.E.; Thorne, P.W.; Wehner, M.F.; Gleckler,P.J.; Boyle, J.S.; Collins, W.D.; Dixon, K.W.; Doutriaux, C.; Free, M.; Fu, Q.; Hansen, J.E.; Jones, G.S.; Ruedy, R.; Karl, T.R.; Lanzante, J.R.; Meehl, G.A.; Ramaswamy, V.; Russell, G.; Schmidt, G.A.

    2005-08-11

    The month-to-month variability of tropical temperatures is larger in the troposphere than at the Earth's surface. This amplification behavior is similar in a range of observations and climate model simulations, and is consistent with basic theory. On multi-decadal timescales, tropospheric amplification of surface warming is a robust feature of model simulations, but occurs in only one observational dataset. Other observations show weak or even negative amplification. These results suggest that either different physical mechanisms control amplification processes on monthly and decadal timescales, and models fail to capture such behavior, or (more plausibly) that residual errors in several observational datasets used here affect their representation of long-term trends.

  11. Generation of recombinant pestiviruses using a full genome amplification strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Reimann, Ilona; Uttenthal, Åse

    Aim Complete genome amplification of viral RNA provides a new tool for generation of modified pestiviruses. We have recently reported a full genome amplification strategy for direct recovery of infectious pestivirus (Rasmussen et al., 2008). This comprised rescue of BDV strain “Gifhorn” from a full...... pestiviruses. Methods Pestivirus genomes were amplified from either total RNA preparations using long RT-PCR or from infectious cDNA clones using long PCR. Viral RNA was extracted from cell cultures inoculated with pestivirus (e.g. BDV “Gifhorn” or BVDV “CP7”) using a combined Trizol/RNeasy protocol. Total RNA......-length RT-PCR amplicon demonstrating that long RT-PCR can be used for direct generation of an infectious pestivirus. The strategy is not limited to amplification of BDV “Gifhorn”, but can be further utilized for amplification of a diverse selection of pestivirus strains and for the generation of modified...

  12. Current amplification models of sensorineurall and conductive hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Ostojić, Sanja; Mikić, Branka; Mirić, Danica

    2012-01-01

    The main function of a hearing aid is to improve auditory and language abilities of hearing impaired users. The amplification model has to be adapted according to age, degree and type of hearing loss. The goal of this paper is to analyze the current amplification models of sensorineural and conductive hearing loss which can provide a high quality of speech perception and sounds at any degree of hearing loss. The BAHA is a surgically implantable system for treatment of conductive hearing loss ...

  13. Pulse Distortion in Saturated Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation.......Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation....

  14. Targeting MET Amplification as a New Oncogenic Driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hisato; Okamoto, Isamu; Okamoto, Wataru; Tanizaki, Junko; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Nishio, Kazuto

    2014-07-22

    Certain genetically defined cancers are dependent on a single overactive oncogene for their proliferation and survival, a phenomenon known as "oncogene addiction". A new generation of drugs that selectively target such "driver oncogenes" manifests a clinical efficacy greater than that of conventional chemotherapy in appropriate genetically defined patients. MET is a proto-oncogene that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, and aberrant activation of MET signaling occurs in a subset of advanced cancers as result of various genetic alterations including gene amplification, polysomy, and gene mutation. Our preclinical studies have shown that inhibition of MET signaling either with the small-molecule MET inhibitor crizotinib or by RNA interference targeted to MET mRNA resulted in marked antitumor effects in cancer cell lines with MET amplification both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, patients with non-small cell lung cancer or gastric cancer positive for MET amplification have shown a pronounced clinical response to crizotinib. Accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence thus suggests that MET amplification is an "oncogenic driver" and therefore a valid target for treatment. However, the prevalence of MET amplification has not been fully determined, possibly in part because of the difficulty in evaluating gene amplification. In this review, we provide a rationale for targeting this genetic alteration in cancer therapy.

  15. Targeting MET Amplification as a New Oncogenic Driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisato Kawakami

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Certain genetically defined cancers are dependent on a single overactive oncogene for their proliferation and survival, a phenomenon known as “oncogene addiction”. A new generation of drugs that selectively target such “driver oncogenes” manifests a clinical efficacy greater than that of conventional chemotherapy in appropriate genetically defined patients. MET is a proto-oncogene that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, and aberrant activation of MET signaling occurs in a subset of advanced cancers as result of various genetic alterations including gene amplification, polysomy, and gene mutation. Our preclinical studies have shown that inhibition of MET signaling either with the small-molecule MET inhibitor crizotinib or by RNA interference targeted to MET mRNA resulted in marked antitumor effects in cancer cell lines with MET amplification both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, patients with non-small cell lung cancer or gastric cancer positive for MET amplification have shown a pronounced clinical response to crizotinib. Accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence thus suggests that MET amplification is an “oncogenic driver” and therefore a valid target for treatment. However, the prevalence of MET amplification has not been fully determined, possibly in part because of the difficulty in evaluating gene amplification. In this review, we provide a rationale for targeting this genetic alteration in cancer therapy.

  16. Targeting MET Amplification as a New Oncogenic Driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Hisato; Okamoto, Isamu; Okamoto, Wataru; Tanizaki, Junko; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Nishio, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Certain genetically defined cancers are dependent on a single overactive oncogene for their proliferation and survival, a phenomenon known as “oncogene addiction”. A new generation of drugs that selectively target such “driver oncogenes” manifests a clinical efficacy greater than that of conventional chemotherapy in appropriate genetically defined patients. MET is a proto-oncogene that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, and aberrant activation of MET signaling occurs in a subset of advanced cancers as result of various genetic alterations including gene amplification, polysomy, and gene mutation. Our preclinical studies have shown that inhibition of MET signaling either with the small-molecule MET inhibitor crizotinib or by RNA interference targeted to MET mRNA resulted in marked antitumor effects in cancer cell lines with MET amplification both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, patients with non-small cell lung cancer or gastric cancer positive for MET amplification have shown a pronounced clinical response to crizotinib. Accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence thus suggests that MET amplification is an “oncogenic driver” and therefore a valid target for treatment. However, the prevalence of MET amplification has not been fully determined, possibly in part because of the difficulty in evaluating gene amplification. In this review, we provide a rationale for targeting this genetic alteration in cancer therapy

  17. Targeting MET Amplification as a New Oncogenic Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Hisato [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Okamoto, Isamu, E-mail: okamotoi@kokyu.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Center for Clinical and Translational Research, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashiku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Okamoto, Wataru [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Division of Transrlational Research, Exploratory Oncology Research & Clinical Trial Center, National Cancer Center, 6-5-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8577 (Japan); Tanizaki, Junko [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Lowe Center for Thoracic Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, HIM223, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Nakagawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Nishio, Kazuto [Department of Genome Biology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan)

    2014-07-22

    Certain genetically defined cancers are dependent on a single overactive oncogene for their proliferation and survival, a phenomenon known as “oncogene addiction”. A new generation of drugs that selectively target such “driver oncogenes” manifests a clinical efficacy greater than that of conventional chemotherapy in appropriate genetically defined patients. MET is a proto-oncogene that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, and aberrant activation of MET signaling occurs in a subset of advanced cancers as result of various genetic alterations including gene amplification, polysomy, and gene mutation. Our preclinical studies have shown that inhibition of MET signaling either with the small-molecule MET inhibitor crizotinib or by RNA interference targeted to MET mRNA resulted in marked antitumor effects in cancer cell lines with MET amplification both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, patients with non-small cell lung cancer or gastric cancer positive for MET amplification have shown a pronounced clinical response to crizotinib. Accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence thus suggests that MET amplification is an “oncogenic driver” and therefore a valid target for treatment. However, the prevalence of MET amplification has not been fully determined, possibly in part because of the difficulty in evaluating gene amplification. In this review, we provide a rationale for targeting this genetic alteration in cancer therapy.

  18. Theory of phase-mixing amplification in an optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockeloen-Korppi, C. F.; Heikkilä, T. T.; Sillanpää, M. A.; Massel, F.

    2017-09-01

    The investigation of the ultimate limits imposed by quantum mechanics on amplification represents an important topic both on a fundamental level and from the perspective of potential applications. We discuss here a novel regime for bosonic linear amplifiers—beside phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive amplification—which we term here phase-mixing amplification. Furthermore, we show that phase-mixing amplification can be realised in a cavity optomechanical setup, constituted by a mechanical resonator which is dispersively coupled to an optomechanical cavity asymmetrically driven around both mechanical sidebands. While, in general, this amplifier is phase-mixing, for a suitable choice of parameters, the amplifier proposed here operates as a phase-sensitive amplifier. We show that both configurations allow amplification with an added noise below the quantum limit of (phase-insensitive) amplification in a parameter range compatible with current experiments in microwave circuit optomechanics. In particular, we show that introducing phase-mixing amplification typically allows for a significant reduction of the added noise.

  19. RABL6A, a Novel RAB-Like Protein, Controls Centrosome Amplification and Chromosome Instability in Primary Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Hagen, Jussara; Muniz, Viviane P.; Smith, Tarik; Coombs, Gary S.; Eischen, Christine M.; Mackie, Duncan I.; Roman, David L.; Van Rheeden, Richard; Darbro, Benjamin; Tompkins, Van S.; Quelle, Dawn E.

    2013-01-01

    RABL6A (RAB-like 6 isoform A) is a novel protein that was originally identified based on its association with the Alternative Reading Frame (ARF) tumor suppressor. ARF acts through multiple p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways to prevent cancer. How RABL6A functions, to what extent it depends on ARF and p53 activity, and its importance in normal cell biology are entirely unknown. We examined the biological consequences of RABL6A silencing in primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) that express or lack ARF, p53 or both proteins. We found that RABL6A depletion caused centrosome amplification, aneuploidy and multinucleation in MEFs regardless of ARF and p53 status. The centrosome amplification in RABL6A depleted p53−/− MEFs resulted from centrosome reduplication via Cdk2-mediated hyperphosphorylation of nucleophosmin (NPM) at threonine-199. Thus, RABL6A prevents centrosome amplification through an ARF/p53-independent mechanism that restricts NPM-T199 phosphorylation. These findings demonstrate an essential role for RABL6A in centrosome regulation and maintenance of chromosome stability in non-transformed cells, key processes that ensure genomic integrity and prevent tumorigenesis. PMID:24282525

  20. Comparison of nucleic acid sequence-based amplification and loop-mediated isothermal amplification for diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugasa, Claire M.; Katiti, Diana; Boobo, Alex; Lubega, George W.; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Matovu, Enock

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) using molecular tests should ideally achieve high sensitivity without compromising specificity. This study compared 2 simplified tests, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) combined with oligochromatography (OC) and loop-mediated

  1. Detection of MYCN Gene Amplification in Neuroblastoma by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization: A Pediatric Oncology Group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Mathew

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the utility of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH for analysis of MYCN gene amplification in neuroblastoma, we compared this assay with Southern blot analysis using tumor specimens collected from 232 patients with presenting characteristics typical of this disease. The FISH technique identified MYCN amplification in 47 cases, compared with 39 by Southern blotting, thus increasing the total number of positive cases by 21%. The major cause of discordancy was a low fraction of tumor cells (≤30% replacement in clinical specimens, which prevented an accurate estimate of MYCN copy number by Southern blotting. With FISH, by contrast, it was possible to analyze multiple interphase nuclei of tumor cells, regardless of the proportion of normal peripheral blood, bone marrow, or stromal cells in clinical samples. Thus, FISH could be performed accurately with very small numbers of tumor cells from touch preparations of needle biopsies. Moreover, this procedure allowed us to discern the heterogeneous pattern of MYCN amplification that is characteristic of neuroblastoma. We conclude that FISH improves the detection of MYCN gene amplification in childhood neuroblastomas in a clinical setting, thus facilitating therapeutic decisions based on the presence or absence of this prognostically important biologic marker.

  2. The effectiveness of psychoanalysis in a case study using multi-perspective methodology: Conflict in choosing a partner due to transgenerational mandate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez, Alejandro

    2017-08-01

    A case study is presented to evaluate the effectiveness of psychoanalysis and the persistence of its benefits 20 years later in a young woman with severe depression, professional inhibition, and difficulties in partner selection due to transgenerational mandate (TGM). The investigation was carried out with psychoanalytic interviews with the patient and analyst, which were evaluated by both psychoanalytic and non-psychoanalytic judges following a methodology based on one tested in Germany by Leuzinger-Bohleber et al. (2003). The psychoanalytic treatment began in the early 1980s in Monterrey, Mexico. The study concludes that the psychoanalysis was effective in assisting with the patient's character disorder and partner selection, mainly because of the therapeutic alliance, the analysis of transference and character, and the patient's increased capacity for mentalization as a result of the interpretation of the TGMs. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  3. Non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation: II. Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects in vivo, clastogenic factors and transgenerational effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William F.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence for non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation in vivo. Currently, human health risks associated with radiation exposures are based primarily on the assumption that the detrimental effects of radiation occur in irradiated cells. Over the years a number of non-targeted effects of radiation exposure in vivo have been described that challenge this concept. These include radiation-induced genomic instability, bystander effects, clastogenic factors produced in plasma from irradiated individuals that can cause chromosomal damage when cultured with nonirradiated cells, and transgenerational effects of parental irradiation that can manifest in the progeny. These effects pose new challenges to evaluating the risk(s) associated with radiation exposure and understanding radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  4. ASAP: Amplification, sequencing & annotation of plastomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folta Kevin M

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Availability of DNA sequence information is vital for pursuing structural, functional and comparative genomics studies in plastids. Traditionally, the first step in mining the valuable information within a chloroplast genome requires sequencing a chloroplast plasmid library or BAC clones. These activities involve complicated preparatory procedures like chloroplast DNA isolation or identification of the appropriate BAC clones to be sequenced. Rolling circle amplification (RCA is being used currently to amplify the chloroplast genome from purified chloroplast DNA and the resulting products are sheared and cloned prior to sequencing. Herein we present a universal high-throughput, rapid PCR-based technique to amplify, sequence and assemble plastid genome sequence from diverse species in a short time and at reasonable cost from total plant DNA, using the large inverted repeat region from strawberry and peach as proof of concept. The method exploits the highly conserved coding regions or intergenic regions of plastid genes. Using an informatics approach, chloroplast DNA sequence information from 5 available eudicot plastomes was aligned to identify the most conserved regions. Cognate primer pairs were then designed to generate ~1 – 1.2 kb overlapping amplicons from the inverted repeat region in 14 diverse genera. Results 100% coverage of the inverted repeat region was obtained from Arabidopsis, tobacco, orange, strawberry, peach, lettuce, tomato and Amaranthus. Over 80% coverage was obtained from distant species, including Ginkgo, loblolly pine and Equisetum. Sequence from the inverted repeat region of strawberry and peach plastome was obtained, annotated and analyzed. Additionally, a polymorphic region identified from gel electrophoresis was sequenced from tomato and Amaranthus. Sequence analysis revealed large deletions in these species relative to tobacco plastome thus exhibiting the utility of this method for structural and

  5. Preconditioning in the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis and the potential for trans-generational acclimatization in coral larvae under future climate change conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Hollie M; Gates, Ruth D

    2015-08-01

    Coral reefs are globally threatened by climate change-related ocean warming and ocean acidification (OA). To date, slow-response mechanisms such as genetic adaptation have been considered the major determinant of coral reef persistence, with little consideration of rapid-response acclimatization mechanisms. These rapid mechanisms such as parental effects that can contribute to trans-generational acclimatization (e.g. epigenetics) have, however, been identified as important contributors to offspring response in other systems. We present the first evidence of parental effects in a cross-generational exposure to temperature and OA in reef-building corals. Here, we exposed adults to high (28.9°C, 805 µatm P(CO2)) or ambient (26.5°C, 417 µatm P(CO2)) temperature and OA treatments during the larval brooding period. Exposure to high treatment negatively affected adult performance, but their larvae exhibited size differences and metabolic acclimation when subsequently re-exposed, unlike larvae from parents exposed to ambient conditions. Understanding the innate capacity corals possess to respond to current and future climatic conditions is essential to reef protection and maintenance. Our results identify that parental effects may have an important role through (1) ameliorating the effects of stress through preconditioning and adaptive plasticity, and/or (2) amplifying the negative parental response through latent effects on future life stages. Whether the consequences of parental effects and the potential for trans-generational acclimatization are beneficial or maladaptive, our work identifies a critical need to expand currently proposed climate change outcomes for corals to further assess rapid response mechanisms that include non-genetic inheritance through parental contributions and classical epigenetic mechanisms. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Transgenerational consequences of PTSD: risk factors for the mental health of children whose mothers have been exposed to the Rwandan genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Maria; Neuner, Frank; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Understanding how parental Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may or may not affect the development and mental health in the offspring is particularly important in conflict regions, where trauma-related illness is endemic. In Rwanda, organised atrocities and the genocide against the Tutsi of 1994 have left a significant fraction of the population with chronic PTSD. The aim of the present investigation was to establish whether PTSD in mothers is associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and aggressive and antisocial behaviour in their children. A community sample of 125 Rwandan mothers who experienced the genocide of 1994 and their 12-year-old children were interviewed. Using a structured interview, symptoms of maternal PTSD and children's depression, anxiety, and aggressive and antisocial behaviour were assessed by trained and on-site supervised local B.A. psychologists. The interview also included a detailed checklist of event types related to family violence. In showing that a maternal PTSD was not associated with child's psychopathology, the results contradict the assumption of straight "trans-generational trauma transmission". Instead, a child's exposure to maternal family violence posed a significant risk factor for a negative mental health outcome. Furthermore, it was not maternal PTSD-symptoms but mother's exposure to family violence during her own childhood that was associated with the magnitude of adversities that a child experiences at home. Contrary to a simple model of a trans-generational transmission of trauma, neither maternal PTSD nor maternal traumatic experiences were directly associated with symptoms of anxiety, depression, or antisocial and aggressive behaviour in the children. Instead, the present results suggest a relationship between parental child rearing practices and children's mental health. Furthermore, the study details the "cycle of violence", showing a significant link between maternal violence against a child and its mother

  7. Detection of viral sequences by internally calibrated gene amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, R K; Hui, M F; Dosch, H M; Ewart, T E

    1993-05-01

    Inherent pitfalls of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can become serious difficulties when transferring research applications to high-volume routine procedures such as biofermentation process control and clinical diagnostics. Difficulties include 1) the danger of accidental sample contamination with positive control templates; 2) variable amplification due to positional effects in thermocycler blocks and unequal primer efficiency for sense/anti-sense strands; and 3) the need for reliable controls, which provide confidence for reporting negative reactions. Using the PCR detection system for Epstein-Barr virus as a model, we have developed a quick process to generate mutant internal co-amplification templates. These can be used for titration of amplification sensitivity. More importantly, single tube co-amplification without titrations allows determination of the minimum sensitivity achieved in each individual reaction; critical information when reporting negative diagnostic results. Mutant and native fragments are easy to distinguish by size, and sample cross contamination can be readily identified. The system should be easily adaptable to gene amplification procedures, which aim to routinely detect the presence of a given gene fragment in a controlled fashion.

  8. Optimizing direct amplification of forensic commercial kits for STR determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, M; Bobillo, M C; Sala, A; Corach, D

    2017-04-01

    Direct DNA amplification in forensic genotyping reduces analytical time when large sample sets are being analyzed. The amplification success depends mainly upon two factors: on one hand, the PCR chemistry and, on the other, the type of solid substrate where the samples are deposited. We developed a workflow strategy aiming to optimize times and cost when starting from blood samples spotted onto diverse absorbent substrates. A set of 770 blood samples spotted onto Blood cards, Whatman ® 3 MM paper, FTA™ Classic cards, and Whatman ® Grade 1 was analyzed by a unified working strategy including a low-cost pre-treatment, a PCR amplification volume scale-down, and the use of the 3500 Genetic Analyzer as the analytical platform. Samples were analyzed using three different commercial multiplex STR direct amplification kits. The efficiency of the strategy was evidenced by a higher percentage of high-quality profiles obtained (over 94%), a reduced number of re-injections (average 3.2%), and a reduced amplification failure rate (lower than 5%). Average peak height ratio among different commercial kits was 0.91, and the intra-locus balance showed values ranging from 0.92 to 0.94. A comparison with previously reported results was performed demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed modifications. The protocol described herein showed high performance, producing optimal quality profiles, and being both time and cost effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Amplification of Information by Photons and the Quantum Chernoff Bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Riedel, C. Jess; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2014-03-01

    Amplification was regarded, since the early days of quantum theory, as a mysterious ingredient that endows quantum microstates with macroscopic consequences, key to the ``collapse of the wavepacket,'' and a way to avoid embarrassing problems exemplified by Schrödinger's cat. This bridge between the quantum microworld and the classical world of our experience was postulated ad hoc in the Copenhagen Interpretation. Quantum Darwinism views amplification as replication, in many copies, of information about quantum states. We show that such amplification is a natural consequence of a broad class of models of decoherence, including the photon environment we use to obtain most of our information. The resultant amplification is huge, proportional to # ξQCB . Here, #  is the environment size and ξQCB is the ``typical'' Quantum Chernoff Information, which quantifies the efficiency of the amplification. The information communicated though the environment is imprinted in the states of individual environment subsystems, e.g., in single photons, which document the transfer of information into the environment and result in the emergence of the classical world. See, http://mike.zwolak.org

  10. Transgenerational Radiation Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    sequences by two different restriction endonucleases whose activities require either the presence or absence of methylated cytosines in their...individual genes and the methylation profile across a gene panel are reliably and easily calculated. The use and analysis of both restriction digests

  11. Radioactive wastes and the social amplification of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperson, R.E.; Emel, J.; Goble, R.; Hohenemser, C.; Kasperson, J.X.; Renn, O.

    1987-01-01

    A significant problem in radioactive waste facility siting is that apparent small risks or minor risks events produce substantial public concern and social impacts. The reasons for this difference in public health and societal impacts is not well understood. This paper explores the issues involved in the social amplification of risk, using the risk associated with site characterization as the example. Noteworthy as sources of amplification are the information flow associated with risks and risk events including the large volume of information, the extent of dispute, and misinformation and rumor. Such information passes through the mass media and interpersonal networks. The major mechanisms involved in risk amplifications are discussed and their likely impacts on society described

  12. Multi-chamber nucleic acid amplification and detection device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, Lawrence

    2017-10-25

    A nucleic acid amplification and detection device includes an amplification cartridge with a plurality of reaction chambers for containing an amplification reagent and a visual detection reagent, and a plurality of optically transparent view ports for viewing inside the reaction chambers. The cartridge also includes a sample receiving port which is adapted to receive a fluid sample and fluidically connected to distribute the fluid sample to the reaction chamber, and in one embodiment, a plunger is carried by the cartridge for occluding fluidic communication to the reaction chambers. The device also includes a heating apparatus having a heating element which is activated by controller to generate heat when a trigger event is detected. The heating apparatus includes a cartridge-mounting section which positioned a cartridge in thermal communication with the heating element so that visual changes to the contents of the reaction chambers are viewable through the view ports.

  13. Current Amplification Characteristics of BJT on Fast Neutron Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sung Ho; Sun, Gwang Min; Baek, Hani [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor) is a three-terminal device with an important feature in that the current through two terminals can be controlled by small changes we make in the current or voltage at the third terminal. This control feature allows us to amplify small AC signals or to switch the device from an on state and off state and back. Fast neutron irradiation incurs lattice damage in bulk Si. The recombination rate of minority carriers and register are increased by the lattice damage. This study will investigate the current amplification characteristics of a pnp Si BJT through fast neutron irradiation experiments. In this paper, the current amplification characteristics of a pnp Si BJT were investigated for fast neutron irradiation. The experimental results show that base-tocollector current amplification ratio is decreased with an increase in the fast neutron irradiation. These indicate that the lattice damage caused by fast neutron irradiation increases the recombination rate of minority carriers and resistor.

  14. Progress in multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-hui; Zou, Bing-jie; Song, Qin-xin; Zhou, Guo-hua

    2015-09-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been widely applied in nucleic acid diagnostics due to its high sensitivity and specificity, high speed and low requirement of equipment. In order to fully leverage these merits, achieve high efficiency and reliability in diagnostics, and expand the applicable fields while keeping low reagent cost, multiplex LAMP technology has been extensively explored in recent years. Common methods for LAMP products detection are mostly based on the double-stranded DNA amplicons or byproducts from the polymerization reaction, so they can only identify the occurrence of amplification reaction but not the origins or specificity of the products. To achieve specific LAMP products detection, researchers developed various multiplex methods by improving the conventional LAMP technology or coupling LAMP with other assays. However, the interference and/or the different amplification efficiencies among different primer sets often lead to biased amplification and thus limited multiplexing level. We here defined these methods as narrow-sensed multiplex LAMP. The research on miniaturized amplification technology which is booming in recent years has given rise to the novel general-sensed multiplex LAMP technology that breaks this limitation by its capability to perform highly parallel and miniaturized simplex reactions in independent compartments. Methods of this type have additional benefits such as lower reagent cost, higher level of automation, lower risk of cross-contamination and better suitability for on-site detection of multiple targets. In this review, we summarize the recent research progress in multiplex LAMP technology from the following aspects: the principle and design of narrow-sensed LAMP and its amplification optimization, the general-sensed LAMP, and the various applications of all multiplex LAMP technologies in diagnostics.

  15. The Efficiency of Magnetic Field Amplification at Shocks by Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Suoqing; Oh, S. Peng; Ruszkowsi, M.; Markevitch, M.

    2016-01-01

    Turbulent dynamo field amplification has often been invoked to explain the strong field strengths in thin rims in supernova shocks (approx.100 micrograms) and in radio relics in galaxy clusters (approx. micrograms). We present high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the interaction between pre-shock turbulence, clumping and shocks, to quantify the conditions under which turbulent dynamo amplification can be significant. We demonstrate numerically converged field amplification which scales with Alfven Mach number, B/B0 varies as MA, up to MA approx.150.This implies that the post-shock field strength is relatively independent of the seed field. Amplification is dominated by compression at low MA, and stretching (turbulent amplification) at high MA. For high MA, the B-field grows exponentially and saturates at equipartition with turbulence, while the vorticity jumps sharply at the shock and subsequently decays; the resulting field is orientated predominately along the shock normal (an effect only apparent in 3D and not 2D). This agrees with the radial field bias seen in supernova remnants. By contrast, for low MA, field amplification is mostly compressional, relatively modest, and results in a predominantly perpendicular field. The latter is consistent with the polarization seen in radio relics. Our results are relatively robust to the assumed level of gas clumping. Our results imply that the turbulent dynamo may be important for supernovae, but is only consistent with the field strength, and not geometry, for cluster radio relics. For the latter, this implies strong pre-existing B-fields in the ambient cluster outskirts.

  16. Detection of Mycobacterium ulcerans by the loop mediated isothermal amplification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablordey, Anthony; Amissah, Diana Ackon; Aboagye, Isaac Frimpong; Hatano, Ben; Yamazaki, Toshio; Sata, Tetsutaro; Ishikawa, Koichi; Katano, Harutaka

    2012-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (M. ulcerans) has emerged as an important public health problem in several rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are important in preventing disfiguring complications associated with late stages of the disease progression. Presently there is no simple and rapid test that is appropriate for early diagnosis and use in the low-resource settings where M. ulcerans is most prevalent. We compared conventional and pocket warmer loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) methods (using a heat block and a pocket warmer respectively as heat source for amplification reaction) for the detection of M. ulcerans in clinical specimens. The effect of purified and crude DNA preparations on the detection rate of the LAMP assays were also investigated and compared with that of IS2404 PCR, a reference assay for the detection of M. ulcerans. Thirty clinical specimens from suspected BU cases were examined by LAMP and IS2404 PCR. The lower detection limit of both LAMP methods at 60°C was 300 copies of IS2404 and 30 copies of IS2404 for the conventional LAMP at 65°C. When purified DNA extracts were used, both the conventional LAMP and IS2404 PCR concordantly detected 21 positive cases, while the pocket warmer LAMP detected 19 cases. Nine of 30 samples were positive by both the LAMP assays as well as IS2404 PCR when crude extracts of clinical specimens were used. The LAMP method can be used as a simple and rapid test for the detection of M. ulcerans in clinical specimens. However, obtaining purified DNA, as well as generating isothermal conditions, remains a major challenge for the use of the LAMP method under field conditions. With further improvement in DNA extraction and amplification conditions, the pwLAMP could be used as a point of care diagnostic test for BU.

  17. Methods for microbial DNA extraction from soil for PCR amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeates C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of DNA from soil is often inhibited by co-purified contaminants. A rapid, inexpensive, large-scale DNA extraction method involving minimal purification has been developed that is applicable to various soil types (1. DNA is also suitable for PCR amplification using various DNA targets. DNA was extracted from 100g of soil using direct lysis with glass beads and SDS followed by potassium acetate precipitation, polyethylene glycol precipitation, phenol extraction and isopropanol precipitation. This method was compared to other DNA extraction methods with regard to DNA purity and size.

  18. Amplification-free liquid biopsy by fluorescence approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhd, Jesper; Okholm, Anders; Kjems, Jargen

    2017-01-01

    Liquid biopsy is an attractive new paradigm of modern cancer research and clinical oncology. Synergy of fluorescence microscopy with mutation specific molecular probes is a method that we developed for the detection of tumor related circulating DNA, ctDNA. The present detection methods of ctDNA...... samples include amplification-based techniques that have multiple challenges, are often time consuming and rather expensive. In this work, we successfully applied the hybridization assay and advanced microscopy for the reliable amplification-free detection and quantification of cancer associated mutations...... in ctDNA....

  19. Strongly coupled stimulated Brillouin amplification in pump-ionizing plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H.; Wu, Z. H.; Zuo, Y. L.; Zhou, K. N.; Wang, X. D.; Li, Q.; Zhu, H. Y.; Su, J. Q.

    2018-02-01

    Laser amplification based on strongly coupled stimulated Brillouin scattering in plasma is investigated. The pump and seed are at the same wavelength of 800 nm and the same duration of 3.5 ps, but with a different intensity. The plasma is produced by the front part of the pump via tunnel ionization from hydrogen. The hydrogen is fully ionized to eliminate small-scale density fluctuations in the plasma, so the transmission level of the seed is enhanced to 22%, and a relative amplification factor of 6 is obtained.

  20. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  1. Sensitive and selective amplification of methylated DNA sequences using helper-dependent chain reaction in combination with a methylation-dependent restriction enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Keith N; Young, Graeme P; Ho, Thu; Molloy, Peter L

    2013-01-07

    We have developed a novel technique for specific amplification of rare methylated DNA fragments in a high background of unmethylated sequences that avoids the need of bisulphite conversion. The methylation-dependent restriction enzyme GlaI is used to selectively cut methylated DNA. Then targeted fragments are tagged using specially designed 'helper' oligonucleotides that are also used to maintain selection in subsequent amplification cycles in a process called 'helper-dependent chain reaction'. The process uses disabled primers called 'drivers' that can only prime on each cycle if the helpers recognize specific sequences within the target amplicon. In this way, selection for the sequence of interest is maintained throughout the amplification, preventing amplification of unwanted sequences. Here we show how the method can be applied to methylated Septin 9, a promising biomarker for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer. The GlaI digestion and subsequent amplification can all be done in a single tube. A detection sensitivity of 0.1% methylated DNA in a background of unmethylated DNA was achieved, which was similar to the well-established Heavy Methyl method that requires bisulphite-treated DNA.

  2. Highly efficient amplification of chronic wasting disease agent by protein misfolding cyclic amplification with beads (PMCAb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad J Johnson

    Full Text Available Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA has emerged as an important technique for detecting low levels of pathogenic prion protein in biological samples. The method exploits the ability of the pathogenic prion protein to convert the normal prion protein to a proteinase K-resistant conformation. Inclusion of Teflon® beads in the PMCA reaction (PMCAb has been previously shown to increase the sensitivity and robustness of detection for the 263 K and SSLOW strains of hamster-adapted prions. Here, we demonstrate that PMCAb with saponin dramatically increases the sensitivity of detection for chronic wasting disease (CWD agent without compromising the specificity of the assay (i.e., no false positive results. Addition of Teflon® beads increased the robustness of the PMCA reaction, resulting in a decrease in the variability of PMCA results. Three rounds of serial PMCAb allowed detection of CWD agent from a 6.7 × 10(-13 dilution of 10% brain homogenate (1.3 fg of source brain. Titration of the same brain homogenate in transgenic mice expressing cervid prion protein (Tg(CerPrP1536(+/- mice allowed detection of CWD agent from the 10(-6 dilution of 10% brain homogenate. PMCAb is, thus, more sensitive than bioassay in transgenic mice by a factor exceeding 10(5. Additionally, we are able to amplify CWD agent from brain tissue and lymph nodes of CWD-positive white-tailed deer having Prnp alleles associated with reduced disease susceptibility.

  3. Generation of high-power few-cycle lasers via Brillouin-based plasma amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. M.; Zhang, B.; Hong, W.; Deng, Z. G.; Teng, J.; He, S. K.; Zhou, W. M.; Gu, Y. Q.

    2017-11-01

    Strong coupling stimulated Brillouin backscattering (sc-SBS) in plasma is potentially an efficient method of amplifying laser pulses to reach exawatt powers. Here, we report on a new regime of brillouin-based plasma amplification, producing an amplified pulse with a duration of 5 fs and unfocused intensity of 6 × 1017 W/cm2. The results are obtained from 2D particle-in-cell simulations, using two circularly polarized pump and seed pulse with Gaussian transverse profile, both at an intensity of 2.74 × 1016 W/cm2, counter-propagating in a 0.3nc plasma. The significant compression of amplified seed is achieved as a result of sc-SBS amplification as well as additional compression by the interplay between self-phase modulation and negative group delay dispersion. We show that the amplified seed retains high beam qualities since the filamentation can be prevented due to the fast compression. This scheme may pave the way for few-cycle laser pulses to reach exawatt or even zetawatt regime.

  4. Random amplification of genomic ends (RAGE) as an efficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study utilizes a genome walking method - random amplification of genomic ends (RAGE) efficiently to obtain the 5' – regulatory sequence of a rice stress inducible ... can be used for cloning of full length gene and promoters in organisms where whole genome data is unavailable utilising very little sequence information.

  5. Cortical encoding of speech acoustics: Effects of noise and amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla-Mathew, Abin; Purdy, Suzanne C; Welch, David

    2015-01-01

    To investigate speech stimuli and background-noise-dependent changes in cortical auditory-evoked potentials (CAEPs) in unaided and aided conditions, and determine amplification effects on CAEPs. CAEPs to naturally produced syllables in quiet and in multi-talker babble were recorded, with and without a hearing aid in the right ear. At least 300 artifact-free trials for each participant were required to measure latencies and amplitudes of CAEPs. Acoustic characteristics of the hearing-aid-transduced stimuli were measured using in-the-canal probe microphone measurements to determine unaided versus aided SNR and to compare stimulus acoustic characteristics to CAEP findings. Ten participants with normal hearing, aged 19 to 35 years. CAEP latencies and amplitudes showed significant effects of speech contrast, background noise, and amplification. N1 and P2 components varied differently across conditions. In general, cortical processing in noise was influenced by SNR and the spectrum of the speech stimuli. Hearing-aid-induced spectral and temporal changes to the speech stimuli affected P1-N1-P2 components. Amplification produced complex effects on latencies and amplitudes across speech stimuli and CAEP components, and for quiet versus noise conditions. CAEP components reflect spectral and temporal characteristics of speech stimuli and acoustic changes induced by background noise and amplification.

  6. Heralded noiseless amplification of a photon polarization qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, S.; Xiang, G. Y.; Ralph, T. C.; Pryde, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Photons are the best long-range carriers of quantum information, but the unavoidable absorption and scattering in a transmission channel places a serious limitation on viable communication distances. Signal amplification will therefore be an essential feature of quantum technologies, with direct applications to quantum communication, metrology and fundamental tests of quantum theory. Non-deterministic noiseless amplification of a single mode can circumvent the challenges related to amplifying a quantum signal, such as the no-cloning theorem and the minimum noise cost for deterministic quantum state amplification. However, existing devices are not suitable for amplifying the fundamental optical quantum information carrier: a qubit coherently encoded across two optical modes. Here, we construct a coherent two-mode amplifier to demonstrate the first heralded noiseless linear amplification of a qubit encoded in the polarization state of a single photon. In doing so, we increase the transmission fidelity of a realistic qubit channel by up to a factor of five. Qubit amplifiers promise to extend the range of secure quantum communication and other quantum information science and technology protocols.

  7. Whole genome amplification and its impact on CGH array profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meldrum Cliff

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some array comparative genomic hybridisation (array CGH platforms require a minimum of micrograms of DNA for the generation of reliable and reproducible data. For studies where there are limited amounts of genetic material, whole genome amplification (WGA is an attractive method for generating sufficient quantities of genomic material from miniscule amounts of starting material. A range of WGA methods are available and the multiple displacement amplification (MDA approach has been shown to be highly accurate, although amplification bias has been reported. In the current study, WGA was used to amplify DNA extracted from whole blood. In total, six array CGH experiments were performed to investigate whether the use of whole genome amplified DNA (wgaDNA produces reliable and reproducible results. Four experiments were conducted on amplified DNA compared to unamplified DNA and two experiments on unamplified DNA compared to unamplified DNA. Findings All the experiments involving wgaDNA resulted in a high proportion of losses and gains of genomic material. Previously, amplification bias has been overcome by using amplified DNA in both the test and reference DNA. Our data suggests that this approach may not be effective, as the gains and losses introduced by WGA appears to be random and are not reproducible between different experiments using the same DNA. Conclusion In light of these findings, the use of both amplified test and reference DNA on CGH arrays may not provide an accurate representation of copy number variation in the DNA.

  8. Parametric amplification in a micro Coriolis mass flow sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenesteijn, Jarno; Droogendijk, H.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the application of parametric amplification to a micro Coriolis mass flow sensor. We demonstrate that this mechanism allows for reduction of the system's power dissipation while retaining sensitivity to flow. By reducing this power dissipation, less heat will be transferred to the fluid

  9. Utilization of non-linear converters for audio amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Birch, Thomas; Knott, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    . The introduction of non-linear converters for audio amplification defeats this limitation. A Cuk converter, designed to deliver an AC peak output voltage twice the supply voltage, is presented in this paper. A 3V prototype has been developed to prove the concept. The prototype shows that it is possible to achieve...

  10. Amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS) analysis of point mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, S

    2001-05-01

    The amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS) is a simple method for detecting any mutation involving single base changes or small deletions. ARMS is based on the use of sequence-specific PCR primers that allow amplification of test DNA only when the target allele is contained within the sample. Following an ARMS reaction the presence or absence of a PCR product is diagnostic for the presence or absence of the target allele. The protocols detailed here outline methods that can be used to analyze human genomic DNA for one or more mutations. The Basic Protocol describes the development and application of an ARMS test for a single mutation; the Alternate Protocol extends this to multiplex ARMS for the analysis of two or more mutations. The Support Protocol describes a rapid DNA extraction method from blood or mouthwash samples that yields DNA compatible with the type of tests described. The amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS) is a simple method for detecting any mutation involving single base change The amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS) is a simple method for detecting any mutation involving single base change.

  11. Development of an electronic system for signals amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Italo S.; Tobias, Carmen C.B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the obtained results with a spectrometer for electromagnetic radiation whose detector, a Si PIN type diode, was directly coupled to a signal amplification system developed in this project for scientific initiation. The linearity conditions and the gain operational limits, constituted of two stages of amplification based on the employment of devices from AMTEK A225 and A206, were determined using a precision pulse generator. The obtained results shown that the developed system is stable and linear in the gain range of 50-150. The spectrometric response of the electronic system coupled to the Siemens SFH-00206 type diode, were studied in view of the register of the 59.5 keV gamma ray spectra proceeding from 241 Am as function of the reversal polarization voltage. The influence pf the voltage and the electronic contribution in the energy resolution of the registered spectra under room temperature (22 degree Celsius) had also investigated considering the more adequate value of the coupling capacitance of the amplification system diode. Up to the present. the best energy resolution (FWHM = 4.85 keV) of the 59.5 keV line was obtained for the condition of the detector polarization at 16 V. This result proves that the signal amplification system developed coupled to the SFH00206 diode, besides the low cost, excellent operational condition for the detection and spectrometry or low energy electromagnetic radiation

  12. Onchocercal DNA amplification using beta actin gene primers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Onchocercal DNA amplification using beta actin gene primers compared with first internal transcribed spacer sequences for monitoring onchocerciasis eradication strategy. ... Out of the 12 amplicons in agarose gel, there were 6 sharp and 6 faint bands of 100bp molecular weight as documented. The sharp bands included 3 ...

  13. Relay studies - existing data, current testing and cabinet amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

    1989-01-01

    The seismic fragility of most electrical equipment is governed by the malfunction of relays. This paper discusses the combined study being performed at BNL by evaluating existing fragility test data, conducting a new relay test program and estimating the cabinet amplification at relay locations. Existing test data for relays have been collected and evaluated at BNL. The data base consists of results from a wide variety of test programs - single frequency, single axis, multifrequency, multiaxis tests. For most relays, the non-operating condition controls the chatter fragility limit. In order to characterize the effect of various parameters on the relay seismic capacity, a test program has been initiated at BNL. Selected test specimens will be tested to determine the influence of frequency of vibration, direction of motion, adjustments of relay parts, among others, on the relay capacities. The amplification study involves computing dynamic amplification factors at various device locations in motor control center and switchgear cabinets. Fragility and high level qualification data have been used for this purpose. This paper includes a summary of the amplification results. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  14. Direct Extraction and Amplification of DNA from Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, Jack T.; Leung, K.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise that describes the direct extraction and purification of DNA from a small soil sample. Also discusses the subsequent amplification of a 343-bp Tn7 transposate A gene fragment (tnsA) from a strain of Pseudomonas aureofaciens 3732RNL11. Contains 21 references. (DDR)

  15. Four-quadrant flyback converter for direct audio power amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a bidirectional, four-quadrant flyback converter for use in direct audio power amplification. When compared to the standard Class-D switching audio power amplifier with a separate power supply, the proposed four-quadrant flyback converter provides simple solution with better...

  16. Cross-species amplification of microsatellites in genera ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Du R., Zhang D., Wang Y., Wang W. and Gao Z. 2013 Cross-species amplification of microsatellites in genera Megalobrama and Parabramis. ..... Rice W. R. 1989 Analyzing tables of statistical tests. Evolution 43,. 223–225. Sambrook J. and Russel D. W. 2002 Molecular cloning: a labora- tory manual, 3rd edition. Science ...

  17. Cross-genus amplification and characterisation of microsatellite loci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no evidence of linkage disequilibrium among pairs of loci, or of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These six loci were informative in studies of population genetic structure of C. pumilus sensu lato. Keywords: Bats, Chaerephon pumilus, Chiroptera, microsatellites, Molossidae, cross-genus amplification

  18. Observational Evidence for Desert Amplification Using Multiple Satellite Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Nan; Zhou, Liming; Dai, Yongjiu; Xia, Geng; Hua, Wenjian

    2017-05-17

    Desert amplification identified in recent studies has large uncertainties due to data paucity over remote deserts. Here we present observational evidence using multiple satellite-derived datasets that desert amplification is a real large-scale pattern of warming mode in near surface and low-tropospheric temperatures. Trend analyses of three long-term temperature products consistently confirm that near-surface warming is generally strongest over the driest climate regions and this spatial pattern of warming maximizes near the surface, gradually decays with height, and disappears in the upper troposphere. Short-term anomaly analyses show a strong spatial and temporal coupling of changes in temperatures, water vapor and downward longwave radiation (DLR), indicating that the large increase in DLR drives primarily near surface warming and is tightly associated with increasing water vapor over deserts. Atmospheric soundings of temperature and water vapor anomalies support the results of the long-term temperature trend analysis and suggest that desert amplification is due to comparable warming and moistening effects of the troposphere. Likely, desert amplification results from the strongest water vapor feedbacks near the surface over the driest deserts, where the air is very sensitive to changes in water vapor and thus efficient in enhancing the longwave greenhouse effect in a warming climate.

  19. Cross-species amplification of human microsatellite markers in pig ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Macaca arctoides) and pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) are biomedically important species but are becoming endangered fast. In the present study, 20 human tetranucleotide microsatellite markers were used to test their cross-species amplification in captive stump-tailed macaques and pig-tailed macaques.

  20. Amplification and Attenuation across USArray using Ambient Noise Wavefront Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Bowden, Daniel C.

    2017-11-15

    As seismic travel-time tomography continues to be refined using data from the vast USArray dataset, it is advantageous to also exploit the amplitude information carried by seismic waves. We use ambient noise cross correlation to make observations of surface-wave amplification and attenuation at shorter periods (8 – 32 seconds) than can be observed with only traditional teleseismic earthquake sources. We show that the wavefront tracking approach of [Lin et al., 2012a] can be successfully applied to ambient noise correlations, yielding results quite similar to those from earthquake observations at periods of overlap. This consistency indicates that the wavefront tracking approach is viable for use with ambient noise correlations, despite concerns of the inhomogeneous and unknown distribution of noise sources. The resulting amplification and attenuation maps correlate well with known tectonic and crustal structure; at the shortest periods, our amplification and attenuation maps correlate well with surface geology and known sedimentary basins, while our longest period amplitudes are controlled by crustal thickness and begin to probe upper mantle materials. These amplification and attenuation observations are sensitive to crustal materials in different ways than travel-time observations and may be used to better constrain temperature or density variations. We also value them as an independent means of describing the lateral variability of observed Rayleigh-wave amplitudes without the need for 3D tomographic inversions.

  1. Application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RIME-LAMP helps increase the probability of detecting the positive cases of camel Trypanosomiasis and it was found to be one useful and alternative molecular diagnostic tool for the detection of T. evansi infections. Key words: Sudan, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) - random insertion mobile element (RIME ...

  2. Whole genome amplification: Use of advanced isothermal method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory method for amplifying genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples aiming to generate more amounts and sufficient quantity DNA for subsequent specific analysis is named whole genome amplification (WGA). This method is only way to increase input material from few cells and limited DNA contents.

  3. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting uvrC of Mycoplasma bovis was developed and evaluated. The assay specifically amplified only M. bovis; no cross-reactivity was observed for other Mycoplasma species or respiratory bacterial species. The sensitivity of the assay in.

  4. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel assay method to detect the highly virulent Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) termed reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), was reported by using hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB) as the LAMP product colorimetric judgment. By the set of special primers, ...

  5. Quality control for quantitative PCR based on amplification compatibility test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichopád, Aleš; Bar, T.; Pecen, Ladislav; Kitchen, R.R.; Kubista, Mikael; Pfaffl, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2010), s. 308-312 ISSN 1046-2023 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500520809; GA AV ČR IAA500970904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Quantitative PCR * Quality control * Amplification efficiency Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.527, year: 2010

  6. Direct PCR amplification of forensic touch and other challenging DNA samples: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Sarah E; Bathrick, Abigail S

    2018-01-01

    DNA evidence sample processing typically involves DNA extraction, quantification, and STR amplification; however, DNA loss can occur at both the DNA extraction and quantification steps, which is not ideal for forensic evidence containing low levels of DNA. Direct PCR amplification of forensic unknown samples has been suggested as a means to circumvent extraction and quantification, thereby retaining the DNA typically lost during those procedures. Direct PCR amplification is a method in which a sample is added directly to an amplification reaction without being subjected to prior DNA extraction, purification, or quantification. It allows for maximum quantities of DNA to be targeted, minimizes opportunities for error and contamination, and reduces the time and monetary resources required to process samples, although data analysis may take longer as the increased DNA detection sensitivity of direct PCR may lead to more instances of complex mixtures. ISO 17025 accredited laboratories have successfully implemented direct PCR for limited purposes (e.g., high-throughput databanking analysis), and recent studies indicate that direct PCR can be an effective method for processing low-yield evidence samples. Despite its benefits, direct PCR has yet to be widely implemented across laboratories for the processing of evidentiary items. While forensic DNA laboratories are always interested in new methods that will maximize the quantity and quality of genetic information obtained from evidentiary items, there is often a lag between the advent of useful methodologies and their integration into laboratories. Delayed implementation of direct PCR of evidentiary items can be attributed to a variety of factors, including regulatory guidelines that prevent laboratories from omitting the quantification step when processing forensic unknown samples, as is the case in the United States, and, more broadly, a reluctance to validate a technique that is not widely used for evidence samples. The

  7. Amplification biases: possible differences among deviating gene expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piumi Francois

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling has become a tool of choice to study pathological or developmental questions but in most cases the material is scarce and requires sample amplification. Two main procedures have been used: in vitro transcription (IVT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, the former known as linear and the latter as exponential. Previous reports identified enzymatic pitfalls in PCR and IVT protocols; however the possible differences between the sequences affected by these amplification defaults were only rarely explored. Results Screening a bovine cDNA array dedicated to embryonic stages with embryonic (n = 3 and somatic tissues (n = 2, we proceeded to moderate amplifications starting from 1 μg of total RNA (global PCR or IVT one round. Whatever the tissue, 16% of the probes were involved in deviating gene expressions due to amplification defaults. These distortions were likely due to the molecular features of the affected sequences (position within a gene, GC content, hairpin number but also to the relative abundance of these transcripts within the tissues. These deviating genes mainly encoded housekeeping genes from physiological or cellular processes (70% and constituted 2 subsets which did not overlap (molecular features, signal intensities, gene ID. However, the differential expressions identified between embryonic stages were both reliable (minor intersect with biased expressions and relevant (biologically validated. In addition, the relative expression levels of those genes were biologically similar between amplified and unamplified samples. Conclusion Conversely to the most recent reports which challenged the use of intense amplification procedures on minute amounts of RNA, we chose moderate PCR and IVT amplifications for our gene profiling study. Conclusively, it appeared that systematic biases arose even with moderate amplification procedures, independently of (i the sample used: brain, ovary or embryos, (ii

  8. Multiple strand displacement amplification of mitochondrial DNA from clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidransky David

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole genome amplification (WGA methods allow diagnostic laboratories to overcome the common problem of insufficient DNA in patient specimens. Further, body fluid samples useful for cancer early detection are often difficult to amplify with traditional PCR methods. In this first application of WGA on the entire human mitochondrial genome, we compared the accuracy of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence analysis after WGA to that performed without genome amplification. We applied the method to a small group of cancer cases and controls and demonstrated that WGA is capable of increasing the yield of starting DNA material with identical genetic sequence. Methods DNA was isolated from clinical samples and sent to NIST. Samples were amplified by PCR and those with no visible amplification were re-amplified using the Multiple Displacement Amplificaiton technique of whole genome amplification. All samples were analyzed by mitochip for mitochondrial DNA sequence to compare sequence concordance of the WGA samples with respect to native DNA. Real-Time PCR analysis was conducted to determine the level of WGA amplification for both nuclear and mtDNA. Results In total, 19 samples were compared and the concordance rate between WGA and native mtDNA sequences was 99.995%. All of the cancer associated mutations in the native mtDNA were detected in the WGA amplified material and heteroplasmies in the native mtDNA were detected with high fidelity in the WGA material. In addition to the native mtDNA sequence present in the sample, 13 new heteroplasmies were detected in the WGA material. Conclusion Genetic screening of mtDNA amplified by WGA is applicable for the detection of cancer associated mutations. Our results show the feasibility of this method for: 1 increasing the amount of DNA available for analysis, 2 recovering the identical mtDNA sequence, 3 accurately detecting mtDNA point mutations associated with cancer.

  9. Comparison of variations detection between whole-genome amplification methods used in single-cell resequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Yong; Wu, Kui; Shi, Xulian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Single-cell resequencing (SCRS) provides many biomedical advances in variations detection at the single-cell level, but it currently relies on whole genome amplification (WGA). Three methods are commonly used for WGA: multiple displacement amplification (MDA), degenerate-oligonucleoti......BACKGROUND: Single-cell resequencing (SCRS) provides many biomedical advances in variations detection at the single-cell level, but it currently relies on whole genome amplification (WGA). Three methods are commonly used for WGA: multiple displacement amplification (MDA), degenerate...

  10. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods for detecting Taylorella equigenitalis and Taylorella asinigenitalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Katayama, Yoshinari; Hariu, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Taylorella equigenitalis is a causative bacterium of contagious equine metritis (CEM), and Taylorella asinigenitalis is species belonging to genus Taylorella. The authors developed two loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) methods, Te-LAMP and Ta-LAMP, for detecting T. equigenitalis and T. asinigenitalis, respectively. Using experimentally spiked samples, Te-LAMP was as sensitive as a published semi-nested PCR method, and Ta-LAMP was more sensitive than conventional PCR. Multiplex LAMP worked well without nonspecific reactions, and the analytical sensitivities of multiplex LAMP in the spiked samples were almost equivalent to those of Te-LAMP and Ta-LAMP. Therefore, the LAMP methods are considered useful tools to detect T. equigenitalis and/or T. asinigenitalis, and preventive measures will be rapidly implemented if the occurrence of CEM is confirmed by the LAMP methods.

  11. Added Value of HER-2 Amplification Testing by Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification in Invasive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Chantal C. H. J.; Moelans, Cathy B.; van Slooten, Henk-Jan; Horstman, Anja; Hinrichs, John W. J.; Al-Janabi, Shaimaa; van Diest, Paul J.; Jiwa, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background HER-2 is a prognostic and predictive marker, but as yet no technique is perfectly able to identify patients likely to benefit from HER-2 targeted therapies. We aimed to prospectively assess the added value of first-line co-testing by IHC, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). Methods As local validation, HER-2 MLPA and CISH were compared in 99 breast cancers. Next, we reviewed 937 invasive breast cancers, from 4 Dutch pathology laboratories, that were prospectively assessed for HER-2 by IHC and MLPA (and CISH in selected cases). Results The validation study demonstrated 100% concordance between CISH and MLPA, if both methods were assessable and conclusive (81.8% of cases). Significant variation regarding percentages IHC 0/1+ and 2+ cases was observed between the laboratories (pCISH was 98.1% (575/586) (Kappa = 0.94). Of the IHC 3+ cases, 6.7% failed to reveal gene amplification, whereas 0.8% of the IHC 0/1+ cases demonstrated gene amplification. Results remained discordant after retrospective review in 3/11 discordant cases. In the remaining 8 cases the original IHC score was incorrect or adapted after repeated IHC staining. Conclusions MLPA is a low-cost and quantitative high-throughput technique with near perfect concordance with CISH. The use of MLPA in routinely co-testing all breast cancers may reduce HER-2 testing variation between laboratories, may serve as quality control for IHC, will reveal IHC 0/1+ patients with gene amplification, likely responsive to trastuzumab, and identify IHC 3+ cases without gene amplification that may respond less well. PMID:24324739

  12. Added value of HER-2 amplification testing by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in invasive breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal C H J Kuijpers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HER-2 is a prognostic and predictive marker, but as yet no technique is perfectly able to identify patients likely to benefit from HER-2 targeted therapies. We aimed to prospectively assess the added value of first-line co-testing by IHC, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH. METHODS: As local validation, HER-2 MLPA and CISH were compared in 99 breast cancers. Next, we reviewed 937 invasive breast cancers, from 4 Dutch pathology laboratories, that were prospectively assessed for HER-2 by IHC and MLPA (and CISH in selected cases. RESULTS: The validation study demonstrated 100% concordance between CISH and MLPA, if both methods were assessable and conclusive (81.8% of cases. Significant variation regarding percentages IHC 0/1+ and 2+ cases was observed between the laboratories (p<0.0001. Overall concordance between IHC and MLPA/CISH was 98.1% (575/586 (Kappa = 0.94. Of the IHC 3+ cases, 6.7% failed to reveal gene amplification, whereas 0.8% of the IHC 0/1+ cases demonstrated gene amplification. Results remained discordant after retrospective review in 3/11 discordant cases. In the remaining 8 cases the original IHC score was incorrect or adapted after repeated IHC staining. CONCLUSIONS: MLPA is a low-cost and quantitative high-throughput technique with near perfect concordance with CISH. The use of MLPA in routinely co-testing all breast cancers may reduce HER-2 testing variation between laboratories, may serve as quality control for IHC, will reveal IHC 0/1+ patients with gene amplification, likely responsive to trastuzumab, and identify IHC 3+ cases without gene amplification that may respond less well.

  13. Voice amplification for primary school teachers with voice disorders: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bovo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Several studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of voice disorders in teachers, together with the personal, professional and economical consequences of the problem. Good primary prevention should be based on 3 aspects: 1 amelioration of classroom acoustics, 2 voice care programs for future professional voice users, including teachers and 3 classroom or portable amplification systems. The aim of the study was to assess the benefit obtained from the use of portable amplification systems by female primary school teachers in their occupational setting. Materials and Methods: Forty female primary school teachers attended a course about professional voice care, which comprised two theoretical lectures, each 60 min long. Thereafter, they were randomized into 2 groups: the teachers of the first group were asked to use a portable vocal amplifier for 3 months, till the end of school-year. The other 20 teachers were part of the control group, matched for age and years of employment. All subjects had a grade 1 of dysphonia with no significant organic lesion of the vocal folds. Results: Most teachers of the experimental group used the amplifier consistently for the whole duration of the experiment and found it very useful in reducing the symptoms of vocal fatigue. In fact, after 3 months, Voice Handicap Index (VHI scores in "course + amplifier" group demonstrated a significant amelioration (p = 0.003. The perceptual grade of dysphonia also improved significantly (p = 0.0005. The same parameters changed favourably also in the "course only" group, but the results were not statistically significant (p = 0.4 for VHI and p = 0.03 for perceptual grade. Conclusions: In teachers, and particularly in those with a constitutional weak voice and/or those who are prone to vocal fold pathology, vocal amplifiers may be an effective and low-cost intervention to decrease potentially damaging vocal loads and may represent a necessary form of prevention.

  14. Voice amplification for primary school teachers with voice disorders: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Roberto; Trevisi, Patrizia; Emanuelli, Enzo; Martini, Alessandro

    2013-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of voice disorders in teachers, together with the personal, professional and economical consequences of the problem. Good primary prevention should be based on 3 aspects: 1) amelioration of classroom acoustics, 2) voice care programs for future professional voice users, including teachers and 3) classroom or portable amplification systems. The aim of the study was to assess the benefit obtained from the use of portable amplification systems by female primary school teachers in their occupational setting. Forty female primary school teachers attended a course about professional voice care, which comprised two theoretical lectures, each 60 min long. Thereafter, they were randomized into 2 groups: the teachers of the first group were asked to use a portable vocal amplifier for 3 months, till the end of school-year. The other 20 teachers were part of the control group, matched for age and years of employment. All subjects had a grade 1 of dysphonia with no significant organic lesion of the vocal folds. Most teachers of the experimental group used the amplifier consistently for the whole duration of the experiment and found it very useful in reducing the symptoms of vocal fatigue. In fact, after 3 months, Voice Handicap Index (VHI) scores in "course + amplifier" group demonstrated a significant amelioration (p = 0.003). The perceptual grade of dysphonia also improved significantly (p = 0.0005). The same parameters changed favourably also in the "course only" group, but the results were not statistically significant (p = 0.4 for VHI and p = 0.03 for perceptual grade). In teachers, and particularly in those with a constitutional weak voice and/or those who are prone to vocal fold pathology, vocal amplifiers may be an effective and low-cost intervention to decrease potentially damaging vocal loads and may represent a necessary form of prevention.

  15. Is Polar Amplification Deeper and Stronger than Dynamicists Assume?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheff, J.; Maroon, E.

    2017-12-01

    In the CMIP multi-model mean under strong future warming, Arctic amplification is confined to the lower troposphere, so that the meridional gradient of warming reverses around 500 mb and the upper troposphere is characterized by strong "tropical amplification" in which warming weakens with increasing latitude. This model-derived pattern of warming maxima in the upper-level tropics and lower-level Arctic has become a canonical assumption driving theories of the large-scale circulation response to climate change. Yet, several lines of evidence and reasoning suggest that Arctic amplification may in fact extend through the entire depth of the troposphere, and/or may be stronger than commonly modeled. These include satellite Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) temperature trends as a function of latitude and vertical level, the recent discovery that the extratropical negative cloud phase feedback in models is largely spurious, and the very strong polar amplification observed in past warm and lukewarm climates. Such a warming pattern, with deep, dominant Arctic amplification, would have very different implications for the circulation than a canonical CMIP-like warming: instead of slightly shifting poleward and strengthening, eddies, jets and cells might shift equatorward and considerably weaken. Indeed, surface winds have been mysteriously weakening ("stilling") at almost all stations over the last half-century or so, there has been no poleward shift in northern hemisphere circulation metrics, and past warm climates' subtropics were apparently quite wet (and their global ocean circulations were weak.) To explore these possibilities more deeply, we examine the y-z structure of warming and circulation changes across a much broader range of models, scenarios and time periods than the CMIP future mean, and use an MSU simulator to compare them to the satellite warming record. Specifically, we examine whether the use of historical (rather than future) forcing, AMIP (rather than CMIP

  16. Trans-generational desensitization and within-generational resensitization of a sucrose-best neuron in the polyphagous herbivore Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Tang, Qingbo; Zhang, Xuening; Zhao, Xincheng; Yan, Fengming; van Loon, Joop J A

    2016-12-14

    Dietary exposure of insects to a feeding deterrent substance for hours to days can induce habituation and concomitant desensitization of the response of peripheral gustatory neurons to such a substance. In the present study, larvae of the herbivore Helicoverpa armigera were fed on diets containing either a high, medium or low concentration of sucrose, a major feeding stimulant. The responsiveness of the sucrose-best neuron in the lateral sensilla styloconica on the galea was quantified. Results showed the response of the sucrose-best neuron exposed to high-sucrose diets decreased gradually over successive generations, resulting in complete desensitization in the 5 th and subsequent generations. However, the sensitivity was completely restored in the ninth generation after neonate larvae were exposed to low-sucrose diet. These findings demonstrate phenotypic plasticity and exclude inadvertent artificial selection for low sensitivity to sucrose. No significant changes were found in the sensitivity of caterpillars which experienced low- or medium-sucrose diets over the same generations. Such desensitization versus re-sensitization did not generalise to the phagosimulant myo-inositol-sensitive neuron or the feeding deterrent-sensitive neuron. Our results demonstrate that under conditions of high sucrose availability trans-generational desensitization of a neuron sensitive to this feeding stimulant becomes more pronounced whereas re-sensitization occurs within one generation.

  17. Parental height in relation to offspring coronary heart disease: examining transgenerational influences on health using the west of Scotland Midspan Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Linsay; Davey Smith, George; McConnachie, Alex; Watt, Graham C M; Hart, Carole L; Upton, Mark N; Macfarlane, Peter W; Batty, G David

    2012-12-01

    Adult height is known to be inversely related to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. We sought to investigate transgenerational influence of parental height on offspring's CHD risk. Parents took part in a cardiorespiratory disease survey in two Scottish towns during the 1970s, in which their physical stature was measured. In 1996, their offspring were invited to participate in a similar survey, which included an electrocardiogram recording and risk factor assessment. A total of 2306 natural offspring aged 30-59 years from 1456 couples were subsequently flagged for notification of mortality and followed for CHD-related hospitalizations. Taller paternal and/or maternal height was associated with socio-economic advantage, heavier birthweight and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in offspring. Increased height in fathers, but more strongly in mothers (risk ratio for 1 SD change in maternal height = 0.85; 95% confidence interval: 0.76 to 0.95), was associated with a lower risk of offspring CHD, adjusting for age, sex, other parental height and CHD risk factors. There is evidence of an association between taller parental, particularly maternal, height and lower offspring CHD risk. This may reflect an influence of early maternal growth on the intrauterine environment provided for her offspring.

  18. Intraspecific variation in the metabolic scaling exponent in ectotherms: testing the effect of latitudinal cline, ontogeny and transgenerational change in the land snail Cornu aspersum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Bruning, Andrea; Mondaca, Fredy; Nespolo, Roberto F

    2013-06-01

    The strong dependence of metabolic rates on body mass has attracted the interest of ecological physiologists, as it has important implications to many aspects of biology including species variations in body size, the evolution of life history, and the structure and function of biological communities. The great diversity of observed scaling exponents has led some authors to conclude that there is no single universal scaling exponent, but instead it ranges from 2/3 to 1. Most of the telling evidence against the universality of power scaling exponents comes from ontogenetic changes. Nevertheless, there could be other sources of phenotypic variation that influence this allometric relationship at least at the intraspecific level. In order to explore the general concept of the metabolic scaling in terrestrial molluscs we tested the role of several biological and methodological sources of variation on the empirically estimated scaling exponent. Specifically, we measured a proxy of metabolic rate (CO(2) production) in 421 individuals, during three generations, in three different populations. Additionally, we measured this scaling relationship in 208 individuals at five developmental stages. Our results suggest that the metabolic scaling exponent at the intraspecific level does not have a single stationary value, but instead it shows some degree of variation across geographic distribution, transgenerational change and ontogenetic stages. The major differences in the metabolic scaling exponent that we found were at different developmental stages of snails, because ontogeny involves increases in size at different rates, which in turn, generate differential energy demands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. SALLY LEVEL II- COMPUTE AND INTEGRATE DISTURBANCE AMPLIFICATION RATES ON SWEPT AND TAPERED LAMINAR FLOW CONTROL WINGS WITH SUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srokowski, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The computer program SALLY was developed to compute the incompressible linear stability characteristics and integrate the amplification rates of boundary layer disturbances on swept and tapered wings. For some wing designs, boundary layer disturbance can significantly alter the wing performance characteristics. This is particularly true for swept and tapered laminar flow control wings which incorporate suction to prevent boundary layer separation. SALLY should prove to be a useful tool in the analysis of these wing performance characteristics. The first step in calculating the disturbance amplification rates is to numerically solve the compressible laminar boundary-layer equation with suction for the swept and tapered wing. A two-point finite-difference method is used to solve the governing continuity, momentum, and energy equations. A similarity transformation is used to remove the wall normal velocity as a boundary condition and place it into the governing equations as a parameter. Thus the awkward nonlinear boundary condition is avoided. The resulting compressible boundary layer data is used by SALLY to compute the incompressible linear stability characteristics. The local disturbance growth is obtained from temporal stability theory and converted into a local growth rate for integration. The direction of the local group velocity is taken as the direction of integration. The amplification rate, or logarithmic disturbance amplitude ratio, is obtained by integration of the local disturbance growth over distance. The amplification rate serves as a measure of the growth of linear disturbances within the boundary layer and can serve as a guide in transition prediction. This program is written in FORTRAN IV and ASSEMBLER for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC CYBER 70 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 67K (octal) of 60 bit words. SALLY was developed in 1979.

  20. Transgenerational variations in DNA methylation induced by drought stress in two rice varieties with distinguished difference to drought resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguo Zheng

    Full Text Available Adverse environmental conditions have large impacts on plant growth and crop production. One of the crucial mechanisms that plants use in variable and stressful natural environments is gene expression modulation through epigenetic modification. In this study, two rice varieties with different drought resistance levels were cultivated under drought stress from tilling stage to seed filling stage for six successive generations. The variations in DNA methylation of the original generation (G0 and the sixth generation (G6 of these two varieties in normal condition (CK and under drought stress (DT at seedling stage were assessed by using Methylation Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism (MSAP method. The results revealed that drought stress had a cumulative effect on the DNA methylation pattern of both varieties, but these two varieties had different responses to drought stress in DNA methylation. The DNA methylation levels of II-32B (sensitive and Huhan-3 (resistant were around 39% and 32%, respectively. Genome-wide DNA methylation variations among generations or treatments accounted for around 13.1% of total MSAP loci in II-32B, but was only approximately 1.3% in Huhan-3. In II-32B, 27.6% of total differentially methylated loci (DML were directly induced by drought stress and 3.2% of total DML stably transmitted their changed DNA methylation status to the next generation. In Huhan-3, the numbers were 48.8% and 29.8%, respectively. Therefore, entrainment had greater effect on Huhan-3 than on II-32B. Sequence analysis revealed that the DML were widely distributed on all 12 rice chromosomes and that it mainly occurred on the gene's promoter and exon region. Some genes with DML respond to environmental stresses. The inheritance of epigenetic variations induced by drought stress may provide a new way to develop drought resistant rice varieties.

  1. Parametric Amplification of Vacuum Fluctuations in a Spinor Condensate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klempt, C.; Topic, O.; Gebreyesus, G.

    2010-01-01

    Parametric amplification of vacuum fluctuations is crucial in modern quantum optics, enabling the creation of squeezing and entanglement. We demonstrate the parametric amplification of vacuum fluctuations for matter waves using a spinor F=2 87Rb condensate. Interatomic interactions lead...... to correlated pair creation in the mF=±1 states from an initial mF=0 condensate, which acts as a vacuum for mF≠0. Although this pair creation from a pure mF=0 condensate is ideally triggered by vacuum fluctuations, unavoidable spurious initial mF=±1 atoms induce a classical seed which may become the dominant...... triggering mechanism. We show that pair creation is insensitive to a classical seed for sufficiently large magnetic fields, demonstrating the dominant role of vacuum fluctuations. The presented system thus provides a direct path towards the generation of nonclassical states of matter....

  2. Detection of Botrytis cinerea by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, J A; Dickinson, M J; Boonham, N

    2010-12-01

    To develop a sensitive, rapid and simple method for detection of Botrytis cinerea based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) that would be suitable for use outside a conventional laboratory setting. A LAMP assay was designed based on the intergenic spacer of the B. cinerea nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The resulting assay was characterized in terms of sensitivity and specificity using DNA extracted from cultures. The assay consistently amplified 65 pg B. cinerea DNA. No cross-reactivity was observed with a range of other fungal pathogens, with the exception of the closely related species Botrytis pelargonii. Use of a novel real-time LAMP platform (the OptiGene Genie I) allowed detection of B. cinerea in infected rose petals, with amplification occurring in cut flowers, fruit and vegetables. © 2010 British Crown Copyright. Letters in Applied Microbiology 51, 650-657 © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Quantum Privacy Amplification for a Sequence of Single Qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu

    2006-01-01

    We present a scheme for quantum privacy amplification (QPA) for a sequence of single qubits. The QPA procedure uses a unitary operation with two controlled-not gates and a Hadamard gate. Every two qubits are performed with the unitary gate operation, and a measurement is made on one photon and the other one is retained. The retained qubit carries the state information of the discarded one. In this way, the information leakage is reduced. The procedure can be performed repeatedly so that the information leakage is reduced to any arbitrarily low level. With this QPA scheme, the quantum secure direct communication with single qubits can be implemented with arbitrarily high security. We also exploit this scheme to do privacy amplification on the single qubits in quantum information sharing for long-distance communication with quantum repeaters.

  4. Soliton-induced relativistic-scattering and amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, E.; Lotti, A.; Belgiorno, F.; Cacciatori, S. L.; Couairon, A.; Leonhardt, U.; Faccio, D.

    2012-01-01

    Solitons are of fundamental importance in photonics due to applications in optical data transmission and also as a tool for investigating novel phenomena ranging from light generation at new frequencies and wave-trapping to rogue waves. Solitons are also moving scatterers: they generate refractive index perturbations moving at the speed of light. Here we found that such perturbations scatter light in an unusual way: they amplify light by the mixing of positive and negative frequencies, as we describe using a first Born approximation and numerical simulations. The simplest scenario in which these effects may be observed is within the initial stages of optical soliton propagation: a steep shock front develops that may efficiently scatter a second, weaker probe pulse into relatively intense positive and negative frequency modes with amplification at the expense of the soliton. Our results show a novel all-optical amplification scheme that relies on soliton induced scattering. PMID:23226830

  5. Surface plasmon polariton amplification in semiconductor-graphene-dielectric structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadoenkova, Yuliya S. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Novgorod State University, Veliky Novgorod (Russian Federation); Donetsk Institute for Physics and Technology, Donetsk (Ukraine); Moiseev, Sergey G. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Abramov, Aleksei S. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Kadochkin, Aleksei S.; Zolotovskii, Igor O. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Nanotechnologies of Microelectronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 32A Leninskiy Prosp., 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fotiadi, Andrei A. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Universite de Mons (Belgium)

    2017-05-15

    A mechanism of amplification of surface plasmon polaritons due to the transfer of electromagnetic energy from a drift current wave into a far-infrared surface wave propagating along a semiconductor-dielectric boundary in waveguide geometry is proposed. A necessary condition of the interaction of these waves is phase matching condition, i. e., when the phase velocity of the surface wave approaches the drift velocity of charge carriers. It is shown that in the spectral region of the surface plasmon polariton slowing-down its amplification coefficient can reach values substantially exceeding the ohmic loss coefficient of the surface wave in the structure. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Whole genome amplification - Review of applications and advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, Trevor L.; Detter, J.C.; Richardson, Paul

    2001-11-15

    The concept of Whole Genome Amplification is something that has arisen in the past few years as modifications to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been adapted to replicate regions of genomes which are of biological interest. The applications here are many--forensics, embryonic disease diagnosis, bio terrorism genome detection, ''imoralization'' of clinical samples, microbial diversity, and genotyping. The key question is if DNA can be replicated a genome at a time without bias or non random distribution of the target. Several papers published in the last year and currently in preparation may lead to the conclusion that whole genome amplification may indeed be possible and therefore open up a new avenue to molecular biology.

  7. Phase Sensitive Amplification using Parametric Processes in Optical Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Ning

    Phase sensitive amplification using the parametric processes in fiber has the potential of delivering high gain and broadband operation with ultralow noise. It is able to regenerate both amplitude and phase modulated signals, simultaneously, with the appropriate design. This thesis concerns......, in specific, the design and optimization of such phase sensitive amplifiers (PSAs). For phase sensitive amplification in highly nonlinear fibers, optima points of operation have been identified for both the standard and the novel high stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold highly nonlinear fiber...... types. The regeneration capability of PSAs on phase encoded signal in an optical link has been optimized. Flat-top phase sensitive profile has been synthesized. It is able to provide simultaneous amplitude and phase noise squeezing, with enhanced phase noise margin compared to conventional designs...

  8. Influence of low dose ionizing radiation on amplification and antitumor activity of LAK/TIL cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Hou Dianjun; Qiao Jianwei; Shang Ximei; Li Jieqing

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of low dose ionization on amplification and antitumor activity of LAK/TIL cells. Methods: TIL cells isolated from Lewis lung cancer tissues and LAK cells from spleen of tumor-bearing mouse were irradiated with different low doses of X-rays and were cultured after irradiation. Results: Low dose ionizing radiation improved the amplification volume of LAK/TIL cells, decreased the cell death ratio in amplification process, and increased the toxicity of LAK/TIL cells, Conclusions: Low dose ionizing radiation can result in amplification of biologically activated lymphocytes, and decreases the death ratio of the cells in amplification process

  9. Profiling In Situ Microbial Community Structure with an Amplification Microarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knickerbocker, Christopher; Bryant, Lexi; Golova, Julia; Wiles, Cory; Williams, Kenneth H.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Long, Philip E.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to unify amplification, labeling, and microarray hybridization chemistries within a single, closed microfluidic chamber (an amplification microarray) and verify technology performance on a series of groundwater samples from an in situ field experiment designed to compare U(VI) mobility under conditions of various alkalinities (as HCO3−) during stimulated microbial activity accompanying acetate amendment. Analytical limits of detection were between 2 and 200 cell equivalents of purified DNA. Amplification microarray signatures were well correlated with 16S rRNA-targeted quantitative PCR results and hybridization microarray signatures. The succession of the microbial community was evident with and consistent between the two microarray platforms. Amplification microarray analysis of acetate-treated groundwater showed elevated levels of iron-reducing bacteria (Flexibacter, Geobacter, Rhodoferax, and Shewanella) relative to the average background profile, as expected. Identical molecular signatures were evident in the transect treated with acetate plus NaHCO3, but at much lower signal intensities and with a much more rapid decline (to nondetection). Azoarcus, Thaurea, and Methylobacterium were responsive in the acetate-only transect but not in the presence of bicarbonate. Observed differences in microbial community composition or response to bicarbonate amendment likely had an effect on measured rates of U reduction, with higher rates probable in the part of the field experiment that was amended with bicarbonate. The simplification in microarray-based work flow is a significant technological advance toward entirely closed-amplicon microarray-based tests and is generally extensible to any number of environmental monitoring applications. PMID:23160129

  10. Hyper dispersion pulse compressor for chirped pulse amplification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P. J.

    2011-11-29

    A grating pulse compressor configuration is introduced for increasing the optical dispersion for a given footprint and to make practical the application for chirped pulse amplification (CPA) to quasi-narrow bandwidth materials, such as Nd:YAG. The grating configurations often use cascaded pairs of gratings to increase angular dispersion an order of magnitude or more. Increased angular dispersion allows for decreased grating separation and a smaller compressor footprint.

  11. Rolling circle amplification detection of RNA and DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Allen T.; Pattee, Melissa S.; Attix, Cristina M.; Tucker, James D.

    2004-08-31

    Rolling circle amplification (RCA) has been useful for detecting point mutations in isolated nucleic acids, but its application in cytological preparations has been problematic. By pretreating cells with a combination of restriction enzymes and exonucleases, we demonstrate RCA in solution and in situ to detect gene copy number and single base mutations. It can also detect and quantify transcribed RNA in individual cells, making it a versatile tool for cell-based assays.

  12. Mismatch characteristics of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Ondřej; Turčičová, Hana; Divoký, Martin; Huynh, Jaroslav; Straka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2014), 1-7 ISSN 1612-2011 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0814; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : phase matching * phase mismatch * beam mismatch * broadband amplification * parametric amplifiers * OPCPA * iodine laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.458, year: 2014

  13. Rape prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/sexual- ...

  14. Dengue Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This photograph ... medications to treat a dengue infection. This makes prevention the most important step, and prevention means avoiding ...

  15. Arctic amplification: does it impact the polar jet stream?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin P. Meleshko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesised that the Arctic amplification of temperature changes causes a decrease in the northward temperature gradient in the troposphere, thereby enhancing the oscillation of planetary waves leading to extreme weather in mid-latitudes. To test this hypothesis, we study the response of the atmosphere to Arctic amplification for a projected summer sea-ice-free period using an atmospheric model with prescribed surface boundary conditions from a state-of-the-art Earth system model. Besides a standard global warming simulation, we also conducted a sensitivity experiment with sea ice and sea surface temperature anomalies in the Arctic. We show that when global climate warms, enhancement of the northward heat transport provides the major contribution to decrease the northward temperature gradient in the polar troposphere in cold seasons, causing more oscillation of the planetary waves. However, while Arctic amplification significantly enhances near-surface air temperature in the polar region, it is not large enough to invoke an increased oscillation of the planetary waves.

  16. Device-independent randomness amplification with a single device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plesch, Martin; Pivoluska, Matej

    2014-01-01

    Expansion and amplification of weak randomness with untrusted quantum devices has recently become a very fruitful topic of research. Here we contribute with a procedure for amplifying a single weak random source using tri-partite GHZ-type entangled states. If the quality of the source reaches a fixed threshold R=log 2 ⁡(10), perfect random bits can be produced. This technique can be used to extract randomness from sources that can't be extracted neither classically, nor by existing procedures developed for Santha–Vazirani sources. Our protocol works with a single fault-free device decomposable into three non-communicating parts, that is repeatedly reused throughout the amplification process. - Highlights: • We propose a protocol for device independent randomness amplification. • Our protocol repeatedly re-uses a single device decomposable into three parts. • Weak random sources with min-entropy rate greater than 1/4 log 2 ⁡(10) can be amplified. • Security against all-quantum adversaries is achieved

  17. Current amplification models of sensorineurall and conductive hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostojić Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main function of a hearing aid is to improve auditory and language abilities of hearing impaired users. The amplification model has to be adapted according to age, degree and type of hearing loss. The goal of this paper is to analyze the current amplification models of sensorineural and conductive hearing loss which can provide a high quality of speech perception and sounds at any degree of hearing loss. The BAHA is a surgically implantable system for treatment of conductive hearing loss that works through direct bone conduction. BAHA is used to help people with chronic ear infections, congenital external auditory canal atresia and single sided deafness who cannot benefit from conventional hearing aids. The last generation of hearing aid for sensorineural hearing loss is cochlear implant. Bimodal amplification improves binaural hearing. Hearing aids alone do not make listening easier in all situations. The things that can interfere with listening are background noises, distance from a sound and reverberation or echo. The device used most often today is the Frequency Modulated (FM system.

  18. Plague Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Reduce rodent habitat around your ...

  19. Simultaneous detection of TOP2A and HER2 gene amplification by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moelans, Cathy B; de Weger, Roel A; van Blokland, Marja T M; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    HER-2/neu gene amplification, found in certain subtypes of (breast-) cancers, is an independent prognostic factor of poor outcome and determines eligibility for systemic treatment with trastuzumab. TopoII alpha (TOP2A) gene amplification seems to be predictive of response to a class of cytostatic agents called TopoII inhibitors, which include the anthracyclines. The observed increased efficacy of anthracyclines in HER2-positive tumors is thought to arise from the close proximity of both genes on chromosome 17, where the TopoII amplification status will determine the anthracycline sensitivity. This study aimed to validate a new polymerase chain reaction-based test, called multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), as a simple and quick method to simultaneously assess HER-2/neu and TopoII alpha gene amplification status in paraffin-embedded breast cancer samples. To this end, MLPA results were compared with TopoII alpha, HER2 chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). We also assessed TopoII alpha protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Of 353 patients, 9% showed TopoII alpha amplification by MLPA and 13% of patients were HER2 amplified. TopoII alpha amplification was seen in 42% of HER2-amplified cases and showed no high level amplification without HER2 amplification. Eleven patients displayed TopoI alpha loss (3%). Concordance between MLPA and CISH was 91% for TopoII alpha and 96% for HER2. Correlation between amplification and overexpression of TopoII alpha was significant (P=0.035), but amplification did not always predict protein overexpression. Loss of the TopoII alpha gene was almost never associated with loss of its protein. In conclusion, MLPA is an easy and accurate method to simultaneously detect breast cancer HER-2/neu and TopoII alpha copy number status in paraffin-embedded tissue, and thus an attractive supplement or alternative to CISH.

  20. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens with necrotizing granulomatous inflammation by strand displacement amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard; Forsgren, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Rapid, reliable diagnosis of tuberculosis is essential to initiate correct treatment, avoid severe complications, and prevent transmission. Conventional microbiological methods may not be an option if samples are formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) for histopathological examination....... With the demonstration of necrotizing granulomatous inflammation, tuberculosis becomes an important differential diagnosis, although it was not initially suspected. Following paraffin extraction, BDProbeTec ET strand displacement amplification for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) was applied to 47...

  1. FGFR2 amplification has prognostic significance in gastric cancer: results from a large international multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, X; Zhan, P; Gavine, P R; Morgan, S; Womack, C; Ni, X; Shen, D; Bang, Y-J; Im, S-A; Ho Kim, W; Jung, E-J; Grabsch, H I; Kilgour, E

    2014-02-18

    In preclinical gastric cancer (GC) models, FGFR2 amplification was associated with increased tumour cell proliferation and survival, and drugs targeting this pathway are now in clinical trials. FGFR2 FISH was performed on 961 GCs from the United Kingdom, China and Korea, and the relationship with clinicopathological data and overlap with HER2 amplification were analysed. The prevalence of FGFR2 amplification was similar between the three cohorts (UK 7.4%, China 4.6% and Korea 4.2%), and intratumoral heterogeneity was observed in 24% of FGFR2 amplified cases. FGFR2 amplification was associated with lymph node metastases (P<0.0001). FGFR2 amplification and polysomy were associated with poor overall survival (OS) in the Korean (OS: 1.83 vs 6.17 years, P=0.0073) and UK (OS: 0.45 vs 1.9 years, P<0.0001) cohorts, and FGFR2 amplification was an independent marker of poor survival in the UK cohort (P=0.0002). Co-amplification of FGFR2 and HER2 was rare, and when high-level amplifications did co-occur these were detected in distinct areas of the tumour. A similar incidence of FGFR2 amplification was found in Asian and UK GCs and was associated with lymphatic invasion and poor prognosis. This study also shows that HER2 and FGFR2 amplifications are mostly exclusive.

  2. Trans-generational plasticity in physiological thermal tolerance is modulated by maternal pre-reproductive environment in the polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massamba-N'Siala, Gloria; Prevedelli, Daniela; Simonini, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Maternal temperature is known to affect many aspects of offspring phenotype, but its effect on offspring physiological thermal tolerance has received less attention, despite the importance of physiological traits in defining organismal ability to cope with temperature changes. To fill this gap, we used the marine polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica to investigate the influence of maternal temperature on offspring upper and lower thermal tolerance limits, and assess whether maternal influence changed according to the stage of offspring pre-zygotic development at which a thermal cue was provided. Measurements were taken on adult offspring acclimated to 18 or 30°C, produced by mothers previously reared at 24°C and then exposed to 18 or 30°C at an early and late stage of oogenesis. When the shift from 24°C was provided early during oogenesis, mothers produced offspring with greater cold and heat tolerance whenever mother-offspring temperatures did not match, with respect to when they matched, suggesting the presence of an anticipatory maternal effect triggered by the thermal variation. Conversely, when the cue was provided later during oogenesis, more tolerant offspring were observed when temperatures persisted across generations. In this case, maternal exposure to 18 or 30°C may have benefited offspring performance, while limitations in the transmission of the thermal cue may account for the lack of correlation between maternal experiences and offspring performance when mother-offspring environments did not match. Our results provided evidence for a trans-generational effect of temperature on physiological performance characterised by a high context dependency, and are discussed in the light of maternal pre-reproductive experiences. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Trans-generation enrichment of clozapine-responsiveness trait in mice using a subchronic hypo-glutamatergic model of schizophrenia:A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoy, Amir; Gil-Ad, Irit; Tarasenko, Igor; Weizman, Abraham; Taler, Michal

    2017-04-14

    Schizophrenia patients who do not respond to clozapine treatment represent the most debilitating type of schizophrenia with unmet needs for novel interventions. To date there is no validated animal model for clozapine-refractory schizophrenia. We used poor performance in the social preference (SP) test of C57/BL mice exposed to subchronic phencyclidine (PCP) as a correlate of negative signs of schizophrenia. Subsequently the mice were treated with clozapine and according to their SP they were defined as responding (i.e. clozapine/PCP ratio>1.5 SD) or non-responsive to clozapine. In each generation the responding mice were mated to produce the next generation. Unfortunately, the clozapine- non-responsive mice failed to proliferate and were thus excluded from the analyses. This forward genetic paradigm was used to produce the next generation of clozapine-responding mice. We assessed brain glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD67) protein levels, as a GABA-ergic marker, in the F2 and F3 generations. Already in the F1 generation of male mice, but not females, it was possible to discriminate between clozapine-responders and non-responders. The rate of responders within each consecutive generation, increased. The increase was more pronounced in females. Up-regulation of GAD67 levels was detected between F2 and F3 only in male clozapine-responder mice, but not in females. This preliminary proof-of-concept study succeeded in producing a trans-generation enrichment of clozapine-responsiveness trait in a hypo-glutamatergic animal model of negative signs of schizophrenia. This model may serve as a platform to better characterize the clozapine responsiveness trait and offer a model for clozapine-responsive schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method for Differentiation and Rapid Detection of Taenia Species▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Rapid detection and differentiation of Taenia species are required for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in areas where these diseases are endemic. Because of the lower sensitivity and specificity of the conventional diagnosis based on microscopical examination, molecular tools are more reliable for differential diagnosis of these diseases. In this study, we developed and evaluated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for differential diagnosis of infections with Taenia species with cathepsin L-like cysteine peptidase (clp) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes. LAMP with primer sets to the cox1 gene could differentiate between three species, and LAMP with primer sets to the clp gene could differentiate Taenia solium from Taenia saginata/Taenia asiatica. Restriction enzyme digestion of the LAMP products from primer set Tsag-clp allowed the differentiation of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica. We demonstrated the high specificity of LAMP by testing known parasite DNA samples extracted from proglottids (n = 100) and cysticerci (n = 68). LAMP could detect one copy of the target gene or five eggs of T. asiatica and T. saginata per gram of feces, showing sensitivity similar to that of PCR methods. Furthermore, LAMP could detect parasite DNA in all taeniid egg-positive fecal samples (n = 6). Due to the rapid, simple, specific, and sensitive detection of Taenia species, the LAMP assays are valuable tools which might be easily applicable for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in countries where these diseases are endemic. PMID:19005142

  5. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for differentiation and rapid detection of Taenia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Rapid detection and differentiation of Taenia species are required for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in areas where these diseases are endemic. Because of the lower sensitivity and specificity of the conventional diagnosis based on microscopical examination, molecular tools are more reliable for differential diagnosis of these diseases. In this study, we developed and evaluated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for differential diagnosis of infections with Taenia species with cathepsin L-like cysteine peptidase (clp) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes. LAMP with primer sets to the cox1 gene could differentiate between three species, and LAMP with primer sets to the clp gene could differentiate Taenia solium from Taenia saginata/Taenia asiatica. Restriction enzyme digestion of the LAMP products from primer set Tsag-clp allowed the differentiation of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica. We demonstrated the high specificity of LAMP by testing known parasite DNA samples extracted from proglottids (n = 100) and cysticerci (n = 68). LAMP could detect one copy of the target gene or five eggs of T. asiatica and T. saginata per gram of feces, showing sensitivity similar to that of PCR methods. Furthermore, LAMP could detect parasite DNA in all taeniid egg-positive fecal samples (n = 6). Due to the rapid, simple, specific, and sensitive detection of Taenia species, the LAMP assays are valuable tools which might be easily applicable for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in countries where these diseases are endemic.

  6. Soft X-Ray amplification in laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louis-Jacquet, M.

    1988-01-01

    The principles, experiments and theoretical models of soft x-ray, amplification, produced in laser plasmas, are studied. In the discussion of the principles, the laser plasma medium, the definition of the gain, the population inversions, saturation and superradiance are described. The results concerning recombination and collisional excitation experiments, as well as experimental devices are shown. A complete physical simulation to design and interpret x-ray laser experiments is given. Applications of x-ray lasers in grating production techniques, in contact microscopy and holography are considered

  7. Amplification and Re-Generation of LNA-Modified Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doessing, Holger; Hansen, Lykke H.; Veedu, Rakesh N.

    2012-01-01

    Locked nucleic acids (LNA) confer high thermal stability and nuclease resistance to oligonucleotides. The discovery of polymerases that accept LNA triphosphates has led us to propose a scheme for the amplification and re-generation of LNA-containing oligonucleotide libraries. Such libraries could...... be used for in vitro selection of e.g., native LNA aptamers. We maintained an oligonucleotide library encoding 40 randomized positions with LNA ATP, GTP, CTP, and TTP for 7 rounds of ‘mock’ in vitro selection in the absence of a target and analyzed the sequence composition after rounds 1, 4 and 7. We...

  8. DNA Amplification of Meat Tenderness Gene of Bali Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Susilo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find out DNA band pattern as a result of amplification using DNA primer from meat tenderness gene of Bali cattle. Sample used in this study was DNA isolated from blood Bali cattle. Blood samples was collected in heparin tubes from jugular vein. Leucocyte cells were isolated using RBCs (Red Blood Cells lysis buffer. To get DNA fragmen, marbling and meat tenderness gene were amplified by using DNA primer for for meat tenderness (forward: 5’–CTACCGGGACGTCAACCT-3’; reverse: 5’-GGTTGTCGGGGTAGCTCA-3’. The size of DNA fragment were 210 bp. Key words: Bali cattle, meat tenderness gene

  9. DNA Amplification of Meat Tenderness Gene of Bali Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Susilo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know DNA band pattern as a result of amplification using DNA primer from meat tenderness gene of Bali cattle. Sample used in this study was DNA isolated from blood Bali cattle. Blood samples was collected in heparin tubes from jugular vein. Leucocyte cells were isolated using RBCs (Red Blood Cells lysis buffer. To get DNA fragmen, marbling and meat tenderness gene were amplified by using DNA primer for for meat tenderness (forward: 5’–CTACCGGGACGTCAACCT-3’; reverse: 5’-GGTTGTCGGGGTAGCTCA-3’. The size of DNA fragment were 210 bp, respectively. Key words: Bali cattle, meat tenderness gene

  10. Utilization of non-linear converters for audio amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Birch, Thomas; Knott, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    Class D amplifiers fits the automotive demands quite well. The traditional buck-based amplifier has reduced both the cost and size of amplifiers. However the buck topology is not without its limitations. The maximum peak AC output voltage produced by the power stage is only equal the supply voltage....... The introduction of non-linear converters for audio amplification defeats this limitation. A Cuk converter, designed to deliver an AC peak output voltage twice the supply voltage, is presented in this paper. A 3V prototype has been developed to prove the concept. The prototype shows that it is possible to achieve...

  11. Fiber-Optical Parametric Amplification of Sub-Picosecond Pulses for High-Speed Optical Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Cristofori, Valentina; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent results of amplification of short optical pulses using fiber-optical parametric amplifiers. This includes chirped-pulse amplification of 400 fs pulses, error-free amplification of a 640-Gbit/s optical time-division multiplexed signal with less than a 1-dB power penalty......, and all-optical phase-preserving amplitude regeneration of a 640-Gbit/s return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying optical time-division multiplexed signal.......This article reviews recent results of amplification of short optical pulses using fiber-optical parametric amplifiers. This includes chirped-pulse amplification of 400 fs pulses, error-free amplification of a 640-Gbit/s optical time-division multiplexed signal with less than a 1-dB power penalty...

  12. Development of a XYθz 3-DOF nanopositioning stage with linear displacement amplification device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Chih-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to develop a XYθZ 3-DOF nanopositioning stage with linear displacement amplification device. This stage is used by three groups of linear displacement amplification device to composition, and thus achieves precise XYθZ 3-DOF movement. The linear displacement amplification device makes use of a symmetrical layer mechanism, toggle amplification mechanism and parallel guiding spring to composition, and with amplification capability. Then it uses an equilateral triangle way to set the three groups of linear displacement amplification device. Overall design uses the finite element software ANSYS 12.0 to analysis the displacement, stress and dynamic response of nanopositioning stage. Experiment demonstrated takes the laser interferometer as the standard of displacement measurement. The result of experiment measurement shows that the maximum XY axis displacement and θZ rotational angle travel of the stage is 36.5 μm, 32 μm and 265 arc sec.

  13. STUDY OF SOIL AMPLIFICATION BASED ON MICROTREMOR AND SEISMIC RECORDS IN LIMA PERU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Diana; Sekiguchi, Toru; Nakai, Shoichi; Aguilar, Zenon; Lazares, Fernando

    The dynamic characteristics of the ground in Lima, capital of Peru, specifically the amplification are investigated. By using the small and large microtremor array measurements we estimated the soil velocity profiles with depths to the bedrock in many cases. These profiles were used to estimate the amplification factors. Important results are the large amplification factors at EMO, VSV, CAL and CMA (La Molina, Villa El Salvador, El Callao and Bellavista district, respectively).

  14. Impossibility of Independence Amplification in Kolmogorov Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimand, Marius

    The paper studies randomness extraction from sources with bounded independence and the issue of independence amplification of sources, using the framework of Kolmogorov complexity. The dependency of strings x and y is dep(x,y) = max {C(x) - C(x |y), C(y) - C( y|x)}, where C(·) denotes the Kolmogorov complexity. It is shown that there exists a computable Kolmogorov extractor f such that, for any two n-bit strings with complexity s(n) and dependency α(n), it outputs a string of length s(n) with complexity s(n) - α(n) conditioned by any one of the input strings. It is proven that the above are the optimal parameters a Kolmogorov extractor can achieve. It is shown that independence amplification cannot be effectively realized. Specifically, if (after excluding a trivial case) there exist computable functions f 1 and f 2 such that dep(f 1(x,y), f 2(x,y)) ≤ β(n) for all n-bit strings x and y with dep(x,y) ≤ α(n), then β(n) ≥ α(n) - O(logn).

  15. Immigration, political trust, and Brexit - Testing an aversion amplification hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Dominic; Travaglino, Giovanni A

    2018-04-01

    A few weeks prior to the EU referendum (23rd June 2016) two broadly representative samples of the electorate were drawn in Kent (the south-east of England, N = 1,001) and Scotland (N = 1,088) for online surveys that measured their trust in politicians, concerns about acceptable levels of immigration, threat from immigration, European identification, and voting intention. We tested an aversion amplification hypothesis that the impact of immigration concerns on threat and identification would be amplified when political trust was low. We hypothesized that the effect of aversion amplification on voting intentions would be mediated first by perceived threat from immigration, and then by (dis) identification with Europe. Results in both samples were consistent with this hypothesis and suggest that voters were most likely to reject the political status quo (choose Brexit) when concerns that immigration levels were too high were combined with a low level of trust in politicians. © 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  16. Beyond Words: Amplification of Cancer Risk Communication on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Yulia A; Krieger, Janice L

    2017-10-01

    Social media provide a unique channel for disseminating evidence-based information to diverse audiences and organizational and private stakeholders, thus facilitating a dialog about health and health risks. Guided by the social amplification of risk framework, the goal of this study was to assess the level of audience engagement with messages posted on the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Facebook page and evaluate the differences in the audience information behavior toward risk-related and non-risk posts. Data included 1,975 posts published on the NCI Facebook page as well as the corresponding 4,537 comments, 77,298 shares, and 145,462 likes. Links and images were the top two most frequent types of content for both risk-related and non-risk posts, but risk-related messages were more amplified through comments, shares, and likes. Comparing the modality of risk-related messages, videos, contrary to the prediction, were not more effective in attracting audience engagement than images. Finally, comments to risk-related posts did not repeat risk-related language suggesting that future studies should examine risk signal recognition and dissemination as separate behaviors. This study's findings emphasize the importance of focused investigation of message design strategies and message effects on the dissemination and amplification of communication related to health risks.

  17. Static and Dynamic Amplification Using Strong Mechanical Coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad

    2016-07-28

    Amplifying the signal-to-noise ratio of resonant sensors is vital toward the effort to miniaturize devices into the sub-micro and nano regimes. In this paper, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally, amplification through mechanically coupled microbeams. The device is composed of two identical clamped-clamped beams, made of polyimide, connected at their middle through a third beam, which acts as a mechanical coupler. Each of the clamped-clamped microbeams and the coupler are designed to be actuated separately, hence providing various possibilities of actuation and sensing. The coupled resonator is driven into resonance near its first resonance mode and its dynamic behavior is explored via frequency sweeps. The results show significant amplification in the resonator amplitude when the signal is measured at the midpoint of the coupler compared with the response of the individual uncoupled beams. The static pull-in characteristics of the resonator are also studied. It is shown that the compliant mechanical coupler can serve as a low-power radio frequency switch actuated at low voltage loads. [2016-0100

  18. DNA Extraction and Amplification from Contemporary Polynesian Bark-Cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Arriaza, Francisco; Lobos, Sergio; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. Methodology We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Conclusions Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials. PMID:23437166

  19. Ultrashort pulse shaping by optical parametric chirped amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelet, Ambre

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose new laser architectures based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA). Common goals of OPCPA pre-amplifiers are to reach high energy level while maintaining the spectrum width and to adapt geometry of the amplified beam to the high power laser chain optics. We consider OPCPA as a way to control and to sculpt ultrashort pulses. Our first set-up aims at thwarting possible time recovery default between pump and signal pulses, which lower the energy extraction. A regenerative OPCPA, idler resonant, is a way to produce a high-intensity and high-repetition rate train of amplified signal replicas. Our second laser system pre-compensates the spectral gain narrowing by sculpting pulses directly within the OPCPA section, where a temporal shaping of the pump beam permits a spectro-spectral shaping of the amplified signal. Finally, we propose an OPCPA based on spatial coding and uniform amplification of spectral signal components by using a fan-out periodically poled crystal and a zero dispersion line. (author) [fr

  20. Social amplification of risk in the Internet environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ik Jae

    2011-12-01

    This article analyzes the dynamic process of risk amplification in the Internet environment with special emphasis on public concern for environmental risks from a high-speed railway tunnel construction project in South Korea. Environmental organizations and activists serving as social stations collected information about the project and its ecological impact, and communicated this with the general public, social groups, and institutions. The Internet provides social stations and the public with an efficient means for interactive communication and an open space for active information sharing and public participation. For example, while the website of an organization such as an environmental activist group can initially trigger local interest, the Internet allows this information to be disseminated to a much wider audience in a manner unavailable to the traditional media. Interaction among social stations demonstrates an amplifying process of public attention to the risk. Analyses of the volume of readers' comments to online newspaper articles and public opinions posted on message board of public and nonprofit organizations show the ripple effects of the amplification process as measured along temporal, geographical, and sectoral dimensions. Public attention is also influenced by the symbolic connotations of risk information. Interpretations of risk in religious, political, or legal terms intensify public concern for the environmental risk. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. CDK4 amplification predicts recurrence of well-differentiated liposarcoma of the abdomen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghoon Lee

    Full Text Available The absence of CDK4 amplification in liposarcomas is associated with favorable prognosis. We aimed to identify the factors associated with tumor recurrence in patients with well-differentiated (WD and dedifferentiated (DD liposarcomas.From 2000 to 2010, surgical resections for 101 WD and DD liposarcomas were performed. Cases in which complete surgical resections with curative intent were carried out were selected. MDM2 and CDK4 gene amplification were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR.There were 31 WD and 17 DD liposarcomas. Locoregional recurrence was observed in 11 WD and 3 DD liposarcomas. WD liposarcomas showed better patient survival compared to DD liposarcomas (P<0.05. Q-PCR analysis of the liposarcomas revealed the presence of CDK4 amplification in 44 cases (91.7% and MDM2 amplification in 46 cases (95.8%. WD liposarcomas with recurrence after surgical resection had significantly higher levels of CDK4 amplification compared to those without recurrence (P = 0.041. High level of CDK4 amplification (cases with CDK4 amplification higher than the median 7.54 was associated with poor recurrence-free survival compared to low CDK4 amplification in both univariate (P = 0.012 and multivariate analyses (P = 0.020.Level of CDK4 amplification determined by Q-PCR was associated with the recurrence of WD liposarcomas after surgical resection.

  2. Chaotic amplification of neutrino chemical potentials by neutrino oscillations in big bang nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, X. [Department of Physics, Queen`s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (CANADA)

    1996-08-01

    We investigate in detail the parameter space of active-sterile neutrino oscillations that amplifies neutrino chemical potentials at the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis. We calculate the magnitude of the amplification and show evidence of chaos in the amplification process. We also discuss the implications of the neutrino chemical potential amplification in big bang nucleosynthesis. It is shown that with a {approximately}1 eV {nu}{sub {ital e}}, the amplification of its chemical potential by active-sterile neutrino oscillations can lower the effective number of neutrino species at big bang nucleosynthesis to significantly below three. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  3. Chaotic amplification of neutrino chemical potentials by neutrino oscillations in big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, X.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate in detail the parameter space of active-sterile neutrino oscillations that amplifies neutrino chemical potentials at the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis. We calculate the magnitude of the amplification and show evidence of chaos in the amplification process. We also discuss the implications of the neutrino chemical potential amplification in big bang nucleosynthesis. It is shown that with a ∼1 eV ν e , the amplification of its chemical potential by active-sterile neutrino oscillations can lower the effective number of neutrino species at big bang nucleosynthesis to significantly below three. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. Parametric Amplification of a 640 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2013-01-01

    We report the first demonstration and characterization of parametric amplification of a 640Gbit/s RZ-DPSK OTDM signal. With proper design of the fiber parametric amplifier, error-free amplification with less than 1 dB penalty has been achieved.......We report the first demonstration and characterization of parametric amplification of a 640Gbit/s RZ-DPSK OTDM signal. With proper design of the fiber parametric amplifier, error-free amplification with less than 1 dB penalty has been achieved....

  5. Preventing Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan Fordney

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the beginning counselor with an overview of prevention concepts. Prevention is a relatively new emphasis in community efforts to stem the rising costs of substance abuse and other high-risk behaviors. The paper discusses agent, host, and environmental prevention models and how they relate to causal theories…

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphism rs17849071 G/T in the PIK3CA gene is inversely associated with follicular thyroid cancer and PIK3CA amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C Xing

    Full Text Available The proto-oncogene PIK3CA has been well studied for its activating mutations and genomic amplifications but not single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in thyroid cancer. We investigated SNP rs17849071 (minor allele G and major allele T in PIK3CA in thyroid tumors in 503 subjects by PCR and sequencing of a region of intron 9 carrying this SNP. This SNP was found in both normal and thyroid tumor tissues as well as in different generations of a studied family, confirming it to be a germline genetic event in thyroid tumor patients. In comparison with normal subjects, a dramatically lower prevalence of the heterozygous genotype G/T at rs17849071 was found in patients with follicular thyroid cancer (FTC. Specifically, rs17849071G/T was found in 15% (18/117 normal subjects vs. 1.3% (1/77 FTC patients, with an odds ratio of 0.07 (95% CI 0.01-0.55; P = 0.001. This represents a 93% risk reduction for FTC with this SNP. In contrast, no difference was seen with benign thyroid neoplasms in which the prevalence of rs17849071G/T was 13.1% (17/130, with an odds ratio of 0.83 (95% CI 0.40-1.69; P = 0.72. There was a trend of lower prevalences of rs17849071G/T and odds ratio in other types of thyroid cancer without statistical significance. We also found an interesting inverse relationship of rs17849071G/T with PIK3CA amplification. With copy number ≥4 defined as copy gain, 2.9% (1/34 rs17849071G/T vs. 19.0% (67/352 rs17849071T/T cases displayed PIK3CA amplification (P = 0.01. Conversely, 1.5% (1/68 cases with PIK3CA amplification vs. 10.4% (33/318 cases without PIK3CA amplification harbored rs17849071G/T (P = 0.01. This provides an explanation for the reciprocal relationship of rs17849071G/T with FTC, since PIK3CA amplification is an important oncogenic mechanism in thyroid cancer, particularly FTC. Thus, the present study uncovers an interesting phenomenon that rs17849071G/T is protective against FTC possibly through preventing PIK3CA amplifications.

  7. Comparison of nucleic acid sequence-based amplification and loop-mediated isothermal amplification for diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugasa, Claire M; Katiti, Diana; Boobo, Alex; Lubega, George W; Schallig, Henk D F H; Matovu, Enock

    2014-02-01

    Diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) using molecular tests should ideally achieve high sensitivity without compromising specificity. This study compared 2 simplified tests, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) combined with oligochromatography (OC) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), executed on 181 blood samples from 65 Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT patients, 86 controls, and 30 serological suspects from Uganda. Basing on the composite reference standard, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of NASBA were 93.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 84.9-98.3%) and 100% (95% CI = 94.9-100%), respectively. The same parameters for LAMP were 76.9% (95% CI = 64.8-86.5%) and 100% (95% CI = 91.6-100%), respectively. The level of agreement between LAMP and microscopy was good with a kappa (κ) value of 79.2% (95% CI = 69.4-88.9%), while that of NASBA-OC/microscopy was very good (κ value 94.6%; 95% CI = 89.3-99.8%). The sensitivity of NASBA-OC was significantly higher than that of LAMP (Z = 2.723; P = 0.007). These tests have potential application to HAT surveillance. © 2013.

  8. Clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with neuroblastoma presenting genomic amplification of loci other than MYCN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Guimier

    Full Text Available Somatically acquired genomic alterations with MYCN amplification (MNA are key features of neuroblastoma (NB, the most common extra-cranial malignant tumour of childhood. Little is known about the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of NBs harbouring genomic amplification(s distinct from MYCN.Genomic profiles of 1100 NBs from French centres studied by array-CGH were re-examined specifically to identify regional amplifications. Patients were included if amplifications distinct from the MYCN locus were seen. A subset of NBs treated at Institut Curie and harbouring MNA as determined by array-CGH without other amplification was also studied. Clinical and histology data were retrospectively collected.In total, 56 patients were included and categorised into 3 groups. Group 1 (n = 8 presented regional amplification(s without MNA. Locus 12q13-14 was a recurrent amplified region (4/8 cases. This group was heterogeneous in terms of INSS stages, primary localisations and histology, with atypical clinical features. Group 2 (n = 26 had MNA as well as other regional amplifications. These patients shared clinical features of those of a group of NBs MYCN amplified (Group 3, n = 22. Overall survival for group 1 was better than that of groups 2 and 3 (5 year OS: 87.5%±11% vs 34.9%±7%, log-rank p<0.05.NBs harbouring regional amplification(s without MNA are rare and seem to show atypical features in clinical presentation and genomic profile. Further high resolution genetic explorations are justified in this heterogeneous group, especially when considering these alterations as predictive markers for targeted therapy.

  9. MYC amplification in subtypes of breast cancers in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naab, Tammey J; Gautam, Anita; Ricks-Santi, Luisel; Esnakula, Ashwini K; Kanaan, Yasmine M; DeWitty, Robert L; Asgedom, Girmay; Makambi, Khepher H; Abawi, Massih; Blancato, Jan K

    2018-03-09

    MYC overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in breast tumors (BCa). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MYC amplification and associated markers in BCa tumors from African American (AA) women and determine the associations between MYC amplification and clinico-pathological characteristics. We analyzed 70 cases of well characterized archival breast ductal carcinoma specimens from AA women for MYC oncogene amplification. Utilizing immune histochemical analysis estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and (HER2/neu), were assessed. Cases were Luminal A (ER or PR+, Ki-67  14% or ER or PR+ HER2+), HER2 (ER-, PR-, HER2+), and Triple Negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-) with basal-like phenotype. The relationship between MYC amplification and prognostic clinico-pathological characteristics was determined using chi square and logistic regression modeling. Sixty-five (97%) of the tumors showed MYC gene amplification (MYC: CEP8 > 1). Statistically significant associations were found between MYC amplification and HER2-amplified BCa, and Luminal B subtypes of BCa (p MYC amplification was associated with HER2 status (p = 0.01) and tumor size (p = 0.01). High MYC amplification was seen in grade III carcinomas (MYC: CEP8 = 2.42), pre-menopausal women (MYC: CEP8 = 2.49), PR-negative status (MYC: CEP8 = 2.42), and ER-positive status (MYC: CEP8 = 2.4). HER2 positive BCas in AA women are likely to exhibit MYC amplification. High amplification ratios suggest that MYC drives HER2 amplification, especially in HER2 positive, Luminal B, and subtypes of BCa.

  10. Social Amplification of Risk and Crisis Communication Planing - Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciugelu, I.; Frunzaru, V.; Armas, I.; Duntzer, A.; Stan, S.

    2012-04-01

    Risk management has become a dominant concern of public policy and the ability of government to anticipate the strength and focus of public concerns remains weak. The Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) was designed to assist in this endeavor. It aims to facilitate a greater understanding of the social processes that can mediate between a hazard event and its consequences. SARF identifies categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between risk event and its consequences and suggests a causal and temporal sequence in which they act. Information flows first through various sources and then channels, triggering social stations of amplification, initiating individual station of amplification and precipitating behavioral reactions. The International Risk Governance Council Framework is an interdisciplinary and multilevel approach, linking risk management and risk assessment sphere through communication. This study aims to identify categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between the risk event and its consequences, using a survey on earthquake risk perception addressing population of Bucharest city. Romania has a unique seismic profile in Europe, being the country with the biggest surface affected in case of a serious earthquake. Considering the development of the urban area that took place in the last two decades and the growing number of inhabitants, Bucharest is the largest city in Romania and is exposed to extensive damages in case of an earthquake. The sociological survey has been conducted in December 2009 on a representative sample of the Bucharest population aged 18 and over (N=1376) using one stage sampling design. We used a stratified sample method shearing the investigated populations in six layers according to the six sectors of Bucharest. The respondents were selected using random digit dialling method (RDD) and the questionnaires were administered by research staff with computer assisted telephone interviewing method (CATI). The

  11. Development of multiple cross displacement amplification label-based gold nanoparticles lateral flow biosensor for detection of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yi Wang,1 Hui Li,1,2 Yan Wang,1 Hua Li,1 Lijuan Luo,1 Jianguo Xu,1 Changyun Ye1 1State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing, 2Department of Microbiology, GuiZhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes, one of most problematic foodborne pathogens, is responsible for listeriosis in both humans and animals and mainly transmitted through the food chain. In this report, we propose a simple, rapid, and nearly instrument-free molecular technique using multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA label-based gold nanoparticles lateral flow biosensor (LFB for specific, sensitive, and visual detection of L. monocytogenes. The MCDA-LFB method was carried out at a constant temperature (61°C for only 20 min during the reaction stage, and then the amplification mixtures were directly detected by using LFB, eliminating the use of an electrophoresis instrument, special reagents, or amplicon analysis equipment. The whole procedure, from sample processing to result indicating, was finished within 1 h. The analytical specificity of MCDA-LFB method was successfully determined by distinguishing the target bacterium from other pathogens. The analytical sensitivity of the MCDA-LFB assay was 10 fg of genomic templates per reaction in pure culture, which was in complete accordance with MCDA by gel electrophoresis, real-time turbidity, and colorimetric indicator. The assay was also successfully applied to detecting L. monocytogenes in pork samples. Therefore, the rapidity, simplicity, and nearly equipment-free platform of the MCDA-LFB technique make it possible for food control, clinical diagnosis, and more. The proof-of-concept assay can be reconfigured to detect

  12. Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA®): a novel isothermal DNA amplification technology demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity for a single molecule of target analyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoser, Mark J; Mansukoski, Hannu K; Morrical, Scott W; Eboigbodin, Kevin E

    2014-01-01

    Isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies offer significant advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in that they do not require thermal cycling or sophisticated laboratory equipment. However, non-target-dependent amplification has limited the sensitivity of isothermal technologies and complex probes are usually required to distinguish between non-specific and target-dependent amplification. Here, we report a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology, Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA). SIBA technology is resistant to non-specific amplification, is able to detect a single molecule of target analyte, and does not require target-specific probes. The technology relies on the recombinase-dependent insertion of an invasion oligonucleotide (IO) into the double-stranded target nucleic acid. The duplex regions peripheral to the IO insertion site dissociate, thereby enabling target-specific primers to bind. A polymerase then extends the primers onto the target nucleic acid leading to exponential amplification of the target. The primers are not substrates for the recombinase and are, therefore unable to extend the target template in the absence of the IO. The inclusion of 2'-O-methyl RNA to the IO ensures that it is not extendible and that it does not take part in the extension of the target template. These characteristics ensure that the technology is resistant to non-specific amplification since primer dimers or mis-priming are unable to exponentially amplify. Consequently, SIBA is highly specific and able to distinguish closely-related species with single molecule sensitivity in the absence of complex probes or sophisticated laboratory equipment. Here, we describe this technology in detail and demonstrate its use for the detection of Salmonella.

  13. Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA®: a novel isothermal DNA amplification technology demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity for a single molecule of target analyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Hoser

    Full Text Available Isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies offer significant advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR in that they do not require thermal cycling or sophisticated laboratory equipment. However, non-target-dependent amplification has limited the sensitivity of isothermal technologies and complex probes are usually required to distinguish between non-specific and target-dependent amplification. Here, we report a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology, Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA. SIBA technology is resistant to non-specific amplification, is able to detect a single molecule of target analyte, and does not require target-specific probes. The technology relies on the recombinase-dependent insertion of an invasion oligonucleotide (IO into the double-stranded target nucleic acid. The duplex regions peripheral to the IO insertion site dissociate, thereby enabling target-specific primers to bind. A polymerase then extends the primers onto the target nucleic acid leading to exponential amplification of the target. The primers are not substrates for the recombinase and are, therefore unable to extend the target template in the absence of the IO. The inclusion of 2'-O-methyl RNA to the IO ensures that it is not extendible and that it does not take part in the extension of the target template. These characteristics ensure that the technology is resistant to non-specific amplification since primer dimers or mis-priming are unable to exponentially amplify. Consequently, SIBA is highly specific and able to distinguish closely-related species with single molecule sensitivity in the absence of complex probes or sophisticated laboratory equipment. Here, we describe this technology in detail and demonstrate its use for the detection of Salmonella.

  14. Detection of fish nocardiosis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itano, T; Kawakami, H; Kono, T; Sakai, M

    2006-06-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel method that amplifies DNA with high specificity and rapidity under isothermal conditions. In this study, using the LAMP method, a protocol for detecting Nocardia seriolae which is a causative agent of fish nocardiosis, was designed. A set of four primers, two inner and two outer, were designed based on the sequence of the 16S-23S ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer region of N. seriolae. Time and temperature conditions for detection of N. seriolae were optimized for 60 min at 65 degrees C. Other fish pathogen was not amplified by this LAMP system. The detection of N. seriola using LAMP was found to be more sensitive than that by polymerase chain reaction. LAMP is a highly sensitive and rapid diagnostic procedure for detection of N. seriolae. LAMP is a useful diagnostic method for fish nocardiosis.

  15. Near quantum limited amplification from inelastic Cooper-pair tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofheinz, Max; Jebari, Salha; Blanchet, Florian; Grimm, Alexander; Hazra, Dibyendu; Albert, Romain; Portier, Fabien

    Josephson parametric amplifiers approach quantum-limited noise performance but require strong external microwave pump tones which make them more difficult to use than DC powered amplifiers: The pump tone can affect the device under test and requires expensive room-temperature equipment. Inelastic Cooper pair tunneling processes through a small DC voltage-biased Josephson junction, where a tunneling Cooper pair dissipates its energy 2 eV in the form of two photons are reminiscent of parametric down conversion. We show that these processes can be used to provide amplification near the quantum limit without external microwave pump tone. We explain the measured gain and noise based on the P (E) theory of inelastic Cooper pair tunneling and general fluctuation-dissipation relations.

  16. Signal amplification and Pierce's instability in convergent particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnavi, G.; Gratton, F.T.

    1988-01-01

    Relativistic electron beams flowing between cylindrical and spherical electrodes (or solid angles sections of electrodes with these geometries) are studied. The beams are focused through the axis in the cylindrical case or through the center when spherical electrodes are considered. It is assumed that the external electrode is part of a device which accelerates the particles, the inner electrode is passive and removes the beams from the system. Electrons move by inertia in the interelectrode space, neutralized by an ion background. Properties of radial, small amplitude, perturbations are analyzed theoretically. Previous analyses of counterstreaming beams indicated that convergence modifies considerably the oscillations spectrum. Here, results on the amplification of signals when a beam is modulated at the external electrode are reported. Then, conditions for the instability of a beam when it flows through grounded electrodes (Pierce's instability of only one beam) are examined

  17. Resonant amplification of quantum fluctuations in a spinor gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topic, O.; Scherer, M.; Gebreyesus, G.

    2010-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensates of atoms with non-zero spin are known to constitute an ideal system to investigate fundamental properties of magnetic superfluids. More recently it was realized that they also provide the fascinating opportunity to investigate the macroscopic amplification of quantum...... and classical fluctuations. This is strikingly manifested in a sample initially prepared in the m F = 0 state, where spin-changing collisions triggered by quantum fluctuations may lead to the creation of correlated pairs in m F = ±1. We show that the pair creation efficiency is strongly influenced...... by the interplay between the external trapping potential and the Zeeman effect. It thus reflects the confinement-induced magnetic field dependence of elementary spin excitations of the condensate. Remarkably, pair production in our experiments is therefore characterized by a multi-resonant dependence...

  18. Organo-erbium systems for optical amplification at telecommunications wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, H Q; Li, Z; Peng, Y; Wang, C C; Li, T Y; Zheng, Y X; Sapelkin, A; Adamopoulos, G; Hernández, I; Wyatt, P B; Gillin, W P

    2014-04-01

    Modern telecommunications rely on the transmission and manipulation of optical signals. Optical amplification plays a vital part in this technology, as all components in a real telecommunications system produce some loss. The two main issues with present amplifiers, which rely on erbium ions in a glass matrix, are the difficulty in integration onto a single substrate and the need of high pump power densities to produce gain. Here we show a potential organic optical amplifier material that demonstrates population inversion when pumped from above using low-power visible light. This system is integrated into an organic light-emitting diode demonstrating that electrical pumping can be achieved. This opens the possibility of direct electrically driven optical amplifiers and optical circuits. Our results provide an alternative approach to producing low-cost integrated optics that is compatible with existing silicon photonics and a different route to an effective integrated optics technology.

  19. Double Biocatalysis Signal Amplification Glucose Biosensor Based on Porous Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping He

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Controllable preparation of nanopores to promote the performance of electrochemical biosensing interfaces has become one of the researching frontiers in biosensing. A double biocatalysis signal amplification of glucose biosensor for the study of electrochemical behaviors of glucose oxidase (GOx was proposed by using horseradish peroxidase biosynthesized porous graphene (PGR as the platform for the biocatalytic deposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. The biosensor showed a linear range from 0.25 to 27.5 μM with a detection limit of 0.05 μM (S/N = 3 towards glucose. Furthermore, the proposed AuNPs/GOx–PGR modified glassy carbon electrode (AuNPs/GOx–PGR/GCE achieved direct electron transfer of GOx.

  20. Double Biocatalysis Signal Amplification Glucose Biosensor Based on Porous Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianbin; Wang, Bini; Ren, Hongjiang

    2017-01-01

    Controllable preparation of nanopores to promote the performance of electrochemical biosensing interfaces has become one of the researching frontiers in biosensing. A double biocatalysis signal amplification of glucose biosensor for the study of electrochemical behaviors of glucose oxidase (GOx) was proposed by using horseradish peroxidase biosynthesized porous graphene (PGR) as the platform for the biocatalytic deposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The biosensor showed a linear range from 0.25 to 27.5 μM with a detection limit of 0.05 μM (S/N = 3) towards glucose. Furthermore, the proposed AuNPs/GOx–PGR modified glassy carbon electrode (AuNPs/GOx–PGR/GCE) achieved direct electron transfer of GOx. PMID:28953240

  1. Amplification of large-scale magnetic field in nonhelical magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Rohit

    2017-08-11

    It is typically assumed that the kinetic and magnetic helicities play a crucial role in the growth of large-scale dynamo. In this paper, we demonstrate that helicity is not essential for the amplification of large-scale magnetic field. For this purpose, we perform nonhelical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, and show that the large-scale magnetic field can grow in nonhelical MHD when random external forcing is employed at scale 1/10 the box size. The energy fluxes and shell-to-shell transfer rates computed using the numerical data show that the large-scale magnetic energy grows due to the energy transfers from the velocity field at the forcing scales.

  2. Signal amplification for impedimetric genosensing using gold-streptavidin nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanni, A.; Esplandiu, M.J. [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Valle, M. del [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: manel.delvalle@uab.es

    2008-04-20

    Streptavidin-coated gold nanoparticles (strept-AuNPs) were used in this work to amplify the impedimetric signal generated in a biosensor detecting the DNA hybridization event. Probe oligomer was adsorbed onto a graphite epoxy composite (GEC) electrode surface and the impedance measurement was performed in a solution containing the redox marker ferrocyanide/ferricyanide. The biotinylated complementary oligomer was used as target. The change of interfacial charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}), experimented by the redox marker, was recorded to confirm the hybrid formation. The addition of strept-AuNPs, binding to the target due to the strong streptavidin-biotin interaction, led to a further increment of R{sub ct} thus obtaining significant signal amplification. Strept-AuNPs on the electrode surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after silver enhancement treatment. A competitive binding assay was also performed using unlabelled DNA target to demonstrate its applicability to real sample analysis.

  3. Phenolphthalein induces centrosome amplification and tubulin depolymerization in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Pamela L; Rubitski, Elizabeth E; Spellman, Richard A; Schuler, Maik J

    2013-06-01

    Aneuploidy is a major cause of human reproductive failure and plays a large role in cancer. Phenolphthalein (PHT) induces tumors in rodents but its primary mechanism does not seem to be DNA damage. In heterozygous TSG-p53(®) mice, PHT induces lymphomas and also micronuclei (MN), many containing kinetochores (K), implying chromosome loss (aneuploidy). The induction of aneuploidy would be compatible with the loss of the normal p53 gene seen in the lymphomas. In this study, we confirm PHT's aneugenicity and determine the aneugenic mechanism of PHT by combining traditional genetic toxicology assays with image and flow cytometry methods. The data revealed that PHT induces tubulin polymerization abnormalities and deregulates the centrosome duplication cycle causing centrosome amplification. We also show that one of the consequences of these events is apoptosis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Method for decoupling error correction from privacy amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2003-01-01

    In a standard quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme such as BB84, two procedures, error correction and privacy amplification, are applied to extract a final secure key from a raw key generated from quantum transmission. To simplify the study of protocols, it is commonly assumed that the two procedures can be decoupled from each other. While such a decoupling assumption may be valid for individual attacks, it is actually unproven in the context of ultimate or unconditional security, which is the Holy Grail of quantum cryptography. In particular, this means that the application of standard efficient two-way error-correction protocols like Cascade is not proven to be unconditionally secure. Here, I provide the first proof of such a decoupling principle in the context of unconditional security. The method requires Alice and Bob to share some initial secret string and use it to encrypt their communications in the error correction stage using one-time-pad encryption. Consequently, I prove the unconditional security of the interactive Cascade protocol proposed by Brassard and Salvail for error correction and modified by one-time-pad encryption of the error syndrome, followed by the random matrix protocol for privacy amplification. This is an efficient protocol in terms of both computational power and key generation rate. My proof uses the entanglement purification approach to security proofs of QKD. The proof applies to all adaptive symmetric methods for error correction, which cover all existing methods proposed for BB84. In terms of the net key generation rate, the new method is as efficient as the standard Shor-Preskill proof

  5. Multiplexed Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay To Detect Intestinal Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crannell, Zachary; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Nair, Gayatri; Mejia, Rojelio; White, A Clinton; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2016-02-02

    This work describes a proof-of-concept multiplex recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay with lateral flow readout that is capable of simultaneously detecting and differentiating DNA from any of the diarrhea-causing protozoa Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba. Together, these parasites contribute significantly to the global burden of diarrheal illness. Differential diagnosis of these parasites is traditionally accomplished via stool microscopy. However, microscopy is insensitive and can miss up to half of all cases. DNA-based diagnostics such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are far more sensitive; however, they rely on expensive thermal cycling equipment, limiting their availability to centralized reference laboratories. Isothermal DNA amplification platforms, such as the RPA platform used in this study, alleviate the need for thermal cycling equipment and have the potential to broaden access to more sensitive diagnostics. Until now, multiplex RPA assays have not been developed that are capable of simultaneously detecting and differentiating infections caused by different pathogens. We developed a multiplex RPA assay to detect the presence of DNA from Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba. The multiplex assay was characterized using synthetic DNA, where the limits-of-detection were calculated to be 403, 425, and 368 gene copies per reaction of the synthetic Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba targets, respectively (roughly 1.5 orders of magnitude higher than for the same targets in a singleplex RPA assay). The multiplex assay was also characterized using DNA extracted from live parasites spiked into stool samples where the limits-of-detection were calculated to be 444, 6, and 9 parasites per reaction for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba parasites, respectively. This proof-of-concept assay may be reconfigured to detect a wide variety of targets by re-designing the primer and probe sequences.

  6. On the role of temperature feedbacks for Arctic amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithan, Felix; Mauritsen, Thorsten

    2013-04-01

    The amplification of global climate changes at the poles is a well-known feature of the climate system mentioned already by Arrhenius (1896). It has been linked to the surface-albedo feedback, changes in atmospheric and oceanic heat convergence, water vapour and cloud feedbacks and the albedo effect of black carbon on snow (Serreze and Barry, 2011). We here focus on the role of temperature feedbacks, which have received rather little attention in recent debates. The basic temperature feedback is the Planck feedback or the increase in the Earth's blackbody radiation due to a uniform temperature increase. Since the blackbody radiation scales with the fourth power of temperature, stronger warming is necessary in cold regions to balance a globally uniform radiative forcing. The second temperature feedback is caused by changes in the vertical atmospheric temperature structure: In the Tropics, deep convection leads to warming aloft being larger than at the surface, which causes a greater increase in outgoing longwave radiation compared a vertically uniform forcing and thus constitutes a negative feedback mechanism. In the Arctic, where warming is amplified at the surface, the lapse-rate feedback is positive (Wetherald and Manabe, 1975). We use CMIP5 model output and radiative Kernels to investigate the zonal distribution of temperature feedbacks. Arrhenius, S. (1896). On the influence of carbonic acid in the air upon the temperature of the ground Philos. Mag. J. Sci., 5, pp. 237-276 Serreze, M.C. and Barry, R.G. (2011) . Processes and impacts of Arctic amplification: A research synthesis, Global and Planetary Change, 77(1-2), pp. 85-96 Wetherald, R. and Manabe, S. (1975). The effects of changing the solar constant on the climate of a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 23 pp 2044-2059

  7. Mechanism of chimera formation during the Multiple Displacement Amplification reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockwell Timothy B

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple Displacement Amplification (MDA is a method used for amplifying limiting DNA sources. The high molecular weight amplified DNA is ideal for DNA library construction. While this has enabled genomic sequencing from one or a few cells of unculturable microorganisms, the process is complicated by the tendency of MDA to generate chimeric DNA rearrangements in the amplified DNA. Determining the source of the DNA rearrangements would be an important step towards reducing or eliminating them. Results Here, we characterize the major types of chimeras formed by carrying out an MDA whole genome amplification from a single E. coli cell and sequencing by the 454 Life Sciences method. Analysis of 475 chimeras revealed the predominant reaction mechanisms that create the DNA rearrangements. The highly branched DNA synthesized in MDA can assume many alternative secondary structures. DNA strands extended on an initial template can be displaced becoming available to prime on a second template creating the chimeras. Evidence supports a model in which branch migration can displace 3'-ends freeing them to prime on the new templates. More than 85% of the resulting DNA rearrangements were inverted sequences with intervening deletions that the model predicts. Intramolecular rearrangements were favored, with displaced 3'-ends reannealing to single stranded 5'-strands contained within the same branched DNA molecule. In over 70% of the chimeric junctions, the 3' termini had initiated priming at complimentary sequences of 2–21 nucleotides (nts in the new templates. Conclusion Formation of chimeras is an important limitation to the MDA method, particularly for whole genome sequencing. Identification of the mechanism for chimera formation provides new insight into the MDA reaction and suggests methods to reduce chimeras. The 454 sequencing approach used here will provide a rapid method to assess the utility of reaction modifications.

  8. Quantitative PCR Detection of c-erbB-2 Gene Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobianer, K; Medl, M; Spona, J

    2001-01-01

    The association of c-erbB-2 oncogene amplification and prognostic factors was intensively studied in human gynecological carcinomas, especially in mammary carcinoma (1). Positive lymph nodes, estrogen and progesterone receptor negative tumors, and short survival time correlate with c-erbB-2 amplification.

  9. [Amplification and cloning of dahlia mosaic virus and carnation etched ring virus promoters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuluev, B R; Chemeris, A V

    2007-12-01

    Amplification and cloning of dahlia mosaic virus promoter were carried out for the first time. Sequence analysis showed homology between this promoter and the promoters of other caulimoviruses. In addition, amplification and cloning of the carnation etched ring virus promoter was performed.

  10. The Media and Genetically Modified Foods : Evidence in Support of Social Amplification of Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Miles, S.; Marsh, R.

    2002-01-01

    Empirical examinations of the "social amplification of risk" framework are rare, partly because of the difficulties in predicting when conditions likely to result in amplification effects will occur. This means that it is difficult to examine changes in risk perception that are contemporaneous with

  11. Parametric amplification of matter waves in dipolar spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deuretzbacher, F.; Gebreyesus, G.; Topic, O.

    2010-01-01

    Spin-changing collisions may lead under proper conditions to the parametric amplification of matter waves in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. Magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, although typically very weak in alkali-metal atoms, are shown to play a very relevant role in the amplification process...

  12. Generation of recombinant pestiviruses using a full-genome amplification strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Reimann, I.; Uttenthal, Åse

    2010-01-01

    -Gifhorn genome was generated by long RTPCR and then RNA transcripts derived from this amplicon were used to rescue infectious virus. Here, we have now used this full-genome amplification strategy for efficient and robust amplification of three additional pestivirus strains: the vaccine strain C and the virulent...

  13. Amplification of North American Red Oak Microsatellite Markers in European White Oaks and Chinese Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. R. Aldrich; M. Jagtap; C. H. Michler; J. Romero-Severson

    2003-01-01

    We examined the cross-species amplification success of thirty microsatellite markers developed from North American northern red oak (Quercus rubra) in other members of the family Fagaceae. Sixteen of these markers are newly developed and we report primer sequences and amplification conditions here. Twelve of the thirty (40.0%) red oak markers...

  14. Catalytic signal amplification using [Fe(III)(biuret-amide)]-mesoporous silica nanoparticles: visual cyanide detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Chakadola; Dhar, Basab B; Malvi, Bharmana; Bhattacharjee, Yudhajit; Gupta, Sayam Sen

    2013-03-18

    Catalytic signal amplification was used for the colorimetric detection of CN(-) in aqueous media by using the enzyme catalase in tandem with mesoporous silica nanoparticle based synthetic HRP enzyme mimic Fe-MSNs. Signal amplification up to a maximum of eight fold was observed for the reporter "oxidized TMB" with respect to the added CN(-) ion.

  15. Digital holographic amplification of interferograms in the Michelson interferometer using the phase-only LCOS modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbekin, Nikolay; Petrov, Nikolay; Pul'kin, Sergey; Shoev, Vladislav; Sevryugin, Alexander; Tursunov, Ibrohim; Venediktov, Dmitrii; Venediktov, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    The method of amplification of hologram was applied to the so-called Rozhdestvenskiy hooks, that were obtained in the Rozhdestvenskiy interferometer (Michelson interferometer, combined with a grating spectrograph). In such a device the absorption lines reveal themselves as specific "hooks", whose curvature provides the information about the atomic oscillator force. The holographic amplification "smoothes" the hooks and thus makes their analysis much simpler.

  16. Pulse train amplification and regeneration based on semiconductor quantum dots waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Öhman, Filip; Mørk, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    We numerical analyze pulse train amplification up to 200 Gbit/s in quantum dot amplifiers and present regeneration properties with saturable absorber based on semiconductor quantum dot waveguides.......We numerical analyze pulse train amplification up to 200 Gbit/s in quantum dot amplifiers and present regeneration properties with saturable absorber based on semiconductor quantum dot waveguides....

  17. Quantification of HER2 autoantibodies in the amplification phenomenon of HER2 in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauterlein, Jens-Jacob L; Petersen, Eva R B; Olsen, Dorte Aa

    2011-01-01

    Gene amplification of HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) is a well-known phenomenon in various cancers. However, little is known about the mechanism of the gene amplification phenomenon itself. Autoantibodies to cellular receptors have been described in several cancer types. We hypot...

  18. Amplification activation loop between caspase-8 and -9 dominates artemisinin-induced apoptosis of ASTC-a-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fenglian; Gao, Weijie; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2012-06-01

    Although caspases have been demonstrated to be involved in artemisinin (ARTE)-induced apoptosis, their exact functions are not well understood. The aim of this report is to explore the roles of caspase-8, -9 and -3 during ARTE-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells. ARTE treatment induces a rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and ROS-dependent apoptosis as well as the activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3 via time- and dose-dependent fashion. Of upmost importance, inhibition of caspase-8 or -9, but not caspase-3, almost completely blocks the ARTE-induced not only activation of the caspase-8, -9 and -3 but also apoptosis. In addition, the apoptotic process triggered by ARTE does not involve the Bid cleavage, tBid translocation, significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Moreover, silencing Bax/Bak does not prevent the ATRE-induced cell death as well as the activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3. Collectively, our data firstly demonstrate that ARTE triggers a ROS-mediated positive feedback amplification activation loop between caspase-8 and -9 independent of mitochondria, which dominantly mediated the ARTE-induced apoptosis via a caspase-3-independent apoptotic pathway in ASTC-a-1 cells. Our findings imply a potential to develop new derivatives from artemisinin to effectively initiate the amplification activation loop of caspases.

  19. An immunomagnetic separation/loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid direct detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. during poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M R; D'Agostino, M; Arias, A Pérez; Robles, S; Casado, C Fernández; Iturbe, L Orueta; Lerma, O Gurrutxaga; Andreou, M; Cook, N

    2016-02-01

    To develop a rapid test for thermotolerant Campylobacter in poultry faeces. The reported method is based on immunomagnetic separation and loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (IMS/LAMP). This LAMP assay is specific (demonstrated using 10 Campylobacter strains and 13 non-Campylobacter bacterial species) and sensitive (95% probability of detecting 22 genome copies). A competitive internal amplification control (IAC) has been incorporated to give unambiguous determination of negative results. Immunoseparation of Campylobacter allows direct LAMP detection from poultry boot swab samples in 90 min without enrichment or DNA purification (74% probability of detecting 10(4) CFU ml(-1) of a boot swab suspension). The analysis of 17 samples from commercial turkey farms showed 100% correlation with parallel results obtained by standard microbiological methods. A rapid test has been developed for direct detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in boot swab samples, thus bypassing culture enrichment or DNA extraction. The test has potential to be carried out by farm personnel on site. The method offers an inexpensive approach to monitor poultry infection in near real time, assisting flock management and controls to prevent introduction of Campylobacter into the food chain. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise ...

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 ...

  3. Fast implementation of length-adaptive privacy amplification in quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chun-Mei; Li Mo; Huang Jing-Zheng; Li Hong-Wei; Li Fang-Yi; Wang Chuan; Yin Zhen-Qiang; Chen Wei; Han Zhen-Fu; Treeviriyanupab Patcharapong; Sripimanwat Keattisak

    2014-01-01

    Post-processing is indispensable in quantum key distribution (QKD), which is aimed at sharing secret keys between two distant parties. It mainly consists of key reconciliation and privacy amplification, which is used for sharing the same keys and for distilling unconditional secret keys. In this paper, we focus on speeding up the privacy amplification process by choosing a simple multiplicative universal class of hash functions. By constructing an optimal multiplication algorithm based on four basic multiplication algorithms, we give a fast software implementation of length-adaptive privacy amplification. “Length-adaptive” indicates that the implementation of privacy amplification automatically adapts to different lengths of input blocks. When the lengths of the input blocks are 1 Mbit and 10 Mbit, the speed of privacy amplification can be as fast as 14.86 Mbps and 10.88 Mbps, respectively. Thus, it is practical for GHz or even higher repetition frequency QKD systems. (general)

  4. Effect of Cognitive and Central Auditory Impairments on Satisfaction of Amplification in Hearing Impaired Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Lotfi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Older adults show many difficulties of speech perception in noisy situations due to peripheral and central auditory impairments, and cognitive dysfunctions. One of the most common rehabilitative procedures for older adults with hearing loss is amplification. However, there is some evidence of dissatisfaction of amplification in older adults. Methods & Materials: We assessed cognitive station, central auditory function, and satisfaction of 19 participants with hearing aids using mini-mental state examination (MMSE, dichotic digits test (DDT, and the satisfaction with amplification in daily life scale respectively. Our cases had moderate sensory hearing loss in both ears. Results: Kruskal-Wallis statistics showed significant correlation between cognitive impairments (MMSE scores and satisfaction of amplification (P0.05. Conclusion: We showed central auditory processing impairments in hearing impaired older adults with cognitive dysfunctions. It is indicated that older adults with hearing loss might have cognitive impairments inducing dissatisfaction of amplification.

  5. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  6. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  7. Digital Droplet Multiple Displacement Amplification (ddMDA for Whole Genome Sequencing of Limited DNA Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsoung Rhee

    Full Text Available Multiple displacement amplification (MDA is a widely used technique for amplification of DNA from samples containing limited amounts of DNA (e.g., uncultivable microbes or clinical samples before whole genome sequencing. Despite its advantages of high yield and fidelity, it suffers from high amplification bias and non-specific amplification when amplifying sub-nanogram of template DNA. Here, we present a microfluidic digital droplet MDA (ddMDA technique where partitioning of the template DNA into thousands of sub-nanoliter droplets, each containing a small number of DNA fragments, greatly reduces the competition among DNA fragments for primers and polymerase thereby greatly reducing amplification bias. Consequently, the ddMDA approach enabled a more uniform coverage of amplification over the entire length of the genome, with significantly lower bias and non-specific amplification than conventional MDA. For a sample containing 0.1 pg/μL of E. coli DNA (equivalent of ~3/1000 of an E. coli genome per droplet, ddMDA achieves a 65-fold increase in coverage in de novo assembly, and more than 20-fold increase in specificity (percentage of reads mapping to E. coli compared to the conventional tube MDA. ddMDA offers a powerful method useful for many applications including medical diagnostics, forensics, and environmental microbiology.

  8. An evaluation of multiple annealing and looping based genome amplification using a synthetic bacterial community

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong

    2016-02-23

    The low biomass in environmental samples is a major challenge for microbial metagenomic studies. The amplification of a genomic DNA was frequently applied to meeting the minimum requirement of the DNA for a high-throughput next-generation-sequencing technology. Using a synthetic bacterial community, the amplification efficiency of the Multiple Annealing and Looping Based Amplification Cycles (MALBAC) kit that is originally developed to amplify the single-cell genomic DNA of mammalian organisms is examined. The DNA template of 10 pg in each reaction of the MALBAC amplification may generate enough DNA for Illumina sequencing. Using 10 pg and 100 pg templates for each reaction set, the MALBAC kit shows a stable and homogeneous amplification as indicated by the highly consistent coverage of the reads from the two amplified samples on the contigs assembled by the original unamplified sample. Although GenomePlex whole genome amplification kit allows one to generate enough DNA using 100 pg of template in each reaction, the minority of the mixed bacterial species is not linearly amplified. For both of the kits, the GC-rich regions of the genomic DNA are not efficiently amplified as suggested by the low coverage of the contigs with the high GC content. The high efficiency of the MALBAC kit is supported for the amplification of environmental microbial DNA samples, and the concerns on its application are also raised to bacterial species with the high GC content.

  9. [Detection of low-level microorganism by concomitant use of ATP amplification and bioluminescence assay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Zou, Bingjie; Zhu, Shuhui; Ma, Yinjiao; Zhou, Guohua

    2009-06-01

    To detect low levels of microorganism by bioluminescence assay, the reaction of ATP amplification catalyzed by ADK (adenylate kinase) combined with PPK (polyphosphate kinase) can be employed. However, the endogenous ADP bound to PPK is a background source and interfere the effective detection of low levels of exogenous ATP. We expressed a fusion protein of PPK and ADK and established a new method to decrease the background signal. The genes of PPK and ADK were amplified by PCR and cloned into vector pET28a (+) to provide a recombinant expression plasmid pET28a (+)-PPKADK to prepare the fusion protein. Apyrase was immobilized on the surface of magnetic beads coated with polyurethane to provide Beads-apyrase to eliminate background caused by ADP bound to PPK-ADK. The exogenous ATP and microorganism were also detected by using ATP amplification reaction coupled with bioluminescence assay. The purified fusion protein showed both ADK and PPK activities. Beads-apyrase could eliminate ADP contamination conveniently and effectively, thus less than 1 fmol of ATP was detected by ATP amplification reaction coupled with bioluminescence assay. Using ATP amplification reaction, the sensitivity of bioluminescence assay was 100-fold than that of normal bioluminescence assay without ATP amplification. Beads-apyrase is an effective tool to eliminate the background of the reaction of ATP amplification. The sensitivity of bioluminescence assay was increased significantly with concomitant use of ATP amplification and bioluminescence assay.

  10. Genome-wide gene amplification during differentiation of neural progenitor cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Fischer

    Full Text Available DNA sequence amplification is a phenomenon that occurs predictably at defined stages during normal development in some organisms. Developmental gene amplification was first described in amphibians during gametogenesis and has not yet been described in humans. To date gene amplification in humans is a hallmark of many tumors. We used array-CGH (comparative genomic hybridization and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization to discover gene amplifications during in vitro differentiation of human neural progenitor cells. Here we report a complex gene amplification pattern two and five days after induction of differentiation of human neural progenitor cells. We identified several amplified genes in neural progenitor cells that are known to be amplified in malignant tumors. There is also a striking overlap of amplified chromosomal regions between differentiating neural progenitor cells and malignant tumor cells derived from astrocytes. Gene amplifications in normal human cells as physiological process has not been reported yet and may bear resemblance to developmental gene amplifications in amphibians and insects.

  11. N-myc oncogene amplification is correlated to trace metal concentrations in neuroblastoma cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouget, B.; Sergeant, C.; Benard, J.; Llabador, Y.; Simonoff, M.

    2000-01-01

    N-myc oncogene amplification is a powerful predictor of aggressive behavior of neuroblastoma (NB), the most common solid tumor of the early childhood. Since N-myc overexpression - subsequent to amplification - determines a phenotype of invasiveness and metastatic spreading, it is assumed that N-myc amplified neuroblasts synthesize zinc metalloenzymes leading to tumor invasion and formation of metastases. In order to test a possible relation between N-myc oncogene amplification and trace metal contents in human NB cells, Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations have been measured by nuclear microprobe analysis in three human neuroblastoma cell lines with various degrees of N-myc amplification. Elemental determinations show uniform distribution of trace metals within the cells, but variations of intracellular trace metal concentrations with respect to the degree of N-myc amplification are highly dependent on the nature of the element. Zinc concentration is higher in both N-myc amplified cell lines (IMR-32 and IGR-N-91) than in the non-amplified cells (SK-N-SH). In contrast, intracellular iron content is particularly low in N-myc amplified cell lines. Moreover, copper concentrations showed an increase with the degree of N-myc amplification. These results indicate that a relationship exists between intracellular trace metals and N-myc oncogene amplification. They further suggest that trace metals very probably play a determinant role in mechanisms of the neuroblastoma invasiveness

  12. Word Recognition and Learning: Effects of Hearing Loss and Amplification Feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Andrea L; Stewart, Elizabeth C; Willman, Amanda P; Odgear, Ian S

    2017-01-01

    Two amplification features were examined using auditory tasks that varied in stimulus familiarity. It was expected that the benefits of certain amplification features would increase as the familiarity with the stimuli decreased. A total of 20 children and 15 adults with normal hearing as well as 21 children and 17 adults with mild to severe hearing loss participated. Three models of ear-level devices were selected based on the quality of the high-frequency amplification or the digital noise reduction (DNR) they provided. The devices were fitted to each participant and used during testing only. Participants completed three tasks: (a) word recognition, (b) repetition and lexical decision of real and nonsense words, and (c) novel word learning. Performance improved significantly with amplification for both the children and the adults with hearing loss. Performance improved further with wideband amplification for the children more than for the adults. In steady-state noise and multitalker babble, performance decreased for both groups with little to no benefit from amplification or from the use of DNR. When compared with the listeners with normal hearing, significantly poorer performance was observed for both the children and adults with hearing loss on all tasks with few exceptions. Finally, analysis of across-task performance confirmed the hypothesis that benefit increased as the familiarity of the stimuli decreased for wideband amplification but not for DNR. However, users who prefer DNR for listening comfort are not likely to jeopardize their ability to detect and learn new information when using this feature.

  13. N- myc oncogene amplification is correlated to trace metal concentrations in neuroblastoma cultured cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouget, B.; Sergeant, C.; Benard, J.; Llabador, Y.; Simonoff, M.

    2000-10-01

    N- myc oncogene amplification is a powerful predictor of aggressive behavior of neuroblastoma (NB), the most common solid tumor of the early childhood. Since N- myc overexpression - subsequent to amplification - determines a phenotype of invasiveness and metastatic spreading, it is assumed that N- myc amplified neuroblasts synthesize zinc metalloenzymes leading to tumor invasion and formation of metastases. In order to test a possible relation between N- myc oncogene amplification and trace metal contents in human NB cells, Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations have been measured by nuclear microprobe analysis in three human neuroblastoma cell lines with various degrees of N- myc amplification. Elemental determinations show uniform distribution of trace metals within the cells, but variations of intracellular trace metal concentrations with respect to the degree of N- myc amplification are highly dependent on the nature of the element. Zinc concentration is higher in both N- myc amplified cell lines (IMR-32 and IGR-N-91) than in the non-amplified cells (SK-N-SH). In contrast, intracellular iron content is particularly low in N- myc amplified cell lines. Moreover, copper concentrations showed an increase with the degree of N- myc amplification. These results indicate that a relationship exists between intracellular trace metals and N- myc oncogene amplification. They further suggest that trace metals very probably play a determinant role in mechanisms of the neuroblastoma invasiveness.

  14. Basin amplification of seismic waves in the city of Pahrump, Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Robert E.

    2005-07-01

    Sedimentary basins can increase the magnitude and extend the duration of seismic shaking. This potential for seismic amplification is investigated for Pahrump Valley, Nevada-California. The Pahrump Valley is located approximately 50 km northwest of Las Vegas and 75 km south of the Nevada Test Site. Gravity data suggest that the city of Pahrump sits atop a narrow, approximately 5 km deep sub-basin within the valley. The seismic amplification, or ''site effect'', was investigated using a combination of in situ velocity modeling and comparison of the waveforms and spectra of weak ground motion recorded in the city of Pahrump, Nevada, and those recorded in the nearby mountains. Resulting spectral ratios indicate seismic amplification factors of 3-6 over the deepest portion of Pahrump Valley. This amplification predominantly occurs at 2-2.5 Hz. Amplification over the deep sub-basin is lower than amplification at the sub-basin edge, location of the John Blume and Associates PAHA seismic station, which recorded many underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. A comprehensive analysis of basin amplification for the city of Pahrump should include 3-D basin modeling, due to the extreme basement topography of the Pahrump Valley.

  15. Real-time correction of tsunami site effect by frequency-dependent tsunami-amplification factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, H.

    2017-12-01

    For tsunami early warning, I developed frequency-dependent tsunami-amplification factor and used it to design a recursive digital filter that can be applicable for real-time correction of tsunami site response. In this study, I assumed that a tsunami waveform at an observing point could be modeled by convolution of source, path and site effects in time domain. Under this assumption, spectral ratio between offshore and the nearby coast can be regarded as site response (i.e. frequency-dependent amplification factor). If the amplification factor can be prepared before tsunamigenic earthquakes, its temporal convolution to offshore tsunami waveform provides tsunami prediction at coast in real time. In this study, tsunami waveforms calculated by tsunami numerical simulations were used to develop frequency-dependent tsunami-amplification factor. Firstly, I performed numerical tsunami simulations based on nonlinear shallow-water theory from many tsuanmigenic earthquake scenarios by varying the seismic magnitudes and locations. The resultant tsunami waveforms at offshore and the nearby coastal observing points were then used in spectral-ratio analysis. An average of the resulted spectral ratios from the tsunamigenic-earthquake scenarios is regarded as frequency-dependent amplification factor. Finally, the estimated amplification factor is used in design of a recursive digital filter that can be applicable in time domain. The above procedure is applied to Miyako bay at the Pacific coast of northeastern Japan. The averaged tsunami-height spectral ratio (i.e. amplification factor) between the location at the center of the bay and the outside show a peak at wave-period of 20 min. A recursive digital filter based on the estimated amplification factor shows good performance in real-time correction of tsunami-height amplification due to the site effect. This study is supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI grant 15K16309.

  16. Amplified RNA degradation in T7-amplification methods results in biased microarray hybridizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivell Richard

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amplification of RNA with the T7-System is a widely used technique for obtaining increased amounts of RNA starting from limited material. The amplified RNA (aRNA can subsequently be used for microarray hybridizations, warranting sufficient signal for image analysis. We describe here an amplification-time dependent degradation of aRNA in prolonged standard T7 amplification protocols, that results in lower average size aRNA and decreased yields. Results A time-dependent degradation of amplified RNA (aRNA could be observed when using the classical "Eberwine" T7-Amplification method. When the amplification was conducted for more than 4 hours, the resulting aRNA showed a significantly smaller size distribution on gel electrophoresis and a concomitant reduction of aRNA yield. The degradation of aRNA could be correlated to the presence of the T7 RNA Polymerase in the amplification cocktail. The aRNA degradation resulted in a strong bias in microarray hybridizations with a high coefficient of variation and a significant reduction of signals of certain transcripts, that seem to be susceptible to this RNA degrading activity. The time-dependent degradation of these transcripts was verified by a real-time PCR approach. Conclusions It is important to perform amplifications not longer than 4 hours as there is a characteristic 'quality vs. yield' situation for longer amplification times. When conducting microarray hybridizations it is important not to compare results obtained with aRNA from different amplification times.

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back ... in very slightly. Hold a ball directly in front of you. Keep your abdominal muscles tight and ...

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  19. Prevent Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Prevent Shingles Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... that can result in vision loss. Older Adults & Shingles As you get older, you are more likely ...

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! ...

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle ... Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis ...

  2. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  3. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient ... the floor; rotate from side to side. Repeat 10 times. Check with your physician; if you are ...

  4. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient ... popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts ...

  5. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  6. Locked nucleic acid inhibits amplification of contaminating DNA in real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshoj, Lone; Ryder, Lars P; Madsen, Hans O

    2005-01-01

    in intronic DNA, the aim was to inhibit the amplification of genomic DNA without affecting the amplification of reverse-transcribed spliced mRNA. LNA was designed to bind within intron 5 in the x-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) gene. An irrelevant LNA oligonucleotide served as a negative control. In both PCR...... and real-time PCR, the addition of LNA showed blocking of the amplification of genomic XBP1 but not cDNA XBP1. To test the effect of melting temperature (Tm) on the LNA, we investigated the number of LNA nucleotides that could be replaced with DNA nucleotides and still retain the blocking activity. More...

  7. Realization of quantum state privacy amplification in a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Liang; Wang, Chuan; Long, Gui Lu

    2010-01-01

    Quantum state privacy amplification (QSPA) is the quantum analogue of classical privacy amplification. If the state information of a series of single-particle states has some leakage, QSPA reduces this leakage by condensing the state information of two particles into the state of one particle. Recursive applications of the operations will eliminate the quantum state information leakage to a required minimum level. In this paper, we report the experimental implementation of a quantum state privacy amplification protocol in a nuclear magnetic resonance system. The density matrices of the states are constructed in the experiment, and the experimental results agree well with theory.

  8. FEATURE OF THE 3 MARCH 1985 CHILE EARTHQUAKE - POSSIBLE TERRAIN AMPLIFICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents results of site-response experiments performed five months after the M//s equals 7. 8 Central Chile Earthquake of 3 March 1985. The objectives of the experiments performed are to identify amplification due to topography and geology. Topographical amplification at Canal Beagle, a subdivision of Vina del Mar, was hypothesized immediately after the main event, when extensive damage was observed on the ridges of Canal Beagle. Spectral ratios determined from aftershock data obtained from a temporary dense array are used to show that there was substantial amplification of motions at the ridges of Canal Beagle.

  9. Amplification of surface acoustic waves by transverse electric current in piezoelectric semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulyaev, Yuri V.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that the principal characteristic feature of the surface acoustic waves in piezoelectrics—the presence of an alternating electric field transverse to the surface, which can be of the same order of magnitude as the longitudinal field—may not only give rise to the known transverse...... acoustoelectric effect but also lead to amplification of surface acoustic waves by electron drift perpendicular to the surface. For Love waves in a piezoelectric semiconductor film on a highly conducting substrate, the amplification coefficient is found and the conditions necessary for amplification...

  10. Amplification of electromagnetic radiation in the exciton region of the spectrum of a semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerkararyan, Kh.V.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of amplification of electromagnetic radiation in the exciton region of the spectrum of a semiconductor was first discussed by Haken. The possibility of amplification of an electromagnetic wave under conditions of Bose condensation of biexcitons was considered in Ref. 2. However, the difficulties encountered in the creation of a Bose condensed state of biexcitons complicate greatly the performance of an experiment of this kind. The authors shall show that amplification is possible also in a gaseous mixture of excitons and biexcitons which is in thermal equilibrium and can be described by the Maxwellian distribution function of the velocities

  11. Family background of modern health worries, somatosensory amplification, and health anxiety: A questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köteles, Ferenc; Freyler, Anett; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Bárdos, György

    2015-12-01

    In the development of somatosensory amplification, health anxiety, and modern health worries, environmental factors seem more important than genetic background. Parental attitudes might represent a major source of learning. In total, 186 adolescents and their parents completed a questionnaire assessing modern health worries, somatosensory amplification, health anxiety, and somatic symptoms. Adolescents' modern health worries, somatosensory amplification, and health anxiety were positively related to respective parental characteristics in regression analyses even after controlling for sociodemographic variables and somatic symptoms. Parental beliefs may play a role in the development of these characteristics. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Dynamic Characteristics of a Hydraulic Amplification Mechanism for Large Displacement Actuators Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Arouette

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a hydraulic displacement amplification mechanism (HDAM and studied its dynamic response when combined with a piezoelectric actuator. The HDAM consists of an incompressible fluid sealed in a microcavity by two largely deformable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS membranes. The geometry with input and output surfaces having different cross-sectional areas creates amplification. By combining the HDAM with micro-actuators, we can amplify the input displacement generated by the actuators, which is useful for applications requiring large deformation, such as tactile displays. We achieved a mechanism offering up to 18-fold displacement amplification for static actuation and 12-fold for 55 Hz dynamic actuation.

  13. Period doubling induced by thermal noise amplification in genetic circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Ruocco, G.

    2014-11-18

    Rhythms of life are dictated by oscillations, which take place in a wide rage of biological scales. In bacteria, for example, oscillations have been proven to control many fundamental processes, ranging from gene expression to cell divisions. In genetic circuits, oscillations originate from elemental block such as autorepressors and toggle switches, which produce robust and noise-free cycles with well defined frequency. In some circumstances, the oscillation period of biological functions may double, thus generating bistable behaviors whose ultimate origin is at the basis of intense investigations. Motivated by brain studies, we here study an “elemental” genetic circuit, where a simple nonlinear process interacts with a noisy environment. In the proposed system, nonlinearity naturally arises from the mechanism of cooperative stability, which regulates the concentration of a protein produced during a transcription process. In this elemental model, bistability results from the coherent amplification of environmental fluctuations due to a stochastic resonance of nonlinear origin. This suggests that the period doubling observed in many biological functions might result from the intrinsic interplay between nonlinearity and thermal noise.

  14. Period doubling induced by thermal noise amplification in genetic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, G.; Fratalocchi, A.

    2014-11-01

    Rhythms of life are dictated by oscillations, which take place in a wide rage of biological scales. In bacteria, for example, oscillations have been proven to control many fundamental processes, ranging from gene expression to cell divisions. In genetic circuits, oscillations originate from elemental block such as autorepressors and toggle switches, which produce robust and noise-free cycles with well defined frequency. In some circumstances, the oscillation period of biological functions may double, thus generating bistable behaviors whose ultimate origin is at the basis of intense investigations. Motivated by brain studies, we here study an ``elemental'' genetic circuit, where a simple nonlinear process interacts with a noisy environment. In the proposed system, nonlinearity naturally arises from the mechanism of cooperative stability, which regulates the concentration of a protein produced during a transcription process. In this elemental model, bistability results from the coherent amplification of environmental fluctuations due to a stochastic resonance of nonlinear origin. This suggests that the period doubling observed in many biological functions might result from the intrinsic interplay between nonlinearity and thermal noise.

  15. Amplification of local changes along the timescale processing hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshurun, Yaara; Nguyen, Mai; Hasson, Uri

    2017-08-29

    Small changes in word choice can lead to dramatically different interpretations of narratives. How does the brain accumulate and integrate such local changes to construct unique neural representations for different stories? In this study, we created two distinct narratives by changing only a few words in each sentence (e.g., "he" to "she" or "sobbing" to "laughing") while preserving the grammatical structure across stories. We then measured changes in neural responses between the two stories. We found that differences in neural responses between the two stories gradually increased along the hierarchy of processing timescales. For areas with short integration windows, such as early auditory cortex, the differences in neural responses between the two stories were relatively small. In contrast, in areas with the longest integration windows at the top of the hierarchy, such as the precuneus, temporal parietal junction, and medial frontal cortices, there were large differences in neural responses between stories. Furthermore, this gradual increase in neural differences between the stories was highly correlated with an area's ability to integrate information over time. Amplification of neural differences did not occur when changes in words did not alter the interpretation of the story (e.g., sobbing to "crying"). Our results demonstrate how subtle differences in words are gradually accumulated and amplified along the cortical hierarchy as the brain constructs a narrative over time.

  16. Using DNS amplification DDoS attack for hiding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehić, M.; Voznak, M.; Safarik, J.; Partila, P.; Mikulec, M.

    2014-05-01

    This paper concerns available steganographic techniques that can be used for sending hidden data through public network. Typically, in steganographic communication it is advised to use popular/often used method for sending hidden data and amount of that data need to be high as much as possible. We confirmed this by choosing a Domain Name System (DNS) as a vital protocol of each network and choosing Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks that are most popular network attacks currently represented in the world. Apart from characterizing existing steganographic methods we provide new insights by presenting two new techniques. The first one is network steganography solution which exploits free/unused protocols fields and is known for IP, UDP or TCP protocols, but has never been applied to DNS (Domain Name Server) which are the fundamental part of network communications. The second explains the usage of DNS Amplification DDoS Attack to send seamlessly data through public network. The calculation that was performed to estimate the total amount of data that can be covertly transferred by using these technique, regardless of steganalysis, is included in this paper.

  17. Energy amplification in turbulent flows over complex walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhar, Mitul

    2016-11-01

    Many boundary layer flows in natural and manmade systems are characterized by the presence of complex walls (e.g. porous, rough, or patterned) that can substantially alter the near-wall turbulence. For example, the streaks and streamwise vortices prevalent in smooth-walled flows are often replaced by structures resembling Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices in flows over porous media and vegetation canopies. While stability analyses can reproduce some of these observations, they are limited in their ability to generate predictions for spectra and coherent structure in fully turbulent flows. The present effort seeks to address this limitation by extending the resolvent formulation to account for complex walls. Under the resolvent formulation, the turbulent velocity field is expressed as a linear superposition of propagating modes, identified via a gain-based decomposition of the Navier-Stokes equations. The presence of the complex substrate is modeled as a distributed body force, which alters the gain (i.e. energy amplification) and structure of the modes. Preliminary results show that this approach reproduces key observations from previous simulations and experiments of flow over porous media, vegetation canopies, as well as riblets with minimal computation.

  18. Current Technologies of Electrochemical Immunosensors: Perspective on Signal Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Il-Hoon; Kim, Jiyeon; Kang, Min-soo; Paik, Jean Kyung; Ku, Seockmo; Cho, Hyun-Mo; Irudayaraj, Joseph; Kim, Dong-Hyung

    2018-01-01

    An electrochemical immunosensor employs antibodies as capture and detection means to produce electrical charges for the quantitative analysis of target molecules. This sensor type can be utilized as a miniaturized device for the detection of point-of-care testing (POCT). Achieving high-performance analysis regarding sensitivity has been one of the key issues with developing this type of biosensor system. Many modern nanotechnology efforts allowed for the development of innovative electrochemical biosensors with high sensitivity by employing various nanomaterials that facilitate the electron transfer and carrying capacity of signal tracers in combination with surface modification and bioconjugation techniques. In this review, we introduce novel nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotube, graphene, indium tin oxide, nanowire and metallic nanoparticles) in order to construct a high-performance electrode. Also, we describe how to increase the number of signal tracers by employing nanomaterials as carriers and making the polymeric enzyme complex associated with redox cycling for signal amplification. The pros and cons of each method are considered throughout this review. We expect that these reviewed strategies for signal enhancement will be applied to the next versions of lateral-flow paper chromatography and microfluidic immunosensor, which are considered the most practical POCT biosensor platforms. PMID:29329274

  19. Optimization and characterization of dual-chirped optical parametric amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Yuxi; Takahashi, Eiji J; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang

    2015-01-01

    We report optimization and characterization of a dual-chirped optical parametric amplification (DC-OPA) scheme (2011 Opt. Express 19 7190). By increasing a pump pulse energy to 100 mJ, a total (signal + idler) output energy exceeding 30 mJ was recorded with higher than 30% conversion efficiency. The feasibility of further increasing the output energy to a higher scale using the DC-OPA scheme was confirmed by a proof-of-principle experiment, in which 30%–40% conversion efficiency was observed. The signal pulse with the center wavelength of 1.4 μm was compressed to 27 fs (FWHM), which was very close to a transform-limited pulse duration of 25 fs. Since the DC-OPA scheme is efficient for generating high-energy infrared (IR) pulses with excellent scaling ability, the design parameters for obtaining hundred-mJ-level and even joule-level IR pulses are discussed and presented in detail. (invited article)

  20. An extended parametrization of gas amplification in proportional wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beingessner, S.P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Hargrove, C.K.

    1987-01-01

    It is normally assumed that the gas amplification in proportional chambers is a function of Townsend's first ionization coefficient, α, and that α is a function of the anode surface electric field only. Experimental measurements are presented demonstrating the breakdown of the latter assumption for electric fields, X, greater than about 150 V/cm/Torr on the anode wire surface for a gas mixture of 80/20 argon/methane. For larger values of X, the parametrization of the proportional gas gain data requires an additional term related to the gradient of the electric field near the wire. This extended gain parametrization remains valid until the onset of nonproportional contributions such as positive ion space charge saturation effects. Furthermore, deviations of the data from this parametrization are used to measure the onset of these space charge effects. A simple scaling dependence of the gain data on the product of pressure and wire radius over the whole proportional range is also demonstrated. (orig.)

  1. Towards rapid prototyped convective microfluidic DNA amplification platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajit, Smrithi; Praveen, Hemanth Mithun; Puneeth, S. B.; Dave, Abhishek; Sesham, Bharat; Mohan, K. N.; Goel, Sanket

    2017-02-01

    Today, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based DNA amplification plays an indispensable role in the field of biomedical research. Its inherent ability to exponentially amplify sample DNA has proven useful for the identification of virulent pathogens like those causing Multiple Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The intervention of Microfluidics technology has revolutionized the concept of PCR from being a laborious and time consuming process into one that is faster, easily portable and capable of being multifunctional. The Microfluidics based PCR outweighs its traditional counterpart in terms of flexibility of varying reaction rate, operation simplicity, need of a fraction of volume and capability of being integrated with other functional elements. The scope of the present work involves the development of a real-time continuous flow microfluidic device, fabricated by 3D printing-governed rapid prototyping method, eventually leading to an automated and robust platform to process multiple DNA samples for detection of MDRTB-associated mutations. The thermal gradient characteristic to the PCR process is produced using peltier units appropriate to the microfluidic environment fully monitored and controlled by a low cost controller driven by a Data Acquisition System. The process efficiency achieved in the microfluidic environment in terms of output per cycle is expected to be on par with the traditional PCR and capable of earning the additional advantages of being faster and minimizing the handling.

  2. A new ultrasonic signal amplification method for detection of bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Shiva Kant; López, Pablo Resa; Sánchez, Carlos Sierra; Segura, Luis Elvira; Urréjola, José

    2012-01-01

    A new method is presented that increases the sensitivity of ultrasound-based techniques for detection of bacteria. The technique was developed for the detection of catalase-positive microorganisms. It uses a bubble trapping medium containing hydrogen peroxide that is mixed with the sample for microbiological evaluation. The enzyme catalase is present in catalase-positive bacteria, which induces a rapid hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide, forming bubbles which remain in the medium. This reaction results in the amplification of the mechanical changes that the microorganisms produce in the medium. The effect can be detected by means of ultrasonic wave amplitude continuous measurement since the bubbles increase the ultrasonic attenuation significantly. It is shown that microorganism concentrations of the order of 10 5 cells ml −1 can be detected using this method. This allows an improvement of three orders of magnitude in the ultrasonic detection threshold of microorganisms in conventional culture media, and is competitive with modern rapid microbiological methods. It can also be used for the characterization of the enzymatic activity. (paper)

  3. A new ultrasonic signal amplification method for detection of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant Shukla, Shiva; Resa López, Pablo; Sierra Sánchez, Carlos; Urréjola, José; Segura, Luis Elvira

    2012-10-01

    A new method is presented that increases the sensitivity of ultrasound-based techniques for detection of bacteria. The technique was developed for the detection of catalase-positive microorganisms. It uses a bubble trapping medium containing hydrogen peroxide that is mixed with the sample for microbiological evaluation. The enzyme catalase is present in catalase-positive bacteria, which induces a rapid hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide, forming bubbles which remain in the medium. This reaction results in the amplification of the mechanical changes that the microorganisms produce in the medium. The effect can be detected by means of ultrasonic wave amplitude continuous measurement since the bubbles increase the ultrasonic attenuation significantly. It is shown that microorganism concentrations of the order of 105 cells ml-1 can be detected using this method. This allows an improvement of three orders of magnitude in the ultrasonic detection threshold of microorganisms in conventional culture media, and is competitive with modern rapid microbiological methods. It can also be used for the characterization of the enzymatic activity.

  4. Stochastic amplification of fluctuations in cortical up-states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Hidalgo

    Full Text Available Cortical neurons are bistable; as a consequence their local field potentials can fluctuate between quiescent and active states, generating slow 0.5 2 Hz oscillations which are widely known as transitions between Up and Down States. Despite a large number of studies on Up-Down transitions, deciphering its nature, mechanisms and function are still today challenging tasks. In this paper we focus on recent experimental evidence, showing that a class of spontaneous oscillations can emerge within the Up states. In particular, a non-trivial peak around 20 Hz appears in their associated power-spectra, what produces an enhancement of the activity power for higher frequencies (in the 30-90 Hz band. Moreover, this rhythm within Ups seems to be an emergent or collective phenomenon given that individual neurons do not lock to it as they remain mostly unsynchronized. Remarkably, similar oscillations (and the concomitant peak in the spectrum do not appear in the Down states. Here we shed light on these findings by using different computational models for the dynamics of cortical networks in presence of different levels of physiological complexity. Our conclusion, supported by both theory and simulations, is that the collective phenomenon of "stochastic amplification of fluctuations"--previously described in other contexts such as Ecology and Epidemiology--explains in an elegant and parsimonious manner, beyond model-dependent details, this extra-rhythm emerging only in the Up states but not in the Downs.

  5. Current Developments in Prokaryotic Single Cell Whole Genome Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudeau, Danielle; Nath, Nandita; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Malmstrom, Rex

    2014-03-14

    Our approach to prokaryotic single-cell Whole Genome Amplification at the JGI continues to evolve. To increase both the quality and number of single-cell genomes produced, we explore all aspects of the process from cell sorting to sequencing. For example, we now utilize specialized reagents, acoustic liquid handling, and reduced reaction volumes eliminate non-target DNA contamination in WGA reactions. More specifically, we use a cleaner commercial WGA kit from Qiagen that employs a UV decontamination procedure initially developed at the JGI, and we use the Labcyte Echo for tip-less liquid transfer to set up 2uL reactions. Acoustic liquid handling also dramatically reduces reagent costs. In addition, we are exploring new cell lysis methods including treatment with Proteinase K, lysozyme, and other detergents, in order to complement standard alkaline lysis and allow for more efficient disruption of a wider range of cells. Incomplete lysis represents a major hurdle for WGA on some environmental samples, especially rhizosphere, peatland, and other soils. Finding effective lysis strategies that are also compatible with WGA is challenging, and we are currently assessing the impact of various strategies on genome recovery.

  6. Atmospheric measurements of peroxy radicals by chemical amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncianu, Marius; Lahib, Ahmad; Tomas, Alexandre; Dusanter, Sébastien

    2017-04-01

    Peroxy radicals (HO2 and RO2) are key species in atmospheric chemistry. They are produced during the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and are involved in the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. However, ambient measurements of these reactive species are still considered challenging and only a few techniques have been used for field measurements. Among these techniques, the PEroxy Radical Chemical Amplifier (PERCA) implementing the classical NO/CO reagent approach has been hardly used for field measurements due to the strong dependence of the radical chain length on Relative Humidity (RH). However, Wood et al. (ES&T 2016) recently showed that using ethane instead of CO allows reducing this RH-dependence and helps going around other drawbacks of the CO based amplification chemistry. This new approach has been explored in our laboratory by building a PERCA instrument that will be used for both laboratory kinetics and field measurements. In this presentation, we will describe (i) the measurement setup and (ii) experiments conducted to quantify the radical chain length for HO2 and several RO2 radicals, including those produced during the OH-oxidation of isoprene, toluene, cyclohexane, and others. It will be shown that the detection efficiency of organic peroxy radicals, via their NO conversion to HO2, mainly depends on their organic nitrate (RONO2) formation yields. In this context, box modelling of the PERCA chemistry will be discussed.

  7. Human minisatellite alleles detectable only after PCR amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A; Crosier, M; Jeffreys, A J

    1992-01-01

    We present evidence that a proportion of alleles at two human minisatellite loci is undetected by standard Southern blot hybridization. In each case the missing allele(s) can be identified after PCR amplification and correspond to tandem arrays too short to detect by hybridization. At one locus, there is only one undetected allele (population frequency 0.3), which contains just three repeat units. At the second locus, there are at least five undetected alleles (total population frequency 0.9) containing 60-120 repeats; they are not detected because these tandem repeats give very poor signals when used as a probe in standard Southern blot hybridization, and also cross-hybridize with other sequences in the genome. Under these circumstances only signals from the longest tandemly repeated alleles are detectable above the nonspecific background. The structures of these loci have been compared in human and primate DNA, and at one locus the short human allele containing three repeat units is shown to be an intermediate state in the expansion of a monomeric precursor allele in primates to high copy number in the longer human arrays. We discuss the implications of such loci for studies of human populations, minisatellite isolation by cloning, and the evolution of highly variable tandem arrays.

  8. Mutually incoherent beam combining through optical parametric amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tropheme, B.

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with a technique of combination of coherent beams: Optical Parametric Amplification (OPA) with Multiple Pumps. This technique is used to instantly transfer the energy of several pumps on one beam, without energy storage and thus avoiding thermal effects in the amplifying media. It can be useful to combine energy of numerous fiber lasers and to amplify with a high repetition rate very high energy lasers or broadband pulses. With a numerical and experimental study using BBO and LBO as nonlinear crystal, we determine how to dispose the pumps around the signal and the corresponding angular tolerances of such set up. Then we focus our attention on recombining mechanisms between a pump and a non-corresponding idler. We demonstrate experimentally that these cascading effects may decrease the spatial and spectral quality of the amplified signal, and that these phenomena can be avoided with a minimum angle between the different pumps. A novel modelling of multi-pumps OPA links these cascading effects to the gratings generated by the interaction between the pumps. The last part presents a 5 pump OPA experiment. We achieve a pump-to-signal efficiency of 27% and so that a signal more powerful than each pump is obtained. (author) [fr

  9. Stochastic Amplification of Fluctuations in Cortical Up-States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Jorge; Seoane, Luís F.; Cortés, Jesús M.; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Cortical neurons are bistable; as a consequence their local field potentials can fluctuate between quiescent and active states, generating slow Hz oscillations which are widely known as transitions between Up and Down States. Despite a large number of studies on Up-Down transitions, deciphering its nature, mechanisms and function are still today challenging tasks. In this paper we focus on recent experimental evidence, showing that a class of spontaneous oscillations can emerge within the Up states. In particular, a non-trivial peak around Hz appears in their associated power-spectra, what produces an enhancement of the activity power for higher frequencies (in the Hz band). Moreover, this rhythm within Ups seems to be an emergent or collective phenomenon given that individual neurons do not lock to it as they remain mostly unsynchronized. Remarkably, similar oscillations (and the concomitant peak in the spectrum) do not appear in the Down states. Here we shed light on these findings by using different computational models for the dynamics of cortical networks in presence of different levels of physiological complexity. Our conclusion, supported by both theory and simulations, is that the collective phenomenon of “stochastic amplification of fluctuations” – previously described in other contexts such as Ecology and Epidemiology – explains in an elegant and parsimonious manner, beyond model-dependent details, this extra-rhythm emerging only in the Up states but not in the Downs. PMID:22879879

  10. Current Technologies of Electrochemical Immunosensors: Perspective on Signal Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Hoon Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical immunosensor employs antibodies as capture and detection means to produce electrical charges for the quantitative analysis of target molecules. This sensor type can be utilized as a miniaturized device for the detection of point-of-care testing (POCT. Achieving high-performance analysis regarding sensitivity has been one of the key issues with developing this type of biosensor system. Many modern nanotechnology efforts allowed for the development of innovative electrochemical biosensors with high sensitivity by employing various nanomaterials that facilitate the electron transfer and carrying capacity of signal tracers in combination with surface modification and bioconjugation techniques. In this review, we introduce novel nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotube, graphene, indium tin oxide, nanowire and metallic nanoparticles in order to construct a high-performance electrode. Also, we describe how to increase the number of signal tracers by employing nanomaterials as carriers and making the polymeric enzyme complex associated with redox cycling for signal amplification. The pros and cons of each method are considered throughout this review. We expect that these reviewed strategies for signal enhancement will be applied to the next versions of lateral-flow paper chromatography and microfluidic immunosensor, which are considered the most practical POCT biosensor platforms.

  11. Microfluidic continuous flow digital loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Tushar D; Chen, Liben; Zec, Helena C; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2015-02-07

    Digital nucleic acid detection is rapidly becoming a popular technique for ultra-sensitive and quantitative detection of nucleic acid molecules in a wide range of biomedical studies. Digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) remains the most popular way of conducting digital nucleic acid detection. However, due to the need for thermocycling, digital PCR is difficult to implement in a streamlined manner on a single microfluidic device, leading to complex fragmented workflows and multiple separate devices and instruments. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an excellent isothermal alternative to PCR with potentially better specificity than PCR because of the use of multiple primer sets for a nucleic acid target. Here we report a microfluidic droplet device implementing all the steps required for digital nucleic acid detection including droplet generation, incubation and in-line detection for digital LAMP. As compared to microchamber or droplet array-based digital assays, the continuous flow operation of this device eliminates the constraints on the number of total reactions imposed by the footprint of the device and the analysis throughput caused by the time for lengthy incubation and transfer of materials between instruments.

  12. Amplification on Undirected Population Structures: Comets Beat Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlogiannis, Andreas; Tkadlec, Josef; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A

    2017-03-06

    The fixation probability is the probability that a new mutant introduced in a homogeneous population eventually takes over the entire population. The fixation probability is a fundamental quantity of natural selection, and known to depend on the population structure. Amplifiers of natural selection are population structures which increase the fixation probability of advantageous mutants, as compared to the baseline case of well-mixed populations. In this work we focus on symmetric population structures represented as undirected graphs. In the regime of undirected graphs, the strongest amplifier known has been the Star graph, and the existence of undirected graphs with stronger amplification properties has remained open for over a decade. In this work we present the Comet and Comet-swarm families of undirected graphs. We show that for a range of fitness values of the mutants, the Comet and Comet-swarm graphs have fixation probability strictly larger than the fixation probability of the Star graph, for fixed population size and at the limit of large populations, respectively.

  13. Two-Tone Interference Caused by Active Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, T. A. J.; Andor, D.; Jülicher, F.

    2003-02-01

    To capture faint sounds, the ear uses an active system of amplification. We and our colleagues have put forward the idea that the amplifier comprises a set of "self-tuned critical oscillators": each hair cell contains a force-generating dynamical system which is maintained at the threshold of an oscillatory instability, or Hopf bifurcation. Our analysis shows that the active response to a pure tone is perfectly suited to the ear's needs, since it provides frequency selectivity, exquisite sensitivity and wide dynamic range. However, the intrinsic nonlinearity of the mechanism causes tones of different frequency to interfere with one another in the cochlea. In order to provide a framework for understanding how the ear processes the more complex sounds of speech and music, we have examined the response of a critical Hopf oscillator to two tones. Our calculations indicate how the response to one tone is suppressed by the presence of a second tone of similar frequency. They also show how a characteristic spectrum of distortion products is generated. Based on this analysis, we discuss to what extent psychophysical phenomena such as the sensation of dissonance and auditory illusions can be attributed to the physical nature of the peripheral detection apparatus.

  14. Risks, media and the social amplification of soil contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouboter, S. [NOK, Networkorganisation for Environmental Quality, Gouda (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    Soil experts think of the risks of contaminated sites in terms of adverse effects of toxic substances on human health or environmental quality. In other words, the risk is attributed to the contamination. Social scientists define risk as a situation or event in which something of human value (including humans themselves) has been put at stake and where the outcome is uncertain. Since situations or events are constructions of the human mind, risks are also constructed. A relevant question for a psychologist is to learn how these constructions evolve in the mind of an individual and how this perceived risk influences the individuals' behaviour and well-being. A relevant question for a sociologist is how individuals with their own perceptions, feelings and behaviour interact. Many soil contamination experts experienced that one a site is seen as contaminated by a loathsome source, a chain of adverse reactions can easily put a stigma on that specific location and groups of people associated with that contaminated site. The case of Love Canal is worldwide known as an example of this phenomenon, but many countries have their own national symbol, like Lekkerkerk in the Netherlands. Modern media play an important role in this process. This process is often believed to be irrational and therefore uncontrollable. The question of this workshop is to what level technical soil experts can influence the psychological and social effects of soil contamination, using the social amplification metaphor. (orig.)

  15. A Label-Free and Sensitive Fluorescent Qualitative Assay for Bisphenol A Based on Rolling Circle Amplification/Exonuclease III-Combined Cascade Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Song, Juan; Xue, Qing-Wang; You, Fu-Heng; Lu, Xia; Kong, Yan-Cong; Ma, Shu-Yi; Jiang, Wei; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2016-10-21

    Bisphenol A (BPA) detection in drinking water and food packaging materials has attracted much attention since the discovery that BPA can interfere with normal physiological processes and cause adverse health effects. Here, we constructed a label-free aptamer fluorescent assay for selective and sensitive detection of BPA based on the rolling circle amplification (RCA)/Exonuclease III (Exo III)-combined cascade amplification strategy. First, the duplex DNA probe (RP) with anti-BPA aptamer and trigger sequence was designed for BPA recognition and signal amplification. Next, under the action of BPA, the trigger probe was liberated from RP to initiate RCA reaction as primary amplification. Subsequently, the RCA products were used to trigger Exo III assisted secondary amplification with the help of hairpin probes, producing plenty of "G-quadruplex" in lantern-like structures. Finally, the continuously enriched "G-quadruplex lanterns" were lightened by zinc(II)-protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) generating enhanced fluorescence signals. By integrating the primary RCA and secondary Exo III mediated cascade amplification strategy, this method displayed an excellent sensitivity with the detection limits of 5.4 × 10 -17 M. In addition, the anti-BPA aptamer exhibits high recognition ability with BPA, guaranteeing the specificity of detection. The reporter signal probe (G-quadruplex with ZnPPIX) provides a label-free fluorescence signals readout without complicated labeling procedures, making the method simple in design and cost-effective in operation. Moreover, environmental samples analysis was also performed, suggesting that our strategy was reliable and had a great potential application in environmental monitoring.

  16. A Label-Free and Sensitive Fluorescent Qualitative Assay for Bisphenol A Based on Rolling Circle Amplification/Exonuclease III-Combined Cascade Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA detection in drinking water and food packaging materials has attracted much attention since the discovery that BPA can interfere with normal physiological processes and cause adverse health effects. Here, we constructed a label-free aptamer fluorescent assay for selective and sensitive detection of BPA based on the rolling circle amplification (RCA/Exonuclease III (Exo III-combined cascade amplification strategy. First, the duplex DNA probe (RP with anti-BPA aptamer and trigger sequence was designed for BPA recognition and signal amplification. Next, under the action of BPA, the trigger probe was liberated from RP to initiate RCA reaction as primary amplification. Subsequently, the RCA products were used to trigger Exo III assisted secondary amplification with the help of hairpin probes, producing plenty of “G-quadruplex” in lantern-like structures. Finally, the continuously enriched “G-quadruplex lanterns” were lightened by zinc(II-protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX generating enhanced fluorescence signals. By integrating the primary RCA and secondary Exo III mediated cascade amplification strategy, this method displayed an excellent sensitivity with the detection limits of 5.4 × 10−17 M. In addition, the anti-BPA aptamer exhibits high recognition ability with BPA, guaranteeing the specificity of detection. The reporter signal probe (G-quadruplex with ZnPPIX provides a label-free fluorescence signals readout without complicated labeling procedures, making the method simple in design and cost-effective in operation. Moreover, environmental samples analysis was also performed, suggesting that our strategy was reliable and had a great potential application in environmental monitoring.

  17. Enhanced DNA detection based on the amplification of gold nanoparticles using quartz crystal microbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, L B; Yang, Y; Li, S; He, N Y

    2007-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles were used as mass amplifiers to improve the frequency signal of QCM detection of DNA. Indirect labelling and direct labelling of DNA probes with gold nanoparticles was studied. Two-times amplification of gold nanoparticles was carried out to further improve the detection signal. It was suggested that the frequency shift of the indirect-labelling method was much more significant than that of the direct-labelling method. The detection limit of one-time amplification and two-times amplification detection of a 33-base oligonucleotide was 100 and 10 fM, respectively. Under corresponding sensitivity, the one-base mismatched DNA and complementary DNA could be distinguished clearly. As an example, the two-times amplification detection of 677TT gene type validated that the ratio of frequency shift for a complementary DNA: one-base-mismatched one was 2.1:1 under the detection limit of 10 fM

  18. First experience with FGF-3 (INT-2) amplification in women with epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, A; Sevelda, P; Klein, M; Dobianer, K; Hruza, C; Czerwenka, K; Hanak, H; Vavra, N; Salzer, H; Leodolter, S

    1993-05-01

    Estimation of FGF-3 oncogene amplification in DNA samples extracted from paraffin embedded sections of 136 ovarian cancer samples was carried out by a quantitative PCR method. The aim of this study was to elucidate a possible association of FGF-3 copy numbers with established prognostic factors such as age, histology, FIGO stage, grading, postoperative residual tumour mass, ascites, hormone receptor content and preoperative CA 125 serum levels. In addition, correlation of FGF-3 amplification with overall survival of the patients was assessed. There was a borderline positive correlation between preoperative CA 125 serum levels and the degree of amplification of the FGF-3 gene (P = 0.06). A statistically significant association of FIGO-stage with FGF-3 copy number could be found (P = 0.008). No correlation between FGF-3 amplification and overall survival was noted. The data combine to suggest that FGF-3 is an indicator of aggressiveness of ovarian cancer.

  19. Launch Lock Assemblies Including Axial Gap Amplification Devices and Spacecraft Isolation Systems Including the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Young, Ken (Inventor); Davis, Torey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of a launch lock assembly are provided, as are embodiments of a spacecraft isolation system including one or more launch lock assemblies. In one embodiment, the launch lock assembly includes first and second mount pieces, a releasable clamp device, and an axial gap amplification device. The releasable clamp device normally maintains the first and second mount pieces in clamped engagement; and, when actuated, releases the first and second mount pieces from clamped engagement to allow relative axial motion there between. The axial gap amplification device normally residing in a blocking position wherein the gap amplification device obstructs relative axial motion between the first and second mount pieces. The axial gap amplification device moves into a non-blocking position when the first and second mount pieces are released from clamped engagement to increase the range of axial motion between the first and second mount pieces.

  20. Simultaneous electrical and mechanical resonance drive for large signal amplification of micro resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Hasan, M. H.

    2018-01-12

    Achieving large signal-noise ratio using low levels of excitation signal is key requirement for practical applications of micro and nano electromechanical resonators. In this work, we introduce the double electromechanical resonance drive concept to achieve an order-of-magnitude dynamic signal amplification in micro resonators. The concept relies on simultaneously activating the micro-resonator mechanical and electrical resonance frequencies. We report an input voltage amplification up to 15 times for a micro-resonator when its electrical resonance is tuned to match the mechanical resonance that leads to dynamic signal amplification in air (Quality factor enhancement). Furthermore, using a multi-frequency excitation technique, input voltage and vibrational amplification of up to 30 times were shown for the same micro-resonator while relaxing the need to match its mechanical and electrical resonances.