WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevents spatial learning

  1. Arginine vasopressin prevents against Abeta(25-35)-induced impairment of spatial learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yan-Fang; Chen, Xiao-Rong; Wu, Mei-Na; Ma, Cun-Gen; Qi, Jin-Shun

    2010-04-01

    Amyloid beta protein (Abeta) is thought to be responsible for loss of memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A significant decrease in [Arg(8)]-vasopressin (AVP) has been found in the AD brain and in plasma; however, it is unclear whether this decrease in AVP is involved in Abeta-induced impairment of spatial cognition and whether AVP can protect against Abeta-induced deficits in cognitive function. The present study examined the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of AVP on spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze test and investigated the potential protective function of AVP against Abeta-induced impairment in spatial cognition. The results were as follows: (1) i.c.v. injection of 25 nmol Abeta(25-35) resulted in a significant decline in spatial learning and memory; (2) 1 nmol and 10 nmol, but not 0.1 nmol, AVP injections markedly improved learning and memory; (3) pretreatment with 1 nmol or 10 nmol, but not 0.1 nmol, AVP effectively reversed the impairment in spatial learning and memory induced by Abeta(25-35); and (4) none of the drugs, including Abeta(25-35) and different concentrations of AVP, affected the vision or swimming speed of the rats. These results indicate that Abeta(25-35) could significantly impair spatial learning and memory in rats, and pretreatment with AVP centrally can enhance spatial learning and effectively prevent the behavioral impairment induced by neurotoxic Abeta(25-35). Thus, the present study provides further insight into the mechanisms by which Abeta impairs spatial learning and memory, suggesting that up-regulation of central AVP might be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of AD. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic administration of quercetin prevent spatial learning and memory deficits provoked by chronic stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Hadis Said; Goudarzi, Iran; Lashkarbolouki, Taghi; Abrari, Kataneh; Elahdadi Salmani, Mahmoud

    2014-08-15

    There are several reports that cognitive impairment is observed in stress related disorders and chronic stress impairs learning and memory. However, very few studies have looked into the possible ways of preventing this stress-induced deficit. This research study was conducted to evaluate the effects of quercetin, a natural flavonoid, with strong antioxidant and free radical scavenger properties, on chronic stress induced learning and memory deficits and oxidative stress in hippocampus. For chronic stress, rats were restrained daily for 6h/day (from 9:00 to 15:00) for 21 days in well-ventilated plexiglass tubes without access to food and water. The animals were injected with quercetin or vehicle 60 min before restraint stress over a period of 21 days. Then, rats trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. On day 28, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. In addition, oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus were evaluated. Results of this study demonstrated that chronic stress exposure rats exhibited higher escape latency during training trials and reduced time spent in target quadrant, higher escape location latency and average proximity in probe trial test. Quercetin (50mg/kg) treatment during restraint stress (21 days) markedly decreased escape latency and increased time spent in target quadrant during Morris water maze task. In comparison to vehicle treated group, chronic-stress group had significantly higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and significantly lower glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the hippocampus. Quercetin treatment caused a significant decrease in the hippocampus MDA levels and improves SOD and GPx activities in stressed animals. Finally, quercetin significantly decreased plasma corticosterone levels in stressed animals. Based on results of this study, chronic stress has detrimental effects on learning and memory and quercetin treatment

  3. Tiliacora triandra (Colebr. Diels leaf extract enhances spatial learning and learning flexibility, and prevents dentate gyrus neuronal damage induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wachiryah Thong-asa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigated the effects of a local Thai vegetable, Tiliacora triandra (Colebr. Diels, also known as Yanang, against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty male ICR mice were divided into three experimental groups of BLCCAO + 10% Tween 80, BLCCAO + T. triandra 300 mg/kg, and BLCCAO + T. triandra 600 mg/kg. Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was induced by three minutes of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BLCCAO followed by 18 days of reperfusion. Leaf extract was administered orally 24 hours after arterial occlusion and continued for 18 consecutive days. Cognitive abilities were evaluated using the Morris water maze. Histological analysis was conducted in the dorsal hippocampus subregions CA1, CA3, and DG and white matter regions (the corpus callosum, internal capsule, and optic tract using 0.1 % cresyl violet and 0.1% Luxol fast blue staining. Results: Results showed that T. triandra leaf extract at the doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg significantly enhanced spatial learning, and learning flexibility, and prevented neuronal death in the DG of mice following ischemia/reperfusion. Conclusion: T. triandra leaf extract enhanced spatial learning, and learning flexibility, and prevented DG neuronal death in a mice model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

  4. Spatial Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhengling

    2016-01-01

    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  5. Maternal administration of melatonin prevents spatial learning and memory deficits induced by developmental ethanol and lead co-exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Elham; Goudarzi, Iran; Abrari, Kataneh; Lashkarbolouki, Taghi

    2017-05-01

    Melatonin is a radical scavenger with the ability to remove reactive oxidant species. There is report that co-exposure to lead and ethanol during developmental stages induces learning and memory deficits and oxidative stress. Here, we studied the effect of melatonin, with strong antioxidant properties, on memory deficits induced by lead and ethanol co-exposure and oxidative stress in hippocampus. Pregnant rats in lead and ethanol co-exposure group received lead acetate of 0.2% in distilled drinking water and ethanol (4g/kg) by oral gavages once daily from the 5th day of gestation until weaning. Rats received 10mg/kg melatonin by oral gavages. On postnatal days (PD) 30, rats trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. On day 37, a probe test was done and oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus were evaluated. Results demonstrated lead and ethanol co-exposed rats exhibited higher escape latency during training trials and reduced time spent in target quadrant, higher escape location latency in probe trial test and had significantly higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly lower superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in the hippocampus. Melatonin treatment could improve memory deficits, antioxidants activity and reduced MDA levels in the hippocampus. We conclude, co-exposure to lead and ethanol impair memory and melatonin can prevent from it by oxidative stress modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  7. Learning anatomy enhances spatial ability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorstenbosch, M.A.T.M.; Klaassen, T.P.; Donders, A.R.T.; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Bolhuis, S.M.; Laan, R.F.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of

  8. Herbal Extracts Combination (WNK Prevents Decline in Spatial Learning and Memory in APP/PS1 Mice through Improvement of Hippocampal Aβ Plaque Formation, Histopathology, and Ultrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-hong Cong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the cognitive enhancement effect of WNK, an extracts combination of P. ginseng,  G. biloba, and C. sativus L. and possible mechanisms, 5-month-old APP/PS1 transgenic mice were used in this study. After 3 months of administration, all mice received Morris water maze (MWM training and a probe test. Mouse brain sections were detected by immunohistochemistry, HE staining, and transmission electron microscopy. MWM results showed significant difference between transgenic mice and nontransgenic littermates (P<0.05, P<0.01. WNK-treated mice exhibited enhanced maze performance over the training progression, especially better spatial memory retention in probe test compared to transgenic mice (P<0.05, P<0.01 and better spatial learning and memory at the fourth day of MWM test compared to EGB761- (G. biloba extract- treated ones (P<0.05. Hippocampal Aβ plaque burden significantly differed between APP/PS1 and littermate mice (P<0.001, while decreased Aβ plaque appeared in WNK- or EGB761-treated transgenic brains (P<0.05. Neurodegenerative changes were evident from light microscopic and ultrastructural observations in transgenic brains, which were improved by WNK or EGB761 treatment. These data indicate WNK can reduce the decline in spatial cognition, which might be due to its effects on reducing Aβ plaque formation and ameliorating histopathology and ultrastructure in hippocampus of APP/PS1 mouse brain.

  9. Connecting mathematics learning through spatial reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Joanne; Woolcott, Geoffrey; Mitchelmore, Michael; Davis, Brent

    2018-03-01

    Spatial reasoning, an emerging transdisciplinary area of interest to mathematics education research, is proving integral to all human learning. It is particularly critical to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. This project will create an innovative knowledge framework based on spatial reasoning that identifies new pathways for mathematics learning, pedagogy and curriculum. Novel analytical tools will map the unknown complex systems linking spatial and mathematical concepts. It will involve the design, implementation and evaluation of a Spatial Reasoning Mathematics Program (SRMP) in Grades 3 to 5. Benefits will be seen through development of critical spatial skills for students, increased teacher capability and informed policy and curriculum across STEM education.

  10. Connecting mathematics learning through spatial reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Joanne; Woolcott, Geoffrey; Mitchelmore, Michael; Davis, Brent

    2017-07-01

    Spatial reasoning, an emerging transdisciplinary area of interest to mathematics education research, is proving integral to all human learning. It is particularly critical to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. This project will create an innovative knowledge framework based on spatial reasoning that identifies new pathways for mathematics learning, pedagogy and curriculum. Novel analytical tools will map the unknown complex systems linking spatial and mathematical concepts. It will involve the design, implementation and evaluation of a Spatial Reasoning Mathematics Program (SRMP) in Grades 3 to 5. Benefits will be seen through development of critical spatial skills for students, increased teacher capability and informed policy and curriculum across STEM education.

  11. Connecting Mathematics Learning through Spatial Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Joanne; Woolcott, Geoffrey; Mitchelmore, Michael; Davis, Brent

    2018-01-01

    Spatial reasoning, an emerging transdisciplinary area of interest to mathematics education research, is proving integral to all human learning. It is particularly critical to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. This project will create an innovative knowledge framework based on spatial reasoning that identifies new…

  12. Spatial Learning: Conditions and Basic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria D. Chamizo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that the spatial and the temporal domains seem to share the same or similar conditions, basic effects, and mechanisms. The blocking, unblocking and overshadowing experiments (and also those of latent inhibition and perceptual learning reviewed by Prados and Redhead in this issue show that to exclude associative learning as a basic mechanism responsible for spatial learning is quite inappropriate. All these results, especially those obtained with strictly spatial tasks, seem inconsistent with O’Keefe and Nadel’s account of true spatial learning or locale learning. Their theory claims that this kind of learning is fundamentally different and develops with total independence from other ways of learning (like classical and instrumental conditioning -taxon learning. In fact, the results reviewed can be explained appealing on to a sophisticated guidance system, like for example the one proposed by Leonard and McNaughton (1990; see also McNaughton and cols, 1996. Such a system would allow that an animal generates new space information: given the distance and address from of A to B and from A to C, being able to infer the distance and the address from B to C, even when C is invisible from B (see Chapuis and Varlet, 1987 -the contribution by McLaren in this issue constitutes a good example of a sophisticated guidance system.

  13. Active and passive contributions to spatial learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrastil, Elizabeth R; Warren, William H

    2012-02-01

    It seems intuitively obvious that active exploration of a new environment will lead to better spatial learning than will passive exposure. However, the literature on this issue is decidedly mixed-in part, because the concept itself is not well defined. We identify five potential components of active spatial learning and review the evidence regarding their role in the acquisition of landmark, route, and survey knowledge. We find that (1) idiothetic information in walking contributes to metric survey knowledge, (2) there is little evidence as yet that decision making during exploration contributes to route or survey knowledge, (3) attention to place-action associations and relevant spatial relations contributes to route and survey knowledge, although landmarks and boundaries appear to be learned without effort, (4) route and survey information are differentially encoded in subunits of working memory, and (5) there is preliminary evidence that mental manipulation of such properties facilitates spatial learning. Idiothetic information appears to be necessary to reveal the influence of attention and, possibly, decision making in survey learning, which may explain the mixed results in desktop virtual reality. Thus, there is indeed an active advantage in spatial learning, which manifests itself in the task-dependent acquisition of route and survey knowledge.

  14. Flexible Learning, Spatiality and Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard; Clarke, Julia

    2002-01-01

    Drawing on Foucault, Deleuze, Guattari, and actor-network theory, the significance of space in flexible learning and its role in knowledge production and identity are explored. A cautious and analytical approach to the notion of lifelong learners liberated from time and space constraints is advocated. (Contains 27 references.) (Author/SK)

  15. Spatial reversal learning is robust to total sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaars, Cathalijn H C; Joosten, Ruud N J M A; Kramer, Michiel; Post, Ger; Eggels, Leslie; Wuite, Mark; Dematteis, Maurice; Feenstra, Matthijs G P; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2012-04-21

    Sleep deprivation affects cognitive functions that depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) such as cognitive flexibility, and the consolidation of newly learned information. The identification of cognitive processes that are either robustly sensitive or robustly insensitive to the same experimental sleep deprivation procedure, will allow us to better focus on the specific effects of sleep on cognition, and increase understanding of the mechanisms involved. In the present study we investigate whether sleep deprivation differentially affects the two separate cognitive processes of acquisition and consolidation of a spatial reversal task. After training on a spatial discrimination between two levers in a Skinner box, male Wistar rats were exposed to a reversal of the previously learned stimulus-response contingency. We first evaluated the effect of sleep deprivation on the acquisition of reversal learning. Performance on reversal learning after 12h of sleep deprivation (n=12) was compared to performance after control conditions (n=12). The second experiment evaluated the effect of sleep deprivation on the consolidation of reversal learning; the first session of reversal learning was followed by 3h of nap prevention (n=8) or undisturbed control conditions (n=8). The experiments had sufficient statistical power (0.90 and 0.81, respectively) to detect differences with medium effect sizes. Neither the acquisition, nor the consolidation, of reversal learning was affected by acute sleep deprivation. Together with previous findings, these results help to further delineate the role of sleep in cognitive processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Preventing catastrophes in spatially extended systems through ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-01-29

    Scientific Reports (Nature) 4, 4308] on taming explosive growth in spatially extended systems. Specifically, we consider collections of relaxation oscillators, which are relevant to modelling phenomena ranging from ...

  17. Machine learning spatial geometry from entanglement features

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yi-Zhuang; Yang, Zhao; Qi, Xiao-Liang

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by the close relations of the renormalization group with both the holography duality and the deep learning, we propose that the holographic geometry can emerge from deep learning the entanglement feature of a quantum many-body state. We develop a concrete algorithm, call the entanglement feature learning (EFL), based on the random tensor network (RTN) model for the tensor network holography. We show that each RTN can be mapped to a Boltzmann machine, trained by the entanglement entropies over all subregions of a given quantum many-body state. The goal is to construct the optimal RTN that best reproduce the entanglement feature. The RTN geometry can then be interpreted as the emergent holographic geometry. We demonstrate the EFL algorithm on a 1D free fermion system and observe the emergence of the hyperbolic geometry (AdS3 spatial geometry) as we tune the fermion system towards the gapless critical point (CFT2 point).

  18. Spatial short-term memory in children with nonverbal learning disabilities: impairment in encoding spatial configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimoto, Tadamasa; Matsuura, Naomi; Takezawa, Tomohiro; Mitsuhashi, Yoshinori; Hiratani, Michio

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated whether impaired spatial short-term memory exhibited by children with nonverbal learning disabilities is due to a problem in the encoding process. Children with or without nonverbal learning disabilities performed a simple spatial test that required them to remember 3, 5, or 7 spatial items presented simultaneously in random positions (i.e., spatial configuration) and to decide if a target item was changed or all items including the target were in the same position. The results showed that, even when the spatial positions in the encoding and probe phases were similar, the mean proportion correct of children with nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.58 while that of children without nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.84. The authors argue with the results that children with nonverbal learning disabilities have difficulty encoding relational information between spatial items, and that this difficulty is responsible for their impaired spatial short-term memory.

  19. Guidance of Spatial Attention by Incidental Learning and Endogenous Cuing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.; Rosenbaum, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    Our visual system is highly sensitive to regularities in the environment. Locations that were important in one's previous experience are often prioritized during search, even though observers may not be aware of the learning. In this study we characterized the guidance of spatial attention by incidental learning of a target's spatial probability,…

  20. Dietary polyphenol supplementation prevents alterations of spatial navigation in middle-aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien eBensalem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial learning and memory deficits associated with hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairments are commonly observed during aging. Besides, the beneficial role of dietary polyphenols has been suggested as potential functional food candidates to prevent this memory decline. Indeed, polyphenols could potentiate the signaling pathways of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. In this study, spatial learning deficits of middle-aged mice were first highlighted and characterized according to navigation patterns in the Morris water maze task. An eight-week polyphenol-enriched diet, containing a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB (from the Neurophenols Consortium with high contents of flavonoids, stilbenes and phenolic acids, was then successful in reversing these age-induced effects. The use of spatial strategies was indeed delayed with aging whereas a polyphenol supplementation could promote the occurrence of spatial strategies. These behavioral results were associated with neurobiological changes: while the expression of hippocampal CaMKII mRNA levels was reduced in middle-aged animals, the polyphenol-enriched diet could rescue them. Besides, an increased expression of NGF mRNA levels was also observed in supplemented adult and middle-aged mice. Thus these data suggest that supplementation with polyphenols could be an efficient nutritional way to prevent age-induced cognitive decline.

  1. Dietary Polyphenol Supplementation Prevents Alterations of Spatial Navigation in Middle-Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalem, Julien; Servant, Laure; Alfos, Serge; Gaudout, David; Layé, Sophie; Pallet, Véronique; Lafenetre, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Spatial learning and memory deficits associated with hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairments are commonly observed during aging. Besides, the beneficial role of dietary polyphenols has been suggested as potential functional food candidates to prevent this memory decline. Indeed, polyphenols could potentiate the signaling pathways of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. In this study, spatial learning deficits of middle-aged mice were first highlighted and characterized according to their navigation patterns in the Morris water maze task. An eight-week polyphenol-enriched diet, containing a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB; from the Neurophenols Consortium) with high contents of flavonoids, stilbenes and phenolic acids, was then successful in reversing these age-induced effects. The use of spatial strategies was indeed delayed with aging whereas a polyphenol supplementation could promote the occurrence of spatial strategies. These behavioral results were associated with neurobiological changes: while the expression of hippocampal calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) mRNA levels was reduced in middle-aged animals, the polyphenol-enriched diet could rescue them. Besides, an increased expression of nerve growth neurotrophic factor (NGF) mRNA levels was also observed in supplemented adult and middle-aged mice. Thus these data suggest that supplementation with polyphenols could be an efficient nutritional way to prevent age-induced cognitive decline.

  2. Think3d!: Improving mathematics learning through embodied spatial training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burte, Heather; Gardony, Aaron L; Hutton, Allyson; Taylor, Holly A

    2017-01-01

    Spatial thinking skills positively relate to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) outcomes, but spatial training is largely absent in elementary school. Elementary school is a time when children develop foundational cognitive skills that will support STEM learning throughout their education. Spatial thinking should be considered a foundational cognitive skill. The present research examined the impact of an embodied spatial training program on elementary students' spatial and mathematical thinking. Students in rural elementary schools completed spatial and math assessments prior to and after participating in an origami and pop-up paper engineering-based program, called Think3d!. Think3d! uses embodied tasks, such as folding and cutting paper, to train two-dimensional to three-dimensional spatial thinking. Analyses explored spatial thinking gains, mathematics gains - specifically for problem types expected to show gains from spatial training - and factors predicting mathematics gains. Results showed spatial thinking gains in two assessments. Using a math categorization to target problems more and less likely to be impacted by spatial training, we found that all students improved on real-world math problems and older students improved on visual and spatial math problems. Further, the results are suggestive of developmental time points for implementing embodied spatial training related to applying spatial thinking to math. Finally, the spatial thinking assessment that was most highly related to training activities also predicted math performance gains. Future research should explore developmental issues related to how embodied spatial training might support STEM learning and outcomes.

  3. Development of Critical Spatial Thinking through GIS Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsung; Bednarz, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study developed an interview-based critical spatial thinking oral test and used the test to investigate the effects of Geographic Information System (GIS) learning on three components of critical spatial thinking: evaluating data reliability, exercising spatial reasoning, and assessing problem-solving validity. Thirty-two students at a large…

  4. Paradoxical sleep deprivation impairs spatial learning and affects membrane excitability and mitochondrial protein in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui-Hua; Hu, San-Jue; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Luo, Wen-Jing; Chen, Jing-Yuan

    2008-09-16

    Previous research has demonstrated that paradoxical sleep has a key role in learning and memory, and sleep deprivation interferes with learning and memory. However, the mechanism of memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation is poorly understood. The present study investigated the effect of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) on spatial learning and memory using the Morris Water Maze. Effects of PSD on CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampus were also examined. PSD impaired spatial learning of rats. PSD induced translocation of Bax to mitochondria and cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm, and decreased the membrane excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons, effects which may contribute to the deficits in learning behavior. These results may partially explain the mechanism of the effect of PSD on learning. Modulating the excitability of hippocampal neurons and protecting mitochondrial function are possible targets for preventing the effects of paradoxical sleep deprivation.

  5. Enhancing Spatial Resolution of Remotely Sensed Imagery Using Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J. M.; Bridges, S.; Collins, C.; Rushing, J.; Graves, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Researchers at the Information Technology and Systems Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville are using Deep Learning with Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to develop a method for enhancing the spatial resolutions of moderate resolution (10-60m) multispectral satellite imagery. This enhancement will effectively match the resolutions of imagery from multiple sensors to provide increased global temporal-spatial coverage for a variety of Earth science products. Our research is centered on using Deep Learning for automatically generating transformations for increasing the spatial resolution of remotely sensed images with different spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions. One of the most important steps in using images from multiple sensors is to transform the different image layers into the same spatial resolution, preferably the highest spatial resolution, without compromising the spectral information. Recent advances in Deep Learning have shown that CNNs can be used to effectively and efficiently upscale or enhance the spatial resolution of multispectral images with the use of an auxiliary data source such as a high spatial resolution panchromatic image. In contrast, we are using both the spatial and spectral details inherent in low spatial resolution multispectral images for image enhancement without the use of a panchromatic image. This presentation will discuss how this technology will benefit many Earth Science applications that use remotely sensed images with moderate spatial resolutions.

  6. Peripheral vision benefits spatial learning by guiding eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naohide; Philbeck, John W

    2013-01-01

    The loss of peripheral vision impairs spatial learning and navigation. However, the mechanisms underlying these impairments remain poorly understood. One advantage of having peripheral vision is that objects in an environment are easily detected and readily foveated via eye movements. The present study examined this potential benefit of peripheral vision by investigating whether competent performance in spatial learning requires effective eye movements. In Experiment 1, participants learned room-sized spatial layouts with or without restriction on direct eye movements to objects. Eye movements were restricted by having participants view the objects through small apertures in front of their eyes. Results showed that impeding effective eye movements made subsequent retrieval of spatial memory slower and less accurate. The small apertures also occluded much of the environmental surroundings, but the importance of this kind of occlusion was ruled out in Experiment 2 by showing that participants exhibited intact learning of the same spatial layouts when luminescent objects were viewed in an otherwise dark room. Together, these findings suggest that one of the roles of peripheral vision in spatial learning is to guide eye movements, highlighting the importance of spatial information derived from eye movements for learning environmental layouts.

  7. Considering spatial ability in virtual route learning in early aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyselinck, Valérie; Meneghetti, Chiara; Bormetti, Monica; Orriols, Eric; Piolino, Pascale; De Beni, Rossana

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study is to broaden our understanding of the construction and early decline of spatial mental representations in route learning, considering the extent to which spatial ability and age-related differences in environment learning interact. The experiment examines spatial mental representation derived from taking a realistic route acquired using virtual environment and compares individuals different in age but with similar spatial ability. A sample of 34 young (20-30 years) and 30 middle-aged (50-60 years) females with good mental rotation ability were chosen. Participants learned a complex route through its presentation in a virtual environment and then performed a series of tasks (landmark recognition, location of landmarks and verification of spatial relations). Results show that the two participant age groups had similar performance in landmark recognition task and in verification of sentences describing direct spatial relations; instead, the middle-aged group showed a poorer performance than younger in their ability to locate landmarks and to judge the truth of indirect spatial sentences. These results first suggest that spatial abilities have to be seriously considered to avoid any confusion with age, as age-related differences are attenuated when individuals are different in age but similar in spatial ability. Second they confirm a specific difficulty of older participants to handle spatial information in a global configuration.

  8. Spatial Ability Learning through Educational Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià, Carme; Antolí, Juan Òscar

    2016-01-01

    Several authors insist on the importance of students' acquisition of spatial abilities and visualization in order to have academic success in areas such as science, technology or engineering. This paper proposes to discuss and analyse the use of educational robotics to develop spatial abilities in 12 year old students. First of all, a course to…

  9. Exploring Visuospatial Thinking in Learning about Mineralogy: Spatial Orientation Ability and Spatial Visualization Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Gokhan

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-method research attempted to clarify the role of visuospatial abilities in learning about mineralogy. Various sources of data--including quantitative pre- and postmeasures of spatial visualization and spatial orientation tests and achievement scores on six measures and qualitative unstructured observations, interviews, and field trip…

  10. Competitive STDP Learning of Overlapping Spatial Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krunglevicius, Dalius

    2015-08-01

    Spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is a set of Hebbian learning rules firmly based on biological evidence. It has been demonstrated that one of the STDP learning rules is suited for learning spatiotemporal patterns. When multiple neurons are organized in a simple competitive spiking neural network, this network is capable of learning multiple distinct patterns. If patterns overlap significantly (i.e., patterns are mutually inclusive), however, competition would not preclude trained neuron's responding to a new pattern and adjusting synaptic weights accordingly. This letter presents a simple neural network that combines vertical inhibition and Euclidean distance-dependent synaptic strength factor. This approach helps to solve the problem of pattern size-dependent parameter optimality and significantly reduces the probability of a neuron's forgetting an already learned pattern. For demonstration purposes, the network was trained for the first ten letters of the Braille alphabet.

  11. Relationship between Academic Performance, Spatial Competence, Learning Styles and Attrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Noriega Biggio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the results of research on factors affecting academic performance and attrition in a sample of 1,500 freshman students majoring in architecture, design and urbanism at the Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina [University of Buenos Aires, Argentina] who were enrolled in a drafting course. The hypotheses we tested concern the mediating role of learning styles on the relationship between spatial competence and academic performance, learning-style differences by gender and cohort, and the relationship between attrition, spatial competence level and learning style. Statistical analysis of the data was performed and spatial competence enhanced by motivational profile was found to predict final achievement. Educational implications are identified, highlighting the need to promote in students those academic behaviors that characterize a self-regulated learning style and encourage the use of specific intellectual abilities.

  12. Landscapes, Spatial Justice and Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Felicity

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on a study of a community-based adult education initiative, "Cumbria Credits," which took place during the period of serious economic decline which hit sections of the farming and the wider community in Cumbria during 2001. It draws on the principles underpinning Edward Soja's notion of "spatial justice" to explore transformations…

  13. Hippocampus-dependent place learning enables spatial flexibility in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl R. Kleinknecht

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial navigation is a fundamental capability necessary in everyday life to locate food, social partners and shelter. It results from two very different strategies: (i place learning which enables for flexible way finding and (ii response learning that leads to a more rigid ‘route following’. Despite the importance of knockout techniques that are only available in mice, little is known about mice’ flexibility in spatial navigation tasks.Here we demonstrate for C57BL6/N mice in a water-cross maze that only place learning enables spatial flexibility and relearning of a platform position, whereas response learning does not. This capability depends on an intact hippocampal formation, since hippocampus lesions by ibotenic acid disrupted relearning. In vivo manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed a volume loss of ≥ 60% of the hippocampus as a critical threshold for relearning impairments. In particular the changes in the left ventral hippocampus were indicative of relearning deficits.In summary, our findings establish the importance of hippocampus-dependent place learning for spatial flexibility and provide a first systematic analysis on spatial flexibility in mice.

  14. Containment and Support: Core and Complexity in Spatial Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Barbara; Johannes, Kristen; Skordos, Dimitrios; Papafragou, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Containment and support have traditionally been assumed to represent universal conceptual foundations for spatial terms. This assumption can be challenged, however: English in and on are applied across a surprisingly broad range of exemplars, and comparable terms in other languages show significant variation in their application. We propose that the broad domains of both containment and support have internal structure that reflects different subtypes, that this structure is reflected in basic spatial term usage across languages, and that it constrains children's spatial term learning. Using a newly developed battery, we asked how adults and 4-year-old children speaking English or Greek distribute basic spatial terms across subtypes of containment and support. We found that containment showed similar distributions of basic terms across subtypes among all groups while support showed such similarity only among adults, with striking differences between children learning English versus Greek. We conclude that the two domains differ considerably in the learning problems they present, and that learning in and on is remarkably complex. Together, our results point to the need for a more nuanced view of spatial term learning. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. Learning new movement patterns: a study on good and poor writers comparing learning conditions emphasizing spatial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overvelde, J.A.A.M.; Hulstijn, W.

    2011-01-01

    In the earliest stages of motor-skill learning cognitive, visuo-spatial and dynamic processes play an important role. Which of these should be addressed first when children need to learn a new complex movement sequence? This study compares three learning methods in a within-subject design by having

  16. Treadmill exercise ameliorates disturbance of spatial learning ability in scopolamine-induced amnesia rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yu-Mi; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Wook; Baek, Sang-Bin; Baek, Seung-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease and this disease induces progressive loss of memory function Scopolamine is a non-selective muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist and it induces impairment of learning ability. Exercise is known to ameliorate memory deficits induced by various brain diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on spatial learning ability in relation with cell proliferation in the hippocampus using the scopolamine-induced amnesia mice. For the induction of amnesia, 1 mg/kg scopolamine hydrobromide was administered intraperitoneally once a day for 14 days. Morris water maze test for spatial learning ability was conducted. Immonofluorescence for 5-bromo-2-deoxyuri-dine (BrdU) and western blot for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) were performed. In the present results, scopolamine-induced amnesia mice showed deterioration of spatial learning ability. Inhibition of cell proliferation and suppression of BDNF and TrkB expressions were observed in the scopolamine-induced amnesia mice. Treadmill exercise improved spatial learning ability and increased cell proliferation through activating of BDNF-TrkB pathway in the amnesia mice. These findings offer a possibility that treadmill exercise may provide preventive or therapeutic value for the memory loss induced by variable neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25061594

  17. Treadmill exercise ameliorates disturbance of spatial learning ability in scopolamine-induced amnesia rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yu-Mi; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Wook; Baek, Sang-Bin; Baek, Seung-Soo

    2014-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease and this disease induces progressive loss of memory function Scopolamine is a non-selective muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist and it induces impairment of learning ability. Exercise is known to ameliorate memory deficits induced by various brain diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on spatial learning ability in relation with cell proliferation in the hippocampus using the scopolamine-induced amnesia mice. For the induction of amnesia, 1 mg/kg scopolamine hydrobromide was administered intraperitoneally once a day for 14 days. Morris water maze test for spatial learning ability was conducted. Immonofluorescence for 5-bromo-2-deoxyuri-dine (BrdU) and western blot for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) were performed. In the present results, scopolamine-induced amnesia mice showed deterioration of spatial learning ability. Inhibition of cell proliferation and suppression of BDNF and TrkB expressions were observed in the scopolamine-induced amnesia mice. Treadmill exercise improved spatial learning ability and increased cell proliferation through activating of BDNF-TrkB pathway in the amnesia mice. These findings offer a possibility that treadmill exercise may provide preventive or therapeutic value for the memory loss induced by variable neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Haptic spatial configuration learning in deaf and hearing individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, R; Kappers, A.M.L.; Postma, A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated haptic spatial configuration learning in deaf individuals, hearing sign language interpreters and hearing controls. In three trials, participants had to match ten shapes haptically to the cut-outs in a board as fast as possible. Deaf and hearing sign language users

  19. Behavior and spatial learning in radial mazes in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleskacheva, M G

    2009-10-01

    This review addresses studies of spatial memory and learning in birds performed using the radial maze method. Descriptions of different versions of this test (standard and "giant" tunnel-type mazes, as well as unstructured "analogs") are described and the methodological problems of testing birds are discussed. Behavioral measures from birds and laboratory rats, as the "standard" system for radial maze studies, are compared. The characteristics of spatial learning in birds of different systematic groups (pigeons, tits, corvids, chickens, etc.) are compared. Particular attention is paid to studies addressing spatial memory in closely related bird species with different ecological features, in terms of the ability to hoard food and finding their hoards after prolonged time periods, as well as to the few reports of results from experiments with migrant birds and homing pigeons.

  20. Evaluation of Deep Learning Representations of Spatial Storm Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, D. J., II; Haupt, S. E.; Nychka, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    The spatial structure of a severe thunderstorm and its surrounding environment provide useful information about the potential for severe weather hazards, including tornadoes, hail, and high winds. Statistics computed over the area of a storm or from the pre-storm environment can provide descriptive information but fail to capture structural information. Because the storm environment is a complex, high-dimensional space, identifying methods to encode important spatial storm information in a low-dimensional form should aid analysis and prediction of storms by statistical and machine learning models. Principal component analysis (PCA), a more traditional approach, transforms high-dimensional data into a set of linearly uncorrelated, orthogonal components ordered by the amount of variance explained by each component. The burgeoning field of deep learning offers two potential approaches to this problem. Convolutional Neural Networks are a supervised learning method for transforming spatial data into a hierarchical set of feature maps that correspond with relevant combinations of spatial structures in the data. Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) are an unsupervised deep learning model that uses two neural networks trained against each other to produce encoded representations of spatial data. These different spatial encoding methods were evaluated on the prediction of severe hail for a large set of storm patches extracted from the NCAR convection-allowing ensemble. Each storm patch contains information about storm structure and the near-storm environment. Logistic regression and random forest models were trained using the PCA and GAN encodings of the storm data and were compared against the predictions from a convolutional neural network. All methods showed skill over climatology at predicting the probability of severe hail. However, the verification scores among the methods were very similar and the predictions were highly correlated. Further evaluations are being

  1. Learning outdoors: male lizards show flexible spatial learning under semi-natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Daniel W A; Carazo, Pau; Whiting, Martin J

    2012-12-23

    Spatial cognition is predicted to be a fundamental component of fitness in many lizard species, and yet some studies suggest that it is relatively slow and inflexible. However, such claims are based on work conducted using experimental designs or in artificial contexts that may underestimate their cognitive abilities. We used a biologically realistic experimental procedure (using simulated predatory attacks) to study spatial learning and its flexibility in the lizard Eulamprus quoyii in semi-natural outdoor enclosures under similar conditions to those experienced by lizards in the wild. To evaluate the flexibility of spatial learning, we conducted a reversal spatial-learning task in which positive and negative reinforcements of learnt spatial stimuli were switched. Nineteen (32%) male lizards learnt both tasks within 10 days (spatial task mean: 8.16 ± 0.69 (s.e.) and reversal spatial task mean: 10.74 ± 0.98 (s.e.) trials). We demonstrate that E. quoyii are capable of flexible spatial learning and suggest that future studies focus on a range of lizard species which differ in phylogeny and/or ecology, using biologically relevant cognitive tasks, in an effort to bridge the cognitive divide between ecto- and endotherms.

  2. Sleep after spatial learning promotes covert reorganization of brain activity

    OpenAIRE

    Orban, Pierre; Rauchs, Géraldine; Balteau, Evelyne; Degueldre, Christian; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Peigneux, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Sleep promotes the integration of recently acquired spatial memories into cerebral networks for the long term. In this study, we examined how sleep deprivation hinders this consolidation process. Using functional MRI, we mapped regional cerebral activity during place-finding navigation in a virtual town, immediately after learning and 3 days later, in subjects either allowed regular sleep (RS) or totally sleep-deprived (TSD) on the first posttraining night. At immediate and delayed retrieval,...

  3. Sex differences in dogs' social learning of spatial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazza, Claudia; Mongillo, Paolo; Marinelli, Lieta

    2017-07-01

    We used a modified version of the Do as I Do paradigm to investigate dogs' preference and flexibility in the acquisition of different types of spatial information in social learning situations. When required to match the location of the demonstration, dogs (N = 16) preferentially relied on allocentric information, i.e., the relationship between the location of the demonstration and the various objects surrounding it. However, when allocentric cues were inadequate to solve the task, dogs learned to rely on egocentric information, i.e., the direction-left/right-taken by the human demonstrator. The ease of resorting to the non-preferred egocentric strategy was sex-dependent with males acquiring the egocentric strategy in fewer trials than females. This study shows that dogs rely preferentially on allocentric cues when recalling socially acquired spatial information. However, they are impressively flexible in switching to egocentric strategies according to the task requirements. Whether preference for the allocentric strategy in processing spatial information is embedded in the nature of social learning or restricted to our paradigm is an open question. This study also supports the idea that sex differences in cognitive domains are widespread among mammals and calls for further investigations aimed at shedding light on the evolution, function and mechanisms of such differences.

  4. Allocentric spatial learning and memory deficits in Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela A Banta Lavenex

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that persons with Down Syndrome (DS exhibit relatively poor language capacities, and impaired verbal and visuoperceptual memory, whereas their visuospatial memory capacities appear comparatively spared. Individuals with DS recall better where an object was previously seen than what object was previously seen. However, most of the evidence concerning preserved visuospatial memory comes from tabletop or computerized experiments which are biased towards testing egocentric (viewpoint-dependent spatial representations. Accordingly, allocentric (viewpoint-independent spatial learning and memory capacities may not be necessary to perform these tasks. Thus, in order to more fully characterize the spatial capacities of individuals with DS, allocentric processes underlying real-world navigation must also be investigated. We tested 20 participants with DS and 16 mental age-matched, typically developing (TD children in a real-world, allocentric spatial memory task. During local cue (LC trials, participants had to locate three rewards marked by local color cues, among 12 locations distributed in a 4 m X 4 m arena. During allocentric spatial (AS trials, participants had to locate the same three rewards, in absence of local cues, based on their relations to distal environmental cues. All TD participants chose rewarded locations in LC and AS trials at above chance level. In contrast, although all but one of the participants with DS exhibited a preference for the rewarded locations in LC trials, only 50% of participants with DS chose the rewarded locations at above chance level in AS trials. As a group, participants with DS performed worse than TD children on all measures of task performance. These findings demonstrate that individuals with DS are impaired at using an allocentric spatial representation to learn and remember discrete locations in a controlled environment, suggesting persistent and pervasive deficits in hippocampus

  5. Guidance of spatial attention during associative learning: Contributions of predictability and intention to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Carmo Blanco, Noelia; Allen, John J B

    2018-03-23

    Expectations of an event can facilitate its neural processing. One of the ways we build expectations is through associative learning. Interestingly, the learning of contingencies between events can also occur without intention. Here, we study feature-based attention during associative learning, by asking how a learned association between a cue and a target outcome impacts the attention allocated to this outcome. Moreover, we investigate attention in learning depending on the intention to learn the association. We used an associative learning paradigm where we manipulated outcome predictability and intention to learn an association within streams of cue-target outcome visual stimuli, while stimulus characteristics and probability were held constant. In order to measure the event-related component N2pc, widely recognized to reflect allocation of spatial attention, every outcome was embedded among distractors. Importantly, the location of the target outcome could not be anticipated. We found that predictable target outcomes showed an increased spatial attention as indexed by a greater N2pc component. A later component, the P300, was sensitive to the intention to learn the association between the cue and the target outcome. The current study confirms the remarkable ability of the brain to extract and update predictive information, in accordance with a predictive-coding model of brain function. Associative learning can guide a visual search and shape covert attentional selection in our rich environments. © 2018 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Hilar GABAergic interneuron activity controls spatial learning and memory retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaisa Andrews-Zwilling

    Full Text Available Although extensive research has demonstrated the importance of excitatory granule neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in normal learning and memory and in the pathogenesis of amnesia in Alzheimer's disease (AD, the role of hilar GABAergic inhibitory interneurons, which control the granule neuron activity, remains unclear.We explored the function of hilar GABAergic interneurons in spatial learning and memory by inhibiting their activity through Cre-dependent viral expression of enhanced halorhodopsin (eNpHR3.0--a light-driven chloride pump. Hilar GABAergic interneuron-specific expression of eNpHR3.0 was achieved by bilaterally injecting adeno-associated virus containing a double-floxed inverted open-reading frame encoding eNpHR3.0 into the hilus of the dentate gyrus of mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of an enhancer specific for GABAergic interneurons. In vitro and in vivo illumination with a yellow laser elicited inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneurons and consequent activation of dentate granule neurons, without affecting pyramidal neurons in the CA3 and CA1 regions of the hippocampus. We found that optogenetic inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneuron activity impaired spatial learning and memory retrieval, without affecting memory retention, as determined in the Morris water maze test. Importantly, optogenetic inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneuron activity did not alter short-term working memory, motor coordination, or exploratory activity.Our findings establish a critical role for hilar GABAergic interneuron activity in controlling spatial learning and memory retrieval and provide evidence for the potential contribution of GABAergic interneuron impairment to the pathogenesis of amnesia in AD.

  7. Nucleus incertus inactivation impairs spatial learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nategh, Mohsen; Nikseresht, Sara; Khodagholi, Fariba; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2015-02-01

    Nucleus incertus (NI) is a pontine nucleus which releases mainly GABA and relaxin-3 in rats. Its suggested functions include response to stress, arousal, and modulation of hippocampal theta rhythm. Since the role of NI in learning and memory has not been well characterized, therefore the involvement of this nucleus in spatial learning and memory and the aftermath hippocampal levels of c-fos and pCREB were evaluated. NI was targeted by implanting cannula in male rats. For reference memory, NI was inactivated by lidocaine (0.4 μl, 4%) at three stages of acquisition, consolidation and retrieval in Morris water maze paradigm. For working memory, NI was inactivated in acquisition and retrieval phases. Injection of lidocaine prior to the first training session of reference memory significantly increased the distance moved, suggesting that inactivation of NI delays acquisition in this spatial task. Inactivation also interfered with the retrieval phase of spatial reference memory, as the time in target quadrant for lidocaine group was less, and the escape latency was higher compared to the control group. However, no difference was observed in the consolidation phase. In the working memory task, with inter-trial intervals of 75 min, the escape latency was higher when NI was inactivated in the retrieval phase. In addition, c-fos and pCREB/CREB levels decreased in NI-inhibited rats. This study suggests that nucleus incertus might participate in acquisition of spatial reference, and retrieval of both spatial reference and working memory. Further studies should investigate possible roles of NI in the hippocampal plasticity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Early handling effect on female rat spatial and non-spatial learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, Fulvio; Marino, Rosa A M; Navarra, Michele; Gambino, Giuditta; Brancato, Anna; Sardo, Pierangelo; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2014-03-01

    This study aims at providing an insight into early handling procedures on learning and memory performance in adult female rats. Early handling procedures were started on post-natal day 2 until 21, and consisted in 15 min, daily separations of the dams from their litters. Assessment of declarative memory was carried out in the novel-object recognition task; spatial learning, reference- and working memory were evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM). Our results indicate that early handling induced an enhancement in: (1) declarative memory, in the object recognition task, both at 1h and 24h intervals; (2) reference memory in the probe test and working memory and behavioral flexibility in the "single-trial and four-trial place learning paradigm" of the MWM. Short-term separation by increasing maternal care causes a dampening in HPA axis response in the pups. A modulated activation of the stress response may help to protect brain structures, involved in cognitive function. In conclusion, this study shows the long-term effects of a brief maternal separation in enhancing object recognition-, spatial reference- and working memory in female rats, remarking the impact of early environmental experiences and the consequent maternal care on the behavioral adaptive mechanisms in adulthood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Haptic spatial configuration learning in deaf and hearing individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick van Dijk

    Full Text Available The present study investigated haptic spatial configuration learning in deaf individuals, hearing sign language interpreters and hearing controls. In three trials, participants had to match ten shapes haptically to the cut-outs in a board as fast as possible. Deaf and hearing sign language users outperformed the hearing controls. A similar difference was observed for a rotated version of the board. The groups did not differ, however, on a free relocation trial. Though a significant sign language experience advantage was observed, comparison to results from a previous study testing the same task in a group of blind individuals showed it to be smaller than the advantage observed for the blind group. These results are discussed in terms of how sign language experience and sensory deprivation benefit haptic spatial configuration processing.

  10. Acute nicotine treatment prevents REM sleep deprivation-induced learning and memory impairment in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleisa, A M; Helal, G; Alhaider, I A; Alzoubi, K H; Srivareerat, M; Tran, T T; Al-Rejaie, S S; Alkadhi, K A

    2011-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (SD) is implicated in impairment of spatial learning and memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). An increase in nicotine consumption among habitual smokers and initiation of tobacco use by nonsmokers was observed during SD. Although nicotine treatment was reported to attenuate the impairment of learning and memory and LTP associated with several mental disorders, the effect of nicotine on SD-induced learning and memory impairment has not been studied. Modified multiple platform paradigm was used to induce SD for 24 or 48 h during which rats were injected with saline or nicotine (1 mg kg(-1) s.c.) twice a day. In the radial arm water maze (RAWM) task, 24- or 48-h SD significantly impaired learning and short-term memory. In addition, extracellular recordings from CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the hippocampus in urethane anesthetized rats showed a significant impairment of LTP after 24- and 48-h SD. Treatment of normal rats with nicotine for 24 or 48 h did not enhance spatial learning and memory or affect magnitude of LTP in the CA1 and DG regions. However, concurrent, acute treatment of rats with nicotine significantly attenuated SD-induced impairment of learning and STM and prevented SD-induced impairment of LTP in the CA1 and DG regions. These results show that acute nicotine treatment prevented the deleterious effect of sleep loss on cognitive abilities and synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Statistical Learning as a Tool for Rehabilitation in Spatial Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaqiri, Albulena; Anderson, Britt; Danckert, James

    2013-01-01

    We propose that neglect includes a disorder of representational updating. Representational updating refers to our ability to build mental models and adapt those models to changing experience. This updating ability depends on the processes of priming, working memory, and statistical learning. These processes in turn interact with our capabilities for sustained attention and precise temporal processing. We review evidence showing that all these non-spatial abilities are impaired in neglect, and we discuss how recognition of such deficits can lead to novel approaches for rehabilitating neglect. PMID:23754998

  12. Statistical learning as a tool for rehabilitation in spatial neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albulena eShaqiri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose that neglect includes a disorder of representational updating. Representational updating refers to our ability to build mental models and adapt those models to changing experience. This updating ability depends on the processes of priming, working memory, and statistical learning. These processes in turn interact with our capabilities for sustained attention and precise temporal processing. We review evidence showing that all these non-spatial abilities are impaired in neglect, and we discuss how recognition of such deficits can lead to novel approaches for rehabilitating neglect.

  13. Training shortest-path tractography: Automatic learning of spatial priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew George; Reislev, Nina Linde

    2016-01-01

    knowledge. Here we demonstrate how such prior knowledge, or indeed any prior spatial information, can be automatically incorporated into a shortest-path tractography approach to produce more robust results. We describe how such a prior can be automatically generated (learned) from a population, and we......Tractography is the standard tool for automatic delineation of white matter tracts from diffusion weighted images. However, the output of tractography often requires post-processing to remove false positives and ensure a robust delineation of the studied tract, and this demands expert prior...... demonstrate that our framework also retains support for conventional interactive constraints such as waypoint regions. We apply our approach to the open access, high quality Human Connectome Project data, as well as a dataset acquired on a typical clinical scanner. Our results show that the use of a learned...

  14. Reconstructing spatial organizations of chromosomes through manifold learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangxiang; Deng, Wenxuan; Hu, Hailin; Ma, Rui; Zhang, Sai; Yang, Jinglin; Peng, Jian; Kaplan, Tommy; Zeng, Jianyang

    2018-02-02

    Decoding the spatial organizations of chromosomes has crucial implications for studying eukaryotic gene regulation. Recently, chromosomal conformation capture based technologies, such as Hi-C, have been widely used to uncover the interaction frequencies of genomic loci in a high-throughput and genome-wide manner and provide new insights into the folding of three-dimensional (3D) genome structure. In this paper, we develop a novel manifold learning based framework, called GEM (Genomic organization reconstructor based on conformational Energy and Manifold learning), to reconstruct the three-dimensional organizations of chromosomes by integrating Hi-C data with biophysical feasibility. Unlike previous methods, which explicitly assume specific relationships between Hi-C interaction frequencies and spatial distances, our model directly embeds the neighboring affinities from Hi-C space into 3D Euclidean space. Extensive validations demonstrated that GEM not only greatly outperformed other state-of-art modeling methods but also provided a physically and physiologically valid 3D representations of the organizations of chromosomes. Furthermore, we for the first time apply the modeled chromatin structures to recover long-range genomic interactions missing from original Hi-C data. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Spatial learning in a virtual reality-based task is altered in very preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimadevilla, José M; Roldán, Lola; París, María; Arnedo, Marisa; Roldán, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Very preterm births prevent a complete development of the nervous system. The hippocampus is especially vulnerable in this population since the perinatal period is critical for its growth and development. Learning and memory abilities, like spatial memory, depend on the hippocampal integrity. In this study we applied virtual-reality-based tasks to assess spatial memory in a sample of 20 very preterm children of 7 and 8 years of age. Two different conditions of difficulty were used. Very preterm children performed poorly in the task in comparison with the control group. They committed more errors than controls searching for the rewarded positions. However, no significant differences were observed in the mean speed, an index of the motor abilities and joystick handling. These results suggest that the hippocampal function is affected in this sample. Nevertheless, other variables to consider are discussed.

  16. Training shortest-path tractography: Automatic learning of spatial priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew; Reislev, Nina Linde; Ørting, Silas N; Nielsen, Mads; Garde, Ellen; Feragen, Aasa

    2016-04-15

    Tractography is the standard tool for automatic delineation of white matter tracts from diffusion weighted images. However, the output of tractography often requires post-processing to remove false positives and ensure a robust delineation of the studied tract, and this demands expert prior knowledge. Here we demonstrate how such prior knowledge, or indeed any prior spatial information, can be automatically incorporated into a shortest-path tractography approach to produce more robust results. We describe how such a prior can be automatically generated (learned) from a population, and we demonstrate that our framework also retains support for conventional interactive constraints such as waypoint regions. We apply our approach to the open access, high quality Human Connectome Project data, as well as a dataset acquired on a typical clinical scanner. Our results show that the use of a learned prior substantially increases the overlap of tractography output with a reference atlas on both populations, and this is confirmed by visual inspection. Furthermore, we demonstrate how a prior learned on the high quality dataset significantly increases the overlap with the reference for the more typical yet lower quality data acquired on a clinical scanner. We hope that such automatic incorporation of prior knowledge and the obviation of expert interactive tract delineation on every subject, will improve the feasibility of large clinical tractography studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cabri 3D - assisted collaborative learning to enhance junior high school students’ spatial ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntazhimah; Miatun, A.

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the enhancement of spatial ability of junior high school students who learned through Cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning. The methodology of this study was the nonequivalent group that was conducted to students of the eighth grade in a junior high school as a population. Samples consisted one class of the experimental group who studied with Cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning and one class as a control group who got regular learning activity. The instrument used in this study was a spatial ability test. Analyzing normalized gain of students’ spatial ability based on mathemathical prior knowledge (MPK) and its interactions was tested by two-way ANOVA at a significance level of 5% then continued with using Post Hoc Scheffe test. The research results showed that there was significant difference in enhancement of the spatial ability between students who learnt with Cabri 3D assisted collaborative learning and students who got regular learning, there was significant difference in enhancement of the spatial ability between students who learnt with cabri 3D assisted collaborative learning and students who got regular learning in terms of MPK and there is no significant interaction between learning (Cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning and regular learning) with students’ MPK (high, medium, and low) toward the enhancement of students’ spatial abilities. From the above findings, it can be seen that cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning could enhance spatial ability of junior high school students.

  18. SPATIALLY ADAPTIVE SEMI-SUPERVISED LEARNING WITH GAUSSIAN PROCESSES FOR HYPERSPECTRAL DATA ANALYSIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SPATIALLY ADAPTIVE SEMI-SUPERVISED LEARNING WITH GAUSSIAN PROCESSES FOR HYPERSPECTRAL DATA ANALYSIS GOO JUN * AND JOYDEEP GHOSH* Abstract. A semi-supervised learning...

  19. Differential effects of aging on spatial learning through exploratory navigation and map reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naohide; Degirolamo, Gregory J

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that abilities in spatial learning and memory are adversely affected by aging. The present study was conducted to investigate whether increasing age has equal consequences for all types of spatial learning or impacts certain types of spatial learning selectively. Specifically, two major types of spatial learning, exploratory navigation and map reading, were contrasted. By combining a neuroimaging finding that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is especially important for exploratory navigation and a neurological finding that the MTL is susceptible to age-related atrophy, it was hypothesized that spatial learning through exploratory navigation would exhibit a greater decline in later life than spatial learning through map reading. In an experiment, young and senior participants learned locations of landmarks in virtual environments either by navigating in them in the first-person perspective or by seeing aerial views of the environments. Results showed that senior participants acquired less accurate memories of the layouts of landmarks than young participants when they navigated in the environments, but the two groups did not differ in spatial learning performance when they viewed the environments from the aerial perspective. These results suggest that spatial learning through exploratory navigation is particularly vulnerable to adverse effects of aging, whereas elderly adults may be able to maintain their map reading skills relatively well.

  20. The effectivnes of learning spatial geometry with 3D geometry software

    OpenAIRE

    Roblek, Manca

    2016-01-01

    In the thesis spatial ability is considered as the ability to manipulate, generate and retain well-structured visual images. Three elements of spatial ability are presented in detail: spatial visualization, spatial relations and mental rotations. Spatial ability plays an important role in school mathe- matics when students learn about space geometry. Students use different manipulatives to help them through studying. Computer programs for spa- tial geometry are not yet introduced into learnin...

  1. Place field repetition and spatial learning in a multicompartment environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Roddy M; Jenkins, Bryan W; Harland, Bruce C; Wood, Emma R; Dudchenko, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that place cells in the hippocampus possess firing fields that repeat in physically similar, parallel environments. These results imply that it should be difficult for animals to distinguish parallel environments at a behavioral level. To test this, we trained rats on a novel odor-location task in an environment with four parallel compartments which had previously been shown to yield place field repetition. A second group of animals was trained on the same task, but with the compartments arranged in different directions, an arrangement we hypothesised would yield less place field repetition. Learning of the odor-location task in the parallel compartments was significantly impaired relative to learning in the radially arranged compartments. Fewer animals acquired the full discrimination in the parallel compartments compared to those trained in the radial compartments, and the former also required many more sessions to reach criterion compared to the latter. To confirm that the arrangement of compartments yielded differences in place cell repetition, in a separate group of animals we recorded from CA1 place cells in both environments. We found that CA1 place cells exhibited repeated fields across four parallel local compartments, but did not do so when the same compartments were arranged radially. To confirm that the differences in place field repetition across the parallel and radial compartments depended on their angular arrangement, and not incidental differences in access to an extra-maze visual landmark, we repeated the recordings in a second set of rats in the absence of the orientation landmark. We found, once again, that place fields showed repetition in parallel compartments, and did not do so in radially arranged compartments. Thus place field repetition, or lack thereof, in these compartments was not dependent on extra-maze cues. Together, these results imply that place field repetition constrains spatial learning. © 2015 Wiley

  2. Situated student learning and spatial informational analysis for environmental problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Timothy Paul

    Ninth and tenth grade high school Biology student research teams used spatial information analysis tools to site a prairie restoration plot on a 55 acre campus during a four-week environment unit. Students made use of innovative technological practices by applying geographic information systems (GIS) approaches to solving environmental and land use problems. Student learning was facilitated by starting with the students' initial conceptions of computing, local landscape and biological environment, and then by guiding them through a problem-based science project process. The project curriculum was framed by the perspective of legitimate peripheral participation (Lave & Wenger, 1991) where students were provided with learning opportunities designed to allow them to act like GIS practitioners. Sociocultural lenses for learning were employed to create accounts of human mental processes that recognize the essential relationship between these processes and their cultural, historical, and institutional settings (Jacob, 1997; Wertsch, 1991). This research investigated how student groups' meaning-making actions were mediated by GIS tools on the periphery of a scientific community of practice. Research observations focused on supporting interpretations of learners' socially constructed actions and the iterative building of assertions from multiple sources. These included the artifacts students produced, the tools they used, the cultural contexts that constrained their activity, and how people begin to adopt ways of speaking (speech genres) of the referent community to negotiate meanings and roles. Students gathered field observations and interpreted attributes of landscape entities from the GIS data to advocate for an environmental decision. However, even while gaining proficiencies with GIS tools, most students did not begin to appropriate roles from the GIS community of practice. Students continued to negotiate their project actions simply as school exercises motivated by

  3. Spatial extreme learning machines: An application on prediction of disease counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Marcos O

    2018-01-01

    Extreme learning machines have gained a lot of attention by the machine learning community because of its interesting properties and computational advantages. With the increase in collection of information nowadays, many sources of data have missing information making statistical analysis harder or unfeasible. In this paper, we present a new model, coined spatial extreme learning machine, that combine spatial modeling with extreme learning machines keeping the nice properties of both methodologies and making it very flexible and robust. As explained throughout the text, the spatial extreme learning machines have many advantages in comparison with the traditional extreme learning machines. By a simulation study and a real data analysis we present how the spatial extreme learning machine can be used to improve imputation of missing data and uncertainty prediction estimation.

  4. Prenatal treatment prevents learning deficit in Down syndrome model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddalena Incerti

    Full Text Available Down syndrome is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation. Active fragments of neurotrophic factors release by astrocyte under the stimulation of vasoactive intestinal peptide, NAPVSIPQ (NAP and SALLRSIPA (SAL respectively, have shown therapeutic potential for developmental delay and learning deficits. Previous work demonstrated that NAP+SAL prevent developmental delay and glial deficit in Ts65Dn that is a well-characterized mouse model for Down syndrome. The objective of this study is to evaluate if prenatal treatment with these peptides prevents the learning deficit in the Ts65Dn mice. Pregnant Ts65Dn female and control pregnant females were randomly treated (intraperitoneal injection on pregnancy days 8 through 12 with saline (placebo or peptides (NAP 20 µg +SAL 20 µg daily. Learning was assessed in the offspring (8-10 months using the Morris Watermaze, which measures the latency to find the hidden platform (decrease in latency denotes learning. The investigators were blinded to the prenatal treatment and genotype. Pups were genotyped as trisomic (Down syndrome or euploid (control after completion of all tests.two-way ANOVA followed by Neuman-Keuls test for multiple comparisons, P<0.05 was used to denote statistical significance. Trisomic mice who prenatally received placebo (Down syndrome-placebo; n = 11 did not demonstrate learning over the five day period. DS mice that were prenatally exposed to peptides (Down syndrome-peptides; n = 10 learned significantly better than Down syndrome-placebo (p<0.01, and similar to control-placebo (n = 33 and control-peptide (n = 30. In conclusion prenatal treatment with the neuroprotective peptides (NAP+SAL prevented learning deficits in a Down syndrome model. These findings highlight a possibility for the prevention of sequelae in Down syndrome and suggest a potential pregnancy intervention that may improve outcome.

  5. Integrating Spatial Educational Experiences (Isee) – Mapping a New Approach to Teaching and Learning Soil Science

    OpenAIRE

    Benes, Bedrich; Glotzbach, Ronald J; Kim, Hansoo; Nataraja, Kavin M; Kong, Nicole; Bessenbacher, Ann M; Graveel, John G; Van Scoyoc, George E; Owens, Phillip R; Burgess, Wilella D; Adedokun, Omolola A; Liu, Jia; Branch, Benjamin D; Bracke, Marianne S; Dorantes, Minerva

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Integrating Spatial Educational Experiences project is to develop the ability of our students to use digital maps: (1) to learn how and why soils and landscapes vary spatially at scales ranging from fields, to counties, states, and globally and (2) to learn how the spatial distribution of soils and landscapes impacts the distributions of land use, and environmental and ecosystem services across various scales. Our immediate audience is undergraduate students in soil, crop, ...

  6. Intact implicit learning of spatial context and temporal sequences in childhood autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kelly Anne; Howard, James H; Howard, Darlene V; Gilotty, Lisa; Kenworthy, Lauren; Gaillard, William D; Vaidya, Chandan J

    2008-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by atypicalities in domains that are posited to rely on implicit learning processes such as social communication, language, and motor behavior. The authors examined 2 forms of implicit learning in 14 children with high-functioning ASD (10 of whom were diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome) and 14 control children, learning of spatial context known to be mediated by the medial temporal lobes (using the contextual cueing task) and of sequences known to be mediated by frontal-striatal and frontal-cerebellar circuits (using the alternating serial reaction time task). Both forms of learning were unimpaired in ASD. Spatial contextual implicit learning was spared in ASD despite slower visual search of spatial displays. The present findings provide evidence for the integrity of learning processes dependent on integration of spatial and sequential contextual information in high-functioning children with ASD. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Approaches to learning spatial relationships in gross anatomy: perspective from wider principles of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R

    2000-01-01

    When students learn spatial relationships in gross anatomy, as in other areas of study, fundamentals should be learned first; otherwise confusion results. The fundamentals in gross anatomy are defined not in conceptual terms but by principles of visual perception. In particular, they derive from Gestalt principles such as collinearity and symmetry, which generally make learning and recognition of visual patterns easier. The collinearity (straight line formations) and symmetry in the body cavities are obvious when one studies the empty cavities, or body cavities with only a few symmetrical structures in place. These principles are, however, totally obscured if one starts one's study, as in traditional dissection, with the body cavities crammed full of a complex mass of interlocking organs. and their ducts, vessels, etc. Therefore, it is recommended that learning gross anatomy (especially of the body cavities) would be an easier exercise if it started with empty body cavities, then building up, with a careful sequence of prosections, to the more complex and realistic anatomy of the full cavities. This system of learning is perceptually preferable to traditional dissection. However, it needs to be enlivened in several ways, e.g., with respect to design principles evident in anatomical structure (especially for the musculoskeletal system), developmental processes, and sometimes by explicit reference to clinical relevance.

  8. Isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairment in mice is prevented by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diansan Su

    Full Text Available Although many studies have shown that isoflurane exposure impairs spatial memory in aged animals, there are no clinical treatments available to prevent this memory deficit. The anticholinergic properties of volatile anesthetics are a biologically plausible cause of cognitive dysfunction in elderly subjects. We hypothesized that pretreatment with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil, which has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, prevents isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairment in aged mice. In present study, eighteen-month-old mice were administered donepezil (5 mg/kg or an equal volume of saline by oral gavage with a feeding needle for four weeks. Then the mice were exposed to isoflurane (1.2% for six hours. Two weeks later, mice were subjected to the Morris water maze to examine the impairment of spatial memory after exposure to isoflurane. After the behavioral test, the mice were sacrificed, and the protein expression level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, choline acetylase (ChAT and α7 nicotinic receptor (α7-nAChR were measured in the brain. Each group consisted of 12 mice. We found that isoflurane exposure for six hours impaired the spatial memory of the mice. Compared with the control group, isoflurane exposure dramatically decreased the protein level of ChAT, but not AChE or α7-nAChR. Donepezil prevented isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairments and increased ChAT levels, which were downregulated by isoflurane. In conclusions, pretreatment with the AChE inhibitor donepezil prevented isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairment in aged mice. The mechanism was associated with the upregulation of ChAT, which was decreased by isoflurane.

  9. Spatial Visualization Learning in Engineering: Traditional Methods vs. a Web-Based Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Carlos Melgosa; Barbero, Basilio Ramos; Miguel, Arturo Román

    2014-01-01

    This study compares an interactive learning manager for graphic engineering to develop spatial vision (ILMAGE_SV) to traditional methods. ILMAGE_SV is an asynchronous web-based learning tool that allows the manipulation of objects with a 3D viewer, self-evaluation, and continuous assessment. In addition, student learning may be monitored, which…

  10. Using Mobile Devices to Enhance the Interactive Learning for Spatial Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo-En; Wu, Lin-Jung; Lai, Shing-Chuang; Sung, Yao-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a hands-on spatial geometry learning system to facilitate the learning of geometry. The development of this system was based on Duval's four critical elements of geometric learning: perceptual apprehension, sequential apprehension, operative apprehension, and discursive apprehension. The system offers…

  11. Active Learning Environments with Robotic Tangibles: Children's Physical and Virtual Spatial Programming Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Winslow S.; Harlow, Danielle B.; Nilsen, Katherine J.; Perlin, Ken; Freed, Natalie; Jensen, Camilla Nørgaard; Lahey, Byron; Lu, Patrick; Muldner, Kasia

    2018-01-01

    As computational thinking becomes increasingly important for children to learn, we must develop interfaces that leverage the ways that young children learn to provide opportunities for them to develop these skills. Active Learning Environments with Robotic Tangibles (ALERT) and Robopad, an analogous on-screen virtual spatial programming…

  12. Horses fail to use social learning when solving spatial detour tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Peerstrup Ahrendt, Line; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2015-01-01

    Social animals should have plenty of opportunities to learn from conspecifics, but most studies have failed to document social learning in horses. This study investigates whether young Icelandic horses can learn a spatial detour task through observation of a trained demonstrator horse of either...

  13. Development of an HIV Prevention Videogame: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Hieftje

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of videogames interventions is becoming an increasingly popular and effective strategy in disease prevention and health promotion; however, few health videogame interventions have been scientifically rigorously evaluated for their efficacy. Moreover, few examples of the formative process used to develop and evaluate evidence-based health videogame interventions exist in the scientific literature. The following paper provides valuable insight into the lessons learned during the process of developing the risk reduction and HIV prevention videogame intervention for young adolescents, PlayForward: Elm City Stories. 

  14. Postnatal Gene Therapy Improves Spatial Learning Despite the Presence of Neuronal Ectopia in a Model of Neuronal Migration Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiyu Hu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients with type II lissencephaly, a neuronal migration disorder with ectopic neurons, suffer from severe mental retardation, including learning deficits. There is no effective therapy to prevent or correct the formation of neuronal ectopia, which is presumed to cause cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that learning deficits were not solely caused by neuronal ectopia and that postnatal gene therapy could improve learning without correcting the neuronal ectopia formed during fetal development. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated spatial learning of cerebral cortex-specific protein O-mannosyltransferase 2 (POMT2, an enzyme required for O-mannosyl glycosylation knockout mice and compared to the knockout mice that were injected with an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV encoding POMT2 into the postnatal brains with Barnes maze. The data showed that the knockout mice exhibited reduced glycosylation in the cerebral cortex, reduced dendritic spine density on CA1 neurons, and increased latency to the target hole in the Barnes maze, indicating learning deficits. Postnatal gene therapy restored functional glycosylation, rescued dendritic spine defects, and improved performance on the Barnes maze by the knockout mice even though neuronal ectopia was not corrected. These results indicate that postnatal gene therapy improves spatial learning despite the presence of neuronal ectopia.

  15. Tau reduction diminishes spatial learning and memory deficits after mild repetitive traumatic brain injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S Cheng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Because reduction of the microtubule-associated protein Tau has beneficial effects in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy, we wanted to determine whether this strategy can also improve the outcome of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI. METHODS: We adapted a mild frontal impact model of TBI for wildtype C57Bl/6J mice and characterized the behavioral deficits it causes in these animals. The Barnes maze, Y maze, contextual and cued fear conditioning, elevated plus maze, open field, balance beam, and forced swim test were used to assess different behavioral functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 7 Tesla and histological analysis of brain sections were used to look for neuropathological alterations. We also compared the functional effects of this TBI model and of controlled cortical impact in mice with two, one or no Tau alleles. RESULTS: Repeated (2-hit, but not single (1-hit, mild frontal impact impaired spatial learning and memory in wildtype mice as determined by testing of mice in the Barnes maze one month after the injury. Locomotor activity, anxiety, depression and fear related behaviors did not differ between injured and sham-injured mice. MRI imaging did not reveal focal injury or mass lesions shortly after the injury. Complete ablation or partial reduction of tau prevented deficits in spatial learning and memory after repeated mild frontal impact. Complete tau ablation also showed a trend towards protection after a single controlled cortical impact. Complete or partial reduction of tau also reduced the level of axonopathy in the corpus callosum after repeated mild frontal impact. INTERPRETATION: Tau promotes or enables the development of learning and memory deficits and of axonopathy after mild TBI, and tau reduction counteracts these adverse effects.

  16. Development of an HIV Prevention Videogame: Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly Hieftje; Lynn E. Fiellin; Tyra Pendergrass; Lindsay R Duncan

    2016-01-01

    The use of videogames interventions is becoming an increasingly popular and effective strategy in disease prevention and health promotion; however, few health videogame interventions have been scientifically rigorously evaluated for their efficacy. Moreover, few examples of the formative process used to develop and evaluate evidence-based health videogame interventions exist in the scientific literature. The following paper provides valuable insight into the lessons learned during the process...

  17. Melatonin prevented spatial deficits and increases in brain asymmetric dimethylarginine in young bile duct ligation rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Mei-Hsin; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Li, Shih-Wen; Huang, Li-Tung

    2018-01-30

    Bile duct ligation (BDL) in young rats can cause impaired liver function and cognition deficits. Nitric oxide is implicated in hepatic encephalopathy and is also involved in cognition. In this study, we examined the role of brain asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, in young BDL rats with spatial deficits. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 17 days were assigned to four groups: laparotomy (SHAM), laparotomy plus 5 mg melatonin delivered through a pellet (SHAMM) for 4 weeks, BDL for 4 weeks, and BDL plus 5 mg melatonin delivered through a pellet (BDLM) for 4 weeks. Their spatial memory was assessed using a Morris water-maze task. Plasma and brains were collected for biochemical and ADMA analyses. We found that the BDL group had significantly elevated levels of ADMA in the plasma, the prefrontal cortex, and the dorsal hippocampus, and worse spatial performance than that of the control groups. Melatonin administration prevented an increase in the ADMA levels in the plasma, prefrontal cortex, and dorsal hippocampus, and prevented spatial deficits in BDL rats. In addition, melatonin maintained brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the dorsal hippocampus at a level comparable with controls. We concluded that melatonin is effective in preventing spatial deficits and decreasing ADMA levels in the plasma, prefrontal cortex, and dorsal hippocampus in young BDL rats. Brain ADMA levels might play a role in BDL-induced spatial deficits.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

  18. Astrocytic CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein δ Regulates Neuronal Viability and Spatial Learning Ability via miR-135a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yu-Yi; Ko, Chiung-Yuan; Wang, Wei-Jan; Wang, Shao-Ming; Gean, Po-Wu; Kuo, Yu-Min; Wang, Ju-Ming

    2016-08-01

    The progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been associated with astrocytes-induced neuroinflammation. However, the detailed mechanism of astrocytes associated with learning impairments and neuronal loss in AD is poorly defined. Here, we provide novel evidences that astrocytic miR-135a is critical for neuronal viability and spatial learning ability in vivo. The AppTg/Cebpd (-/-) mice showed a spatial learning improvement compared with the APPswe/PS1/E9 bigenic (AppTg) mice. miR-135a was found to be a CCAAT/enhancer binding protein δ (CEBPD) responsive miRNA and can repress the transcription of thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) / Thbs1 (mouse) via its 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR). We used different experimental approaches to attenuate the expression of CEBPD/Cebpd (mouse) or miR-135a in astrocytes and found the following results: increase in THBS1/Thbs1 expression, decrease in neuronal apoptosis, and increase in growth of neurites. Importantly, injection of miR-135a antagonist (AM135a) into the brain of AppTg mice was found to prevent neuronal apoptosis and improved the spatial learning ability. Together, our findings demonstrate a critical function for the astrocytic CEBPD, and point to miR-135a antagonist as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Effect of Royal Jelly on Improving Passive Avoidance Learning and Spatial Learning and Memory in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Alaei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies have proposed that royal jelly(RJ has various biological activities in different cells and tissues. Since it has been demonstrated that RJ contains compounds having desirable effects on central neurons system and neural functions, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of royal jelly on learning and memory in rats. Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into two groups, the royal jelly and the control. In the RJ group, the rats received a food that contained 3% RJ instead of regular food for 10 days. Then learning and memory were investigated in these animals through both passive avoidance learning test(1 day and 1 week after receiving electrical shock and Morris water maze test(1 day and 1 week after a 4-day learning period. Results: The study results indicated that the food containing RJ in the RJ group significantly increased the time of the first entrance to the dark room one week after the electrical shock in passive avoidance learning test. In other words, the findings suggest an improvement of learning and memory in RJ group. In the acquisition phase of Morris water maze test, rats receiving RJ found the underwater escape plate during less time and distance comparing with the control group. Furthermore, one week after the acquisition phase, in the retention phase, rats spent more time in the quadrant in which the escape plate was previously located. Conclusion: The present study findings propose that Royal Jelly can improve cognitive processes through positive effects on neural functions and probably has a significant influence on prevention and therapy of some neuronal disorders.

  20. Engineering Genders: A Spatial Analysis of Engineering, Gender, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidler-Lewis, Joanna R.

    2016-01-01

    This three article dissertation is an investigation into the ontology of learning insofar as learning is a process of becoming. In each article I explore the general questions of who is learning, in what ways, and with what consequences. The context for this research is undergraduate engineering education with particular attention to the…

  1. The Joint Role of Spatial Ability and Imagery Strategy in Sustaining the Learning of Spatial Descriptions under Spatial Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, Chiara; De Beni, Rossana; Gyselinck, Valerie; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the joint role of spatial ability, imagery strategy and visuospatial working memory (VSWM) in spatial text processing. A set of 180 participants, half of them trained on the use of imagery strategy (training vs no-training groups), was further divided according to participants' high or low mental rotation ability…

  2. Neural correlates of reward-based spatial learning in persons with cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tau, Gregory Z; Marsh, Rachel; Wang, Zhishun; Torres-Sanchez, Tania; Graniello, Barbara; Hao, Xuejun; Xu, Dongrong; Packard, Mark G; Duan, Yunsuo; Kangarlu, Alayar; Martinez, Diana; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-02-01

    Dysfunctional learning systems are thought to be central to the pathogenesis of and impair recovery from addictions. The functioning of the brain circuits for episodic memory or learning that support goal-directed behavior has not been studied previously in persons with cocaine dependence (CD). Thirteen abstinent CD and 13 healthy participants underwent MRI scanning while performing a task that requires the use of spatial cues to navigate a virtual-reality environment and find monetary rewards, allowing the functional assessment of the brain systems for spatial learning, a form of episodic memory. Whereas both groups performed similarly on the reward-based spatial learning task, we identified disturbances in brain regions involved in learning and reward in CD participants. In particular, CD was associated with impaired functioning of medial temporal lobe (MTL), a brain region that is crucial for spatial learning (and episodic memory) with concomitant recruitment of striatum (which normally participates in stimulus-response, or habit, learning), and prefrontal cortex. CD was also associated with enhanced sensitivity of the ventral striatum to unexpected rewards but not to expected rewards earned during spatial learning. We provide evidence that spatial learning in CD is characterized by disturbances in functioning of an MTL-based system for episodic memory and a striatum-based system for stimulus-response learning and reward. We have found additional abnormalities in distributed cortical regions. Consistent with findings from animal studies, we provide the first evidence in humans describing the disruptive effects of cocaine on the coordinated functioning of multiple neural systems for learning and memory.

  3. Learning through EC directive based SEA in spatial planning? Evidence from the Brunswick Region in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Thomas B.; Kidd, Sue; Jha-Thakur, Urmila; Gazzola, Paola; Peel, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents results of an international comparative research project, funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and the Academy for Sustainable Communities (ASC) on the 'learning potential of appraisal (strategic environmental assessment - SEA) in spatial planning'. In this context, aspects of 'single-loop' and 'double-loop' learning, as well as of individual, organisational and social learning are discussed for emerging post-EC Directive German practice in the planning region (Zweckverband) of Brunswick (Braunschweig), focusing on four spatial plan SEAs from various administrative levels in the region. It is found that whilst SEA is able to lead to plan SEA specific knowledge acquisition, comprehension, application and analysis ('single-loop learning'), it is currently resulting only occasionally in wider synthesis and evaluation ('double-loop learning'). Furthermore, whilst there is evidence that individual and occasionally organisational learning may be enhanced through SEA, most notably in small municipalities, social learning appears to be happening only sporadically.

  4. Δ⁹Tetrahydrocannabinol impairs visuo-spatial associative learning and spatial working memory in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffe, Michael A

    2012-10-01

    Cannabis remains the most commonly abused illicit drug and is rapidly expanding in quasi-licit use in some jurisdictions under medical marijuana laws. Effects of the psychoactive constituent Δ⁹tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹THC) on cognitive function remain of pressing concern. Prior studies in monkeys have not shown consistent evidence of memory-specific effects of Δ⁹THC on recognition tasks, and it remains unclear to what extent Δ⁹THC causes sedative versus specific cognitive effects. In this study, adult male rhesus monkeys were trained on tasks which assess spatial working memory, visuo-spatial associative memory and learning as well as motivation for food reward. Subjects were subsequently challenged with 0.1-0.3 mg/kg Δ⁹THC, i.m., in randomized order and evaluated on the behavioral measures. The performance of both vsPAL and SOSS tasks was impaired by Δ⁹THC in a dose and task-difficulty dependent manner. It is concluded that Δ⁹THC disrupts cognition in a way that is consistent with a direct effect on memory. There was evidence for interference with spatial working memory, visuo-spatial associative memory and incremental learning in the latter task. These results and the lack of specific effect of Δ⁹THC in prior visual recognition studies imply a sensitivity of spatial memory processing and/or working memory to endocannabinoid perturbation.

  5. Women Match Men when Learning a Spatial Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Ian; Yu, Jingjie Jessica; Feng, Jing; Marshman, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Meta-analytic studies have concluded that although training improves spatial cognition in both sexes, the male advantage generally persists. However, because some studies run counter to this pattern, a closer examination of the anomaly is warranted. The authors investigated the acquisition of a basic skill (spatial selective attention) using a…

  6. Differential Recruitment of Brain Networks following Route and Cartographic Map Learning of Spatial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Copara, Milagros; Ekstrom, Arne D.

    2012-01-01

    An extensive neuroimaging literature has helped characterize the brain regions involved in navigating a spatial environment. Far less is known, however, about the brain networks involved when learning a spatial layout from a cartographic map. To compare the two means of acquiring a spatial representation, participants learned spatial environments either by directly navigating them or learning them from an aerial-view map. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants then performed two different tasks to assess knowledge of the spatial environment: a scene and orientation dependent perceptual (SOP) pointing task and a judgment of relative direction (JRD) of landmarks pointing task. We found three brain regions showing significant effects of route vs. map learning during the two tasks. Parahippocampal and retrosplenial cortex showed greater activation following route compared to map learning during the JRD but not SOP task while inferior frontal gyrus showed greater activation following map compared to route learning during the SOP but not JRD task. We interpret our results to suggest that parahippocampal and retrosplenial cortex were involved in translating scene and orientation dependent coordinate information acquired during route learning to a landmark-referenced representation while inferior frontal gyrus played a role in converting primarily landmark-referenced coordinates acquired during map learning to a scene and orientation dependent coordinate system. Together, our results provide novel insight into the different brain networks underlying spatial representations formed during navigation vs. cartographic map learning and provide additional constraints on theoretical models of the neural basis of human spatial representation. PMID:23028661

  7. Tactile stimulation effects on hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial learning and memory in prenatally stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Angeles, Guerrero Aguilera María; Del Carmen, Rubio Osornio María; Wendy, Portillo Martínez; Socorro, Retana-Márquez

    2016-06-01

    Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is increased by spatial learning and postnatal stimulation. Conversely, prenatal stress (PS) produces a decrease in the proliferation of hippocampal granular cells. This work evaluated the effect of postnatal tactile stimulation (PTS), when applied from birth to adulthood, on cognitive performance and hippocampal neurogenesis (survival and differentiation) in PS female and male rats. The response of the adrenal axis to training in the Morris water maze (MWM) was also analyzed. PS was provided during gestational days 15 through 21. Hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive performance in the MWM were assessed at an age of three months. Results showed that escape latencies of both female and male PS rats were longer compared to those of their controls (CON). DG cell survival increased in the PS female rats. Corticosterone concentrations were significantly higher in the male and female PS rats after MWM training. PTS improved escape latencies and increased the number of new neurons in the DG of PS animals, and their corticosterone concentrations were similar to those in CON. In CON, PTS diminished DG cell survival but increased differentiation and reduces latency in the MWM. These results show that long-term PTS in PS animals might prevent learning deficits in adults through increase in the number of DG new cells and decrease of the reactivity of the adrenal axis to MWM training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep deprivation impairs spatial learning and modifies the hippocampal theta rhythm in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R-H; Hou, X-H; Xu, X-N; Zhang, L; Shi, J-N; Wang, F; Hu, S-J; Chen, J-Y

    2011-01-26

    Previous work from our laboratory suggests that paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) decreases persistent sodium currents and hyperpolarization-activated cation currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons, and this leads to decreases in neuron excitability. Here, we further investigate the mechanisms of rhythmic theta-range activity in the hippocampus by examining the resonance characteristics of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Sleep deprivation (SD) interfered with the rhythmic activity of theta band in the hippocampus, which may be involved in the deficit of the spatial learning ability of rats. Additionally, SD changes the voltage dependence of resonance. The effect of SD on the ion currents may contribute to the alternation of the theta resonance of neurons and further influence the physiological function. These results suggest that changes in neuron resonance lead to changes in the generation of rhythmic theta activity, and may contribute to behavioral deficits associated with theta activity during learning and memory tasks. We suggest the resonant properties of hippocampal neurons are potential targets for preventing deleterious effects of sleep deprivation. © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial Visualisation Ability and Learning Style Preference of Low Achieving Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, SeokHoon; Yeo, Alan

    This paper explores the role of one cognitive style, spatial visualization, which research suggests correlates highly with student achievement. The study focuses on: whether students with high, average, and low spatial visualization ability differ in their preferred learning modes (concrete experience, abstract conceptualization, reflective…

  10. Spatial Ability: Its Influence on Learning with Visualizations--A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffler, Tim N.

    2010-01-01

    This meta-analytical review focuses on the role of spatial ability when learning with pictorial visualizations. By means of selective theoretical review and meta-analysis (the latter regarding 27 different experiments from 19 studies), several sub-factors of spatial ability are considered as well as dynamic and non-dynamic, interactive and…

  11. Spatial Representation by Persons Who Are Blind: A Study of the Effects of Learning and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochaita, E.; Huertas, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Children and adolescents (n=40) with congenital or adventitious blindness were exposed to two unfamiliar environments. Evaluation of subjects' spatial representations (through construction of models and estimates of distance) found that age appeared to be more important than learning in their development of spatial representation skills. (DB)

  12. How Spatial Abilities and Dynamic Visualizations Interplay When Learning Functional Anatomy with 3D Anatomical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, Sandra; Bétrancourt, Mireille; Molinari, Gaëlle; Hoyek, Nady

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of dynamic visualizations of three-dimensional (3D) models in anatomy curricula may be an adequate solution for spatial difficulties encountered with traditional static learning, as they provide direct visualization of change throughout the viewpoints. However, little research has explored the interplay between learning material…

  13. Comparison of Visual-Spatial Performance Strategy Training in Children with Turner Syndrome and Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janet K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen females with Turner syndrome, 13 females with nonverbal learning disabilities, and 14 males with nonverbal learning disabilities, ages 7-14, were taught via a cognitive behavioral modification approach to verbally mediate a spatial matching task. All three groups showed significant task improvement after the training, with no significant…

  14. Environmental Enrichment Prevents Methamphetamine-Induced Spatial Memory Deficits and Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajheidari, Samira; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Bigdeli, Imanollah

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to examine the effect of environmental enrichment during methamphetamine (METH) dependency and withdrawal on methamphetamine-induced spatial learning and memory deficits and obsessive-compulsive behavior. Method: Adult male Wistar rats (200 ± 10 g) chronically received bi-daily doses of METH (2 mg/kg, sc, with 12 hours intervals) for 14 days. Rats reared in standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) during the development of dependence on METH and withdrawal. Then, they were tested for spatial learning and memory (the water maze), and obsessive-compulsive behavior as grooming behavior in METH-withdrawn rats. Results: The results revealed that the Sal/EE and METH/EE rats reared in EE spent more time in the target zone on the water maze and displayed significantly increased proximity to the platform compared to their control groups. METH withdrawn rats reared in EE displayed less grooming behavior than METH/SE group. Conclusion : Our findings revealed EE ameliorates METH-induced spatial memory deficits and obsessive-compulsive behavior in rats.

  15. Environmental Enrichment Prevents Methamphetamine-Induced Spatial Memory Deficits and Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Hajheidari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to examine the effect of environmental enrichment during methamphetamine (METH dependency and withdrawal on methamphetamine-induced spatial learning and memory deficits and obsessive-compulsive behavior.Method: Adult male Wistar rats (200 ± 10 g chronically received bi-daily doses of METH (2 mg/kg, sc, with 12 hours intervals for 14 days. Rats reared in standard (SE or enriched environment (EE during the development of dependence on METH and withdrawal. Then, they were tested for spatial learning and memory (the water maze, and obsessive-compulsive behavior as grooming behavior in METH-withdrawn rats.Results: The results revealed that the Sal/EE and METH/EE rats reared in EE spent more time in the target zone on the water maze and displayed significantly increased proximity to the platform compared to their control groups. METH withdrawn rats reared in EE displayed less grooming behavior than METH/SE group.Conclusion: Our findings revealed EE ameliorates METH-induced spatial memory deficits and obsessive-compulsive behavior in rats.

  16. Sleep deprivation impairs spatial retrieval but not spatial learning in the non-human primate grey mouse lemur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anisur; Languille, Solène; Lamberty, Yves; Babiloni, Claudio; Perret, Martine; Bordet, Regis; Blin, Olivier J; Jacob, Tom; Auffret, Alexandra; Schenker, Esther; Richardson, Jill; Pifferi, Fabien; Aujard, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    A bulk of studies in rodents and humans suggest that sleep facilitates different phases of learning and memory process, while sleep deprivation (SD) impairs these processes. Here we tested the hypothesis that SD could alter spatial learning and memory processing in a non-human primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), which is an interesting model of aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Two sets of experiments were performed. In a first set of experiments, we investigated the effects of SD on spatial learning and memory retrieval after one day of training in a circular platform task. Eleven male mouse lemurs aged between 2 to 3 years were tested in three different conditions: without SD as a baseline reference, 8 h of SD before the training and 8 h of SD before the testing. The SD was confirmed by electroencephalographic recordings. Results showed no effect of SD on learning when SD was applied before the training. When the SD was applied before the testing, it induced an increase of the amount of errors and of the latency prior to reach the target. In a second set of experiments, we tested the effect of 8 h of SD on spatial memory retrieval after 3 days of training. Twenty male mouse lemurs aged between 2 to 3 years were tested in this set of experiments. In this condition, the SD did not affect memory retrieval. This is the first study that documents the disruptive effects of the SD on spatial memory retrieval in this primate which may serve as a new validated challenge to investigate the effects of new compounds along physiological and pathological aging.

  17. Sleep deprivation impairs spatial retrieval but not spatial learning in the non-human primate grey mouse lemur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisur Rahman

    Full Text Available A bulk of studies in rodents and humans suggest that sleep facilitates different phases of learning and memory process, while sleep deprivation (SD impairs these processes. Here we tested the hypothesis that SD could alter spatial learning and memory processing in a non-human primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, which is an interesting model of aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Two sets of experiments were performed. In a first set of experiments, we investigated the effects of SD on spatial learning and memory retrieval after one day of training in a circular platform task. Eleven male mouse lemurs aged between 2 to 3 years were tested in three different conditions: without SD as a baseline reference, 8 h of SD before the training and 8 h of SD before the testing. The SD was confirmed by electroencephalographic recordings. Results showed no effect of SD on learning when SD was applied before the training. When the SD was applied before the testing, it induced an increase of the amount of errors and of the latency prior to reach the target. In a second set of experiments, we tested the effect of 8 h of SD on spatial memory retrieval after 3 days of training. Twenty male mouse lemurs aged between 2 to 3 years were tested in this set of experiments. In this condition, the SD did not affect memory retrieval. This is the first study that documents the disruptive effects of the SD on spatial memory retrieval in this primate which may serve as a new validated challenge to investigate the effects of new compounds along physiological and pathological aging.

  18. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Spatial Learning and Memory in Juvenile and Young Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Christopher P; Wooden, Jessica I; Kieltyka, Ryan

    2017-03-01

    Sleepiness is commonly seen in adolescents and can negatively impact school performance. Little research has investigated the impact of sleepiness in juvenile animals on spatial learning. Sprague-Dawley juvenile (60 days) rats were sleep deprived for 24 hours and tested, along with controls, in a water maze task. Sleep deprived juveniles were slower to learn the location of the hidden platform than controls; however, adult performance was not impaired. Sleep deprivation did not impair recall during a probe trial for either age group. Sleep deprivation prior to testing slowed spatial learning in juveniles but not adults.

  19. Functional networks involved in spatial learning strategies in middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begega, A; Cuesta, M; Rubio, S; Méndez, M; Santín, L J; Arias, J L

    2012-03-01

    Our aim was to assess the way that middle-aged rats solve spatial learning tasks that can be performed using different strategies. We assessed the brain networks involved in these spatial learning processes using Principal Component Analysis. Two tasks were performed in a complex context, a four-arm radial maze, in which each group must use either an allocentric or an egocentric strategy. Another task was performed in a simple T-maze in which rats must use an egocentric strategy. Brain metabolic activity was quantified to evaluate neural changes related to spatial learning in the described tasks. Our findings revealed that two functional networks are involved in spatial learning in aged rats. One of the networks, spatial processing, is composed of brain regions involved in the integration of sensory and motivational information. The other network, context-dependent processing, mainly involves the dorsal hippocampus and is related to the processing of contextual information from the environment. Both networks work together to solve spatial tasks in a complex spatial environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hippocampal α-adrenoceptors involve in the effect of histamine on spatial learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkaman-Boutorabi, Anahita; Danyali, Fatemeh; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-04-22

    Spatial learning is a model of higher human cognitive functions which is used for studying animal behavior. Histaminergic and noradrenergic systems play a modulatory role in learning and memory. The present study aimed to test the effects of α-adrenoceptor agonist/antagonist microinjection into the CA1 region of dorsal hippocampus on histamine-induced spatial learning facilitation in the water maze task. Pre-training intra-CA1 microinjection of α1- or α2-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine (0.0025μg/rat) or clonidine (0.05μg/rat) decreased traveled distance and escape latency at the start of the training phase, suggesting a spatial learning facilitation; while the higher dose of the drugs (phenylephrine 0.005μg/rat, clonidine 0.2 and 0.5μg/rat) increased the performance level at the end of the training phase, indicating a water maze spatial acquisition impairment. However, α1-receptor antagonist, prazosin (1μg/rat) impaired spatial learning; α2-receptor antagonist, yohimbine (0.25μg/rat) facilitated spatial acquisition. Moreover, pre-training intra-CA1 microinjection of a subthreshold dose of phenylephrine (0.001μg/rat) reversed histamine response, while ineffective dose co-administration of clonidine (0.1μg/rat) potentiated histamine (0.01μg/rat) response. Subthreshold dose of prazosin or yohimbine did not alter histamine response. Bilateral infusion of histamine (0.05μg/rat) facilitated spatial learning by itself. Furthermore, the drug's injections had no effect on swimming speed on the training days of MWM. These results suggest that α-adrenergic receptors of the dorsal hippocampal CA1 regions may play an important role in histamine-induced facilitation of spatial acquisition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A SVR Learning Based Sensor Placement Approach for Nonlinear Spatially Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-xia Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many industrial processes are inherently distributed in space and time and are called spatially distributed dynamical systems (SDDSs. Sensor placement affects capturing the spatial distribution and then becomes crucial issue to model or control an SDDS. In this study, a new data-driven based sensor placement method is developed. SVR algorithm is innovatively used to extract the characteristics of spatial distribution from a spatiotemporal data set. The support vectors learned by SVR represent the crucial spatial data structure in the spatiotemporal data set, which can be employed to determine optimal sensor location and sensor number. A systematic sensor placement design scheme in three steps (data collection, SVR learning, and sensor locating is developed for an easy implementation. Finally, effectiveness of the proposed sensor placement scheme is validated on two spatiotemporal 3D fuzzy controlled spatially distributed systems.

  2. Spatial Downscaling of Alien Species Presences using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Moustakas, Aristides

    2017-07-01

    Large scale, high-resolution data on alien species distributions are essential for spatially explicit assessments of their environmental and socio-economic impacts, and management interventions for mitigation. However, these data are often unavailable. This paper presents a method that relies on Random Forest (RF) models to distribute alien species presence counts at a finer resolution grid, thus achieving spatial downscaling. A sufficiently large number of RF models are trained using random subsets of the dataset as predictors, in a bootstrapping approach to account for the uncertainty introduced by the subset selection. The method is tested with an approximately 8×8 km2 grid containing floral alien species presence and several indices of climatic, habitat, land use covariates for the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece. Alien species presence is aggregated at 16×16 km2 and used as a predictor of presence at the original resolution, thus simulating spatial downscaling. Potential explanatory variables included habitat types, land cover richness, endemic species richness, soil type, temperature, precipitation, and freshwater availability. Uncertainty assessment of the spatial downscaling of alien species’ occurrences was also performed and true/false presences and absences were quantified. The approach is promising for downscaling alien species datasets of larger spatial scale but coarse resolution, where the underlying environmental information is available at a finer resolution than the alien species data. Furthermore, the RF architecture allows for tuning towards operationally optimal sensitivity and specificity, thus providing a decision support tool for designing a resource efficient alien species census.

  3. Spatial Downscaling of Alien Species Presences Using Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Daliakopoulos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatially explicit assessments of alien species environmental and socio-economic impacts, and subsequent management interventions for their mitigation, require large scale, high-resolution data on species presence distribution. However, these data are often unavailable. This paper presents a method that relies on Random Forest (RF models to distribute alien species presence counts at a finer resolution grid, thus achieving spatial downscaling. A bootstrapping scheme is designed to account for sub-setting uncertainty, and subsets are used to train a sufficiently large number of RF models. RF results are processed to estimate variable importance and model performance. The method is tested with an ~8 × 8 km2 grid containing floral alien species presence and several potentially exploratory indices of climatic, habitat, land use, and soil property covariates for the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece. Alien species presence is aggregated at 16 × 16 km2 and used as a predictor of presence at the original resolution, thus simulating spatial downscaling. Uncertainty assessment of the spatial downscaling of alien species' occurrences was also performed and true/false presences and absences were quantified. The approach is promising for downscaling alien species datasets of larger spatial scale but coarse resolution, where the underlying environmental information is available at a finer resolution. Furthermore, the RF architecture allows for tuning toward operationally optimal sensitivity and specificity, thus providing a decision support tool for designing a resource efficient alien species census.

  4. Spatial reversal learning is robust to total sleep deprivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, C.H.; Joosten, R.N.J.M.; Kramer, M.; Post, G.; Eggels, L.; Wuite, M.; Dematteis, M.; Feenstra, M.G.P.; van Someren, E.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep deprivation affects cognitive functions that depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) such as cognitive flexibility, and the consolidation of newly learned information. The identification of cognitive processes that are either robustly sensitive or robustly insensitive to the same experimental

  5. Spatial context driven manifold learning for hyperspectral image classification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zhang, Y

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston. 2 Meraka Institute, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa. 3 School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, US. Abstract Manifold learning techniques have...

  6. Exposure to 56Fe irradiation accelerates normal brain aging and produces deficits in spatial learning and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Casadesus, Gemma; Carey, Amanda N.; Rabin, Bernard M.; Joseph, James A.

    Previous studies have shown that radiation exposure, particularly to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles) such as 56Fe, produces deficits in spatial learning and memory. These adverse behavioral effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. It is possible that these shared effects may be produced by the same mechanism. For example, an increased release of reactive oxygen species, and the subsequent oxidative stress and inflammatory damage caused to the central nervous system, is likely responsible for the deficits seen in aging and following irradiation. Therefore, dietary antioxidants, such as those found in fruits and vegetables, could be used as countermeasures to prevent the behavioral changes seen in these conditions. Both aged and irradiated rats display cognitive impairment in tests of spatial learning and memory such as the Morris water maze and the radial arm maze. These rats have decrements in the ability to build spatial representations of the environment, and they utilize non-spatial strategies to solve tasks. Furthermore, they show a lack of spatial preference, due to a decline in the ability to process or retain place (position of a goal with reference to a “map” provided by the configuration of numerous cues in the environment) information. These declines in spatial memory occur in measures dependent on both reference and working memory, and in the flexibility to reset mental images. These results show that irradiation with 56Fe high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts, particularly middle-aged ones, to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere.

  7. Mental "Space" Travel: Damage to Posterior Parietal Cortex Prevents Egocentric Navigation and Reexperiencing of Remote Spatial Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaramelli, Elisa; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna; Solcz, Stephanie; Levine, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2010-01-01

    The ability to navigate in a familiar environment depends on both an intact mental representation of allocentric spatial information and the integrity of systems supporting complementary egocentric representations. Although the hippocampus has been implicated in learning new allocentric spatial information, converging evidence suggests that the…

  8. Sleep Enhances a Spatially Mediated Generalization of Learned Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Tolat, Anisha; Spiers, Hugo J.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is thought to play an important role in memory consolidation. Here we tested whether sleep alters the subjective value associated with objects located in spatial clusters that were navigated to in a large-scale virtual town. We found that sleep enhances a generalization of the value of high-value objects to the value of locally clustered…

  9. A Deep Similarity Metric Learning Model for Matching Text Chunks to Spatial Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, K.; Wu, L.; Tao, L.; Li, W.; Xie, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The matching of spatial entities with related text is a long-standing research topic that has received considerable attention over the years. This task aims at enrich the contents of spatial entity, and attach the spatial location information to the text chunk. In the data fusion field, matching spatial entities with the corresponding describing text chunks has a big range of significance. However, the most traditional matching methods often rely fully on manually designed, task-specific linguistic features. This work proposes a Deep Similarity Metric Learning Model (DSMLM) based on Siamese Neural Network to learn similarity metric directly from the textural attributes of spatial entity and text chunk. The low-dimensional feature representation of the space entity and the text chunk can be learned separately. By employing the Cosine distance to measure the matching degree between the vectors, the model can make the matching pair vectors as close as possible. Mearnwhile, it makes the mismatching as far apart as possible through supervised learning. In addition, extensive experiments and analysis on geological survey data sets show that our DSMLM model can effectively capture the matching characteristics between the text chunk and the spatial entity, and achieve state-of-the-art performance.

  10. The Effect of Spatial Working Memory Deterioration on Strategic Visuomotor Learning across Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uresti-Cabrera, Luis A; Diaz, Rosalinda; Vaca-Palomares, Israel; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of age-related cognitive changes in a visuomotor learning task that depends on strategic control and contrast it with the effect in a task principally depending on visuomotor recalibration. Participants performed a ball throwing task while donning either a reversing dove prism or a displacement wedge prism, which mainly depend on strategic control or visuomotor recalibration, respectively. Visuomotor performance was then analysed in relation to rule acquisition and reversal, recognition memory, visual memory, spatial planning, and spatial working memory with tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). The results confirmed previous works showing a detrimental effect of age on visuomotor learning. The analyses of the cognitive changes observed across age showed that both strategic control and visuomotor recalibration had significant negative correlations only with the number of errors in the spatial working memory task. However, when the effect of aging was controlled, the only significant correlation remaining was between the reversal adaptation magnitude and spatial working memory. These results suggest that spatial working memory decline across aging could contribute to age-dependent deterioration in both visuomotor learning processes. However, spatial working memory integrity seems to affect strategic learning decline even after controlling for aging.

  11. The effect of sodium salicylate injection on spatial learning and memory of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Azimi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cyclooxygenase (COX enzyme known as a regulatory factor in synaptic plasticity. It has been reported that synaptic plasticity is one of the mechanisms involved in learning and memory processes. In the current study peripheral injection's effects of sodium salicylate (as a non selective COX inhibitor on spatial learning and memory have been investigated.Methods: Four groups of male rats received different doses of sodium salicylate (0, 200, 300, 400 mg/kg; i.p.. Studies were performed using Morris Water Maze (MWM. Spatial learning and memory parameters were subjected to the one- and two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs followed by Tukey’s post hoc test.Results: Data showed that intraperitoneal injection of sodium salicylate had not significant effect on spatial learning parameters (including escape latency and traveled distance to hidden platform in training days; but administration of high dose of the drug (400 mg/kg significantly increased the percentage of time that animals spent in the target quadrant in probe trial testing. Conclusion: Peripheral injection of the COX inhibitor has no significant effect on spatial learning; but potentiates spatial memory consolidation using MWM.

  12. A virtual reality-based FMRI study of reward-based spatial learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Rachel; Hao, Xuejun; Xu, Dongrong; Wang, Zhishun; Duan, Yunsuo; Liu, Jun; Kangarlu, Alayar; Martinez, Diana; Garcia, Felix; Tau, Gregory Z; Yu, Shan; Packard, Mark G; Peterson, Bradley S

    2010-08-01

    Although temporo-parietal cortices mediate spatial navigation in animals and humans, the neural correlates of reward-based spatial learning are less well known. Twenty-five healthy adults performed a virtual reality fMRI task that required learning to use extra-maze cues to navigate an 8-arm radial maze and find hidden rewards. Searching the maze in the spatial learning condition compared to the control conditions was associated with activation of temporo-parietal regions, albeit not including the hippocampus. The receipt of rewards was associated with activation of the hippocampus in a control condition when using the extra-maze cues for navigation was rendered impossible by randomizing the spatial location of cues. Our novel experimental design allowed us to assess the differential contributions of the hippocampus and other temporo-parietal areas to searching and reward processing during reward-based spatial learning. This translational research will permit parallel studies in animals and humans to establish the functional similarity of learning systems across species; cellular and molecular studies in animals may then inform the effects of manipulations on these systems in humans, and fMRI studies in humans may inform the interpretation and relevance of findings in animals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Self-Regulation, Cooperative Learning, and Academic Self-Efficacy: Interactions to Prevent School Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Río, Francisco Javier; Cecchini Estrada, José Antonio; Méndez Giménez, Antonio; Prieto Saborit, José Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Learning to learn and learning to cooperate are two important goals for individuals. Moreover, self regulation has been identified as fundamental to prevent school failure. The goal of the present study was to assess the interactions between self-regulated learning, cooperative learning and academic self-efficacy in secondary education students experiencing cooperative learning as the main pedagogical approach for at least one school year. 2.513 secondary education students (1.308 males, 1.20...

  14. Evolution of learning strategies in temporally and spatially variable environments: a review of theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kenichi; Feldman, Marcus W

    2014-02-01

    The theoretical literature from 1985 to the present on the evolution of learning strategies in variable environments is reviewed, with the focus on deterministic dynamical models that are amenable to local stability analysis, and on deterministic models yielding evolutionarily stable strategies. Individual learning, unbiased and biased social learning, mixed learning, and learning schedules are considered. A rapidly changing environment or frequent migration in a spatially heterogeneous environment favors individual learning over unbiased social learning. However, results are not so straightforward in the context of learning schedules or when biases in social learning are introduced. The three major methods of modeling temporal environmental change--coevolutionary, two-timescale, and information decay--are compared and shown to sometimes yield contradictory results. The so-called Rogers' paradox is inherent in the two-timescale method as originally applied to the evolution of pure strategies, but is often eliminated when the other methods are used. Moreover, Rogers' paradox is not observed for the mixed learning strategies and learning schedules that we review. We believe that further theoretical work is necessary on learning schedules and biased social learning, based on models that are logically consistent and empirically pertinent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evolution of learning strategies in temporally and spatially variable environments: A review of theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kenichi; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical literature from 1985 to the present on the evolution of learning strategies in variable environments is reviewed, with the focus on deterministic dynamical models that are amenable to local stability analysis, and on deterministic models yielding evolutionarily stable strategies. Individual learning, unbiased and biased social learning, mixed learning, and learning schedules are considered. A rapidly changing environment or frequent migration in a spatially heterogeneous environment favors individual learning over unbiased social learning. However, results are not so straightforward in the context of learning schedules or when biases in social learning are introduced. The three major methods of modeling temporal environmental change – coevolutionary, two-timescale, and information decay – are compared and shown to sometimes yield contradictory results. The so-called Rogers’ paradox is inherent in the two-timescale method as originally applied to the evolution of pure strategies, but is often eliminated when the other methods are used. Moreover, Rogers’ paradox is not observed for the mixed learning strategies and learning schedules that we review. We believe that further theoretical work is necessary on learning schedules and biased social learning, based on models that are logically consistent and empirically pertinent. PMID:24211681

  16. Learning Spatial Object Localization from Vision on a Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Leitner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a combined machine learning and computer vision approach for robots to localize objects. It allows our iCub humanoid to quickly learn to provide accurate 3D position estimates (in the centimetre range of objects seen. Biologically inspired approaches, such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN and Genetic Programming (GP, are trained to provide these position estimates using the two cameras and the joint encoder readings. No camera calibration or explicit knowledge of the robot's kinematic model is needed. We find that ANN and GP are not just faster and have lower complexity than traditional techniques, but also learn without the need for extensive calibration procedures. In addition, the approach is localizing objects robustly, when placed in the robot's workspace at arbitrary positions, even while the robot is moving its torso, head and eyes.

  17. Interprofessional learning at work: what spatial theory can tell us about workplace learning in an acute care ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Linda Rosemary; Hopwood, Nick; Boud, David

    2014-05-01

    It is widely recognized that every workplace potentially provides a rich source of learning. Studies focusing on health care contexts have shown that social interaction within and between professions is crucial in enabling professionals to learn through work, address problems and cope with challenges of clinical practice. While hospital environments are beginning to be understood in spatial terms, the links between space and interprofessional learning at work have not been explored. This paper draws on Lefebvre's tri-partite theoretical framework of perceived, conceived and lived space to enrich understandings of interprofessional learning on an acute care ward in an Australian teaching hospital. Qualitative analysis was undertaken using data from observations of Registered Nurses at work and semi-structured interviews linked to observed events. The paper focuses on a ward round, the medical workroom and the Registrar's room, comparing and contrasting the intended (conceived), practiced (perceived) and pedagogically experienced (lived) spatial dimensions. The paper concludes that spatial theory has much to offer understandings of interprofessional learning in work, and the features of work environments and daily practices that produce spaces that enable or constrain learning.

  18. Spatial Context Learning Survives Interference from Working Memory Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Timothy J.; Sussman, Rachel S.; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2010-01-01

    The human visual system is constantly confronted with an overwhelming amount of information, only a subset of which can be processed in complete detail. Attention and implicit learning are two important mechanisms that optimize vision. This study addressed the relationship between these two mechanisms. Specifically we asked, Is implicit learning…

  19. Learning Spatial Relations between Objects From 3D Scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichtl, Severin; Alexander, John; Guerin, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing cognitive development during the first years of human life may be the result of a set of developmental mechanisms which are in continuous operation [1]. One such mechanism identified is the ability of the developing child to learn effective preconditions for their behaviours. It has been...

  20. Spatial Learning Deficits in Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schandler, Steven L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated whether visuospatial deficits displayed by chronic alcoholics are present in persons at risk for alcoholism. Compared 17 social drinkers who were children of alcoholics and 17 who had no family alcoholism history. Visuospatial learning of children of alcoholics was significantly poorer than that of subjects with no family alcoholism…

  1. D-cycloserine enhances spatial learning performances of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic developmental lead (Pb) exposure has long been associated with cognitive dysfunction in children and animals. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, important in the synaptic mechanisms involved in learning and memory, are key target of lead toxicity. D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist of the ...

  2. Location-Aware Mobile Learning of Spatial Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavirta, Ville

    2013-01-01

    Learning an algorithm--a systematic sequence of operations for solving a problem with given input--is often difficult for students due to the abstract nature of the algorithms and the data they process. To help students understand the behavior of algorithms, a subfield in computing education research has focused on algorithm…

  3. Spatial learning impairment in prepubertal guinea pigs prenatally exposed to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos: Toxicological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamczarz, Jacek; Pescrille, Joseph D.; Gavrushenko, Lisa; Burke, Richard D.; Fawcett, William P.; DeTolla, Louis J.; Chen, Hegang; Pereira, Edna F.R.; Albuquerque, Edson X.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure of the developing brain to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus (OP) pesticide used extensively in agriculture worldwide, has been associated with increased prevalence of cognitive deficits in children, particularly boys. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that cognitive deficits induced by prenatal exposure to sub-acute doses of CPF can be reproduced in precocial small species. To address this hypothesis, pregnant guinea pigs were injected daily with CPF (25 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle (peanut oil) for 10 days starting on presumed gestation day (GD) 53–55. Offspring were born around GD 65, weaned on postnatal day (PND) 20, and subjected to behavioral tests starting around PND 30. On the day of birth, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), an OP bioscavenger used as a biomarker of OP exposures, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a major molecular target of OP compounds, were significantly inhibited in the blood of CPF-exposed offspring. In their brains, BuChE, but not AChE, was significantly inhibited. Prenatal CPF exposure had no significant effect on locomotor activity or on locomotor habituation, a form of non-associative memory assessed in open fields. Spatial navigation in the Morris water maze (MWM) was found to be sexually dimorphic among guinea pigs, with males outperforming females. Prenatal CPF exposure impaired spatial learning more significantly among male than female guinea pigs and, consequently, reduced the sexual dimorphism of the task. The results presented here, which strongly support the test hypothesis, reveal that the guinea pig is a valuable animal model for preclinical assessment of the developmental neurotoxicity of OP pesticides. These findings are far reaching as they lay the groundwork for future studies aimed at identifying therapeutic interventions to treat and/or prevent the neurotoxic effects of CPF in the developing brain. PMID:27296654

  4. The Effect of Exercise on Learning and Spatial Memory Following Stress-Induced Sleep Deprivation (Sleep REM in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darkhah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Stress induced by sleep deprivation can cause degradation of learning in the acquisition phase, and low-intensity exercise can prevent the negative effects of stress. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the moderating role of aerobic exercise on spatial memory and learning following stress-induced insomnia (sleep REM in animal models. Materials and Methods This experimental study was conducted on adult male Wistar rats that were randomly divided into two groups. Both groups were exposed to sleep deprivation induced stress, following which the experimental group was exposed to exercise training (experimental, n = 8; control, n = 8. The stress intervention was undertaken through 24 hours of sleep deprivation using a modified sleep deprivation platform (MMD. The exercise protocol included mild aerobic exercise on a treadmill (30 minutes a day, seven days, and Morris Water Maze (MWM protocols were applied to assess spatial memory and learning. Data were analyzed by an independent t-test and dependent t-test. Results The results showed that, after seven days of aerobic exercise on a treadmill, the experimental group showed better performance escape latency (P < 0.05 and distance traveled (P < 0.05 than the control group in the MWM, while there was no difference between these two groups in the pre-test. Conclusions The role of exercise is greater in the retention than the acquisition phase for recalling past experiences.

  5. How sense-of-direction and learning intentionality relate to spatial knowledge acquisition in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burte, Heather; Montello, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    People's impression of their own "sense-of-direction" (SOD) is related to their ability to effectively find their way through environments, such as neighborhoods and cities, but is also related to the speed and accuracy with which they learn new environments. In the current literature, it is unclear whether the cognitive skills underlying SOD require intentional cognitive effort to produce accurate knowledge of a new environment. The cognitive skills underlying SOD could exert their influence automatically-without conscious intention-or they might need to be intentionally and effortfully applied. Determining the intentionality of acquiring environmental spatial knowledge would shed light on whether individuals with a poor SOD can be trained to use the skill set of an individual with good SOD, thereby improving their wayfinding and spatial learning. Therefore, this research investigates the accuracy of spatial knowledge acquisition during a walk through a previously unfamiliar neighborhood by individuals with differing levels of self-assessed SOD, as a function of whether their spatial learning was intentional or incidental. After walking a route through the neighborhood, participants completed landmark, route, and survey knowledge tasks. SOD was related to the accuracy of acquired spatial knowledge, as has been found previously. However, learning intentionality did not affect spatial knowledge acquisition, neither as a main effect nor in interaction with SOD. This research reveals that while the accuracy of spatial knowledge acquired via direct travel through an environment is validly measured by self-reported SOD, the spatial skills behind a good SOD appear to operate with or without intentional application.

  6. Spatial working memory and arithmetic deficits in children with nonverbal learning difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Irene Cristina; Lucangeli, Daniela; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Visuospatial working memory and its involvement in arithmetic were examined in two groups of 7- to 11-year-olds: one comprising children described by teachers as displaying symptoms of nonverbal learning difficulties (N = 21), the other a control group without learning disabilities (N = 21). The two groups were matched for verbal abilities, age, gender, and sociocultural level. The children were presented with a visuospatial working memory battery of recognition tests involving visual, spatial-sequential and spatial-simultaneous processes, and two arithmetic tasks (number ordering and written calculations). The two groups were found to differ on some spatial tasks but not in the visual working memory tasks. On the arithmetic tasks, the children with nonverbal learning difficulties made more errors than controls in calculation and were slower in number ordering. A discriminant function analysis confirmed the crucial role of spatial-sequential working memory in distinguishing between the two groups. Results are discussed with reference to spatial working memory and arithmetic difficulties in nonverbal learning disabilities. Implications for the relationship between visuospatial working memory and arithmetic are also considered.

  7. Changes in PKCγ lmmunoreactivity in Mouse Hippocampus Induced by Spatial Discrimination Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Zee, E.A. van der; Compaan, J.C.; Boer, M. de; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1992-01-01

    In the present study, we examined changes in immunoreactivity (ir) for the γ-isoform of protein kinase C (PKCγ) in mouse hippocampus in relation to spatial memory processes employing the monoclonal antibody 36G9 raised against purified PKCγ. Learning and memory were assessed by performance in a free-choice spatial pattern paradigm in a hole board in which the animals learned the pattern of 4 baited holes out of 16 holes. Adult male house mice were used, divided in four groups. Three control g...

  8. Gait disorder as a predictor of spatial learning and memory impairment in aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether gait dysfunction is a predictor of severe spatial learning and memory impairment in aged mice. Methods A total of 100 12-month-old male mice that had no obvious abnormal motor ability and whose Morris water maze performances were not significantly different from those of two-month-old male mice were selected for the study. The selected aged mice were then divided into abnormal or normal gait groups according to the results from the quantitative gait assessment. Gaits of aged mice were defined as abnormal when the values of quantitative gait parameters were two standard deviations (SD lower or higher than those of 2-month-old male mice. Gait parameters included stride length, variability of stride length, base of support, cadence, and average speed. After nine months, mice exhibiting severe spatial learning and memory impairment were separated from mice with mild or no cognitive dysfunction. The rate of severe spatial learning and memory impairment in the abnormal and normal gait groups was tested by a chi-square test and the correlation between gait dysfunction and decline in cognitive function was tested using a diagnostic test. Results The 12-month-old aged mice were divided into a normal gait group (n = 75 and an abnormal gait group (n = 25. Nine months later, three mice in the normal gait group and two mice in the abnormal gait group had died. The remaining mice were subjected to the Morris water maze again, and 17 out of 23 mice in the abnormal gait group had developed severe spatial learning and memory impairment, including six with stride length deficits, 15 with coefficient of variation (CV in stride length, two with base of support (BOS deficits, five with cadence dysfunction, and six with average speed deficits. In contrast, only 15 out of 72 mice in the normal gait group developed severe spatial learning and memory impairment. The rate of severe spatial learning and memory impairment was

  9. Spatial memory and learning deficits after experimental pneumococcal meningitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, A; Noeske, C; Gerber, J; Munzel, U; Nau, R

    2000-12-22

    Survivors of bacterial meningitis frequently suffer from long-term sequelae, particularly from learning and memory deficits. For this reason, spatial memory and learning was studied in a mouse model of ceftriaxone-treated Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. Persistent deficits of spatial learning despite normal motor function were observed in mice infected with 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU) in 25 microl of saline into the right forebrain in comparison to mice treated with an equal amount of saline. Survivors of meningitis performed significantly worse in memorizing a hidden platform in a Morris water maze. After 2 weeks, the difference between post-meningitis and control mice diminished. Yet, when the platform was moved after 180 days, learning of the new location was still strongly impaired in mice surviving meningitis.

  10. Spatial learning while navigating with severely degraded viewing: The role of attention and mobility monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Kristina M; Creem-Regehr, Sarah H; Thompson, William B

    2015-06-01

    The ability to navigate without getting lost is an important aspect of quality of life. In 5 studies, we evaluated how spatial learning is affected by the increased demands of keeping oneself safe while walking with degraded vision (mobility monitoring). We proposed that safe low vision mobility requires attentional resources, providing competition for those needed to learn a new environment. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants navigated along paths in a real-world indoor environment with simulated degraded vision or normal vision. Memory for object locations seen along the paths was better with normal compared with degraded vision. With degraded vision, memory was better when participants were guided by an experimenter (low monitoring demands) versus unguided (high monitoring demands). In Experiments 3 and 4, participants walked while performing an auditory task. Auditory task performance was superior with normal compared with degraded vision. With degraded vision, auditory task performance was better when guided compared with unguided. In Experiment 5, participants performed both the spatial learning and auditory tasks under degraded vision. Results showed that attention mediates the relationship between mobility-monitoring demands and spatial learning. These studies suggest that more attention is required and spatial learning is impaired when navigating with degraded viewing. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Deletion of PEA-15 in mice is associated with specific impairments of spatial learning abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Gregory

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PEA-15 is a phosphoprotein that binds and regulates ERK MAP kinase and RSK2 and is highly expressed throughout the brain. PEA-15 alters c-Fos and CREB-mediated transcription as a result of these interactions. To determine if PEA-15 contributes to the function of the nervous system we tested mice lacking PEA-15 in a series of experiments designed to measure learning, sensory/motor function, and stress reactivity. Results We report that PEA-15 null mice exhibited impaired learning in three distinct spatial tasks, while they exhibited normal fear conditioning, passive avoidance, egocentric navigation, and odor discrimination. PEA-15 null mice also had deficient forepaw strength and in limited instances, heightened stress reactivity and/or anxiety. However, these non-cognitive variables did not appear to account for the observed spatial learning impairments. The null mice maintained normal weight, pain sensitivity, and coordination when compared to wild type controls. Conclusion We found that PEA-15 null mice have spatial learning disabilities that are similar to those of mice where ERK or RSK2 function is impaired. We suggest PEA-15 may be an essential regulator of ERK-dependent spatial learning.

  12. Spatial olfactory learning facilitates long-term depression in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Marion Agnès Emma; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2013-10-01

    Recently, it has emerged that visual spatial exploration facilitates synaptic plasticity at different synapses within the trisynaptic network. Particularly striking is the finding that visuospatial contexts facilitate hippocampal long-term depression (LTD), raising the possibility that this form of plasticity may be important for memory formation. It is not known whether other sensory modalities elicit similar permissive effects on LTD. Here, we explored if spatial olfactory learning facilitates LTD in the hippocampus region of freely behaving rats. Patterned afferent stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals elicited short-term depression (STD) (<1 h) of evoked responses in the Stratum radiatum of the CA1 region. Coupling of this protocol with novel exploration of a spatial constellation of olfactory cues facilitated short-term depression into LTD that lasted for over 24 h. Facilitation of LTD did not occur when animals were re-exposed 1 week later to the same odors in the same spatial constellation. Evaluation of learning behavior revealed that 1 week after the 1st odor exposure, the animals remembered the odors and their relative positions. These data support that the hippocampus can use nonvisuospatial resources, and specifically can use spatial olfactory information, to facilitate LTD and to generate spatial representations. The data also support that a tight relationship exists between the processing of spatial contextual information and the expression of LTD in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, escitalopram, enhances inhibition of prepotent responding and spatial reversal learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Holden D.; Amodeo, Dionisio A.; Sweeney, John A.; Ragozzino, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Previous findings indicate treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) facilitates behavioral flexibility when conditions require inhibition of a learned response pattern. The present experiment investigated whether acute treatment with the SSRI, escitalopram, affects behavioral flexibility when conditions require inhibition of a naturally-biased response pattern (elevated conflict test) and/or reversal of a learned response pattern (spatial reversal learning). An additional experiment was carried out to determine whether escitalopram, at doses that affected behavioral flexibility, also reduced anxiety as tested in the elevated plus-maze. In each experiment, Long-Evans rats received an intraperitoneal injection of either saline or escitalopram (0.03, 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg) 30 minutes prior to behavioral testing. Escitalopram, at all doses tested, enhanced acquisition in the elevated conflict test, but did not affect performance in the elevated plus-maze. Escitalopram (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) did not alter acquisition of the spatial discrimination, but facilitated reversal learning. In the elevated conflict and spatial reversal learning test, escitalopram enhanced the ability to maintain the relevant strategy after being initially selected. The present findings suggest that enhancing serotonin transmission with a SSRI facilitates inhibitory processes when conditions require a shift away from either a naturally-biased response pattern or a learned choice pattern. PMID:22219222

  14. Virtual Reality Learning Activities for Multimedia Students to Enhance Spatial Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Molina-Carmona

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Reality is an incipient technology that is proving very useful for training different skills. Our hypothesis is that it is possible to design virtual reality learning activities that can help students to develop their spatial ability. To prove the hypothesis, we have conducted an experiment consisting of training the students using an on-purpose learning activity based on a virtual reality application and assessing the possible improvement of the students’ spatial ability through a widely accepted spatial visualization test. The learning activity consists of a virtual environment where some simple polyhedral shapes are shown and manipulated by moving, rotating and scaling them. The students participating in the experiment are divided into a control and an experimental group, carrying out the same learning activity with the only difference of the device used for the interaction: a traditional computer with screen, keyboard and mouse for the control group, and virtual reality goggles with a smartphone for the experimental group. To assess the experience, all the students have completed a spatial visualization test twice: just before performing the activities and four weeks later, once all the activities were performed. Specifically, we have used the well-known and widely used Purdue Spatial Visualization Test—Rotation (PSVT-R, designed to test rotational visualization ability. The results of the test show that there is an improvement in the test results for both groups, but the improvement is significantly higher in the case of the experimental group. The conclusion is that the virtual reality learning activities have shown to improve the spatial ability of the experimental group.

  15. Effects of testosterone on spatial learning and memory in adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spritzer, Mark D.; Daviau, Emily D.; Coneeny, Meagan K.; Engelman, Shannon M.; Prince, W. Tyler; Rodriguez-Wisdom, Karlye N.

    2011-01-01

    A male advantage over females for spatial tasks has been well documented in both humans and rodents, but it remains unclear how the activational effects of testosterone influence spatial ability in males. In a series of experiments, we tested how injections of testosterone influenced the spatial working and reference memory of castrated male rats. In the eight-arm radial maze, testosterone injections (0.500 mg/rat) reduced the number of working memory errors during the early blocks of testing but had no effect on the number of reference memory errors relative to the castrated control group. In a reference memory version of the Morris water maze, injections of a wide range of testosterone doses (0.0625-1.000 mg/rat) reduced path lengths to the hidden platform, indicative of improved spatial learning. This improved learning was independent of testosterone dose, with all treatment groups showing better performance than the castrated control males. Furthermore, this effect was only observed when rats were given testosterone injections starting seven days prior to water maze testing and not when injections were given only on the testing days. We also observed that certain doses of testosterone (0.250 and 1.000 mg/rat) increased perseverative behavior in a reversal-learning task. Finally, testosterone did not have a clear effect on spatial working memory in the Morris water maze, although intermediate doses seemed to optimize performance. Overall, the results indicate that testosterone can have positive activational effects on spatial learning and memory, but the duration of testosterone replacement and the nature of the spatial task modify these effects. PMID:21295035

  16. Can zebrafish learn spatial tasks? An empirical analysis of place and single CS-US associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnik, Indraneel; Gerlai, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The zebrafish may be an ideal tool with which genes underlying learning and memory can be identified and functionally investigated. From a translational viewpoint, relational learning and episodic memory are particularly important as their impairment is the hallmark of prevalent human neurodegenerative diseases. Recent reports suggest that zebrafish are capable of solving complex relational-type associative learning tasks, namely spatial learning tasks. However, it is not known whether good performance in these tasks was truly based upon relational learning or upon a single CS-US association. Here we study whether zebrafish can find a rewarding stimulus (sight of conspecifics) based upon a single associative cue or/and upon the location of the reward using a method conceptually similar to 'context and cue dependent fear conditioning' employed with rodents. Our results confirm that zebrafish can form an association between a salient visual cue and the rewarding stimulus and at the same time they can also learn where the reward is presented. Although our results do not prove that zebrafish form a dynamic spatial map of their surroundings and use this map to locate their reward, they do show that these fish perform similarly to rodents whose hippocampal function is unimpaired. These results further strengthen the notion that complex cognitive abilities exist in the zebrafish and thus they may be analyzed using the excellent genetic tool set developed for this simple vertebrate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Suicide prevention e-learning modules designed for gatekeepers: A descriptive review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghoncheh, R.; Kerkhof, A.; Koot, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: E-learning modules can be a useful method for educating gatekeepers in suicide prevention and awareness. Aims: To review and provide an overview of e-learning modules on suicide prevention designed for gatekeepers and assess their effectiveness. Method: Two strategies were used. First,

  18. Variable impact of chronic stress on spatial learning and memory in BXD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Chloe J A; Carhuatanta, Kimberly A K; Wagner, Jessica; Bechmann, Naomi; Moore, Raquel; Herman, James P; Jankord, Ryan

    2015-10-15

    The effects of chronic stress on learning are highly variable across individuals. This variability stems from gene-environment interactions. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects genetic predictors of learning are unclear. Thus, we aim to determine whether the genetic pathways that predict spatial memory performance are altered by previous exposure to chronic stress. Sixty-two BXD recombinant inbred strains of mice, as well as parent strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J, were randomly assigned as behavioral control or to a chronic variable stress paradigm and then underwent behavioral testing to assess spatial memory and learning performance using the Morris water maze. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was completed for average escape latency times for both control and stress animals. Loci on chromosomes 5 and 10 were found in both control and stress environmental populations; eight additional loci were found to be unique to either the control or stress environment. In sum, results indicate that certain genetic loci predict spatial memory performance regardless of prior stress exposure, while exposure to stress also reveals unique genetic predictors of training during the memory task. Thus, we find that genetic predictors contributing to spatial learning and memory are susceptible to the presence of chronic stress. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. DNA methylation is necessary for erythropoietin to improve spatial learning and memory in SAMP8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nengwei; Liu, Jie; Yi, Gang; Ye, Fang; Xiao, Jun; Guo, Fuqiang

    2015-09-01

    To reveal the role of Dnmts in the improvement of spatial learning and memory induced by erythropoietin (EPO) in SAMP8 mice. The Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess spatial learning and memory. Mice were administered by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of recombinant human EPO and hippocamppi infusion (IH) of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA). The expression of genes Dnmt1, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b in the hippocampus was detected by real-time qPCR. The level of proteins DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B was measured by Western blotting. Spatial learning and memory in SAMP8 were promoted after i.p. injection of EPO (5000IU/kg/day) and expression of Dnmt3b mRNA and DNMT3B proteins in the hippocampus increased. The improved memory by EPO was blocked after IH 5-AZA. DNA methylation is necessary for EPO to enhance spatial learning and memory in SAMP8 mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatial Visualization as Mediating between Mathematics Learning Strategy and Mathematics Achievement among 8th Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabab'h, Belal; Veloo, Arsaythamby

    2015-01-01

    Jordanian 8th grade students revealed low achievement in mathematics through four periods (1999, 2003, 2007 & 2011) of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). This study aimed to determine whether spatial visualization mediates the affect of Mathematics Learning Strategies (MLS) factors namely mathematics attitude,…

  1. Changes in PKCγ lmmunoreactivity in Mouse Hippocampus Induced by Spatial Discrimination Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, E.A. van der; Compaan, J.C.; Boer, M. de; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1992-01-01

    In the present study, we examined changes in immunoreactivity (ir) for the γ-isoform of protein kinase C (PKCγ) in mouse hippocampus in relation to spatial memory processes employing the monoclonal antibody 36G9 raised against purified PKCγ. Learning and memory were assessed by performance in a

  2. CHANGES IN PKC-GAMMA IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN MOUSE HIPPOCAMPUS INDUCED BY SPATIAL DISCRIMINATION-LEARNING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERZEE, EA; COMPAAN, JC; DEBOER, M; LUITEN, PGM

    1992-01-01

    In the present study, we examined changes in immunoreactivity (ir) for the gamma-isoform of protein kinase C (PKCgamma) in mouse hippocampus in relation to spatial memory processes employing the monoclonal antibody 36G9 raised against purified PKCgamma. Learning and memory were assessed by

  3. Does Spatial Ability Help the Learning of Anatomy in a Biomedical Science Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Kevin; Hayes, Jennifer A.; Chiavaroli, Neville

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional appreciation of the human body is the cornerstone of clinical anatomy. Spatial ability has previously been found to be associated with students' ability to learn anatomy and their examination performance. The teaching of anatomy has been the subject of major change over the last two decades with the reduction in time spent…

  4. Fractal dimensions: A new paradigm to assess spatial memory and learning using Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surjeet; Kaur, Harpreet; Sandhir, Rajat

    2016-02-15

    Morris water maze has been widely used for analysis of cognitive functions and relies on the time taken by animal to find the platform i.e. escape latency as a parameter to quantify spatial memory and learning. However, escape latency is confounded by swimming speed which is not necessarily a cognitive factor. Rather, path length may be a more appropriate and reliable parameter to assess spatial learning. This paper presents fractal dimension as a new paradigm to assess spatial memory and learning in animals. Male wistar rats were administrated with pentylenetetrazole and scopolamine to induce chronic epilepsy and dementia respectively. Fractal dimension of the random path followed by the animals on Morris water maze was analyzed and statistically compared among different experimental groups; the results suggest that fractal dimension is more reliable and accurate parameter to assess cognitive deficits compared to escape latency. Thus, the present study suggests that fractal dimensions could be used as an independent parameter to assess spatial memory and learning in animals using Morris water maze. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Primary School Students' Spatial Orientation Strategies in an Outdoor Learning Activity Supported by Mobile Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Aihui; Sollervall, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Students' different learning performance on mathematical problem solving across contexts has attracted a number of researchers' interest. The study investigates the spatial orientation ability of primary school students in an outdoor situation, where six pairs of grade six students are asked to coordinate themselves physically in terms of given…

  6. Adaptive social learning strategies in temporally and spatially varying environments : how temporal vs. spatial variation, number of cultural traits, and costs of learning influence the evolution of conformist-biased transmission, payoff-biased transmission, and individual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahashi, Wataru; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Henrich, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    Long before the origins of agriculture human ancestors had expanded across the globe into an immense variety of environments, from Australian deserts to Siberian tundra. Survival in these environments did not principally depend on genetic adaptations, but instead on evolved learning strategies that permitted the assembly of locally adaptive behavioral repertoires. To develop hypotheses about these learning strategies, we have modeled the evolution of learning strategies to assess what conditions and constraints favor which kinds of strategies. To build on prior work, we focus on clarifying how spatial variability, temporal variability, and the number of cultural traits influence the evolution of four types of strategies: (1) individual learning, (2) unbiased social learning, (3) payoff-biased social learning, and (4) conformist transmission. Using a combination of analytic and simulation methods, we show that spatial-but not temporal-variation strongly favors the emergence of conformist transmission. This effect intensifies when migration rates are relatively high and individual learning is costly. We also show that increasing the number of cultural traits above two favors the evolution of conformist transmission, which suggests that the assumption of only two traits in many models has been conservative. We close by discussing how (1) spatial variability represents only one way of introducing the low-level, nonadaptive phenotypic trait variation that so favors conformist transmission, the other obvious way being learning errors, and (2) our findings apply to the evolution of conformist transmission in social interactions. Throughout we emphasize how our models generate empirical predictions suitable for laboratory testing.

  7. Exposure to radiation accelerates normal brain aging and produces deficits in spatial learning and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Casadesus, G.; Carey, A.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    Previous studies have shown that radiation exposure, particularly to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), produces deficits in spatial learning and memory. These adverse behavioral effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. It is possible that these shared effects may be produced by the same mechanism; oxidative stress damage to the central nervous system caused by an increased release of reactive oxygen species is likely responsible for the deficits seen in aging and following irradiation. Both aged and irradiated rats display cognitive impairment in tests of spatial learning and memory such as the Morris water maze and the radial arm maze. These rats have decrements in the ability to build spatial representations of the environment and they utilize non-spatial strategies to solve tasks. Furthermore, they show a lack of spatial preference, due to a decline in the ability to process or retain place (position of a goal with reference to a "map" provided by the configuration of numerous cues in the environment) information. These declines in spatial memory occur in measures dependent on both reference and working memory, and in the flexibility to reset mental images. These results show that irradiation with high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere. Supported by NASA Grants NAG9-1190 and NAG9-1529

  8. Interaction between dorsal hippocampal NMDA receptors and lithium on spatial learning consolidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaei, Leila; Torkaman-Boutorabi, Anahita; Asadi, Fereshteh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-10-01

    Previous investigations have shown that NMDA receptors play an important role in learning and memory process. Lithium is a primary drug for management and prophylaxis of bipolar disorder. It can regulate signal transduction pathways in several regions of the brain and alter the function of several neurotransmitter systems involved in memory processes. The present study aimed to test the interaction of NMDA glutamatergic system of the CA1 region of dorsal hippocampus and lithium on spatial learning. Spatial memory was assessed in Morris water maze task by a single training session of eight trials followed by a probe trial and visible test 24h later. All drugs were injected into CA1 regions, 5min after training. Our data indicated that post- training administration of lithium (20μg/rat, intra-CA1) significantly impaired memory consolidation. Intra- CA1administration of NMDA, a glutamate receptor agonist (0.001 and 0.01μg/rat) showed spatial learning facilitation. Infusion of D-AP5, a glutamate receptor antagonist (0.05 and 0.1μg/rat) showed impairment of spatial memory. Our data also indicated that post- training administration of ineffective dose of NMDA (0.0001μg/rat) significantly decreased amnesia induced by lithium in spatial memory consolidation. In addition, post-training intra-CA1 injection of ineffective dose of D-AP5 (0.01μg/rat) could significantly increase lithium induced amnesia. It seems probable that signaling cascades of NMDA receptors that regulates synaptic plasticity are targets of anti-manic agents such as lithium. Our results suggest that NMDA receptors of the dorsal hippocampus may be involved in lithium-induced spatial learning impairment in the MWM task. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Treadmill exercise enhances spatial learning ability through suppressing hippocampal apoptosis in Huntington's disease rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, You-Mi; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Kijeong; Ha, Jonglin; Chung, Yong-Rak

    2015-06-01

    Huntington's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, and characterized as involuntary movement. Quinolinic acid has been used to produce an animal model of Huntington's disease. In the present study, the effect of treadmill exercise on spatial-learning ability and motor coordination focusing on the apoptosis in the hippocampus was investigated using quinolinic acid-induced Huntington's disease rats. Huntington's disease was induced by unilateral intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid (2 μL of 100 nmol) using stereotaxic instrument. The rats in the treadmill exercise groups were subjected to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day during 14 days. Spatial learning ability and motor coordination were determined by radial 8-arm maze test and rota-rod test. Immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and western blot for Bax and Bcl-2 were also conducted for the detection of apoptosis. In the present results, spatial learning ability and motor coordination were deteriorated by intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid. In contrast, treadmill exercise exerted ameliorating effect on quinolinic acid-induced deterioration of spatial learning ability and motor coordination. Bcl-2 expression in the hippocampus was de-creased and expressions of casepase-3 and Bax in the hippocampus were increased in the quinolinic acid-induced Huntington's disease rats. Treadmill exercise increased Bcl-2 expression and decreased expressions of casepase-3 and Bax in the Huntington's disease rats. The present results showed that treadmill exercise might ameliorate quinolinic acid-induced loss of spatial learning ability and motor coordination by suppressing apoptosis in the hippocampus.

  10. Multisubject Learning for Common Spatial Patterns in Motor-Imagery BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Devlaminck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor-imagery-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs commonly use the common spatial pattern filter (CSP as preprocessing step before feature extraction and classification. The CSP method is a supervised algorithm and therefore needs subject-specific training data for calibration, which is very time consuming to collect. In order to reduce the amount of calibration data that is needed for a new subject, one can apply multitask (from now on called multisubject machine learning techniques to the preprocessing phase. Here, the goal of multisubject learning is to learn a spatial filter for a new subject based on its own data and that of other subjects. This paper outlines the details of the multitask CSP algorithm and shows results on two data sets. In certain subjects a clear improvement can be seen, especially when the number of training trials is relatively low.

  11. Learning Algorithm of Boltzmann Machine Based on Spatial Monte Carlo Integration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneki Yasuda

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The machine learning techniques for Markov random fields are fundamental in various fields involving pattern recognition, image processing, sparse modeling, and earth science, and a Boltzmann machine is one of the most important models in Markov random fields. However, the inference and learning problems in the Boltzmann machine are NP-hard. The investigation of an effective learning algorithm for the Boltzmann machine is one of the most important challenges in the field of statistical machine learning. In this paper, we study Boltzmann machine learning based on the (first-order spatial Monte Carlo integration method, referred to as the 1-SMCI learning method, which was proposed in the author’s previous paper. In the first part of this paper, we compare the method with the maximum pseudo-likelihood estimation (MPLE method using a theoretical and a numerical approaches, and show the 1-SMCI learning method is more effective than the MPLE. In the latter part, we compare the 1-SMCI learning method with other effective methods, ratio matching and minimum probability flow, using a numerical experiment, and show the 1-SMCI learning method outperforms them.

  12. The relationship between spatial ability, cerebral blood flow and learning with dynamic images: A transcranial Doppler ultrasonography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Jay J; Jacobsen, Michele; Wilson, Timothy D

    2018-02-01

    Determining the effect of dynamic images on learning is often limited to performance measures. This study explores the impact from the perspective of cerebral blood flow in the brain during learning. Performance and neurophysiological response in high and low spatial ability were compared during learning with dynamic images. Individuals with high spatial ability appear to be better suited to learn with complex images such as dynamic images that move in time and space. The results presented here suggest that spatial ability can help to determine the effectiveness of the media we use for teaching.

  13. [Sleep deprivation effect upon spatial memory consolidation in rats after one-day learning in a Morris water maze].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, V B; Kozhedub, R G; Arsen'ev, G N; Kozhechkin, S N; Ukraintseva, Iu V; Kulikov, M A; Manolov, A I; Koval'zon, V M

    2011-01-01

    The effect of sleep deprivation by 'carousel' method on spatial memory consolidation in a Morris water maze was studied in Wistar male rats after one-day learning (in accordance to a protocol by Frick et al., 2000). It was found that after fast 3-hr learning the memory trace retains during 24-hr. Twenty four hour sleep deprivation followed learning impaired consolidation of spatial memory. So the rat model of a one-day learning is suitable for the studying of neurophysiological mechanisms of sleep deprivation effects on spatial memory consolidation.

  14. "Wherever You Go, You Will Be a Polis": Spatial Practices and Political Education in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slakmon, Benzi; Schwarz, Baruch B.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to increase understanding of the development of spatial practices in virtual learning environments. The spatial change and development in 38 small-group e-discussions taken from a data set of a yearlong 8th-grade humanities course are described and analyzed. We show that the focus on spatial changes in computer-supported…

  15. Role of stress system disturbance and enhanced novelty response in spatial learning of NCAM-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandewiede, Joerg; Jakovcevski, Mira; Stork, Oliver; Schachner, Melitta

    2013-11-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays a crucial role in stress-related brain function, emotional behavior and memory formation. In this study, we investigated the functions of the glucocorticoid and serotonergic systems in mice constitutively deficient for NCAM (NCAM-/- mice). Our data provide evidence for a hyperfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, with enlarged adrenal glands and increased stress-induced corticosterone release, but reduced hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor expression in NCAM-/- mice when compared to NCAM+/+ mice. We also obtained evidence for a hypofunction of 5-HT1A autoreceptors as indicated by increased 8-0H-DPAT-induced hypothermia. These findings suggest a disturbance of both humoral and neural stress systems in NCAM-/- mice. Accordingly, we not only confirmed previously observed hyperarousal of NCAM-/- mice in various anxiety tests, but also observed an increased response to novelty exposure in these animals. Spatial learning deficits of the NCAM-/- mice in a Morris Water maze persisted, even when mice were pretrained to prevent effects of novelty or stress. We suggest that NCAM-mediated processes are involved in both novelty/stress-related emotional behavior and in cognitive function during spatial learning.

  16. Telencephalon ablation impairs goldfish allocentric spatial learning in a "hole-board" task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Emilio; Ocańa, Francisco M; Gómez, Antonia; Jiménez-Moya, Fernando; Broglio, Cristina; Rodríguez, Fernando; Salas, Cosme

    2008-01-01

    The present work analyzes the involvement of telencephalon of goldfish in spatial strategies, using a procedure analogue to the hole-board task. With this aim, goldfish with sham operation or telencephalon ablation were trained to find a baited feeder within a twenty-five feeder matrix, which maintained stable spatial relationships relative to five peripheral landmarks. After training, different types of probe tests were conducted. Although both groups learned the task, probe trials showed that whereas the sham animals used the whole configuration of cues to implement map-like strategies the telencephalic animals used a guidance strategy based on cues located in the vicinity of the baited feeder. These results confirm the role of teleost fish telencephalon in the use of allocentric strategies obtained with other spatial procedures, and indicate that the hole-board task described here for goldfish is a useful tool to assess the neural bases of spatial cognition in teleost fish.

  17. Search strategy selection in the Morris water maze indicates allocentric map formation during learning that underpins spatial memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jake; Churilov, Leonid; Hannan, Anthony J; Renoir, Thibault

    2017-03-01

    Using a Matlab classification algorithm, we demonstrate that a highly salient distal cue array is required for significantly increased likelihoods of spatial search strategy selection during Morris water maze spatial learning. We hypothesized that increased spatial search strategy selection during spatial learning would be the key measure demonstrating the formation of an allocentric map to the escape location. Spatial memory, as indicated by quadrant preference for the area of the pool formally containing the hidden platform, was assessed as the main measure that this allocentric map had formed during spatial learning. Our C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice exhibit quadrant preference in the highly salient cue paradigm but not the low, corresponding with a 120% increase in the odds of a spatial search strategy selection during learning. In contrast, quadrant preference remains absent in serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT 1A R) knockout (KO) mice, who exhibit impaired search strategy selection during spatial learning. Additionally, we also aimed to assess the impact of the quality of the distal cue array on the spatial learning curves of both latency to platform and path length using mixed-effect regression models and found no significant associations or interactions. In contrast, we demonstrated that the spatial learning curve for search strategy selection was absent during training in the low saliency paradigm. Therefore, we propose that allocentric search strategy selection during spatial learning is the learning parameter in mice that robustly indicates the formation of a cognitive map for the escape goal location. These results also suggest that both latency to platform and path length spatial learning curves do not discriminate between allocentric and egocentric spatial learning and do not reliably predict spatial memory formation. We also show that spatial memory, as indicated by the absolute time in the quadrant formerly containing the hidden platform alone (without

  18. Spatial Organization and Molecular Correlation of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Using Deep Learning on Pathology Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Saltz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Beyond sample curation and basic pathologic characterization, the digitized H&E-stained images of TCGA samples remain underutilized. To highlight this resource, we present mappings of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs based on H&E images from 13 TCGA tumor types. These TIL maps are derived through computational staining using a convolutional neural network trained to classify patches of images. Affinity propagation revealed local spatial structure in TIL patterns and correlation with overall survival. TIL map structural patterns were grouped using standard histopathological parameters. These patterns are enriched in particular T cell subpopulations derived from molecular measures. TIL densities and spatial structure were differentially enriched among tumor types, immune subtypes, and tumor molecular subtypes, implying that spatial infiltrate state could reflect particular tumor cell aberration states. Obtaining spatial lymphocytic patterns linked to the rich genomic characterization of TCGA samples demonstrates one use for the TCGA image archives with insights into the tumor-immune microenvironment. : Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs were identified from standard pathology cancer images by a deep-learning-derived “computational stain” developed by Saltz et al. They processed 5,202 digital images from 13 cancer types. Resulting TIL maps were correlated with TCGA molecular data, relating TIL content to survival, tumor subtypes, and immune profiles. Keywords: digital pathology, immuno-oncology, machine learning, lymphocytes, tumor microenvironment, deep learning, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, artificial intelligence, bioinformatics, computer vision

  19. Visual Statistical Learning Works after Binding the Temporal Sequences of Shapes and Spatial Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Watanabe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The human visual system can acquire the statistical structures in temporal sequences of object feature changes, such as changes in shape, color, and its combination. Here we investigate whether the statistical learning for spatial position and shape changes operates separately or not. It is known that the visual system processes these two types of information separately; the spatial information is processed in the parietal cortex, whereas object shapes and colors are detected in the temporal pathway, and, after that, we perceive bound information in the two streams. We examined whether the statistical learning operates before or after binding the shape and the spatial information by using the “re-paired triplet” paradigm proposed by Turk-Browne, Isola, Scholl, and Treat (2008. The result showed that observers acquired combined sequences of shape and position changes, but no statistical information in individual sequence was obtained. This finding suggests that the visual statistical learning works after binding the temporal sequences of shapes and spatial structures and would operate in the higher-order visual system; this is consistent with recent ERP (Abla & Okanoya, 2009 and fMRI (Turk-Browne, Scholl, Chun, & Johnson, 2009 studies.

  20. The effects of the neurotoxin DSP4 on spatial learning and memory in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Joachim; Sontag, Thomas A; Tucha, Oliver; Lange, Klaus W

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of DSP4-induced noradrenaline depletion on learning and memory in a spatial memory paradigm (holeboard). Since Harro et al. Brain Res 976:209-216 (2003) have demonstrated that short-term effects of DSP4 administration include both noradrenaline depletion and changes in dopamine and its metabolites-with the latter vanishing within 4 weeks after the neurotoxic lesion-the behavioural effects observed immediately after DSP4 administration cannot solely be related to noradrenaline. In the present study, spatial learning, reference memory and working memory were therefore assessed 5-10 weeks after DSP4 administration. Our results suggest that the administration of DSP4 did not lead to changes in spatial learning and memory when behavioural assessment was performed after a minimum of 5 weeks following DSP4. This lack of changes in spatial behaviour suggests that the role of noradrenaline regarding these functions may be limited. Future studies will therefore have to take into account the time-course of neurotransmitter alterations and behavioural changes following DSP4 administration.

  1. Repeated Sleep Restriction in Adolescent Rats Altered Sleep Patterns and Impaired Spatial Learning/Memory Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su-Rong; Sun, Hui; Huang, Zhi-Li; Yao, Ming-Hui; Qu, Wei-Min

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate possible differences in the effect of repeated sleep restriction (RSR) during adolescence and adulthood on sleep homeostasis and spatial learning and memory ability. Design: The authors examined electroencephalograms of rats as they were subjected to 4-h daily sleep deprivation that continued for 7 consecutive days and assessed the spatial learning and memory by Morris water maze test (WMT). Participants: Adolescent and adult rats. Measurements and Results: Adolescent rats exhibited a similar amount of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with higher slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4 Hz) and fewer episodes and conversions with prolonged durations, indicating they have better sleep quality than adult rats. After RSR, adult rats showed strong rebound of REM sleep by 31% on sleep deprivation day 1; this value was 37% on sleep deprivation day 7 in adolescents compared with 20-h baseline level. On sleep deprivation day 7, SWA in adult and adolescent rats increased by 47% and 33%, and such elevation lasted for 5 h and 7 h, respectively. Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of 4-h daily sleep deprivation immediately after the water maze training sessions on spatial cognitive performance. Adolescent rats sleep-restricted for 7 days traveled a longer distance to find the hidden platform during the acquisition training and had fewer numbers of platform crossings in the probe trial than those in the control group, something that did not occur in the sleep-deprived adult rats. Conclusions: Repeated sleep restriction (RSR) altered sleep profiles and mildly impaired spatial learning and memory capability in adolescent rats. Citation: Yang SR; Sun H; Huang ZL; Yao MH; Qu WM. Repeated sleep restriction in adolescent rats altered sleep patterns and impaired spatial learning/memory ability. SLEEP 2012;35(6):849-859. PMID:22654204

  2. Japanese quail's genetic background modulates effects of chronic stress on emotional reactivity but not spatial learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Laurence

    Full Text Available Chronic stress is known to enhance mammals' emotional reactivity and alters several of their cognitive functions, especially spatial learning. Few studies have investigated such effects in birds. We investigated the impact of a two-week stress on Japanese quail's emotional reactivity and spatial learning. Quail is an avian model widely used in laboratory studies and for extrapolation of data to other poultry species. As sensitivity to chronic stress can be modulated by intrinsic factors, we tested juvenile female Japanese quail from three lines, two of them divergently selected on tonic immobility duration, an indicator of general fearfulness. The different emotional reactivity levels of quail belonging to these lines can be revealed by a large variety of tests. Half of the birds were submitted to repeated unpredictable aversive events for two weeks, whereas the other half were left undisturbed. After this procedure, two tests (open field and emergence tests evaluated the emotional reactivity of treated and control quails. They were then trained in a T-maze for seven days and their spatial learning was tested. The chronic stress protocol had an impact on resting, preening and foraging in the home cage. As predicted, the emotional reactivity of treated quails, especially those selected for long tonic immobility duration, was higher. Our spatial learning data showed that the treatment enhanced acquisition but not memorization. However, intrinsic fearfulness did not seem to interact with the treatment in this test. According to an inverted U-shaped relationship between stress and cognition, chronic stress can improve the adaptability of birds to a stressful environment. We discussed the mechanisms possibly implied in the increase of emotional reactivity and spatial abilities.

  3. Near or far: The effect of spatial distance and vocabulary knowledge on word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Emma L; Perry, Lynn K; Scott, Emilly J; Horst, Jessica S

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the role of spatial distance in word learning. Two-year-old children saw three novel objects named while the objects were either in close proximity to each other or spatially separated. Children were then tested on their retention for the name-object associations. Keeping the objects spatially separated from each other during naming was associated with increased retention for children with larger vocabularies. Children with a lower vocabulary size demonstrated better retention if they saw objects in close proximity to each other during naming. This demonstrates that keeping a clear view of objects during naming improves word learning for children who have already learned many words, but keeping objects within close proximal range is better for children at earlier stages of vocabulary acquisition. The effect of distance is therefore not equal across varying vocabulary sizes. The influences of visual crowding, cognitive load, and vocabulary size on word learning are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effect of Acute Ethanol and Gabapentin Administration on Spatial Learning and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Yeganeh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: Patients with epilepsy can have impaired cognitive abilities. Many factors contribute to this impairment, including the adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs like Gabapentin (GBP. Apart from anti-epilectic action, Gabapentin is used to relieve ethanol withdrawal syndrome. Because both GBP and ethanol act on GABA ergic system, the purpose of this study was to evaluate their effect and interaction on spatial learning and memory. Material and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in the Morris water maze for 5 consecutive days. On the sixth day, a probe test was performed to assess the retention phase or spatial rats’ memory ability. Ethanol (1.5 g/kg i.p. and GBP (30 mg/kg i.p. was administered each day 30 and 40 minutes before testing respectively. Results: Acute ethanol administration selectively impaired spatial memory (p<0.05, yet it failed to impair the acquisition phase (learning. Contradictorily GBP selectively impaired learning on second and forth days. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that GBP and acute ethanol impair different phases of learning probably by modifying different neuronal pathways in cognitive areas of the brain.

  5. The Effect of Acute Ethanol and Gabapentin Administration on Spatial Learning and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Yeganeh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with epilepsy can have impaired cognitive abilities. Many factors contribute to this impairment, including the adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs like Gabapentin (GBP. Apart from anti-epilectic action, Gabapentin is used to relieve ethanol withdrawal syndrome. Because both GBP and ethanol act on GABA ergic system, the purpose of this study was to evaluate their effect and interaction on spatial learning and memory. Material and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in the Morris water maze for 5 consecutive days. On the sixth day, a probe test was performed to assess the retention phase or spatial rats’ memory ability. Ethanol (1.5 g/kg i.p. and GBP (30 mg/kg i.p. was administered each day 30 and 40 minutes before testing respectively. Results: Acute ethanol administration selectively impaired spatial memory (p<0.05, yet it failed to impair the acquisition phase (learning. Contradictorily GBP selectively impaired learning on second and forth days. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that GBP and acute ethanol impair different phases of learning probably by modifying different neuronal pathways in cognitive areas of the brain.

  6. Spectral-spatial feature learning for hyperspectral imagery classification using deep stacked sparse autoencoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Ghasem; Samadzadegan, Farhad; Reinartz, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Classification of hyperspectral remote sensing imagery is one of the most popular topics because of its intrinsic potential to gather spectral signatures of materials and provides distinct abilities to object detection and recognition. In the last decade, an enormous number of methods were suggested to classify hyperspectral remote sensing data using spectral features, though some are not using all information and lead to poor classification accuracy; on the other hand, the exploration of deep features is recently considered a lot and has turned into a research hot spot in the geoscience and remote sensing research community to enhance classification accuracy. A deep learning architecture is proposed to classify hyperspectral remote sensing imagery by joint utilization of spectral-spatial information. A stacked sparse autoencoder provides unsupervised feature learning to extract high-level feature representations of joint spectral-spatial information; then, a soft classifier is employed to train high-level features and to fine-tune the deep learning architecture. Comparative experiments are performed on two widely used hyperspectral remote sensing data (Salinas and PaviaU) and a coarse resolution hyperspectral data in the long-wave infrared range. The obtained results indicate the superiority of the proposed spectral-spatial deep learning architecture against the conventional classification methods.

  7. Corticosterone impairs flexible adjustment of spatial navigation in an associative place-reward learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Silviu I; Lankelma, Jan V; Jackson, Jadin C; Van Mourik-Donga, Laura A; Joëls, Marian; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2018-02-14

    Cognitive challenges are often accompanied by a discharge of stress hormones, which in turn modulate multiple brain areas. Among these, the medial temporal lobe and the prefrontal cortex are critically involved in high-order cognitive functions such as learning, memory, and decision-making. Previous studies assessing the effects of corticosterone on spatial memory found an increase or a decrease in performance depending on the timing of stress hormone discharge relative to the behavioral task. Most of these studies, however, made use of aversively motivated behaviors, whereas less is known about corticosteroid effects on flexible learning during reward-driven spatial navigation. To study how corticosterone modulates flexible spatial learning, we tested rats on a place-reward association task where hormone treatment was administered immediately after a session presenting a change in reward locations. The corticosterone-treated group showed delayed learning during the initial sessions and suboptimal memory consolidation throughout testing. Repeated training on the novel reward positions improved performance and eliminated differences from the control group. We conclude that a marked increase in plasma corticosterone levels immediately after training impairs the flexible formation of new place-reward associations.

  8. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachser Norbert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus, starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all

  9. The effects of theta precession on spatial learning and simplicial complex dynamics in a topological model of the hippocampal spatial map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamiko Arai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning arises through the activity of large ensembles of cells, yet most of the data neuroscientists accumulate is at the level of individual neurons; we need models that can bridge this gap. We have taken spatial learning as our starting point, computationally modeling the activity of place cells using methods derived from algebraic topology, especially persistent homology. We previously showed that ensembles of hundreds of place cells could accurately encode topological information about different environments ("learn" the space within certain values of place cell firing rate, place field size, and cell population; we called this parameter space the learning region. Here we advance the model both technically and conceptually. To make the model more physiological, we explored the effects of theta precession on spatial learning in our virtual ensembles. Theta precession, which is believed to influence learning and memory, did in fact enhance learning in our model, increasing both speed and the size of the learning region. Interestingly, theta precession also increased the number of spurious loops during simplicial complex formation. We next explored how downstream readout neurons might define co-firing by grouping together cells within different windows of time and thereby capturing different degrees of temporal overlap between spike trains. Our model's optimum coactivity window correlates well with experimental data, ranging from ∼150-200 msec. We further studied the relationship between learning time, window width, and theta precession. Our results validate our topological model for spatial learning and open new avenues for connecting data at the level of individual neurons to behavioral outcomes at the neuronal ensemble level. Finally, we analyzed the dynamics of simplicial complex formation and loop transience to propose that the simplicial complex provides a useful working description of the spatial learning process.

  10. Spatial learning and psychomotor performance of C57BL/6 mice: age sensitivity and reliability of individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, Nancyellen C; Sumien, Nathalie; Forster, Michael J; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2006-09-01

    Two tests often used in aging research, the elevated path test and the Morris water maze test, were examined for their application to the study of brain aging in a large sample of C57BL/6JNia mice. Specifically, these studies assessed: (1) sensitivity to age and the degree of interrelatedness among different behavioral measures derived from these tests, (2) the effect of age on variation in the measurements, and (3) the reliability of individual differences in performance on the tests. Both tests detected age-related deficits in group performance that occurred independently of each other. However, analysis of data obtained on the Morris water maze test revealed three relatively independent components of cognitive performance. Performance in initial acquisition of spatial learning in the Morris maze was not highly correlated with performance during reversal learning (when mice were required to learn a new spatial location), whereas performance in both of those phases was independent of spatial performance assessed during a single probe trial administered at the end of acquisition training. Moreover, impaired performance during initial acquisition could be detected at an earlier age than impairments in reversal learning. There were modest but significant age-related increases in the variance of both elevated path test scores and in several measures of learning in the Morris maze test. Analysis of test scores of mice across repeated testing sessions confirmed reliability of the measurements obtained for cognitive and psychomotor function. Power calculations confirmed that there are sufficiently large age-related differences in elevated path test performance, relative to within age variability, to render this test useful for studies into the ability of an intervention to prevent or reverse age-related deficits in psychomotor performance. Power calculations indicated a need for larger sample sizes for detection of intervention effects on cognitive components of the

  11. The CNTF-derived peptide mimetic Cintrofin attenuates spatial-learning deficits in a rat post-status epilepticus model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russmann, Vera; Seeger, Natalie; Zellinger, Christina

    2013-01-01

    . Whereas status epilepticus caused a significant disturbance in spatial learning in reversed peptide-treated rats, the performance of Cintrofin-treated rats did not differ from controls. The study confirms that Cintrofin comprises an active sequence mimicking effects of its parent molecule. While the data......Ciliary neurotrophic growth factor is considered a potential therapeutic agent for central nervous system diseases. We report first in vivo data of the ciliary neurotrophic growth factor peptide mimetic Cintrofin in a rat post-status epilepticus model. Cintrofin prevented long-term alterations...... in the number of doublecortin-positive neuronal progenitor cells and attenuated the persistence of basal dendrites. In contrast, Cintrofin did neither affect acute status epilepticus-associated alterations in hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis nor reveal any relevant effect on seizure activity...

  12. The Predictive Power of Fifth Graders' Learning Styles on Their Mathematical Reasoning and Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Sahin; Erginer, Ergin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine fifth graders' mathematical reasoning and spatial ability, to identify a correlation with their learning styles, and to determine the predictive power of their learning styles on their mathematical learning profiles. This causal study was conducted with 97 fifth graders (60 females, 61.9% and 37 males,…

  13. Mice with deficient BK channel function show impaired prepulse inhibition and spatial learning, but normal working and spatial reference memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Typlt, Marei; Mirkowski, Magdalena; Azzopardi, Erin; Ruettiger, Lukas; Ruth, Peter; Schmid, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variations in the large-conductance, voltage- and calcium activated potassium channels (BK channels) have been recently implicated in mental retardation, autism and schizophrenia which all come along with severe cognitive impairments. In the present study we investigate the effects of functional BK channel deletion on cognition using a genetic mouse model with a knock-out of the gene for the pore forming α-subunit of the channel. We tested the F1 generation of a hybrid SV129/C57BL6 mouse line in which the slo1 gene was deleted in both parent strains. We first evaluated hearing and motor function to establish the suitability of this model for cognitive testing. Auditory brain stem responses to click stimuli showed no threshold differences between knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Despite of muscular tremor, reduced grip force, and impaired gait, knockout mice exhibited normal locomotion. These findings allowed for testing of sensorimotor gating using the acoustic startle reflex, as well as of working memory, spatial learning and memory in the Y-maze and the Morris water maze, respectively. Prepulse inhibition on the first day of testing was normal, but the knockout mice did not improve over the days of testing as their wild-type littermates did. Spontaneous alternation in the y-maze was normal as well, suggesting that the BK channel knock-out does not impair working memory. In the Morris water maze knock-out mice showed significantly slower acquisition of the task, but normal memory once the task was learned. Thus, we propose a crucial role of the BK channels in learning, but not in memory storage or recollection.

  14. Mice with deficient BK channel function show impaired prepulse inhibition and spatial learning, but normal working and spatial reference memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marei Typlt

    Full Text Available Genetic variations in the large-conductance, voltage- and calcium activated potassium channels (BK channels have been recently implicated in mental retardation, autism and schizophrenia which all come along with severe cognitive impairments. In the present study we investigate the effects of functional BK channel deletion on cognition using a genetic mouse model with a knock-out of the gene for the pore forming α-subunit of the channel. We tested the F1 generation of a hybrid SV129/C57BL6 mouse line in which the slo1 gene was deleted in both parent strains. We first evaluated hearing and motor function to establish the suitability of this model for cognitive testing. Auditory brain stem responses to click stimuli showed no threshold differences between knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Despite of muscular tremor, reduced grip force, and impaired gait, knockout mice exhibited normal locomotion. These findings allowed for testing of sensorimotor gating using the acoustic startle reflex, as well as of working memory, spatial learning and memory in the Y-maze and the Morris water maze, respectively. Prepulse inhibition on the first day of testing was normal, but the knockout mice did not improve over the days of testing as their wild-type littermates did. Spontaneous alternation in the y-maze was normal as well, suggesting that the BK channel knock-out does not impair working memory. In the Morris water maze knock-out mice showed significantly slower acquisition of the task, but normal memory once the task was learned. Thus, we propose a crucial role of the BK channels in learning, but not in memory storage or recollection.

  15. Active sensing associated with spatial learning reveals memory-based attention in an electric fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, James J; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Active sensing behaviors reveal what an animal is attending to and how it changes with learning. Gymnotus sp, a gymnotiform weakly electric fish, generates an electric organ discharge (EOD) as discrete pulses to actively sense its surroundings. We monitored freely behaving gymnotid fish in a large dark "maze" and extracted their trajectories and EOD pulse pattern and rate while they learned to find food with electrically detectable landmarks as cues. After training, they more rapidly found food using shorter, more stereotyped trajectories and spent more time near the food location. We observed three forms of active sensing: sustained high EOD rates per unit distance (sampling density), transient large increases in EOD rate (E-scans) and stereotyped scanning movements (B-scans) were initially strong at landmarks and food, but, after learning, intensified only at the food location. During probe (no food) trials, after learning, the fish's search area and intense active sampling was still centered on the missing food location, but now also increased near landmarks. We hypothesize that active sensing is a behavioral manifestation of attention and essential for spatial learning; the fish use spatial memory of landmarks and path integration to reach the expected food location and confine their attention to this region. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Active and passive spatial learning in human navigation: acquisition of survey knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrastil, Elizabeth R; Warren, William H

    2013-09-01

    It seems intuitively obvious that active exploration of a new environment would lead to better spatial learning than would passive visual exposure. It is unclear, however, which components of active learning contribute to spatial knowledge, and previous literature is decidedly mixed. This experiment tests the contributions of 4 components to metric survey knowledge: visual, vestibular, and podokinetic information and cognitive decision making. In the learning phase, 6 groups of participants learned the locations of 8 objects in a virtual hedge maze by (a) walking, (b) being pushed in a wheelchair, or (c) watching a video, crossed with (1) making decisions about their path or (2) being guided through the maze. In the test phase, survey knowledge was assessed by having participants walk a novel shortcut from a starting object to the remembered location of a test object, with the maze removed. Performance was slightly better than chance in the passive video condition. The addition of vestibular information did not improve performance in the wheelchair condition, but the addition of podokinetic information significantly improved angular accuracy in the walking condition. In contrast, there was no effect of decision making in any condition. The results indicate that visual and podokinetic information significantly contribute to survey knowledge, whereas vestibular information and decision making do not. We conclude that podokinetic information is the primary component of active learning for the acquisition of metric survey knowledge. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Acute pentobarbital treatment impairs spatial learning and memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Tan, Tao; Tu, Man; He, Wenting; Dong, Zhifang; Han, Huili

    2015-10-01

    Reports of the effects of pentobarbital on learning and memory are contradictory. Some studies have not shown any interference with learning and memory, whereas others have shown that pentobarbital impairs memory and that these impairments can last for long periods. However, it is unclear whether acute local microinjections of pentobarbital affect learning and memory, and if so, the potential mechanisms are also unclear. Here, we reported that the intra-hippocampal infusion of pentobarbital (8.0mM, 1μl per side) significantly impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory retrieval. Moreover, in vitro electrophysiological recordings revealed that these behavioral changes were accompanied by impaired hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) and suppressed neuronal excitability as reflected by a decrease in the number of action potentials (APs). These results suggest that acute pentobarbital application causes spatial learning and memory deficits that might be attributable to the suppression of synaptic plasticity and neuronal excitability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Spatial Memory and Synaptic Plasticity Impairment Is Preventable by Captopril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Abareshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Renin-angiotensin system has a role in inflammation and also is involved in many brain functions such as learning, memory, and emotion. Neuroimmune factors have been proposed as the contributors to the pathogenesis of memory impairments. In the present study, the effect of captopril on spatial memory and synaptic plasticity impairments induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS was investigated. Methods. The rats were divided and treated into control (saline, LPS (1 mg/kg, LPS-captopril (LPS-Capto; 50 mg/kg captopril before LPS, and captopril groups (50 mg/kg before saline. Morris water maze was done. Long-term potentiation (LTP from CA1 area of hippocampus was assessed by 100 Hz stimulation in the ipsilateral Schaffer collateral pathway. Results. In the LPS group, the spent time and traveled path to reach the platform were longer than those in the control, while, in the LPS-Capto group, they were shorter than those in the LPS group. Moreover, the slope and amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP decreased in the LPS group, as compared to the control group, whereas, in the LPS-Capto group, they increased compared to the LPS group. Conclusion. The results of the present study showed that captopril improved the LPS-induced memory and LTP impairments induced by LPS in rats. Further investigations are required in order to better understand the exact responsible mechanism(s.

  19. The Effects of Theta Precession on Spatial Learning and Simplicial Complex Dynamics in a Topological Model of the Hippocampal Spatial Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Mamiko; Brandt, Vicky; Dabaghian, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    Learning arises through the activity of large ensembles of cells, yet most of the data neuroscientists accumulate is at the level of individual neurons; we need models that can bridge this gap. We have taken spatial learning as our starting point, computationally modeling the activity of place cells using methods derived from algebraic topology, especially persistent homology. We previously showed that ensembles of hundreds of place cells could accurately encode topological information about different environments (“learn” the space) within certain values of place cell firing rate, place field size, and cell population; we called this parameter space the learning region. Here we advance the model both technically and conceptually. To make the model more physiological, we explored the effects of theta precession on spatial learning in our virtual ensembles. Theta precession, which is believed to influence learning and memory, did in fact enhance learning in our model, increasing both speed and the size of the learning region. Interestingly, theta precession also increased the number of spurious loops during simplicial complex formation. We next explored how downstream readout neurons might define co-firing by grouping together cells within different windows of time and thereby capturing different degrees of temporal overlap between spike trains. Our model's optimum coactivity window correlates well with experimental data, ranging from ∼150–200 msec. We further studied the relationship between learning time, window width, and theta precession. Our results validate our topological model for spatial learning and open new avenues for connecting data at the level of individual neurons to behavioral outcomes at the neuronal ensemble level. Finally, we analyzed the dynamics of simplicial complex formation and loop transience to propose that the simplicial complex provides a useful working description of the spatial learning process. PMID:24945927

  20. Persistent and stable biases in spatial learning mechanisms predict navigational style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Andrew J; Clements-Stephens, Amy M; Marchette, Steven A; Shelton, Amy L

    2014-12-01

    A wealth of evidence in rodents and humans supports the central roles of two learning systems--hippocampal place learning and striatal response learning--in the formation of spatial representations to support navigation. Individual differences in the ways that these mechanisms are engaged during initial encoding and subsequent navigation may provide a powerful framework for explaining the wide range of variability found in the strategies and solutions that make up human navigational styles. Previous work has revealed that activation in the hippocampal and striatal networks during learning could predict navigational style. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the relative activations in these systems during both initial encoding and the act of dynamic navigation in a learned environment. Participants learned a virtual environment and were tested on subsequent navigation to targets within the environment. We observed that a given individual had a consistent balance of memory system engagement across both initial encoding and subsequent navigation, a balance that successfully predicted the participants' tendencies to use novel shortcuts versus familiar paths during dynamic navigation. This was further supported by the observation that the activation during subsequent retrieval was not dependent on the type of solution used on a given trial. Taken together, our results suggest a model in which the place- and response-learning systems are present in parallel to support a variety of navigational behaviors, but stable biases in the engagement of these systems influence what solutions might be available for any given individual.

  1. Between-task transfer of learning from spatial compatibility to a color stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maddalena; Iani, Cristina; Nicoletti, Roberto; Rubichi, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Responses to a relevant stimulus dimension are faster and more accurate when the stimulus and response spatially correspond compared to when they do not, even though stimulus position is irrelevant (Simon effect). It has been demonstrated that practicing with an incompatible spatial stimulus-response (S-R) mapping before performing a Simon task can eliminate this effect. In the present study we assessed whether a learned spatially incompatible S-R mapping can be transferred to a nonspatial conflict task, hence supporting the view that transfer effects are due to acquisition of a general "respond to the opposite stimulus value" rule. To this aim, we ran two experiments in which participants performed a spatial compatibility task with either a compatible or an incompatible mapping and then transferred, after a 5 min delay, to a color Stroop task. In Experiment 1, responses were executed by pressing one of two keys on the keyboard in both practice and transfer tasks. In Experiment 2, responses were manual in the practice task and vocal in the transfer task. The spatially incompatible practice significantly reduced the color Stroop effect only when responses were manual in both tasks. These results suggest that during practice participants develop a response-selection strategy of emitting the alternative spatial response.

  2. Thioredoxin and impaired spatial learning and memory in the rats exposed to intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiu-Hong; Liu, Hui-Guo; Liu, Xue; Chen, Jun-Nan

    2012-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can cause cognitive dysfunction and may be a reversible cause of cognitive loss in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Chronic exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH), such as encountered in OSA, is marked by neurodegenerative changes in rat brain. We investigated the change of thioredoxin (Trx), spatial learning and memory in rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). Forty healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups of ten each: a CIH+normal saline (CIH+NS group), a N-acetylcystein-treated CIH (CIH+NAC) group, a sham CIH group (sham CIH+NS), and a sham NAC-treated sham CIH (CIH+NAC) group. Spatial learning and memory in each group was assessed with the Morris water maze. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to examine mRNA and protein expression of Trx in the hippocampus tissue. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method was used to detect the apoptotic cells of the hippocampus CA1 region. CIH-rats showed impaired spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze, including longer mean latencies for the target platform, reduced numbers of passes over the previous target platform and a smaller percentage of time spent in the target quadrant. Trx mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased in the CIH-hippocampus, meanwhile, an elevated apoptotic index revealed apoptosis of hippocampal neurons of rats exposed to CIH. The rats, which acted better in the Morris water maze, showed higher levels of the Trx mRNA and protein in the hippocampus; apoptotic index of the neurons in the hippocampus of each group was negatively correlated with the Trx mRNA and protein levels. The Trx deficit likely plays an important role in the impaired spatial learning and memory in the rats exposed to CIH and may work through the apoptosis of neurons in the hippocampus.

  3. Differential effects of duration of sleep fragmentation on spatial learning and synaptic plasticity in pubertal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Eli; Kim, Do Young; Kim, Kye-Min; Chen, Stephanie; Blair Braden, B; Williams, Jeremy; Jasso, Kalene; Garcia, Alex; Rho, Jong M; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather; Maganti, Rama

    2015-07-30

    To examine the differential effects of acute and chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) on spatial learning and memory, and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in pubertal mice. Two studies were performed during which adolescent C57/Bl6 mice were subjected to acute-SF 24h a day × 3 days or chronic-SF for 12h a day × 2 weeks using a programmable rotating lever that provides tactile stimulus with controls housed in similar cages. Spatial learning and memory was examined using the Morris water maze, and long-term potentiation (LTP) was evaluated after stimulation of Schaffer collaterals in CA1 hippocampus post SF. Actigraphy was used during the period of SF to monitor rest-activity patterns. Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were acquired for analysis of vigilance state patterns and delta-power. Serum corticosterone was measured to assess stress levels. Acute-SF via tactile stimulation negatively impacted spatial learning, as well as LTP maintenance, compared to controls with no tactile stimulation. While actigraphy showed significantly increased motor activity during SF in both groups, EEG data indicated that overall sleep efficiency did not differ between baseline and SF days, but significant increases in number of wakeful bouts and decreases in average NREM and REM bout lengths were seen during lights-on. Acute sleep fragmentation did not impact corticosterone levels. The current results indicate that, during development in pubertal mice, acute-SF for 24h a day × 3 days negatively impacted spatial learning and synaptic plasticity. Further studies are needed to determine if any inherent long-term homeostatic mechanisms in the adolescent brain afford greater resistance to the deleterious effects of chronic-SF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention of vision loss protects against age-related impairment in learning and memory performance in DBA/2J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Aimée A; Brown, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    The DBA/2J mouse is a model of pigmentary glaucoma in humans as it shows age-related increases in intraocular pressure (IOP), retinal ganglion cell death and visual impairment. Previously, we showed that visual ability declines from 9 to 12 months of age and visual impairment is correlated with poor learning and memory performance in visuo-spatial tasks but not in tasks that do not depend on visual cues. To test the "sensory impairment" hypothesis of aging, which postulates that sensory impaired individuals are disadvantaged in their performance on psychometric tests as a direct result of difficulties in sensory perception, we treated DBA/2J mice with a conventional glaucoma medication used in humans (Timoptic-XE, 0.00, 0.25, or 0.50%) daily from 9 weeks to 12 months of age to determine whether prevention of vision loss prevented the decline in visuo-spatial learning and memory performance. At all ages tested (3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age), mice treated with Timoptic-XE (0.25 and 0.50%) maintained a high level of performance, while 12 month old control mice (0.00%) exhibited impaired performance in visually-dependent, but not non-visual tasks. These results demonstrate that when sensory function is preserved, cognitive performance is normalized. Thus, as in many aging humans, DBA/2J mice show age-related decrements in performance on visually presented cognitive tests, not because of cognitive impairment but as a direct consequence of poor visual ability. Our results demonstrate that age-related impairment in performance in visuo-spatial tasks in DBA/2J mice can be prevented by the preservation of visual ability.

  5. Prevention of vision loss protects against age-related impairment in learning and memory performance in DBA/2J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee eWong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The DBA/2J mouse is a model of pigmentary glaucoma in humans as it shows age‐related increases in intraocular pressure, retinal ganglion cell death and visual impairment. Previously, we showed that visual ability declines from 9 ‐12 months of age and visual impairment is correlated with poor learning and memory performance in visuo‐spatial tasks but not in tasks that do not depend on visual cues. To test the sensory impairment hypothesis of aging, which postulates that sensory impaired individuals are disadvantaged in their performance on psychometric tests as a direct result of difficulties in sensory perception, we treated DBA/2J mice with a conventional glaucoma medication used in humans (Timoptic‐XE, 0.00, 0.25 or 0.50% daily from 9 weeks to 12 months of age to determine whether prevention of vision loss prevented the decline in visuo-spatial learning and memory performance. At all ages tested (3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age, mice treated with Timoptic-XE (0.25 and 0.50% maintained a high level of performance, while 12 month old control mice (0.00% exhibited impaired performance in visually‐dependent, but not non‐visual tasks. These results demonstrate that when sensory function is preserved, cognitive performance is normalized. Thus, as in many aging humans, DBA/2J mice show age-related decrements in performance on visually presented cognitive tests, not because of cognitive impairment but as a direct consequence of poor visual ability. Our results demonstrate that age-related impairment in performance in visuo-spatial tasks in DBA/2J mice can be prevented by the preservation of visual ability.

  6. Linear vs. Nonlinear Extreme Learning Machine for Spectral-Spatial Classification of Hyperspectral Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Faxian; Yang, Zhijing; Ren, Jinchang; Jiang, Mengying; Ling, Wing-Kuen

    2017-11-13

    As a new machine learning approach, the extreme learning machine (ELM) has received much attention due to its good performance. However, when directly applied to hyperspectral image (HSI) classification, the recognition rate is low. This is because ELM does not use spatial information, which is very important for HSI classification. In view of this, this paper proposes a new framework for the spectral-spatial classification of HSI by combining ELM with loopy belief propagation (LBP). The original ELM is linear, and the nonlinear ELMs (or Kernel ELMs) are an improvement of linear ELM (LELM). However, based on lots of experiments and much analysis, it is found that the LELM is a better choice than nonlinear ELM for the spectral-spatial classification of HSI. Furthermore, we exploit the marginal probability distribution that uses the whole information in the HSI and learns such a distribution using the LBP. The proposed method not only maintains the fast speed of ELM, but also greatly improves the accuracy of classification. The experimental results in the well-known HSI data sets, Indian Pines, and Pavia University, demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method.

  7. Influence of chewing behaviour on memory and spatial learning in albino BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre Siancas, E E

    2017-05-01

    Since the relationship between chewing and cognitive functions has not been fully elucidated, this study aimed to determine the impact of chewing behaviour on spatial learning and memory in albino male BALB/c mice. Twenty mice aged 8 weeks were divided into 2 equal groups. The regular chewing group was fed with uncrushed grains (the same diet given to all 20 mice since they were weaned) and the limited chewing group was fed with crushed grains. At 16 weeks of age, the mice were evaluated over 5 days, including a 4-day acquisition phase prior to a probe test of spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze on the fifth day. A comparison of the regular chewing group and the limited chewing group found no significant differences in either the acquisition phase or the probe test. However, there were significant differences in the acquisition phase for just the regular chewing group when comparing results from the first day to those from the other 3 days. The results suggest that regular chewing affects spatial learning and memory since mice in the regular chewing group decreased their times to find the hidden platform during the acquisition phase. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial Planning and Geo-ICT: How Spatial Planners Invented GIS and Are Still Learning How to Use It

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de A.; Brink, van den A.; Bregt, A.K.; Velde, van de R.

    2009-01-01

    Location is a fundamental aspect of spatial planning. It is subject to, and the result of, planning activities. It is therefore not surprising that the first incentives for the development of tools for spatial data management and spatial analysis came from professionals who were engaged in spatial

  9. Spatial learning and memory in male mice with altered growth hormone action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Amrita; McFarlane, Hewlet G; Kopchick, John J

    2017-07-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has a significant influence on cognitive performance in humans and other mammals. To understand the influence of altered GH action on cognition, we assessed spatial learning and memory using a Barnes maze (BM) comparing twelve-month old, male, bovine GH (bGH) and GH receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mice and their corresponding wild type (WT) littermates. During the acquisition training period in the BM, bGH mice showed increased latency, traveled longer path lengths and made more errors to reach the target than WT mice, indicating significantly poorer learning. Short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) trials showed significantly suppressed memory retention in bGH mice when compared to the WT group. Conversely, GHA mice showed significantly better learning parameters (latency, path length and errors) and increased use of an efficient search strategy than WT mice. Our study indicates a negative impact of GH excess and a beneficial effect of the inhibition of GH action on spatial learning and memory and, therefore, cognitive performance in male mice. Further research to elucidate GH's role in brain function will facilitate identifying therapeutic applications of GH or GHA for neuropathological and neurodegenerative conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Using Spatial Reinforcement Learning to Build Forest Wildfire Dynamics Models From Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Ganapathi Subramanian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning algorithms have increased tremendously in power in recent years but have yet to be fully utilized in many ecology and sustainable resource management domains such as wildlife reserve design, forest fire management, and invasive species spread. One thing these domains have in common is that they contain dynamics that can be characterized as a spatially spreading process (SSP, which requires many parameters to be set precisely to model the dynamics, spread rates, and directional biases of the elements which are spreading. We present related work in artificial intelligence and machine learning for SSP sustainability domains including forest wildfire prediction. We then introduce a novel approach for learning in SSP domains using reinforcement learning (RL where fire is the agent at any cell in the landscape and the set of actions the fire can take from a location at any point in time includes spreading north, south, east, or west or not spreading. This approach inverts the usual RL setup since the dynamics of the corresponding Markov Decision Process (MDP is a known function for immediate wildfire spread. Meanwhile, we learn an agent policy for a predictive model of the dynamics of a complex spatial process. Rewards are provided for correctly classifying which cells are on fire or not compared with satellite and other related data. We examine the behavior of five RL algorithms on this problem: value iteration, policy iteration, Q-learning, Monte Carlo Tree Search, and Asynchronous Advantage Actor-Critic (A3C. We compare to a Gaussian process-based supervised learning approach and also discuss the relation of our approach to manually constructed, state-of-the-art methods from forest wildfire modeling. We validate our approach with satellite image data of two massive wildfire events in Northern Alberta, Canada; the Fort McMurray fire of 2016 and the Richardson fire of 2011. The results show that we can learn predictive, agent

  11. Effect of methylphenidate on enhancement of spatial learning by novel alternated dual task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veetil, Praveen Kottath; Mukkadan, Joseph Kurian

    2011-01-01

    The novel alternated dual task (ADT) arranged rats to learn T-maze spontaneous alternation task and radial arm maze (RAM) task alternatively, and by doing ADT, rats could acquire the tasks more easily than non alternated dual task (NADT) group. Also retention capacity of ADT group was significantly more and ADT help to learn a complex task faster than learning it in isolation from other tasks. In the present study effect of methylphenidate (MPD), a mood elevator, known to enhance learning and memory, on ADT procedure is assessed. Also effect of ADT procedure and MPD on spatial learning and memory are compared. Different groups were assigned by administering MPD (intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 3 mg/kg body weight) during different phases of behavioural experiments, and control groups received saline injection. MPD administration increased both acquisition and retention capacities. The amelioration attained for retention of complex task by ADT procedure, could be achieved by NADT rats only by administration of MPD. The influence of ADT procedure on acquisition and retention of TM and RAM tasks were similar to the effects of MPD, especially for the RAM task. MPD at low dose is found to enhance the learning and memory capacity in rats, than deteriorating it, supporting the use of MPD as a drug to treat attention deficit hyperactive disorder. The recent reports suggesting the effect of MPD only on retention and not on acquisition could not be confirmed, as enhancement for both acquisition and retention was found in this study.

  12. Good night, sleep tight: The effects of sleep deprivation on spatial associative learning in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro-da-Silva, Jaquelinne; Tran, Steven; Silva, Priscila Fernandes; Luchiari, Ana Carolina

    2017-08-01

    Learning and memory are vital to an animal's survival, and numerous factors can disrupt cognitive performance. Sleep is an evolutionarily conserved physiological process known to be important for the consolidation of learning and memory. The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism sharing organizational and functional characteristics with other vertebrates, providing great translational relevance. In our study, we used a simple spatial associative learning task to quantify the effects of sleep deprivation (partial vs. total) on learning performance in zebrafish, using an animated conspecific shoal image as a reward. Control animals maintained on a regular light:dark cycle were able to acquire the association between the unconditioned and conditioned stimulus, reinforcing zebrafish as a valid and reliable model for appetitive conditioning tasks. Notably, sleep deprivation did not alter the perception of and response to the conspecific image. In contrast, although partial sleep deprivation did not impair cognitive performance, total sleep deprivation significantly impaired performance on the associative learning task. Our results suggest that sleep is important for learning and memory, and that the effects of sleep deprivation on these processes can be investigated in zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Service-Learning in Higher Education: Focus on Eating Disorder Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roofe, Nina; Brinegar, Jennifer; Seymour, Gayle

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinary service-learning projects are mutually beneficial for communities and students. This service-learning project focused on eating disorder prevention and involved students majoring in nutrition, art, and psychology at a public Southern university. The nutrition majors completed the Eating Attitudes Test before and after the…

  14. Guided Learning at Workstations about Drug Prevention with Low Achievers in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Heyne; Bogner, Franz X.

    2012-01-01

    Our study focussed on the cognitive achievement potential of low achieving eighth graders, dealing with drug prevention (cannabis). The learning process was guided by a teacher, leading this target group towards a modified learning at workstations which is seen as an appropriate approach for low achievers. We compared this specific open teaching…

  15. College Teaching and Community Outreaching: Service Learning in an Obesity Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himelein, Melissa; Passman, Liz; Phillips, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Service learning can enrich students' knowledge, skills and commitment to occupational goals while positively affecting communities. Undergraduate students in a course on obesity engaged in service learning by assisting with a family-based obesity prevention program, Getting Into Fitness Together (GIFT). Purpose: The impact of GIFT on…

  16. Repeated sleep restriction in adolescent rats altered sleep patterns and impaired spatial learning/memory ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su-Rong; Sun, Hui; Huang, Zhi-Li; Yao, Ming-Hui; Qu, Wei-Min

    2012-06-01

    To investigate possible differences in the effect of repeated sleep restriction (RSR) during adolescence and adulthood on sleep homeostasis and spatial learning and memory ability. The authors examined electroencephalograms of rats as they were subjected to 4-h daily sleep deprivation that continued for 7 consecutive days and assessed the spatial learning and memory by Morris water maze test (WMT). Adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent rats exhibited a similar amount of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with higher slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4 Hz) and fewer episodes and conversions with prolonged durations, indicating they have better sleep quality than adult rats. After RSR, adult rats showed strong rebound of REM sleep by 31% on sleep deprivation day 1; this value was 37% on sleep deprivation day 7 in adolescents compared with 20-h baseline level. On sleep deprivation day 7, SWA in adult and adolescent rats increased by 47% and 33%, and such elevation lasted for 5 h and 7 h, respectively. Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of 4-h daily sleep deprivation immediately after the water maze training sessions on spatial cognitive performance. Adolescent rats sleep-restricted for 7 days traveled a longer distance to find the hidden platform during the acquisition training and had fewer numbers of platform crossings in the probe trial than those in the control group, something that did not occur in the sleep-deprived adult rats. Repeated sleep restriction (RSR) altered sleep profiles and mildly impaired spatial learning and memory capability in adolescent rats.

  17. Effect of intranasal manganese administration on neurotransmission and spatial learning in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Piechal, Agnieszka; Joniec-Maciejak, Ilona; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa, E-mail: etyszkiewicz@wum.edu.pl

    2012-11-15

    The effect of intranasal manganese chloride (MnCl{sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O) exposure on spatial learning, memory and motor activity was estimated in Morris water maze task in adult rats. Three-month-old male Wistar rats received for 2 weeks MnCl{sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O at two doses the following: 0.2 mg/kg b.w. (Mn0.2) or 0.8 mg/kg b.w. (Mn0.8) per day. Control (Con) and manganese-exposed groups were observed for behavioral performance and learning in water maze. ANOVA for repeated measurements did not show any significant differences in acquisition in the water maze between the groups. However, the results of the probe trial on day 5, exhibited spatial memory deficits following manganese treatment. After completion of the behavioral experiment, the regional brain concentrations of neurotransmitters and their metabolites were determined via HPLC in selected brain regions, i.e. prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. ANOVA demonstrated significant differences in the content of monoamines and metabolites between the treatment groups compared to the controls. Negative correlations between platform crossings on the previous platform position in Southeast (SE) quadrant during the probe trial and neurotransmitter turnover suggest that impairment of spatial memory and cognitive performance after manganese (Mn) treatment is associated with modulation of the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in the brain. These findings show that intranasally applied Mn can impair spatial memory with significant changes in the tissue level and metabolism of monoamines in several brain regions. -- Highlights: ► Intranasal exposure to manganese in rats impairs spatial memory in the water maze. ► Regional changes in levels of neurotransmitters in the brain have been identified. ► Cognitive disorder correlates with modulation of 5-HT, NA and DA neurotransmission.

  18. Effect of intranasal manganese administration on neurotransmission and spatial learning in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Piechal, Agnieszka; Joniec-Maciejak, Ilona; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The effect of intranasal manganese chloride (MnCl 2 ·4H 2 O) exposure on spatial learning, memory and motor activity was estimated in Morris water maze task in adult rats. Three-month-old male Wistar rats received for 2 weeks MnCl 2 ·4H 2 O at two doses the following: 0.2 mg/kg b.w. (Mn0.2) or 0.8 mg/kg b.w. (Mn0.8) per day. Control (Con) and manganese-exposed groups were observed for behavioral performance and learning in water maze. ANOVA for repeated measurements did not show any significant differences in acquisition in the water maze between the groups. However, the results of the probe trial on day 5, exhibited spatial memory deficits following manganese treatment. After completion of the behavioral experiment, the regional brain concentrations of neurotransmitters and their metabolites were determined via HPLC in selected brain regions, i.e. prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. ANOVA demonstrated significant differences in the content of monoamines and metabolites between the treatment groups compared to the controls. Negative correlations between platform crossings on the previous platform position in Southeast (SE) quadrant during the probe trial and neurotransmitter turnover suggest that impairment of spatial memory and cognitive performance after manganese (Mn) treatment is associated with modulation of the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in the brain. These findings show that intranasally applied Mn can impair spatial memory with significant changes in the tissue level and metabolism of monoamines in several brain regions. -- Highlights: ► Intranasal exposure to manganese in rats impairs spatial memory in the water maze. ► Regional changes in levels of neurotransmitters in the brain have been identified. ► Cognitive disorder correlates with modulation of 5-HT, NA and DA neurotransmission.

  19. Cognitive Control Structures in the Imitation Learning of Spatial Sequences and Rhythms—An fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sakreida, Katrin; Higuchi, Satomi; Di Dio, Cinzia; Ziessler, Michael; Turgeon, Martine; Roberts, Neil; Vogt, Stefan Reinhold

    2017-01-01

    Imitation learning involves the acquisition of novel motor patterns based on action observation (AO). We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the imitation learning of spatial sequences and rhythms during AO, motor imagery (MI), and imitative execution in nonmusicians and musicians. While both tasks engaged the fronto-parietal mirror circuit, the spatial sequence task recruited posterior parietal and dorsal premotor regions more strongly. The rhythm task involved ...

  20. Interaction between age and perceptual similarity in olfactory discrimination learning in F344 rats: relationships with spatial learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Wendy M.; Gaynor, Leslie S.; Burke, Sara N.; Setlow, Barry; Smith, David W.; Bizon, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that aging is associated with a reduced ability to distinguish perceptually similar stimuli in one’s environment. As the ability to accurately perceive and encode sensory information is foundational for explicit memory, understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of discrimination impairments that emerge with advancing age could help elucidate the mechanisms of mnemonic decline. To this end, there is a need for preclinical approaches that robustly and reliably model age-associated perceptual discrimination deficits. Taking advantage of rodents’ exceptional olfactory abilities, the present study applied rigorous psychophysical techniques to the evaluation of discrimination learning in young and aged F344 rats. Aging did not influence odor detection thresholds or the ability to discriminate between perceptually distinct odorants. In contrast, aged rats were disproportionately impaired relative to young on problems that required discriminations between perceptually similar olfactory stimuli. Importantly, these disproportionate impairments in discrimination learning did not simply reflect a global learning impairment in aged rats, as they performed other types of difficult discriminations on par with young rats. Among aged rats, discrimination deficits were strongly associated with spatial learning deficits. These findings reveal a new, sensitive behavioral approach for elucidating the neural mechanisms of cognitive decline associated with normal aging. PMID:28259065

  1. The impact of I(C)T in spatial planning education, 25 years of blended e-learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap, van der W.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Wageningen spatial planning education curriculum is based on a mix of decision-oriented and design-oriented approaches. It is also intertwined with a wide range of E-learning options. The Elearning environment consists of a spectrum of applications such as model studies, spatial analysis using

  2. Translocation of protein kinase C gamma occurs during the early phase of acquisition of food rewarded spatial learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, B.R K; van der Zee, E.A; Luiten, P.G.M.

    This study describes the translocation of the brain specific protein kinase C gamma isoenzyme (PKC gamma) in the hippocampus during food rewarded spatial learning. The holeboard test was used for spatial orientation, and immunoblot analysis was used for assessment of PKC gamma in cytosolic,

  3. Translocation of Protein Kinase Cγ Occurs During the Early Phase of Acquisition of Food Rewarded Spatial Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, B.R.K.; Zee, E.A. van der; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    This study describes the translocation of the brain specific protein kinase C gamma isoenzyme (PKCγ) in the hippocampus during food rewarded spatial learning. The holeboard test was used for spatial orientation, and immunoblot analysis was used for assessment of PKCγ in cytosolic, membrane-inserted

  4. Mental space travel: damage to posterior parietal cortex prevents egocentric navigation and reexperiencing of remote spatial memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaramelli, Elisa; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Solcz, Stephanie; Levine, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2010-05-01

    The ability to navigate in a familiar environment depends on both an intact mental representation of allocentric spatial information and the integrity of systems supporting complementary egocentric representations. Although the hippocampus has been implicated in learning new allocentric spatial information, converging evidence suggests that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) might support egocentric representations. To date, however, few studies have examined long-standing egocentric representations of environments learned long ago. Here we tested 7 patients with focal lesions in PPC and 12 normal controls in remote spatial memory tasks, including 2 tasks reportedly reliant on allocentric representations (distance and proximity judgments) and 2 tasks reportedly reliant on egocentric representations (landmark sequencing and route navigation; see Rosenbaum, Ziegler, Winocur, Grady, & Moscovitch, 2004). Patients were unimpaired in distance and proximity judgments. In contrast, they all failed in route navigation, and left-lesioned patients also showed marginally impaired performance in landmark sequencing. Patients' subjective experience associated with navigation was impoverished and disembodied compared with that of the controls. These results suggest that PPC is crucial for accessing remote spatial memories within an egocentric reference frame that enables both navigation and reexperiencing. Additionally, PPC was found to be necessary to implement specific aspects of allocentric navigation with high demands on spontaneous retrieval. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. The R package "sperrorest" : Parallelized spatial error estimation and variable importance assessment for geospatial machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schratz, Patrick; Herrmann, Tobias; Brenning, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Computational and statistical prediction methods such as the support vector machine have gained popularity in remote-sensing applications in recent years and are often compared to more traditional approaches like maximum-likelihood classification. However, the accuracy assessment of such predictive models in a spatial context needs to account for the presence of spatial autocorrelation in geospatial data by using spatial cross-validation and bootstrap strategies instead of their now more widely used non-spatial equivalent. The R package sperrorest by A. Brenning [IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1, 374 (2012)] provides a generic interface for performing (spatial) cross-validation of any statistical or machine-learning technique available in R. Since spatial statistical models as well as flexible machine-learning algorithms can be computationally expensive, parallel computing strategies are required to perform cross-validation efficiently. The most recent major release of sperrorest therefore comes with two new features (aside from improved documentation): The first one is the parallelized version of sperrorest(), parsperrorest(). This function features two parallel modes to greatly speed up cross-validation runs. Both parallel modes are platform independent and provide progress information. par.mode = 1 relies on the pbapply package and calls interactively (depending on the platform) parallel::mclapply() or parallel::parApply() in the background. While forking is used on Unix-Systems, Windows systems use a cluster approach for parallel execution. par.mode = 2 uses the foreach package to perform parallelization. This method uses a different way of cluster parallelization than the parallel package does. In summary, the robustness of parsperrorest() is increased with the implementation of two independent parallel modes. A new way of partitioning the data in sperrorest is provided by partition.factor.cv(). This function gives the user the

  6. Enhanced learning of proportional math through music training and spatial-temporal training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, A B; Peterson, M; Shaw, G L

    1999-03-01

    It was predicted, based on a mathematical model of the cortex, that early music training would enhance spatial-temporal reasoning. We have demonstrated that preschool children given six months of piano keyboard lessons improved dramatically on spatial-temporal reasoning while children in appropriate control groups did not improve. It was then predicted that the enhanced spatial-temporal reasoning from piano keyboard training could lead to enhanced learning of specific math concepts, in particular proportional math, which is notoriously difficult to teach using the usual language-analytic methods. We report here the development of Spatial-Temporal Math Video Game software designed to teach fractions and proportional math, and its strikingly successful use in a study involving 237 second-grade children (age range six years eight months-eight years five months). Furthermore, as predicted, children given piano keyboard training along with the Math Video Game training scored significantly higher on proportional math and fractions than children given a control training along with the Math Video Game. These results were readily measured using the companion Math Video Game Evaluation Program. The training time necessary for children on the Math Video Game is very short, and they rapidly reach a high level of performance. This suggests that, as predicted, we are tapping into fundamental cortical processes of spatial-temporal reasoning. This spatial-temporal approach is easily generalized to teach other math and science concepts in a complementary manner to traditional language-analytic methods, and at a younger age. The neural mechanisms involved in thinking through fractions and proportional math during training with the Math Video Game might be investigated in EEG coherence studies along with priming by specific music.

  7. The impact of fornix lesions in rats on spatial learning tasks sensitive to anterior thalamic and hippocampal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Julie R; Amin, Eman; Wright, Nicholas F; Dillingham, Christopher M; Aggleton, John P

    2015-02-01

    The present study sought to understand how the hippocampus and anterior thalamic nuclei are conjointly required for spatial learning by examining the impact of cutting a major tract (the fornix) that interconnects these two sites. The initial experiments examined the consequences of fornix lesions in rats on spatial biconditional discrimination learning. The rationale arose from previous findings showing that fornix lesions spare the learning of spatial biconditional tasks, despite the same task being highly sensitive to both hippocampal and anterior thalamic nuclei lesions. In the present study, fornix lesions only delayed acquisition of the spatial biconditional task, pointing to additional contributions from non-fornical routes linking the hippocampus with the anterior thalamic nuclei. The same fornix lesions spared the learning of an analogous nonspatial biconditional task that used local contextual cues. Subsequent tests, including T-maze place alternation, place learning in a cross-maze, and a go/no-go place discrimination, highlighted the impact of fornix lesions when distal spatial information is used flexibly to guide behaviour. The final experiment examined the ability to learn incidentally the spatial features of a square water-maze that had differently patterned walls. Fornix lesions disrupted performance but did not stop the rats from distinguishing the various corners of the maze. Overall, the results indicate that interconnections between the hippocampus and anterior thalamus, via the fornix, help to resolve problems with flexible spatial and temporal cues, but the results also signal the importance of additional, non-fornical contributions to hippocampal-anterior thalamic spatial processing, particularly for problems with more stable spatial solutions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental enrichment protects spatial learning and hippocampal neurons from the long-lasting effects of protein malnutrition early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Roberto O; Horiquini-Barbosa, Everton; Almeida, Sebastião S; Lachat, João-José

    2017-09-29

    As early protein malnutrition has a critically long-lasting impact on the hippocampal formation and its role in learning and memory, and environmental enrichment has demonstrated great success in ameliorating functional deficits, here we ask whether exposure to an enriched environment could be employed to prevent spatial memory impairment and neuroanatomical changes in the hippocampus of adult rats maintained on a protein deficient diet during brain development (P0-P35). To elucidate the protective effects of environmental enrichment, we used the Morris water task and neuroanatomical analysis to determine whether changes in spatial memory and number and size of CA1 neurons differed significantly among groups. Protein malnutrition and environmental enrichment during brain development had significant effects on the spatial memory and hippocampal anatomy of adult rats. Malnourished but non-enriched rats (MN) required more time to find the hidden platform than well-nourished but non-enriched rats (WN). Malnourished but enriched rats (ME) performed better than the MN and similarly to the WN rats. There was no difference between well-nourished but non-enriched and enriched rats (WE). Anatomically, fewer CA1 neurons were found in the hippocampus of MN rats than in those of WN rats. However, it was also observed that ME and WN rats retained a similar number of neurons. These results suggest that environmental enrichment during brain development alters cognitive task performance and hippocampal neuroanatomy in a manner that is neuroprotective against malnutrition-induced brain injury. These results could have significant implications for malnourished infants expected to be at risk of disturbed brain development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Observation of Depictive Versus Tracing Gestures Selectively Aids Verbal Versus Visual-Spatial Learning in Primary School Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wermeskerken, Margot; Fijan, Nathalie; Eielts, Charly; Pouw, Wim T. J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has established that gesture observation aids learning in children. The current study examined whether observation of gestures (i.e. depictive and tracing gestures) differentially affected verbal and visual-spatial retention when learning a route and its street names. Specifically,

  10. Distinct Discrimination Learning Strategies and Their Relation with Spatial Memory and Attentional Control in 4- to 14-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittmann, Verena D.; van der Maas, Han L. J.; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral, psychophysiological, and neuropsychological studies have revealed large developmental differences in various learning paradigms where learning from positive and negative feedback is essential. The differences are possibly due to the use of distinct strategies that may be related to spatial working memory and attentional control. In…

  11. Self-Regulation, Cooperative Learning, and Academic Self-Efficacy: Interactions to Prevent School Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Cecchini, Jose A; Méndez-Gimenez, Antonio; Mendez-Alonso, David; Prieto, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    Learning to learn and learning to cooperate are two important goals for individuals. Moreover, self regulation has been identified as fundamental to prevent school failure. The goal of the present study was to assess the interactions between self-regulated learning, cooperative learning and academic self-efficacy in secondary education students experiencing cooperative learning as the main pedagogical approach for at least one school year. 2.513 secondary education students (1.308 males, 1.205 females), 12-17 years old ( M = 13.85, SD = 1.29), enrolled in 17 different schools belonging to the National Network of Schools on Cooperative Learning in Spain agreed to participate. They all had experienced this pedagogical approach a minimum of one school year. Participants were asked to complete the cooperative learning questionnaire, the strategies to control the study questionnaire and the global academic self-efficacy questionnaire. Participants were grouped based on their perceptions on cooperative learning and self-regulated learning in their classes. A combination of hierarchical and κ -means cluster analyses was used. Results revealed a four-cluster solution: cluster one included students with low levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster two included students with high levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster three included students with high levels of cooperative learning, low levels of self-regulated learning and intermediate-low levels of academic self-efficacy, and, finally, cluster four included students with high levels of self-regulated learning, low levels of cooperative learning, and intermediate-high levels of academic self-efficacy. Self-regulated learning was found more influential than cooperative learning on students' academic self-efficacy. In cooperative learning contexts students interact through different types of regulations: self, co, and

  12. Self-Regulation, Cooperative Learning, and Academic Self-Efficacy: Interactions to Prevent School Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Cecchini, Jose A.; Méndez-Gimenez, Antonio; Mendez-Alonso, David; Prieto, Jose A.

    2017-01-01

    Learning to learn and learning to cooperate are two important goals for individuals. Moreover, self regulation has been identified as fundamental to prevent school failure. The goal of the present study was to assess the interactions between self-regulated learning, cooperative learning and academic self-efficacy in secondary education students experiencing cooperative learning as the main pedagogical approach for at least one school year. 2.513 secondary education students (1.308 males, 1.205 females), 12–17 years old (M = 13.85, SD = 1.29), enrolled in 17 different schools belonging to the National Network of Schools on Cooperative Learning in Spain agreed to participate. They all had experienced this pedagogical approach a minimum of one school year. Participants were asked to complete the cooperative learning questionnaire, the strategies to control the study questionnaire and the global academic self-efficacy questionnaire. Participants were grouped based on their perceptions on cooperative learning and self-regulated learning in their classes. A combination of hierarchical and κ-means cluster analyses was used. Results revealed a four-cluster solution: cluster one included students with low levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster two included students with high levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster three included students with high levels of cooperative learning, low levels of self-regulated learning and intermediate-low levels of academic self-efficacy, and, finally, cluster four included students with high levels of self-regulated learning, low levels of cooperative learning, and intermediate-high levels of academic self-efficacy. Self-regulated learning was found more influential than cooperative learning on students’ academic self-efficacy. In cooperative learning contexts students interact through different types of regulations: self, co, and

  13. Predicting and preventing organizational failure: learning, stability and safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The physical definition of 'safety culture' is the creation of an organizational and operational structure that places unending emphasis on safety at every level. We propose and prefer the use of the term and the objective of sustaining a 'Learning Environment', where mistakes, outcomes and errors are used as learning vehicles to improve, and we can now define why that is true. Therefore we can manage and quantify safety effectively tracking and analyzing outcomes, using the trends to guide our needed organizational behaviors. (author)

  14. Spatial mapping of temporal risk to improve prevention measures: A case study of dengue epidemic in Lahore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Sidrah; Amin, Muhammad; Munir, Bilal Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Dengue is identified as serious vector born infectious disease by WHO, threating around 2.5 billion people around the globe. Pakistan is facing dengue epidemic since 1994 but 2010 and 2011 dengue outbreaks were worst. During 2011 dengue outbreak 22,562 cases were reported and 363 died due to this fatal infection in Pakistan. In this study, Lahore District was chosen as it was severely affected in 2011 dengue outbreak with 14,000 reported cases and 300 deaths. There is no vaccine developed yet for the disease control, so only effective early warning, prevention and control measures can reduce the potential disease risk. This study proposes a method for detecting spatial autocorrelation of temporal dynamics of disease using Local Index of Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA) using three temporal indices: (a) how often the dengue cases occur, frequency index; (b) how long the epidemic wave prevails, duration index; (c) how significant dengue cases occur in successive periods, severity index. Overlay analysis of LISA value for each temporal index resulted in eight risk types. The mapping of spatio-temporal risk indices and their overlay analysis identified that 10.6% area of Lahore (184.3km 2 and population density 119,110persons/km 2 ) had high values for frequency, duration, and severity index (pSpatial risk identification by using local spatial-autocorrelation helps in identifying other possible causes of disease risk and further strategic planning for prevention and control measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus and spatial learning in chicks following prenatal auditory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sraboni; Jain, Suman; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2010-07-01

    Prenatal auditory stimulation by species-specific sound influences the expression and levels of calcium-binding proteins in the chick hippocampus, which is important to learning and memory. Stimulation by sitar music additionally produces structural changes in the hippocampus. Synapse density, which influences the synaptic plasticity, is also increased following both types of sound stimulation. Here we report the expression of mRNA as well as levels of synaptic proteins (synaptophysin, synapsin I and PSD-95) in the hippocampus of developing chicks subjected to prenatal auditory stimulation. Further, to evaluate the behavioral outcome following acoustic stimulation, posthatch day 1 (PH1) chicks were analyzed by T-maze test for spatial learning. Fertilized zero day eggs were incubated under normal conditions and subjected to patterned sounds of species-specific or sitar music at 65 dB levels for 15 min/h over 24 h at a frequency range of 100-6,300 Hz for a period of 11 days from embryonic day (E) 10 until hatching. Following both types of prenatal acoustic stimulation, a significant increase in the levels of synaptophysin mRNA and protein was found from E12, whereas that of synapsin I and PSD-95 was observed from E16, suggesting early maturation of the excitatory synapse. A significant decrease in the time taken to reach the target over the 3 trials in both sound-stimulated groups indicates improved spatial learning. In the music-stimulated group, however, the time taken to reach the target was reduced from the very first trial, which may point to an involvement of other behavioral attributes in facilitating spatial navigation. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Is there a place for e-learning in infection prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeau, Sonia O

    2013-11-01

    In the last few decades, e-learning, a method which integrates information technology and the learning process by using materials delivered through the internet, has become widely used in educational initiatives for healthcare professionals. To evaluate whether there is a place for e-learning in the field of infection prevention. Non-comprehensive review of the literature. E-learning courses in the field of infection prevention and control are still scarce, often restricted to local initiatives and not specifically directed toward critical care providers. Although methodological flaws and potential biases hamper the generalizability of results from some currently available studies, findings related to both learners' satisfaction and effectiveness suggest that e-learning might prove an effective educational tool for the (continuing) education of healthcare providers. Further investigations, including research pertaining to the cost-effectiveness of e-learning, are required to provide a better insight in these issues. Further research is required to determine the (cost)effectiveness of e-learning in general, and in the field of infection prevention and control in particular. Current insights suggest that e-learning should be based Web 2.0 technologies to address a wide range of learning styles and to optimize interactivity. As a gap in the literature was detected with respect to e-learning modules on infection prevention and control which are specifically oriented toward critical care providers, it can be recommended to promote the development and subsequent assessment of such tools that meet high-quality standards. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effect of Visual-Spatial Ability on the Learning of Robot-Assisted Surgical Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takashige; Raison, Nicholas; Shinohara, Nobuo; Shamim Khan, M; Ahmed, Kamran; Dasgupta, Prokar

    The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of visual-spatial ability with progression along the learning curve for robotic surgical skills training. A total of 21 novice participants were recruited. All participants completed a training program consisting of 5 training sessions of 30 minutes of virtual reality (VR) simulation and 30 minutes of dry laboratory training. The VR simulation part was the subject of the present study. During VR simulation training, participants performed the basic skill exercises of Camera Targeting 1, Pick and Place, and Peg Board 1 followed by advanced skill exercises of Suture Sponge 1 and Thread the Rings. The visual-spatial ability was assessed using a mental rotation test (MRT). Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between the MRT score and simulator score for the aforementioned 5 tasks. Student t test was used to compare the simulator score between high- and low-MRT score groups. A median MRT score of 26/40 (range: 13-38) was observed. Approximately 19 participants completed the full curriculum but 2 did not complete "Thread the Rings" during the study period. A significant correlation was observed between the MRT score and simulator score only in "Suture Sponge 1" over the first 3 attempts (first: r = 0.584, p = 0.0054; second: r = 0.443, p = 0.0443; third: r = 0.4458, p = 0.0428). After the third attempt, this significant correlation was lost. Comparison of the score for "Suture Sponge 1" between the high-MRT and low-MRT scoring participants divided by a median MRT score of 26 also showed a significant difference in the score until the third trial. Our observations suggest that the spatial cognitive ability influences the initial learning of robotic suturing skills. Further studies are necessary to verify the usefulness of an individual's spatial ability to tailor the surgical training program. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. HIPPOCAMPAL ADULT NEUROGENESIS: ITS REGULATION AND POTENTIAL ROLE IN SPATIAL LEARNING AND MEMORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Pan, Yongliang; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Zhibin; Wang, Zuoxin

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis, defined here as progenitor cell division generating functionally integrated neurons in the adult brain, occurs within the hippocampus of numerous mammalian species including humans. The present review details various endogenous (e.g., neurotransmitters) and environmental (e.g., physical exercise) factors that have been shown to influence hippocampal adult neurogenesis. In addition, the potential involvement of adult-generated neurons in naturally-occurring spatial learning behavior is discussed by summarizing the literature focusing on traditional animal models (e.g., rats and mice), non-traditional animal models (e.g., tree shrews), as well as natural populations (e.g., chickadees and Siberian chipmunk). PMID:27174001

  19. Brain Interleukin-1 Facilitates Learning of a Water Maze Spatial Memory Task in Young Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Takemiya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1 is produced by many types of cells, including immune cells in the periphery and glia and neurons in the brain. The type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1r1 is primarily responsible for transmitting the inflammatory effects of IL-1 and mediates several biological functions by binding to either IL-1α or IL-1β. IL-1β activation is associated with hippocampus-dependent memory tasks. Although IL-1β impairs spatial memory under certain pathophysiological conditions, IL-1β may be required for the normal physiological regulation of hippocampal plasticity and memory. In addition, brain IL-1β levels are thought to change in the hippocampus in an age-dependent manner. These findings suggest that IL-1β may have a beneficial, temporary effect on learning and memory in young mice, but the matter remains unclear. Therefore, we hypothesized that hippocampal IL-1β has a beneficial effect on spatial learning and memory in young mice via IL-1r1, which is diminished in adults. We investigated the performance of young (3-month-old and adult (6-month-old wild-type mice, IL-1β knockout mice (IL-1βko and IL-1r1 knockout mice (IL-1r1ko in learning a spatial memory task with a fixed platform in a water maze (WM and measured the levels of IL-1β and IL-1α in the hippocampus and cortex of adult and young mice by using homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF. Learning was significantly impaired in the training trials of the WM spatial memory task in young IL-1βko and IL-1r1ko mice but not in adult IL-1βko and IL-1r1ko mice. Moreover, young IL-1r1ko mice but not IL-1βko mice showed an impairment in long-term memory extinction, suggesting that IL-1α might facilitate memory extinction. In this study, the cytokine assay using HTRF did not indicate a higher expression of hippocampal IL-1 in young mice but cortical IL-1β and IL-1α were significantly increased in adult mice. We need to investigate the role of cortical IL-1

  20. Early levothyroxine treatment on maternal subclinical hypothyroidism improves spatial learning of offspring in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Teng, W; Gao, Y; Fan, C; Zhang, H; Shan, Z

    2012-05-01

    Maternal hypothyroidism has adverse effects on neural development in the offspring. The present study aimed to investigate whether maternal subclinical hypothyroidism impairs spatial learning in the offspring, as well as the efficacy and optimal time of levothyroxine (L-T(4)) treatment in pregnancy. Female adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10 per group): control, hypothyroid (H), subclinical hypothyroid (SCH) and SCH treated with L-T(4), starting from the tenth, thirteenth and seventeenth gestational day (GD10, GD13 and GD17), respectively, to restore normal thyroid hormone levels. Spatial learning was assessed on progenies by a water maze test, a field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) recording, and an long-term potentiation induction assay. Protein levels of early growth response protein 1 (Egr1), activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), Ras-proximate-1 (Rap1), p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined by western blotting. Progenies from the SCH and H groups demonstrated significantly longer mean latency in the water maze test and a lower amplification percentage of the amplitude and slope of the fEPSPs compared to offspring of the control group. L-T(4) treatment for the GD10 and GD13 groups significantly shortened mean latency and increased the amplification percentage of the amplitude and slope of the fEPSPs of the progeny of rats with subclinical hypothyroidism. However, L-T(4) treatment for the GD17 group showed only minimal effects on spatial learning in the offspring. Progenies of SCH and H groups had lower levels of Egr1, Arc, p-ERK and BDNF but higher levels of Rap1 compared to those of the controls. L-T(4) treatment ameliorated these protein expression changes in the progeny of rats with subclinical hypothyroidism. Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism impaired spatial learning in the offspring; L-T(4) treatment in early pregnancy

  1. The Impact of Spatial Design on the Learning Process and Students' Socialisation: A study of secondary schools within the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Fouad, A. T. Z.; Sailer, K.

    2017-01-01

    The last century has witnessed an evolution in our understanding of learning from being a spoon-feeding process towards a process based on the ability of the human mind to receive information, construct knowledge and gain understand according to the learner’s perceptions (Brown, 2004). However, the spatial relation between the learning process and the physical environment is less well understood. This research attempts to focus on learning in schools, while aiming to understand...

  2. Effects of alcoholic beverage treatment on spatial learning and fear memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi; Mishima, Shuta; Nagase, Shotaro; Morita, Keishi; Otsuka, Ami; Hashikawa, Naoya

    2018-04-24

    Although chronic ethanol treatment is known to impair learning and memory, humans commonly consume a range of alcoholic beverages. However, the specific effects of some alcoholic beverages on behavioral performance are largely unknown. The present study compared the effects of a range of alcoholic beverages (plain ethanol solution, red wine, sake and whiskey; with a matched alcohol concentration of 10%) on learning and memory. 6-week-old C57BL6J mice were orally administered alcohol for 7 weeks. The results revealed that red wine treatment exhibited a trend toward improvement of spatial memory and advanced extinction of fear memory. Additionally, red wine treatment significantly increased mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in mice hippocampus. These results support previous reports that red wine has beneficial effects.

  3. Combining Distance and Face-To Teaching and Learning in Spatial Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulland, E.-K.; Schut, A. G. T.; Veenendaal, B.

    2011-09-01

    Retention and passing rates as well as student engagement in computer programming and problem solving units are a major concern in tertiary spatial science courses. A number of initiatives were implemented to improve this. A pilot study reviews the changes made to the teaching and learning environment, including the addition of new resources and modifications to assessments, and investigates their effectiveness. In particular, the study focuses on the differences between students studying in traditional, oncampus mode and distance, e-learning mode. Student results and retention rates from 2009-2011, data from in-lecture clicker response units and two anonymous surveys collected in 2011 were analysed. Early results indicate that grades improved for engaged students but pass rates or grades of the struggling cohort of students did not improve significantly.

  4. From brain synapses to systems for learning and memory: Object recognition, spatial navigation, timed conditioning, and movement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen

    2015-09-24

    This article provides an overview of neural models of synaptic learning and memory whose expression in adaptive behavior depends critically on the circuits and systems in which the synapses are embedded. It reviews Adaptive Resonance Theory, or ART, models that use excitatory matching and match-based learning to achieve fast category learning and whose learned memories are dynamically stabilized by top-down expectations, attentional focusing, and memory search. ART clarifies mechanistic relationships between consciousness, learning, expectation, attention, resonance, and synchrony. ART models are embedded in ARTSCAN architectures that unify processes of invariant object category learning, recognition, spatial and object attention, predictive remapping, and eye movement search, and that clarify how conscious object vision and recognition may fail during perceptual crowding and parietal neglect. The generality of learned categories depends upon a vigilance process that is regulated by acetylcholine via the nucleus basalis. Vigilance can get stuck at too high or too low values, thereby causing learning problems in autism and medial temporal amnesia. Similar synaptic learning laws support qualitatively different behaviors: Invariant object category learning in the inferotemporal cortex; learning of grid cells and place cells in the entorhinal and hippocampal cortices during spatial navigation; and learning of time cells in the entorhinal-hippocampal system during adaptively timed conditioning, including trace conditioning. Spatial and temporal processes through the medial and lateral entorhinal-hippocampal system seem to be carried out with homologous circuit designs. Variations of a shared laminar neocortical circuit design have modeled 3D vision, speech perception, and cognitive working memory and learning. A complementary kind of inhibitory matching and mismatch learning controls movement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory

  5. Improving the Visual-Spatial Intelligence snd Results of Learning of Juniour High School Students’ with Multiple Intelligences-Based Students Worksheet Learning on Lens Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is done for the development of students’ worksheet (LKPD about multiple intelligences-based lens materials for improving the students’ visual-spatial intelligence and results of learning of SMP N 2 Banda Aceh. This research uses a quasi-experimental design with pretest and posttest group. The sampling was done by purposive sampling technique. The data collection was conducted with pretest and posttest for visual-spatial intelligence and learning outcomes. The questionnaire was used to determine the response of students after using students’ worksheet based on multiple bits of intelligence. The results of normality and homogenity test show that the data was homogen and normally distributed. Therefore, the average difference test against the N-gain visual-spatial intelligence and learning outcomes between the two classes used t test and obtained a significant difference in learning outcomes between the two classes. The average score of the N-gain visual-spatial intelligence and learning outcomes for both classes was in the middle category, where the experimental class is 0.65 (65%, while for class gained control is 0.46 (46%. Learners gave a positive response to the use of multiple intelligences-based students’ worksheet dealing with lens materials that can enhance their visual-spatial intelligence and learning outcomes.

  6. The geo-spatial information infrastructure at the Centre for Control and Prevention of Zoonoses, University of Ibadan, Nigeria: an emerging sustainable One-Health pavilion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olugasa, B O

    2014-12-01

    The World-Wide-Web as a contemporary means of information sharing offers a platform for geo-spatial information dissemination to improve education about spatio-temporal patterns of disease spread at the human-animal-environment interface in developing countries of West Africa. In assessing the quality of exposure to geospatial information applications among students in five purposively selected institutions in West Africa, this study reviewed course contents and postgraduate programmes in zoonoses surveillance. Geospatial information content and associated practical exercises in zoonoses surveillance were scored.. Seven criteria were used to categorize and score capability, namely, spatial data capture; thematic map design and interpretation; spatio-temporal analysis; remote sensing of data; statistical modelling; the management of spatial data-profile; and web-based map sharing operation within an organization. These criteria were used to compute weighted exposure during training at the institutions. A categorical description of institution with highest-scoring of computed Cumulative Exposure Point Average (CEPA) was based on an illustration with retrospective records of rabies cases, using data from humans, animals and the environment, that were sourced from Grand Bassa County, Liberia to create and share maps and information with faculty, staff, students and the neighbourhood about animal bite injury surveillance and spatial distribution of rabies-like illness. Uniformly low CEPA values (0-1.3) were observed across academic departments. The highest (3.8) was observed at the Centre for Control and Prevention of Zoonoses (CCPZ), University of Ibadan, Nigeria, where geospatial techniques were systematically taught, and thematic and predictive maps were produced and shared online with other institutions in West Africa. In addition, a short course in zoonosis surveillance, which offers inclusive learning in geospatial applications, is taught at CCPZ. The paper

  7. Teaching students to think spatially through embodied actions: Design principles for learning environments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSutter, D; Stieff, M

    2017-01-01

    Spatial thinking is a vital component of the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics curriculum. However, to date, broad development of learning environments that target domain-specific spatial thinking is incomplete. The present article visits the problem of improving spatial thinking by first reviewing the evidence that the human mind is embodied: that cognition, memory, and knowledge representation maintain traces of sensorimotor impressions from acting and perceiving in a physical environment. In particular, we review the evidence that spatial cognition and the ways that humans perceive and conceive of space are embodied. We then propose a set of design principles to aid researchers, designers, and practitioners in creating and evaluating learning environments that align principled embodied actions to targets of spatial thinking in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

  8. Motor imagery EEG classification with optimal subset of wavelet based common spatial pattern and kernel extreme learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeong-Jun Park; Jongin Kim; Beomjun Min; Boreom Lee

    2017-07-01

    Performance of motor imagery based brain-computer interfaces (MI BCIs) greatly depends on how to extract the features. Various versions of filter-bank based common spatial pattern have been proposed and used in MI BCIs. Filter-bank based common spatial pattern has more number of features compared with original common spatial pattern. As the number of features increases, the MI BCIs using filter-bank based common spatial pattern can face overfitting problems. In this study, we used eigenvector centrality feature selection method, wavelet packet decomposition common spatial pattern, and kernel extreme learning machine to improve the performance of MI BCIs and avoid overfitting problems. Furthermore, the computational speed was improved by using kernel extreme learning machine.

  9. Magnetic resonance image restoration via dictionary learning under spatially adaptive constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Xia, Yong; Dong, Pei; Feng, David Dagan; Luo, Jianhua; Huang, Qiu

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a spatially adaptive constrained dictionary learning (SAC-DL) algorithm for Rician noise removal in magnitude magnetic resonance (MR) images. This algorithm explores both the strength of dictionary learning to preserve image structures and the robustness of local variance estimation to remove signal-dependent Rician noise. The magnitude image is first separated into a number of partly overlapping image patches. The statistics of each patch are collected and analyzed to obtain a local noise variance. To better adapt to Rician noise, a correction factor is formulated with the local signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Finally, the trained dictionary is used to denoise each image patch under spatially adaptive constraints. The proposed algorithm has been compared to the popular nonlocal means (NLM) filtering and unbiased NLM (UNLM) algorithm on simulated T1-weighted, T2-weighted and PD-weighted MR images. Our results suggest that the SAC-DL algorithm preserves more image structures while effectively removing the noise than NLM and it is also superior to UNLM at low noise levels.

  10. Cell segmentation in histopathological images with deep learning algorithms by utilizing spatial relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Nuh; Bilgin, Gokhan

    2017-10-01

    In many computerized methods for cell detection, segmentation, and classification in digital histopathology that have recently emerged, the task of cell segmentation remains a chief problem for image processing in designing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. In research and diagnostic studies on cancer, pathologists can use CAD systems as second readers to analyze high-resolution histopathological images. Since cell detection and segmentation are critical for cancer grade assessments, cellular and extracellular structures should primarily be extracted from histopathological images. In response, we sought to identify a useful cell segmentation approach with histopathological images that uses not only prominent deep learning algorithms (i.e., convolutional neural networks, stacked autoencoders, and deep belief networks), but also spatial relationships, information of which is critical for achieving better cell segmentation results. To that end, we collected cellular and extracellular samples from histopathological images by windowing in small patches with various sizes. In experiments, the segmentation accuracies of the methods used improved as the window sizes increased due to the addition of local spatial and contextual information. Once we compared the effects of training sample size and influence of window size, results revealed that the deep learning algorithms, especially convolutional neural networks and partly stacked autoencoders, performed better than conventional methods in cell segmentation.

  11. Effects of aerobic and anaerobic exercise on spatial learning ability in hypothyroid rats: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hyun; Song, MinYoung

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] This pilot study analyzed the degradation of spatial learning ability caused by hypothyroidism using aerobic and anaerobic exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The experiments were performed on 11, four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Hypothyroidism-induced rats receiving propylthiouracil (PTU) treatment were divided into aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, and control groups. Each group performed exercise and rest for four weeks. Changes in lethargy, memory deterioration, and thyroid function were measured in each group by blood analysis and open field and Morris water maze tests. [Results] After four weeks, blood analysis revealed that the thyroid hormone levels had returned to normal in the aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, and control groups, whereas the open field and Morris water maze tests showed that the aerobic and anaerobic exercise groups had faster recovery compared to that of the control group. In addition, comparison of aerobic and anaerobic groups showed that the anaerobic exercise group had faster recovery compared to that of the aerobic group. [Conclusion] The findings of this study suggest that exercise helped to improve lethargy and deteriorated spatial learning ability caused by hypothyroidism and to recover function in rats. Anaerobic exercise was more beneficial than aerobic exercise in alleviating symptoms.

  12. Effect of Different Doses of Soy Isoflavones on Spatial Learning and Memory in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Safahani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies indicate that estrogen use increase performance on some tests of cognition especially in postmenopausal women. These steroids have many side effects, thus, other estrogenic agents with fewer side effects are needed to develop alternative treatment strategies. The main objection of this study was to evaluate the effects of different doses of dietary soy meals (with or without isoflavone on spatial learning and memory in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats with the exception of intact group were ovariectomized at the first line of study. Subjects were divided into six groups. The control group rats (c were gonadally intact, while the others were OVX. OVX groups received normal diet (0, treated with 10 gr soy (10, 20 gr soy (20, 10 gr isoflavone free soy (-10 or 20 gr isoflavone free soy (-20 in daily diet for four weeks. The spatial learning and memory were tested using Morris water maze. Rats were trained in water maze to find a hidden escape Platform. Rats received 6 blocks that each block consisted of 3 trials. Following acquisition trials, one probe trial were conducted in which the platform was removed. Results: Soy meal diet (with or without isoflavone in ovariectomized rats caused improvement of performance across 18 trials of Acquisition. Discussion: Our results suggest that soy consumption apart from containing isoflavone or not is a potential alternative to estrogen in the improvement of cognition.

  13. GeoSpatial Workforce Development: enhancing the traditional learning environment in geospatial information technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhead, Pamela B.; Aten, Michelle L.

    2003-04-01

    The Center for GeoSpatial Workforce Development is embarking on a new era in education by developing a repository of dynamic online courseware authored by the foremost industry experts within the remote sensing and GIS industries. Virtual classrooms equipped with the most advanced instructions, computations, communications, course evaluation, and management facilities amplify these courses to enhance the learning environment and provide rapid feedback between instructors and students. The launch of this program included the objective development of the Model Curriculum by an independent consortium of remote sensing industry leaders. The Center's research and development focus on recruiting additional industry experts to develop the technical content of the courseware and then utilize state-of-the-art technology to enhance their material with visually stimulating animations, compelling audio clips and entertaining, interactive exercises intended to reach the broadest audience possible by targeting various learning styles. The courseware will be delivered via various media: Internet, CD-ROM, DVD, and compressed video, that translates into anywhere, anytime delivery of GeoSpatial Information Technology education.

  14. One-trial spatial learning: wild hummingbirds relocate a reward after a single visit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Abreu, I Nuri; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

    2012-07-01

    Beaconing to rewarded locations is typically achieved by visual recognition of the actual goal. Spatial recognition, on the other hand, can occur in the absence of the goal itself, relying instead on the landmarks surrounding the goal location. Although the duration or frequency of experiences that an animal needs to learn the landmarks surrounding a goal have been extensively studied with a variety of laboratory tasks, little is known about the way in which wild vertebrates use them in their natural environment. Here, we allowed hummingbirds to feed once only from a rewarding flower (goal) before it was removed. When we presented a similar flower at a different height in another location, birds frequently returned to the location the flower had previously occupied (spatial recognition) before flying to the flower itself (beaconing). After experiencing three rewarded flowers, each in a different location, they were more likely to beacon to the current visible flower than they were to return to previously rewarded locations (without a visible flower). These data show that hummingbirds can encode a rewarded location on the basis of the surrounding landmarks after a single visit. After multiple goal location manipulations, however, the birds changed their strategy to beaconing presumably because they had learned that the flower itself reliably signalled reward.

  15. Learning aptitude, spatial orientation and cognitive flexibility tested in a virtual labyrinth after virtual stress induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahaye, Marcel; Lemoine, Patrick; Cartwright, Shanique; Deuring, Gunnar; Beck, Johannes; Pflueger, Marlon; Graf, Marc; Hachtel, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Under stressful conditions such as in an emergency situation, efficient information processing is essential for reasonable responses. Virtual Reality (VR) technology is used to induce stress and to test three main cognitive functions for decision making in stressful situations. A VR task was developed to induce stress following the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) protocol and two VR cognitive performance tests to measure learning aptitude, spatial orientation and cognitive flexibility. Participants (N = 31) gave a public speech in front of a virtual audience (TSST) and later had to find their way out of different VR labyrinths. The first exercise tested spatial orientation and learning aptitude where participants had to learn aspects of the ground layout and geometric icons had to be identified as correct in order to be able to exit. The second labyrinth tested cognitive flexibility on the background of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Correlations were analyzed using Kendall Tau Correlation (One-tailed tests with p set to 0.05 for all analyses). Heart rate (HR) was calculated from the RR time values and averaged across the TSST- speech and the post-stress period. Autonomic nervous system reactivity was defined as the deviation of HR during TSST- speech condition from post-stress baseline measurement. A repeated-measures t-test was used to analyze differences. The newly developed virtual stress test was successfully adapted from the original TSST. Participants perceived the task as stressful and scored an average of 5.7 points on a 1-8 Likert Scale. As a physiological stress parameter, increased heart rates of the participants showed that they were more stressed during the TSST procedure compared to the post-stress period. Also, the subjective stress perception, has a strong correlation with the results of the cognitive tasks performed after the stress induction. The more a participant experienced the TSST as stressful, the lower their learning aptitude and

  16. E-Learning in Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Anjana; König, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    Science and technology are evolving leaps and bounds. The advancements in GI-Science for natural and built environment helps in improving the quality of life. Learning through education and training needs to be at par with those advancements, which plays a vital role in utilization of technology. New technologies that creates new opportunities have enabled Geomatics to broaden the horizon (skills and competencies). Government policies and decisions support the use of geospatial science in various sectors of governance. Mapping, Land management, Urban planning, Environmental planning, Industrialization are some of the areas where the geomatics has become a baseline for decision making at national level. There is a need to bridge the gap between developments in geospatial science and its utilization and implementation. To prepare a framework for standardisation it is important to understand the theories of education and prevailing practices, with articulate goals exploring variety of teaching techniques. E-Learning is an erudition practice shaped for facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources through digital and network-enabled technology. It is a shift from traditional education or training to ICT-based flexible and collaborative learning based on the community of learners, academia, professionals, experts and facilitators. Developments in e-learning is focussed on computer assisted learning which has become popular because of its potential for providing more flexible access to content and instruction at any time, from any place (Means et al, 2009). With the advent of the geo-spatial technology, fast development in the software and hardware, the demand for skilled manpower is increasing and the need is for training, education, research and dissemination. It suggests inter-organisational cooperation between academia, industry, government and international collaboration. There is a

  17. E-LEARNING IN PHOTOGRAMMETRY, REMOTE SENSING AND SPATIAL INFORMATION SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vyas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Science and technology are evolving leaps and bounds. The advancements in GI-Science for natural and built environment helps in improving the quality of life. Learning through education and training needs to be at par with those advancements, which plays a vital role in utilization of technology. New technologies that creates new opportunities have enabled Geomatics to broaden the horizon (skills and competencies. Government policies and decisions support the use of geospatial science in various sectors of governance. Mapping, Land management, Urban planning, Environmental planning, Industrialization are some of the areas where the geomatics has become a baseline for decision making at national level. There is a need to bridge the gap between developments in geospatial science and its utilization and implementation. To prepare a framework for standardisation it is important to understand the theories of education and prevailing practices, with articulate goals exploring variety of teaching techniques. E-Learning is an erudition practice shaped for facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources through digital and network-enabled technology. It is a shift from traditional education or training to ICT-based flexible and collaborative learning based on the community of learners, academia, professionals, experts and facilitators. Developments in e-learning is focussed on computer assisted learning which has become popular because of its potential for providing more flexible access to content and instruction at any time, from any place (Means et al, 2009. With the advent of the geo-spatial technology, fast development in the software and hardware, the demand for skilled manpower is increasing and the need is for training, education, research and dissemination. It suggests inter-organisational cooperation between academia, industry, government and international

  18. History of reading struggles linked to enhanced learning in low spatial frequency scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H Schneps

    Full Text Available People with dyslexia, who face lifelong struggles with reading, exhibit numerous associated low-level sensory deficits including deficits in focal attention. Countering this, studies have shown that struggling readers outperform typical readers in some visual tasks that integrate distributed information across an expanse. Though such abilities would be expected to facilitate scene memory, prior investigations using the contextual cueing paradigm failed to find corresponding advantages in dyslexia. We suggest that these studies were confounded by task-dependent effects exaggerating known focal attention deficits in dyslexia, and that, if natural scenes were used as the context, advantages would emerge. Here, we investigate this hypothesis by comparing college students with histories of severe lifelong reading difficulties (SR and typical readers (TR in contexts that vary attention load. We find no differences in contextual-cueing when spatial contexts are letter-like objects, or when contexts are natural scenes. However, the SR group significantly outperforms the TR group when contexts are low-pass filtered natural scenes [F(3, 39 = 3.15, p<.05]. These findings suggest that perception or memory for low spatial frequency components in scenes is enhanced in dyslexia. These findings are important because they suggest strengths for spatial learning in a population otherwise impaired, carrying implications for the education and support of students who face challenges in school.

  19. History of reading struggles linked to enhanced learning in low spatial frequency scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneps, Matthew H; Brockmole, James R; Sonnert, Gerhard; Pomplun, Marc

    2012-01-01

    People with dyslexia, who face lifelong struggles with reading, exhibit numerous associated low-level sensory deficits including deficits in focal attention. Countering this, studies have shown that struggling readers outperform typical readers in some visual tasks that integrate distributed information across an expanse. Though such abilities would be expected to facilitate scene memory, prior investigations using the contextual cueing paradigm failed to find corresponding advantages in dyslexia. We suggest that these studies were confounded by task-dependent effects exaggerating known focal attention deficits in dyslexia, and that, if natural scenes were used as the context, advantages would emerge. Here, we investigate this hypothesis by comparing college students with histories of severe lifelong reading difficulties (SR) and typical readers (TR) in contexts that vary attention load. We find no differences in contextual-cueing when spatial contexts are letter-like objects, or when contexts are natural scenes. However, the SR group significantly outperforms the TR group when contexts are low-pass filtered natural scenes [F(3, 39) = 3.15, pmemory for low spatial frequency components in scenes is enhanced in dyslexia. These findings are important because they suggest strengths for spatial learning in a population otherwise impaired, carrying implications for the education and support of students who face challenges in school.

  20. Field Learning as a powerful tool of Education for geoscience, environment and disaster prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, I.; LI, W.

    2015-12-01

    Field learning in through elementary school to University is very important for cultivation of science, environment and disaster prevention literacy. In Japan, we have various natural disasters such as earthquakes and volcanoes based on its geological settings ( Island-arc with subduction zone settings). And, it is a challenge environmental problem such as global warming prevention and energy problem to be solved by a human. For the above problem solving, it said that science education plays very important role. Especially learning with direct experience in the field is not only to get the only knowledge, we believe that greater development of science literacy, environmental literacy and disaster prevention literacy. In this presentation, we propose the new teaching method of field learning not only provided by school but also provided by outside school. We show following four studies that are (1) function of running water and origin of the land (science education and disaster prevention), (2) environmental consciousness of student (environmental education), (3) radiation education (scientific technology and its utilization) and (4) astronomical observation (acquisition of time and space concept). We were led to the preliminary conclusion of above four categories in practice research in and out of school. That is, the teacher is teaching the essence and phenomena of science to focus on science learning of school, in addition to environmental awareness, disaster prevention awareness, use of scientific technology are also important to teach at the same time. To do this, it is to make effective use of field learning. It can be said that the field study is a perfect and power place to perform learning such simultaneity. Because, natural field is originally the place can learn along with the feeling through the five senses of human. It is important especially for the growth stage of the student.

  1. An augmented reality tool for learning spatial anatomy on mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nishant; Youngblood, Patricia; Hasel, Matthew; Srivastava, Sakti

    2017-09-01

    Augmented Realty (AR) offers a novel method of blending virtual and real anatomy for intuitive spatial learning. Our first aim in the study was to create a prototype AR tool for mobile devices. Our second aim was to complete a technical evaluation of our prototype AR tool focused on measuring the system's ability to accurately render digital content in the real world. We imported Computed Tomography (CT) data derived virtual surface models into a 3D Unity engine environment and implemented an AR algorithm to display these on mobile devices. We investigated the accuracy of the virtual renderings by comparing a physical cube with an identical virtual cube for dimensional accuracy. Our comparative study confirms that our AR tool renders 3D virtual objects with a high level of accuracy as evidenced by the degree of similarity between measurements of the dimensions of a virtual object (a cube) and the corresponding physical object. We developed an inexpensive and user-friendly prototype AR tool for mobile devices that creates highly accurate renderings. This prototype demonstrates an intuitive, portable, and integrated interface for spatial interaction with virtual anatomical specimens. Integrating this AR tool with a library of CT derived surface models provides a platform for spatial learning in the anatomy curriculum. The segmentation methodology implemented to optimize human CT data for mobile viewing can be extended to include anatomical variations and pathologies. The ability of this inexpensive educational platform to deliver a library of interactive, 3D models to students worldwide demonstrates its utility as a supplemental teaching tool that could greatly benefit anatomical instruction. Clin. Anat. 30:736-741, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid intake ameliorates ketamine-induced impairment of spatial cognition and learning ability in ICR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shucai; Dai, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhiwen; Hao, Wei; Chen, Hongxian

    2014-09-19

    Several studies have reported the ketamine-induced cognitive impairment. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation improves cognitive function in human infants and protects against learning impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the effect of DHA on ketamine-induced impairment of spatial cognition and learning ability in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess spatial learning and memory. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (30mg/kg, twice per day) for 4 weeks led to the decline of spatial cognitive ability in mice, and 420mg/(kgd) DHA supplementation for 6 weeks improved ketamine-induced spatial cognitive impairment to a certain extent. The up-regulation of GABA levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex was related to the improvement in spatial learning. Our results suggested that DHA supplementation would be a promising intervention to improve ketamine-induced spatial memory and cognitive dysfunction, and this effect of DHA might be correlated with the up-regulation of GABA levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing the effectiveness of problem-based learning of preventive medicine education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaojie; Zhao, Liping; Chu, Haiyan; Tong, Na; Ni, Chunhui; Hu, Zhibin; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin

    2014-05-30

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is defined as a student-centered pedagogy which can provide learners more opportunities for application of knowledge acquired from basic science to the working situations than traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) method. In China, PBL is increasingly popular among preventive medicine educators, and multiple studies have investigated the effectiveness of PBL pedagogy in preventive medicine education. A pooled analysis based on 15 studies was performed to obtain an overall estimate of the effectiveness of PBL on learning outcomes of preventive medicine. Overall, PBL was associated with a significant increase in students' theoretical examination scores (SMD = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.41-0.83) than LBL. For the attitude- and skill-based outcomes, the pooled PBL effects were also significant among learning attitude (OR = 3.62, 95% CI = 2.40-5.16), problem solved skill (OR = 4.80, 95% CI = 2.01-11.46), self-directed learning skill (OR = 5.81, 95% CI = 3.11-10.85), and collaborative skill (OR = 4.21, 95% CI = 0.96-18.45). Sensitivity analysis showed that the exclusion of a single study did not influence the estimation. Our results suggest that PBL of preventive medicine education in China appears to be more effective than LBL in improving knowledge, attitude and skills.

  4. Prenatal stress decreases spatial learning and memory retrieval of the adult male offspring of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modir, Fatemeh; Elahdadi Salmani, Mahmoud; Goudarzi, Iran; Lashkarboluki, Taghi; Abrari, Kataneh

    2014-04-22

    Early life or prenatal stress induces many lifelong, mostly cognitive, homeostatic alterations in the behavior of the offspring. We investigated the effect of heterogeneous sequential stress (HSS) at three separate periods, before and during the first and second half of pregnancies on spatial learning and memory retrieval of adult male offspring. HSS is composed of several stressors, each in a day, during nine consecutive days including; restraint, swimming, isolation, and water and food deprivation on Wistar rats. The offspring were studied in a Morris water maze (MWM) apparatus to explore the latency, distance, proximity and target to opposite area as measures of learning and memory. Serum corticosterone was measured as a criterion of stress application. HSS increased blood corticosterone in dams of PS2 (Pregnancy Stress second half), and also in adult male offspring from BPS (Before Pregnancy Stress) and PS1 (Pregnancy Stress first half) groups. The weight of the offspring decreased in the PS1 and PS2 groups. While distance traveled and latency to locate the hidden platform were increased in BPS and PS1 acquisition trials, swimming speed was unchanged during the acquisition and retrieval tests. Moreover, time to platform location was increased in BPS and PS1 during retention tests. While control rats spent more time in the target quadrant, stressed animals spent a longer duration in the opposite quadrant. Furthermore, proximity measure was increased in all stress treated rats. It is concluded that prenatal stress, around the beginning of the pregnancy, increases corticosterone in adult male offspring, which might be the basis for spatial learning and memory retrieval deficits in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. How to enhance route learning and visuo-spatial working memory in aging: a training for residential care home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitolo, Micaela; Borella, Erika; Meneghetti, Chiara; Carbone, Elena; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a route-learning training in a group of older adults living in a residential care home. We verified the presence of training-specific effects in tasks similar to those trained - route-learning tasks - as well as transfer effects on related cognitive processes - visuo-spatial short-term memory (VSSTM; Corsi Blocks Test (CBT), forward version), visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM; CBT, backward version; Pathway Span Tasks; Jigsaw Puzzle Test) - and in self-report measures. The maintenance of training benefits was examined after 3 months. Thirty 70-90-year-old residential care home residents were randomly assigned to the route-learning training group or to an active control group (involved in non-visuo-spatial activities). The trained group performed better than the control group in the route-learning tasks, retaining this benefit 3 months later. Immediate transfer effects were also seen in visuo-spatial span tasks (i.e., CBT forward and backward version and Pathway Span Task); these benefits had been substantially maintained at the 3-month follow-up. These findings suggest that a training on route learning is a promising approach to sustain older adults' environmental learning and some related abilities (e.g., VSSTM and VSWM), even in residential care home residents.

  6. Global hypoxia induced impairment in learning and spatial memory is associated with precocious hippocampal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Suryanarayan; Sharma, Deepti; Kumar, Kushal; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Barhwal, Kalpana; Hota, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Bhuvnesh

    2016-09-01

    Both chronological aging and chronic hypoxia stress have been reported to cause degeneration of hippocampal CA3 neurons and spatial memory impairment through independent pathways. However, the possible occurrence of precocious biological aging on exposure to single episode of global hypoxia resulting in impairment of learning and memory remains to be established. The present study thus aimed at bridging this gap in existing literature on hypoxia induced biological aging. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to simulated hypobaric hypoxia (25,000ft) for different durations and were compared with aged rats. Behavioral studies in Morris Water Maze showed decline in learning abilities of both chronologically aged as well as hypoxic rats as evident from increased latency and pathlength to reach target platform. These behavioral changes in rats exposed to global hypoxia were associated with deposition of lipofuscin and ultrastructural changes in the mitochondria of hippocampal neurons that serve as hallmarks of aging. A single episode of chronic hypobaric hypoxia exposure also resulted in the up-regulation of pro-aging protein, S100A9 and down regulation of Tau, SNAP25, APOE and Sod2 in the hippocampus similar to that in aged rats indicating hypoxia induced accelerated aging. The present study therefore provides evidence for role of biological aging of hippocampal neurons in hypoxia induced impairment of learning and memory. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Universal effect of dynamical reinforcement learning mechanism in spatial evolutionary games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2012-01-01

    One of the prototypical mechanisms in understanding the ubiquitous cooperation in social dilemma situations is the win–stay, lose–shift rule. In this work, a generalized win–stay, lose–shift learning model—a reinforcement learning model with dynamic aspiration level—is proposed to describe how humans adapt their social behaviors based on their social experiences. In the model, the players incorporate the information of the outcomes in previous rounds with time-dependent aspiration payoffs to regulate the probability of choosing cooperation. By investigating such a reinforcement learning rule in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game and public goods game, a most noteworthy viewpoint is that moderate greediness (i.e. moderate aspiration level) favors best the development and organization of collective cooperation. The generality of this observation is tested against different regulation strengths and different types of network of interaction as well. We also make comparisons with two recently proposed models to highlight the importance of the mechanism of adaptive aspiration level in supporting cooperation in structured populations

  8. Group social rank is associated with performance on a spatial learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Ellis J G; van Horik, Jayden O; Whiteside, Mark A; Madden, Joah R

    2018-02-01

    Dominant individuals differ from subordinates in their performances on cognitive tasks across a suite of taxa. Previous studies often only consider dyadic relationships, rather than the more ecologically relevant social hierarchies or networks, hence failing to account for how dyadic relationships may be adjusted within larger social groups. We used a novel statistical method: randomized Elo-ratings, to infer the social hierarchy of 18 male pheasants, Phasianus colchicus , while in a captive, mixed-sex group with a linear hierarchy. We assayed individual learning performance of these males on a binary spatial discrimination task to investigate whether inter-individual variation in performance is associated with group social rank. Task performance improved with increasing trial number and was positively related to social rank, with higher ranking males showing greater levels of success. Motivation to participate in the task was not related to social rank or task performance, thus indicating that these rank-related differences are not a consequence of differences in motivation to complete the task. Our results provide important information about how variation in cognitive performance relates to an individual's social rank within a group. Whether the social environment causes differences in learning performance or instead, inherent differences in learning ability predetermine rank remains to be tested.

  9. Adult-generated hippocampal neurons allow the flexible use of spatially precise learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Alexander; Behr, Joachim; Kempermann, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Despite enormous progress in the past few years the specific contribution of newly born granule cells to the function of the adult hippocampus is still not clear. We hypothesized that in order to solve this question particular attention has to be paid to the specific design, the analysis, and the interpretation of the learning test to be used. We thus designed a behavioral experiment along hypotheses derived from a computational model predicting that new neurons might be particularly relevant for learning conditions, in which novel aspects arise in familiar situations, thus putting high demands on the qualitative aspects of (re-)learning.In the reference memory version of the water maze task suppression of adult neurogenesis with temozolomide (TMZ) caused a highly specific learning deficit. Mice were tested in the hidden platform version of the Morris water maze (6 trials per day for 5 days with a reversal of the platform location on day 4). Testing was done at 4 weeks after the end of four cycles of treatment to minimize the number of potentially recruitable new neurons at the time of testing. The reduction of neurogenesis did not alter longterm potentiation in CA3 and the dentate gyrus but abolished the part of dentate gyrus LTP that is attributed to the new neurons. TMZ did not have any overt side effects at the time of testing, and both treated mice and controls learned to find the hidden platform. Qualitative analysis of search strategies, however, revealed that treated mice did not advance to spatially precise search strategies, in particular when learning a changed goal position (reversal). New neurons in the dentate gyrus thus seem to be necessary for adding flexibility to some hippocampus-dependent qualitative parameters of learning.Our finding that a lack of adult-generated granule cells specifically results in the animal's inability to precisely locate a hidden goal is also in accordance with a specialized role of the dentate gyrus in generating a metric

  10. Hyperammonemia induces glial activation, neuroinflammation and alters neurotransmitter receptors in hippocampus, impairing spatial learning: reversal by sulforaphane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rabaza, Vicente; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Taoro-González, Lucas; Malaguarnera, Michele; Agustí, Ana; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente

    2016-02-16

    Patients with liver cirrhosis and minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) show mild cognitive impairment and spatial learning dysfunction. Hyperammonemia acts synergistically with inflammation to induce cognitive impairment in MHE. Hyperammonemia-induced neuroinflammation in hippocampus could contribute to spatial learning impairment in MHE. Two main aims of this work were: (1) to assess whether chronic hyperammonemia increases inflammatory factors in the hippocampus and if this is associated with microglia and/or astrocytes activation and (2) to assess whether hyperammonemia-induced neuroinflammation in the hippocampus is associated with altered membrane expression of glutamate and GABA receptors and spatial learning impairment. There are no specific treatments for cognitive alterations in patients with MHE. A third aim was to assess whether treatment with sulforaphane enhances endogenous the anti-inflammatory system, reduces neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of hyperammonemic rats, and restores spatial learning and if normalization of receptor membrane expression is associated with learning improvement. We analyzed the following in control and hyperammonemic rats, treated or not with sulforaphane: (1) microglia and astrocytes activation by immunohistochemistry, (2) markers of pro-inflammatory (M1) (IL-1β, IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (M2) microglia (Arg1, YM-1) by Western blot, (3) membrane expression of GABA, AMPA, and NMDA receptors using the BS3 cross-linker, and (4) spatial learning using the radial maze. The results reported show that hyperammonemia induces astrocytes and microglia activation in the hippocampus, increasing pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6. This is associated with altered membrane expression of AMPA, NMDA, and GABA receptors which would be responsible for altered neurotransmission and impairment of spatial learning in the radial maze. Treatment with sulforaphane promotes microglia differentiation from pro-inflammatory M1 to anti

  11. Effects of caloric restriction on learning and recovery of a spatial task in rats exposed to acute stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamprea Rodríguez, Marisol

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to describe the effects of caloric restriction on spatial learning and recovery in the Barnes maze in animals experimentally stressed before recovery of the spatial task. Male Wistar rats were exposed for two months to one of two conditions: ad libitum (AL or intermittent fasting (IF. Both groups were exposed then to an experimental form of acute stress, induced by movement restriction for 4 hours. IF subjects had better performance in learning tasks during the acquisition trials but required more time to complete the task after the stressor was applied. These results are discussed in light of previous data reported in the literature emphasizing differences in the instruments used to evaluate spatial learning and its interaction with experimentally induced stress.

  12. Effects of surgical and chemical castration on spatial learning ability in relation to cell proliferation and apoptosis in hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Chung, Kyung Jin; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Jin, Jun-Jang; Kim, Sung-Eun; Lee, Jae-Min; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon; Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Chang Hee; Cho, Young-Sam; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Khae-Hawn

    2016-04-01

    Chemical castration using luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists and/or anti-androgens is an alternative to surgical castration. Goserelin and bicalutamide are representative drugs used for chemical castration. The effects of chemical castration on sexual functions are well documented; however, the possibility that chemical castration might induce undesirable effects on brain functions has been raised. We investigated the effects of chemical castration and surgical castration on spatial learning ability in relation to cell proliferation and apoptosis in hippocampus. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed for surgical castration, and chemical castration was induced by treatment with goserelin or bicalutamide for 28 days. To find out the effects of goserelin and bicalutamide with those of orchiectomy on the spatial learning ability, radial eight-arm maze test was performed. To find out the effects of goserelin and bicalutamide with those of orchiectomy in relation to cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining, and immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, doublecortin, and caspase-3 were performed. Western blot for brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tyrosine kinase receptor B, Bax, and Bcl-2 in the hippocampus was also performed. Orchiectomy caused deterioration of spatial learning ability with suppression of cell proliferation and enhancement of apoptosis in the hippocampus. However, treatment with goserelin and bicalutamide had no effect on spatial learning ability. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were not altered by treatment with goserelin and bicalutamide either. Surgical castration causes deterioration of spatial learning ability, while chemical castration does not impair spatial learning ability. We should find out further mechanisms affect to the relationship between androgen level and neurogenesis and neuronal apoptosis.

  13. The impact of I(C)T in spatial planning education, 25 years of blended e-learning

    OpenAIRE

    Knaap, van der, W.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Wageningen spatial planning education curriculum is based on a mix of decision-oriented and design-oriented approaches. It is also intertwined with a wide range of E-learning options. The Elearning environment consists of a spectrum of applications such as model studies, spatial analysis using GIS, scenario studies, imaging results or support in the educational and the planning process. At the end of the 1980’s already divers applications were intertwined in the training of planning stude...

  14. Is order the defining feature of magnitude representation? An ERP study on learning numerical magnitude and spatial order of artificial symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhang, Hongchuan; Zhou, Xinlin; Mei, Leilei; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Lan; Cao, Zhongyu; Dong, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Using an artificial-number learning paradigm and the ERP technique, the present study investigated neural mechanisms involved in the learning of magnitude and spatial order. 54 college students were divided into 2 groups matched in age, gender, and school major. One group was asked to learn the associations between magnitude (dot patterns) and the meaningless Gibson symbols, and the other group learned the associations between spatial order (horizontal positions on the screen) and the same set of symbols. Results revealed differentiated neural mechanisms underlying the learning processes of symbolic magnitude and spatial order. Compared to magnitude learning, spatial-order learning showed a later and reversed distance effect. Furthermore, an analysis of the order-priming effect showed that order was not inherent to the learning of magnitude. Results of this study showed a dissociation between magnitude and order, which supports the numerosity code hypothesis of mental representations of magnitude.

  15. Role of visuo-spatial short-term memory on vocabulary learning of Sign Language as a second language

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumi, Norio

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to investigate a role of visuo-spatial short-term memory on vocabulary learning of Sign Language as a second language. The subjects having no experiences of Sign Language learning were required to encode Sign Language new words by associating with their meaning (presented in Japanese words) in both experiments. A2×2×3 factorial design was used in experiment 1: the first variable was with or without spatial concurrent task, the second was high- or low-imagery of t...

  16. Prevention of the Teenage Pregnancy Epidemic: A Social Learning Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenhoff, Carol; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The review provides a social learning model for explaining adolescent sexual behavior and use/nonuse of contraceptives. The model explains behavior patterns responsible for epidemic rates of teenage pregnancies, suggests research that will result in prevention of teenage pregnancies, and incorporates a range of social/cultural factors. (DB)

  17. A Model Human Sexuality--HIV/AIDS Prevention and Intervention Service-Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Clarence, M., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with a service-learning program focused on human sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention at the Howard University Department of Health, Human Performance and Leisure Studies. Topics discussed include how this program was created, an overview of peer education, HIV/AIDS peer education training, and services provided to…

  18. Effect of an NCAM mimetic peptide FGL on impairment in spatial learning and memory after neonatal phencyclidine treatment in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Thomas; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    , including cognitive impairment relevant to schizophrenia. The present study investigated the effect of FGL on spatial learning and memory deficits induced by neonatal PCP treatment. Rat pups were treated with 30mg/kg PCP on postnatal days 7, 9, and 11. Additionally, the rats were subjected to a chronic FGL...... treatment regimen where FGL was administered throughout development. Rats were tested as adults for spatial reference memory, reversal learning, and working memory in the Morris water maze. The PCP-treated rats demonstrated a robust impairment in working memory and reversal learning. However, the long......-term memory component of the reference memory task was not affected by PCP. Chronic FGL treatment had no effect on the reversal learning impairment but ameliorated the working memory deficits almost to the levels of the control groups. In conclusion, the results suggest that the neonatal PCP treatment...

  19. Treadmill exercise alleviates impairment of spatial learning ability through enhancing cell proliferation in the streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's disease rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Young-Je

    2014-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. This disease is a progressive and irreversible brain disorder accompanied with severe learning and memory impairment. Exercise increases cognitive ability, attenuates motor deficits, increases new neuron formation, and ameliorates neurological impairments in several neurodegenerative diseases. This study investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on spatial learning ability in relation with cell proliferation in the hippocampus. The rat model of Alzheimer's disease was induced by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) using a stereotaxic instrument. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for once 30 min daily for 28 consecutive days starting at 3 days after the ICV injection of STZ. Radial 8-arm maze test was conducted for the spatial learning ability. New neuron formation in the hippocampus was detected by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions were examined by western blot analysis. The present results show that ICV injection of STZ impaired spatial learning ability. Decreased cell proliferation with decrement of BDNF and TrkB expressions in the hippocampus were observed in the STZ-induced Alzheimer's disease rats. However, treadmill exercise alleviated deficits of spatial learning ability. Treadmill exercise enhanced cell proliferation and increased BDNF and TrkB expressions in the rats with ICV injection of STZ. The present study suggests that treadmill exercise can be a useful strategy for treating memory impairment induced by several neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Chronic impairments in spatial learning and memory in rats previously exposed to chlorpyrfos or diisopropylfluorophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, A V; Beck, W D; Warner, S; Vandenhuerk, L; Callahan, P M

    2012-01-01

    The acute toxicity of organophosphates (OPs) has been studied extensively; however, much less attention has been given to the subject of repeated exposures that are not associated with overt signs of toxicity (i.e., subthreshold exposures). The objective of this study was to determine if the protracted spatial learning impairments we have observed previously after repeated subthreshold exposures to the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) or the alkylphosphate OP, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) persisted for longer periods after exposure. Male Wistar rats (beginning at two months of age) were initially injected subcutaneously with CPF (10.0 or 18.0mg/kg) or DFP (0.25 or 0.75 mg/kg) every other day for 30 days. After an extended OP-free washout period (behavioral testing begun 50 days after the last OP exposure), rats previously exposed to CPF, but not DFP, were impaired in a radial arm maze (RAM) win-shift task as well as a delayed non-match to position procedure. Later experiments (i.e., beginning 140 days after the last OP exposure) revealed impairments in the acquisition of a water maze hidden platform task associated with both OPs. However, only rats previously exposed to DFP were impaired in a second phase of testing when the platform location was changed (indicative of deficits of cognitive flexibility). These results indicate, therefore, that repeated, subthreshold exposures to CPF and DFP may lead to chronic deficits in spatial learning and memory (i.e., long after cholinesterase inhibition has abated) and that insecticide and alkylphosphate-based OPs may have differential effects depending on the cognitive domain evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Parental prey selection affects risk-taking behaviour and spatial learning in avian offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathryn E; Ramsay, Scot L; Donaldson, Christine; Adam, Aileen

    2007-10-22

    Early nutrition shapes life history. Parents should, therefore, provide a diet that will optimize the nutrient intake of their offspring. In a number of passerines, there is an often observed, but unexplained, peak in spider provisioning during chick development. We show that the proportion of spiders in the diet of nestling blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus, varies significantly with the age of chicks but is unrelated to the timing of breeding or spider availability. Moreover, this parental prey selection supplies nestlings with high levels of taurine particularly at younger ages. This amino acid is known to be both vital and limiting for mammalian development and consequently found in high concentrations in placenta and milk. Based on the known roles of taurine in mammalian brain development and function, we then asked whether by supplying taurine-rich spiders, avian parents influence the stress responsiveness and cognitive function of their offspring. To test this, we provided wild blue tit nestlings with either a taurine supplement or control treatment once daily from the ages of 2-14 days. Then pairs of size- and sex-matched siblings were brought into captivity for behavioural testing. We found that juveniles that had received additional taurine as neonates took significantly greater risks when investigating novel objects than controls. Taurine birds were also more successful at a spatial learning task than controls. Additionally, those individuals that succeeded at a spatial learning task had shown intermediate levels of risk taking. Non-learners were generally very risk-averse controls. Early diet therefore has downstream impacts on behavioural characteristics that could affect fitness via foraging and competitive performance. Fine-scale prey selection is a mechanism by which parents can manipulate the behavioural phenotype of offspring.

  2. Puerarin protects against damage to spatial learning and memory ability in mice with chronic alcohol poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Q. Cui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of puerarin on spatial learning and memory ability of mice with chronic alcohol poisoning. A total of 30 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into model, puerarin, and control groups (n=10 each. The model group received 60% (v/v ethanol by intragastric administration followed by intraperitoneal injection of normal saline 30 min later. The puerarin group received intragastric 60% ethanol followed by intraperitoneal puerarin 30 min later, and the control group received intragastric saline followed by intraperitoneal saline. Six weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and Tru Scan behavioral tests and immunofluorescence staining of cerebral cortex and hippocampal neurons (by Neu-N and microglia (by Ib1 were conducted. Glutamic acid (Glu and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA in the cortex and hippocampus were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-1β were determined by ELISA. Compared with mice in the control group, escape latency and distance were prolonged, and spontaneous movement distance was shortened (P<0.05 by puerarin. The number of microglia was increased in both the cortex and hippocampal dentate gyrus (P<0.01, and neurons were reduced only in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (P<0.01 in puerarin-treated mice. In the model group, Glu and GABA levels decreased (P<0.05, and Glu/GABA, TNF-α, and IL-1β increased (P<0.01 with puerarin treatment, returning to near normal levels. In conclusion, puerarin protected against the effects of chronic alcohol poisoning on spatial learning and memory ability primarily because of anti-inflammatory activity and regulation of the balance of Glu and GABA.

  3. Long-lasting effects of neonatal pentobarbital administration on spatial learning and hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Kaori; Hashimoto, Toshikazu; Kato, Rui; Tsuruga, Kenkichi; Ito, Ryoko; Morimoto, Yuji

    2011-05-04

    Exposure of newborn rats to antiepileptics such as barbiturates has long-lasting detrimental effects on the hippocampus and hippocampus-dependent behavior. However, the long-term consequences of neonatal administration with barbiturates on the hippocampal synaptic plasticity remain unresolved. In this study, we investigated the long-lasting effects of a neonatal administration of pentobarbital on spatial memory, paired-pulse plasticity in the population spikes, and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats in vivo. Eight weeks after administration of pentobarbital (10 or 20mg/kg) on the seventh postnatal day (P7), rats showed impaired induction in LTP. During paired-pulse stimulation, pentobarbital-treated rats exhibited a greater facilitation of the test pulse population spike, suggesting a disruption in the inhibitory GABAergic synaptic transmission. Spatial learning in hidden platform task of the Morris water maze was impaired in pentobarbital-treated rats. Our present findings indicate that neonatal treatment with pentobarbital causes alterations in function of the hippocampal inhibitory synaptic transmission that persist into adulthood, likely contributing to the long-lasting abnormalities in the hippocampal LTP as well as learning ability. We also demonstrated significant respiratory disturbances, i.e., severe hypoxia, hypercapnia, and extracellular acidosis, in rats treated with pentobarbital on P7. Given that extracellular acidosis can also modulate synaptic transmission in the developing hippocampus, this finding led us to speculate regarding the influence of respiratory disturbances in pentobarbital-induced long-lasting hippocampal dysfunctions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Using remote sensing and machine learning for the spatial modelling of a bluetongue virus vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van doninck, J.; Peters, J.; De Baets, B.; Ducheyne, E.; Verhoest, N. E. C.

    2012-04-01

    Bluetongue is a viral vector-borne disease transmitted between hosts, mostly cattle and small ruminants, by some species of Culicoides midges. Within the Mediterranean basin, C. imicola is the main vector of the bluetongue virus. The spatial distribution of this species is limited by a number of environmental factors, including temperature, soil properties and land cover. The identification of zones at risk of bluetongue outbreaks thus requires detailed information on these environmental factors, as well as appropriate epidemiological modelling techniques. We here give an overview of the environmental factors assumed to be constraining the spatial distribution of C. imicola, as identified in different studies. Subsequently, remote sensing products that can be used as proxies for these environmental constraints are presented. Remote sensing data are then used together with species occurrence data from the Spanish Bluetongue National Surveillance Programme to calibrate a supervised learning model, based on Random Forests, to model the probability of occurrence of the C. imicola midge. The model will then be applied for a pixel-based prediction over the Iberian peninsula using remote sensing products for habitat characterization.

  5. Caffeine improves spatial learning deficits in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) -- the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Rui D S; Pamplona, Fabrício A; Fernandes, Daniel; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2005-12-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is generally considered to be a suitable genetic model for the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), since it displays hyperactivity, impulsivity, poorly sustained attention, and deficits in learning and memory processes. Converging evidence suggests a primary role of disturbance in the dopaminergic neurotransmission in ADHD patients and in SHR, and in addition, some studies have also demonstrated alterations in adenosinergic neurotransmission in SHR. In the present study, adult female Wistar (WIS) and SHR rats received caffeine (1-10 mg/kg i.p.) 30 min before training, immediately after training, or 30 min before a test session in the spatial version of the Morris water maze. The effect of caffeine administration on WIS and SHR blood pressure was also measured. SHR needed significantly more trials in the training session to acquire the spatial information, but they displayed a similar profile to that of WIS rats in the test session (48 h later), demonstrating a selective deficit in spatial learning. Pre-training administration of caffeine (1-10 mg/kg i.p.) improved this spatial learning deficit in SHR, but did not alter the WIS performance. In contrast, post-training administration of caffeine (3 mg/kg i.p.) did not alter the SHR test performance, but increased memory retention in WIS rats. No dose of caffeine tested altered the mean blood pressure of WIS or SHR. These results demonstrate a selective spatial learning deficit in SHR which can be attenuated by pre-training administration of caffeine. In addition, the present findings indicate that the spatial learning deficit in SHR is not directly related to hypertension.

  6. Win-stay-lose-learn promotes cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkui Liu

    Full Text Available Holding on to one's strategy is natural and common if the later warrants success and satisfaction. This goes against widespread simulation practices of evolutionary games, where players frequently consider changing their strategy even though their payoffs may be marginally different than those of the other players. Inspired by this observation, we introduce an aspiration-based win-stay-lose-learn strategy updating rule into the spatial prisoner's dilemma game. The rule is simple and intuitive, foreseeing strategy changes only by dissatisfied players, who then attempt to adopt the strategy of one of their nearest neighbors, while the strategies of satisfied players are not subject to change. We find that the proposed win-stay-lose-learn rule promotes the evolution of cooperation, and it does so very robustly and independently of the initial conditions. In fact, we show that even a minute initial fraction of cooperators may be sufficient to eventually secure a highly cooperative final state. In addition to extensive simulation results that support our conclusions, we also present results obtained by means of the pair approximation of the studied game. Our findings continue the success story of related win-stay strategy updating rules, and by doing so reveal new ways of resolving the prisoner's dilemma.

  7. Effects of long-term electromagnetic field exposure on spatial learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Dongmei; Yang, Lei; Chen, Su; Tong, Jun; Tian, Yonghao; Su, Benhang; Wu, Shuicai; Zeng, Yanjun

    2013-02-01

    With the development of communications industry, mobile phone plays an important role in daily life. Whether or not the electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phone causes any adverse effects on brain function has become of a great concern. This paper investigated the effect of electromagnetic field on spatial learning and memory in rats. 32 trained Wistar rats were divided into two groups: exposure group and control group. The exposure group was exposed to 916 MHz, 10w/m2 mobile phone electromagnetic field (EMF) 6 h a day, 5 days a week, 10 weeks. The completion time, number of total errors and the neuron discharge signals were recorded while the rats were searching for food in an eight-arm radial maze at every weekend. The neuron signals of one exposed rat and one control rat in the maze were obtained by the implanted microelectrode arrays in their hippocampal regions. It can be seen that during the weeks 4-5 of the experiment, the average completion time and error rate of the exposure group were longer and larger than that of control group (p < 0.05). During the weeks 1-3 and 6-9, they were close to each other. The hippocampal neurons showed irregular firing patterns and more spikes with shorter interspike interval during the whole experiment period. It indicates that the 916 MHz EMF influence learning and memory in rats to some extent in a period during exposure, and the rats can adapt to long-term EMF exposure.

  8. Voxel-Based Neighborhood for Spatial Shape Pattern Classification of Lidar Point Clouds with Supervised Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Leiva, Victoria; Gomez-Ruiz, Jose Antonio; Mandow, Anthony; García-Cerezo, Alfonso

    2017-03-15

    Improving the effectiveness of spatial shape features classification from 3D lidar data is very relevant because it is largely used as a fundamental step towards higher level scene understanding challenges of autonomous vehicles and terrestrial robots. In this sense, computing neighborhood for points in dense scans becomes a costly process for both training and classification. This paper proposes a new general framework for implementing and comparing different supervised learning classifiers with a simple voxel-based neighborhood computation where points in each non-overlapping voxel in a regular grid are assigned to the same class by considering features within a support region defined by the voxel itself. The contribution provides offline training and online classification procedures as well as five alternative feature vector definitions based on principal component analysis for scatter, tubular and planar shapes. Moreover, the feasibility of this approach is evaluated by implementing a neural network (NN) method previously proposed by the authors as well as three other supervised learning classifiers found in scene processing methods: support vector machines (SVM), Gaussian processes (GP), and Gaussian mixture models (GMM). A comparative performance analysis is presented using real point clouds from both natural and urban environments and two different 3D rangefinders (a tilting Hokuyo UTM-30LX and a Riegl). Classification performance metrics and processing time measurements confirm the benefits of the NN classifier and the feasibility of voxel-based neighborhood.

  9. Generation and Validation of Spatial Distribution of Hourly Wind Speed Time-Series using Machine Learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, F; Grassi, S

    2016-01-01

    Wind resource assessment is a key aspect of wind farm planning since it allows to estimate the long term electricity production. Moreover, wind speed time-series at high resolution are helpful to estimate the temporal changes of the electricity generation and indispensable to design stand-alone systems, which are affected by the mismatch of supply and demand. In this work, we present a new generalized statistical methodology to generate the spatial distribution of wind speed time-series, using Switzerland as a case study. This research is based upon a machine learning model and demonstrates that statistical wind resource assessment can successfully be used for estimating wind speed time-series. In fact, this method is able to obtain reliable wind speed estimates and propagate all the sources of uncertainty (from the measurements to the mapping process) in an efficient way, i.e. minimizing computational time and load. This allows not only an accurate estimation, but the creation of precise confidence intervals to map the stochasticity of the wind resource for a particular site. The validation shows that machine learning can minimize the bias of the wind speed hourly estimates. Moreover, for each mapped location this method delivers not only the mean wind speed, but also its confidence interval, which are crucial data for planners. (paper)

  10. Voxel-Based Neighborhood for Spatial Shape Pattern Classification of Lidar Point Clouds with Supervised Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Plaza-Leiva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Improving the effectiveness of spatial shape features classification from 3D lidar data is very relevant because it is largely used as a fundamental step towards higher level scene understanding challenges of autonomous vehicles and terrestrial robots. In this sense, computing neighborhood for points in dense scans becomes a costly process for both training and classification. This paper proposes a new general framework for implementing and comparing different supervised learning classifiers with a simple voxel-based neighborhood computation where points in each non-overlapping voxel in a regular grid are assigned to the same class by considering features within a support region defined by the voxel itself. The contribution provides offline training and online classification procedures as well as five alternative feature vector definitions based on principal component analysis for scatter, tubular and planar shapes. Moreover, the feasibility of this approach is evaluated by implementing a neural network (NN method previously proposed by the authors as well as three other supervised learning classifiers found in scene processing methods: support vector machines (SVM, Gaussian processes (GP, and Gaussian mixture models (GMM. A comparative performance analysis is presented using real point clouds from both natural and urban environments and two different 3D rangefinders (a tilting Hokuyo UTM-30LX and a Riegl. Classification performance metrics and processing time measurements confirm the benefits of the NN classifier and the feasibility of voxel-based neighborhood.

  11. Spatial and reversal learning in the Morris water maze are largely resistant to six hours of REM sleep deprivation following training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine M.; Booth, Victoria; Poe, Gina R.

    2011-01-01

    This first test of the role of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in reversal spatial learning is also the first attempt to replicate a much cited pair of papers reporting that REM sleep deprivation impairs the consolidation of initial spatial learning in the Morris water maze. We hypothesized that REM sleep deprivation following training would impair both hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and learning a new target location within a familiar environment: reversal learning. A 6-d protocol was divided into the initial spatial learning phase (3.5 d) immediately followed by the reversal phase (2.5 d). During the 6 h following four or 12 training trials/day of initial or reversal learning phases, REM sleep was eliminated and non-REM sleep left intact using the multiple inverted flowerpot method. Contrary to our hypotheses, REM sleep deprivation during four or 12 trials/day of initial spatial or reversal learning did not affect training performance. However, some probe trial measures indicated REM sleep-deprivation–associated impairment in initial spatial learning with four trials/day and enhancement of subsequent reversal learning. In naive animals, REM sleep deprivation during normal initial spatial learning was followed by a lack of preference for the subsequent reversal platform location during the probe. Our findings contradict reports that REM sleep is essential for spatial learning in the Morris water maze and newly reveal that short periods of REM sleep deprivation do not impair concurrent reversal learning. Effects on subsequent reversal learning are consistent with the idea that REM sleep serves the consolidation of incompletely learned items. PMID:21677190

  12. Prenatal complex rhythmic music sound stimulation facilitates postnatal spatial learning but transiently impairs memory in the domestic chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauser, H; Roy, S; Pal, A; Sreenivas, V; Mathur, R; Wadhwa, S; Jain, S

    2011-01-01

    Early experience has a profound influence on brain development, and the modulation of prenatal perceptual learning by external environmental stimuli has been shown in birds, rodents and mammals. In the present study, the effect of prenatal complex rhythmic music sound stimulation on postnatal spatial learning, memory and isolation stress was observed. Auditory stimulation with either music or species-specific sounds or no stimulation (control) was provided to separate sets of fertilized eggs from day 10 of incubation. Following hatching, the chicks at age 24, 72 and 120 h were tested on a T-maze for spatial learning and the memory of the learnt task was assessed 24 h after training. In the posthatch chicks at all ages, the plasma corticosterone levels were estimated following 10 min of isolation. The chicks of all ages in the three groups took less (p < 0.001) time to navigate the maze over the three trials thereby showing an improvement with training. In both sound-stimulated groups, the total time taken to reach the target decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in comparison to the unstimulated control group, indicating the facilitation of spatial learning. However, this decline was more at 24 h than at later posthatch ages. When tested for memory after 24 h of training, only the music-stimulated chicks at posthatch age 24 h took a significantly longer (p < 0.001) time to traverse the maze, suggesting a temporary impairment in their retention of the learnt task. In both sound-stimulated groups at 24 h, the plasma corticosterone levels were significantly decreased (p < 0.001) and increased thereafter at 72 h (p < 0.001) and 120 h which may contribute to the differential response in spatial learning. Thus, prenatal auditory stimulation with either species-specific or complex rhythmic music sounds facilitates spatial learning, though the music stimulation transiently impairs postnatal memory. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Considerations of How to Study Learning Processes when Students use GIS as an Instrument for Developing Spatial Thinking Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lene Møller; Rump, Camilla Østerberg

    2012-01-01

    Within the last 30 years, geographical information systems (GIS) have been used increasingly in the training of geographers. On the basis of the philosophy of technology and instrumental genesis, we sketch how the use of instruments interacts with learning processes and outline how this can...... be studied. We empirically analyse students’ learning processes and the influences of teaching practice in an introductory course in GIS. We show that students have different strategies for creating their personal instrument for spatial thinking and how teaching interacts with the students’ learning...... processes. Finally, we discuss how GIS may gradually alter future professional development of geographers....

  14. Neurosteroid effects at α4βδ GABAA receptors alter spatial learning and synaptic plasticity in CA1 hippocampus across the estrous cycle of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaliauskas, Nicole; Shen, Hui; Molla, Jonela; Gong, Qi Hua; Kuver, Aarti; Aoki, Chiye; Smith, Sheryl S

    2015-09-24

    Fluctuations in circulating levels of ovarian hormones have been shown to regulate cognition (Sherwin and Grigorova, 2011. Fertil. Steril. 96, 399-403; Shumaker et al., 2004. JAMA. 291, 2947-2958), but increases in estradiol on the day of proestrus yield diverse outcomes: In vivo induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), a model of learning, is reduced in the morning, but optimal in the afternoon (Warren et al., 1995. Brain Res. 703, 26-30). The mechanism underlying this discrepancy is not known. Here, we show that impairments in both CA1 hippocampal LTP and spatial learning observed on the morning of proestrus are due to increased dendritic expression of α4βδ GABAA receptors (GABARs) on CA1 pyramidal cells, as assessed by electron microscopic (EM) techniques, compared with estrus and diestrus. LTP induction and spatial learning were robust, however, when assessed on the morning of proestrus in α4-/- mice, implicating these receptors in mediating impaired plasticity. Although α4βδ expression remained elevated on the afternoon of proestrus, increases in 3α-OH-THP (3α-OH-5α-pregnan-20-one) decreased inhibition by reducing outward current through α4βδ GABARs (Shen et al., 2007. Nat. Neurosci. 10, 469-477), in contrast to the usual effect of this steroid to enhance inhibition. Proestrous levels of 3α-OH-THP reversed the deficits in LTP and spatial learning, an effect prevented by the inactive metabolite 3β-OH-THP (10 mg/kg, i.p.), which antagonizes actions of 3α-OH-THP. In contrast, administration of 3α-OH-THP (10 mg/kg, i.p.) on the morning of proestrus improved spatial learning scores 150-300%. These findings suggest that cyclic fluctuations in ovarian steroids can induce changes in cognition via α4βδ GABARs that are dependent upon 3α-OH-THP. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Can 28-Month-Old Children Learn Spatial Prepositions Robustly from Pictures? Yes, When Narrative Input Is Provided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Katharina J; Nachtigäller, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The learning of spatial prepositions is assumed to be based on experience in space. In a slow mapping study, we investigated whether 31 German 28-month-old children could robustly learn the German spatial prepositions hinter [behind] and neben [next to] from pictures, and whether a narrative input can compensate for a lack of immediate experience in space. One group of children received pictures with a narrative input as a training to understand spatial prepositions. In two further groups, we controlled (a) for the narrative input by providing unconnected speech during the training and (b) for the learning material by training the children on toys rather than pictures. We assessed children's understanding of spatial prepositions at three different time points: pretest, immediate test, and delayed posttest. Results showed improved word retention in children from the narrative but not the control group receiving unconnected speech. Neither of the trained groups succeeded in generalization to novel referents. Finally, all groups were instructed to deal with untrained material in the test to investigate the robustness of learning across tasks. None of the groups succeeded in this task transfer.

  16. Microarray analysis of gene expression on herbal glycoside recipes improving deficient ability of spatial learning memory in ischemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong; Du, Qingyou; Wang, Fusheng; Liu, Zhongrong; Li, Baigang; Wang, Anmin; Wang, Yongyan

    2004-03-01

    In order to reveal the mechanism of herbal glycoside recipes retrieving deficient ability of spatial learning memory in mice suffering from cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, a microarray system was used to analyze gene expression in those groups with increasing ability of spatial learning memory who were different from ischemic mice. In this work, we reported a comprehensive characterization of gene expression profiles of mouse hippocampus by the use of cDNA microarray system containing 1176 known genes in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) ischemic mice after treating with different dosage recipes of glycoside herbs (30, 90, and 270 mg/kg). The ability of spatial learning memory in ischemic mice was found to be decreased. The pathological process in ischemic mouse brain showed that a complex related to 100 genes' expression yielded 1.8-fold. Dose-dependent effects showed an improvement in the deficient ability and reduction in infarct volume when treated with glycoside recipes. Many genes (38-46) in expression were found greater than 1.8-fold in those effective recipes groups, including genes in cell cycle regulation, signal transduction, nerve system transcription factors, DNA binding protein, etc. Nine genes related to retrieving deficient ability of spatial learning memory treated with glycoside recipes were also found in this study. These results suggest that microarray analysis of gene expression might be useful for elucidating the mechanisms of pharmacological function of recipes.

  17. Age-dependent differences of treadmill exercise on spatial learning ability between young- and adult-age rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun-Jang; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Hwang, Lakkyong; Lee, Man-Gyoon; Kim, Dae-Young; Jung, Sun-Young

    2017-08-01

    The effect of exercise, which increases hippocampal neurogenesis and improves memory function, is well documented, however, differences in the effect of exercise on young children and adults are not yet known. In the present study, age-dependent differences of treadmill exercise on spatial learning ability between young- and adult-age rats were investigated. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day for 6 weeks. Radial 8-arm maze test was conducted for the determination of spatial learning ability. Cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was determined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine immunohistochemistry. Western blot for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) was performed. In the present study, the number of errors in the young-age rats was effectively decreased by treadmill exercise. Hippocampal neurogenesis was more active in the young-age rats than in the adult-age rats. BDNF and TrkB expression in the hippocampus was greater in the adult-age rats than in the young-age rats. The results of this study showed that adults have excellent spatial learning abilities than children, but the improvement of exercise-induced spatial learning ability through neurogenesis is better in children.

  18. Paternal physical exercise improves spatial learning ability by enhancing hippocampal neuroplasticity in male pups born from obese maternal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon

    2017-06-01

    Maternal obesity exerts negative effects on cognitive function and behavior of the offspring. In the present study, we assessed the effects of paternal physical exercise on spatial learning ability in relation with hippocampal neuroplasticity in the rat pups born from the obese maternal rats. There were four experimental groups: paternal nonexercised male pups from normal maternal rats, paternal exercised male pups from normal maternal rats, paternal nonexercised male pups from obese maternal rats, and paternal exercised male pups from obese maternal rats. Normal diet was supplied for normal maternal rats and high-fat diet was supplied for obese maternal rats for a 12-week period until mating, and the same diet for each group continued throughout pregnancy and lactation period. Male rats in the exercising groups exercised for a 12-week period. Spatial learning ability was reduced in the male rat pups born from the obese maternal rats. Expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B receptor (TrkB) in the hippocampus were suppressed and cell proliferation and differentiation in the hippocampus were reduced in the male rat pups born from the obese maternal rats. Paternal treadmill exercise improved spatial learning ability, increased BDNF and TrkB expressions, and enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation in the male rat pups born from the obese maternal rats. It can be suggested that paternal exercise enhances hippocampal neuroplasticity and consequently improved spatial learning ability in the rat pups born from the obese maternal rats.

  19. A central role for the small GTPase Rac1 in hippocampal plasticity and spatial learning and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haditsch, Ursula; Leone, Dino P; Farinelli, Mélissa

    2009-01-01

    in excitatory neurons in the forebrain in vivo not only affects spine structure, but also impairs synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus with consequent defects in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning. Furthermore, Rac1 mutants display deficits in working/episodic-like memory in the delayed matching...

  20. Cognitive Control Structures in the Imitation Learning of Spatial Sequences and Rhythms-An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakreida, Katrin; Higuchi, Satomi; Di Dio, Cinzia; Ziessler, Michael; Turgeon, Martine; Roberts, Neil; Vogt, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    Imitation learning involves the acquisition of novel motor patterns based on action observation (AO). We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the imitation learning of spatial sequences and rhythms during AO, motor imagery (MI), and imitative execution in nonmusicians and musicians. While both tasks engaged the fronto-parietal mirror circuit, the spatial sequence task recruited posterior parietal and dorsal premotor regions more strongly. The rhythm task involved an additional network for auditory working memory. This partial dissociation supports the concept of task-specific mirror mechanisms. Two regions of cognitive control were identified: 1) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was found to be more strongly activated during MI of novel spatial sequences, which allowed us to extend the 2-level model of imitation learning by Buccino et al. (2004) to spatial sequences. 2) During imitative execution of both tasks, the posterior medial frontal cortex was robustly activated, along with the DLPFC, which suggests that both regions are involved in the cognitive control of imitation learning. The musicians' selective behavioral advantage for rhythm imitation was reflected cortically in enhanced sensory-motor processing during AO and by the absence of practice-related activation differences in DLPFC during rhythm execution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Knowledge sharing and organizational learning in the context of hospital infection prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangachari, Pavani

    2010-01-01

    Recently, hospitals that have been successful in preventing infections have labeled their improvement approaches as either the Toyota Production System (TPS) approach or the Positive Deviance (PD) approach. PD has been distinguished from TPS as being a bottom-up approach to improvement, as against top-down. Facilities that have employed both approaches have suggested that PD may be more effective than TPS for infection prevention. This article integrates organizational learning, institutional, and knowledge network theories to develop a theoretical framework for understanding the structure and evolution of effective knowledge-sharing networks in health care organizations, that is, networks most conducive to learning and improvement. Contrary to arguments put forth by hospital success stories, the framework suggests that networks rich in brokerage and hierarchy (ie, top-down, "TPS-like" structures) may be more effective for learning and improvement in health care organizations, compared with a networks rich in density (ie, bottom-up, "PD-like" structures). The theoretical framework and ensuing analysis help identify several gaps in the literature related to organization learning and improvement in the infection prevention context. This, in turn, helps put forth recommendations for health management research and practice.

  2. Visible spatial contiguity of social information and reward affects social learning in brown capuchins (Sapajus apella) and children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lara A; Whiten, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Animal social learning is typically studied experimentally by the presentation of artificial foraging tasks. Although productive, results are often variable even for the same species. We present and test the hypothesis that one cause of variation is that spatial distance between rewards and the means of reward release causes conflicts for participants' attentional focus. We investigated whether spatial contiguity between a visible reward and the means of release would affect behavioral responses that evidence social learning, testing 21 brown capuchins ( Sapajus apella ), a much-studied species with variant evidence for social learning, and one hundred eighty 2- to 4-year-old human children ( Homo sapiens ), a benchmark species known for a strong social learning disposition. Participants were presented with a novel transparent apparatus where a reward was either proximal or distal to a demonstrated means of releasing it. A distal reward location decreased attention toward the location of the demonstration and impaired subsequent success in gaining rewards. Generally, the capuchins produced the alternative method to that demonstrated, whereas children copied the method demonstrated, although a distal reward location reduced copying in younger children. We conclude that some design features in common social learning tasks may significantly degrade the evidence for social learning. We have demonstrated this for 2 different primates but suggest that it is a significant factor to control for in social learning research across all taxa. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Spatial and Reversal Learning in the Morris Water Maze Are Largely Resistant to Six Hours of REM Sleep Deprivation Following Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine M.; Booth, Victoria; Poe, Gina R.

    2011-01-01

    This first test of the role of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in reversal spatial learning is also the first attempt to replicate a much cited pair of papers reporting that REM sleep deprivation impairs the consolidation of initial spatial learning in the Morris water maze. We hypothesized that REM sleep deprivation following training would impair…

  4. Human-simulation-based learning to prevent medication error: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfati, Laura; Ranchon, Florence; Vantard, Nicolas; Schwiertz, Vérane; Larbre, Virginie; Parat, Stéphanie; Faudel, Amélie; Rioufol, Catherine

    2018-01-31

    In the past 2 decades, there has been an increasing interest in simulation-based learning programs to prevent medication error (ME). To improve knowledge, skills, and attitudes in prescribers, nurses, and pharmaceutical staff, these methods enable training without directly involving patients. However, best practices for simulation for healthcare providers are as yet undefined. By analysing the current state of experience in the field, the present review aims to assess whether human simulation in healthcare helps to reduce ME. A systematic review was conducted on Medline from 2000 to June 2015, associating the terms "Patient Simulation," "Medication Errors," and "Simulation Healthcare." Reports of technology-based simulation were excluded, to focus exclusively on human simulation in nontechnical skills learning. Twenty-one studies assessing simulation-based learning programs were selected, focusing on pharmacy, medicine or nursing students, or concerning programs aimed at reducing administration or preparation errors, managing crises, or learning communication skills for healthcare professionals. The studies varied in design, methodology, and assessment criteria. Few demonstrated that simulation was more effective than didactic learning in reducing ME. This review highlights a lack of long-term assessment and real-life extrapolation, with limited scenarios and participant samples. These various experiences, however, help in identifying the key elements required for an effective human simulation-based learning program for ME prevention: ie, scenario design, debriefing, and perception assessment. The performance of these programs depends on their ability to reflect reality and on professional guidance. Properly regulated simulation is a good way to train staff in events that happen only exceptionally, as well as in standard daily activities. By integrating human factors, simulation seems to be effective in preventing iatrogenic risk related to ME, if the program is

  5. Sex-specific effects of prenatal chronic mild stress on adult spatial learning capacity and regional glutamate receptor expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Ma, Yuchao; Hu, Jingmin; Zhang, Xinxin; Cheng, Wenwen; Jiang, Han; Li, Min; Ren, Jintao; Zhang, Xiaosong; Liu, Mengxi; Sun, Anji; Wang, Qi; Li, Xiaobai

    2016-07-01

    Both animal experiments and clinical studies have demonstrated that prenatal stress can cause cognitive disorders in offspring. To explore the scope of these deficits and identify potential underlying mechanisms, we examined the spatial learning and memory performance and glutamate receptor (GluR) expression patterns of adult rats exposed to prenatal chronic mild stress (PCMS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal the interrelationships among spatial learning indices and GluR expression changes. Female PCMS-exposed offspring exhibited markedly impaired spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) task compared to control females, while PCMS-exposed males showed better initial spatial learning in the MWM compared to control males. PCMS also altered basal and post-MWM glutamate receptor expression patterns, but these effects differed markedly between sexes. Male PCMS-exposed offspring exhibited elevated basal expression of NR1, mGluR5, and mGluR2/3 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), whereas females showed no basal expression changes. Following MWM training, PCMS-exposed males expressed higher NR1 in the PFC and mammillary body (MB), higher mGluR2/3 in PFC, and lower NR2B in the hippocampus (HIP), PFC, and MB compared to unstressed MWM-trained males. Female PCMS-exposed offspring showed strongly reduced NR1 in MB and NR2B in the HIP, PFC, and MB, and increased mGluR2/3 in PFC compared to unstressed MWM-trained females. This is the first report suggesting that NMDA subunits in the MB are involved in spatial learning. Additionally, PCA further suggests that the NR1-NR2B form is the most important for spatial memory formation. These results reveal long-term sex-specific effects of PCMS on spatial learning and memory performance in adulthood and implicate GluR expression changes within HIP, PFC, and MB as possible molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive dysfunction in offspring exposed to prenatal stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

  6. A virtual reality task based on animal research - spatial learning and memory in patients after the first episode of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajnerová, Iveta; Rodriguez, Mabel; Levčík, David; Konrádová, Lucie; Mikoláš, Pavol; Brom, Cyril; Stuchlík, Aleš; Vlček, Kamil; Horáček, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficit is considered to be a characteristic feature of schizophrenia disorder. A similar cognitive dysfunction was demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia. However, the poor comparability of methods used to assess cognition in animals and humans could be responsible for low predictive validity of current animal models. In order to assess spatial abilities in schizophrenia and compare our results with the data obtained in animal models, we designed a virtual analog of the Morris water maze (MWM), the virtual Four Goals Navigation (vFGN) task. Twenty-nine patients after the first psychotic episode with schizophrenia symptoms and a matched group of healthy volunteers performed the vFGN task. They were required to find and remember four hidden goal positions in an enclosed virtual arena. The task consisted of two parts. The Reference memory (RM) session with a stable goal position was designed to test spatial learning. The Delayed-matching-to-place (DMP) session presented a modified working memory protocol designed to test the ability to remember a sequence of three hidden goal positions. Data obtained in the RM session show impaired spatial learning in schizophrenia patients compared to the healthy controls in pointing and navigation accuracy. The DMP session showed impaired spatial memory in schizophrenia during the recall of spatial sequence and a similar deficit in spatial bias in the probe trials. The pointing accuracy and the quadrant preference showed higher sensitivity toward the cognitive deficit than the navigation accuracy. Direct navigation to the goal was affected by sex and age of the tested subjects. The age affected spatial performance only in healthy controls. Despite some limitations of the study, our results correspond well with the previous studies in animal models of schizophrenia and support the decline of spatial cognition in schizophrenia, indicating the usefulness of the vFGN task in comparative research.

  7. A Virtual Reality Task Based on Animal Research - Spatial Learning and Memory in Patients after the First Episode of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta eFajnerova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cognitive deficit is considered to be a characteristic feature of schizophrenia disorder. A similar cognitive dysfunction was demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia. However, the poor comparability of methods used to assess cognition in animals and humans could be responsible for low predictive validity of current animal models. In order to assess spatial abilities in schizophrenia and compare our results with the data obtained in animal models we designed a virtual analogue of the Morris water maze (MWM, the virtual Four Goals Navigation (vFGN task.Method: Twenty-nine patients after the first psychotic episode with schizophrenia symptoms and a matched group of healthy volunteers performed the vFGN task. They were required to find and remember four hidden goal positions in an enclosed virtual arena. The task consisted of two parts. The Reference memory (RM session with a stable goal position was designed to test spatial learning. The Delayed-matching-to-place (DMP session presented a modified working memory protocol designed to test the ability to remember a sequence of three hidden goal positions.Results: Data obtained in the RM session show impaired spatial learning in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls in pointing and navigation accuracy. The DMP session showed impaired spatial memory in schizophrenia during the recall of spatial sequence and similar deficit in spatial bias in probe trials. The pointing accuracy and the quadrant preference showed higher sensitivity toward the cognitive deficit than the navigation accuracy. Direct navigation to the goal was affected by sex and age of the tested subjects. Age affected spatial performance only in healthy controls. Conclusions: Despite some limitations of the study, our results correspond well to previous studies in animal models of schizophrenia and support the decline of spatial cognition in schizophrenia, indicating the usefulness of the vFGN task in

  8. N-acetylcysteine prevents spatial memory impairment induced by chronic early postnatal glutaric acid and lipopolysaccharide in rat pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S Rodrigues

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I is characterized by accumulation of glutaric acid (GA and neurological symptoms, such as cognitive impairment. Although this disease is related to oxidative stress and inflammation, it is not known whether these processes facilitate the memory impairment. Our objective was to investigate the performance of rat pups chronically injected with GA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS in spatial memory test, antioxidant defenses, cytokines levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity, and hippocampal volume. We also evaluated the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC on theses markers. METHODS: Rat pups were injected with GA (5 umol g of body weight-1, subcutaneously; twice per day; from 5th to 28th day of life, and were supplemented with NAC (150 mg/kg/day; intragastric gavage; for the same period. LPS (2 mg/kg; E.coli 055 B5 or vehicle (saline 0.9% was injected intraperitoneally, once per day, from 25th to 28th day of life. Oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers as well as hippocampal volume were assessed. RESULTS: GA caused spatial learning deficit in the Barnes maze and LPS potentiated this effect. GA and LPS increased TNF-α and IL-1β levels. The co-administration of these compounds potentiated the increase of IL-1β levels but not TNF-α levels in the hippocampus. GA and LPS increased TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance content, reduced antioxidant defenses and inhibited Na+, K+-ATPase activity. GA and LPS co-administration did not have additive effect on oxidative stress markers and Na+, K+ pump. The hippocampal volume did not change after GA or LPS administration. NAC protected against impairment of spatial learning and increase of cytokines levels. NAC Also protected against inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity and oxidative markers. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that inflammatory and oxidative markers may underlie at least in part of the neuropathology of GA-I in this model. Thus, NAC could

  9. The effects of preweaning manganese exposure on spatial learning ability and p-CaMKIIα level in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, HuanHuan; Chen, WeiWei; Yu, HongPing; Wei, ZhenZhen; Yu, XiaoDan

    2016-01-01

    The effects and mechanisms of preweaning Manganese (Mn) exposure on cognitive dysfunction remain unclear. This study evaluated the effects of preweaning Mn exposure on spatial learning and memory as well as the protein expression of CaMKIIα and p-CaMKIIα. We treated neonate rats with Mn(2+) doses of 0 (control group), 10, 20 and 30mg of Mn(2+) per kg body weight (Mn-exposed groups) over postnatal day (PND) 1-21 by intraperitoneal injection. The ability of spatial learning and memory was tested on PND 22 using the Morris water maze (MWM), while the protein expressions of CaMKIIα and p-CaMKIIα in the hippocampus were evaluated by Western blotting. The levels of Mn in the blood and hippocampus were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The rats in Mn-exposed groups showed a significant delay in spatial learning ability on the third day of the MWM without dose-dependent differences, but there was no effect on the spatial memory ability. p-CaMKIIα, but not CaMKIIα protein expression significantly reduced in the Mn-exposed group. These findings suggested that the inhibition of p-CaMKIIα could be one of the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of Mn-induced cognitive impairments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  11. Healthy outcomes for teens project: diabetes prevention through distributed interactive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Darla M; Goss, David; Scherer, Jane; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen

    2011-03-01

    This study assessed whether distributed interactive learning via web-based modules and grounded in schema and social cognitive theory (treatment group, n = 101) would increase knowledge about diabetes prevention in adolescents from three middle schools to a greater extent than the control group (n = 80) and examined whether the school environment used to convey the education had an effect. The treatment group showed substantially greater increases in overall and individual modular content knowledge, with 72 voluntarily choosing to retake evaluations that significantly improved their scores. The treatment (t[3.8], β ≥ 0.30, P school, pull out from physical education, or health education curriculum) (t[3.41], β ≥ 0.24, P learning was more effective than its passive counterpart, and a more structured delivery enhanced knowledge, as did opportunities to self-regulate learning. Attention to these process components will facilitate effective interventions by educators in schools.

  12. Effects of prenatal stress and neonatal handling on anxiety, spatial learning and serotonergic system of male offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akatsu, Shigemi; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Takemura, Kaori; Ohtani, Akiko; Shiga, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Environmental factors during perinatal period have various effects on behavior. The present study examined the effects of prenatal stress and neonatal handling on anxiety and spatial learning of offspring. Prenatal stress increased anxiety-related behavior of adult offspring, whereas neonatal handling had no effect. In contrast, spatial learning was not affected by prenatal stress, but improved by neonatal handling in both prenatally stressed and non-stressed mice. Next, to elucidate possible brain mechanisms mediating effects of environmental factors on behavior, we focused on serotonin (5-HT) system in the frontal cortex and hippocampus which is involved in anxiety and learning. We examined effects of environmental factors on the mRNA expression of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in the frontal cortex and hippocampus during postnatal period and adulthood. Both prenatal stress and neonatal handling altered the mRNA expression of 5-HT receptors. These effects were dependent on environmental factors, brain regions and developmental stages. In summary, the present study revealed that prenatal stress and neonatal handling had differential effects on anxiety and spatial learning of offspring, and concomitantly the expression of 5-HT receptors. It was also shown that the effects of prenatal stress on 5-HT system were recovered partially by neonatal handling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  13. CD146 deletion in the nervous system impairs appetite, locomotor activity and spatial learning in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Tu

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs are crucial effectors for the development and maintenance of the nervous system. Mutations in human CAM genes are linked to brain disorders and psychological diseases, and CAM knockout mice always exhibit similar behavioral abnormalities. CD146 is a CAM of the immunoglobulin superfamily that interacts with Neurite Outgrowth Factor and involved in neurite extension in vitro. However, little is known about its in vivo function in the nervous system. In this study, we used a murine CD146 nervous system knockout (CD146(ns-ko model. We found that the brains of some CD146(ns-ko mice were malformed with small olfactory bulbs. CD146(ns-ko mice exhibited lower body weights and smaller food intake when compared with wild type littermates. Importantly, behavior tests revealed that CD146(ns-ko mice exhibited significant decreased locomotor activity and impaired capacity for spatial learning and memory. Our results demonstrate that CD146 is important for mammalian nervous system development and proper behavior patterns.

  14. Beneficial Effect of Leptin on Spatial Learning and Memory in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ghasemi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which may be accompanied by cognitive impairments. The expression of the obesity gene (ob is decreased in insulin-deficient diabetic animals and increased after the administration of insulin or leptin. Plasma leptin levels are reduced in the streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, the deleterious effects of diabetes on memory may be due to the reduction of leptin. Aims: Investigate the effect of subcutaneous injection of leptin on spatial learning and memory in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: The rats were divided into three groups: 1- control, 2- diabetic, and 3- diabetic-leptin. Diabetes was induced in groups 2 and 3 by STZ injection (55 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p. The animals received leptin (0.1 mg/kg or saline subcutaneously (s.c for 10 days before behavioral studies. Then, they were examined in the Morris water maze over 3 blocks after 3 days of the last injection of leptin. Results: The travelled path length and time spent to reach the platform significantly increased in the diabetic group (p<0.001 and decreased with leptin treatment (p<0.01 & p<0.001 respectively; also, a significant increase in path length and time was observed between the diabetic-leptin group and the diabetic group (p<0.01, p<0.001, respectively in the probe test. Conclusion: Leptin can exert positive effects on memory impairments in diabetic rats.

  15. Spatial learning and memory deficits induced by exposure to iron-56-particle radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Casadesus, G.; McEwen, J. J.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    It has previously been shown that exposing rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE) disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system, such as motor performance and an amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversion; these adverse behavioral and neuronal effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. Because cognition declines with age, spatial learning and memory were assessed in the Morris water maze 1 month after whole-body irradiation with 1.5 Gy of 1 GeV/nucleon high-energy (56)Fe particles, to test the cognitive behavioral consequences of radiation exposure. Irradiated rats demonstrated cognitive impairment compared to the control group as seen in their increased latencies to find the hidden platform, particularly on the reversal day when the platform was moved to the opposite quadrant. Also, the irradiated group used nonspatial strategies during the probe trials (swim with no platform), i.e. less time spent in the platform quadrant, fewer crossings of and less time spent in the previous platform location, and longer latencies to the previous platform location. These findings are similar to those seen in aged rats, suggesting that an increased release of reactive oxygen species may be responsible for the induction of radiation- and age-related cognitive deficits. If these decrements in behavior also occur in humans, they may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere.

  16. Visual spatial ability for surgical trainees: implications for learning endoscopic, laparoscopic surgery and other image-guided procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Patrick; Gallagher, Anthony G; Nugent, Emmeline; Seymour, Neal E; Haluck, Randy S; Hseino, Hazem; Traynor, Oscar; Neary, Paul C

    2018-02-12

    In image-guided procedures, a high level of visual spatial ability may be an advantage for surgical trainees. We assessed the visual spatial ability of surgical trainees. Two hundred and thirty-nine surgical trainees and 61 controls were tested on visual spatial ability using 3 standardised tests, the Card Rotation, Cube Comparison and Map-Planning Tests. Two hundred and twenty-one, 236 and 236 surgical trainees and 61 controls completed the Card Rotation test, Cube Comparison test and Map-Planning test, respectively. Two percent of surgical trainees performed statistically significantly worse than their peers on card rotation and map-planning test, > 1% on Cube Comparison test. Surgical trainees performed statistically significantly better than controls on all tests. Two percent of surgical trainees performed statistically significantly worse than their peers on visual spatial ability. The implication of this finding is unclear, further research is required that can look at the learning and educational portfolios of these trainees who perform poorly on visual spatial ability, and ascertain if they are struggling to learn skills for image-guided procedures.

  17. The effect of co-administration of lactobacillus probiotics and bifidobacterium on spatial memory and learning in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus affects numerous intracellular metabolic processes, which are reflected by changes in the concentration of some plasma constituents. Particularly, the disease may indirectly undermine some functions of the nervous system including learning and memory through altering oxidative stress status. On the other hand, probiotics can enhance the antioxidant capacity. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of probiotics on spatial memory, maze learning and indices of oxidative stress in diabetic rats.Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to 4 groups (n=10 for each: Control (CO, Control probiotic (CP, Control diabetic (DC, and Diabetic probiotic (DP. The probiotic supplement, including Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Bifidobacterium lactis (334 mg of each with a CFU of ~1010, was administered through drinking water every 12 hours for 8 weeks. Using morris water maze (MWM, spatial learning and memory were evaluated. Serum insulin and oxidative stress indices, including superoxide dismutase (SOD and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, were measured by standard laboratory kits.Results: Oral administration of probiotics improved impairment of spatial learning (P=0.008 and consolidated memory (P=0.01 in the rats. Moreover, probiotic treatment increased serum insulin (P<0.0001 and serum superoxide dismutase activity (P=0.007 while it decreased their blood glucose (P=0.006 and 8-OHdG (P<0.0001.Conclusion: Probiotic supplementation reversed the serum concentrations of insulin and glucose along with an increase in antioxidant capacity in diabetic rats. It also improved spatial learning and memory in the animals. Relevancy of the metabolic changes and behavioral functions need to be further studied.

  18. An unexpected improvement in spatial learning and memory ability in alpha-synuclein A53T transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Xu, YuYu; Wan, WenPing; Ma, ZeGang

    2018-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests, as Parkinson's disease (PD) progresses, that its non-motor symptoms appear prior to or in parallel with its motor deficits. Alpha-synuclein A53T transgenic mouse (A53T) is an essential tool to investigate the onsets and the extents of PD non-motor symptoms. Our aim is to investigate spatial learning and memory ability in A53T mice. In our rotarod tests, no motor coordination impairments were detected in mice of 3, 6, 9, and 12 months old. We then investigated their spatial learning and memory ability through Morris water maze in 3- and 9-month-old mice. No significant difference in escape latency was detected among the A53T mice and the control mice. However, an unexpected improvement in spatial learning and memory ability was observed in the probe session among the A53T mice. Reversal learning by Morris water maze also indicated that 3- and 9-month-old A53T mice exhibited a better cognitive flexibility compared to their littermate controls. Further studies by western blots showed that alpha-synuclein expressions in hippocampus of the A53T mice were noticeably up-regulated. The immunofluorescence staining of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (Brdu) and doublecortin (DCX) demonstrated that neither the Brdu-positive neurons nor the Brdu/DCX positive neurons in hippocampus were significantly altered between the two groups. These results suggest that our A53T mice exhibit improved spatial learning and memory ability prior to their motor coordination deficits. These results are not induced by neurogenesis in the hippocampus.

  19. Dissociable effects of dorsal and ventral hippocampal DHA content on spatial learning and anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jašarević, Eldin; Hecht, Patrick M; Fritsche, Kevin L; Beversdorf, David Q; Geary, David C

    2014-12-01

    Chronic deficiency of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during critical developmental windows results in severe deficits in spatial learning, anxiety and hippocampal neuroplasticity that parallel a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, little is known regarding the influence of long-term, multigenerational exposure to dietary DHA enrichment on these same traits. To characterize the potential benefits of multigenerational DHA enrichment, mice were fed a purified 10:1 omega-6/omega-3 diet supplemented with either 0.1% preformed DHA/kg feed weight or 1.0% preformed DHA/kg feed weight through three generations. General locomotor activity, spatial learning, and anxiety-like behavior were assessed in adult male offspring of the third generation. Following behavioral assessments, ventral and dorsal hippocampus was collected for DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) analysis. Animals consuming the 0.1% and 1.0% DHA diet did not differ from control animals for locomotor activity or on performance during acquisition learning, but made fewer errors and showed more stable across-day performance during reversal learning on the spatial task and showed less anxiety-like behavior. Consumption of the DHA-enriched diets increased DHA content in the ventral and dorsal hippocampus in a region-specific manner. DHA content in the dorsal hippocampus predicted performance on the reversal training task. DHA content in the ventral hippocampus was correlated with anxiety-like behavior, but AA content in the dorsal hippocampus was a stronger predictor of this behavior. These results suggest that long-term, multigenerational DHA administration improves performance on some aspects of complex spatial learning, decreases anxiety-like behavior, and that modulation of DHA content in sub-regions of the hippocampus predicts which behaviors are likely to be affected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatial clustering of fatal, and non-fatal, suicide in new South Wales, Australia: implications for evidence-based prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Michelle; Konings, Paul; Batterham, Philip J; Christensen, Helen

    2017-10-06

    Rates of suicide appear to be increasing, indicating a critical need for more effective prevention initiatives. To increase the efficacy of future prevention initiatives, we examined the spatial distribution of suicide deaths and suicide attempts in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, to identify where high incidence 'suicide clusters' were occurring. Such clusters represent candidate regions where intervention is critically needed, and likely to have the greatest impact, thus providing an evidence-base for the targeted prioritisation of resources. Analysis is based on official suicide mortality statistics for NSW, provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, and hospital separations for non-fatal intentional self-harm, provided through the NSW Health Admitted Patient Data Collection at a Statistical Area 2 (SA2) geography. Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques were applied to detect suicide clusters occurring between 2005 and 2013 (aggregated), for persons aged over 5 years. The final dataset contained 5466 mortality and 86,017 non-fatal intentional self-harm cases. In total, 25 Local Government Areas were identified as primary or secondary likely candidate regions for intervention. Together, these regions contained approximately 200 SA2 level suicide clusters, which represented 46% (n = 39,869) of hospital separations and 43% (n = 2330) of suicide deaths between 2005 and 2013. These clusters primarily converged on the Eastern coastal fringe of NSW. Crude rates of suicide deaths and intentional self-harm differed at the Local Government Areas (LGA) level in NSW. There was a tendency for primary suicide clusters to occur within metropolitan and coastal regions, rather than rural areas. The findings demonstrate the importance of taking geographical variation of suicidal behaviour into account, prior to development and implementation of prevention initiatives, so that such initiatives can target key problem areas where they are likely to have

  1. Sex-Specific Effects of Diets High in Unsaturated Fatty Acids on Spatial Learning and Memory in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Matthias; Millesi, Eva; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Wallner, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), including omega-3, omega-6 polyunsaturated and omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids, are essential components and modulators of neuromembranes and may affect various aspects of physiology and cognition. UFAs are suggested to positively affect spatial learning and memory and also to diminish the negative consequences of physiological stress on cognitive abilities. Due to pronounced sex differences in neurophysiological functions, we hypothesize that these UFA-related effects might differ between male and female individuals. We therefore determined the effects of dietary UFAs on cognitive performances in a radial-Y-maze in male and female guinea pigs in relation to saliva cortisol concentrations, a marker for physiological stress. Animals were assigned to four treatment groups and maintained on diets enriched in either chia seeds (omega-3), walnuts (omega-6), or peanuts (omega-9), or a control diet. Female learning abilities throughout a three-day learning phase were positively affected by omega-3 and omega-9, as determined by a decreasing latency to pass the test and the number of conducted errors, while males generally showed distinct learning abilities, irrespective of the diet. A sex difference in learning performances was found in the control group, with males outperforming females, which was not detected in the UFA-supplemented groups. This was paralleled by significantly increased saliva cortisol concentrations in males throughout the cognition test compared to females. Three days after this learning phase, UFA-supplemented males and all females showed unchanged performances, while control males showed an increased latency and therefore an impaired performance. These results were corroborated by pronounced differences in the plasma UFA-status, corresponding to the different dietary treatments. Our findings indicate sex-specific effects of dietary UFAs, apparently enhancing spatial learning abilities only in females and protecting

  2. Sex-Specific Effects of Diets High in Unsaturated Fatty Acids on Spatial Learning and Memory in Guinea Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Nemeth

    Full Text Available Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs, including omega-3, omega-6 polyunsaturated and omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids, are essential components and modulators of neuromembranes and may affect various aspects of physiology and cognition. UFAs are suggested to positively affect spatial learning and memory and also to diminish the negative consequences of physiological stress on cognitive abilities. Due to pronounced sex differences in neurophysiological functions, we hypothesize that these UFA-related effects might differ between male and female individuals. We therefore determined the effects of dietary UFAs on cognitive performances in a radial-Y-maze in male and female guinea pigs in relation to saliva cortisol concentrations, a marker for physiological stress. Animals were assigned to four treatment groups and maintained on diets enriched in either chia seeds (omega-3, walnuts (omega-6, or peanuts (omega-9, or a control diet. Female learning abilities throughout a three-day learning phase were positively affected by omega-3 and omega-9, as determined by a decreasing latency to pass the test and the number of conducted errors, while males generally showed distinct learning abilities, irrespective of the diet. A sex difference in learning performances was found in the control group, with males outperforming females, which was not detected in the UFA-supplemented groups. This was paralleled by significantly increased saliva cortisol concentrations in males throughout the cognition test compared to females. Three days after this learning phase, UFA-supplemented males and all females showed unchanged performances, while control males showed an increased latency and therefore an impaired performance. These results were corroborated by pronounced differences in the plasma UFA-status, corresponding to the different dietary treatments. Our findings indicate sex-specific effects of dietary UFAs, apparently enhancing spatial learning abilities only in

  3. Prevention of a wrong-location misadministration through the use of an intradepartmental incident learning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Eric C.; Smith, Koren; Harris, Kendra; Terezakis, Stephanie [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: A series of examples are presented in which potential errors in the delivery of radiation therapy were prevented through use of incident learning. These examples underscore the value of reporting near miss incidents. Methods: Using a departmental incident learning system, eight incidents were noted over a two-year period in which fields were treated 'out-of-sequence,' that is, fields from a boost phase were treated, while the patient was still in the initial phase of treatment. As a result, an error-prevention policy was instituted in which radiation treatment fields are 'hidden' within the oncology information system (OIS) when they are not in current use. In this way, fields are only available to be treated in the intended sequence and, importantly, old fields cannot be activated at the linear accelerator control console. Results: No out-of-sequence treatments have been reported in more than two years since the policy change. Furthermore, at least three near-miss incidents were detected and corrected as a result of the policy change. In the first two, the policy operated as intended to directly prevent an error in field scheduling. In the third near-miss, the policy operated 'off target' to prevent a type of error scenario that it was not directly intended to prevent. In this incident, an incorrect digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) was scheduled in the OIS for a patient receiving lung cancer treatment. The incorrect DRR had an isocenter which was misplaced by approximately two centimeters. The error was a result of a field from an old plan being scheduled instead of the intended new plan. As a result of the policy described above, the DRR field could not be activated for treatment however and the error was discovered and corrected. Other quality control barriers in place would have been unlikely to have detected this error. Conclusions: In these examples, a policy was adopted based on incident learning, which

  4. Prevention of a wrong-location misadministration through the use of an intradepartmental incident learning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Eric C.; Smith, Koren; Harris, Kendra; Terezakis, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A series of examples are presented in which potential errors in the delivery of radiation therapy were prevented through use of incident learning. These examples underscore the value of reporting near miss incidents. Methods: Using a departmental incident learning system, eight incidents were noted over a two-year period in which fields were treated “out-of-sequence,” that is, fields from a boost phase were treated, while the patient was still in the initial phase of treatment. As a result, an error-prevention policy was instituted in which radiation treatment fields are “hidden” within the oncology information system (OIS) when they are not in current use. In this way, fields are only available to be treated in the intended sequence and, importantly, old fields cannot be activated at the linear accelerator control console. Results: No out-of-sequence treatments have been reported in more than two years since the policy change. Furthermore, at least three near-miss incidents were detected and corrected as a result of the policy change. In the first two, the policy operated as intended to directly prevent an error in field scheduling. In the third near-miss, the policy operated “off target” to prevent a type of error scenario that it was not directly intended to prevent. In this incident, an incorrect digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) was scheduled in the OIS for a patient receiving lung cancer treatment. The incorrect DRR had an isocenter which was misplaced by approximately two centimeters. The error was a result of a field from an old plan being scheduled instead of the intended new plan. As a result of the policy described above, the DRR field could not be activated for treatment however and the error was discovered and corrected. Other quality control barriers in place would have been unlikely to have detected this error. Conclusions: In these examples, a policy was adopted based on incident learning, which prevented several errors

  5. Spatial knowledge dynamics of innovation processes: local and non-local aspects of buzz and collective learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, Anne Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    if geographically proximate partners are more important at some phases of the innovation process than at other phases. First the paper takes a critical look at the fuzzy conceptualization in economic geography, including local buzz, face-to-face, collective learning and global pipelines. Second, the paper applies...... learning processes and require face-to-face contact. In sum, the innovation biography method contributes in uncovering innovation processes and how these rely on many different configurations of spatial knowledge dynamics, including buzz, local ties and global pipelines. The findings imply that policy...... should be designed to support companies working across regional and national borders and not only favour local networking....

  6. Learning to Think Spatially in an Undergraduate Interdisciplinary Computational Design Context: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Youssef, Belgacem; Berry, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Spatial thinking skills are vital for success in everyday living and work, not to mention the centrality of spatial reasoning in scientific discoveries, design-based disciplines, medicine, geosciences and mathematics to name a few. This case study describes a course in spatial thinking and communicating designed and delivered by an…

  7. Lessons learned for spatial modelling of ecosystem services in support of ecosystem accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroter, M.; Remme, R.P.; Sumarga, E.; Barton, D.N.; Hein, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of ecosystem services through spatial modelling plays a key role in ecosystem accounting. Spatial models for ecosystem services try to capture spatial heterogeneity with high accuracy. This endeavour, however, faces several practical constraints. In this article we analyse the trade-offs

  8. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, protects against amyloid-β peptide-induced impairment of spatial learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiao-Tao; Ye-Tian; Yuan-Li; Zhang, Ge-Juan; Liu, Zhi-Qin; Di, Zheng-Li; Ying, Xiao-Ping; Fang, Yan; Song, Er-Fei; Qi, Jin-Shun; Pan, Yan-Fang

    2016-05-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) share specific molecular mechanisms, and agents with proven efficacy in one may be useful against the other. The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist exendin-4 has similar properties to GLP-1 and is currently in clinical use for T2DM treatment. Thus, this study was designed to characterize the effects of exendin-4 on the impairment of learning and memory induced by amyloid protein (Aβ) and its probable molecular underlying mechanisms. The results showed that (1) intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Aβ1-42 resulted in a significant decline of spatial learning and memory of rats in water maze tests; (2) pretreatment with exendin-4 effectively and dose-dependently protected against the Aβ1-42-induced impairment of spatial learning and memory; (3) exendin-4 treatment significantly decreased the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 and increased the expression of Bcl2 in Aβ1-42-induced Alzheimer's rats. The vision and swimming speed of the rats among all groups in the visible platform tests did not show any difference. These findings indicate that systemic pretreatment with exendin-4 can effectively prevent the behavioral impairment induced by neurotoxic Aβ1-42, and the underlying protective mechanism of exendin-4 may be involved in the Bcl2, Bax and caspase-3 pathways. Thus, the application of exendin-4 or the activation of its signaling pathways may be a promising strategy to ameliorate the degenerative processes observed in AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiagent-Based Simulation of Temporal-Spatial Characteristics of Activity-Travel Patterns Using Interactive Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a multiagent-based reinforcement learning algorithm, in which the interactions between travelers and the environment are considered to simulate temporal-spatial characteristics of activity-travel patterns in a city. Road congestion degree is added to the reinforcement learning algorithm as a medium that passes the influence of one traveler’s decision to others. Meanwhile, the agents used in the algorithm are initialized from typical activity patterns extracted from the travel survey diary data of Shangyu city in China. In the simulation, both macroscopic activity-travel characteristics such as traffic flow spatial-temporal distribution and microscopic characteristics such as activity-travel schedules of each agent are obtained. Comparing the simulation results with the survey data, we find that deviation of the peak-hour traffic flow is less than 5%, while the correlation of the simulated versus survey location choice distribution is over 0.9.

  10. Foxp1 in Forebrain Pyramidal Neurons Controls Gene Expression Required for Spatial Learning and Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Daniel J; Toriumi, Kazuya; Escamilla, Christine O; Kulkarni, Ashwinikumar; Anderson, Ashley G; Harper, Matthew; Usui, Noriyoshi; Ellegood, Jacob; Lerch, Jason P; Birnbaum, Shari G; Tucker, Haley O; Powell, Craig M; Konopka, Genevieve

    2017-11-08

    Genetic perturbations of the transcription factor Forkhead Box P1 ( FOXP1 ) are causative for severe forms of autism spectrum disorder that are often comorbid with intellectual disability. Recent work has begun to reveal an important role for FoxP1 in brain development, but the brain-region-specific contributions of Foxp1 to autism and intellectual disability phenotypes have yet to be determined fully. Here, we describe Foxp1 conditional knock-out ( Foxp1 cKO ) male and female mice with loss of Foxp1 in the pyramidal neurons of the neocortex and the CA1/CA2 subfields of the hippocampus. Foxp1 cKO mice exhibit behavioral phenotypes that are of potential relevance to autism spectrum disorder, including hyperactivity, increased anxiety, communication impairments, and decreased sociability. In addition, Foxp1 cKO mice have gross deficits in learning and memory tasks of relevance to intellectual disability. Using a genome-wide approach, we identified differentially expressed genes in the hippocampus of Foxp1 cKO mice associated with synaptic function and development. Furthermore, using magnetic resonance imaging, we uncovered a significant reduction in the volumes of both the entire hippocampus as well as individual hippocampal subfields of Foxp1 cKO mice. Finally, we observed reduced maintenance of LTP in area CA1 of the hippocampus in these mutant mice. Together, these data suggest that proper expression of Foxp1 in the pyramidal neurons of the forebrain is important for regulating gene expression pathways that contribute to specific behaviors reminiscent of those seen in autism and intellectual disability. In particular, Foxp1 regulation of gene expression appears to be crucial for normal hippocampal development, CA1 plasticity, and spatial learning. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Loss-of-function mutations in the transcription factor Forkhead Box P1 ( FOXP1 ) lead to autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. Understanding the potential brain

  11. Sex-Specific Effects of Diets High in Unsaturated Fatty Acids on Spatial Learning and Memory in Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Nemeth, Matthias; Millesi, Eva; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Wallner, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), including omega-3, omega-6 polyunsaturated and omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids, are essential components and modulators of neuromembranes and may affect various aspects of physiology and cognition. UFAs are suggested to positively affect spatial learning and memory and also to diminish the negative consequences of physiological stress on cognitive abilities. Due to pronounced sex differences in neurophysiological functions, we hypothesize that these UFA-rel...

  12. Linking Academics and Social Learning: Perceptions of School Staff to a Violence Prevention Program at an Alternative School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Ronnie; Burstyn, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Examines how school staff conceptualize their work with alternative school adolescents after undergoing at least 1 year of a whole school violence prevention program. Results highlight the importance of linking social learning and academics in violence prevention strategies and of sustaining collaborative efforts that connect conflict resolution…

  13. Social isolation stress during the third week of life has age-dependent effects on spatial learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisone, Deborah F; Frye, Cheryl A; Zimmerberg, Betty

    2002-01-22

    Despite extensive research on the relationship between acute stress and hippocampal function in adults, little is known about the short- and long-term effects of prolonged juvenile stress on learning, memory, and other hippocampal functions. This experiment investigated whether spatial learning would be altered in juvenile and adult rats previously exposed to a chronic stressor: 6 h of social isolation (SI) daily at 15-21 days of age. SI was found to increase circulating plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT) and allopregnanolone (3-alpha,5-alpha-pregnan-20-one; 3,5-THP) at 1 h after separation on the fourth day, indicating that the isolation was an effective stressor. When tested as juveniles (post-natal (PN) 22-24), spatial learning was impaired on the Morris water maze in the previously isolated subjects compared to non-isolated controls. However, when tested as adults (PN 92-94), subjects previously exposed to SI during the third week of life demonstrated more rapid learning of the task than controls. These results are discussed in light of research on the effects of CORT on the developing hippocampus.

  14. Lipopolysaccharide causes deficits in spatial learning in the watermaze but not in BDNF expression in the rat dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, K N; Commins, S; O'Mara, S M

    2001-09-28

    We investigated the effects of a single injection and a daily injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on spatial learning and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the rat dentate gyrus. LPS is derived from the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria and is a potent endotoxin that causes the release of cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor. LPS is thought to activate both the neuroimmune and neuroendocrine systems; it also blocks long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. Here, we examined the effects of LPS on a form of hippocampal-dependent learning-spatial learning in the water maze. Rats were injected with LPS intraperitoneally (100 microg/kg) and trained in the water maze. The first group of rats were injected on day 1 of training, 4 h prior to learning the water maze task. Groups 2 and 3 were injected daily, again 4 h prior to the water-maze task; group 2 with LPS and group 3 with saline. A number of behavioural variables were recorded by a computerised tracking system for each trial. The behavioural results showed a single injection of LPS (group 1) impaired escape latency in both the acquisition and retention phases of the study, whereas a daily injection of LPS did not significantly impair acquisition or retention. BDNF expression was analysed in the dentate gyrus of all animals. No significant differences in BDNF expression were found between the three groups.

  15. Exposure to activity based anorexia impairs contextual learning in weight-restored rats without affecting spatial learning, taste, anxiety, or dietary-fat preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Gretha J.; Treesukosol, Yada; Cordner, Zachary A.; Kastelein, Anneke; Choi, Pique; Moran, Timothy H.; Tamashiro, Kellie L.

    2016-01-01

    Relapse rates are high amongst cases of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) suggesting that some alterations induced by AN may remain after weight restoration. Objective To study the consequences of AN without confounds of environmental variability, a rodent model of activity based anorexia (ABA) can be employed. We hypothesized that exposure to ABA during adolescence may have long-term consequences in taste function, cognition, and anxiety-like behavior after weight restoration. Methods To test this hypothesis we exposed adolescent female rats to ABA (1.5 hrs food access, combined with voluntary running wheel access) and compared their behavior to that of control rats after weight restoration was achieved. The rats were tested for learning /memory, anxiety, food preference and taste in a set of behavioral tests performed during the light period. Results Our data show that ABA exposure leads to reduced performance during the novel object recognition task, a test for contextual learning, without altering performance in the novel place recognition task or the Barnes maze, both tasks that test spatial learning. Furthermore, we do not observe alterations in unconditioned lick responses to sucrose nor quinine (described by humans as “sweet” and “bitter” respectively). Nor did we find alterations in anxiety-like behavior during an elevated plus maze or an open field test. Finally, preference for a diet high in fat was not altered. Discussion Overall our data suggest that ABA exposure during adolescence impairs contextual learning in adulthood without altering spatial leaning, taste, anxiety, or fat preference. PMID:26711541

  16. Exposure to activity-based anorexia impairs contextual learning in weight-restored rats without affecting spatial learning, taste, anxiety, or dietary-fat preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Gretha J; Treesukosol, Yada; Cordner, Zachary A; Kastelein, Anneke; Choi, Pique; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L

    2016-02-01

    Relapse rates are high amongst cases of anorexia nervosa (AN) suggesting that some alterations induced by AN may remain after weight restoration. To study the consequences of AN without confounds of environmental variability, a rodent model of activity-based anorexia (ABA) can be employed. We hypothesized that exposure to ABA during adolescence may have long-term consequences in taste function, cognition, and anxiety-like behavior after weight restoration. To test this hypothesis, we exposed adolescent female rats to ABA (1.5 h food access, combined with voluntary running wheel access) and compared their behavior to that of control rats after weight restoration was achieved. The rats were tested for learning/memory, anxiety, food preference, and taste in a set of behavioral tests performed during the light period. Our data show that ABA exposure leads to reduced performance during the novel object recognition task, a test for contextual learning, without altering performance in the novel place recognition task or the Barnes maze, both tasks that test spatial learning. Furthermore, we do not observe alterations in unconditioned lick responses to sucrose nor quinine (described by humans as "sweet" and "bitter," respectively). Nor Do we find alterations in anxiety-like behavior during an elevated plus maze or an open field test. Finally, preference for a diet high in fat is not altered. Overall, our data suggest that ABA exposure during adolescence impairs contextual learning in adulthood without altering spatial leaning, taste, anxiety, or fat preference. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sex Differences in Using Spatial and Verbal Abilities Influence Route Learning Performance in a Virtual Environment: A Comparison of 6- to 12-Year Old Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Edward C.; Yang, Yingying; Roskos, Beverly; Steele, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported sex differences in wayfinding performance among adults. Men are typically better at using Euclidean information and survey strategies while women are better at using landmark information and route strategies. However, relatively few studies have examined sex differences in wayfinding in children. This research investigated relationships between route learning performance and two general abilities: spatial ability and verbal memory in 153 boys and girls between 6- to 12-years-old. Children completed a battery of spatial ability tasks (a two-dimension mental rotation task, a paper folding task, a visuo-spatial working memory task, and a Piagetian water level task) and a verbal memory task. In the route learning task, they had to learn a route through a series of hallways presented via computer. Boys had better overall route learning performance than did girls. In fact, the difference between boys and girls was constant across the age range tested. Structural equation modeling of the children’s performance revealed that spatial abilities and verbal memory were significant contributors to route learning performance. However, there were different patterns of correlates for boys and girls. For boys, spatial abilities contributed to route learning while verbal memory did not. In contrast, for girls both spatial abilities and verbal memory contributed to their route learning performance. This difference may reflect the precursor of a strategic difference between boys and girls in wayfinding that is commonly observed in adults. PMID:26941701

  18. Learning and memory for sequences of pictures, words, and spatial locations: an exploration of serial position effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonk, William J; Healy, Alice F

    2010-01-01

    A serial reproduction of order with distractors task was developed to make it possible to observe successive snapshots of the learning process at each serial position. The new task was used to explore the effect of several variables on serial memory performance: stimulus content (words, blanks, and pictures), presentation condition (spatial information vs. none), semantically categorized item clustering (grouped vs. ungrouped), and number of distractors relative to targets (none, equal, double). These encoding and retrieval variables, along with learning attempt number, affected both overall performance levels and the shape of the serial position function, although a large and extensive primacy advantage and a small 1-item recency advantage were found in each case. These results were explained well by a version of the scale-independent memory, perception, and learning model that accounted for improved performance by increasing the value of only a single parameter that reflects reduced interference from distant items.

  19. E-learning as a complement to presential teaching of blindness prevention: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pessoa Cavalcanti Lira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate if E-learning material improves the basal student knowledge level before attending the presential class of blindness prevention (BP and if helps to fix this information one-month after the class. METHODS: Fourth-year medical students were randomly assigned to have a presential class of BP (Traditional group = TG or to have a presential class of BP plus an additional E-learning material (E-learning group = ELG. This material was e-mailed one week before the presential class. The students were submitted to a multiple-choice test (with three options each with seven questions immediately before the presential class, immediately after the class, and one-month later. The three tests had the same questions; however, the answers options were distributed in different sequences. The primary outcome was immediate pretest score. The secondary outcomes were immediate posttest score and one-month posttest score. RESULTS: Among the 120 fourth-year medical students, a random sample of 34 students was assigned to the TG and 34 students was assigned to the ELG. The two groups showed similar immediate posttest score (TG=6.8 and ELG=6.9; P<.754, but the differences at the immediate pretest score (TG=3.6 and ELG=4.7; P<.001, and at the one-month posttest score, were significant (TG=6.1 and ELG=6.8; P<.001. CONCLUSIONS: The pretest and the one-month posttest results suggested that the E-learning material acts as an effective complementary tool of the presential class of blindness prevention.

  20. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  1. Prenatal Stress Impairs Spatial Learning and Memory Associated with Lower mRNA Level of the CAMKII and CREB in the Adult Female Rat Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongli; Wu, Haibin; Liu, Jianping; Wen, Jun; Zhu, Zhongliang; Li, Hui

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) results in various behavioral and emotional alterations observed in later life. In particular, PS impairs spatial learning and memory processes but the underlying mechanism involved in this pathogenesis still remains unknown. Here, we reported that PS lowered the body weight in offspring rats, particularly in female rats, and impaired spatial learning and memory of female offspring rats in the Morris water maze. Correspondingly, the decreased CaMKII and CREB mRNA in the hippocampus were detected in prenatally stressed female offspring, which partially explained the effect of PS on the spatial learning and memory. Our findings suggested that CaMKII and CREB may be involved in spatial learning and memory processes in the prenatally stressed adult female offspring.

  2. Exposure to 56Fe Particles Produces Deficits in Spatial Learning and Memory in the Radial Arm Water Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Miller, Marshall; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard; Joseph, James

    Previous research has shown that radiation exposure, particularly to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles) which will be encountered on long-term space missions, can adversely affect the ability of rats to perform a variety of behavioral tasks. This outcome has implications for an astronaut's ability to successfully complete requirements associated with these missions. Both aged and irradiated rats display cognitive impairment in tests of spatial learning and memory such as the Morris water maze and the radial arm maze. Therefore, in the present study, we used a combination of these two tests, the 8 arm radial water maze (RAWM), to measure spatial learning in rats which were irradiated at the NSRL with 0, 150cGy, or 200cGy of 56Fe radiation. Following irradiation the rats were shipped to the HNRCA and tested in the RAWM (2-3 months later) for 5 days, 3 trials/day. In this version of the RAWM, there were 4 hidden platforms that the rat needed to locate to successfully solve a trial. Once the rat located a platform, it was allowed to remain there for 15 sec before the platform sank, at which point the rat tried to locate the remaining ones. Reference (entering an arm that never contained the platform) and working (re-entering an arm in which the platform had already been found) memory errors were tabulated. Results showed that the irradiated rats had more reference and working memory errors while learning the maze, particularly on Day 3 of testing. Additionally, they utilized non-spatial strategies to solve the RAWM task whereas the control animals used spatial strategies. These results show that irradiation with 56Fe high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere. Supported by USDA Intramural and N.A.S.A. Grant NNX08AM66G

  3. The Efficacy of Occupational Therapy Intervention in Visual-Spatial and Visual Analysis Skills Development among Children with Learning Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Mandani

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The visual-motor skill is one of the major factors in the learning process. Visual-spatial and visual analysis skills are components of the visual motor skill. Any deficiency in Visual-Motor skills and their components often causes problem in writing and learning processes in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of occupational therapy (O.T. intervention on visual-spatial and visual analysis skills in children with L.D. Methods: Fifty-eight children with learning disorder (L.D. from “Learning Disorders Centers“ in Tehran were assessed in this study. Out of them, 23children were selected. They were in second, third and forth standard classes. They had normal I.Q and no visual or auditory problem. All of the children took the “Test of Visual Motor Skills-Revised“ (TVMS-R. They were divided into two groups: 11 in experimental group and 12 in control group. O.T interventions were performed for 16 sessions in the experimental group and finally all of the children were assessed with TVMS-R again. TVMS-R includes 8 categories and is designed based on copying some geometric figures. This test was standardized in Exceptional Children Institute, Tehran in 2002. Results: There was no significant difference of means between the pretest and the post test in the control group (P=0.10, but there was a significant difference of means in the experimental group based on paired t-test (P=0.000 Disussion: Results showed that the O.T. intervention had a statistically meaningful effect on visual-spatial and visual analysis skills in children with L.D.

  4. Concerted gene expression of hippocampal steroid receptors during spatial learning in male Wistar rats: a correlation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert eLubec

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal and gonadal steroid receptor activities are significantly involved and interact in the regulation of learning, memory and stress. Thus, a coordinated expression of steroid receptor genes during a learning task can be expected. Although coexpression of steroid receptors in response to behavioral tasks has been reported the correlative connection is unclear. According to the inverted U-shape model of the impact of stress upon learning and memory we hypothesized that glucocorticoid receptor expression should be correlated to corticosterone levels in a linear or higher order manner. Other cognition modulating steroid receptors like estrogen receptors should be correlated to glucocorticoid receptors in a quadratic manner, which describes a parabola and thus a U-shaped connection. Therefore, we performed a correlational meta-analyis of data of a previous study (Meyer and Korz, 2013a of steroid receptor gene expressions during spatial learning, which provides a sufficient data basis in order to perform such correlational connections. In that study male rats of different ages were trained in a spatial holeboard or remained untrained and the hippocampal gene expression of different steroid receptors as well as serum corticosterone levels were measured. Expressions of mineralocorticoid (MR and glucocorticoid (GR receptors were positively and linearly correlated with blood serum corticosterone levels in spatially trained but not in untrained animals. Training induced a cubic (best fit relationship between mRNA levels of estrogen receptor α (ERα and androgen receptor (AR with MR mRNA. GR gene expression was linearly correlated with MR expression under both conditions. ERα m RNA levels were negatively and linearily and MR and GR gene expressions were cubicely correlated with reference memory errors (RME. Due to only three age classes correlations with age could not be performed. The findings support the U-shape theory of steroid receptor

  5. Spatial Reasoning: Improvement of Imagery and Abilities in Sophomore Organic Chemistry. Perspective to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbuckle, Susan F.; Gobin, Latanya; Thurman, Stephanie N.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial reasoning has become a demanded skill for students pursuing a science emphasis to compete with the dynamic growth of our professional society. The ability to reason spatially includes explorations in memory recollection and problem solving capabilities as well as critical thinking and reasoning skills. With these advancements, educational…

  6. When Spatial and Temporal Contiguities Help the Integration in Working Memory: "A Multimedia Learning" Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Nicola; Fairfield, Beth; Di Domenico, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of spatial and temporal contiguities in a working memory binding task that required participants to remember coloured objects. In Experiment 1, a black and white drawing and a corresponding phrase that indicated its colour perceptually were either near or far (spatial study condition), while in Experiment 2,…

  7. Effects of D-cycloserine and aniracetam on spatial learning in rats with entorhinal cortex lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajaczkowski, W; Danysz, W

    1997-01-01

    A great body of behavioural and neurophysiological evidence suggests that excitatory amino acids are involved in mechanisms of learning and memory. Moreover, degeneration of glutamatergic pathways may underlie the cognitive deficits seen in various disorders such as Alzheimer's dementia. As direct stimulation of glutamatergic receptors with agonists may increase the risk of toxicity and accelerate neuropathological changes, a more valid approach seems to be positive modulation of glutamatergic receptors that may reverse the symptoms with a lower risk of excitotoxic effects. Such a possibility offered by partial agonists of the strychnine-insensitive glycine site of the NMDA receptor (Gly-B site) or positive modulators of AMPA receptors, such as aniracetam. In the present study, the effects of d-cycloserine and aniracetam were tested in two animal models of cognitive deficits (entorhinal cortex lesion-induced deficits evaluated in the radial maze and scopolamine-induced amnesia evaluated in passive avoidance test). D-cycloserine (6 mg/kg, for 10 days) had no effect on spatial working memory deficit induced by entorhinal cortex lesions. It did, however, reverse scopolamine-induced deficits in the passive avoidance test when given acutely at the same dose. In contrast, aniracetam (50 mg/kg, for 10 days) produced beneficial effects in the radial maze test in rats with entorhinal cortex lesions, but given at the same dose acutely did not influence scopolamine-induced amnesia. The positive effect of d-cycloserine against scopolamine-induced amnesia may be probably related to the cholinergic-glutamatergic interaction in the hippocampus. The negative data obtained with d-cycloserine in the model of entorhinal cortex lesions-induced cognitive deficits could be taken as a hint that it is probably not suitable for the symptomatological therapy of Alzheimer's disease. The mechanism of positive action of aniracetam cannot be explained on the basis of AMPA receptor modulation

  8. The effects of prenatal sound stress on the spatial learning and memory of rat's male offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barzegar M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Numerous evidences indicate that various environmental stresses during pregnancy affect physiological behavior of the offspring. This experimental study was designed to investigate the effect of noise stress during prenatal period of rats on spatial learning and memory and plasma corticostrone level in postnatal life."n"nMethods: Three groups of pregnant rats were given daily noise stress with durations of two and/ or four hours in last week of pregnancy period. The fourth group was left unstressed. The male offspring from the unstressed and different stressed groups were assigned as controls and stressed groups. The animals were introduced to a spatial task in Morris water maze 4 trials/day for five consecutive days. The probe test was performed on the 5th day of the experiment. The delay in findings and the distance passed to locate the target platform were assessed as the spatial learning. "n"nResults: Our results showed that prenatal exposure to noise stress for two and/ or four hours a day, leads to impaired acquisition of spatial learning in the postnatal animals. The plasma level of corticostrone in the two stressed groups of rats markedly matched with their behavioral function. Prenatal exposure to 1- hour noise stress revealed no effects on the offsprings' behavior and plasma corticostrone level."n"nConclusion: Based on our study results, it seems that applied range of stress which is executed through the noise stress could increase the plasma corticostrone level and

  9. Development and Evaluation of a Web Map Mind Tool Environment with the Theory of Spatial Thinking and Project-Based Learning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huei-Tse; Yu, Tsai-Fang; Wu, Yi-Xuan; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En

    2016-01-01

    The theory of spatial thinking is relevant to the learning and teaching of many academic domains. One promising method to facilitate learners' higher-order thinking is to utilize a web map mind tool to assist learners in applying spatial thinking to cooperative problem solving. In this study, an environment is designed based on the theory of…

  10. Optimization of Apparatus Design and Behavioral Measures for the Assessment of Visuo-Spatial Learning and Memory of Mice on the Barnes Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Timothy P.; Brown, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that apparatus design can affect visual-spatial cue use and memory performance of mice on the Barnes maze. The present experiment extends these findings by determining the optimal behavioral measures and test procedure for analyzing visuo-spatial learning and memory in three different Barnes maze designs. Male and female…

  11. Improvement Students’ Spatial Ability and Self Confidence Through Inquiry Learning With Geogebra at SMA Negeri 19 Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Mariani Malau

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find out the difference of spatial ability and self confidence students improvement who were taught through inquiry learning model with GeoGebra (ILMG and inquiry learning model without GeoGebra (ILMWG. The population of the study was the students at SMAN 19 Medan. The sample was the tenth grade students who randomly selected. Experimental 1 class were taught by ILMG and experimental 2 class were taught by ILMWG. The instruments of this study were spatial ability test and self confidence scale. The data were analyzed with the analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney analysis. In general, The results of the study shows that the improvement of students’ spatial ability and self confidence who were taught through ILMG higher than ILMWG.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat perbedaan peningkatan kemampuan keruangan dan percaya diri siswa yang diajar dengan model pembelajaran inkuiri berbantuan GeoGebra (MPIG dan model pembelajaran inkuiri tanpa berbantuan GeoGebra (MPITG. Populasi dari penelitian ini adalah siswa-siswi SMA Negeri 19 Medan. Sampelnya adalah siswa kelas X yang dipilih secara acak. Kelas eksperimen 1 diajar dengan menggunakan MPIG dan kelas eksperimen 2 diajar dengan menggunakan MPITG. Instrumen penelitian ini adalah tes kemampuan keruangan dan skala percaya diri. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis kovarian dan uji Mann-Whitney. Hasil penelitian secara umum menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan kemampuan keruangan dan percaya diri siswa yang diajar melalui MPIG lebih tinggi daripada melalui MPITG.

  12. How to learn places without spatial concepts: Does the what-and-where reaction time system in children regulate learning during stimulus repetition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Küttner, Christiane; Küttner, Enno

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the role of repetition for place learning in children although the acquisition of organizing spatial concepts is often seen as more essential. In a reaction-time accuracy task, 7- and 9-year-old children were presented with a randomized sequence of objects-in-places. In a novelty condition (NC), memory sets in different colors were presented, while in a repetition condition (RC), the identical memory set was tested several times. Shape memory deteriorated more than place memory in the NC, but also stayed superior to place memory when both improved in the RC. False alarms occurred for objects and places in the same way in 7-year-olds in the NC, but were negligible for 9-year-olds. In contrast, false alarms in the RC occurred in both age groups mainly for place memory. The Common Region Test (CRT) predicted reaction times only in the novelty condition, indicating use of spatial concepts. Importantly, reaction times for shapes were faster than for places at the beginning of the experiment but slowed down thereafter, while reaction times for places were slow at the beginning of the experiment but accelerated considerably thereafter. False alarms and regulation of reaction times indicated that repetition facilitated true abstraction of information leading to place learning without spatial concepts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Treadmill exercise improves spatial learning ability by enhancing brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hye Im; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Wook; Baek, Sang-Bin; Choi, Seung Wook

    2014-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients show learning difficulty and impulsiveness. Exercise is known to improve learning ability and memory function. In the present study, we investigated the duration-dependence of the effect of treadmill exercise on spatial learning ability in relation with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in ADHD rats. For this study, radial 8-arm maze test and western blot for BDNF and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) were performed. Spontaneous hypertensive rats were used as the ADHD rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats were used as the control rats. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 10 min, 30 min, and 60 min once a day for 28 consecutive days. ADHD rats displayed impairment of spatial learning ability, in contrast treadmill exercise ameliorated impairment of spatial learning ability. Treadmill exercise for 30 min per day showed most potent ameliorating effect on impairment of spatial learning ability. BDNF and TrkB expressions in the hippocampus were decreased in the ADHD rats, in contrast treadmill exercise enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions. Treadmill exercise for 30 min and for 60 min per day showed enhancing effects on BDNF and TrkB expressions. Treadmill exercise alleviated deficits in the spatial learning ability through enhancing BDNF and TrkB expressions in the ADHD rats. Treadmill exercise for 30 min per day can be considered as the most effective therapeutic modality for the ADHD symptoms.

  14. Mechanisms and effects of curcumin on spatial learning and memory improvement in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengwen; Su, Caixin; Li, Ruisheng; Wang, Hong; Ren, Ying; Sun, Haiyun; Yang, Jinduo; Sun, Jianning; Shi, Jing; Tian, Jinzhou; Jiang, Shucui

    2014-02-01

    Evidence suggests that curcumin, the phytochemical agent in the spice turmeric, might be a potential therapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties have been investigated extensively. Studies have also shown that curcumin can reduce amyloid pathology in AD. The underlying mechanism, however, is complex and is still being explored. In this study, we used the APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic mice, an AD model, to investigate the effects and mechanisms of curcumin in the prevention and treatment of AD. The water maze test indicated that curcumin can improve spatial learning and memory ability in mice. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis were used to test major proteins in β-amyloid aggregation, β-amyloid production, and β-amyloid clearance. Data showed that, 3 months after administration, curcumin treatment reduced Aβ40 , Aβ42 , and aggregation of Aβ-derived diffusible ligands in the mouse hippocampal CA1 area; reduced the expression of the γ-secretase component presenilin-2; and increased the expression of β-amyloid-degrading enzymes, including insulin-degrading enzymes and neprilysin. This evidence suggests that curcumin, as a potential AD therapeutic method, can reduce β-amyloid pathological aggregation, possibly through mechanisms that prevent its production by inhibiting presenilin-2 and/or by accelerating its clearance by increasing degrading enzymes such as insulin-degrading enzyme and neprilysin. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  16. Dopamine release in dissociable striatal subregions predicts the different effects of oral methylphenidate on reversal learning and spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clatworthy, Philip L; Lewis, Simon J G; Brichard, Laurent; Hong, Young T; Izquierdo, David; Clark, Luke; Cools, Roshan; Aigbirhio, Franklin I; Baron, Jean-Claude; Fryer, Timothy D; Robbins, Trevor W

    2009-04-15

    Previous data suggest that methylphenidate can have variable effects on different cognitive tasks both within and between individuals. This is thought to be underpinned by inverted U-shaped relationships between cognitive performance and dopaminergic activity in relatively separate fronto-striatal circuits and reflected by individual differences in trait impulsivity. Direct evidence for this is currently lacking. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that therapeutic doses of oral methylphenidate administered to young healthy subjects result in different sized changes in D(2)/D(3) receptor availability in different regions of the human striatum and that the change in receptor availability within an individual subregion predicts cognitive performance on a particular task. Methylphenidate produced significantly different effects on reversal learning and spatial working memory tasks within individuals. Performance on the reversal learning task was predicted by the drug-induced change in D(2)/D(3) receptor availability in postcommissural caudate, measured using [(11)C]-raclopride radioligand PET imaging, whereas performance on the spatial working memory task was predicted by changes in receptor availability in the ventral striatum. Reversal learning performance was also predicted by subjects' trait impulsivity, such that the most impulsive individuals benefited more from methylphenidate, consistent with this drug's beneficial effects on cognition in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  17. The combined effect of sleep deprivation and Western diet on spatial learning and memory: role of BDNF and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Khabour, Omar F; Salah, Heba A; Abu Rashid, Baraa E

    2013-05-01

    Either sleep deprivation or Western diet can impair learning and memory via induction of oxidative stress, which results in neuronal damage and interference with the neurotransmission. In this study, we examined the combined effect of sleep deprivation and Western diet on hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory. In addition, possible molecular targets for sleep deprivation and Western diet-induced cognitive impairments were investigated. Sleep deprivation was induced in rats using the modified multiple platform model simultaneous with the administration of Western diet for 6 weeks. Thereafter, spatial learning and memory were tested using radial arm water maze. At the molecular level, BDNF protein and antioxidant markers including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSH/GSSG, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were assessed. The results of this study revealed that sleep deprivation, Western diet, or a combination of both impair short- and long-term memory (P Western diet decreases BDNF levels and increases oxidative stress in the hippocampus, thus inducing memory impairment that is greater than the impairment produced by each factor alone.

  18. Spatial Misfit in Participatory River Basin Management: Effects on Social Learning, a Comparative Analysis of German and French Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Borowski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of river basin management, as prescribed by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, participatory structures are frequently introduced at the hydrological scale without fully adapting them to the decision-making structure. This results in parallel structures and spatial misfits within the institutional settings of river basin governance systems. By analyzing French and German case studies, we show how social learning (SL is impeded by such misfits. We also demonstrate that river basin-scale institutions or actors that link parallel structures are essential for promoting river basins as management entities, and for encouraging SL between actors at the river basin scale. In the multi-scale, multi-level settings of river basin governance, it is difficult to fully exclude spatial misfits. Thus, it is important to take our insights into account in the current transition of water management from the administrative to the hydrological scale to get the greatest benefit from SL processes.

  19. Chronically Increased G[subscript s][alpha] Signaling Disrupts Associative and Spatial Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtchouladze, Rusiko; Patterson, Susan L.; Kelly, Michele P.; Kreibich, Arati; Kandel, Eric R.; Abel, Ted

    2006-01-01

    The cAMP/PKA pathway plays a critical role in learning and memory systems in animals ranging from mice to "Drosophila" to "Aplysia." Studies of olfactory learning in "Drosophila" suggest that altered expression of either positive or negative regulators of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway beyond a certain optimum range may be deleterious. Here we…

  20. Spatial Working Memory and Arithmetic Deficits in Children with Nonverbal Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Irene Cristina; Lucangeli, Daniela; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Visuospatial working memory and its involvement in arithmetic were examined in two groups of 7- to 11-year-olds: one comprising children described by teachers as displaying symptoms of nonverbal learning difficulties (N = 21), the other a control group without learning disabilities (N = 21). The two groups were matched for verbal abilities, age,…

  1. A Storyville Education: Spatial Practices and the Learned Sex Trade in the City That Care Forgot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, R. Eric; Hill, Lilian H.

    2014-01-01

    Storyville, the legalized red-light district of New Orleans (1897-1917), was a designated space containing informal opportunities for learning in which its residents practiced the sex trade. Although Storyville was created to regulate prostitution, prostitutes and madams learned the city's legal system, politics, and economics to survive in a…

  2. Administration of memantine during withdrawal mitigates overactivity and spatial learning impairments associated with neonatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; McGough, Nancy N H; Riley, Edward P; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2014-02-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can disrupt central nervous system development, manifesting as behavioral deficits that include motor, emotional, and cognitive dysfunction. Both clinical and animal studies have reported binge drinking during development to be highly correlated with an increased risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We hypothesized that binge drinking may be especially damaging because it is associated with episodes of alcohol withdrawal. Specifically, we have been investigating the possibility that NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity occurs during alcohol withdrawal and contributes to developmental alcohol-related neuropathology. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of the NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 or eliprodil during withdrawal attenuates behavioral alterations associated with early alcohol exposure. In this study, we investigated the effects of memantine, a clinically used NMDA receptor antagonist, on minimizing ethanol-induced overactivity and spatial learning deficits. Sprague-Dawley pups were exposed to 6.0 g/kg ethanol via intubation on postnatal day (PD) 6, a period of brain development that models late gestation in humans. Controls were intubated with a calorically matched maltose solution. During withdrawal, 24 and 36 hours after ethanol exposure, subjects were injected with a total of either 0, 20, or 30 mg/kg memantine. The subjects' locomotor levels were recorded in open field activity monitors on PDs 18 to 21 and on a serial spatial discrimination reversal learning task on PDs 40 to 43. Alcohol exposure induced overactivity and impaired performance in spatial learning. Memantine administration significantly attenuated the ethanol-associated behavioral alterations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, memantine may be neuroprotective when administered during ethanol withdrawal. These data have important implications for the treatment of EtOH's neurotoxic effects and provide further support that ethanol withdrawal

  3. Trim9 Deletion Alters the Morphogenesis of Developing and Adult-Born Hippocampal Neurons and Impairs Spatial Learning and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkle, Cortney C; Olsen, Reid H J; Kim, Hyojin; Moy, Sheryl S; Song, Juan; Gupton, Stephanie L

    2016-05-04

    During hippocampal development, newly born neurons migrate to appropriate destinations, extend axons, and ramify dendritic arbors to establish functional circuitry. These developmental stages are recapitulated in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus, where neurons are continuously generated and subsequently incorporate into existing, local circuitry. Here we demonstrate that the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM9 regulates these developmental stages in embryonic and adult-born mouse hippocampal neurons in vitro and in vivo Embryonic hippocampal and adult-born dentate granule neurons lacking Trim9 exhibit several morphological defects, including excessive dendritic arborization. Although gross anatomy of the hippocampus was not detectably altered by Trim9 deletion, a significant number of Trim9(-/-) adult-born dentate neurons localized inappropriately. These morphological and localization defects of hippocampal neurons in Trim9(-/-) mice were associated with extreme deficits in spatial learning and memory, suggesting that TRIM9-directed neuronal morphogenesis may be involved in hippocampal-dependent behaviors. Appropriate generation and incorporation of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus are critical for spatial learning and memory and other hippocampal functions. Here we identify the brain-enriched E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM9 as a novel regulator of embryonic and adult hippocampal neuron shape acquisition and hippocampal-dependent behaviors. Genetic deletion of Trim9 elevated dendritic arborization of hippocampal neurons in vitro and in vivo Adult-born dentate granule cells lacking Trim9 similarly exhibited excessive dendritic arborization and mislocalization of cell bodies in vivo These cellular defects were associated with severe deficits in spatial learning and memory. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/364940-19$15.00/0.

  4. Strain-dependent variations in spatial learning and in hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus of freely behaving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise eManahan-Vaughan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal synaptic plasticity is believed to comprise the cellular basis for spatial learning. Strain-dependent differences in synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region have been reported. However, it is not known whether these differences extend to other synapses within the trisynaptic circuit, although there is evidence for morphological variations within that path. We investigated whether Wistar and Hooded Lister (HL rat strains express differences in synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus in vivo. We also explored whether they exhibit differences in the ability to engage in spatial learning in an 8-arm radial maze. Basal synaptic transmission was stable over a 24h period in both rat strains, and the input-output relationship of both strains was not significantly different. Paired-pulse analysis revealed significantly less paired-pulse facilitation in the Hooded Lister strain when pulses were given 40-100 msec apart. Low frequency stimulation at 1Hz evoked long-term depression (>24h in Wistar and short-term depression (<2h in HL rats; 200Hz stimulation induced long-term potentiation (>24h in Wistar, and a transient, significantly smaller potentiation (<1h in HL rats, suggesting that HL rats have higher thresholds for expression of persistent synaptic plasticity. Training for 10d in an 8-arm radial maze revealed that HL rats master the working memory task faster than Wistar rats, although both strains show an equivalent performance by the end of the trial period. HL rats also perform more efficiently in a double working and reference memory task. On the other hand, Wistar rats show better reference memory performance on the final (8-10 days of training. Wistar rats were less active and more anxious than HL rats.These data suggest that strain-dependent variations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity occur in different hippocampal synapses. A clear correlation with differences in spatial learning is not evident however.

  5. Monocular learning of a spatial task enhances sleep in the right hemisphere of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelini, Cristian; Bobbo, Daniela; Mascetti, Gian G

    2012-05-01

    Unihemispheric sleep is an aspect of cerebral lateralization of birds. During sleep, domestic chicks show brief periods during which one eye is open whilst the other remains shut. In this study, time spent in sleeping and in monocular-unihemispheric sleep (Mo-Un sleep) was investigated following the monocular learning of a spatial discrimination task. Two groups of experimental chicks from day 8 to day 11 post-hatching were trained in a spatial paradigm based on geometrical and topographical clues. One group performed the task with left eye open (LE-chicks), whilst another group performed the task with the right eye open (RE-chicks). LE-chick learned the task, whilst RE-chicks were unable to learn. Time spent in binocular sleep and right Mo-Un sleep (right eye closed and left hemisphere sleeping) was equal in both groups of chicks. Time spent in left Mo-Un sleep (left eye closed and right hemisphere sleeping) was significantly higher in LE-chicks than in RE-chicks. Laterality index reveals that LE-chicks had a significant bias towards more left Mo-Un sleep at any recording day, whilst RE-chicks showed a significant bias towards more right Mo-Un sleep at day 8 and 9 but not at days 10 and 11. RE-chick bias at days 8 and 9 could be attributed to a recovery process in left hemisphere connected to its activation/use effect during trials whilst recovery would be absent at days 10 and 11. LE-chicks bias would be associated with the formation of a spatial memory trace and with a recovery process in right hemisphere.

  6. [Gly14]-Humanin Protects Against Amyloid β Peptide-Induced Impairment of Spatial Learning and Memory in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Liu, Xiao-Jie; Han, Wei-Na; Li, Qing-Shan; Wang, Zhao-Jun; Wu, Mei-Na; Yang, Wei; Qi, Jin-Shun

    2016-08-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by cognitive decline and the accumulation of senile plaques in the brain. Amyloid β protein (Aβ) in the plaques is thought to be responsible for the memory loss in AD patients. [Gly14]-humanin (HNG), a derivative of humanin (HN), has much stronger neuroprotective effects than natural HN in vitro. However, clarification of the Aβ active center and the neuroprotective mechanism of HN still need in vivo evidence. The present study first compared the in vivo biological effects of three Aβ fragments (1-42, 31-35, and 35-31) on spatial memory in rats, and investigated the neuroprotective effects and molecular mechanisms of HNG. The results showed that intrahippocampal injection of Aβ1-42 and Aβ31-35 almost equally impaired spatial learning and memory, but the reversed sequence Aβ35-31 did not have any effect; a high dose of Aβ31-35 (20 nmol) produced a more detrimental response than a low dose (2 nmol); Aβ31-35 injection also disrupted gene and protein expression in the hippocampus, with up-regulation of caspase3 and down-regulation of STAT3; pretreatment with HNG not only protected spatial memory but also rescued STAT3 from Aβ-induced disruption; and the neuroprotective effects of HNG were effectively counteracted by genistein, a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor. These results clearly show that sequence 31-35 in Aβ is the shortest active center responsible for the neurotoxicity of Aβ from molecule to behavior; and HNG protects spatial learning and memory in rats against Aβ-induced insults; and probably involves the activation of tyrosine kinases and subsequent beneficial modulation of STAT3 and caspase3.

  7. A peptide mimetic targeting trans-homophilic NCAM binding sites promotes spatial learning and neural plasticity in the hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraev, Igor; Henneberger, Christian; Rossetti, Clara

    2011-01-01

    a homophilic trans-binding site in Ig2 and binds to Ig3--was developed as a tool for studying NCAM's trans-interactions. In this study, we investigated plannexin's ability to affect neural plasticity and memory formation. We found that plannexin facilitates neurite outgrowth in primary hippocampal neuronal...... cultures and improves spatial learning in rats, both under basal conditions and under conditions involving a deficit in a key plasticity-promoting posttranslational modification of NCAM, its polysialylation. We also found that plannexin enhances excitatory synaptic transmission in hippocampal area CA1...

  8. Lewis and Fischer 344 rats as a model for genetic differences in spatial learning and memory: Cocaine effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fole, Alberto; Miguéns, Miguel; Morales, Lidia; González-Martín, Carmen; Ambrosio, Emilio; Del Olmo, Nuria

    2017-06-02

    Lewis (LEW) and Fischer 344 (F344) rats are considered a model of genetic vulnerability to drug addiction. We previously showed important differences in spatial learning and memory between them, but in contrast with previous experiments demonstrating cocaine-induced enhanced learning in Morris water maze (MWM) highly demanding tasks, the eight-arm radial maze (RAM) performance was not modified either in LEW or F344 rats after chronic cocaine treatment. In the present work, chronically cocaine-treated LEW and F344 adult rats have been evaluated in learning and memory performance using the Y-maze, two RAM protocols that differ in difficulty, and a reversal protocol that tests cognitive flexibility. After one of the RAM protocols, we quantified dendritic spine density in hippocampal CA1 neurons and compared it to animals treated with cocaine but not submitted to RAM. LEW cocaine treated rats showed a better performance in the Y maze than their saline counterparts, an effect that was not evident in the F344 strain. F344 rats significantly took more time to learn the RAM task and made a greater number of errors than LEW animals in both protocols tested, whereas cocaine treatment induced deleterious effects in learning and memory in the highly difficult protocol. Moreover, hippocampal spine density was cocaine-modulated in LEW animals whereas no effects were found in F344 rats. We propose that differences in addictive-like behavior between LEW and F344 rats could be related to differences in hippocampal learning and memory processes that could be on the basis of individual vulnerability to cocaine addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Acquisition of Place Names in Mother Tongue Learning: Some Observations on Children’s Spatial Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Reszegi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews and complements existing knowledge about the acquisition of proper names. On the basis of research into children’s language, it seems obvious today that the process of acquisition of proper names (anthroponyms is simultaneous to the acquisition of common nouns. However, the underlying mechanisms explaining the separation of the two groups of nouns are controversial. Compared to the case of anthroponyms, learning toponyms is a more complicated and a longer-lasting process. In connection with this topic, researchers dealing with spatial cognition are focusing on spatial orientation, on the localisation of spatial information in the brain and on spatial language. They study neither the way children get to know the wider geographical environment, nor the way they acquire toponyms. The author seeks to obtain more information about the beginning of this process based on the study of two small children’s toponymic knowledge in connection with their acquisition of geographical common nouns and the development of spatial orientation. This makes it possible to draw preliminary conclusions about the specificity of the cognitive mechanisms ensuring the knowledge of geographical environment. The author suggests that the meaning of early toponyms is typically undergeneralised — children tend to interpret the names of cities/towns or streets by restricting them to a certain house. It has also been made evident that, at the age of 2–4 years, the relationship between places and persons is very tight (for instance, children connect the names of places to specific persons. The semantic contingencies can be explained by the fact that, in the case of children, the place concepts themselves (what is a city/town?, what is a street?, etc. have not been fully constructed yet, and that the elements of space are still not distinct entities.

  10. Learning to echolocate in sighted people: A correlational study on attention, working memory and spatial abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkel, M.R.; Lier, R.J. van; Steenbergen, B.

    2017-01-01

    Echolocation can be beneficial for the orientation and mobility of visually impaired people. Research has shown considerable individual differences for acquiring this skill. However, individual characteristics that affect the learning of echolocation are largely unknown. In the present study, we

  11. HIA and pollution prevention control: What they can learn from each other

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Balsam; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja; Vizard, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Following the implementation of the Pollution Prevention and Control (England and Wales) Regulations on 1st August 2000, health authorities (now Primary Care Trusts) became statutory consultees for permits issued to industry by the environmental regulators (the Environmental Agency, Local Authorities). The aims of this paper are to review the process of providing public health input in the light of its similarities to and differences from HIA and to identify the opportunities for both HIA and PPC to learn from each other's practice. We emphasise the challenges that are encountered by public health professionals who provide the public health input in the PPC. We use both our own experience of providing this input on behalf of health authorities and our expertise in HIA, environmental epidemiology and contaminated land

  12. Can personality predict individual differences in brook trout spatial learning ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S L; Wagner, T; Gowan, C; Braithwaite, V A

    2017-08-01

    While differences in individual personality are common in animal populations, understanding the ecological significance of variation has not yet been resolved. Evidence suggests that personality may influence learning and memory; a finding that could improve our understanding of the evolutionary processes that produce and maintain intraspecific behavioural heterogeneity. Here, we tested whether boldness, the most studied personality trait in fish, could predict learning ability in brook trout. After quantifying boldness, fish were trained to find a hidden food patch in a maze environment. Stable landmark cues were provided to indicate the location of food and, at the conclusion of training, cues were rearranged to test for learning. There was a negative relationship between boldness and learning as shy fish were increasingly more successful at navigating the maze and locating food during training trials compared to bold fish. In the altered testing environment, only shy fish continued using cues to search for food. Overall, the learning rate of bold fish was found to be lower than that of shy fish for several metrics suggesting that personality could have widespread effects on behaviour. Because learning can increase plasticity to environmental change, these results have significant implications for fish conservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Can personality predict individual differences in brook trout spatial learning ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S.L.; Wagner, Tyler; Gowan, C.; Braithwaite, V.A.

    2017-01-01

    While differences in individual personality are common in animal populations, understanding the ecological significance of variation has not yet been resolved. Evidence suggests that personality may influence learning and memory; a finding that could improve our understanding of the evolutionary processes that produce and maintain intraspecific behavioural heterogeneity. Here, we tested whether boldness, the most studied personality trait in fish, could predict learning ability in brook trout. After quantifying boldness, fish were trained to find a hidden food patch in a maze environment. Stable landmark cues were provided to indicate the location of food and, at the conclusion of training, cues were rearranged to test for learning. There was a negative relationship between boldness and learning as shy fish were increasingly more successful at navigating the maze and locating food during training trials compared to bold fish. In the altered testing environment, only shy fish continued using cues to search for food. Overall, the learning rate of bold fish was found to be lower than that of shy fish for several metrics suggesting that personality could have widespread effects on behaviour. Because learning can increase plasticity to environmental change, these results have significant implications for fish conservation.

  14. Effects of preventive surgery for unruptured intracranial aneurysms on attention, executive function, learning and memory: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Joonho; Seok, Jeong-Ho; Kwon, Min A; Kim, Yong Bae; Joo, Jin-Yang; Hong, Chang-Ki

    2016-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated the effects of preventive surgery for unruptured intracranial aneurysms on attention, executive function, learning and memory. Between March 2012 and June 2013, 56 patients were recruited for this study. Fifty-one patients met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) age ≤65 years and (2) planned microsurgery or endovascular surgery for unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Exclusion criteria were as follows: (1) preoperative intelligence quotient color test (WCT) and verbal learning test (VLT) were performed before and after (6 months) preventive surgery. ACCPT (attention), WCT (executive function) and VLT (learning and memory) scores did not change significantly between the pre- and postoperative evaluations. The ACCPT, WCT, total VLT scores (verbal learning) and delayed VLT scores (memory) did not differ significantly between patients undergoing microsurgery and those undergoing endovascular surgery. However, ACCPT, WCT and delayed VLT scores decreased postoperatively in patients with leukoaraiosis on preoperative FLAIR images (OR 9.899, p = 0.041; OR 11.421, p = 0.006; OR 2.952, p = 0.024, respectively). Preventive surgery for unruptured intracranial aneurysms did not affect attention, executive function, learning or memory. However, patients with leukoaraiosis on FLAIR images might be prone to deficits in attention, executive function and memory postoperatively, whereas learning might not be affected.

  15. Harm Reduction for the Prevention of Youth Gambling Problems: Lessons Learned From Adolescent High-Risk Behavior Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Laurie M.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

    2004-01-01

    Despite the growing popularity of the harm reduction approach in the field of adolescent alcohol and substance abuse, a harm reduction approach to prevention and treatment of youth problem gambling remains largely unexplored. This article poses the question of whether the harm reduction paradigm is a promising approach to the prevention of…

  16. Specific de-SUMOylation triggered by acquisition of spatial learning is related to epigenetic changes in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Gomez, Sergio; Barrera-Ocampo, Alvaro; Machado-Rodriguez, Gloria; Castro-Alvarez, John F; Glatzel, Markus; Giraldo, Marco; Sepulveda-Falla, Diego

    2013-12-04

    Histone acetyltransferase activity by transcriptional cofactors such as CREB-binding protein (CBP) and post-translational modifications by small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO-1) have shown to be relevant for synaptic and neuronal activity. Here, we investigate whether SUMOylation of CBP plays a role in spatial learning. We assessed protein levels of CBP/p300, SUMO-1, and CBP SUMOylation in the hippocampi of rats trained on the Morris water maze task. Furthermore, we evaluated the post-translational modifications at Zif268, BDNF, and Arc/Arg3.1 promoters using chromatin immunoprecipitation with anti-Acetyl-Histone H3-Lys14 (H3K14Ac) and SUMO-1. We found that CBP/p300 protein expression is unchanged in animals trained for 7 days. However, H3K14Ac-specific histone acetyltransferase activity showed specific hyperacetylation at promoters of Zif268 and BDNF-pI but not of Arc/Arg3.1 and BDNF-pIV. In naive animals, CBP is selectively SUMOylated and the Arc/Arg3.1 promoter is differentially occupied by SUMO-1, although SUMO-1 levels are unchanged. These results suggest a specific negative regulation by SUMO-1 on CBP function and its effect on epigenetic changes triggered by spatial learning and memory processes.

  17. Role of synaptic structural plasticity in impairments of spatial learning and memory induced by developmental lead exposure in Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Xiao

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is found to impair cognitive function. Synaptic structural plasticity is considered to be the physiological basis of synaptic functional plasticity and has been recently found to play important roles in learning and memory. To study the effect of Pb on spatial learning and memory at different developmental stages, and its relationship with alterations of synaptic structural plasticity, postnatal rats were randomly divided into three groups: Control; Pre-weaning Pb (Parents were exposed to 2 mM PbCl2 3 weeks before mating until weaning of pups; Post-weaning Pb (Weaned pups were exposed to 2 mM PbCl2 for 9 weeks. The spatial learning and memory of rats was measured by Morris water maze (MWM on PND 85-90. Rat pups in Pre-weaning Pb and Post-weaning Pb groups performed significantly worse than those in Control group (p<0.05. However, there was no significant difference in the performance of MWM between the two Pb-exposure groups. Before MWM (PND 84, the number of neurons and synapses significantly decreased in Pre-weaning Pb group, but not in Post-weaning Pb group. After MWM (PND 91, the number of synapses in Pre-weaning Pb group increased significantly, but it was still less than that of Control group (p<0.05; the number of synapses in Post-weaning Pb group was also less than that of Control group (p<0.05, although the number of synapses has no differences between Post-weaning Pb and Control groups before MWM. In both Pre-weaning Pb and Post-weaning Pb groups, synaptic structural parameters such as thickness of postsynaptic density (PSD, length of synaptic active zone and synaptic curvature increased significantly while width of synaptic cleft decreased significantly compared to Control group (p<0.05. Our data demonstrated that both early and late developmental Pb exposure impaired spatial learning and memory as well as synaptic structural plasticity in Wistar rats.

  18. Visuo-spatial path learning, stress, and cortisol secretion following military cadets' first parachute jump: the effect of increasing task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniers, John; Smeets, Tom; Lo Bue, Salvatore; Syroit, Jef; Van Ruysseveldt, Joris; Pattyn, Nathalie; von Grumbkow, Jasper

    2011-09-01

    The present field experiment examined how multi-trial visuo-spatial learning and memory performance are impacted by excessive arousal, instigated by a potentially life-threatening event (i.e., a first parachute jump). Throughout a parachute training activity, subjective and neuroendocrine (i.e., cortisol) stress levels were assessed of 61 male military cadets who were randomly assigned to a control (n = 30) or a jump stress condition (n = 31). Post-stress learning and memory capacity was assessed with a 10-trial path-learning task that permitted emergence of learning curves. Pre-activity cortisol concentrations indicated a significant neuroendocrine anticipatory stress response in the stress group. Following parachuting, subjective stress levels and salivary cortisol reactivity differed significantly between groups. Visuo-spatial path-learning performance was impaired significantly after jump stress exposure, relative to the control group. Moreover, examination of the learning curves showed similar learning and memory performance at onset of the trials, with curves bifurcating as the task became more complex. These findings are in accordance with leading theories that acknowledge a moderating effect of task complexity. In sum, the present study extends knowledge concerning anticipatory stress effects, endogenously instigated cortisol reactivity, and the influence of extreme arousal on visuo-spatial path learning.

  19. The Importance of Spatial Ability and Mental Models in Learning Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Allison K.

    2011-01-01

    As a foundational course in medical education, gross anatomy serves to orient medical and veterinary students to the complex three-dimensional nature of the structures within the body. Understanding such spatial relationships is both fundamental and crucial for achievement in gross anatomy courses, and is essential for success as a practicing…

  20. Differences in Learning Geometry among High and Low Spatial Ability Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Hasan; Jakubowski, Elizabeth; Corey, Darryl

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and characterize the geometric thinking and understanding of four pre-service middle and secondary mathematics teachers while considering their spatial ability levels. To investigate the differences, if any, that existed among these pre-service middle and secondary teachers with different spatial…

  1. Learning Geospatial Analysis Skills with Consumer-Grade GPS Receivers and Low Cost Spatial Analysis Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, Peter E.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial analysis technologies are increasingly important tools for all aspects of forest resource management. Field work previously accomplished with map, compass, and engineers' scale is now being augmented, or superseded, by the use of GPS and GIS. Professional-grade GPS receivers and commercial GIS software are preferred for their accuracy and…

  2. How children learn to deal with space: developmental studies on spatial memory (POWERPOINT PRESENTATION)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullens, J.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial cognition is an important building block of general cognition and arguably could have been essential for how we evolved into the human beings we are today. Knowledge of how this fundamental skill develops during childhood is therefore central to our theoretical understanding of cognition in

  3. Influence of spatial environment on maze learning in an African mole-rat

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Toit, L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available with sociality in subterranean mammals, we have a less clear understanding of the role of habitat complexity on navigational ability. We tested spatial navigational ability and memory in 12–18-month captive Natal mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus natalensis...

  4. Spatial Organization and Molecular Correlation of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Using Deep Learning on Pathology Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltz, Joel; Gupta, Rajarsi; Hou, Le; Kurc, Tahsin; Singh, Pankaj; Nguyen, Vu; Samaras, Dimitris; Shroyer, Kenneth R; Zhao, Tianhao; Batiste, Rebecca; Van Arnam, John; Shmulevich, Ilya; Rao, Arvind U K; Lazar, Alexander J; Sharma, Ashish; Thorsson, Vésteinn

    2018-04-03

    Beyond sample curation and basic pathologic characterization, the digitized H&E-stained images of TCGA samples remain underutilized. To highlight this resource, we present mappings of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) based on H&E images from 13 TCGA tumor types. These TIL maps are derived through computational staining using a convolutional neural network trained to classify patches of images. Affinity propagation revealed local spatial structure in TIL patterns and correlation with overall survival. TIL map structural patterns were grouped using standard histopathological parameters. These patterns are enriched in particular T cell subpopulations derived from molecular measures. TIL densities and spatial structure were differentially enriched among tumor types, immune subtypes, and tumor molecular subtypes, implying that spatial infiltrate state could reflect particular tumor cell aberration states. Obtaining spatial lymphocytic patterns linked to the rich genomic characterization of TCGA samples demonstrates one use for the TCGA image archives with insights into the tumor-immune microenvironment. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Learning strategy preference of 5XFAD transgenic mice depends on the sequence of place/spatial and cued training in the water maze task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Woo-Hyun; Park, Jung-Cheol; Chung, ChiHye; Jeon, Won Kyung; Han, Jung-Soo

    2014-10-15

    Learning strategy preference was assessed in 5XFAD mice, which carry 5 familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) mutations. Mice were sequentially trained in cued and place/spatial versions of the water maze task. After training, a strategy preference test was conducted in which mice were required to choose between the spatial location where the platform had previously been during the place/spatial training, and a visible platform in a new location. 5XFAD and non-transgenic control mice showed equivalent escape performance in both training tasks. However, in the strategy preference test, 5XFAD mice preferred a cued strategy relative to control mice. When the training sequence was presented in the reverse order (i.e., place/spatial training before cued training), 5XFAD mice showed impairments in place/spatial training, but no differences in cued training or in the strategy preference test comparing to control. Analysis of regional Aβ42 deposition in brains of 5XFAD mice showed that the hippocampus, which is involved in the place/spatial learning strategy, had the highest levels of Aβ42 and the dorsal striatum, which is involved in cued learning strategy, showed a small increase in Aβ42 levels. The effect of training protocol order on performance, and regional differences in Aβ42 deposition observed in 5XFAD mice, suggest differential functional recruitment of brain structures related to learning in healthy and AD individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. LEARNING AS A TOOL FOR CANCER PREVENTION THROUGH THE ACQUISITION OF NEW DIETARY HABITS AND BEHAVIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Brito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The need to promote knowledge of health entails, in part, by encouraging healthy eating habits. The creation of popular science materials, especially at schools, by promoting guidance for the eating habits is presented as an important tool. Foods that contain bioactive compounds are called nutraceutical foods and about 35% of various cancers occur due to inadequate diets. Conventional therapies are used in the treatment of cancer, even though they are efficient in fighting tumors, to cause many harmful effects to the patient, and therefore the researches for alternative therapies have increased. Especially those act strengthening the immunologic system. The mushrooms are able to modulate carcinogenesis in all stages of the disease through different mechanisms of action of the bioactive compounds, thus having an antitumor effect that is assigned to restore and improve the immune response through stimulation of cellular immunity which are present polysaccharides the composition of the mushrooms, such as beta-glucans that besides the anticancer effect, it still has activity as immunostimulant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, which are already used in Japan as drugs for treating cancer patients. The aim of this work was to use learning as a tool for acquiring habits and eating behaviors in the general community and ownership and acquisition of knowledge about the antitumor potential of bioactive compounds in foods which are applied in cancer prevention through the scientific dissemination / education. Because it is a popular science work using written material and the dissemination of the material make for yourself the methodology used for the dissemination of scientific knowledge. Thus, the inclusion of consumption of mushrooms in the diet may represent an important step in the cancer prevention as the best form of prevention, and therefore it shows the need for available information to everyone, as it has proposed this work, disclosure.

  7. Investigating the effects of 217 Hz frequency of cell phone on learning and spatial memory in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohzad S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extremely low frequency (0-300 Hz fields from power lines, electronic equipment and medical devices, have been reported to produce various biological effects. Global system for mobile (GSM is most largely used in everybody's life. This system utilizes a low frequency band as well as a high frequency range of electromagnetic field. This study investigated the effects of 217 Hz electromagnetic field (the modulating signal in GSM on spatial learning and memory in rat.Methods: Twenty four male Wistar rat (200- 250 g were randomly divided in to three groups as: test, sham and control. Using a Helmholtz coil system, the test group was exposed to a uniform pulsed EMF of 200 µT (micro Tesla intensity for 4 h/day for 21 days (2 time in a day. This procedure was repeated for the sham group but with no field. All groups were trained prior to the day 21 on the 15th day for five days four trial per day in Morris Water-Maze system. Then the probe test was carried out for 60 seconds with no platform.Results: The ANOVA test revealed that no significant differences were found between control and exposed rats in all day of learning acquisition. Also, in probe test for investigating the memory, no significant differences observed. (P≤0.05 is accepted for significant level.Conclusion: This finding is in consistent with previous studies and indicates low frequency band of electromagnetic fields (EMF (200 µT intensity in cell phone may not have any effect on the learning acquisition and spatial memory in rat.

  8. Hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic plasticity support running-improved spatial learning and depression-like behaviour in stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Suk-Yu; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Tong, Jian-Bin; Wong, Richard; Ching, Yick-Pang; Qiu, Guang; Tang, Siu-Wa; Lee, Tatia M C; So, Kwok-Fai

    2011-01-01

    Exercise promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic plasticity while stress shows the opposite effects, suggesting a possible mechanism for exercise to counteract stress. Changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic modification occur simultaneously in rats with stress or exercise; however, it is unclear whether neurogenesis or dendritic remodeling has a greater impact on mediating the effect of exercise on stress since they have been separately examined. Here we examined hippocampal cell proliferation in runners treated with different doses (low: 30 mg/kg; moderate: 40 mg/kg; high: 50 mg/kg) of corticosterone (CORT) for 14 days. Water maze task and forced swim tests were applied to assess hippocampal-dependent learning and depression-like behaviour respectively the day after the treatment. Repeated CORT treatment resulted in a graded increase in depression-like behaviour and impaired spatial learning that is associated with decreased hippocampal cell proliferation and BDNF levels. Running reversed these effects in rats treated with low or moderate, but not high doses of CORT. Using 40 mg/kg CORT-treated rats, we further studied the role of neurogenesis and dendritic remodeling in mediating the effects of exercise on stress. Co-labelling with BrdU (thymidine analog) /doublecortin (immature neuronal marker) showed that running increased neuronal differentiation in vehicle- and CORT-treated rats. Running also increased dendritic length and spine density in CA3 pyramidal neurons in 40 mg/kg CORT-treated rats. Ablation of neurogenesis with Ara-c infusion diminished the effect of running on restoring spatial learning and decreasing depression-like behaviour in 40 mg/kg CORT-treated animals in spite of dendritic and spine enhancement. but not normal runners with enhanced dendritic length. The results indicate that both restored hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic remodelling within the hippocampus are essential for running to counteract stress.

  9. Hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic plasticity support running-improved spatial learning and depression-like behaviour in stressed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Yu Yau

    Full Text Available Exercise promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic plasticity while stress shows the opposite effects, suggesting a possible mechanism for exercise to counteract stress. Changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic modification occur simultaneously in rats with stress or exercise; however, it is unclear whether neurogenesis or dendritic remodeling has a greater impact on mediating the effect of exercise on stress since they have been separately examined. Here we examined hippocampal cell proliferation in runners treated with different doses (low: 30 mg/kg; moderate: 40 mg/kg; high: 50 mg/kg of corticosterone (CORT for 14 days. Water maze task and forced swim tests were applied to assess hippocampal-dependent learning and depression-like behaviour respectively the day after the treatment. Repeated CORT treatment resulted in a graded increase in depression-like behaviour and impaired spatial learning that is associated with decreased hippocampal cell proliferation and BDNF levels. Running reversed these effects in rats treated with low or moderate, but not high doses of CORT. Using 40 mg/kg CORT-treated rats, we further studied the role of neurogenesis and dendritic remodeling in mediating the effects of exercise on stress. Co-labelling with BrdU (thymidine analog /doublecortin (immature neuronal marker showed that running increased neuronal differentiation in vehicle- and CORT-treated rats. Running also increased dendritic length and spine density in CA3 pyramidal neurons in 40 mg/kg CORT-treated rats. Ablation of neurogenesis with Ara-c infusion diminished the effect of running on restoring spatial learning and decreasing depression-like behaviour in 40 mg/kg CORT-treated animals in spite of dendritic and spine enhancement. but not normal runners with enhanced dendritic length. The results indicate that both restored hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic remodelling within the hippocampus are essential for running to counteract

  10. The Effect of Opium Dependency of Parent (s) on Offspring's Spatial Learning & Memory in Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi Moghadam, Arezoo; Sepehri, Gholamreza; Sheibani, Vahid; Haghpanah, Tahereh; Divsalar, Kouros; Hajzadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza; Afarineshkhaki, Mohammadreza

    2013-05-01

    As far as we know, there has been no report regarding the effects of opium addiction or dependency of both parents on the learning and memory process in offspring. The aim of this study was to examine the learning and memory changes of adult male offspring whose mothers, fathers and/or both parents had dependency to opium before and during pregnancy. Materials and Methods : All experiments were carried out on Wistar rats. Opium dependency was induced by daily injections of opium (10 mg/kg/SC, bid/10 d) before mating. The presence of a vaginal plug was designated as gestation day. Treatment with opium continued through breeding and gestation until parturition. Spatial memory was tested in male offspring of control, saline and prenatal opium treated groups by a training trial and the probe test in the Morris water maze. Swimming escape latency in the maze and the ability to find the platform in the training trial were recorded. The time spent in the trigger zone and number of times the rats crossed the platform during the probe phase and swimming speed were measured. The data revealed increased escape latency and a greater distance traveled to find the hidden platform in the offspring's whose mother, father and /or both parents were exposed to opium. Crossings to target quadrant at probe trials was significantly reduced in all of the prenatal opium exposed offsprings. The swimming speed showed a significant increase in father and parent's opium exposed offspring. Prenatal opium exposure of either parent may cause deficits in spatial learning, but the precise mechanism(s) remain largely unknown.

  11. The Effect of Opium Dependency of Parent (s on Offspring’s Spatial Learning & Memory in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Saberi Moghadam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:As far as we know,there has been no report regarding the effects of opium addiction or dependency of both parents on the learning and memory process in offspring. The aim of this study was to examine the learning and memory changes of adult male offspring whose mothers, fathers and/or both parents had dependency to opium before and during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: All experiments were carried out on Wistar rats. Opium dependency was induced by daily injections of opium (10 mg/kg/SC, bid/10 d before mating. The presence of a vaginal plug was designated as gestation day. Treatment with opium continued through breeding and gestation until parturition. Spatial memory was tested in male offspring of control, saline and prenatal opium treated groups by a training trial and the probe test in the Morris water maze. Swimming escape latency in the maze and the ability to find the platform in the training trial were recorded. The time spent in the trigger zone and number of times the rats crossed the platform during the probe phase and swimming speed were measured. Results:Thedata revealed increased escape latency and a greater distance traveled to find the hidden platform in the offspring’s whose mother, father and /or both parents were exposed to opium. Crossings to target quadrant at probe trials was significantly reduced in all of the prenatal opium exposed offsprings. The swimming speed showed a significant increase in father and parent’s opium exposed offspring.  Conclusion:Prenatal opium exposure of either parent may cause deficits in spatial learning, but the precise mechanism(s remain largely unknown.

  12. Association rules for rat spatial learning: the importance of the hippocampus for binding item identity with item location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albasser, Mathieu M; Dumont, Julie R; Amin, Eman; Holmes, Joshua D; Horne, Murray R; Pearce, John M; Aggleton, John P

    2013-12-01

    Three cohorts of rats with extensive hippocampal lesions received multiple tests to examine the relationships between particular forms of associative learning and an influential account of hippocampal function (the cognitive map hypothesis). Hippocampal lesions spared both the ability to discriminate two different digging media and to discriminate two different room locations in a go/no-go task when each location was approached from a single direction. Hippocampal lesions had, however, differential effects on a more complex task (biconditional discrimination) where the correct response was signaled by the presence or absence of specific cues. For all biconditional tasks, digging in one medium (A) was rewarded in the presence of cue C, while digging in medium B was rewarded in the presences of cue D. Such biconditional tasks are "configural" as no individual cue or element predicts the solution (AC+, AD-, BD+, and BC-). When proximal context cues signaled the correct digging choice, biconditional learning was seemingly unaffected by hippocampal lesions. Severe deficits occurred, however, when the correct digging choice was signaled by distal room cues. Also, impaired was the ability to discriminate two locations when each location was approached from two directions. A task demand that predicted those tasks impaired by hippocampal damage was the need to combine specific cues with their relative spatial positions ("structural learning"). This ability makes it possible to distinguish the same cues set in different spatial arrays. Thus, the hippocampus appears necessary for configural discriminations involving structure, discriminations that potentially underlie the creation of cognitive maps. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The effectiveness of signaling principle in virtual reality courseware towards achievement of transfer learning among students with different spatial ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan; Ahmad, Awaatif

    2017-10-01

    Past research revealed that students and society, in general, are relatively under-skilled in performing the practice of Islamic funeral management which is one of the "ibadah fardu kifayah" (a legal obligation that must be discharged by the Muslim community as a whole) in Islam. Participation among youth in managing funerals is relatively low, partly due to the ineffectiveness of the instructional approach. This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of the signaling principle in virtual reality courseware pertaining to the topic of Islamic Funeral Management in the Islamic Education subject to ensure the accomplishment of transfer learning among students with different spatial abilities. The study comprises of two phases namely the courseware development phase and treatment phase. The courseware development employs the Instructional Design Model by Alessi and Trollip. Besides that, the courseware is integrated with components of CLE, principles in Theory of CATLM and signaling principle in multimedia learning. The sample consisted of 130 Form Two students who were selected randomly from four Malaysian secondary schools. They were divided into two experimental groups with 63 students in group one and 67 students in group two. The experimental group one used VR courseware without the signaling principle (VRTI) while experimental group two used the VR courseware with the signaling principle (VRDI). The experiment lasted for three weeks. ANOVA was utilised to analyse the data from this research. The findings showed significant differences between students who used VRDI in the transfer of learning compared to students who used VRTI.

  14. A single early life seizure impairs short-term memory but does not alter spatial learning, recognition memory, or anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, Brandon J.; Mesches, Michael H.; Benke, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of a single seizure on cognition remains controversial. We hypothesized that a single early life seizure (sELS) on rat post-natal day (P) 7 would alter only hippocampal-dependent learning and memory in mature (P60) rats. The Morris Water Maze (MWM), Novel Object and Novel Place Recognition (NOR/NPR) tasks, and Contextual Fear Conditioning (CFC) were used to assess learning and memory associated with hippocampal/prefrontal cortex, perirhinal/hippocampal cortex, and amygdala function, respectively. The Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Open Field Test (OFT) were used to assess anxiety associated with the septum. We report that sELS impaired hippocampal-dependent short-term memory but not spatial learning or recall. sELS did not disrupt performance in the NOR/NPR. CFC performance suggested intact amydgala function. sELS did not change anxiety levels as measured by the EPM or OFT. Our data suggests that the long-term cognitive impacts of sELS are largely limited to the hippocampus/prefrontal cortex. PMID:18678283

  15. Visual Priming Enhances the Effects of Nonspatial Cognitive Rehabilitation Training on Spatial Learning After Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Clarice M; Kumar, Krishma; Koesarie, Kathleen; Brough, Elizabeth; Ritter, Anne C; Brayer, Samuel W; Thiels, Edda; Skidmore, Elizabeth R; Wagner, Amy K

    2015-10-01

    Previous work demonstrates that spatial (explicit) and nonspatial (implicit) elements of place learning in the Morris water maze (MWM) task can be dissociated and examined in the context of experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). Providing nonspatial cognitive training (CT) after injury can improve place learning compared with untrained controls. In the present study, we hypothesized that brief exposure to extra-maze cues, in conjunction with CT, may further improve MWM performance and extra-maze cue utilization compared with CT alone. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 66) received controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury or sham surgery. Beginning day 8 postsurgery, CCI and sham rats received 6 days of no training (NT) or CT with/without brief, noncontextualized exposure to extra-maze cues (BE and CT, respectively). Acquisition (days 14-18), visible platform (VP; day 19), carryover (CO; days 20-26), and periodic probe trials were performed. Platform latencies, peripheral and target zone time allocation, and search strategies were assessed. CCI/BE rats had shorter acquisition trial latencies than CCI/NT (P strategies from day 14 to day 18 relative to CCI/CT and showed similar swim strategy selection to the Sham/NT group. These data suggest that visual priming improves initial place learning in the MWM. These results support the visual priming response as another clinically relevant experimental rehabilitation construct, to use when assessing injury and treatment effects of behavioral and pharmacological therapies on cognition after TBI. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Design and Implementation of a Pilot Obesity Prevention Program in a Low-Resource School: Lessons Learned and Research Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Monica L.; Zunker, Christie; Worley, Courtney B.; Dial, Brenda; Kimbrough, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to describe the design, implementation, and lessons learned from an obesity prevention pilot program delivered in a low resource school in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: A planned program evaluation was conducted to: document explicitly the process of designing and implementing the program; and assess the…

  17. The efficacy of an e-learning prevention program for substance use among adolescents with intellectual disabilities: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiewik, M.; Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) are at risk for tobacco and alcohol use, yet little or no prevention programs are available for this group. 'Prepared on time' is an e-learning program based on the attitude - social influence - efficacy model originally developed

  18. Use of e-learning to enhance medical students' understanding and knowledge of healthcare-associated infection prevention and control.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, E

    2011-12-01

    An online infection prevention and control programme for medical students was developed and assessed. There was a statistically significant improvement (P<0.0001) in the knowledge base among 517 students after completing two modules. The majority of students who completed the evaluation were positive about the learning experience.

  19. Effects of Danggui-Shaoyao-San on the Influence of Spatial Learning and Memory Induced by Experimental Tooth Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Shi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pain caused by orthodontic treatment has been considered as tough problems in orthodontic practice. There is substantial literature on pain which has exactly effected on learning and memory; orthodontic tooth movement affected the emotional status has been showed positive outcomes. Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS is a Traditional Chinese Medicine prescription that has been used for pain treatment and analgesic effect for orthodontic pain via inhibiting the activations of neuron and glia. We raised the hypothesis that DSS could restore the impaired abilities of spatial learning and memory via regulating neuron or glia expression in the hippocampus. Methods: A total of 36 rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1 Sham group (n = 12, rats underwent all the operation procedure except for the placement of orthodontic forces and received saline treatment; (2 experimental tooth movement (ETM group (n = 12, rats received saline treatment and ETM; (3 DSS + ETM (DETM group (n = 12, rats received DSS treatment and ETM. All DETM group animals were administered with DSS at a dose of 150 mg/kg. Morris water maze test was evaluated; immunofluorescent histochemistry was used to identify astrocytes activation, and immunofluorescent dendritic spine analysis was used to identify the dendritic spines morphological characteristics expression levels in hippocampus. Results: Maze training sessions during the 5 successive days revealed that ETM significantly deficits in progressive learning in rats, DSS that was given from day 5 prior to ETM enhanced progressive learning. The ETM group rats took longer to cross target quadrant during the probe trial and got less times to cross-platform than DETM group. The spine density in hippocampus in ETM group was significantly decreased compared to the sham group. In addition, thin and mature spine density were decreased too. However, the DSS administration could reverse the dendritic shrinkage and increase the

  20. Stress Modulates the Use of Spatial versus Stimulus-Response Learning Strategies in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippsen, Christine; Richter, Steffen; Bohringer, Andreas; Wippich, Werner; Schachinger, Hartmut; Schwabe, Lars; Oitzl, Melly S.

    2007-01-01

    Animal studies provided evidence that stress modulates multiple memory systems, favoring caudate nucleus-based "habit" memory over hippocampus-based "cognitive" memory. However, effects of stress on learning strategy and memory consolidation were not differentiated. We specifically address the effects of psychosocial stress on the applied learning…

  1. Augmented Reality as a Visual and Spatial Learning Tool in Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Timothy; Ernst, Jeremy V.; Clark, Aaron C.

    2012-01-01

    Improvement in instructional practices through dynamic means of delivery remains a central consideration to technology educators. To help accomplish this, one must constantly utilize contemporary and cutting-edge technological applications in attempts to provide a more beneficial learning experience for students. These technologies must…

  2. Physical Activity Attenuates Intermittent Hypoxia-induced Spatial Learning Deficits and Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Gozal, David; Nair, Deepti; Goldbart, Aviv D.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH), such as occurs in sleep-disordered breathing, is associated with substantial cognitive impairments, oxidative stress and inflammation, and increased neuronal cell losses in brain regions underlying learning and memory in rats. Physical activity (PA) is now recognized as neuroprotective in models of neuronal injury and degeneration.

  3. Changes in prefrontal neuronal activity after learning to perform a spatial working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xue-Lian; Meyer, Travis; Stanford, Terrence R; Constantinidis, Christos

    2011-12-01

    The prefrontal cortex is considered essential for learning to perform cognitive tasks though little is known about how the representation of stimulus properties is altered by learning. To address this issue, we recorded neuronal activity in monkeys before and after training on a task that required visual working memory. After the subjects learned to perform the task, we observed activation of more prefrontal neurons and increased activity during working memory maintenance. The working memory-related increase in firing rate was due mostly to regular-spiking putative pyramidal neurons. Unexpectedly, the selectivity of neurons for stimulus properties and the ability of neurons to discriminate between stimuli decreased as the information about stimulus properties was apparently present in neural firing prior to training and neuronal selectivity degraded after training in the task. The effect was robust and could not be accounted for by differences in sampling sites, selection of neurons, level of performance, or merely the elapse of time. The results indicate that, in contrast to the effects of perceptual learning, mastery of a cognitive task degrades the apparent stimulus selectivity as neurons represent more abstract information related to the task. This effect is countered by the recruitment of more neurons after training.

  4. Ventral Tegmental Area and Substantia Nigra Neural Correlates of Spatial Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martig, Adria K.; Mizumori, Sheri J. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) may provide modulatory signals that, respectively, influence hippocampal (HPC)- and striatal-dependent memory. Electrophysiological studies investigating neural correlates of learning and memory of dopamine (DA) neurons during classical conditioning tasks have found DA…

  5. Repeated blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors, but not of glucocorticoid receptors impairs food rewarded spatial learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, BRK; Korte, SM; Buwalda, B; la Fleur, SE; Bohus, B; Luiten, PGM

    Corticosteroids from the adrenal cortex influence a variety of behaviours including cognition, learning and memory. These hormones act via two intracellular receptors, the mineralo-corticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). These two receptor types display a high concentration and

  6. Repeated blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors, but not of glucocorticoid receptors impairs food rewarded spatial learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, B. R.; Korte, S. M.; Buwalda, B.; La Fleur, S. E.; Bohus, B.; Luiten, P. G.

    1998-01-01

    Corticosteroids from the adrenal cortex influence a variety of behaviours including cognition, learning and memory. These hormones act via two intracellular receptors, the mineralo-corticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). These two receptor types display a high concentration and

  7. How Temporal and Spatial Aspects of Presenting Visualizations Affect Learning about Locomotion Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Birgit; Scheiter, Katharina; Edelmann, Jorg; Gerjets, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Two studies investigated the effectiveness of dynamic and static visualizations for a perceptual learning task (locomotion pattern classification). In Study 1, seventy-five students viewed either dynamic, static-sequential, or static-simultaneous visualizations. For tasks of intermediate difficulty, dynamic visualizations led to better…

  8. Life-long environmental enrichment counteracts spatial learning, reference and working memory deficits in middle-aged rats subjected to perinatal asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Pablo; Blanco, Eduardo; Logica Tornatore, Tamara M A; Romero, Juan I; Holubiec, Mariana I; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Capani, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Continuous environmental stimulation induced by exposure to enriched environment (EE) has yielded cognitive benefits in different models of brain injury. Perinatal asphyxia results from a lack of oxygen supply to the fetus and is associated with long-lasting neurological deficits. However, the effects of EE in middle-aged rats suffering perinatal asphyxia are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess whether life-long exposure to EE could counteract the cognitive and behavioral alterations in middle-aged asphyctic rats. Experimental groups consisted of rats born vaginally (CTL), by cesarean section (C+), or by C+ following 19 min of asphyxia at birth (PA). At weaning, rats were assigned to standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) for 18 months. During the last month of housing, animals were submitted to a behavioral test battery including Elevated Plus Maze, Open Field, Novel Object Recognition and Morris water maze (MWM). Results showed that middle-aged asphyctic rats, reared in SE, exhibited an impaired performance in the spatial reference and working memory versions of the MWM. EE was able to counteract these cognitive impairments. Moreover, EE improved the spatial learning performance of middle-aged CTL and C+ rats. On the other hand, all groups reared in SE did not differ in locomotor activity and anxiety levels, while EE reduced locomotion and anxiety, regardless of birth condition. Recognition memory was altered neither by birth condition nor by housing environment. These results support the importance of environmental stimulation across the lifespan to prevent cognitive deficits induced by perinatal asphyxia.

  9. Life-long environmental enrichment counteracts spatial learning, reference and working memory deficits in middle-aged rats subjected to perinatal asphyxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Pablo; Blanco, Eduardo; Logica Tornatore, Tamara M. A.; Romero, Juan I.; Holubiec, Mariana I.; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Capani, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Continuous environmental stimulation induced by exposure to enriched environment (EE) has yielded cognitive benefits in different models of brain injury. Perinatal asphyxia results from a lack of oxygen supply to the fetus and is associated with long-lasting neurological deficits. However, the effects of EE in middle-aged rats suffering perinatal asphyxia are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess whether life-long exposure to EE could counteract the cognitive and behavioral alterations in middle-aged asphyctic rats. Experimental groups consisted of rats born vaginally (CTL), by cesarean section (C+), or by C+ following 19 min of asphyxia at birth (PA). At weaning, rats were assigned to standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) for 18 months. During the last month of housing, animals were submitted to a behavioral test battery including Elevated Plus Maze, Open Field, Novel Object Recognition and Morris water maze (MWM). Results showed that middle-aged asphyctic rats, reared in SE, exhibited an impaired performance in the spatial reference and working memory versions of the MWM. EE was able to counteract these cognitive impairments. Moreover, EE improved the spatial learning performance of middle-aged CTL and C+ rats. On the other hand, all groups reared in SE did not differ in locomotor activity and anxiety levels, while EE reduced locomotion and anxiety, regardless of birth condition. Recognition memory was altered neither by birth condition nor by housing environment. These results support the importance of environmental stimulation across the lifespan to prevent cognitive deficits induced by perinatal asphyxia. PMID:25601829

  10. Life-long environmental enrichment counteracts spatial learning, reference and working memory deficits in middle-aged rats subjected to perinatal asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo eGaleano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous environmental stimulation induced by exposure to enriched environment (EE has yielded cognitive benefits in different models of brain injury. Perinatal asphyxia results from a lack of oxygen supply to the fetus and is associated with long-lasting neurological deficits. However, the effects of EE in middle-aged rats suffering perinatal asphyxia are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess whether life-long exposure to EE could counteract the cognitive and behavioral alterations in middle-aged asphyctic rats. Experimental groups consisted of rats born vaginally (CTL, by cesarean section (C+, or by C+ following 19 min of asphyxia at birth (PA. At weaning, rats were assigned to standard (SE or enriched environment (EE for 18 months. During the last month of housing, animals were submitted to a behavioral test battery including Elevated Plus Maze, Open Field, Novel Object Recognition and Morris water maze (MWM. Results showed that middle-aged asphyctic rats, reared in SE, exhibited an impaired performance in the spatial reference and working memory versions of the MWM. EE was able to counteract these cognitive impairments. Moreover, EE improved the spatial learning performance of middle-aged CTL and C+ rats. On the other hand, all groups reared in SE did not differ in locomotor activity and anxiety levels, while EE reduced locomotion and anxiety, regardless of birth condition. Recognition memory was altered neither by birth condition nor by housing environment. These results support the importance of environmental stimulation across the lifespan to prevent cognitive deficits induced by perinatal asphyxia.

  11. Melatonin Alleviates the Epilepsy-Associated Impairments in Hippocampal LTP and Spatial Learning Through Rescue of Surface GluR2 Expression at Hippocampal CA1 Synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Sun, Xiaolong; Li, Juan; Jia, Ruihua; Yuan, Fang; Wei, Dong; Jiang, Wen

    2017-05-01

    Epilepsy-associated cognitive impairment is common, and negatively impacts patients' quality of life. However, most antiepileptic drugs focus on the suppression of seizures, and fewer emphasize treatment of cognitive dysfunction. Melatonin, an indolamine synthesized primarily in the pineal grand, is reported to be neuroprotective against several central nervous system disorders. In this study, we investigated whether melatonin could reverse cognitive dysfunction in lithium-pilocarpine treated rats. Chronic treatment with melatonin (8 mg/kg daily for 15 days) after induction of status epilepticus significantly alleviated seizure severity, reduced neuronal death in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, improved spatial learning (as measured by the Morris water maze test), and reversed LTP impairments, compared to vehicle treatment. Furthermore, we found that melatonin rescued the decreased surface levels of GluR2 in the CA1 region observed in epilepsy, which might be the underlying mechanism of the neuroprotective and synapse-modulating function of melatonin. Our study provides experimental evidence for the possible clinical utility of melatonin as an adjunctive therapy to prevent epilepsy-associated cognitive impairments.

  12. Design and Development Computer-Based E-Learning Teaching Material for Improving Mathematical Understanding Ability and Spatial Sense of Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjanah; Dahlan, J. A.; Wibisono, Y.

    2017-02-01

    This paper aims to make a design and development computer-based e-learning teaching material for improving mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense of junior high school students. Furthermore, the particular aims are (1) getting teaching material design, evaluation model, and intrument to measure mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense of junior high school students; (2) conducting trials computer-based e-learning teaching material model, asessment, and instrument to develop mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense of junior high school students; (3) completing teaching material models of computer-based e-learning, assessment, and develop mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense of junior high school students; (4) resulting research product is teaching materials of computer-based e-learning. Furthermore, the product is an interactive learning disc. The research method is used of this study is developmental research which is conducted by thought experiment and instruction experiment. The result showed that teaching materials could be used very well. This is based on the validation of computer-based e-learning teaching materials, which is validated by 5 multimedia experts. The judgement result of face and content validity of 5 validator shows that the same judgement result to the face and content validity of each item test of mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense. The reliability test of mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense are 0,929 and 0,939. This reliability test is very high. While the validity of both tests have a high and very high criteria.

  13. Service-learning in higher education relevant to the promotion of physical activity, healthful eating, and prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R Rosenkranz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Service-learning is a type of experiential teaching and learning strategy combining classroom instruction and meaningful community service and guided activities for reflection. This educational approach has been used frequently in higher education settings, including an array of disciplines such as medicine, theology, public health, physical education, nutrition, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. The purpose of the present review paper was to provide guidance on the use of service-learning within higher education, relevant to the preventive medicine and public health topics of healthful eating, physical activity, and obesity prevention. In service-learning, coursework is structured to address community needs, and to benefit students through the real-world application of knowledge. The benefits for students include positive impacts on social skills, empathy, awareness, understanding, and concern regarding community issues, plus greater confidence and skills to work with diverse populations, increased awareness of community resources, improved motivation, and enhanced knowledge. Educational institutions may also benefit through improved "town and gown" relations, as strong ties, partnerships, and mutually beneficial activities take place. The present literature review describes several service-learning applications such as nutrition education for kids, dietary improvement for seniors, foodservice recipe modification on a college campus, an intergenerational physical activity program for nursing home residents, motor skill development in kindergarteners, organized elementary school recess physical activities, health education, and obesity prevention in children. From this review, service-learning appears to have great potential as a flexible component of academic coursework in the areas of preventive medicine and public health.

  14. A virtual reality task based on animal research – spatial learning and memory in patients after the first episode of schizophrenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fajnerová, Iveta; Rodriguez, M.; Levčík, David; Konrádová, L.; Mikoláš, P.; Brom, C.; Stuchlík, Aleš; Vlček, Kamil; Horáček, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, May 27 (2014), s. 157 ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NT14291; GA MZd(CZ) NT13843 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : schizophrenia * spatial navigation * learning and memory * virtual reality environment * cognitive deficit * Morris Water Maze (MWM) * psychotic disorders * spatial behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.270, year: 2014

  15. Single fluoxetine treatment before but not after stress prevents stress-induced hippocampal long-term depression and spatial memory retrieval impairment in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Huili; Dai, Chunfang; Dong, Zhifang

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has shown that chronic treatment with fluoxetine, a widely prescribed medication for treatment of depression, can affect synaptic plasticity in the adult central nervous system. However, it is not well understood whether acute fluoxetine influences synaptic plasticity, especially on hippocampal CA1 long-term depression (LTD), and if so, whether it subsequently impacts hippocampal-dependent spatial memory. Here, we reported that LTD facilitated by elevated-platform stress in hippocampal slices was completely prevented by fluoxetine administration (10 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before stress. The LTD was not, however, significantly inhibited by fluoxetine administration immediately after stress. Similarly, fluoxetine incubation (10 μM) during electrophysiological recordings also displayed no influence on the stress-facilitated LTD. In addition, behavioral results showed that a single fluoxetine treatment 30 min before but not after acute stress fully reversed the impairment of spatial memory retrieval in the Morris water maze paradigm. Taken together, these results suggest that acute fluoxetine treatment only before, but not after stress, can prevent hippocampal CA1 LTD and spatial memory retrieval impairment caused by behavioral stress in adult animals. PMID:26218751

  16. Multiple systems for spatial learning: dead reckoning and beacon homing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shettleworth, Sara J; Sutton, Jennifer E

    2005-04-01

    Rats homed with food in a large lighted arena. Without visual cues, they used dead reckoning. When a beacon indicated the home, rats could also use the beacon. Homing did not differ in 2 groups of rats, 1 provided with the beacon and 1 without it; tests without the beacon gave no evidence that beacon learning overshadowed dead reckoning (Experiment 1). When the beacon was at the home for 1 group and in random locations for another, there was again no evidence of cue competition (Experiment 2). Dead reckoning experience did not block acquisition of beacon homing (Experiment 3). Beacon learning and dead reckoning do not compete for predictive value but acquire information in parallel and are used hierarchically.

  17. Key Programme Science lessons from an HIV prevention 'Learning Site' for sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClarty, Leigh M; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; Emmanuel, Faran; Kioko, Japheth; Njiraini, Margaret; Gichangi, Peter; Okoth, Clifford Duncan; Musimbi-Mbole, Janet; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen; Muysyoki, Helgar; Becker, Marissa L

    2017-12-14

    In 2013, Kenya's National AIDS and STI Control Programme established a Learning Site (LS) in Mombasa County to support and strengthen capacity for HIV prevention programming within organisations working with sex workers. A defining feature of LS was the use of a Programme Science approach throughout its development and implementation. We provide an overview of the key components of LS, present findings from 23 months of programme monitoring data, and highlight key Programme Science lessons from its implementation and monitoring. Routine monitoring data collected from September 2013 through July 2015 are presented. Individual-level service utilisation data were collected monthly and indicators of interest were analysed over time to illustrate trends in enrolment, programme coverage and service utilisation among sex workers in Mombasa County. Over the monitoring period, outreach programme enrolment occurred rapidly; condom distribution targets were met consistently; rates of STI screening remained high and diagnoses declined; and reporting of and response to violent incidents increased. At the same time, enrolment in LS clinics was relatively low among female sex workers, and HIV testing at LS was low among both female and male sex workers. Lessons learnt from operationalising the Programme Science framework through the Mombasa LS can inform the development and implementation of similar LS in different geographical and epidemiological contexts. Importantly, meaningful involvement of sex workers in the design, implementation and monitoring processes ensures that overall programme performance is optimised in the context of local, 'on-the-ground' realities. Additionally, learnings from LS highlight the importance of introducing enhanced monitoring and evaluations systems into complex programmes to better understand and explain programme dynamics over time. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  18. Adult neurogenesis reduction by a cytostatic treatment improves spatial reversal learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozka, Hana; Pistikova, Adela; Radostova, Dominika; Vales, Karel; Svoboda, Jan; Grzyb, Anna N; Stuchlik, Ales

    2017-05-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus adds a substantial number of new functional neurons to the hippocampus network in rodents. To date, however, the function of these new granule cells remains unclear. We conducted an experiment to assess the contribution of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus to acquisition and reversal learning in a task that predominantly requires generalization of a rule. Young adult male Long-Evans rats were repeatedly administered either a cytostatic temozolomide or saline for a period of four weeks (3 injections per week). Post treatment, animals were injected with bromodeoxyuridine to quantify adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. For behavioral assessment we used hippocampus-dependent active place avoidance with reversal in a Carousel maze. Animals first learned to avoid a 60° sector on the rotating arena. Afterwards, sector was relocated to the opposite side of the rotating arena (reversal). The administration of temozolomide significantly improved the reversal performance compared to saline-treated rats. Our results suggest a significant, level-dependent, improvement of reversal learning in animals with reduced adult neurogenesis in hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Egocentric spatial learning in schizophrenia investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemerkus, Jakob; Irle, Eva; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Dechent, Peter; Weniger, Godehard

    2012-01-01

    Psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia are related to disturbed self-recognition and to disturbed experience of agency. Possibly, these impairments contribute to first-person large-scale egocentric learning deficits. Sixteen inpatients with schizophrenia and 16 matched healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while finding their way in a virtual maze. The virtual maze presented a first-person view, lacked any topographical landmarks and afforded egocentric navigation strategies. The participants with schizophrenia showed impaired performance in the virtual maze when compared with controls, and showed a similar but weaker pattern of activity changes during egocentric learning when compared with controls. Especially the activity of task-relevant brain regions (precuneus and posterior cingulate and retrosplenial cortex) differed from that of controls across all trials of the task. Activity increase within the right-sided precuneus was related to worse virtual maze performance and to stronger positive symptoms in participants with schizophrenia. We suggest that psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia are related to aberrant neural activity within the precuneus. Possibly, first-person large-scale egocentric navigation and learning designs may be a feasible tool for the assessment and treatment of cognitive deficits related to self-recognition in patients with schizophrenia.

  20. Egocentric spatial learning in schizophrenia investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemerkus, Jakob; Irle, Eva; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Dechent, Peter; Weniger, Godehard

    2012-01-01

    Psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia are related to disturbed self-recognition and to disturbed experience of agency. Possibly, these impairments contribute to first-person large-scale egocentric learning deficits. Sixteen inpatients with schizophrenia and 16 matched healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while finding their way in a virtual maze. The virtual maze presented a first-person view, lacked any topographical landmarks and afforded egocentric navigation strategies. The participants with schizophrenia showed impaired performance in the virtual maze when compared with controls, and showed a similar but weaker pattern of activity changes during egocentric learning when compared with controls. Especially the activity of task-relevant brain regions (precuneus and posterior cingulate and retrosplenial cortex) differed from that of controls across all trials of the task. Activity increase within the right-sided precuneus was related to worse virtual maze performance and to stronger positive symptoms in participants with schizophrenia. We suggest that psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia are related to aberrant neural activity within the precuneus. Possibly, first-person large-scale egocentric navigation and learning designs may be a feasible tool for the assessment and treatment of cognitive deficits related to self-recognition in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:24179748

  1. Effect of sub-chronic intermittent ethanol exposure on spatial learning and ethanol sensitivity in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzwelder, H S; Hogan, A; Risher, M-Louise; Swartzwelder, Rita A; Wilson, Wilkie A; Acheson, Shawn K

    2014-06-01

    It has become clear that adolescence is a period of distinct responsiveness to the acute effects of ethanol on learning and other cognitive functions. However, the effects of repeated intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence on learning and cognition are less well studied, and other effects of repeated ethanol exposure such as withdrawal and chronic tolerance complicate such experiments. Moreover, few studies have compared the effects of repeated ethanol exposure during adolescence and adulthood, and they have yielded mixed outcomes that may be related to methodological differences and/or secondary effects of ethanol on behavioral performance. One emerging question is whether relatively brief intermittent ethanol exposure (i.e., sub-chronic exposure) during adolescence or adulthood might alter learning at a time after exposure when chronic tolerance would be expected, and whether tolerance to the cognitive effects of ethanol might influence the effect of ethanol on learning at that time. To address this, male adolescent and adult rats were pre-treated with sub-chronic daily ethanol (five doses [4.0 g/kg, i.p.] or saline at 24-h intervals, across 5 days). Two days after the last pre-exposure, spatial learning was assessed on 4 consecutive days using the Morris water maze. Half of the animals from each treatment cell received ethanol (2.0 g/kg, i.p.) 30 min prior to each testing session and half of the animals received saline. Ethanol pre-exposure altered water maze performance in adult animals but not in adolescents, and acute ethanol exposure impaired learning in animals of both ages independent of pre-exposure condition. There was no evidence of cognitive tolerance in animals of either age group. These results indicate that a relatively short period of intermittent ethanol exposure during adulthood, but not adolescence, promotes thigmotaxis in the water maze shortly after pre-exposure but does not induce cognitive tolerance to the effects of ethanol in

  2. [An evaluation of a new Dutch suicide prevention tool (KEHR); datadriven evaluation and learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, M H; de Winter, R F P; van der Plas, W; Kerkhof, A J F M

    2016-01-01

    Multidisciplinary evaluation of suicide cases effectively decreases the suicide rate in mental health care. A new suicide prevention tool (KEHR) can be used in this connection. KEHR has been developed on the basis of the Dutch multidisciplinary practice guideline on the assessment and treatment of suicidal behaviour. The guideline can serve as a frame of reference for the multidisciplinary evaluation of suicide cases. KEHR aims to provide professionals with a better method for preventing suicide. To describe and evaluate the recently developed KEHR strategy for reducing the number of suicide cases in mental health care. Naturalistic and observational study. In the course of a year 22 out of 23 suicide cases that had occurred in the pilot institution were evaluated with the help of the KEHR system. Outcomes were discussed with members of multidisciplinary teams. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the evaluation process. Professionals from the main disciplines involved were very willing to use the new tool and were prepared to reflect on their views on the outcomes. The professionals were ready to learn from the suicide cases. Data collected with the tool provided information that can be used to improve guideline adherence. However, the use of KEHR did not lead automatically to the formulation of adjustments and improvements relating to suicidal patients. A specific procedure for improving individual and team performance needs to be developed and tested thoroughly. KEHR is a promising strategy for improving and enhancing the guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of suicidal behaviour of patients in mental health care. Special procedures need to be developed and studied in order to implement the improvements deemed necessary as a result of the pilot study. The KEHR tool (in the Dutch language) is accessible to mental health care workers after online registration (www.mijnkehr.nl).

  3. Use of social learning theory in the prevention of obesity with Roma people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Věra Olišarová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Education is one of the standard components of current nursing care. It is aimed at healthy and diseased and it aims to take responsibility for health. Constantly increasing prevalence of obesity is a global problem. As in the majority population in the Czech Republic and even serious situation of minorities. However, implemented intervention programs and strategies are targeted mainly at the majority population. The concept of social learning theory, however, offers the possibility of integrating previously neglected knowledge as it provides a social context that has a direct impact on the conduct of individuals. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to analyze the problems in the education of the Roma minority and to highlight the possibilities of using the concept of social learning theory in the development of intervention programs aimed at the prevention of overweight and obesity. Methods: This paper is based on data gathered in the implementation of qualitative research, where the research group consists of 25 Roma respondents older than eighteen years of age whose BMI was in the overweight or obese range (ie BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Among the respondents were 8 men and 17 women. The paper is also supported by the data obtained in the framework of the grant project aimed, inter alia, to determine the prevalence of these diagnoses among the Roma minority. Results: Culturally conditioned behavior patterns are a significant factor that can influence the effectiveness of implemented interventions. Already during the collection history with these patterns manifest themselves. Among other factors, are body image, social functions of eating, socioeconomic status and related dietary composition. Understanding the relationships between these factors and motivational elements of risk behaviors can go into nursing to bring a new dimension. Conclusions: Ethnicity is often a significant factor that affects the effectiveness of

  4. Association rules for rat spatial learning: The importance of the hippocampus for binding item identity with item location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albasser, Mathieu M; Dumont, Julie R; Amin, Eman; Holmes, Joshua D; Horne, Murray R; Pearce, John M; Aggleton, John P

    2013-01-01

    Three cohorts of rats with extensive hippocampal lesions received multiple tests to examine the relationships between particular forms of associative learning and an influential account of hippocampal function (the cognitive map hypothesis). Hippocampal lesions spared both the ability to discriminate two different digging media and to discriminate two different room locations in a go/no-go task when each location was approached from a single direction. Hippocampal lesions had, however, differential effects on a more complex task (biconditional discrimination) where the correct response was signaled by the presence or absence of specific cues. For all biconditional tasks, digging in one medium (A) was rewarded in the presence of cue C, while digging in medium B was rewarded in the presences of cue D. Such biconditional tasks are “configural” as no individual cue or element predicts the solution (AC+, AD−, BD+, and BC−). When proximal context cues signaled the correct digging choice, biconditional learning was seemingly unaffected by hippocampal lesions. Severe deficits occurred, however, when the correct digging choice was signaled by distal room cues. Also, impaired was the ability to discriminate two locations when each location was approached from two directions. A task demand that predicted those tasks impaired by hippocampal damage was the need to combine specific cues with their relative spatial positions (“structural learning”). This ability makes it possible to distinguish the same cues set in different spatial arrays. Thus, the hippocampus appears necessary for configural discriminations involving structure, discriminations that potentially underlie the creation of cognitive maps. PMID:23749378

  5. Effect of intrahippocampal CA1 injection of insulin on spatial learning and memory deficits in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golbarg Ghiasi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important diseases in all over the world. Insulin and its receptor are found in specific area of CNS with a variety of regions-specific functions different from its role in direct glucose regulation in the periphery. The hippocampus and cerebral cortex distributed insulin and insulin receptor has been shown to be involved in brain cognitive functions. Previous studies about the effect of insulin on memory in diabetes are controversial and further investigation is necessary.Methods: Seventy male NMRI rats (250-300 g were randomly divided into control, diabetic, saline-saline, saline-insulin (12, 18 or 24 mU, diabetic-saline, diabetic-insulin (12, 18 or 24 mU groups. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, ip. Saline or insulin were injected bilaterally (1 µl/rat into CA1 region of hippocampus during 1 min. Thirty minutes later, water maze training was performed.Results: Insulin had a dose dependent effect. The spatial learning and memory were impaired with diabetes, and improved by insulin. Escape latency and swimming distance in a water maze in insulin treated animals were significantly lower (P<0.05 than control and diabetic groups. Percentage of time spent by animals in a target quarter in probe trial session showed a significant difference among groups. This difference was significant between insulin treated and the other groups (P<0.05.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that injection of insulin into hippocampal CA1 area may have a dose-dependent effect on spatial learning and memory in diabetic rats.

  6. Effects of developmental exposure to bisphenol A on spatial navigational learning and memory in rats: A CLARITY-BPA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah A; Javurek, Angela B; Painter, Michele S; Ellersieck, Mark R; Welsh, Thomas H; Camacho, Luísa; Lewis, Sherry M; Vanlandingham, Michelle M; Ferguson, Sherry A; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2016-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous industrial chemical used in the production of a wide variety of items. Previous studies suggest BPA exposure may result in neuro-disruptive effects; however, data are inconsistent across animal and human studies. As part of the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA), we sought to determine whether female and male rats developmentally exposed to BPA demonstrated later spatial navigational learning and memory deficits. Pregnant NCTR Sprague-Dawley rats were orally dosed from gestational day 6 to parturition, and offspring were directly orally dosed until weaning (postnatal day 21). Treatment groups included a vehicle control, three BPA doses (2.5μg/kg body weight (bw)/day-[2.5], 25μg/kg bw/day-[25], and 2500μg/kg bw/day-[2500]) and a 0.5μg/kg/day ethinyl estradiol (EE)-reference estrogen dose. At adulthood, 1/sex/litter was tested for seven days in the Barnes maze. The 2500 BPA group sniffed more incorrect holes on day 7 than those in the control, 2.5 BPA, and EE groups. The 2500 BPA females were less likely than control females to locate the escape box in the allotted time (p value=0.04). Although 2.5 BPA females exhibited a prolonged latency, the effect did not reach significance (p value=0.06), whereas 2.5 BPA males showed improved latency compared to control males (p value=0.04), although the significance of this result is uncertain. No differences in serum testosterone concentration were detected in any male or female treatment groups. Current findings suggest developmental exposure of rats to BPA may disrupt aspects of spatial navigational learning and memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Transfer of learning on a spatial memory task between the blind and sighted people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Selcuk; Popović, Stevo; Kirazci, Sadettin

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of two different types of feedback on a spatial memory task between the blind and blindfolded-sighted participants. Participants tried to estimate the predetermined distance by using their dominant hands. Both blind and blindfolded-sighted groups were randomly divided into two feedback subgroups as "100% frequency" and "10% bandwidth". The score of the participants was given verbally to the participants as knowledge of results (KR). The target distance was set as 60 cm. Sixty acquisition trials were performed in 4 sets each including 15 repetition afterwards immediate and delayed retention tests were undertaken. Moreover, 24 hours past the delayed retention test, the participants completed 15 no-KR trials as a transfer test (target distance was 30 cm). The results of the statistical analyses revealed no significant differences for both acquisition and retention tests. However, a significant difference was found at transfer test. 100% frequency blind group performed significantly less accurate than all other groups. As a result, it can be concluded that different types of feedback have similar effect on spatial memory task used in this study. However, types of feedback can change the performance of accuracy on transferring this skill among the blind.

  8. Spatial prediction of landslides using a hybrid machine learning approach based on Random Subspace and Classification and Regression Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Binh Thai; Prakash, Indra; Tien Bui, Dieu

    2018-02-01

    A hybrid machine learning approach of Random Subspace (RSS) and Classification And Regression Trees (CART) is proposed to develop a model named RSSCART for spatial prediction of landslides. This model is a combination of the RSS method which is known as an efficient ensemble technique and the CART which is a state of the art classifier. The Luc Yen district of Yen Bai province, a prominent landslide prone area of Viet Nam, was selected for the model development. Performance of the RSSCART model was evaluated through the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, statistical analysis methods, and the Chi Square test. Results were compared with other benchmark landslide models namely Support Vector Machines (SVM), single CART, Naïve Bayes Trees (NBT), and Logistic Regression (LR). In the development of model, ten important landslide affecting factors related with geomorphology, geology and geo-environment were considered namely slope angles, elevation, slope aspect, curvature, lithology, distance to faults, distance to rivers, distance to roads, and rainfall. Performance of the RSSCART model (AUC = 0.841) is the best compared with other popular landslide models namely SVM (0.835), single CART (0.822), NBT (0.821), and LR (0.723). These results indicate that performance of the RSSCART is a promising method for spatial landslide prediction.

  9. Spatial learning in the 5-HT1B receptor knockout mouse: selective facilitation/impairment depending on the cognitive demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhot, Marie-Christine; Wolff, Mathieu; Benhassine, Narimane; Costet, Pierre; Hen, René; Segu, Louis

    2003-01-01

    Age-related memory decline is associated with a combined dysfunction of the cholinergic and serotonergic systems in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, in particular. The 5-HT1B receptor occupies strategic cellular and subcellular locations in these structures, where it plays a role in the modulation of ACh release. In an attempt to characterize the contribution of this receptor to memory functions, 5-HT1B receptor knockout (KO) mice were submitted to various behavioral paradigms carried out in the same experimental context (water maze), which were aimed at exposing mice to various levels of memory demand. 5-HT1BKO mice exhibited a facilitation in the acquisition of a hippocampal-dependent spatial reference memory task in the Morris water maze. This facilitation was selective of task difficulty, showing thus that the genetic inactivation of the 5-HT1B receptor is associated with facilitation when the complexity of the task is increased, and reveals a protective effect on age-related hippocampal-dependent memory decline. Young-adult and aged KO and wild-type (WT) mice were equally able to learn a delayed spatial matching-to-sample working memory task in a radial-arm water maze with short (0 or 5 min) delays. However, 5-HT1BKO mice, only, exhibited a selective memory impairment at intermediate and long (15, 30, and 60 min) delays. Treatment by scopolamine induced the same pattern of performance in wild type as did the mutation for short (5 min, no impairment) and long (60 min, impairment) delays. Taken together, these studies revealed a beneficial effect of the mutation on the acquisition of a spatial reference memory task, but a deleterious effect on a working memory task for long delays. This 5-HT1BKO mouse story highlights the problem of the potential existence of "global memory enhancers."

  10. Spatial learning, monoamines and oxidative stress in rats exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic field in combination with iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaroufi, Karima; Had-Aissouni, Laurence; Melon, Christophe; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Poucet, Bruno; Save, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of mobile phone technology over the last decade raises concerns about the impact of high frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on health. More recently, a link between EMF, iron overload in the brain and neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases has been suggested. Co-exposure to EMF and brain iron overload may have a greater impact on brain tissues and cognitive processes than each treatment by itself. To examine this hypothesis, Long-Evans rats submitted to 900 MHz exposure or combined 900 MHz EMF and iron overload treatments were tested in various spatial learning tasks (navigation task in the Morris water maze, working memory task in the radial-arm maze, and object exploration task involving spatial and non spatial processing). Biogenic monoamines and metabolites (dopamine, serotonin) and oxidative stress were measured. Rats exposed to EMF were impaired in the object exploration task but not in the navigation and working memory tasks. They also showed alterations of monoamine content in several brain areas but mainly in the hippocampus. Rats that received combined treatment did not show greater behavioral and neurochemical deficits than EMF-exposed rats. None of the two treatments produced global oxidative stress. These results show that there is an impact of EMF on the brain and cognitive processes but this impact is revealed only in a task exploiting spontaneous exploratory activity. In contrast, there are no synergistic effects between EMF and a high content of iron in the brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Behavioral Inhibition and Impaired Spatial Learning and Memory in Hypothyroid Mice Lacking Thyroid Hormone Receptor α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcoxon, Jennifer Slone; Nadolski, Gregory J.; Samarut, Jacques; Chassande, Olivier; Redei, Eva E.

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid hormone insufficiency leads to impaired neurogenesis, behavioral alterations and cognitive deficits. Thyroid hormone receptors, expressed in brain regions involved in these behaviors, mediate the effects of thyroid hormone deficiency or excess. To determine the contribution of thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα) in these behaviors, we examined the behavior of euthyroid as well as hypo- and hyperthyroid mice lacking all isoforms of the TRα (TRαo/o). The hypothyroxinemic TRαo/o mice demonstrated behavioral inhibition, manifested in decreased activity and increased anxiety/fear in the open field test (OFT) and increased immobility in the forced swim test (FST) compared to C57BL/6J mice. TRαo/o mice also showed learning and recall impairments in the Morris water maze (MWM), which were exaggerated by hypothyroidism in TRαo/o mice. These impairments were concurrent with increased thigmotaxis, suggesting an increased anxiety-like state of the TRαo/o mice in the MWM. Expression of genes, known to be involved in processes modulating learning and memory, such as glucocorticoid receptor (GR), growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and neurogranin (RC3), were significantly decreased in the hippocampus of TRαo/o mice. GR expression was also decreased in the frontal cortex and amygdala of TRαo/o mice, indicating that expression of GR is regulated, probably developmentally, by one or more isoforms of TRα in the mouse brain. Taken together these data demonstrate behavioral alterations in the TRαo/o mice, indicating the functional role of TRα, and a delicate interaction between TRα and TRβ-regulated genes in these behaviors. Thyroid hormone-regulated genes potentially responsible for the learning deficit found in TRαo/o mice include GR, RC3 and GAP-43. PMID:17129617

  12. Proposal of procedures to prevent errors in radiotherapy based in learned lessons of accidental expositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, Giselle Oliveira Vieira

    2007-01-01

    In order to consider some procedures to prevent errors in radiotherapy based in learned lessons of accidental expositions and in accordance with information contained in international reports elaborated by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and of the data base availability by the European group Radiation Oncology Safety Information System (ROSIS) on the events, a research of the occurred errors was performed. For the evaluation of the incidents a data base based in the ROSIS and added plus a parameter was created 'type of error'. All the stored data make possible the evaluation of the 839 incidents in terms of frequency of the type of error, the process of detention, the number of reached patients and the degree of severity. Of the 50 types of found errors, the type of error more frequently was 'incorrect treatment coordinate', confirmed with the data of literature and representing 28,96 por cent of the total of the incidents. The results showed 44,44 por cent are discovered at the moment of the treatment and that the process of verification of the fiche or clinical revision of the patient is a verification more occurred insurance and in 43,33 por cent of the searched events. The results indicated that more than 50 por cent of the incidents the severity degree are void and approximately 62 por cent a patient are affected during the accomplishment of the radiotherapy. This work showed that to analyze the data base according to methodology proposal for Klein et al.; for Reason, and Dunscombe et al. is interesting to insert more characteristic detailed in the data base such as: the number of fractions for affected patient, number of fields of treatment for fraction that was affected, shunting line of the prescribed dose and shunting line of the volume prescribed in all the registered in cadastral map events. Some causes exist that can lead the errors when patient they are submitted to the radiotherapy. Some measures can be taken so that these errors do not

  13. Studying cities to learn about minds: some possible implications of space syntax for spatial cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Hillier, B.

    2009-01-01

    What can we learn of the human mind by examining its products? The city is a case in point. Since the beginning of cities human ideas about them have been dominated by geometric ideas, and the real history of cities has always oscillated between the geometric and the ‘organic’. Set in the context of the suggestion from cognitive neuroscience that we impose more geometric order on the world than it actually possesses, and intriguing question arises: what is the role of the geometric intuition ...

  14. Insulin receptor A and Sirtuin 1 synergistically improve learning and spatial memory following chronic salidroside treatment during hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhwal, Kalpana; Das, Saroj K; Kumar, Ashish; Hota, Sunil K; Srivastava, Ravi B

    2015-10-01

    Hypoxia has been reported to cause hippocampal neurodegeneration resulting in learning and memory deficits. In the present study, we investigated the potential of salidroside, a glucoside derivative of tyrosol, in ameliorating hypoxia-induced neurodegeneration and memory impairment. Morris water maze test showed improvement in learning and spatial memory of salidroside-treated hypoxic rats correlating with increased dendritic intersections and arborization. Salidroside administration increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor subunit A (IRA) at Y972, Y1162/63, and Y1146 sites and subsequent activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α subunit isoforms pAMPKα1 and pAMPKα2 resulting in mitochondrial biogenesis. Contrarily, silencing of IRA in salidroside-supplemented hypoxic hippocampal cells could not improve cell viability or alter pAMPKα1 and pAMPKα2 expression. Rats administered with salidroside showed elevated expression of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein in the hippocampus. Salidroside administration also resulted in increased sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activity through a cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1)-regulated mechanism that was independent of pIRA. Taken together, these findings suggest a synergistic role of pIRA and SIRT1 in salidroside-mediated neuroprotection, mitochondrial biogenesis, and cognitive improvement during hypoxia. We propose a novel mechanism for salidroside-mediated neuroprotection in hypoxia. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  15. The Effect of Programmable Tactile Displays on Spatial Learning Skills in Children and Adolescents of Different Visual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Fabrizio; Cocchi, Elena; Brayda, Luca

    2017-07-01

    Vision loss has severe impacts on physical, social and emotional well-being. The education of blind children poses issues as many scholar disciplines (e.g., geometry, mathematics) are normally taught by heavily relying on vision. Touch-based assistive technologies are potential tools to provide graphical contents to blind users, improving learning possibilities and social inclusion. Raised-lines drawings are still the golden standard, but stimuli cannot be reconfigured or adapted and the blind person constantly requires assistance. Although much research concerns technological development, little work concerned the assessment of programmable tactile graphics, in educative and rehabilitative contexts. Here we designed, on programmable tactile displays, tests aimed at assessing spatial memory skills and shapes recognition abilities. Tests involved a group of blind and a group of low vision children and adolescents in a four-week longitudinal schedule. After establishing subject-specific difficulty levels, we observed a significant enhancement of performance across sessions and for both groups. Learning effects were comparable to raised paper control tests: however, our setup required minimal external assistance. Overall, our results demonstrate that programmable maps are an effective way to display graphical contents in educative/rehabilitative contexts. They can be at least as effective as traditional paper tests yet providing superior flexibility and versatility.

  16. Mayo's Older Americans Normative Studies: Age- and IQ-Adjusted Norms for the Auditory Verbal Learning Test and the Visual Spatial Learning Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Brett A; Bieliauskas, Linas A; Smith, Glenn E; Ivnik, Robert J; Malec, James F

    2005-01-01

    Although normative data sets for standardized neuropsychometric instruments frequently feature adjustments for subject variables, there are reasons to believe that improvements in interpretive accuracy that result from such adjustments are less than optimal. In particular, years of education may be less closely associated with test performances than is overall intellectual functioning. In this last of four reanalyses of results from the Mayo Clinic's Older Americans Normative Studies (MOANS) databases, age-adjusted scores for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and the Visual Spatial Learning Test were found to be more strongly related to Mayo age-adjusted WAIS-R Full Scale IQ scores (rs=.150 to .395) than to education (rs=.060 to .236) for healthy older examinees between 56 and 99 years of age. Although AVLT-FSIQ correlations were greatest at moderate levels of intelligence, VSLT-FSIQ correlations consistently increased in strength as intelligence increased (cf. Dodrill, 19971999). Based on these results, we present tables of age- and IQ-adjusted percentile equivalents of Mayo age-adjusted AVLT index scores and MOANS age-adjusted AVLT and VSLT scaled scores for ten age ranges and either seven (AVLT) or five (VSLT) IQ ranges.

  17. What could we learn about high energy particle physics from cosmological observations at largest spatial scales ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The very well known example of cosmology testing particle physics is the number of relativistic particles (photons and three active neutrinos within the Standard Model at primordial nucleosynthesis. These days the earliest moment we can hope to probe with present cosmological data is the early time inflation. The particle physics conditions there and now are different because of different energy scales and different values of the scalar fields, that usually prohibits a reliable connection between the particle physics parameters at the two interesting epochs. The physics at the highest energy scales may be probed with observations at the largest spatial scales (just somewhat smaller than the size of the visible Universe. However, we are not (yet ready to make the tests realistic, because of lack of a self-consistent theoretical description of the presently favorite cosmological models to be valid right after inflation.

  18. Deficits in spatial learning and motor coordination in ADAM11-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamazaki Kazuto

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ADAM11 is a member of the ADAM gene family and is mainly expressed in the nervous system. It is thought to be an adhesion molecule, since it has a disintegrin-like domain related to cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. To elucidate the physiological functions of ADAM11, we generated ADAM11-deficient mice by means of gene targeting. Results ADAM11-deficient mice were apparently normal, and survived more than one year with no major histological abnormalities in the brain or spinal cord. Because ADAM11 is highly expressed in the hippocampus and cerebellum, we have examined ADAM11 mutant mice for learning using visual and hidden water maze tasks, and their motor coordination using a rotating rod task. Our results showed that their visual water maze task results are normal, but the hidden water maze and rotating rod task skills are impaired in ADAM11-deficient mice. Conclusion Our results indicate that ADAM11 mutation does not affect cell migration and differentiation during development, but affects learning and motor coordination. Thus, ADAM11 might play an important signalling or structural role as a cell adhesion molecule at the synapse, and may thus participate in synaptic regulation underlying behavioural changes.

  19. Classifying spatially heterogeneous wetland communities using machine learning algorithms and spectral and textural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szantoi, Zoltan; Escobedo, Francisco J; Abd-Elrahman, Amr; Pearlstine, Leonard; Dewitt, Bon; Smith, Scot

    2015-05-01

    Mapping of wetlands (marsh vs. swamp vs. upland) is a common remote sensing application.Yet, discriminating between similar freshwater communities such as graminoid/sedge fromremotely sensed imagery is more difficult. Most of this activity has been performed using medium to low resolution imagery. There are only a few studies using highspatial resolutionimagery and machine learning image classification algorithms for mapping heterogeneouswetland plantcommunities. This study addresses this void by analyzing whether machine learning classifierssuch as decisiontrees (DT) and artificial neural networks (ANN) can accurately classify graminoid/sedgecommunities usinghigh resolution aerial imagery and image texture data in the Everglades National Park, Florida.In addition tospectral bands, the normalized difference vegetation index, and first- and second-order texturefeatures derivedfrom the near-infrared band were analyzed. Classifier accuracies were assessed using confusiontablesand the calculated kappa coefficients of the resulting maps. The results indicated that an ANN(multilayerperceptron based on backpropagation) algorithm produced a statistically significantly higheraccuracy(82.04%) than the DT (QUEST) algorithm (80.48%) or the maximum likelihood (80.56%)classifier (α<0.05). Findings show that using multiple window sizes provided the best results. First-ordertexture featuresalso provided computational advantages and results that were not significantly different fromthose usingsecond-order texture features.

  20. N-acetyl cysteine supplementation prevents impairment of spatial working memory functions in rats following exposure to hypobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, K; Singh, S B; Kalpana, B; Sairam, M; Muthuraju, S; Ilavazhagan, G

    2007-11-23

    Exposure to high altitude (HA), especially extreme altitude, is associated with impairment of cognitive functions including memory and increased oxidative stress. However, the underlying mechanisms involved are not well understood. It is hypothesized that HA induced oxidative stress may be one of the factors underlying hypoxia induced memory impairment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hypobaric hypoxia (HH) on spatial working and reference memory functions, oxidative stress markers in rats and effect of supplementation of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). The rats were divided into four groups. Group I served as normoxic (n=6), Group II served as hypoxic (n=6), Group III as hypoxia group treated with NAC (n=6) and Group IV served as normoxic group treated with NAC (n=6). Group II & III were exposed to HH for 3 days equivalent to 6100 m and received oral NAC supplementation (750 mg/kg) daily. Rats from all the groups were trained in Morris Water Maze (MWM) task for 8 consecutive days. Spatial working and reference memory were tested immediately after the termination of HH and then the rats were sacrificed for estimation of oxidative stress markers in hippocampus. Rats displayed significant deficits in spatial working memory, and increased oxidative stress along with decrease in antioxidant status on hypoxic exposure. Supplementation with NAC in hypoxia-exposed group improved spatial memory performance, and decreased oxidative stress. These findings indicate that hypoxic exposure is associated with increased oxidative stress, which may have caused memory deficit in rats exposed to simulated HA.

  1. The Association Between Effective Dose of Magnesium and Mild Compulsive Exercise on Spatial Learning, Memory, and Motor Activity of Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizade Ghonsulakandi, Shahnaz; Sheikh, Mahmuod; Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Marzieh; Chopani, Samira; Naghdi, Nasser

    2017-08-01

    One of the most important survival mechanisms is learning and memory processes. To emphasize the role of physical exercises and magnesium (Mg) in improvement of cognitive performance, we planned to investigate the effect of Mg and mild compulsive exercise on spatial learning and memory of adult male rats. Accordingly, we divided male Wistar rats into four groups: (I) control, (II) Mg treatment, (III) exercise, and (IV) Mg-exercise in the different dosages of Mg (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mmol/kbw) were injected in the form of gavage during 1 week. Also, 1-week mild running on treadmill was used for exercise treatment. The Morris water maze (MWM) test and open field tool were used to evaluate spatial learning, memory, and motor activity, respectively. Our results clearly showed that 1 mmol/kbw Mg was applied as an effective dosage. Strikingly, 1-week mild exercise on treadmill had no significant effect on spatial motor activity, learning, and memory. Feeding 1 mmol/kbw Mg for a week showed a significant difference in learning and exploration stages. Compared to control animals, these results reveal exercise and Mg simultaneously had effect on learning and reminding. As a consequence, although mild exercise had no effect on motor activity and memory, Mg intake improved spatial learning, memory, and locomotor activity. The Mg feeding could be a promising supplemental treatment in the neurodegenerative disease. It is worthwhile to mention consumption of Mg leads to enhancement of memory, so animals find the hidden platform with the highest velocity.

  2. Learning linear spatial-numeric associations improves accuracy of memory for numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Ann Thompson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Memory for numbers improves with age and experience. One potential source of improvement is a logarithmic-to-linear shift in children’s representations of magnitude. To test this, Kindergartners and second graders estimated the location of numbers on number lines and recalled numbers presented in vignettes (Study 1. Accuracy at number-line estimation predicted memory accuracy on a numerical recall task after controlling for the effect of age and ability to approximately order magnitudes (mapper status. To test more directly whether linear numeric magnitude representations caused improvements in memory, half of children were given feedback on their number-line estimates (Study 2. As expected, learning linear representations was again linked to memory for numerical information even after controlling for age and mapper status. These results suggest that linear representations of numerical magnitude may be a causal factor in development of numeric recall accuracy.

  3. Repeated injections of piracetam improve spatial learning and increase the stimulation of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis by excitatory amino acids in aged rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canonico, P. L.; Aronica, E.; Aleppo, G.; Casabona, G.; Copani, A.; Favit, A.; Nicoletti, F.; Scapagnini, U.

    1991-01-01

    Repeated injections of piracetam (400 mg/kg, i.p. once a day for 15 days) to 16-month old rats led to an improved performance on an 8-arm radial maze, used as a test for spatial learning. This effect was accompanied by a greater ability of excitatory amino acids (ibotenate and glutamate) to

  4. A theoretical analysis of spatial/temporal modulation-based systems for prevention of illegal recordings in movie theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Pascal; Thiebaud, Sylvain; Doyen, Didier

    2008-02-01

    This document proposes a convenient theoretical analysis of light modulation-based systems for prevention of illegal recordings in movie theaters. Although the works presented in this paper do not solve the problem of camcorder piracy, people in the security community may find them interesting for further work in this area.

  5. The Information Seeking Interface with Spatial Icons for the Children Digital-learning Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    吳可久、林佳蓉、陳泓均、柯皓仁 Ko-Chiu Wu,Chia-Jung Lin,Hung-Chun Chen,Hao-Ren Ke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this age of information technology, children must develop the ability to search digital databases.However, the information-seeking behavior and cognitive abilities associated with language and images differ substantially between children and adults. Therefore there is an urgent need foran information-searching interface customized for children. Drawing on the design of computer games, we created a three-dimensional (3D human-computer interface (HCI. Children’s experience playing computer games can therefore inform way-finding and information-seeking behavior inthis spatially-oriented interface. Three types of HCI were developed: a 2D graphic hyperlink (GH,a 3D extended survey (ES, and a 3D extended route (ER. These were tested for efficiency, effectiveness, and time of operation by one-way analysis of variance. Our results indicated that children behave differently on the various interfaces. The proposed HCI is a helpful tool offering children a knowledge map that enables them to search for the information they need. Our results demonstrate that information visualization theory and concept association are topics worthy offurther study in the development of a child-oriented information-seeking interface. pp. 51-65

  6. Green Infrastructure, Climate Change and Spatial Planning: Learning Lessons Across Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Samora-Arvela

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will further induce a generalized rise in temperature, heat waves, exacerbation of heat island effect, alteration of the precipitation regime variability with higher occurrence of high precipitation and flood events, reduction of quantity and quality of freshwater resources, disruption of agricultural production, leading to food security risk, degradation of recreational and aesthetic amenities, and loss of biodiversity. On other hand, Green Infrastructure, that is, the network of natural and semi-natural spaces within and around urban spaces, brings a constructive and protecting element that may mitigate and adapt to the local level impacts of climate change, strengthening local resilience. This paper presents a comparative study of various green infrastructures’ implementation based on analytics in the United States of America, United Kingdom and Portugal, and focuses on the degree of its alignment with the public policies of mitigation and adaptation to the impacts of climate change. Pursuant to the identification of successes and failures, this paper infers common strategies, goals and benchmarking on outcomes for more adequate decision implementation and sustainable spatial planning, considering the importance of green infrastructure.

  7. Differentiation of Forebrain and Hippocampal Dopamine 1-Class Receptors, D1R and D5R, in Spatial Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariñana, Joshua; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    Activation of prefrontal cortical (PFC), striatal, and hippocampal dopamine 1-class receptors (D1R and D5R) is necessary for normal spatial information processing. Yet the precise role of the D1R versus the D5R in the aforementioned structures, and their specific contribution to the water-maze spatial learning task remains unknown. D1R- and D5R- specific in situ hybridization probes showed that forebrain restricted D1R and D5R KO mice (F-D1R/D5R KO) displayed D1R mRNA deletion in the medial (m)PFC, dorsal and ventral striatum, and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. D5R mRNA deletion was limited to the mPFC, the CA1 and DG hippocampal subregions. F-D1R/D5R KO mice were given water-maze training and displayed subtle spatial latency differences between genotypes and spatial memory deficits during both regular and reversal training. To differentiate forebrain D1R from D5R activation, forebrain restricted D1R KO (F-D1R KO) and D5R KO (F-D5R KO) mice were trained on the water-maze task. F-D1R KO animals exhibited escape latency deficits throughout regular and reversal training as well as spatial memory deficits during reversal training. F-D1R KO mice also showed perseverative behavior during the reversal spatial memory probe test. In contrast, F-D5R KO animals did not present observable deficits on the water-maze task. Because F-D1R KO mice showed water-maze deficits we tested the necessity of hippocampal D1R activation for spatial learning and memory. We trained DG restricted D1R KO (DG-D1R KO) mice on the water-maze task. DG-D1R KO mice did not present detectable spatial memory deficit, but did show subtle deficits during specific days of training. Our data provides evidence that forebrain D5R activation plays a unique role in spatial learning and memory in conjunction with D1R activation. Moreover, these data suggest that mPFC and striatal, but not DG D1R activation are essential for spatial learning and memory. PMID:26174222

  8. A mid-life vitamin A supplementation prevents age-related spatial memory deficits and hippocampal neurogenesis alterations through CRABP-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touyarot, Katia; Bonhomme, Damien; Roux, Pascale; Alfos, Serge; Lafenêtre, Pauline; Richard, Emmanuel; Higueret, Paul; Pallet, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Age-related memory decline including spatial reference memory is considered to begin at middle-age and coincides with reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, a dysfunction of vitamin A hippocampal signalling pathway has been involved in the appearance of age-related memory deficits but also in adult hippocampal neurogenesis alterations. The present study aims at testing the hypothesis that a mid-life vitamin A supplementation would be a successful strategy to prevent age-related memory deficits. Thus, middle-aged Wistar rats were submitted to a vitamin A enriched diet and were tested 4 months later in a spatial memory task. In order to better understand the potential mechanisms mediating the effects of vitamin A supplementation on hippocampal functions, we studied different aspects of hippocampal adult neurogenesis and evaluated hippocampal CRABP-I expression, known to modulate differentiation processes. Here, we show that vitamin A supplementation from middle-age enhances spatial memory and improves the dendritic arborisation of newborn immature neurons probably resulting in a better survival and neuronal differentiation in aged rats. Moreover, our results suggest that hippocampal CRABP-I expression which controls the intracellular availability of retinoic acid (RA), may be an important regulator of neuronal differentiation processes in the aged hippocampus. Thus, vitamin A supplementation from middle-age could be a good strategy to maintain hippocampal plasticity and functions.

  9. Spatial and Functional Organization of Pig Trade in Different European Production Systems: Implications for Disease Prevention and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relun, Anne; Grosbois, Vladimir; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Feliziani, Francesco; Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Molia, Sophie; Etter, Eric Marcel Charles; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the complexity of live pig trade organization is a key factor to predict and control major infectious diseases, such as classical swine fever (CSF) or African swine fever (ASF). Whereas the organization of pig trade has been described in several European countries with indoor commercial production systems, little information is available on this organization in other systems, such as outdoor or small-scale systems. The objective of this study was to describe and compare the spatial and functional organization of live pig trade in different European countries and different production systems. Data on premise characteristics and pig movements between premises were collected during 2011 from Bulgaria, France, Italy, and Spain, which swine industry is representative of most of the production systems in Europe (i.e., commercial vs. small-scale and outdoor vs. indoor). Trade communities were identified in each country using the Walktrap algorithm. Several descriptive and network metrics were generated at country and community levels. Pig trade organization showed heterogeneous spatial and functional organization. Trade communities mostly composed of indoor commercial premises were identified in western France, northern Italy, northern Spain, and north-western Bulgaria. They covered large distances, overlapped in space, demonstrated both scale-free and small-world properties, with a role of trade operators and multipliers as key premises. Trade communities involving outdoor commercial premises were identified in western Spain, south-western and central France. They were more spatially clustered, demonstrated scale-free properties, with multipliers as key premises. Small-scale communities involved the majority of premises in Bulgaria and in central and Southern Italy. They were spatially clustered and had scale-free properties, with key premises usually being commercial production premises. These results indicate that a disease might spread very differently

  10. Spatial and functional organization of pig trade in different european production systems: implications for disease prevention and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eRelun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the complexity of live pig trade organization is a key factor to predict and control major infectious diseases such as Classical or African swine fever. Whereas the organization of pig trade has been described in several European countries with indoor commercial production systems, little information is available on this organisation in other systems like outdoor or small-scale systems. The objective of this study was to describe and compare the spatial and functional organisation of live pig trade in different European countries and different production systems. Data on premise characteristics and pig movements between premises were collected during 2011 from Bulgaria, France, Italy and Spain, which swine industry is representative of most of the production systems in Europe (i.e. commercial vs small-scale; outdoor vs indoor. Trade communities were identified in each country using the Walktrap algorithm. Several descriptive and network metrics were generated at country and community level. Pig trade organization showed heterogeneous spatial and functional organization. Trade communities mostly composed of indoor commercial premises were identified in Western France, Northern Italy, Northern Spain and North-Western Bulgaria. They covered large distances, overlapped in space, demonstrated both scale-free and small-world properties, with a role of trade operators and multipliers as key premises. Trade communities involving outdoor commercial premises were identified in Western Spain, South-Western and Central France. They were more spatially clustered, demonstrated scale-free properties, with multipliers as key premises. Small-scale communities involved the majority of premises in Bulgaria and in central and Southern Italy. They were spatially clustered and had scale-free properties, with key premises usually being commercial production premises. These results indicate that a disease might spread very differently according to the

  11. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice exhibit increased vulnerability to intermittent hypoxia-induced spatial learning deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, Leila; Row, Barry W; Li, Richard C; Brittian, Kenneth R; Gozal, David

    2005-11-01

    Exposure to intermittent hypoxia, such as occurs in sleep-disordered breathing, is associated with oxidative stress, cognitive impairments, and increased neuronal apoptosis in brain regions involved in learning and memory. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders, and in vitro studies suggest that one of the functions of ApoE may be to confer protection from oxidant stress-induced neuronal cell loss. Therefore, we hypothesized that ApoE-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice would display increased cognitive impairments following intermittent hypoxia. Twenty-four young adult male mice (ApoE-/-) and 24 wild-type littermates (ApoE +/+) were exposed to 14 days of normoxia (room air; n=12 per group) or intermittent hypoxia (5.7% O2 alternating with 21% O2 every 90 seconds, 12 daylight hours per day; n=12 per group). Behavioral testing consisting of a standard place-training reference memory task in the water maze revealed that ApoE+/+ and ApoE-/- mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia were found to require significantly longer times (latency) and distances (pathlength) to locate the hidden platform (P hypoxia-exposed ApoE-/- mice were impaired on the final two days of training (P E2 and malondiadehyde concentrations were present in hippocampal brain tissues following intermittent hypoxia but were significantly higher in ApoE-/- mice (P breathing and may underlie the increased prevalence of Apolipoprotein E4 in patients with sleep-disordered breathing.

  12. Paediatric Patient Safety and the Need for Aviation Black Box Thinking to Learn From and Prevent Medication Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Chi; Wong, Ian C K; Correa-West, Jo; Terry, David; McCarthy, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Since the publication of To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System in 1999, there has been much research conducted into the epidemiology, nature and causes of medication errors in children, from prescribing and supply to administration. It is reassuring to see growing evidence of improving medication safety in children; however, based on media reports, it can be seen that serious and fatal medication errors still occur. This critical opinion article examines the problem of medication errors in children and provides recommendations for research, training of healthcare professionals and a culture shift towards dealing with medication errors. There are three factors that we need to consider to unravel what is missing and why fatal medication errors still occur. (1) Who is involved and affected by the medication error? (2) What factors hinder staff and organisations from learning from mistakes? Does the fear of litigation and criminal charges deter healthcare professionals from voluntarily reporting medication errors? (3) What are the educational needs required to prevent medication errors? It is important to educate future healthcare professionals about medication errors and human factors to prevent these from happening. Further research is required to apply aviation's 'black box' principles in healthcare to record and learn from near misses and errors to prevent future events. There is an urgent need for the black box investigations to be published and made public for the benefit of other organisations that may have similar potential risks for adverse events. International sharing of investigations and learning is also needed.

  13. The efficacy of an e-learning prevention program for substance use among adolescents with intellectual disabilities: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewik, Marion; VanDerNagel, Joanne E L; Engels, Rutger C M E; DeJong, Cor A

    2017-04-01

    Adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) are at risk for tobacco and alcohol use, yet little or no prevention programs are available for this group. 'Prepared on time' is an e-learning program based on the attitude - social influence - efficacy model originally developed for fifth and sixth grades of mainstream primary schools. The goals of this study were (1) to examine the lifetime use of tobacco and alcohol among this target group and (2) to gain a first impression of the efficacy of 'Prepared on time' among 12-16-year old students with moderate or mild ID (MMID). Students form three secondary special-needs schools were assigned to the experimental (e-learning) group (n=37) or the control group (n=36). Pre-intervention and follow-up data (3 weeks after completion) were gathered using semi-structured interviews inquiring about substance use among students with MMID and the behavioral determinants of attitude, subjective norm, modelling, intention, and knowledge. The lifetime tobacco use and alcohol consumption rates in our sample were 25% and 59%, respectively. The e-learning program had a positive effect on the influence of modelling of classmates and friends. No significant effects were found on other behavioral determinants and knowledge. A substantial proportion of adolescents with MMID in secondary special-needs schools use tobacco or alcohol. This study showed that an e-learning prevention program can be feasible for adolescents with MMID. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevention of landfill pollution by multicriteria spatial decision support systems (MC-SDSS): development, implementation, and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshand, Afshin; Bafrani, Ali Hasani; Zahedipour, Mohammad; Mirbagheri, Seyed Ahmad; Ehtehsami, Majid

    2018-03-01

    Landfilling of municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the serious environmental concerns as improper location of MSW landfill site can release the pollutants into the surrounding environment. The process of selecting MSW landfill site is a complicated decision making problem since it is subjected to simultaneous assessment of several environmental criteria, rules, and restrictions besides sociocultural and economic ones. The current study suggests a framework based on Multicriteria spatial decision support systems (MC-SDSS) to select landfill site. The MC-SDSS is an advanced method to integrate multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and geographical information systems (GIS) techniques. This approach enables the incorporation of several conflicting objectives and preferences into spatial decision models. In this study, 14 criteria were chosen and then divided into environmental, sociocultural, and economic categories. Finally, suitability maps were generated based on the MC-SDSS analysis. The developed method was implemented in a real case study in Arak city in northwestern region of Iran, which is environmentally sensitive area. The suitability maps of the case study in Arak showed that 10% (391 km 2 ) is least suitable area, 23% (942 km 2 ) is low suitable, 37% (1507 km 2 ) is moderate suitable, 19% (783 km 2 ) is suitable, and 11% (489 km 2 ) is most suitable locations for landfill site, and finally, three best alternative sites were introduced for the final landfill site.

  15. Mapping the spatial variability of HIV infection in Sub-Saharan Africa: Effective information for localized HIV prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, Diego F; Li, Jingjing; Branscum, Adam J; Akullian, Adam; Jia, Peng; Mziray, Elizabeth N; Tanser, Frank

    2017-08-22

    Under the premise that in a resource-constrained environment such as Sub-Saharan Africa it is not possible to do everything, to everyone, everywhere, detailed geographical knowledge about the HIV epidemic becomes essential to tailor programmatic responses to specific local needs. However, the design and evaluation of national HIV programs often rely on aggregated national level data. Against this background, here we proposed a model to produce high-resolution maps of intranational estimates of HIV prevalence in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania based on spatial variables. The HIV prevalence maps generated highlight the stark spatial disparities in the epidemic within a country, and localize areas where both the burden and drivers of the HIV epidemic are concentrated. Under an era focused on optimal allocation of evidence-based interventions for populations at greatest risk in areas of greatest HIV burden, as proposed by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), such maps provide essential information that strategically targets geographic areas and populations where resources can achieve the greatest impact.

  16. Spatiotemporal prediction of continuous daily PM2.5 concentrations across China using a spatially explicit machine learning algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yu; Luo, Yuzhou; Deng, Xunfei; Chen, Huajin; Grieneisen, Michael L.; Shen, Xueyou; Zhu, Lizhong; Zhang, Minghua

    2017-04-01

    A high degree of uncertainty associated with the emission inventory for China tends to degrade the performance of chemical transport models in predicting PM2.5 concentrations especially on a daily basis. In this study a novel machine learning algorithm, Geographically-Weighted Gradient Boosting Machine (GW-GBM), was developed by improving GBM through building spatial smoothing kernels to weigh the loss function. This modification addressed the spatial nonstationarity of the relationships between PM2.5 concentrations and predictor variables such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and meteorological conditions. GW-GBM also overcame the estimation bias of PM2.5 concentrations due to missing AOD retrievals, and thus potentially improved subsequent exposure analyses. GW-GBM showed good performance in predicting daily PM2.5 concentrations (R2 = 0.76, RMSE = 23.0 μg/m3) even with partially missing AOD data, which was better than the original GBM model (R2 = 0.71, RMSE = 25.3 μg/m3). On the basis of the continuous spatiotemporal prediction of PM2.5 concentrations, it was predicted that 95% of the population lived in areas where the estimated annual mean PM2.5 concentration was higher than 35 μg/m3, and 45% of the population was exposed to PM2.5 >75 μg/m3 for over 100 days in 2014. GW-GBM accurately predicted continuous daily PM2.5 concentrations in China for assessing acute human health effects.

  17. Sex differences in the strategies of spatial learning in prenatally-exposed rats treated with various drugs in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macúchová, Eva; Nohejlová, Kateryna; Ševčíková, Mária; Hrebíčková, Ivana; Šlamberová, Romana

    2017-06-01

    In the present study we investigated the sex differences in the effect of adult long-term drug treatment on cognitive functions of Wistar rats, which were prenatally exposed to MA (5mg/kg) or saline. Cognitive functions were tested as an ability of spatial learning in the Morris Water Maze (MWM), which consisted of three types of tests: "Place Navigation Test"; "Probe Test", and "Memory Recall Test". Adult animals were injected daily, after completion of the last trial, either with saline or cocaine (COC; 5mg/kg), MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine; 5mg/kg), morphine (MOR; 5mg/kg), or delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; 2mg/kg). Results revealed worsened MWM performance in female rats after drug treatment in adulthood. Not only were traditionally investigated parameters affected by drug treatment (latency of platform acquisition, search strategy, distance traveled), but also strategies used by animals (thigmotaxis, scanning). Analyses of search strategies observed in the Place Navigation Test, as well as in the Memory Recall Test, demonstrated variations in the percentage of time spent in thigmotaxis and scanning in females after treatment with COC, MDMA, MOR, and THC. Although we did not see a sensitizing effect of prenatal MA, in some cases the effect of drug treatment in adulthood differed depending on the prenatal drug exposure. The data presented in this study demonstrates that exposure to drugs with various mechanisms of action alters spatial abilities of female rats in the MWM. Alterations in the effect of adult drug treatment with reference to prenatal drug exposure were also found in the present study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Loss of FMRP Impaired Hippocampal Long-Term Plasticity and Spatial Learning in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonglu Tian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the FMR1 gene that inactivate expression of the gene product, the fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP. In this study, we used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9 technology to generate Fmr1 knockout (KO rats by disruption of the fourth exon of the Fmr1 gene. Western blotting analysis confirmed that the FMRP was absent from the brains of the Fmr1 KO rats (Fmr1exon4-KO. Electrophysiological analysis revealed that the theta-burst stimulation (TBS–induced long-term potentiation (LTP and the low-frequency stimulus (LFS–induced long-term depression (LTD were decreased in the hippocampal Schaffer collateral pathway of the Fmr1exon4-KO rats. Short-term plasticity, measured as the paired-pulse ratio, remained normal in the KO rats. The synaptic strength mediated by the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR was also impaired. Consistent with previous reports, the Fmr1exon4-KO rats demonstrated an enhanced 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG–induced LTD in the present study, and this enhancement is insensitive to protein translation. In addition, the Fmr1exon4-KO rats showed deficits in the probe trial in the Morris water maze test. These results demonstrate that deletion of the Fmr1 gene in rats specifically impairs long-term synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning in a manner resembling the key symptoms of FXS. Furthermore, the Fmr1exon4-KO rats displayed impaired social interaction and macroorchidism, the results consistent with those observed in patients with FXS. Thus, Fmr1exon4-KO rats constitute a novel rat model of FXS that complements existing mouse models.

  19. The Promise of Multimedia Technology for STI/HIV Prevention: Frameworks for Understanding Improved Facilitator Delivery and Participant Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, Matthew W.; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard, Dawn; Hunt, Timothy; Sarfo, Bright; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing excitement about multi-media sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV prevention interventions, yet there has been limited discussion of how use of multimedia technology may improve STI/HIV prevention efforts. The purpose of this paper is to describe the mechanisms through which multimedia technology may work to improve the delivery and uptake of intervention material. We present conceptual frameworks describing how multimedia technology may improve intervention delivery by increasing standardization and fidelity to the intervention material and the participant’s ability to learn by improving attention, cognition, emotional engagement, skills-building, and uptake of sensitive material about sexual and drug risks. In addition, we describe how the non-multimedia behavioral STI/HIV prevention intervention, Project WORTH, was adapted into a multimedia format for women involved in the criminal justice system and provide examples of how multimedia activities can more effectively target key mediators of behavioral change in this intervention. PMID:22223296

  20. The promise of multimedia technology for STI/HIV prevention: frameworks for understanding improved facilitator delivery and participant learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Maria R; Epperson, Matthew W; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard, Dawn; Hunt, Timothy; Sarfo, Bright; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2012-10-01

    There is increasing excitement about multimedia sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV prevention interventions, yet there has been limited discussion of how use of multimedia technology may improve STI/HIV prevention efforts. The purpose of this paper is to describe the mechanisms through which multimedia technology may work to improve the delivery and uptake of intervention material. We present conceptual frameworks describing how multimedia technology may improve intervention delivery by increasing standardization and fidelity to the intervention material and the participant's ability to learn by improving attention, cognition, emotional engagement, skills-building, and uptake of sensitive material about sexual and drug risks. In addition, we describe how the non-multimedia behavioral STI/HIV prevention intervention, Project WORTH, was adapted into a multimedia format for women involved in the criminal justice system and provide examples of how multimedia activities can more effectively target key mediators of behavioral change in this intervention.

  1. A virtual reality task based on animal research – spatial learning and memory in patients after the first episode of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajnerová, Iveta; Rodriguez, Mabel; Levčík, David; Konrádová, Lucie; Mikoláš, Pavol; Brom, Cyril; Stuchlík, Aleš; Vlček, Kamil; Horáček, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Cognitive deficit is considered to be a characteristic feature of schizophrenia disorder. A similar cognitive dysfunction was demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia. However, the poor comparability of methods used to assess cognition in animals and humans could be responsible for low predictive validity of current animal models. In order to assess spatial abilities in schizophrenia and compare our results with the data obtained in animal models, we designed a virtual analog of the Morris water maze (MWM), the virtual Four Goals Navigation (vFGN) task. Methods: Twenty-nine patients after the first psychotic episode with schizophrenia symptoms and a matched group of healthy volunteers performed the vFGN task. They were required to find and remember four hidden goal positions in an enclosed virtual arena. The task consisted of two parts. The Reference memory (RM) session with a stable goal position was designed to test spatial learning. The Delayed-matching-to-place (DMP) session presented a modified working memory protocol designed to test the ability to remember a sequence of three hidden goal positions. Results: Data obtained in the RM session show impaired spatial learning in schizophrenia patients compared to the healthy controls in pointing and navigation accuracy. The DMP session showed impaired spatial memory in schizophrenia during the recall of spatial sequence and a similar deficit in spatial bias in the probe trials. The pointing accuracy and the quadrant preference showed higher sensitivity toward the cognitive deficit than the navigation accuracy. Direct navigation to the goal was affected by sex and age of the tested subjects. The age affected spatial performance only in healthy controls. Conclusions: Despite some limitations of the study, our results correspond well with the previous studies in animal models of schizophrenia and support the decline of spatial cognition in schizophrenia, indicating the usefulness of the vFGN task in

  2. Repeated corticosterone injections in adult mice alter stress hormonal receptor expression in the cerebellum and motor coordination without affecting spatial learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlé, Guillaume; Lalonde, Robert; Fonte, Coralie; Ropars, Armelle; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Strazielle, Catherine

    2017-05-30

    Receptors for glucocorticoid (GR) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) are largely found in brain sensorimotor structures, particularly in cerebellum, underlining a potential role of stress hormones in the regulation of motor function. Since CRH is involved in neuroplasticity, known for its trophic effect on synapses, we investigated how manipulations in corticosterone serum levels can modulate the CRH system in the cerebellum and affect motor coordination. Corticosterone at doses of either 15 or 30mg/kg was injected in mice and the status of hormonal expression evaluated in cerebellum, hippocampus, and hypothalamus in undisturbed housing conditions or after different behavioral tests. Under both conditions, metabolic activity in numerous brain regions involved in motor functions and emotion was measured by means of cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity labeling. After six consecutive days of corticosterone administration, CRH-R1 transcription was downregulated in hypothalamic and cerebellar regions and hypometabolic changes were observed in mice treated with the higher dose for several limbic and sensorimotor circuitries, notably basal ganglia, deep cerebellar nuclei, and red nucleus. Corticosterone did not modify motor activity, anxiety, and spatial orientation, but decreased latencies before falling from the rotorod and prevented mice from reaching targets in the coat-hanger test. In addition, COX activities were similar to control mice except in ventromedial thalamus and dorsal neostriatum, possibly indicating that physical activity protected brain energy metabolism against the stress hormone. The present findings showed that the CRH/CRH-R1 system might play a role in mediating the effects of stress on cerebellar function, affecting especially motor learning tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Geospatial cryptography: enabling researchers to access private, spatially referenced, human subjects data for cancer control and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Essex, Aleksander; Curtis, Andrew; Kohler, Betsy; Sherman, Recinda; Emam, Khaled El; Shi, Chen; Kaufmann, Andy; Beale, Linda; Cusick, Thomas; Goldberg, Daniel; Goovaerts, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    As the volume, accuracy and precision of digital geographic information have increased, concerns regarding individual privacy and confidentiality have come to the forefront. Not only do these challenge a basic tenet underlying the advancement of science by posing substantial obstacles to the sharing of data to validate research results, but they are obstacles to conducting certain research projects in the first place. Geospatial cryptography involves the specification, design, implementation and application of cryptographic techniques to address privacy, confidentiality and security concerns for geographically referenced data. This article defines geospatial cryptography and demonstrates its application in cancer control and surveillance. Four use cases are considered: (1) national-level de-duplication among state or province-based cancer registries; (2) sharing of confidential data across cancer registries to support case aggregation across administrative geographies; (3) secure data linkage; and (4) cancer cluster investigation and surveillance. A secure multi-party system for geospatial cryptography is developed. Solutions under geospatial cryptography are presented and computation time is calculated. As services provided by cancer registries to the research community, de-duplication, case aggregation across administrative geographies and secure data linkage are often time-consuming and in some instances precluded by confidentiality and security concerns. Geospatial cryptography provides secure solutions that hold significant promise for addressing these concerns and for accelerating the pace of research with human subjects data residing in our nation's cancer registries. Pursuit of the research directions posed herein conceivably would lead to a geospatially encrypted geographic information system (GEGIS) designed specifically to promote the sharing and spatial analysis of confidential data. Geospatial cryptography holds substantial promise for accelerating the

  4. Physical exercise counteracts MPTP-induced changes in neural precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus and restores spatial learning but not memory performance in the water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, C; Rasińska, J; Empl, L; Sparenberg, M; Poshtiban, A; Hain, E G; Iggena, D; Rivalan, M; Winter, Y; Steiner, B

    2016-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a continuous loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, which not only leads to characteristic motor symptoms but also to cognitive impairments. Physical exercise has been shown to improve hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions in PD patients. Animal studies have demonstrated the involvement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in exercise-induced improvements of visuo-spatial learning and memory. Here, we investigated the direct impact of voluntary wheel running on hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) using the1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. We also analyzed striatal and hippocampal dopamine transmission and mRNA expression levels of dopamine receptors. We show that MPTP-induced spatial learning deficits were alleviated by short-term physical exercise but not MPTP-induced spatial memory impairments in either exercise intervention group. Neural precursor proliferation was transiently altered in MPTP-treated mice, while the cell survival was increased by exercise. Dopamine was progressively depleted by MPTP and its turnover altered by exercise. In addition, gene expression of dopamine receptor D1/D5 was transiently upregulated following MPTP treatment but not affected by physical exercise. Our findings suggest that physical exercise benefits spatial learning but not memory performance in the MWM after MPTP-induced dopamine depletion by restoring precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus and influencing dopamine transmission. This adds to the understanding of cognitive decline and mechanisms for potential improvements by physical exercise in PD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Patients and families as teachers: a mixed methods assessment of a collaborative learning model for medical error disclosure and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Thorsten; Martinez, William; Browning, David M; Varrin, Pamela; Sarnoff Lee, Barbara; Bell, Sigall K

    2016-08-01

    Despite growing interest in engaging patients and families (P/F) in patient safety education, little is known about how P/F can best contribute. We assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a patient-teacher medical error disclosure and prevention training model. We developed an educational intervention bringing together interprofessional clinicians with P/F from hospital advisory councils to discuss error disclosure and prevention. Patient focus groups and orientation sessions informed curriculum and assessment design. A pre-post survey with qualitative and quantitative questions was used to assess P/F and clinician experiences and attitudes about collaborative safety education including participant hopes, fears, perceived value of learning experience and challenges. Responses to open-ended questions were coded according to principles of content analysis. P/F and clinicians hoped to learn about each other's perspectives, communication skills and patient empowerment strategies. Before the intervention, both groups worried about power dynamics dampening effective interaction. Clinicians worried that P/F would learn about their fallibility, while P/F were concerned about clinicians' jargon and defensive posturing. Following workshops, clinicians valued patients' direct feedback, communication strategies for error disclosure and a 'real' learning experience. P/F appreciated clinicians' accountability, and insights into how medical errors affect clinicians. Half of participants found nothing challenging, the remainder clinicians cited emotions and enormity of 'culture change', while P/F commented on medical jargon and desire for more time. Patients and clinicians found the experience valuable. Recommendations about how to develop a patient-teacher programme in patient safety are provided. An educational paradigm that includes patients as teachers and collaborative learners with clinicians in patient safety is feasible, valued by clinicians and P/F and promising for

  6. Effects of Nano-MnO2 on Dopaminergic Neurons and the Spatial Learning Capability of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to observe the effect of intracerebrally injected nano-MnO2 on neurobehavior and the functions of dopaminergic neurons and astrocytes. Nano-MnO2, 6-OHDA, and saline (control were injected in the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area of Sprague-Dawley rat brains. The neurobehavior of rats was evaluated by Morris water maze test. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP expressions in rat brain were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results showed that the escape latencies of nano-MnO2 treated rat increased significantly compared with control. The number of TH-positive cells decreased, GFAP- and iNOS-positive cells increased significantly in the lesion side of the rat brains compared with the contralateral area in nano-MnO2 group. The same tendencies were observed in nano-MnO2-injected rat brains compared with control. However, in the the positive control, 6-OHDA group, escape latencies increased, TH-positive cell number decreased significantly compared with nano-MnO2 group. The alteration of spatial learning abilities of rats induced by nano-MnO2 may be associated with dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction and astrocyte activation.

  7. Spiking neurons in a hierarchical self-organizing map model can learn to develop spatial and temporal properties of entorhinal grid cells and hippocampal place cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K Pilly

    Full Text Available Medial entorhinal grid cells and hippocampal place cells provide neural correlates of spatial representation in the brain. A place cell typically fires whenever an animal is present in one or more spatial regions, or places, of an environment. A grid cell typically fires in multiple spatial regions that form a regular hexagonal grid structure extending throughout the environment. Different grid and place cells prefer spatially offset regions, with their firing fields increasing in size along the dorsoventral axes of the medial entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. The spacing between neighboring fields for a grid cell also increases along the dorsoventral axis. This article presents a neural model whose spiking neurons operate in a hierarchy of self-organizing maps, each obeying the same laws. This spiking GridPlaceMap model simulates how grid cells and place cells may develop. It responds to realistic rat navigational trajectories by learning grid cells with hexagonal grid firing fields of multiple spatial scales and place cells with one or more firing fields that match neurophysiological data about these cells and their development in juvenile rats. The place cells represent much larger spaces than the grid cells, which enable them to support navigational behaviors. Both self-organizing maps amplify and learn to categorize the most frequent and energetic co-occurrences of their inputs. The current results build upon a previous rate-based model of grid and place cell learning, and thus illustrate a general method for converting rate-based adaptive neural models, without the loss of any of their analog properties, into models whose cells obey spiking dynamics. New properties of the spiking GridPlaceMap model include the appearance of theta band modulation. The spiking model also opens a path for implementation in brain-emulating nanochips comprised of networks of noisy spiking neurons with multiple-level adaptive weights for controlling autonomous

  8. Nano-Sized Secondary Organic Aerosol of Diesel Engine Exhaust Origin Impairs Olfactory-Based Spatial Learning Performance in Preweaning Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin-Tin Win-Shwe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of our present study were to establish a novel olfactory-based spatial learning test and to examine the effects of exposure to nano-sized diesel exhaust-origin secondary organic aerosol (SOA, a model environmental pollutant, on the learning performance in preweaning mice. Pregnant BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air, diesel exhaust (DE, or DE-origin SOA (DE-SOA from gestational day 14 to postnatal day (PND 10 in exposure chambers. On PND 11, the preweaning mice were examined by the olfactory-based spatial learning test. After completion of the spatial learning test, the hippocampus from each mouse was removed and examined for the expressions of neurological and immunological markers using real-time RT-PCR. In the test phase of the study, the mice exposed to DE or DE-SOA took a longer time to reach the target as compared to the control mice. The expression levels of neurological markers such as the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR2B, and of immunological markers such as TNF-α, COX2, and Iba1 were significantly increased in the hippocampi of the DE-SOA-exposed preweaning mice as compared to the control mice. Our results indicate that DE-SOA exposure in utero and in the neonatal period may affect the olfactory-based spatial learning behavior in preweaning mice by modulating the expressions of memory function–related pathway genes and inflammatory markers in the hippocampus.

  9. Nano-Sized Secondary Organic Aerosol of Diesel Engine Exhaust Origin Impairs Olfactory-Based Spatial Learning Performance in Preweaning Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Kyi-Tha-Thu, Chaw; Moe, Yadanar; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Yanagisawa, Rie; Furuyama, Akiko; Tsukahara, Shinji; Fujitani, Yuji; Hirano, Seishiro

    2015-06-30

    The aims of our present study were to establish a novel olfactory-based spatial learning test and to examine the effects of exposure to nano-sized diesel exhaust-origin secondary organic aerosol (SOA), a model environmental pollutant, on the learning performance in preweaning mice. Pregnant BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air, diesel exhaust (DE), or DE-origin SOA (DE-SOA) from gestational day 14 to postnatal day (PND) 10 in exposure chambers. On PND 11, the preweaning mice were examined by the olfactory-based spatial learning test. After completion of the spatial learning test, the hippocampus from each mouse was removed and examined for the expressions of neurological and immunological markers using real-time RT-PCR. In the test phase of the study, the mice exposed to DE or DE-SOA took a longer time to reach the target as compared to the control mice. The expression levels of neurological markers such as the N -methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits NR1 and NR2B, and of immunological markers such as TNF-α, COX2, and Iba1 were significantly increased in the hippocampi of the DE-SOA-exposed preweaning mice as compared to the control mice. Our results indicate that DE-SOA exposure in utero and in the neonatal period may affect the olfactory-based spatial learning behavior in preweaning mice by modulating the expressions of memory function-related pathway genes and inflammatory markers in the hippocampus.

  10. A smarter way to search, share and utilize open-spatial online data for energy R&D - Custom machine learning and GIS tools in U.S. DOE's virtual data library & laboratory, EDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, K.; Bauer, J.; Baker, D.; Barkhurst, A.; Bean, A.; DiGiulio, J.; Jones, K.; Jones, T.; Justman, D.; Miller, R., III; Romeo, L.; Sabbatino, M.; Tong, A.

    2017-12-01

    As spatial datasets are increasingly accessible through open, online systems, the opportunity to use these resources to address a range of Earth system questions grows. Simultaneously, there is a need for better infrastructure and tools to find and utilize these resources. We will present examples of advanced online computing capabilities, hosted in the U.S. DOE's Energy Data eXchange (EDX), that address these needs for earth-energy research and development. In one study the computing team developed a custom, machine learning, big data computing tool designed to parse the web and return priority datasets to appropriate servers to develop an open-source global oil and gas infrastructure database. The results of this spatial smart search approach were validated against expert-driven, manual search results which required a team of seven spatial scientists three months to produce. The custom machine learning tool parsed online, open systems, including zip files, ftp sites and other web-hosted resources, in a matter of days. The resulting resources were integrated into a geodatabase now hosted for open access via EDX. Beyond identifying and accessing authoritative, open spatial data resources, there is also a need for more efficient tools to ingest, perform, and visualize multi-variate, spatial data analyses. Within the EDX framework, there is a growing suite of processing, analytical and visualization capabilities that allow multi-user teams to work more efficiently in private, virtual workspaces. An example of these capabilities are a set of 5 custom spatio-temporal models and data tools that form NETL's Offshore Risk Modeling suite that can be used to quantify oil spill risks and impacts. Coupling the data and advanced functions from EDX with these advanced spatio-temporal models has culminated with an integrated web-based decision-support tool. This platform has capabilities to identify and combine data across scales and disciplines, evaluate potential environmental

  11. Role of TLR4 in olfactory-based spatial learning activity of neonatal mice after developmental exposure to diesel exhaust origin secondary organic aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nway, Nay Chi; Fujitani, Yuji; Hirano, Seishiro; Mar, Ohn; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollutants has been reported to have various adverse health impacts. Ambient particulate matter comprises primary particles released directly via engine exhaust and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formed from oxidative reactions of the ultrafine particle fraction of diesel exhaust (DE). Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is well known to initiate the inflammatory cascade in the central nervous system. However, whether and how DE and DE-SOA exposure influences TLR4 signaling in the immature brain remains unclear. We attempted to evaluate the roles of TLR-4, inflammatory mediators and microglial markers in the impaired spatial learning ability of neonatal mice exposed to DE and DE-SOAs. Pregnant C3H/HeN (TLR4-intact) and C3H/HeJ (TLR4- mutated) mice were exposed to clean air, DE or DE-SOA from gestational day 14 to postnatal day (PND) 10 (5h/day for 5days) in exposure chambers. PND11 neonatal mice were examined for their performance in the olfactory-based spatial learning test. After the spatial learning test, the hippocampi of the mice were removed and real-time RT-PCR analysis was performed to examine the neurological and immunological markers. Both male and female C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ neonatal mice exposed to DE and DE-SOAs showed poor performance in the test phase of spatial learning as compared to the mice exposed to clean air. However, this spatial learning deficit was prominent in C3H/HeJ neonatal mice. In the neonatal C3H/HeN male mice exposed to DE and DE-SOAs, the mRNA expression levels of the NMDA receptor subunits (NR1, NR2B), proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and cyclooxygenase-2, oxidative stress marker, heme oxygenase-1, and microglial marker, Iba1, in the hippocampus were significantly increased, but these changes were not observed in female mice. Our findings indicate that activation of the neuroimmune system and TLR4 signaling may possibly be involved in environmental pollutant-induced spatial learning impairment

  12. Preventing Teen Pregnancy. Learning Guide 4. Project Connect. Linking Self-Family-Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, Inc., Hartford, CT.

    This learning guide is designed to connect personal, family, and job responsibilities for adults and out-of-school youth in economically depressed areas of the state (including transitional ex-offenders and corrections populations) so that these individuals learn to manage and balance these aspects of their lives in order to prepare for or…

  13. Learning and sleep-dependent consolidation of spatial and procedural memories are unaltered in young men under a fixed short sleep schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedernaes, Jonathan; Sand, Filip; Liethof, Lisanne; Lampola, Lauri; Hassanzadeh, Sara; Axelsson, Emil K; Yeganeh, Adine; Ros, Olof; Broman, Jan-Erik; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2016-05-01

    To investigate if a fixed short sleep schedule impairs one of the main functions of sleep, which is to consolidate newly learned memories. Sixteen young men participated in two experimental conditions, each of which lasted for 3 consecutive days and nights in our laboratory: a short sleep schedule (4.25-h sleep opportunity per night) versus a normal sleep schedule (8.5h per night). In the evening after two experimental nights, participants learned locations of 15 card pairs (spatial memory task) and a procedural finger tapping sequence task. Post-sleep retrieval of both memory tasks was tested the next morning. The short sleep schedule, compared with the normal sleep schedule, considerably altered sleep characteristics, e.g. the proportion of time in slow-wave sleep increased across the three experimental nights. In contrast, neither learning in the evening of day 2, nor subsequent overnight memory consolidation (i.e. concerning the change in memory performance between pre-sleep learning on day 2 and post-sleep retrieval on day 3) differed between the normal and short sleep schedule conditions. Our findings suggest that learning in the evening and subsequent sleep-dependent consolidation of procedural and spatial memories are unaltered in young men living under a fixed short sleep schedule. Future studies are warranted to validate our findings in other groups (e.g. adolescents and older subjects) and after more prolonged chronic sleep loss paradigms. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extract may prevent the deterioration of spatial memory and the deficit of estimated total number of hippocampal pyramidal cells of trimethyltin-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliani, Sapto; Mustofa; Partadiredja, Ginus

    2018-01-01

    Protection of neurons from degeneration is an important preventive strategy for dementia. Much of the dementia pathology implicates oxidative stress pathways. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) contains curcuminoids which has anti-oxidative and neuro-protective effects. These effects are considered to be similar to those of citicoline which has been regularly used as one of standard medications for dementia. This study aimed at investigating the effects of turmeric rhizome extract on the hippocampus of trimethyltin (TMT)-treated Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were divided randomly into six groups, i.e., a normal control group (N); Sn group, which was given TMT chloride; Sn-Cit group, which was treated with citicoline and TMT chloride; and three Sn-TE groups, which were treated with three different dosages of turmeric rhizome extract and TMT chloride. Morris water maze test was carried out to examine the spatial memory. The estimated total number of CA1 and CA2-CA3 pyramidal cells was calculated using a stereological method. The administration of turmeric extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw has been shown to prevent the deficits in the spatial memory performance and partially inhibit the reduction of the number of CA2-CA3 regions pyramidal neurons. TMT-induced neurotoxic damage seemed to be mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. Turmeric extract might act as anti inflammatory as well as anti-oxidant agent. The effects of turmeric extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw seem to be comparable to those of citicoline.

  15. Patterns of Social Marginalization and its Spatial Expression in the Urban Area of Râmnicu Vâlcea: Preventing vs. Controlling the Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA MĂLĂESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to underline the dynamic patterns of social marginalization, which ultimately leads to social exclusion within the urban area of Râmnicu Vâlcea from the communist period to present. Conclusions were drawn from field observations, semi-structural interviews conducted with the guaranteed minimum income (GMI beneficiaries (according to the Law no. 416/2001, the meta-analysis of the statistical data collected by the Directorate for Labour and Social Protection, content analysis of the local press and cartographic and historical materials. Data confirm the clustering of the GMI beneficiaries, mostly in the peripheral areas (Nuci Colony, Morilor-Izvorului, Alunului-Poienari and Gib Mihăescu colonies, as well as the ethnic fingerprint of the urban poverty along with the absence of the spatial concentration of the ethnic majority, only the areas with a high rate of marginalization (social as well as spatial making an exception. In areas with concentrated social dwellings such as Nuci Colony, the effects of the intensive social contamination and disorganization emphasize that once installed, the social disorganization is much more difficult to eradicate or even to control the sprawl than to prevent the social disorganization, conflicts and increasing crime.

  16. Administration of the TrkB receptor agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone prevents traumatic stress-induced spatial memory deficits and changes in synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-García, Ancor; Knafo, Shira; Pereda-Pérez, Inmaculada; Esteban, José A; Venero, César; Armario, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs after exposure to traumatic situations and it is characterized by cognitive deficits that include impaired explicit memory. The neurobiological bases of such PTSD-associated memory alterations are yet to be elucidated and no satisfactory treatment for them exists. To address this issue, we first studied whether a single exposure of young adult rats (60 days) to immobilization on boards (IMO), a putative model of PTSD, produces long-term behavioral effects (2-8 days) similar to those found in PTSD patients. Subsequently, we investigated whether the administration of the TrkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (DHF) 8 h after stress (therapeutic window) ameliorated the PTSD-like effect of IMO and the associated changes in synaptic plasticity. A single IMO exposure induced a spatial memory impairment similar to that found in other animal models of PTSD or in PTSD patients. IMO also increased spine density and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA3-CA1 pathway. Significantly, DHF reverted both spatial memory impairment and the increase in LTP, while it produced no effect in the controls. These data provide novel insights into the possible neurobiological substrate for explicit memory impairment in PTSD patients, supporting the idea that the activation of the BDNF/TrkB pathway fulfils a protective role after severe stress. Administration of DHF in the aftermath of a traumatic experience might be relevant to prevent its long-term consequences. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Spatial Analysis of Potentially Preventable Pneumonia and Asthma Hospitalizations for Children in the Texas Coastal Bend Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Na

    Pneumonia and asthma, two common Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSCs), were two top reasons for the admission of children to the hospitals and emergency rooms in the United States in 2011. Pneumonia and asthma are potentially preventable if the child's environment is properly managed. Underlying vulnerabilities such as low socioeconomic status (SES) and proximity to air pollution play an important role in ACSCs hospitalization. Pneumonia and asthma are two common reasons for hospitalizations among children and missed school days in Texas Coastal Bend Area. This thesis examines the relationships between neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics, meteorological conditions and children ACSCs hospitalization, including pneumonia and asthma among children age 0-17 in this area. Hospital discharge data from 2007 to 2009 based on Zip Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) were examined along with American Community Survey (ACS) data, air pollution data from Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and temperature data from National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Hotspot and Local Moran's I analyses were applied to identify the concentrations of the illnesses. Two regressions (OLS and GWR) were applied to identify factors that contribute the most to ACSCs hospitalization. Pearson's correlation was calculated to examine the relationship between meteorological condition and child hospitalization for asthma and pneumonia. A human subject survey was conducted to examine the relationships between neighborhood environment and children asthma cases. The main finding was that children from families with health insurance, children from single father families and children from poor families were more likely to visit hospital for ACSCs and pneumonia care. "Hispanic families" and especially "Hispanic families with father but no mother" also contributed most to child hospitalization for ACSCs and pneumonia, suggesting that family preventative health care education is needed for Hispanic

  18. Serious Games for Learning: Games-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In spite of research demonstrating conceptual weakness in many child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programmes and outdated modes of delivery, students continue to participate in a diversity of initiatives. Referring to the development of a games-based approach to CSA prevention in Australia, this paper examines empirically based attributes of…

  19. Building on What You Have Learned: Object Construction Skill during Infancy Predicts the Comprehension of Spatial Relations Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinowski, Emily C.; Campbell, Julie Marie

    2017-01-01

    Object construction involves organizing multiple objects into a unified structure (e.g., stacking blocks into a tower) and may provide infants with unique spatial information. Because object construction entails placing objects in spatial locations relative to one another, infants can acquire information about spatial relations during construction…

  20. Polio and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Photo Collections Videos Polio Today → Polio + Prevention Polio + Prevention Polio and prevention Polio is a crippling and ... a child for life. Learn more about polio + prevention The Virus The Vaccines The Communities Related resources ...

  1. Pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency impairs spatial learning and memory in the cognitive holeboard task in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eAntonides

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency (ID is the most common nutritional deficiency in humans, affecting more than two billion people worldwide. Early-life ID can lead to irreversible deficits in learning and memory. The pig represents a promising model animal for studying such deficits, because of its similarities to humans during early development. We investigated long-term effects of pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency in piglets on growth, blood parameters, cognitive performance and brain histology. Ten male sibling pairs of piglets were removed from the sow 4-6 days after birth. Ten piglets were given an iron dextran injection and were fed a control milk diet for 28 days (100 mg Fe/kg; their ten siblings were given a saline injection and fed an iron deficient milk diet (10 mg Fe/kg. Then, all piglets were fed a balanced commercial pig diet (190-240 mg Fe/kg. From 8 weeks of age, piglets were tested in a spatial cognitive holeboard task. In this task, 4 of 16 holes contain a hidden food reward, allowing measurement of working (short-term memory and reference (long-term memory (RM simultaneously. All piglets received 40-60 acquisition trials, followed by a 16-trial reversal phase. ID piglets showed permanently retarded growth and a strong decrease in blood iron parameters during dietary treatment. After treatment, ID piglets blood iron values restored to normal levels. In the holeboard task, ID piglets showed impaired RM learning during acquisition and reversal. Iron staining at necropsy at 12 weeks of age showed that ID piglets had fewer iron-containing cells in hippocampal regions CA1 and dentate gyrus. The number of iron-containing cells in CA3 correlated positively with acquisition RM performance for all animals. Our results support the hypothesis that early ID leads to lasting cognitive deficits. The piglet as a model animal, tested in the holeboard, can be useful in future research for assessing long-term cognitive effects of early-life diets or diet

  2. Improving the Spatial Prediction of Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in a Complex Tropical Mountain Landscape by Methodological Specifications in Machine Learning Approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Ließ

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are significant carbon sinks and their soils' carbon storage potential is immense. However, little is known about the soil organic carbon (SOC stocks of tropical mountain areas whose complex soil-landscape and difficult accessibility pose a challenge to spatial analysis. The choice of methodology for spatial prediction is of high importance to improve the expected poor model results in case of low predictor-response correlations. Four aspects were considered to improve model performance in predicting SOC stocks of the organic layer of a tropical mountain forest landscape: Different spatial predictor settings, predictor selection strategies, various machine learning algorithms and model tuning. Five machine learning algorithms: random forests, artificial neural networks, multivariate adaptive regression splines, boosted regression trees and support vector machines were trained and tuned to predict SOC stocks from predictors derived from a digital elevation model and satellite image. Topographical predictors were calculated with a GIS search radius of 45 to 615 m. Finally, three predictor selection strategies were applied to the total set of 236 predictors. All machine learning algorithms-including the model tuning and predictor selection-were compared via five repetitions of a tenfold cross-validation. The boosted regression tree algorithm resulted in the overall best model. SOC stocks ranged between 0.2 to 17.7 kg m-2, displaying a huge variability with diffuse insolation and curvatures of different scale guiding the spatial pattern. Predictor selection and model tuning improved the models' predictive performance in all five machine learning algorithms. The rather low number of selected predictors favours forward compared to backward selection procedures. Choosing predictors due to their indiviual performance was vanquished by the two procedures which accounted for predictor interaction.

  3. Improving the Spatial Prediction of Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in a Complex Tropical Mountain Landscape by Methodological Specifications in Machine Learning Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ließ, Mareike; Schmidt, Johannes; Glaser, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are significant carbon sinks and their soils' carbon storage potential is immense. However, little is known about the soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks of tropical mountain areas whose complex soil-landscape and difficult accessibility pose a challenge to spatial analysis. The choice of methodology for spatial prediction is of high importance to improve the expected poor model results in case of low predictor-response correlations. Four aspects were considered to improve model performance in predicting SOC stocks of the organic layer of a tropical mountain forest landscape: Different spatial predictor settings, predictor selection strategies, various machine learning algorithms and model tuning. Five machine learning algorithms: random forests, artificial neural networks, multivariate adaptive regression splines, boosted regression trees and support vector machines were trained and tuned to predict SOC stocks from predictors derived from a digital elevation model and satellite image. Topographical predictors were calculated with a GIS search radius of 45 to 615 m. Finally, three predictor selection strategies were applied to the total set of 236 predictors. All machine learning algorithms-including the model tuning and predictor selection-were compared via five repetitions of a tenfold cross-validation. The boosted regression tree algorithm resulted in the overall best model. SOC stocks ranged between 0.2 to 17.7 kg m-2, displaying a huge variability with diffuse insolation and curvatures of different scale guiding the spatial pattern. Predictor selection and model tuning improved the models' predictive performance in all five machine learning algorithms. The rather low number of selected predictors favours forward compared to backward selection procedures. Choosing predictors due to their indiviual performance was vanquished by the two procedures which accounted for predictor interaction.

  4. Age-related wayfinding differences in real large-scale environments: detrimental motor control effects during spatial learning are mediated by executive decline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Taillade

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate motor control activity (active vs. passive condition with regards to wayfinding and spatial learning difficulties in large-scale spaces for older adults. We compared virtual reality (VR-based wayfinding and spatial memory (survey and route knowledge performances between 30 younger and 30 older adults. A significant effect of age was obtained on the wayfinding performances but not on the spatial memory performances. Specifically, the active condition deteriorated the survey measure in all of the participants and increased the age-related differences in the wayfinding performances. Importantly, the age-related differences in the wayfinding performances, after an active condition, were further mediated by the executive measures. All of the results relative to a detrimental effect of motor activity are discussed in terms of a dual task effect as well as executive decline associated with aging.

  5. Overdose prevention for injection drug users: Lessons learned from naloxone training and distribution programs in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandi Vijay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatal heroin overdose is a significant cause of mortality for injection drug users (IDUs. Many of these deaths are preventable because opiate overdoses can be quickly and safely reversed through the injection of Naloxone [brand name Narcan], a prescription drug used to revive persons who have overdosed on heroin or other opioids. Currently, in several cities in the United States, drug users are being trained in naloxone administration and given naloxone for immediate and successful reversals of opiate overdoses. There has been very little formal description of the challenges faced in the development and implementation of large-scale IDU naloxone administration training and distribution programs and the lessons learned during this process. Methods During a one year period, over 1,000 participants were trained in SKOOP (Skills and Knowledge on Opiate Prevention and received a prescription for naloxone by a medical doctor on site at a syringe exchange program (SEP in New York City. Participants in SKOOP were over the age of 18, current participants of SEPs, and current or former drug users. We present details about program design and lessons learned during the development and implementation of SKOOP. Lessons learned described in the manuscript are collectively articulated by the evaluators and implementers of the project. Results There were six primary challenges and lessons learned in developing, implementing, and evaluating SKOOP. These include a political climate surrounding naloxone distribution; b extant prescription drug laws; c initial low levels of recruitment into the program; d development of participant appropriate training methodology; e challenges in the design of a suitable formal evaluation; and f evolution of program response to naloxone. Conclusion Other naloxone distribution programs may anticipate similar challenges to SKOOP and we identify mechanisms to address them. Strategies include being flexible in

  6. Overdose prevention for injection drug users: lessons learned from naloxone training and distribution programs in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Tinka Markham; Rudenstine, Sasha; Stancliff, Sharon; Sherman, Susan; Nandi, Vijay; Clear, Allan; Galea, Sandro

    2007-01-25

    Fatal heroin overdose is a significant cause of mortality for injection drug users (IDUs). Many of these deaths are preventable because opiate overdoses can be quickly and safely reversed through the injection of Naloxone [brand name Narcan], a prescription drug used to revive persons who have overdosed on heroin or other opioids. Currently, in several cities in the United States, drug users are being trained in naloxone administration and given naloxone for immediate and successful reversals of opiate overdoses. There has been very little formal description of the challenges faced in the development and implementation of large-scale IDU naloxone administration training and distribution programs and the lessons learned during this process. During a one year period, over 1,000 participants were trained in SKOOP (Skills and Knowledge on Opiate Prevention) and received a prescription for naloxone by a medical doctor on site at a syringe exchange program (SEP) in New York City. Participants in SKOOP were over the age of 18, current participants of SEPs, and current or former drug users. We present details about program design and lessons learned during the development and implementation of SKOOP. Lessons learned described in the manuscript are collectively articulated by the evaluators and implementers of the project. There were six primary challenges and lessons learned in developing, implementing, and evaluating SKOOP. These include a) political climate surrounding naloxone distribution; b) extant prescription drug laws; c) initial low levels of recruitment into the program; d) development of participant appropriate training methodology; e) challenges in the design of a suitable formal evaluation; and f) evolution of program response to naloxone. Other naloxone distribution programs may anticipate similar challenges to SKOOP and we identify mechanisms to address them. Strategies include being flexible in program planning and implementation, developing evaluation

  7. Caffeoylquinic acid-rich purple sweet potato extract, with or without anthocyanin, imparts neuroprotection and contributes to the improvement of spatial learning and memory of SAMP8 mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazunori; Han, Junkyu; Shimozono, Hidetoshi; Villareal, Myra O; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-05-29

    The effects of caffeoylquinic acid (CQA)-rich purple sweet potato (PSP) extract, with (PSPEa) or without (PSPEb) anthocyanin, on the improvement of spatial learning and memory of senescence-accelerated prone mouse strain (SAMP) 8 was determined. SAMP8 was treated with 20 mg/kg/day of PSPEa or PSPEb for 30 days. The effect on spatial learning and memory and the molecular mechanism of this effect were determined in vivo (SAMP8) and in vitro (SH-SY5Y cells). PSPEa or PSPEb reduced the escape latency time of SAMP8 by 17.0 ± 8.0 and 14.2 ± 5.8 s (P overexpression of antioxidant-, energy metabolism-, and neuronal plasticity-related proteins in the brain of SAMP8. Additionally, PSPEa and PSPEb increased the cell viability by 141.6 and 133% as compared to Aβ1-42-treated cells. These findings suggest that PSP rich in CQA derivatives with or without anthocyanidine had a neuroprotective effect on mouse brain and can improve the spatial learning and memory of SAMP8.

  8. Chronic prenatal ethanol exposure alters hippocampal GABA(A) receptors and impairs spatial learning in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, U; Dringenberg, H C; Brien, J F; Reynolds, J N

    2004-04-02

    Chronic prenatal ethanol exposure (CPEE) can injure the developing brain, and may lead to the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Previous studies have demonstrated that CPEE upregulates gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor expression in the cerebral cortex, and decreases functional synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, in the adult guinea pig. This study tested the hypothesis that CPEE increases GABA(A) receptor expression in the hippocampus of guinea pig offspring that exhibit cognitive deficits in a hippocampal-dependent spatial learning task. Timed, pregnant guinea pigs were treated with ethanol (4 g/kg maternal body weight per day), isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding, or water throughout gestation. GABA(A) receptor subunit protein expression in the hippocampus was measured at two development ages: near-term fetus and young adult. In young adult guinea pig offspring, CPEE increased spontaneous locomotor activity in the open-field and impaired task acquisition in the Morris water maze. CPEE did not change GABA(A) receptor subunit protein expression in the near-term fetal hippocampus, but increased expression of the beta2/3-subunit of the GABA(A) receptor in the hippocampus of young adult offspring. CPEE did not change either [(3)H]flunitrazepam binding or GABA potentiation of [(3)H]flunitrazepam binding, but decreased the efficacy of allopregnanolone potentiation of [(3)H]flunitrazepam binding, to hippocampal GABA(A) receptors in adult offspring. Correlational analysis revealed a relationship between increased spontaneous locomotor activity and growth restriction in the hippocampus induced by CPEE. Similarly, an inverse relationship was found between performance in the water maze and the efficacy of allopregnanolone potentiation of [(3)H]flunitrazepam binding in the hippocampus. These data suggest that alterations in hippocampal GABA(A) receptor expression and pharmacological properties contribute to hippocampal-related behavioral and cognitive deficits

  9. Discrete Pools of Oligomeric Amyloid-β Track with Spatial Learning Deficits in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer Amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Angie C A; Fowler, Stephanie W; Reddy, Rohit; Pletnikova, Olga; Troncoso, Juan C; Sherman, Mathew A; Lesne, Sylvain E; Jankowsky, Joanna L

    2018-03-01

    Despite increasing appreciation that oligomeric amyloid-β (Aβ) may contribute to cognitive decline of Alzheimer disease, defining the most critical forms has been thwarted by the changeable nature of these aggregates and the varying methods used for detection. Herein, using a broad approach, we quantified Aβ oligomers during the evolution of cognitive deficits in an aggressive model of Aβ amyloidosis. Amyloid precursor protein/tetracycline transactivator mice underwent behavioral testing at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age to evaluate spatial learning and memory, followed by histologic assessment of amyloid burden and biochemical characterization of oligomeric Aβ species. Transgenic mice displayed progressive impairments in acquisition and immediate recall of the trained platform location. Biochemical analysis of cortical extracts from behaviorally tested mice revealed distinct age-dependent patterns of accumulation in multiple oligomeric species. Dot blot analysis demonstrated that nonfibrillar Aβ oligomers were highly soluble and extracted into a fraction enriched for extracellular proteins, whereas prefibrillar species required high-detergent conditions to retrieve, consistent with membrane localization. Low-detergent extracts tested by 82E1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed the presence of bona fide Aβ oligomers, whereas immunoprecipitation-Western blotting using high-detergent extracts revealed a variety of SDS-stable low-n species. These findings show that different Aβ oligomers vary in solubility, consistent with distinct localization, and identify nonfibrillar Aβ oligomer-positive aggregates as tracking most closely with cognitive decline in this model. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuroligin 2 R215H Mutant Mice Manifest Anxiety, Increased Prepulse Inhibition, and Impaired Spatial Learning and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsiang Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuroligin 2 (NLGN2 is a postsynaptic adhesion protein that plays an essential role in synaptogenesis and function of inhibitory neuron. We previously identified a missense mutation R215H of the NLGN2 in a patient with schizophrenia. This missense mutation was shown to be pathogenic in several cell-based assays. The objective of this study was to better understand the behavioral consequences of this mutation in vivo. We generated a line of transgenic mice carrying this mutation using a recombinant-based method. The mice were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests including open field locomotor activity assay, prepulse inhibition (PPI assay, accelerated rotarod test, novel location and novel recognition tests, elevated plus-maze (EPM test, and Morris water maze test. The transgenic animals were viable and fertile, but the Nlgn2 R215H knock-in (KI homozygous mice showed growth retardation, anxiety-like behavior, increased PPI, and impaired spatial learning and memory. There was no significant interaction between sex and genotype in most behavioral tests; however, we observed a significant interaction between sex and genotype in EPM test in this study. Also, we found that the Nlgn2 R215H homozygous KI mice did not express the NLGN2 protein, resembling Nlgn2 knockout mice. Our results demonstrate that Nlgn2 R215H KI homozygous mice manifest several behavioral abnormalities similar to those found in psychiatric patients carrying NLGN2 mutations, indicating that dysfunction of NLGN2 contributes to the pathogenesis of certain psychiatric symptoms commonly present in various mental disorders, not limited to schizophrenia.

  11. Neuroligin 2 R215H Mutant Mice Manifest Anxiety, Increased Prepulse Inhibition, and Impaired Spatial Learning and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Lee, Pin-Wei; Liao, Hsiao-Mei; Chang, Pi-Kai

    2017-01-01

    Neuroligin 2 ( NLGN2 ) is a postsynaptic adhesion protein that plays an essential role in synaptogenesis and function of inhibitory neuron. We previously identified a missense mutation R215H of the NLGN2 in a patient with schizophrenia. This missense mutation was shown to be pathogenic in several cell-based assays. The objective of this study was to better understand the behavioral consequences of this mutation in vivo . We generated a line of transgenic mice carrying this mutation using a recombinant-based method. The mice were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests including open field locomotor activity assay, prepulse inhibition (PPI) assay, accelerated rotarod test, novel location and novel recognition tests, elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, and Morris water maze test. The transgenic animals were viable and fertile, but the Nlgn2 R215H knock-in (KI) homozygous mice showed growth retardation, anxiety-like behavior, increased PPI, and impaired spatial learning and memory. There was no significant interaction between sex and genotype in most behavioral tests; however, we observed a significant interaction between sex and genotype in EPM test in this study. Also, we found that the Nlgn2 R215H homozygous KI mice did not express the NLGN2 protein, resembling Nlgn2 knockout mice. Our results demonstrate that Nlgn2 R215H KI homozygous mice manifest several behavioral abnormalities similar to those found in psychiatric patients carrying NLGN2 mutations, indicating that dysfunction of NLGN2 contributes to the pathogenesis of certain psychiatric symptoms commonly present in various mental disorders, not limited to schizophrenia.

  12. Spatial relational learning and memory abilities do not differ between men and women in a real-world, open-field environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta Lavenex, Pamela; Lavenex, Pierre

    2010-02-11

    This study assesses gender differences in spatial and non-spatial relational learning and memory in adult humans behaving freely in a real-world, open-field environment. In Experiment 1, we tested the use of proximal landmarks as conditional cues allowing subjects to predict the location of rewards hidden in one of two sets of three distinct locations. Subjects were tested in two different conditions: (1) when local visual cues marked the potentially-rewarded locations, and (2) when no local visual cues marked the potentially-rewarded locations. We found that only 17 of 20 adults (8 males, 9 females) used the proximal landmarks to predict the locations of the rewards. Although females exhibited higher exploratory behavior at the beginning of testing, males and females discriminated the potentially-rewarded locations similarly when local visual cues were present. Interestingly, when the spatial and local information conflicted in predicting the reward locations, males considered both