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Sample records for prevents seat deformation

  1. Correlation of spine deformity, lung function, and seat pressure in spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jayesh; Walker, Janet L; Talwalkar, Vishwas R; Iwinski, Henry J; Milbrandt, Todd A

    2011-05-01

    Spinal deformity, a common problem in children with myelodysplasia, is associated with alterations in pulmonary function and sitting balance. Sitting imbalance causes areas of high pressure in patients already at high risk for developing pressure ulcers due to insensate skin. We asked: Does spinal deformity affect pulmonary function tests in children with myelodysplasia? Does the magnitude of spinal curvatures and pelvic obliquity affect seating pressures? Does spinal deformity and seated pressures correlate with a history of pressure ulcers? We retrospectively reviewed 32 patients with myelodysplasia and scoliosis (mean age, 14 years). The mean thoracic scoliosis was 64° with a mean pelvic obliquity of 15°. The mean forced vital capacity was 59% of predicted. The mean of the average and peak seated pressures were 24 and 137 mm Hg, respectively. We examined spinal radiographs, pulmonary function tests, and seated pressure maps and evaluated correlations of spinal deformity measures, pulmonary function, and seated pressures. The thoracic scoliosis inversely correlated with lung volume and weakly related with only the forced midexpiratory volume parameter (R(2) = 31%). The curve magnitude was associated with % seated area with pressures of 38 to 70 mm Hg while lesser degrees of pelvic obliquity were associated with % seating area with pressures of less than 38 mm Hg (R(2) = 25% and 24%, respectively). A history of pressure ulcers did not correlate with any spinal deformity or seated pressure measures. All patients displayed a reduced forced vital capacity, but this reduction was not related to increasing scoliosis. The smaller scoliosis curves and lesser degrees of pelvic obliquity were associated with larger areas of low seated pressures.

  2. Temporal behavior of deep-seated gravitational slope deformations: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pánek, T.; Klimeš, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 156, MAY (2016), s. 14-38 ISSN 0012-8252 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : deep-seated gravitational slope deformations * catastrophic slope failures * deformation rates * dating * monitoring Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 7.051, year: 2016

  3. Tectonic strain changes affecting the development of deep seated gravitational slope deformations in the Bohemian Massif and Outer Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stemberk, Josef; Hartvich, Filip; Blahůt, Jan; Rybář, Jan; Krejčí, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 289, SI (2017), s. 3-17 ISSN 0169-555X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15007; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015079 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Deep seated gravitational slope deformations * Displacement monitoring * Tectonic strain changes * Bohemian Massif * Outer Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.958, year: 2016

  4. The Role of Seat Belt in the Prevention of Fatalities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Road traffic crashes still remain a prominent cause of death worldwide but proper use of safety belts can prevent death in some of these accidents. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the role of seat beltuse I violation in Rivers State, Nigeria and to determine its relationship with fatality of road traffic ...

  5. Controls on Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Agliardi, Federico

    2013-04-01

    DSGSDs are very large, slow mass movements affecting entire high-relief valley slopes. The first orogen-scale inventory of such phenomena at has been recently presented for the European Alps (Crosta et al 2008, Agliardi et al 2012), and then further implemented. The inventory includes 1034 Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations, widespread over the entire orogen and clustered along major valleys and in some specific sectors of the Alps. In this contribution we systematically explore lithological, structural and topographic controls on DSGSD distribution with the help of multivariate statistical techniques (Principal Component Analysis, Discriminant Analysis). Analysis units for statistical analysis were obtained by creating three square vector grids with 2.5 km, 5 km and 10 km grid cell size, respectively, covering the entire area (about 110,000 km2). For each grid cell, we calculated the density of DSGSD, and we assigned a value for each of the controlling variable considered in the analysis. From the NASA SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) DEM we derived land surface parameters, such as relief, slope gradients, slope aspect, mean vertical distance from base level and ruggedness. The SRTM DEM was also used to extract the drainage density, with a threshold of 1 km2 and 10 km2. We also computer the stream power of the 1km2 river network Lithology was obtained by assembling different geological maps (1:200.000 map of Salzburg, 1:250.000 map of France, 1:500.000 maps of Switzerland and Austria, 1:1.000.000 map of Italy) and by reclassifying the geological units into 8 lithological classes (carbonate rocks, metapelites, sandstones and marls, paragneiss, ortogneiss, flysch-type rocks, granitoid/metabasite, Quaternary units, and volcanic rocks). To study the role of seismicity, we calculated the number of earthquakes (CPTI11 and USGS-NEIC database) within a distance dmax from the square cell, calculated adopting Keefer's (1984) equation, and the sum of Arias

  6. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S. D.; Clague, J. J.; Rabus, B.; Stead, D.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple, active, deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSD) are present near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway in the east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA. We documented spatial and temporal variations in rates of surface movement of the DSGSDs between 2003 and 2011 using RADARSAT-1 and RADARSAT-2 D-InSAR images. Deformation rates exceed 10 cm/month over very large areas (>1 km2) of many rock slopes. Recent climatic change and strong seismic shaking, especially during the 2002 M 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake, appear to have exacerbated slope deformation. We also mapped DSGSD geological and morphological characteristics using field- and GIS-based methods, and constructed a conceptual 2D distinct-element numerical model of one of the DSGSDs. Preliminary results indicate that large-scale buckling or kink-band slumping may be occurring. The DSGSDs are capable of generating long-runout landslides that might impact the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway. They could also block tributary valleys, thereby impounding lakes that might drain suddenly. Wrapped 24-day RADARSAT-2 descending spotlight interferogram showing deformation north of Fels Glacier. The interferogram is partially transparent and is overlaid on a 2009 WorldView-1 panchromatic image. Acquisition interval: August 2 - August 26, 2011. UTM Zone 6N.

  7. Occupant dynamics in rollover crashes: influence of roof deformation and seat belt performance on probable spinal column injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidez, Martha W; Cochran, John E; King, Dottie; Burke, Donald S

    2007-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in the United States for people ages 3-33, and rollover crashes have a higher fatality rate than any other crash mode. At the request and under the sponsorship of Ford Motor Company, Autoliv conducted a series of dynamic rollover tests on Ford Explorer sport utility vehicles (SUV) during 1998 and 1999. Data from those tests were made available to the public and were analyzed in this study to investigate the magnitude of and the temporal relationship between roof deformation, lap-shoulder seat belt loads, and restrained anthropometric test dummy (ATD) neck loads. During each of the three FMVSS 208 dolly rollover tests of Ford Explorer SUVs, the far-side, passenger ATDs exhibited peak neck compression and flexion loads, which indicated a probable spinal column injury in all three tests. In those same tests, the near-side, driver ATD neck loads never predicted a potential injury. In all three tests, objective roof/pillar deformation occurred prior to the occurrence of peak neck loads (F ( z ), M ( y )) for far-side, passenger ATDs, and peak neck loads were predictive of probable spinal column injury. The production lap and shoulder seat belts in the SUVs, which restrained both driver and passenger ATDs, consistently allowed ATD head contact with the roof while the roof was contacting the ground during this 1000 ms test series. Local peak neck forces and moments were noted each time the far-side, passenger ATD head contacted ("dived into") the roof while the roof was in contact with the ground; however, the magnitude of these local peaks was only 2-13% of peak neck loads in all three tests. "Diving-type" neck loads were not predictive of injury for either driver or passenger ATD in any of the three tests.

  8. Tectonic strain changes affecting the development of deep seated gravitational slope deformations in the Bohemian Massif and Outer Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemberk, Josef; Hartvich, Filip; Blahůt, Jan; Rybář, Jan; Krejčí, Oldřich

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes a pair of intensively studied deep seated gravitational slope deformations from the Czech Republic. Structural geological mapping and the interrogation of high resolution LiDAR DEMs have been used to reassess the extent of each slope deformation and to obtain new information about their surface morphologies. Electrical resistivity tomography has been used to image the subsurface structures while rod dilatometers and permanently installed mechanical extensometers have been used to define their kinematic behaviour. Dilatometric measurements from across a fissure the edge of the Mužský Hill DSGSD show that the progressive trend has been interspersed by five periods of movement acceleration since monitoring began in 1990 while extensometric measurements from across a second fissure about 50 m from the edge of the plateau show that this discontinuity was affected by an significant period of extension from 2004 to 2006 and a significant period of compression from 2006 to 2008. These data demonstrate that the Mužský Hill DSGSD is characterised by the lateral spreading of rigid sandstone blocks across a plastic marl formation at the edge of Příhrazy Plateau. Extensometric measurements from the Kněhyně Mountain DSGSD show that a fault located at a depth of about 25 m below the surface is characterised by progressive dilation whereas a fault located at a depth of about 57.5 m below the surface is characterised by episodic vertical dip-slip displacements. Both faults are affected by horizontal dextral strike slip displacements. These data demonstrate that the Kněhyně Mountain DSGSD is characterised by translational rocksliding associated with the neotectonic uplift of the Outer Western Carpathians. The presented kinematic data have been compared to records of precipitation, groundwater level, earthquakes, and strain changes measured by the fault displacement monitoring network EU-TecNet. Strain changes induced by the widespread redistribution of

  9. Pollybeak Deformity in Middle Eastern Rhinoplasty: Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Wael K A; Foda, Hossam M T

    2016-08-01

    The pollybeak deformity is one of the commonest causes of revision rhinoplasty. The Middle Eastern nose has certain criteria that predispose to the development of pollybeak deformity. The aim of this study is to detect the factors contributing to the development of pollybeak deformity in the Middle Eastern nose and methods used to prevent as well as to treat such deformity. Out of the 1,160 revision patients included in this study, 720 (62%) patients had a pollybeak deformity. The commonest contributing factors included underprojected tip with poor support in 490 (68%) patients, excessive supratip scarring in 259 (36%) patients, overresected bony dorsum in 202 (28%) patients, and high anterior septal angle in 173 (24%) patients. The methods used by the authors to treat the pollybeak deformity are described, along with the local steroid injection protocol used to guard against the recurrence of pollybeak deformity. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations in the highest parts of the Czech Flysch Carpathians: evolutionary model based on kinematic analysis, electrical imaging and trenching

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pánek, T.; Tábořík, P.; Klimeš, Jan; Komárková, V.; Hradecký, J.; Šťastný, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 129, 1-2 (2011), s. 92-112 ISSN 0169-555X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : deep-seated gravitational slope deformations * kinematic analysis * electrical resistivity tomography Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.520, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169555X11000444

  11. A randomized clinical trial on preventing pressure ulcers with wheelchair seat cushions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienza, David; Kelsey, Sheryl; Karg, Patricia; Allegretti, Ana; Olson, Marian; Schmeler, Mark; Zanca, Jeanne; Geyer, Mary Jo; Kusturiss, Marybeth; Holm, Margo

    2010-12-01

    To determine the efficacy of skin protection wheelchair seat cushions in preventing pressure ulcers in the elderly nursing home population. Clinical trial with participants assigned at random to a skin protection or segmented foam cushion. Two hundred thirty-two participants were recruited between June 2004 and May 2008 and followed for 6 months or until pressure ulcer incidence. Twelve nursing homes. Nursing home residents aged 65 and older who were using wheelchairs for 6 or more hours per day and had a Braden score of 18 or less and a combined Braden activity and mobility score of 5 or less. Participants were recruited from a referred sample. All participants were provided with a fitted wheelchair and randomized into skin protection (SPC, n=113) or segmented foam (SFC, n=119) cushion groups. The SPC group received an air, viscous fluid and foam, or gel and foam cushion. The SFC group received a 7.6-cm crosscut foam cushion. Pressure ulcer incidence over 6 months for wounds near the ischial tuberosities (IT ulcers) were measured. Secondary analysis was performed on combined IT ulcers and ulcers over the sacrum and coccyx (sacral ulcers). One hundred eighty participants reached a study end point, and 42 were lost to follow-up. Ten did not receive the intervention. There were eight (6.7%) IT ulcers in the SFC group and one (0.9%) in the SPC group (P=.04). There were 21 (17.6%) combined IT and sacral ulcers in the SFC group and 12 (10.6%) in the SPC group (P=.14). Skin protection cushions used with fitted wheelchairs lower pressure ulcer incidence for elderly nursing home residents and should be used to help prevent pressure ulcers. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. The Role of Seat Belt in the Prevention of Fatalities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    speed and less drunk driving amongst others[36-38].Also, there was no significant relationship between number of seat belt violations and other four outcomes (no. of total accidents, injured, death, total casualties) in this study between 2009 and 2012. Recent reviews of the relative efficacy of primary versus secondary ...

  13. The August 24th 2016 Accumoli earthquake: surface faulting and Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD in the Monte Vettore area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Aringoli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On August 24th 2016 a Mw=6.0 earthquake hit central Italy, with the epicenter located at the boundaries between Lazio, Marche, Abruzzi and Umbria regions, near the village of Accumoli (Rieti, Lazio. Immediately after the mainshock, this geological survey has been focused on the earthquake environmental effects related to the tectonic reactivation of the previously mapped active fault (i.e. primary, as well as secondary effects mostly related to the seismic shaking (e.g. landslides and fracturing in soil and rock.This paper brings data on superficial effects and some preliminary considerations about the interaction and possible relationship between surface faulting and the occurrence of Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD along the southern and western slope of Monte Vettore.

  14. Misuse of car safety seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, M J; Stroup, K B; Gerhart, S

    1988-01-01

    Correct use of car seats for small children is essential to prevent serious injuries and death from automotive accidents. Failure to use a car seat properly can contribute to serious injury or death of a child. A case study in which misuse of a car seat occurred is reported. The infant died of hemorrhage and shock secondary to liver laceration which resulted from excessive pressure over the abdomen sustained on impact. Surveys of car seat use for small children prior to and following a child restraint law are also reported. Observers noted types of car seats and specific forms of misuse. Survey results suggest that parents are more likely to misuse car seats for infants than toddlers. Medical professionals can reinforce the importance of proper car seat use by incorporating specific car seat use questions into the patient interview and by providing educational materials.

  15. The role of strength anisotropy in the development of deep-seated gravitational slope deformation features in schist at Roys Peak, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brideau, M.

    2013-12-01

    This study looked at the interaction between the rock strength anisotropy and discontinuity orientations on the development of well-expressed deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD) features around Roys Peak. The project area is located near the town of Wanaka in the Otago region of New Zealand's South Island. The Roys Peak area has well defined geomorphological features (antislope scarps and split ridges) typically associated with DSGSD over a distance extending almost 4.5 km along the Lake Wanaka Valley. The summit corresponds with the intersection of two prominent ridges running approximately north-south and east-west and has an elevation of 1580 metres above sea level with a local relief of 1250 m. The bedrock geology at Roys Peak consists of Late Paleozoic to Mid Mesozoic pelitic schist having a granitic protolith. The study area has been glaciated several times during the Quaternary Period. Glaciers have strongly influenced the landscape by rounding the spurs in the valley bottom and steepening the lower parts of mountains. Roys Peak is located approximately 75km south from the Alpine Fault (boundary between the Pacific and Australian plates) and as such the project area is not particularly seismically active with only 52 earthquakes with a magnitude greater than 4 within a 50km radius of the project area listed in the New Zealand Historical Earthquake Database. Engineering geological mapping at Roys Peak identified three discontinuity sets and a pervasive schistose fabric in a dip-slope position with the main valley orientation. The rock mass quality was described in the field using the Geological Strength Index (GSI). The observed rock mass quality at Roys Peak had a GSI range between 30-45. This corresponds to a blocky/disturbed/seamy structure with fair quality discontinuity surfaces. The intact rock strength of the schist rock was evaluated using field estimates, Schmidt hammer rebound values, and point load tests. The three methods overlap

  16. Deep seated gravitational slope deformations and large landslides: implications on landslide hazard of urban areas and coastal erosion phenomena of Mount Poro headland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerricchio, A.; Simeone, V.

    2012-04-01

    Deep seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSD) characterize the north west and south side of Mount Poro headland, mid Calabria, south Italy, as reported by Guerrichio (2000). This work investigates the DSGSD of Mount Poro headland, in particular the gravitational collapses, occurring between the coast and the western flank of the headland up to an elevation of about 500-600 m AMSL. These collapses seem to be inconsistent with the local lithotypes, made by the substratum of granitic complex of Polia-Copanello. In particular, Ietto and Calcaterra (1988) identified DSGSDs in the area of Zaccanopoli. They assumed these phenomena on the edge between post-uplift gravitative tectonics and deep seated gravitational deformations that were referred to morphologies sub-parallel to the banks of two important local rivers. The local geology comprises severely fractured and sometimes cataclastic granitic rocks. These show deep sub-vertical fracture, bow-shaped and oriented along the direction NNE-SSW in the upstream areas, at an elevation between 500 and 600 m AMSL. For those areas on the right side of the headland, fractures are oriented along NE-SW, N-S and NW-SE, while on the left side of the headland fractures are oriented W-E and NW-SE. In the upstream areas, there are frequent depressed and stretched stripes of land, which are crossed by fractures, which affect granitic masses for a difference of elevation ranging between few tens of meters and one hundred meters. Similar differences of elevation can also be observed either inside the DSGSDs, and the large landslides, like that located immediately upstream Dropia town, where for instance a one hundred meters concave scarp shows. Inside the DSGSDs and inside the topping Pleistocenic deposits, there are frequent twofold terraces, which can be hardly dated. In fact, no fossils are present, and then it is possible to assume their age just on a geomorphologic base. The entire area involved by the DSGSD is few tens of

  17. Car Seat Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Car Seat Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Car Seat Safety ... certified child passenger safety technician.) Guidelines for Choosing Car Seats Choose a seat with a label that ...

  18. Child Safety Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... htm Child safety seats To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Child safety seats are proven to save children's lives in accidents. In the United States, all states require children to be secured in a car seat or booster seat until they reach certain ...

  19. Collision-Induced Melting in Collisions of Water Ice Nanograins: Strong Deformations and Prevention of Bouncing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietiadi, Maureen L.; Umstätter, Philipp; Alabd Alhafez, Iyad; Rosandi, Yudi; Bringa, Eduardo M.; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2017-11-01

    Collisions between ice grains are ubiquitous in the outer solar system. The mechanics of such collisions is traditionally described by the elastic contact theory of adhesive spheres. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations to study collisions between nanometer-sized amorphous water ice grains. We demonstrate that the collision-induced heating leads to grain melting in the interface of the colliding grains. The large lateral deformations and grain sticking induced considerably modify available macroscopic collision models. We report on systematic increases of the contact radius, strong grain deformations, and the prevention of grain bouncing.

  20. Developing the tissue viability seating guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Melanie; Bartley, Carol; Betteridge, Ria; Samuriwo, Ray

    2018-02-01

    Costs for the prevention and management of pressure ulcers have increased significantly with limited published advice from health and social care organisations on seating and preventing pressure ulcers. At the request of the UK Tissue Viability Society the aim of the publication was to develop a practical guide for people, carers and health and social care professionals on how the research and evidence base on pressure ulcer prevention and management can be applied to those who remain seated for extended periods of time. The evidence base informing the guidelines was obtained by applying a triangulation of methods: a literature review, listening event and stakeholder group consultation. The purpose was to engage users and carers, academics, clinicians, inspectorate and charities, with an interest in seating, positioning and pressure management to: gather views, feedback, stories, and evidence of the current practices in the field to create a greater awareness of the issue. The new guidelines are inclusive of all people with short and long-term mobility issues to include all population groups. The document includes evidence on where pressure ulcers develop when seated, risk factors, best possible seated position and what seat adjustments are required, the ideal seating assessment, interventions, self-help suggestions and key seating outcomes. The updated TVS CPGs have been informed by the best available evidence, the insights and wisdom of experts, stakeholders and people who spend extended periods of time sitting. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of platysma muscle flap in preventing Frey syndrome and depressive deformities after parotidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ayato; Mochizuki, Mariko; Suda, Shunichi; Natori, Yuhei; Ando, Erika; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Senda, Daiki; Tanaka, Rica; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Frey syndrome (FS) or depressive deformity (DD) occurring after parotidectomy significantly reduces a patient's quality of life. However, there seems to be no effective treatment strategy against these complications. In this study, we report our experience of using platysma muscle flap (PMF) to prevent the development of FS and DD after parotidectomy, and evaluate its effect subjectively and objectively. Superficial parotidectomy was performed for eight cases of parotid gland tumor, and a PMF was transferred to cover the site. The incidence of FS and DD were evaluated subjectively, using a questionnaire to the patients and board-certified reconstructive surgeons, and objectively, using Minor's starch-iodine test. In seven patients, the defect could be completely covered with PMF, and none of them developed FS or obvious DD. However, in one patient, the defect could be only partially covered, and the patient developed complications in the exact site that the flap did not cover. Overall scores from the questionnaire were high in relation to both cosmetic and functional perspectives from most of the patients and all the surgeons. No patients had major postoperative complications requiring revision. PMF can be useful to cover the defect and prevent complications after parotidectomy. PMF is relatively easy to perform with fewer complications; however, a complete coverage of the defect should be ensured to obtain optimal results. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Meta-analysis of surgical techniques for preventing Frey syndrome and a concave facial deformity after parotidectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Fan, Jin-chuan; Li, Bin; Chen, Jian-chao; Wang, Zhao-hui; Zhang, Bing; Xu, Yi-quan; Song, Yu-feng; Xu, Yuan-zhi

    2011-07-01

    To explore the curative effects on surgical methods for the prevention of Frey syndrome and a concave facial deformity after parotidectomy. A literature search was performed using the Wianfang Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Disk Database, Chinese Digital Hospital Library and Chinese Scientific Journals Database of VIP from January 1989 to December 2008. Twenty-six Chinese language controlled studies involving surgical techniques for prevention of Frey syndrome and the concave facial deformity after parotidectomy were identified. Review manager 4.2 software was applied for Meta analysis. Meta-analysis for surgical techniques to prevent symptomatic Frey syndrome, a positive starch-iodine test, and contour deformity, favored intervention with a cumulative odds ratio (OR) of 0.14 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.07-0.25]; OR, 0.21 (95% CI, 0.17-0.26); and OR, 0.09 (95% CI, 0.04-0.19), respectively. There was a significant difference in the incidence of these complications between surgical treatment groups and control groups (Z = 6.42, Z = 13.70, Z = 6.43, all P starch-iodine test (Z = 7.48, P starch-iodine test (Z = 5.72, P 0.05). Meta-analysis of operative techniques to prevent symptomatic Frey syndrome, a positive starch-iodine test, and facial asymmetry suggests that such methods are likely to reduce the incidence of these complications and improve the quality of life after parotidectomy.

  3. Research on an Active Seat Belt System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  4. Roof Deformation, Failure Characteristics, and Preventive Techniques of Gob-Side Entry Driving Heading Adjacent to the Advancing Working Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jian-biao; Shen, Wen-long; Guo, Guan-long; Wang, Xiang-yu; Yu, Yang

    2015-11-01

    In mining excavation, the roof bending subsidence of gob-side entry driving heading adjacent to the advancing working face (HAWF) can be considerable. Influenced by the original rock pressure, the front and lateral abutment pressure of the adjacent working face, and the front abutment pressure of the current working face, the support body can easily fail, leading to serious instability of the rock mass surrounding the tunnel. To study the stress state and the deformation failure mechanism of the HAWF roof structure, we use on-site survey data, numerical simulation, and theoretical calculations to fit the spatial distribution law of mining abutment pressure piecewise, and establish a dynamic mechanical model of the roof structure. We then propose a roof failure criterion and examine the roof flexure deformation behavioral pattern. We found that the central part of the roof is the main point that controls the surrounding rock. To prevent the deformation and collapse of the roof and rock surrounding the tunnel, we propose techniques that can be applied to HAWF gob-side entry driving, including setting the coal pillar width, the driving stop and restart timing, and other control concepts.

  5. Modified suture-bridge technique to prevent a marginal dog-ear deformity improves structural integrity after rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Keun Jung; Kim, Bang Hyun; Lee, Yohan; Lee, Yoon Seok; Kim, Jae Hwa

    2015-03-01

    The arthroscopic suture-bridge technique has proved to provide biomechanically firm fixation of the torn rotator cuff to the tuberosity by increasing the footprint contact area and pressure. However, a marginal dog-ear deformity is encountered not infrequently when this technique is used, impeding full restoration of the torn cuff. To evaluate the structural and functional outcomes of the use of a modified suture-bridge technique to prevent a marginal dog-ear deformity compared with a conventional suture-bridge method in rotator cuff repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence 2. A consecutive series of 71 patients aged 50 to 65 years who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for full-thickness medium-sized to massive tears was evaluated. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to repair technique: a conventional suture-bridge technique (34 patients; group A) versus a modified suture-bridge technique to prevent a marginal dog-ear deformity (37 patients; group B). Radiographic evaluations included postoperative cuff integrity using MRI. Functional evaluations included pre- and postoperative range of motion (ROM), pain visual analog scale (VAS), the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale, the Constant score, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score. All patients were followed up clinically at a minimum of 1 year. When the 2 surgical techniques were compared, postoperative structural integrity by Sugaya classification showed the distribution of types I:II:III:IV:V to be 4:20:2:4:4 in group A and 20:12:4:0:1 in group B. More subjects in group B had a favorable Sugaya type compared with group A (P bridge technique repairs were found in the retear group (P = .03). There were significant differences between healed and retear groups in functional outcome scores, with worse results in the retear group. A modified suture-bridge technique to prevent a marginal dog-ear deformity provided better structural outcomes than a

  6. A public health approach to eating disorders prevention: it's time for public health professionals to take a seat at the table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn

    2012-10-09

    The societal burden of eating disorders is clear, and though there is a compelling need for a public health approach to eating disorders prevention, public health professionals have yet to take up the challenge. The article lays out an argument for what steps need to be taken to bring a public health approach to eating disorders prevention. First, stock is taken of what the field has achieved so far, using tools from the prevention science literature, and, second, a research plan of action is offered that plays to the unique strengths of public health, drawing on a triggers-to-action framework from public health law. Minimal participation was found from public health professionals in eating disorders prevention research, and the vast majority of prevention research to date was found to be concentrated within the disciplines of psychology and psychiatry. Extreme disciplinary concentration of the research has led to a preponderance of individually targeted prevention strategies with little research focused on environmental targets, particularly at the macro level. New environmental initiatives are now emerging, such as a government-sponsored mass media anti-dieting campaign, and legal bans on extremely thin models in advertising, but for the most part, they have yet to be evaluated. A triggers-to-action framework, which focuses on evidentiary base, practical considerations, and political will, developed in public health law provides a basis for a strategic research plan for a public health approach to eating disorders prevention. There is enormous potential for growth in the scope and diversity of eating disorder prevention research strategies, particularly those targeting the macro environment. A public health approach will require a strategic plan for research that leverages the macro environment for prevention. The full engagement of public health professionals will bring to the field the much broader range of preventive strategies and perspectives needed to

  7. AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats Page Content Article Body Children should ride ... of approved car safety seats. Healthy Children Radio: Car Seat Safety Dennis Durbin, MD, FAAP, lead author ...

  8. Take your seats: Leftward asymmetry in classroom seating choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lynn Harms

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite an overall body symmetry, human behaviour is full of examples of asymmetry, from writing or gesturing to kissing and cradling. Prior research has revealed that theatre patrons show a bias towards sitting on the right side of a movie theatre. Two competing theories have attempted to explain this seating asymmetry: one posits that expectation of processing demand drives the bias; the other posits that basic motor asymmetries drive the bias. To test these theories we assessed the real-world classroom seating choices of university students using photographs. A bias for students to choose seats on the left side of the classroom was observed, in contrast to the right side bias observed in theatre seating studies. These results provide evidence in support of a processing-expectation bias.

  9. Using posturography to measure balance control during seated tai chi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Roy W; Li, Hongtao; Waite, Gabi N; Pagnacco, Guido; Oggero, Elena; Roberts, Beverly L

    2014-01-01

    Tai Chi for Arthritis (TCA) is recognized by the CDC as an evidenced-based program to prevent falls in older adults. Although seated Tai Chi is recommended for those unable to stand, little is known about balance control during seated TCA. To explore the use of posturography to assess differences between experts and non-expert practitioners of seated TCA. Twenty-three participants were recruited from those attending a Tai cChi workshop. While seated in a hard back chair centered on a force platform, participants performed selected forms from TCA and then did them in a continuous sequence. Center of pressure (CoP) indices to assess balance were normalized by height and then compared between expert and non-expert participants. Experts had significantly greater average velocity and path length (p = 0.02) for the entire sequence and open/close, but not for CoP 95% Confidence ellipse area. No significant differences in the CoP were found for commencement, wave hands, or single whip. A few differences in balance control while performing seated TCA movements were found. Future studies are needed to determine whether these can be accounted for by quality of the Tai Chi movements or factors associated with the seated position.

  10. Advancing a smart air cushion system for preventing pressure ulcers using projection Moiré for large deformation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheng-Lin; Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Lee, Carina Jean-Tien; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2016-03-01

    A pressure ulcer is one of the most important concerns for wheelchair bound patients with spinal cord injuries. A pressure ulcer is a localized injury near the buttocks that bear ischial tuberosity oppression over a long period of time. Due to elevated compression to blood vessels, the surrounding tissues suffer from a lack of oxygen and nutrition. The ulcers eventually lead to skin damage followed by tissue necrosis. The current medical strategy is to minimize the occurrence of pressure ulcers by regularly helping patients change their posture. However, these methods do not always work effectively or well. As a solution to fundamentally prevent pressure ulcers, a smart air cushion system was developed to detect and control pressure actively. The air cushion works by automatically adjusting a patient's sitting posture to effectively relieve the buttock pressure. To analyze the correlation between the dynamic pressure profiles of an air cell with a patient's weight, a projection Moiré system was adopted to measure the deformation of an air cell and its associated stress distribution. Combining a full-field deformation imaging with air pressure measured within an air cell, the patient's weight and the stress distribution can be simultaneously obtained. By integrating a full-field optical metrology with a time varying pressure sensor output coupled with different active air control algorithms for various designs, we can tailor the ratio of the air cells. Our preliminary data suggests that this newly developed smart air cushion has the potential to selectively reduce localized compression on the tissues at the buttocks. Furthermore, it can take a patient's weight which is an additional benefit so that medical personnel can reference it to prescribe the correct drug dosages.

  11. Comfort model for automobile seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lizandra da; Bortolotti, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi; Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.

  12. Lightweight Seat Lever Operation Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar

    1999-01-01

    In 1999, a Shuttle crew member was unable to operate the backrest lever for the lightweight seat in microgravity. It is essential that crew members can adjust this backrest lever, which is titled forward during launch and then moved backward upon reaching orbit. This adjustment is needed to cushion the crew members during an inadvertent crash landing situation. JSCs Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) performed an evaluation of the seat controls and provided recommendations on whether the seat lever positions and operations should be modified. The original Shuttle seats were replaced with new lightweight seats whose controls were moved, with one control at the front and the other at the back. The ABF designed a 12-person experiment to investigate the amount of pull force exerted by suited subjects, when controls were placed in the front and back of the lightweight seat. Each subject was asked to perform the pull test at least three times for each combination of lever position and suit pressure conditions. The results showed that, in general, the subjects were able to pull on the lever at the back position with only about half the amount of force that they were able to exert on the lever at the front position. In addition, the results also showed that subjects wearing the pressurized suit were unable to reach the seat lever when it was located at the back. The pull forces on the front lever diminished about 50% when subjects wore pressurized suits. Based on these results from this study, it was recommended that the levers should not be located in the back position. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the levers at the front of the seat could be modified or adjusted to increase the leverage for crew members wearing pressurized launch/escape suits.

  13. Roof Deformation Characteristics and Preventive Techniques Using a Novel Non-Pillar Mining Method of Gob-Side Entry Retaining by Roof Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A new non-pillar mining technology, gob-side entry retaining by roof cutting (GERRC, different from the conventional gob-side entry retaining formed by a roadside filling support, is introduced in this study. In the new technology, roof cutting is conducted so that the roof plate forms a short cantilever beam structure within a certain range above the retained entry, thus changing the stress boundary condition of the roof structure. To explore the deformation characteristics of the roof under this special condition, a short cantilever beam mechanical model was established and solved using energy theory and displacement variational methods. Meanwhile, a theoretical and analytical control solution for roof deformation was obtained and verified via field-measured results. Based on the aforementioned calculation, the relationship between the roof deformation and main influence parameters was explored. It was concluded that the rotation of the upper main roof and width of the retained entry had the most significant impacts on roof deformation. Bolt and cable support and temporary support in the entry had a non-obvious influence on the roof deformation and could not prevent the given deformation that was caused by the rotation of the upper main roof. Based on comprehensive theoretical analysis and calculation results, ideas and countermeasures to control short cantilever roof deformation—that is, designing a reasonable height of roof cutting and a controlled width of retaining entry—were proposed and tested. Field monitoring shows that the entry control effects were satisfactory.

  14. An Ergonomic Evaluation of Aircraft Pilot Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Yolanda Nicole

    Seat comfort has become increasingly important in today's society as we spend more time at consoles, instrument panels, or just online. However, seat comfort is hard to define and difficult to measure. Several measures both objective and subjective were used to evaluate seat comfort in commercially available average pilot seats. Three pilot seats, which had the same material and similar adjustments but different physical attributes, and a universal classroom seat, with different material and no adjustments, were compared by 20 volunteers using subjective and objective measures in a Latin square controlled repeated measures design. A Friedman's test was used to determine that both the comfort questionnaire and the body-map rating results were able to discriminate objective comfort levels between the seats. One-way repeated measures ANOVA tests were used to analyze both the objective tests, actigraph and pressure pad data. All results indicated that one seat was clearly the most comfortable and another, the classroom seat was clearly the most uncomfortable seat. Furthermore, the overall comments per seat were compiled and compared to Fazlollahtabar's 2010) predictive automobile seat comfort theory to determine which factors influence comfort perception. The use of both subjective and objective data can better distinguish comfort from one seat over the other. These results have implications for future tests of seats that will be used for long durations. Limitations and future recommendations are discussed later in the paper. An interesting finding may explain why pressure pad data are typically seemingly at odds with subjective measures of seat comfort.

  15. THE MODEL OF PREVENTION OF VANDAL BEHAVIOR PROVIDED BY THE DEFORMATIONS AND DESTRUCTIONS OF VALUABLE SPHERE OF YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Vorobyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to discuss current opportunities for prevention of vandal behavior of young people, taking into account the structural features of valuable sphere of teenagers and young men. Methods. Methods involve psychognostic techniques such as an axiological questionnaire by S.Schwarz, a questionnaire «Motives of vandal behaviour» by I. V. Vorobyeva, O. V. Kruzhkova, S. A. Ostrikova; method of theoretical modelling. Results. Vandalism is described as a fairly common phenomenon among young people, which may be the result not only of deviant orientation of the individual, but also the result of a mismatch of individual values of teenager or young man and imposed by society requirements for his value orientations. 832 teenagers took part in the complex psychological studies. The following four different groups of respondents have been identified and studied: – with an agreed system of prosocial value orientations; – respondents with a mismatched (deformed system of values; – respondents with a destructive (antagonistic system of value orientations; – respondents with agreed antisocial system of value orientations. The model of prevention of vandalism among young people is developed on the basis of the psychological characteristics of these groups and the description of the genesis and causes of vandal behavior with following applying the method of theoretical modeling. This model is based on the principles of accounting axiological aspects of regulation of activity, consideration of personal values as a dynamic system, taking into account the degree of stability of the system of individual value orientations, differentiation and depth of the psychological impact of variation in the choice of forms and methods of psychological influence. The recommendations are proposed; the most appropriate psychological work aspects with each of the groups of respondents are described. Scientific novelty. The proposed authors

  16. The Effect of Silver Nanofibers on the Deformation Properties of Blood Vessels: Towards the Development of New Nanotechnologies to Prevent Rupture of Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An aneurysm is the result of a widening or ballooning of a portion of a blood vessel. The rupture of an aneurysm occurs when the mechanical stress acting on the inner wall exceeds the failure strength of the blood vessel. We propose an innovative approach to prevent the rupture of an aneurysm based on the use of nanotechnology to improve the strength of the blood vessel. We present results on the effect of silver nanofibers on the resistance toward deformation of blood vessels. The silver nanofibers are grown on the surface of the blood vessels. The nanofibers are 120±30 nm in diameter and 2.7±0.8 μm in length. The deformation per applied force of blood vessels was found to decrease from 0.15 m/N in control blood vessels to 0.003 m/N in blood vessels treated with the nanofibers. This represents an increase in the resistance towards deformation of a factor of 50. The increase in the resistance towards deformation is clinically significant since blood pressure increases by factors slightly larger than one in the human body. Treatment of blood vessels with silver nanofibers is a potential translational clinical tool for preventing rupture of aneurysms in a clinical setting.

  17. Seat belt misuse among children transported in belt-positioning booster seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Joseph; Daniels, Dawn M; Talty, Judith L; Bull, Marilyn J

    2009-05-01

    Observe and report seat belt use among children transported in belt-positioning booster seats. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational survey of children transported in motor vehicles between 2006 and 2007. While drivers completed a survey reporting the child's age, weight and gender, and the driver's age, gender, race, income, education, and relationship to the child; a child passenger safety technician recorded vehicle seating location, restraint type, and use of the car safety seat harness or seat belt as appropriate for the child. Twenty-five fast food restaurants and discount department stores throughout Indiana. A convenience sample of drivers transporting children younger than 16 years. Seat belt use among children transported in belt-positioning booster seats. Seat belt misuse. Overall, 1446 drivers participated, 2287 children were observed with 564 children in belt-positioning booster seats. At least one seat belt misuse was observed for 64.8% of the children transported. Common misuses were the shoulder belt being placed over the booster seat armrest (35.8%); shoulder belt not at mid-shoulder position (28.5%), seat belt was too loose (24.5%), and the shoulder belt was either behind the child's back (9.1%) or under their arm (10.0%). There is a high frequency of seat belt misuses among children transported in booster seats. Advice to parents on appropriate car seat selection, and encouragement to parents to supervise seat belt use may decrease misuse.

  18. Physicist Wins Open Illinois Seat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    American Association for the Advancement of Science

    2008-04-09

    Apr 9, 2008 ... Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermi- lab) in Batavia, Illinois, won a special election to fill the seat held by former House Majority. Leader Dennis Hastert in a race that attracted national attention. And hundreds of scientists around the country gave their time and money to help put Foster over the top.

  19. Effect of a suspension seat support chair on the trunk flexion angle and gluteal pressure during computer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] We assessed the effects of a suspension seat support chair on the trunk flexion angle and gluteal pressure during computer work. [Subjects] Ten males were recruited. [Methods] The suspension seat support was developed to prevent abnormal gluteal pressure and a slumped sitting posture during computer work. The gluteal pressure was measured with a TekScan system and the trunk flexion angle was measured with a video camera, to compare the differences between a general chair and the suspension seat support. [Results] The gluteal peak pressures were decreased significantly in the suspension seat support versus the general chair. The trunk flexion angle was also decreased significantly in the suspension seat support compared with the general chair. [Conclusions] This study suggests that the suspension seat support chair contributes to preventing abnormal gluteal pressure and a slumped sitting posture.

  20. Capsular Contraction with S‐Shaped Deformity of Nonlength‐Expanding Inflatable Penile Prosthesis Cylinders: Management and Prevention Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Karpman, Edward; Henry, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Capsular contraction (CC) occurring with inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) reservoirs has been reported by urologists as a cause of autoinflation. The concept of CC occurring around IPP cylinders has not been studied. Aims Herein we report a case of CC occurring with nonlength-expanding IPP cylinders, resulting in an S-shaped deformity. Main Outcome Measures We sought to report a novel cause of S-shaped deformity in patients after IPP surgery. Methods We reviewed a recent clinic...

  1. NASA Standards Inform Comfortable Car Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    NASA developed standards, which included the neutral body posture (NBP), to specify ways to design flight systems that support human health and safety. Nissan Motor Company, with US offices in Franklin, Tennessee, turned to NASA's NBP research for the development of a new driver's seat. The 2013 Altima now features the new seat, and the company plans to incorporate the seats in upcoming vehicles.

  2. Stadium seating--a market analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry A. Sesco; Edwin Kallio

    1967-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of stadiums and seating in six North Central States; summarizes the purchasing methods for stadium seats; presents estimates of the present and future market; and points out the increasing competition to wood stadium seating form substitute materials.

  3. The influence of seat adjustment and a thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis on the distribution of body-seat pressure in children with scoliosis and pelvic obliquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Yehudit; Meyer, Shirley; Katz-Leurer, Michal; Tamar Weiss, Patrice L

    2004-01-07

    To determine the effect of a thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO) on the distribution of body-seat interface pressure in children with concomitant scoliosis and pelvic obliquity and to determine the effects of two methods commonly used in customized seating--elevation (push up) of the lower side of the pelvis or a wedge insertion beneath the raised pelvis--on the distribution of body-seat interface pressure. The study population comprised 15 children with an underlying neuromuscular disorder. All had scoliosis and pelvic obliquity when seated, and used a TLSO during sitting. Body-seat interface pressure was measured using the QA Pad. Maximum pressure, mean pressure and contact area were recorded at baseline and at 10 degrees 'push up' and 10 degrees wedge insertion, with and without the TLSO. X-rays were performed with and without the orthosis at baseline position. The TLSO reduced the scoliosis deformity by a mean of 5.3 degrees and significantly (p pelvic obliquity was contralateral to the side of the curve. Seat adjustment did not have any significant effect on pressure readings. Application of a TLSO in a child with scoliosis and contralateral pelvic obliquity significantly reduced the spinal curvature and interface sitting pressure. Manipulation of sitting by use of wedges under the pelvis had no significant effect on pressure distribution.

  4. Applications of Mechatronics in Seating Furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynek Maňák

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechatronics is gradually being used in different fields of the production process and final products. In the field of home seating furniture, it has not been formally declared as such yet. The purpose of further development of seating furniture is to improve its ergonomic parameters, to improve user comfort in controlling and using seating furniture or to provide new additional functions of seating furniture. Application of mechatronic principles can be presumed within the framework of this development. An analysis of the current state of reclining seating furniture, which uses mechanical and electromechanical positioning mechanisms, is conducted in order to formulate possible fields of applying mechatronics. The analysis defines individual ergonomic parameters which are influenced in reclining of seating furniture. This analysis is used as a basis for formulating a hypothesis describing potential development fields of applying mechatronics in home seating furniture.

  5. Effects of heated seats in vehicles on thermal comfort during the initial warm-up period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Hajime; Tabata, Koji; Naka, Yasuhito; Takeda, Akira; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2012-03-01

    Eight subjects participated in a subjective experiment of eight conditions to investigate the effects of heated seats in vehicles on skin temperature, thermal sensation and thermal comfort during the initial warm-up period. The experimental conditions were designed as a combination of air temperature in the test room (5, 10, 15, or 20 °C) and heated seat (on/off). The heated seat was effective for improving thermal comfort during the initial warm-up period when air temperature was lower than 15 °C. Use of heated seats prevented decreases in or increased toe skin temperature. Heated seats also increased foot thermal sensation at 15 and 20 °C. Optimal thermal sensation in contact with the seat was higher when air temperature was lower. Optimal skin temperature in contact with the seat back was higher than that with the seat cushion. Moreover, these optimal skin temperatures were higher when air temperature was lower. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Bidet toilet seats with warm-water tanks: residual chlorine, microbial community, and structural analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyo, Toru; Asakura, Keiko; Nakano, Makiko; Yamada, Mutsuko; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2016-02-01

    Despite the reported health-related advantages of the use of warm water in bidets, there are health-related disadvantages associated with the use of these toilet seats, and the bacterial research is sparse. We conducted a survey on the hygienic conditions of 127 warm-water bidet toilet seats in restrooms on a university campus. The spray water from the toilet seats had less residual chlorine than their tap water sources. However, the total viable microbial count was below the water-quality standard for tap water. In addition, the heat of the toilet seats' warm-water tanks caused heterotrophic bacteria in the source tap water to proliferate inside the nozzle pipes and the warm-water tanks. Escherichia coli was detected on the spray nozzles of about 5% of the toilet seats, indicating that the self-cleaning mechanism of the spray nozzles was largely functioning properly. However, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected on about 2% of the toilet seats. P. aeruginosa was found to remain for long durations in biofilms that formed inside warm-water tanks. Infection-prevention measures aimed at P. aeruginosa should receive full consideration when managing warm-water bidet toilet seats in hospitals in order to prevent opportunistic infections in intensive care units, hematology wards, and other hospital locations.

  7. Diffeomorphic Statistical Deformation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Hansen, Mads/Fogtman; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method for constructing diffeomorphic statistical deformation models in arbitrary dimensional images with a nonlinear generative model and a linear parameter space. Our deformation model is a modified version of the diffeomorphic model introduced by Cootes et al....... The modifications ensure that no boundary restriction has to be enforced on the parameter space to prevent folds or tears in the deformation field. For straightforward statistical analysis, principal component analysis and sparse methods, we assume that the parameters for a class of deformations lie on a linear...

  8. Energy-Absorbing Passenger Seat for Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, C. P.; Alfaro-Bou, E.; Fasanella, E. L.

    1987-01-01

    Development of energy-absorbing passenger seat, designed to minimize injury in commercial-aircraft crash, part of joint FAA/NASA controlledimpact flight test of transport-category commercial aircraft. Modified seat mechanism collapses under heavy load to absorb impact energy and thereby protect passenger. Results of simulation tests indicate probability of passenger survival high. Proposed seat mechanism mitigates passenger injuries by reducing impact forces in crash.

  9. Drive alive: teen seat belt survey program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Katie M; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan

    2010-08-01

    To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program. Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001). The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention. Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students.

  10. Simulation of human seated postures and dynamic seat interaction in impact conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; Verver, M.M.; Lange, R. de

    2000-01-01

    Prediction and assessment of seated postures are essential for ergonomic vehicle design whereas dynamic seat interactions are essential for impact conditions. This paper presents seat models and human models for both applications. An interface has been developed to convert RAMSIS human models and

  11. Electrical Connector Mechanical Seating Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ellen; Captain, Janine; Youngquist, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A sensor provides a measurement of the degree of seating of an electrical connector. This sensor provides a number of discrete distances that a plug is inserted into a socket or receptacle. The number of measurements is equal to the number of pins available in the connector for sensing. On at least two occasions, the Shuttle Program has suffered serious time delays and incurred excessive costs simply because a plug was not seated well within a receptacle. Two methods were designed to address this problem: (1) the resistive pin technique and (2) the discrete length pins technique. In the resistive pin approach, a standard pin in a male connector is replaced with a pin that has a uniform resistivity along its length. This provides a variable resistance on that pin that is dependent on how far the pin is inserted into a socket. This is essentially a linear potentiometer. The discrete approach uses a pin (or a few pins) in the connector as a displacement indicator by truncating the pin length so it sits shorter in the connector than the other pins. A loss of signal on this pin would indicate a discrete amount of displacement of the connector. This approach would only give discrete values of connector displacement, and at least one pin would be needed for each displacement value that would be of interest.

  12. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The legacy of research on increasing seat belt use has : focused on enactment of seat belt legislation, public education, : high-visibility police enforcement, and seat belt : reminder systems. Several behavioral programs have : produced large, susta...

  13. The dynamic response of human subjects while seated in car seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, M H; Magnusson, M; Broman, N H; Hasson, T

    1998-01-01

    A pendulum impact method was used to establish the dynamic response of the seated subject. Threaded K wires were placed in the L3 spinous process. The gain and phase angle between the platform and the vertebra were established. The response of the subject was observed while seated on a platform and a variety of other seats. The seats were found to be very important in the attenuation of the impulse, leading to a higher transmissibility. Clinical Relevance Skeletal impact through the lower extremity is quite common in many occupations. The importance of posture and seat design in attenuation of impulses has been established.

  14. A social media program to increase adolescent seat belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Stacy A; Zhang, Ni; Applewhite, Courtney; Fowler, Katherine; Holcomb, John B

    2017-09-01

    In response to motor vehicle crashes remaining the leading cause of death for teenagers in the United States, a nursing clinical group (n = 10) in conjunction with a local hospital injury prevention program created an educational campaign to bolster seat belt use. The nursing students created an Instagram account to serve as an educational tool to promote seat belt use among teenagers aged 14-19, and the program was presented at three high school health fairs. In all, 135 postings were made to the account over a 3-month period. The number of likes posted by high school students was the unit of analysis. The most significant result (p = .01) was the difference between postings most liked (celebrities wearing seat belts) and least liked (postings made at the high school health fair), otherwise, differences among postings liked (humor postings, response requests, pictures of celebrities, factual data) were not significant. Instagram user engagement, measured in number of likes, is indicative that social media provides platforms to promote injury prevention efforts. Further research is needed to identify measurable elements of social media and to follow-up on behavioral changes following participation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Fall Prevention: Simple Tips to Prevent Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bars for the shower or tub A sturdy plastic seat for the shower or tub — plus a ... healthy-lifestyle/healthy-aging/in-depth/fall-prevention/art-20047358 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  16. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  17. Technical note: Spine loading in automotive seating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenk, R.; Franz, M.; Bubb, H.; Vink, P.

    2012-01-01

    For car manufacturers, seat comfort is becoming more important in distinguishing themselves from their competitors. Therefore, many studies on participative seat comfort are carried out. In this paper, an objective assessment approach is reported which evaluates the concept of "optimal load

  18. Seat Belts on School Buses: Some Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, David

    1982-01-01

    A representative of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration weighs advantages and discusses issues associated with installing seat belts in school buses. Federal regulations and research findings are considered. A list of guideline questions for school districts planning to install seat belts is included. (PP)

  19. Design of bridges against large tectonic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, I.; Gazetas, G.; Drosos, V.; Georgarakos, T.; Kourkoulis, R.

    2008-12-01

    The engineering community has devoted much effort to understanding the response of soil-structure systems to seismic ground motions, but little attention to the effects of an outcropping fault offset. The 1999 earthquakes of Turkey and Taiwan, offering a variety of case histories of structural damage due to faulting, have (re)fueled the interest on the subject. This paper presents a methodology for design of bridges against tectonic deformation. The problem is decoupled in two analysis steps: the first (at the local level) deals with the response of a single pier and its foundation to fault rupture propagating through the soil, and the superstructure is modeled in a simplified manner; and the second (at the global level) investigates detailed models of the superstructure subjected to the support (differential) displacements of Step 1. A parametric study investigates typical models of viaduct and overpass bridges, founded on piles or caissons. Fixed-head piled foundations are shown to be rather vulnerable to faulting-induced deformation. End-bearing piles in particular are unable to survive bedrock offsets exceeding 10 cm. Floating piles perform better, and if combined with hinged pile-to-cap connections, they could survive much larger offsets. Soil resilience is beneficial in reducing pile distress. Caisson foundations are almost invariably successful. Statically-indeterminate superstructures are quite vulnerable, while statically-determinate are insensitive (allowing differential displacements and rotations without suffering any distress). For large-span cantilever-construction bridges, where a statically determinate system is hardly an option, inserting resilient seismic isolation bearings is advantageous as long as ample seating can prevent the deck from falling off the supports. An actual application of the developed method is presented for a major bridge, demonstrating the feasibility of design against tectonic deformation.

  20. Deformation of the Pannonian lithosphere and related tectonic topography: a depth-to-surface analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dombrádi, E.

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprints of deep-seated, lithospheric deformation are often recognised on the surface, contributing to topographic evolution, drainage organisation and mass transport. Interactions between deep and surface processes were investigated in the Carpathian-Pannonian region. The lithosphere beneath

  1. Optimizing the rear seat environment for older children, adults, and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingwen; Wu, Jun; Klinich, Kathleen D; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Cao, Libo

    2013-01-01

    Our recent rear seat safety research found that more-forward and higher lap belt anchorage locations and much shorter and stiffer seat cushions can improve the protection of older children from 6 to 12 years old who are using the vehicle belt without a booster. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the optimal rear seat restraint systems for adults and infants are consistent with those for older children. We conducted sensitivity analyses and design optimizations for adults and for infants in a rear-facing child restraint system (CRS) using a set of MADYMO models, an automated simulation framework, and occupant belt-fit and posture prediction models from our previous studies. A series of 12 sled tests was also used to validate the computational models. The optimal belt anchorage locations and the seat cushion length for older children, adults, and rear-facing CRS-seated infants conflict with each other. In particular, more-forward lap belt anchorage locations that prevent submarining for older children would reduce the protection to both adults and CRS-seated infants, although the protection is still acceptable based on regulated injury criteria. A shorter seat cushion could provide optimal protection to older children and adults but would significantly increase the CRS rotation. The findings of this study suggested that adaptive/adjustable restraint systems are necessary to simultaneously improve the rear seat occupant protection for all age groups. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file.

  2. Differences in the kinematics of booster-seated pediatric occupants using two different car seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juste-Lorente, O; Maza, M; Lorente, A I; Lopez-Valdes, F J

    2018-01-02

    The objective of this article is to compare the performance of forward-facing child restraint systems (CRS) mounted on 2 different seats. Two different anthropomorphic test device (ATD) sizes (P3 and P6), using the same child restraint system (a non-ISOFIX high-back booster seat), were exposed to the ECE R44 regulatory deceleration pulse in a deceleration sled. Two different seats (seat A, seat B) were used. Three repetitions per ATD and mounting seat were done, resulting in a total of 12 sled crashes. Dummy sensors measured the head tri-axial acceleration and angular rate and the thorax tri-axial acceleration, all acquired at 10,000 Hz. A high-speed video camera recorded the impact at 1,000 frames per second. The 3D kinematics of the head and torso of the ATDs were captured using a high-speed motion capture system (1,000 Hz). A pair-matched statistical analysis compared the outcomes of the tests using the 2 different seats. Statistically significant differences in the kinematic response of the ATDs associated with the type of seat were observed. The maximum 3 ms peak of the resultant head acceleration was higher on seat A for the P3 dummy (54.5 ± 1.9 g vs. 44.2 ± 0.5 g; P =.012) and for the P6 dummy (56.0 ± 0.8 g vs. 51.7 ± 1.2 g; P =.015). The peak belt force was higher on seat A than on seat B for the P3 dummy (5,488.0 ± 198.0 N vs. 4,160.6 ± 63.6 N; P =.008) and for the P6 dummy (7,014.0 ± 271.0 N vs. 5,719.3 ± 37.4 N; P =.015). The trajectory of the ATD head was different between the 2 seats in the sagittal, transverse, and frontal planes. The results suggest that the overall response of the booster-seated occupant exposed to the same impact conditions was different depending on the seat used regardless of the size of the ATD. The differences observed in the response of the occupants between the 2 seats can be attributed to the differences in cushion stiffness, seat pan geometry, and belt geometry. However, these results were obtained for 2

  3. Environmental and psychosocial factors affecting seat belt use among Turkish front-seat occupants in Ankara: two observation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simşekoğlu, Ozlem; Lajunen, Timo

    2008-01-01

    Low seat belt use rate among car occupants is one of the main problems contributing to low driver and passenger safety in Turkey, where injury and fatality rates of car occupants are very high in traffic crashes. The present article consists of two observation studies, which were conducted in Ankara. The first study aimed at investigating environmental factors and occupant characteristics affecting seat belt use among front-seat occupants, and the objective of the second study was to investigate the relationship between driver and front-seat passenger seat belt use. In the first study, 4, 227 front-seat occupants (drivers or front seat passengers) were observed on four different road sides and, in the second study 1, 398 front seat occupants were observed in car parks of five different shopping centers in Ankara. In both observations, front-seat occupants' seat bet use (yes, no), sex (male, female), and age ( 50 years) were recorded. The data were analyzed using chi-square statistics and binary logistic regression techniques. Results of the first study showed that seat belt use proportion among observed front seat occupants was very low (25%). Being female and traveling on intercity roads were two main factors positively related to use a seat belt among front-seat occupants. High correlations between seat belt use of the drivers and front-seat passengers were found in the second study. Overall, low seat belt use rate (25%) among the front-seat occupants should be increased urgently for an improved driver and passenger safety in Turkey. Seat belt campaigns especially tailored for male front-seat occupants and for the front-seat occupants traveling on city roads are needed to increase seat belt use rates among them. Also, both drivers and passengers may have an important role in enforcing seat belt use among themselves.

  4. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftin, Laurel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.

  5. The Seated Soldier Study: Posture and Body Shape in Vehicle Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-28

    vehicle interior layout Current design guidance is based on outdated anthropometry Previous studies of seated anthropometry have not included the...personal protective equipment (PPE) for seat and vehicle interior layout • Current design guidance is based on outdated anthropometry • Previous...studies of seated anthropometry have not included the effects of PPE on posture and body shape • Detailed anthropometric data needed for the design

  6. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Seat belts are designed to reduce injuries due to road crash among vehicle occupants. Aims: This study aims to determine the availability of seat belt in vehicles and compliance with seat belt use among vehicle occupants. Materials and methods: This was a 24‑h direct observational study of seat belt usage ...

  7. Digital Recovery Sequencer - Advanced Concept Ejection Seats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ross, David A; Cotter, Lee; Culhane, David; Press, Matthew J

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Concept Ejection Seat (ACES) currently uses the Analog Sequencer, designed in the 1960's and 1970's with analog technology, to control ejection event timing and ejection mode selection...

  8. The dynamic response of human subjects while seated in car seats.

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, M. H.; Magnusson, M.; Broman, N. H.; Hasson, T.

    1998-01-01

    A pendulum impact method was used to establish the dynamic response of the seated subject. Threaded K wires were placed in the L3 spinous process. The gain and phase angle between the platform and the vertebra were established. The response of the subject was observed while seated on a platform and a variety of other seats. The seats were found to be very important in the attenuation of the impulse, leading to a higher transmissibility. Clinical Relevance Skeletal impact through the lower ext...

  9. Seat-belt message and the law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, S K; Patil, N G; Law, G

    1989-09-01

    This paper attempts to draw together available information on the use of seat belts, one of the most important safety devices for a person in a car. Considering the high rate of mortality and morbidity due to road traffic accidents in Papua New Guinea the authors strongly feel that seat-belt usage should be made compulsory. When one looks at the history of the implementation of such a successful countermeasure in other countries it seems that legislation is the only answer.

  10. 76 FR 31803 - Airworthiness Directives; Koito Industries, Ltd., Seats and Seating Systems Approved Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... 16g, the test results indicate a level of safety higher than that of 9g-only seats. Cathay Pacific Airways and V Australia requested that the 2-year compliance time be extended to 4 years. Cathay Pacific... scheduled heavy maintenance checks. Cathay Pacific also noted it takes 18 to 24 months for a typical seat...

  11. 75 FR 34172 - Lordstown Seating Systems, a Subsidiary of Magna Seating, Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... certification for workers of the subject firm. The workers produce seating for automobiles. New information shows that some workers separated from employment at the subject firm had their wages reported under a... secondarily affected as a supplier of seating for automobiles to a TAA certified firm. The amended notice...

  12. Europa Propulsion Valve Seat Material Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addona, Brad M.

    2017-01-01

    The Europa mission and spacecraft design presented unique challenges for selection of valve seat materials that met the fluid compatibility requirements, and combined fluid compatibility and high radiation exposure level requirements. The Europa spacecraft pressurization system valves will be exposed to fully saturated propellant vapor for the duration of the mission. The effects of Nitrogen Tetroxide (NTO) and Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) propellant vapors on heritage valve seat materials, such as Vespel SP-1 and Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), were evaluated to determine if an alternate material is required. In liquid system applications, Teflon is the only available compatible valve seat material. Radiation exposure data for Teflon in an air or vacuum environment has been previously documented. Radiation exposure data for Teflon in an oxidizer environment such as NTO, was not available, and it was unknown whether the effects would be similar to those on air-exposed samples. Material testing was conducted by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) to determine the effects of propellant vapor on heritage seat materials for pressurization valve applications, and the effects of combined radiation and NTO propellant exposure on Teflon. The results indicated that changes in heritage pressurization valve seat materials' properties rendered them unsuitable for the Europa application. The combined radiation and NTO exposure testing of Teflon produced results equivalent to combined radiation and air exposure results.

  13. SEAT: A strategic engagement analysis tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, J.; Michelsen, C.; Morgeson, D.

    1988-01-01

    The Strategic Engagement Analysis Tool (SEAT) is a prototype of an expert system knowledge-based discrete event simulation. SEAT realistically represents the interrelationships between the eight major subsystems in the strategic targeting and assault domain. Some of the subsystems employ run-time cognitive decision making and reasoning capabilities to represent human tactical and operational strategy decisions. SEAT's goal is to allow analysts to conduct sensitivity analysis and to determine cause-effect relationships. An intelligent interface mechanism is provided to aid the analyst in scenario creation. The interface was designed to provide on-line documentation, support for model input, logic control, and data validation prior to simulation execution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  14. International survey of seat belt use exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H; Sirin, H; Levine, J A; Sauber, E

    2006-08-01

    Substantial evidence of seatbelt efficacy has been shown by several studies, and it is widely recommended that motor vehicle occupants use properly fitted seat belts. However, some (but a heretofore unknown number of) countries with national seat belt laws permit various exemptions which may lower use rates. The aim of this study was to survey the variety of exemptions to national seat belt laws. This investigation relied on identifying respondents from national traffic safety agencies, other governmental and non-governmental organizations, Internet searches, personal contacts, and other sources. Questionnaires were deployed through a web based survey supplemented by email and postal versions. Responses were received from 30 countries of which 28 (93.7%) had a national seat belt law. About two thirds (63.7%) of the 28 national laws applied to both front and back seat passengers. The leading exemption types included vehicles made before a certain year (n = 13), antique vehicles (n = 12), military vehicles (n = 11), buses (n = 9), and emergency vehicles (n = 8). Most responding countries reported one or more specific categories of individuals as exempt including those with medical exemptions (n = 20), taxi drivers (n = 11), police (n = 9), emergency medical personnel (n = 8), physically disabled people (n = 6), and pregnant women (n = 6). Out of 26 responses to the question regarding current level of enforcement, 42.3% felt enforcement was "very good or good" and 57.7% characterized it as "fair or poor". This study represents one of the largest international traffic law surveys reported. Most national seatbelt laws offer perilous exemptions to a broad array of vehicle types and road user groups. These findings, coupled with concern over the level of enforcement in the majority of countries surveyed, suggest that international road safety efforts have a long way to go to improve coverage and enforcement of national seat belt laws.

  15. Civil aircraft side-facing seat research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has standards and regulations that are intended to protect aircraft : occupants in the event of a crash. However, side-facing seats were not specifically addressed when aircraft seat : dynamic test standards ...

  16. Joint overbooking and seat allocation for fare families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Robert; Fiig, Thomas; Bondoux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Revenue Management Systems (RMS) traditionally solve the seat allocation problem separately from the overbooking problem. Overbooking is managed by inflating the authorization levels obtained from seat allocation by various heuristics. This approach although suboptimal, is necessitated because of...

  17. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Number of designated seating positions. The formula for calculating the number of designated seating... located using the SAE three-dimensional H-point machine per Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Surface...

  18. Deformation microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Hughes, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Microstructural characterization and modeling has shown that a variety of metals deformed by different thermomechanical processes follows a general path of grain subdivision, by dislocation boundaries and high angle boundaries. This subdivision has been observed to very small structural scales...

  19. The Effectiveness of Sternocleidomastoid Flap Versus Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System Flap for the Prevention of Frey Syndrome and Facial Depressed Deformity in Parotid Surgery for Pleomorphic Adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manola, Marco; Moscillo, Luca; Simeon, Vittorio; De Luca, Elena; Mastella, Americo

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 2 types of reconstruction techniques: sternocleidomastoid (SCM) flap and superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) flap after partial parotidectomy (PP) for preventing Frey syndrome (FS) and concave facial depressed deformity. A total of 99 patients underwent PP for pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland. The patients were divided in 2 groups according to the dimension of the tumor: tumors less than 3 cm (group A, 47 patients) and tumors greater than or equal to 3 cm (group B, 52 patients). The patients in the 2 groups were assigned to 3 subgroups: PP without reconstruction (subgroup 1), PP and reconstruction with SMAS flap (subgroup 2), PP, and reconstruction with SCM flap (subgroup 3). In group A, the results of FS subjective symptoms, positivity of Minor starch test, and the median score of cosmetic results assessed with Visual Analogue Scale were as follows: in subgroup 1: 20%, 35%, 6; in subgroup 2: 13.3%, 13,3%, 8; in subgroup 3: 0%, 8.3%, 9. In patients of group B, the results were as follows: 60%, 73.3%, 3 in subgroup 1; 28.5%, 35.7%, 5 in subgroup 2; and 8.6%, 8.6%, 8 in subgroup 3. The study demonstrates a statistical difference (P SCM flap with the subgroup of PP without reconstruction for tumors greater than 3 cm. In tumors less than 3 cm, although there is an improvement of symptoms using SMAS or SCM, there is no statistical significance. The SCM is able to reduce the risk of the onset of both objective and subjective symptoms, whereas SMAS flap has a protective effect only in objective symptoms. The cosmetic results in this study were statistically significant both with SMAS and SCM but when comparing SCM versus SMAS the best results were for SCM.

  20. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  1. High levels of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife--an important and under-recognised road safety issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, H; Macdonald, S; Richardson, P

    1997-03-01

    To pilot data collection instruments and to make a preliminary estimate of the level of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife, Scotland. Cross sectional survey of cars containing adults and children at a number of public sites across Fife in 1995 to assess use of car occupant restraints. Trained road safety officers assessed whether seat restraints were appropriate for the age of the passengers and whether restraints were used correctly. These assessments were based on standards published by the Child Accident Prevention Trust. The survey gathered data from 596 occupants in 180 cars: 327 adults and 269 children. Ten per cent of drivers who were approached refused to participate. Car occupant restraint was assessed in 180 drivers, 151 front seat passengers, and 265 rear seat passengers. Three hundred and sixty one occupants wore seat belts, 68 were restrained by a seat belt and booster cushion, 63 in toddler seats, 25 in two way seats, and 18 in rear facing infant carriers. Ninety seven per cent of drivers, 95% of front seat passengers, and 77% of rear seat passengers were restrained. However, in 98 (52%) vehicles at least one passenger was restrained by a device that was used incorrectly. Seven per cent of adults and 28% of children were secured incorrectly. The commonest errors were loose seat belts and restraint devices not adequately secured to the seat. Rates of incorrect use were highest in child seat restraints, reaching 60% with two way seats and 44% with rear facing infant seats. The incorrect use of car occupant restraints is an under-recognised problem, both by health professionals, and the general public. Incorrect use has been shown to reduce the effectiveness of restraints, can itself result in injury, and is likely to be an important factor in child passenger injuries. The correct use of car seat restraints merits greater attention in strategies aiming to reduce road traffic casualties. Areas of intervention that could be

  2. 75 FR 58340 - Airworthiness Directives; Koito Industries, Ltd., Seats and Seating Systems Approved Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... assessment is valid, the seats in question must be shown to incorporate any specific design features or..., a lumbar load test is required. 3. Predicated on design philosophy being maintained for safety...

  3. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012 & 2014, All States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for 2012 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for 2012 state data: State Observational Survey of Seat Belt Use, 2012....

  4. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... standard establishes requirements for seats, their attachment assemblies, and their installation to....2. General performance requirements. When tested in accordance with S5, each occupant seat shall... than a school bus; a passenger seat on a school bus with a GVWR greater than 4,536 kilograms (10,000...

  5. Classroom Seating Considerations for 21st Century Students and Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Eugene J.; Kenyon, Melaine C.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative, cross-sectional research study explored students' perceptions of five different seating styles within typical classrooms in an urban public higher education institution. The five seating styles included: modern mobile chairs, tablet arm chairs, fixed tiered seating with tablet arms, rectangle tables with standard chairs, and…

  6. Ergonomic Assessment of a Seat Back Support (Spine Fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Kazemi1

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : In case of inappropriateness of the dimensions of chairs or when users feel pain and pressure in their lumbar region due to poor posture, damage to the spine can be prevented using some additional supports. The aim of this study was ergonomic evaluation of one of these supportive products named “Spine Fit”. Methods : In this descriptive and cross-sectional study, in the first stage, five ergonomists evaluated the product regarding its dimension, adjustability, material, conformity, and manufacturer claims. Then, three groups of workers including office workers, office workers with low back pain, and bus drivers filled out a self-administered questionnaire after using Spine Fit . Results : For the first stage, an acceptable adjustability and dimension was found. Conformity for different kinds of office and bus seats was mostly fair. Findings from the second stage revealed that the subjects in three groups were satisfied regarding seats comfort and ease of use. Concerning the conformity of Spine Fit, it was in good level among office workers, while different levels of conformity were observed by drivers of different models of bus . Conclusion : Spine Fit supports back region based on its supportive role in pelvis, lumbar vertebrae column and thoracic spine. Moreover, Spine Fit features that reduce sweating can improve individuals’ convenience.

  7. Development of a shear force measurement dummy for seat comfort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Guk Kim

    Full Text Available Seat comfort is one of the main factors that consumers consider when purchasing a car. In this study, we develop a dummy with a shear-force sensor to evaluate seat comfort. The sensor has dimensions of 25 mm × 25 mm × 26 mm and is made of S45C. Electroless nickel plating is employed to coat its surface in order to prevent corrosion and oxidation. The proposed sensor is validated using a qualified load cell and shows high accuracy and precision (measurement range: -30-30 N; sensitivity: 0.1 N; linear relationship: R = 0.999; transverse sensitivity: <1%. The dummy is manufactured in compliance with the SAE standards (SAE J826 and incorporates shear sensors into its design. We measure the shear force under four driving conditions and at five different speeds using a sedan; results showed that the shear force increases with speed under all driving conditions. In the case of acceleration and deceleration, shear force significantly changes in the lower body of the dummy. During right and left turns, it significantly changes in the upper body of the dummy.

  8. Development of a shear force measurement dummy for seat comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Guk; Ko, Chang-Yong; Kim, Dong Hyun; Song, Ye Eun; Kang, Tae Uk; Ahn, Sungwoo; Lim, Dohyung; Kim, Han Sung

    2017-01-01

    Seat comfort is one of the main factors that consumers consider when purchasing a car. In this study, we develop a dummy with a shear-force sensor to evaluate seat comfort. The sensor has dimensions of 25 mm × 25 mm × 26 mm and is made of S45C. Electroless nickel plating is employed to coat its surface in order to prevent corrosion and oxidation. The proposed sensor is validated using a qualified load cell and shows high accuracy and precision (measurement range: -30-30 N; sensitivity: 0.1 N; linear relationship: R = 0.999; transverse sensitivity: <1%). The dummy is manufactured in compliance with the SAE standards (SAE J826) and incorporates shear sensors into its design. We measure the shear force under four driving conditions and at five different speeds using a sedan; results showed that the shear force increases with speed under all driving conditions. In the case of acceleration and deceleration, shear force significantly changes in the lower body of the dummy. During right and left turns, it significantly changes in the upper body of the dummy.

  9. Aortic ruptures in seat belt wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J

    1989-09-01

    Several investigations have indicated that rupture of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of rupture of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic rupture is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic ruptures were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic rupture in similar accidents. The location of the aortic rupture in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often ruptured, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of rupture of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to rupture of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart rupture and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending

  10. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for shock mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harinder Jit

    This research focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of an adaptive seat suspension employing magnetorheological energy absorber with the objective of minimizing injury potential to seated occupant of different weights subjected to broader crash intensities. The research was segmented into three tasks: (1) development of magnetorheological energy absorber, (2) biodynamic modeling of a seated occupant, and (3) control schemes for shock mitigation. A linear stroking semi-active magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) was designed, fabricated and tested for intense impact conditions with piston velocities up to 8 m/s. MREA design was optimized on the basis of Bingham-plastic model (BPM model) in order to maximize the energy absorption capabilities at high impact velocities. Computational fluid dynamics and magnetic FE analysis were conducted to validate MREA performance. Subsequently, low-speed cyclic testing (0-2 Hz subjected to 0-5.5 A) and high-speed drop testing (0-4.5 m/s at 0 A) were conducted for quantitative comparison with the numerical simulations. Later, a nonlinear four degrees-of-freedom biodynamic model representing a seated 50th percentile male occupant was developed on the basis of experiments conducted on Hybrid II 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device. The response of proposed biodynamic model was compared quantitatively against two different biodynamic models from the literature that are heavily implemented for obtaining biodynamic response under impact conditions. The proposed biodynamic model accurately predicts peak magnitude, overall shape and the duration of the biodynamic transient response, with minimal phase shift. The biodynamic model was further validated against 16 impact tests conducted on horizontal accelerator facility at NAVAIR for two different shock intensities. Compliance effects of human body were also investigated on the performance of adaptive seat suspension by comparing the proposed biodynamic model

  11. Evaluation of the seating of Qantas flight deck crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusted, M; Healey, S; Mandryk, J A

    1994-10-01

    In 1985 Qantas Airways (Australia) requested an ergonomics assessment of three pilots' seats so that one could be selected for fitting in all new aircraft as well replacement in existing aircraft. The Ipeco seat was chosen. In 1991, after all aircraft were fitted with the Ipeco seats, the company then requested a further evaluation of the seat to see if it was acceptable to the pilots and if there were any outstanding problems. A seat feature checklist plus a body chart discomfort rating scale was given to the total crew of 1030 pilots. The results from the 202 respondents indicated that although the pilots found the Ipeco seat an improvement on the Weber seat there were some modifications required. The main problems included insufficient adjustment range of the lumbar support area and the thigh supports, and infrequent replacement of the seat cushion. The body charts supported the checklist results in that the main areas of discomfort indicated were the buttocks and low back. Recommendations for improvements in design of the Ipeco seat, training in use and maintenance are presented. The method used in this study has application for field assessment of seating in a wide range of occupations, particularly bus drivers, truck drivers and train drivers, who spend long hours seated without being able to take breaks.

  12. Kinematics of pediatric crash dummies seated on vehicle seats with realistic belt geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinich, Kathleen D; Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Rupp, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    A series of sled tests was performed using vehicle seats and Hybrid-III 6-year-old (6YO) and 10YO anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) to explore possibilities for improving occupant protection for children who are not using belt-positioning booster seats. Cushion length was varied from production length of 450 mm to a shorter length of 350 mm. Lap belt geometry was set to rear, mid, and forward anchorage locations that span the range of lap belt angles found in vehicles. Six tests each were performed with the 6YO and 10YO Hybrid III ATDs. One additional test was performed using a booster seat with the 6YO. The ATDs were positioned using an updated version of the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) seating procedure that positions the ATD hips further forward with longer seat cushions to reflect the effect of cushion length on posture that has been measured with child volunteers. ATD kinematics were evaluated using peak head excursion, peak knee excursion, the difference between peak head and peak knee excursion, and the maximum torso angle. Shortening the seat cushion improved kinematic outcomes, particularly for the 10YO. Lap belt geometry had a greater effect on kinematics with the longer cushion length, with mid or forward belt geometries producing better kinematics than the rearward belt geometry. The worst kinematics for both ATDs occurred with the long cushion length and rearward lap belt geometry. The improvements in kinematics from shorter cushion length or more forward belt geometry are smaller than those provided by a booster seat. The results show potential benefits in occupant protection from shortening cushion length and increasing lap belt angles, particularly for children the size of the 10YO ATD.

  13. Effect of Molding and Machining on Neoflon CTFE M400H Polychlorotrifluoroethylene Rod Stock and Valve Seat Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jess M.; Newton, Barry E.; Beeson, Harold D.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1997 numerous fires have been reported to the Food and Drug Administration involving cylinder valves installed on medical use oxygen cylinders sold and operated within the United States. All of the cylinder valves in question had polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE) valve seats. Subsequent failure analysis showed that the main seat was the primary source of ignition. A review of the incidents involving cylinder valve fires indicated three possible ignition mechanisms: contaminant promotion, flow friction, and resonance. However, gas purity analysis showed that uncombusted, residual oxygen was within specification. Infrared and energy dispersive spectroscopy further showed that no contaminants or organic compounds were present in the remaining, uncombusted valve seat material or on seat plug surfaces. Therefore, contaminant-promoted ignition did not appear to be responsible for the failures. Observations of extruded material along the outer edge of the coined or loaded seat area produced by cylinder overuse or poppet overload led to concerns that accelerated gas flow across a deformed seat surface could generate enough localized heating to ignite the polymeric seat. Low molecular weight or highly amorphous quick-quenched PCTFE grades might be expected to be especially prone to this type of deformation. Such a failure mechanism has been described as flow friction; however, the corresponding mechanistic parameters are poorly understood. Subsequent revelation of low-temperature dimensional instability by thermomechanical analysis (TMA) in a variety of PCTFE sheet and rod stock samples led to new concerns that PCTFE valve seats could undergo excessive expansion or contraction during service. During expansion, additional extrusion and accompanying flow friction could occur. During contraction, a gap between the seal and adjacent metal surfaces could form. Gas flowing past the gap could, in turn, lead to resonance heating and subsequent ignition as described in ASTM

  14. Availability, functionality, and use of seat belts in Beijing taxis prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiter, Judy J; Gao, Liping; Qiu, Chen; Shi, Kan

    2009-03-01

    Use of driver seat belts and availability and functionality of passenger seat belts in a convenience sample of 231 Beijing taxis were examined in the months prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Driver and front passenger seat belt use was mandated in China from 2004 to help address the growing public health crisis of road trauma. Results from observations made by in-vehicle passengers revealed that 21.2% of drivers were correctly wearing a belt, approximately half were not, and one third were using the belt in a non-functional way. Over 3/4 of this sample of taxi drivers were unrestrained while working. The percentage of functionally available belts was higher for front than rear passengers (88.3% and 22.9%, respectively). This low rate of belt availability in rear seats calls into question the preparedness of the fleet to cater for the safety needs of foreign visitors to China, particularly those from countries with high levels of restraint use. Factors influencing the use/misuse of seat belts in China remain largely unexplored. Results of this pilot study support further investigations of barriers to using injury prevention mechanisms such as seat belts in less motorised countries.

  15. Risk of cardio-respiratory abnormalities in preterm infants placed in car seats: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegyi Thomas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the factors that predispose to the occurrence and severity of cardio-respiratory symptoms during the placement of a prematurely born infant in a car seat. The impact of gestational age, weight at discharge and infant's pre-existing cardio-respiratory status (in the supine position on cardio-respiratory function during pre-discharge testing in a car seat (semi-upright position has not been investigated. Methods The cardio-respiratory function of 42 preterm neonates with gestational age 24 to 35 weeks and discharge weight 1790 to 2570 grams were monitored for 45 minutes before, during, and after placement in a car seat. The occurrence of periodic breathing, apnea, bradycardia, or decreased oxygen saturation (SaO2 was analyzed. Results Prior to the car seat testing, 15 (35.7% infants displayed one or more abnormalities of cardio-respiratory function. During the car seat testing, 25 (59.6% infants had periodic breathing, 33 (78.2% had oxygen saturation Conclusion Pre-discharge testing of the cardio-respiratory function of preterm infants during placement in a car seat is important for the prevention of cardio-respiratory symptoms during their transportation. However, the high risk for developing cardio-respiratory symptoms will require the consideration of an alternative mode of safe home transportation for preterm infants; especially those with a discharge weight less than 2,000 grams.

  16. La nuova sfida di SEAT Pagine Gialle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Landini

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available SEAT Pagine Gialle’s new challengeSEAT Pagine Gialle is a company that for over 80 years has provided information services, search and communication tools.The companies success and notoriety is built on a customer base of about 20 million families and 3 million professional operators with a continually updated technology with which it integrates with detailed geographical information that allows it to reach millions of users every day. The services the company offers include an advanced cartographic web-based search, satellite and aerial photos, the calculation of driving instructions, weather forecasts and traffic information, 360 degree views and the modelling of whole cities in 3D.

  17. Deformations of fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1977-09-01

    Results of the DBM and FEM analysis in this study indicate that a suitable rock mass for repository of radioactive waste should be moderately jointed (about 1 joint/m 2 ) and surrounded by shear zones of the first order. This allowes for a gentle and flexible deformation under tectonic stresses and prevent the development of large cross-cutting failures in the repository area. (author)

  18. A field-based approach for examining bicycle seat design effects on seat pressure and perceived stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressel, Eadric; Bliss, Shantelle; Cronin, John

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various bicycle seat designs on seat pressure and perceived stability in male and female cyclists using a unique field-based methodology. Thirty participants, comprising male and female cyclists, pedaled a bicycle at 118W over a 350m flat course under three different seat conditions: standard seat, a seat with a partial anterior cutout, and a seat with a complete anterior cutout. The pressure between the bicycle seat and perineum of the cyclist was collected with a remote pressure-sensing mat, and perceived stability was assessed using a continuous visual analogue scale. Anterior seat pressure and stability values for the complete cutout seat were significantly lower (p<0.05; 62-101%) than values for the standard and partial cutout designs. These findings were consistent between males and females. Our results would support the contention that the choice of saddle design should not be dictated by interface pressure alone since optimal anterior seat pressure and perceived seat stability appear to be inversely related.

  19. The seated bus passenger--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, J A

    1978-09-01

    The paper describes the inter-relationship of anthropometry, rig studies and dynamic testing of aspects related to problems of the seated bus passenger. It seeks to draw together sub-sections of a very large study sponsored by the government through the Transport and Road Research Laboratory and undertaken by the Human Factors Group of Leyland Truck and Bus. It is relevant to all those designing passenger carrying transport systems.

  20. Seat belt utilisation and awareness in UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendak, S; Al-Saleh, K

    2013-01-01

    Seat belts (SBs) are effective devices for reducing injury risk due to traffic accidents. Seat belt wearing was made compulsory in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in January 1999 for drivers and front seat passengers (FSPs). No comprehensive study has ever assessed SB wearing rates across the country. Also, little is known on drivers' awareness of the importance of wearing seatbelts and how human factors affect wearing habits. This study aims to determine SB wearing rates for drivers and FSPs in UAE through an observational field study. It also aims to investigate perceptions and behaviour of drivers on this issue as well as human factors that affect wearing rate through a randomly distributed questionnaire. The results of the field study show that the overall SB wearing rate across the country was 61% for drivers and 43.4% for FSPs and that there were significant differences between the seven emirates that constitute the country. The questionnaire results show that age, education level, gender, marital status and nationality of drivers affect wearing habits and perceptions. Future implications in terms of improving traffic safety awareness are discussed.

  1. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  2. Crustal deformation and volcanic earthquakes associated with the recent volcanic activity of Iwojima Volcano, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H.; Fujita, E.; Tanada, T.

    2013-12-01

    Iwojima is an active volcanic island located within a 10 km wide submarine caldera about 1250 km to the south of Tokyo, Japan. The seismometer and GPS network of National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) in Iwojima has observed a repeating island wide uplift more than 1 m associated with large number of volcanic earthquakes every several years. During 2006-2012, we observed more than 20000 volcanic earthquakes and an uplift of about 3 m, and precursory volcanic earthquakes and rapid crustal deformation just before the small submarine eruption near the northern coast of Iwojima in April 2012. In a restless volcano such as Iwojima, it is important issue to distinguish whether rapid crustal deformation and intense earthquake activity lead to an eruption or not. According to a long period geodetic observation by Ukawa et al. (2006), the crustal deformation of Iwojima can be classify into 2 phases. The first is an island wide large uplift centering on Motoyama area (the eastern part of the island, the center of the caldera), and the second is contraction and subsidence at local area centering on Motoyama and uplift around that area. They are interpreted by superposition of crustal deformations by a shallow contraction source and a deep seated inflation source beneath Motoyama. The earthquake activity of Iwojima highly correlates with the island wide large uplift, suggesting the earthquakes are almost controlled by a magma accumulation into a deep seated magma chamber. In contrast to the activity, the precursory activity of the eruption in 2012 is deviated from the correlation. The rapid crustal deformation just before and after the eruption in 2012 can be interpreted by rapid inflation and deflation of a shallow sill source about 1km deep, respectively, suggesting that it was caused by a shallow hydrothermal activity. The result shows that we can probably distinguish an abnormal activity related with a volcanic eruption when we observe

  3. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  4. NASA experiments on the B-720 structure and seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments onboard a remotely piloted transport aircraft that was crashed on landing are discussed. The structural experiment deals with the location and distribution of the instrumentation throughout the airplane structure. In the seat experiment, the development and testing of an energy absorbing seat are discussed. The objective of the structural experiment was to obtain a data base of structural crash loads for use in the advancement of crashworthy technology of materials (such as composites) in structural design and for use in the comparison between computer and experimental results. The objective of the seat experiment was to compare the performance of an energy absorbing transport seat and a standard seat when subjected to similar crash pulses. Details are given on the location of instrumentation, on the dynamic seat test pulse and headward acceleration limits.

  5. SEAT CHOICE AND DISTANCE JUDGMENT IN PUBLIC SPACES (1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Olavo Avalone; Munakata, Jun

    2015-10-01

    This research assessed whether public space users will adopt a least-effort approach and choose a less suitable seat nearby or seek the most suitable seat, even if it is farther away from them when the decision is made. How distance assessment affects seat choice was investigated through an observational survey, which allowed the identification of behavioral patterns. Those behavioral patterns were then tested in a paired comparison experiment with 40 participants. The results showed that the effect of distance on seat choice is related to the difference in distance between the options and that a sufficient difference can cause trade-offs between distance and seat properties. The necessary difference in distance is conditioned by the activity and the seat properties.

  6. Recognizing and treating toilet-seat contact dermatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinov, Ivan V; Sugathan, Paramoo; Cohen, Bernard A

    2010-02-01

    Toilet-seat contact dermatitis is a common condition around the world and is reemerging in the United States. It can be easily recognized and treated. However, few practitioners consider this diagnosis, which results in a delay in treatment and often exacerbation of the skin eruption. In the past, exposure to wooden toilet seats and associated varnish, lacquers, and paints led to the development of an allergic contact dermatitis on the buttocks and posterior thighs. In recent years, most public facilities have changed to plastic seats, resulting in a change in the clinical presentation of toilet-seat dermatitis. We present 5 cases of toilet-seat dermatitis in children from the United States and India and review the history, presentation, and clinical course of the disease. Our findings suggest that toilet-seat dermatitis is more common than previously recognized and should be considered in any child with a dermatitis that involves the buttocks and posterior thighs.

  7. Taxi driver seat belt wearing in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Qin, Yu; Wu, Ming

    2009-01-01

    To determine and validate patterns of seat belt use and attitudes of taxi drivers on wearing a seat belt following national and provincial seat belt legislation in 2004-2005. Roadside daylight seat belt observation and interview survey methods were used, as well as observations from inside taxis during routine trips and a taxi driver focus group. The setting was Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China in April of 2006 and 2007. Prevalence of seat belt use and attitudes to wearing a seat belt were determined, as were vehicle and driver characteristics, and comparisons with other motor-vehicle driver's seat belt use and attitudes. Taxi drivers interviewed were predominantly male and aged 30-39 years. They spent more hours per week in their vehicles and had more driving experience than other drivers. Over half (56.2%) of taxi drivers interviewed reported that they always wore seat belts, while observation of taxi drivers showed lower wearing rates (i.e., roadside observation was 43.8%, and observation from inside taxis was 36.2%). Belt tampering was a practice of 12-15% of taxi drivers. "Fine avoidance, safety, high speed and long trips" were given as important reasons for wearing and "feeling trapped and uncomfortable" for not wearing. Seat belt reminder signs in taxis were common (82.6% of taxis), but did not appear to impact on driver seat belt use. The four research methods found taxi drivers to have consistently low "correct wearing" rates. As in several other countries, taxi drivers are particularly resistant to seat belt use. Innovative strategies, including occupational health and safety approaches, may be required to achieve increased levels of seat belt use.

  8. Optimization of Aircraft Seat Cushion Fire Blocking Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    function of cost and weight, and the costs of labor involved in assembling a ccmposite seat cushion. The same classes of high char yield polymers that are...SEAT LATER DESIGN REPORT NRBBNBsg$$$$$$NN$$R$$$$$ SEAT DESIGN NUMBER: 009 LAYER NAME CODE NO. S MANUFACTURER 5 COST FACTORS . LABOR ...72621, 9096.. 7SS43. 73757. 77147. DELTA COSTS 0. 8340. 2922. 1136. 4327. ACOSOS in Iho..aS Of dollars. COST SUIRNY REPORT Re ....... VONR3 MORFA

  9. A target fibre study on seats in public houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, E; Griffin, R M

    1998-01-01

    A target fibre survey was conducted to assess the random occurrence of a blue wool fibre on seats in public houses throughout the United Kingdom. Fibre tape lifts were taken from 80 seats. Four seats yielded matching fibres and five of these were found on one seat. A total of 292 fibres were identified; nine fibres proved indistinguishable from the target after comparison microscopy, microspectro-photometry and attempts at thin layer chromatography, and two of these fibres were still apparently indistinguishable after TLC analysis although only one dye component was visible.

  10. 75 FR 30775 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ..., Recreational Diving seat, Education seat, Archaeological Research seat, Maritime Museum seat, Youth seat, and... of the famed Civil War ironclad, USS Monitor, best known for its battle with the Confederate ironclad... stakeholders, including: Citizen-at-Large, Conservation, Economic Development, Education, Heritage Tourism...

  11. Roof Deformation Characteristics and Preventive Techniques Using a Novel Non-Pillar Mining Method of Gob-Side Entry Retaining by Roof Cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Yajun Wang; Yubing Gao; Eryu Wang; Manchao He; Jun Yang

    2018-01-01

    A new non-pillar mining technology, gob-side entry retaining by roof cutting (GERRC), different from the conventional gob-side entry retaining formed by a roadside filling support, is introduced in this study. In the new technology, roof cutting is conducted so that the roof plate forms a short cantilever beam structure within a certain range above the retained entry, thus changing the stress boundary condition of the roof structure. To explore the deformation characteristics of the roof unde...

  12. 76 FR 36890 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... approved seat or berth and no restraining device for the child is used. In contrast, for commercial... proposed clarification also emphasizes that the proper restraint method for children during operations... Interpretations You can get an electronic copy using the Internet by-- (1) Searching the Federal eRulemaking...

  13. Variable temperature seat climate control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunasiri, Tissa R.; Gallup, David F.; Noles, David R.; Gregory, Christian T.

    1997-05-06

    A temperature climate control system comprises a variable temperature seat, at least one heat pump, at least one heat pump temperature sensor, and a controller. Each heat pump comprises a number of Peltier thermoelectric modules for temperature conditioning the air in a main heat exchanger and a main exchanger fan for passing the conditioned air from the main exchanger to the variable temperature seat. The Peltier modules and each main fan may be manually adjusted via a control switch or a control signal. Additionally, the temperature climate control system may comprise a number of additional temperature sensors to monitor the temperature of the ambient air surrounding the occupant as well as the temperature of the conditioned air directed to the occupant. The controller is configured to automatically regulate the operation of the Peltier modules and/or each main fan according to a temperature climate control logic designed both to maximize occupant comfort during normal operation, and minimize possible equipment damage, occupant discomfort, or occupant injury in the event of a heat pump malfunction.

  14. Haglund's Deformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at least 40 minutes before icing again. Exercises. Stretching exercises help relieve tension from the Achilles tendon. These ... back use arch supports or orthotic devices perform stretching exercises to prevent the Achilles tendon from tightening avoid ...

  15. Pilot tests of a seat belt gearshift delay on the belt use of commercial fleet drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    the seat belt was buckled. Participants, commercial drivers from the United States and Canada who did not consistently wear their seat belts, could avoid the delay by fastening their seat belts. Unbelted participants experienced a delay of either a c...

  16. Determining the relationship of primary seat belt laws to minority ticketing : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    When a State converts from secondary to primary seat belt : enforcement, studies show increases of 10 percentage points or : more in observed seat belt use. Primary enforcement laws allow : an officer to ticket a motorist whenever they observe a seat...

  17. Identifying strategies to improve the effectiveness of booster seat laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this project was to identify strategies to improve the effectiveness of booster seat laws. The project explored the possible factors that relate to the use and nonuse of booster seats, and examined the attitudes of law enforcement of...

  18. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... the airplane who is at least 2 years old; and (2) An approved safety belt for separate use by each...

  19. Fairness of seat allocation methods in proportional representation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results from simulations are provided to support the two main theorems describing the effect of ..... A second simulation was implemented to determine the average number of vote-seats, as well as the maximum number of vote-seats ... as in the case of solving classical matrix games in game theory. The linear programming ...

  20. Musculoskeletal analysis of driving fatigue: The influence of seat adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majid, Noor Aliah binti Abdul; Abdullah, Mohd Fareez Edzuan; Jamaludin, Mohd Syahmi

    2013-01-01

    Main causes for discomfort experienced by vehicle drivers during driving were investigated using a rigid-body model originally developed in the AnyBody Modeling System [1]. The interactions between the human body and the car-seat in various combinations of seat-pan/backrest inclinations and the e...

  1. Canadian seat belt wearing rates, promotion programs, and future directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of a national driver seat belt survey conducted in Canada each year, the most important results are presented. A number of programmes for increasing seat belt use has been evaluated in Canada. Finally, a description is given of some of the current and planned activities within Canada

  2. Fairness of seat allocation methods in proportional representation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fairness of seat allocation methods in proportional representation. L van Eck, S E Visagie, H C de Kock. Abstract. In this paper the fairness of some methods of allocating seats in a proportional representation (PR) voting system is investigated. Different PR systems are in use throughout the democratic world, but the primary ...

  3. Assessment of Rail Seat Abrasion Patterns and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Rail seat abrasion (RSA) of concrete ties is manifested by the loss of material under the rail seat area and, in extreme cases, results in loss of rail clip holding power, reverse rail cant, and gauge widening. RSA was measured in several curves on t...

  4. An Investigation of University Students' Classroom Seating Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Li; Yuan, Zhang; YunQui, Bai; Chiang, Feng-Kuang

    2017-01-01

    The classroom is crucial for students, and seating position within the classroom can affect students' performance. This study conducted a survey to investigate the relationship between seating zones and academic performance among 174 university students in Beijing. The results revealed differences in student performance in terms of seating…

  5. Analysis of Seat Belt Anchorage Strength for Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peicheng; Xu, Zengwei

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of seat design and enhance the safety of vehicle seats, it is necessary to carry out CAE analysis on seat safety before making physical tests. In this paper, the finite element analysis theory and HyperWorks finite element analysis software are applied in the pretreatment of vehicle seats, seat belts, as well as the upper limbs and buttocks of dummies. The loading time and load of the seat are set according to GB 14167-2013 of the People’s Republic of China, and CAE calculation is carried out based on LSDYNA software, obtaining the stress-strain nephogram of the corresponding vehicle seats. An improved scheme is proposed base on the analysis results, and CAE analysis is carried out on the improved seats again. The results of the analysis fully meet the national standard GB 14167-2013 and material strength requirements, which are of important guiding significance in reducing the development costs, shortening the development cycle and improving the passing rate of physical test.

  6. 49 CFR 38.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.75 Section 38.75 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.75 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s)...

  7. The effects of seat belt legislation on road traffic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinca, G W; Dooley, B J

    1977-04-01

    The compulsory wearing of seat belts, first introduced in the world in Victoria in 1970, has effectively reduced the number of deaths and injuries by approximately one-third for car occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes. Initially, the legislation did not apply to children under the age of eight years, but in 1975 a further law was introduced banning children from the front seat of any vehicle unless properly harnessed. Seat belts offer the best protection for front seat drivers and passengers involved in frontal impacts, but offer less protection to the recipient of a side impact. Ten per cent of car occupants admitted to hospital after a frontal impact show injuries, mostly minor, directly attibutable to the wearing of seat belts.

  8. Support force measures of midsized men in seated positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Tamara Reid; Hubbard, Robert P

    2007-02-01

    Two areas not well researched in the field of seating mechanics are the distribution of normal and shear forces, and how those forces change with seat position. The availability of these data would be beneficial for the design and development of office, automotive and medical seats. To increase our knowledge in the area of seating mechanics, this study sought to measure the normal and shear loads applied to segmental supports in 12 seated positions, utilizing three inclination angles and four levels of seat back articulation that were associated with automotive driving positions. Force data from six regions, including the thorax, sacral region, buttocks, thighs, feet, and hand support were gathered using multi-axis load cells. The sample contained 23 midsized subjects with an average weight of 76.7 kg and a standard deviation of 4.2 kg, and an average height of 1745 mm with a standard deviation of 19 mm. Results were examined in terms of seat back inclination and in terms of torso articulation for relationships between seat positions and support forces. Using a repeated measures analysis, significant differences (p<0.05) were identified for normal forces relative to all inclination angles except for forces occurring at the hand support. Other significant differences were observed between normal forces behind the buttocks, pelvis, and feet for torso articulations. Significant differences in the shear forces occurred under the buttocks and posterior pelvis during changes in seat back inclination. Significant differences in shear forces were also identified for torso articulations. These data suggest that as seat back inclination or torso articulation change, significant shifts in force distribution occur.

  9. 75 FR 36062 - Availability of Conservation Seat and Diving Operations Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Conservation Seat and Diving Operations Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Conservation and Diving Operations... Jennifer Morgan, NOAA--Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, 4700 Avenue U, Bldg. 216, Galveston...

  10. Finding an optimal seating arrangement for employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninoslav Čerkez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with modelling a specifc problem called the Optimal Seating Arrangement (OSA as an Integer Linear Program and demonstrated that the problem can be efficiently solved by combining branch-and-bound and cutting plane methods. OSA refers to a specific scenario that could possibly happen in a corporative environment, i.e. when a company endeavors to minimize travel costs when employees travel to an organized event. Each employee is free to choose the time to travel to and from an event and it depends on personal reasons. The paper differentiates between using different travel possibilities in the OSA problem, such as using company assigned or a company owned vehicles, private vehicles or using public transport, if needed. Also, a user-friendly web application was made and is available to the public for testing purposes.

  11. Digital three-dimensional modelling of the male pelvis and bicycle seats: impact of rider position and seat design on potential penile hypoxia and erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemery, John M; Nangia, Ajay K; Mamourian, Alexander C; Reid, Scott K

    2007-01-01

    To digitally model (three-dimensional, 3D) the course of the pudendal arteries relative to the bony pelvis in the adult male, and to identify sites of compression with different bicycle riding positions as a potential cause of penile hypoxia and erectile dysfunction. 3D models were made from computed tomography scans of one adult male pelvis (a healthy volunteer) and three bicycle seats. Models were correlated with lateral radiographs of a seated rider to determine potential vascular compression between the bony pelvis and seats at different angles of rider positioning. Pelvis/seat models suggest that the most likely site of compression of the internal pudendal artery is immediately below the pubic symphysis, especially with the rider leaning forward. For an upright rider, the internal pudendal arteries do not appear to be compressed between the seat and the bony pelvis. Leaning partly forward with arms extended, the seat/symphysis areas were reduced to 73 mm(2) with standard seat and 259 mm(2) with a grooved seat. Leaning fully forward, the seat/symphysis areas decreased (no space with standard seat; 51 mm(2) with a grooved seat) and both the ischial tuberosities and the pubic symphysis might be in contact with the seat. A grooved seat allows better preservation of the seat/symphysis space than a standard seat, but the rider's position is more important for preserving the seat-symphysis space (and reducing compression) than is seat design alone. Any factors which influence the seat-symphysis space (including an individual's anatomy, seat design and rider position) can increase the potential for penile hypoxia and erectile dysfunction/perineal numbness.

  12. Circular seating arrangements: Approaching the social crux in language classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Falout

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circular seating arrangements can help instill a sense of belonging within classroom communities with overall positive effects on learning, emotions, and wellbeing. Yet students and their teachers within certain language classroom contexts, due to sociocultural limitations, may be relegated to learning in antisocial environments instilled partly by rank-and-file seating. Attributions for teacher demotivation can often lie in student misbehaviors, while student demotivation, silence, and resistance relate strongly to lack of bodily displays and physical affordances of interpersonal care, understanding, and trust that, if present, would contribute positively to many social aspects of their learning and identity formation. Specifically, rank-and-file seating constricts the area in the classroom most likely to dispose attention and interest to the learning and to others, whereas circular seating potentially expands this area, known as the action zone, to the whole classroom. Seating arrangements therefore can play an important role in the formation of interpersonal dynamics and identity formation among students and their teachers. In this paper, the purposes and ways of using circular seating in language classrooms will be explored from a social psychological perspective. Language teachers are invited to imagine and experiment with possibilities for uses of different seating arrangements in their own classrooms.

  13. Energy Absorbing Seat System for an Agricultural Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Jones, Lisa E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A task was initiated to improve the energy absorption capability of an existing aircraft seat through cost-effective retrofitting, while keeping seat-weight increase to a minimum. This task was undertaken as an extension of NASA ongoing safety research and commitment to general aviation customer needs. Only vertical crash scenarios have been considered in this task which required the energy absorbing system to protect the seat occupant in a range of crash speeds up to 31 ft/sec. It was anticipated that, the forward and/or side crash accelerations could be attenuated with the aid of airbags, the technology of which is currently available in automobiles and military helicopters. Steps which were followed include, preliminary crush load determination, conceptual design of cost effective energy absorbers, fabrication and testing (static and dynamic) of energy absorbers, system analysis, design and fabrication of dummy seat/rail assembly, dynamic testing of dummy seat/rail assembly, and finally, testing of actual modified seat system with a dummy occupant. A total of ten full scale tests have been performed including three of the actual aircraft seat. Results from full-scale tests indicated that occupant loads were attenuated successfully to survivable levels.

  14. Practical use of valve seating machine with remote control system for main steam isolation valve at N.P.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Sadao; Noda, Hiroshi; Sadamura, Morito; Utsunomiya, Yasushi.

    1975-01-01

    The main steam isolation valves in BWR power stations are installed at the boundary of reactor containment vessels, and 2 valves in each main steam system total 8 valves in a plant. They are pneumatically operated Y type globe valves for preventing the release of radioactive substances in the atmosphere in case of the breaking of main steam pipes and also preventing the loss of coolant in case of the breaking of recirculating equipments. Therefore careful leak test, inspection, and seat-fitting are carried out to the valves at each regular maintenance. The manual maintenance work is difficult because of narrow space and the reduction of exposure, and the seat-fitting work requires the skill of high degree, therefore Okano Valve Manufacturing Co. and Tokyo Electric Power Co. jointly started the research and development of an automatic valve seating machine, and successfully put it to practical use in Fukushima No.1 Nuclear Power Station in Nov. 1974. First, the problems in the manual seat-fitting work were investigated, and the means to mechanically solve them were materialized with a prototype machine. After its mock-up test, an actual machine was designed and manufactured. The test result showed remarkable reduction of exposure and labor-saving, and the leak evaluation was sufficiently below the allowable value. (Kako, I.)

  15. The effect of a dynamic chair on seated energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synnott, Aoife; Dankaerts, Wim; Seghers, Jan; Purtill, Helen; O'Sullivan, Kieran

    2017-10-01

    Dynamic sitting approaches have been advocated to increase seated energy expenditure with the view of lessening the sedentary nature of the task. This study compared energy expenditure (EE) and overall body discomfort on a novel dynamic chair with a standard office chair. Fifteen pain-free participants completed a DVD viewing task on both chairs in a randomised order. Energy expenditure and discomfort were collected simultaneously. Linear mixed models were used to analyse steady-state EE recorded on each of the chairs. Differences in discomfort were analysed using Wilkoxon Signed Rank Tests. Sitting on the novel dynamic chair significantly (p = 0.005) increased energy expenditure compared to a standard office chair. The discomfort experienced was mild overall, but was significantly greater on the dynamic chair (p = 0.004). Whilst the EE was seen to be significantly higher on the dynamic chair, the MET values are still below 1.5 METS. Thus, the use of a dynamic chair does not seem to be the most effective measure to prevent sedentary behaviour. Practitioner Summary: Sitting on a dynamic chair increased energy expenditure compared to sitting on a standard office chair among pain-free participants. Whilst the EE was seen to be significantly higher on the dynamic chair, the MET values are still below 1.5 METS (low level EE).

  16. Effect of Seating on Exposures to Whole-Body Vibration in Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    PADDAN, G. S.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    The vibration isolation efficiency of seating has been evaluated in 100 work vehicles in 14 categories (cars, vans, lift trucks, lorries, tractors, buses, dumpers, excavators, helicopters, armoured vehicles, mobile cranes, grass rollers, mowers and milk floats). Seat isolation efficiency, expressed by the SEAT value, was determined for all seats (67 conventional seats and 33 suspension seats) from the vertical acceleration measured on the floors and on the seats of the vehicles.For most categories of vehicle, the average SEAT value was less than 100%, indicating that the average seat provided some attenuation of vibration. However, there were large variations in SEAT values between vehicles within categories. Two alternative vibration frequency weightings (Wb from BS 6841, 1987; Wk from ISO 2631, 1997) yielded SEAT values that differed by less than 6%. Overall, the SEAT values determined by two alternative methods (the ratio of r.m.s. values and the ratio of vibration dose values) differed by less than 4·5% when using weighting Wb, although larger differences may be expected in some situations. The median SEAT value for the suspension seats was 84·6%; the median SEAT value for the conventional seats was 86·9% (based on weighting Wb and the ratio of r.m.s. values).Predicted SEAT values were obtained assuming that each seat could be interchanged between vehicles without altering its transmissibility. The calculations suggest that 94% of the vehicles investigated might benefit from changing the current seat to a seat from one of the other vehicles investigated. Although the predictions are based on assumptions that will not always apply, it is concluded that the severity of whole-body vibration exposures in many work environments can be lessened by improvements to seating dynamics.

  17. MACRO MODEL OF SEAT BELT USE BY CAR DRIVERS AND PASSENGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz JAMROZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some problems of seat belt use by car drivers and passengers. It looks in particular at seat belt use and effectiveness in selected countries. Next, factors of seat belt use are presented and methodology of model development. A macro model of seat belt use is presented based on data from around fifty countries from different continents.

  18. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and... requirements for school bus passenger seating and restraining barriers. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this... that the minimum number of occupants can be belted. School bus passenger seat means a seat in a school...

  19. The constitutionality of mandatory seat belt use legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-12-01

    A number of trends indicate that mandatory seat belt use legislation is to be expected within the near future. The constitutionality of such self-protective legislation has been the subject of recent speculation. Constitutional challenges may be expe...

  20. Documenting How States Recently Upgraded to Primary Seat Belt Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    States with primary seat belt enforcement laws consistently have higher observed daytime belt use rates than : secondary law States. Secondary belt law States, on the other hand, consistently have more occupant fatalities who : were not restrained th...

  1. Controversial Swedish science minister loses seat in reshuffle

    CERN Multimedia

    Sylawan, P

    1998-01-01

    Carl Tham, who introduced sweeping changes to higher education and research, has lost his seat in a cabinet reshuffle. As science minister for 4 years he redirected funding to applied science and established new regional universities (1 page).

  2. The abutment seating jig: a prosthodontic implant adjunct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, K W

    1997-01-01

    Rapid, accurate seating of screw-retained implant abutment heads, where timing is controlled by internal or external hex designs, can be readily accomplished with individual, custom-cast abutment head location devices. The devices are especially useful when the abutment head-implant body complex is to be permanently cemented. The use and design of abutment seating jigs for single tooth implants and completely implant or implant and natural tooth-supported prostheses are described.

  3. Infant bath seats, drowning and near-drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, R W; Donald, T

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of infant bathtub seats in drowning and near-drowning episodes in infants. A review was conducted of the files of the Forensic Science Centre and Child Protection Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, for significant immersion incidents in infants involving bathtub seats from January 1998 to December 2003. A total of six cases of drowning occurred over the 6-year period of the study in children under 2 years of age, including two infants. One of these cases, a 7-month-old boy, had been left unattended for some time in an adult bath in a bathtub seat. He was found drowned, having submerged after slipping down and becoming trapped in the seat. Three near-drowning episodes occurred in children under the age of 2 years, including two boys aged 7 and 8 months, both of whom had been left for some time in adult baths in bath seats. Both were successfully resuscitated and treated in hospital. These cases demonstrate the vulnerability of infants to immersion incidents when left unattended in bathtubs. Bathtubs are particularly dangerous for infants as the slippery and smooth surfaces predispose to loss of balance and make escape from water difficult. Infant bathtub seats may give parents and child carers a false sense of security leading to infants being left unattended. Unfortunately, however, infants may fall out of, or slip and become trapped in, such seats. Infants and young children cannot be left unsupervised in water, and devices used as bathing aids such as bathtub seats may contribute to immersion incidents.

  4. Fire-resistant materials for aircraft passenger seat construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. L.; Tesoro, G. C.; Moussa, A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal response characteristics of fabric and fabric-foam assemblies are described. The various aspects of the ignition behavior of contemporary aircraft passenger seat upholstery fabric materials relative to fabric materials made from thermally stable polymers are evaluated. The role of the polymeric foam backing on the thermal response of the fabric-foam assembly is also ascertained. The optimum utilization of improved fire-resistant fabric and foam materials in the construction of aircraft passenger seats is suggested.

  5. Sliding and pressure evaluation on conventional and V-shaped seats of reclining wheelchairs for stroke patients with flaccid hemiplegia: a crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chi-Myn

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reclining wheelchairs are commonly used to transport elderly stroke patients in Taiwan. However, there is concern that the patient's body in the wheelchair often slides forward when they return to a seated position, increasing the sitting pressure. Therefore, a novel reclining wheelchair with an ergonomic "V-Seat" was designed to prevent forward sliding and pressure sores. The use of these reclining chairs by stroke patients has not yet been studied. Thus, we investigated the effects of V-shaped and conventional seats in reclining wheelchairs on the extent of forward sliding and on the sitting pressure of stroke patients with flaccid hemiplegia and of able-bodied elders. Methods We recruited 13 able-bodied elders and 11 stroke patients with flaccid hemiplegia and performed 5 reclining cycles in both types of wheelchair. The amount of sliding along the backrest (BS plane and the seat (SS plane, the mean sitting pressure (MP, and the sacral peak pressure (SPP of the subjects were recorded. We used the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare the BS, SS, MP, and SPP in wheelchairs with conventional and V-shaped seats, and we used the Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare the differences in BS and SS between stroke patients and able-bodied elders in both types of reclining wheelchair. Results The BS, SS, and SPP of stroke patients were significantly lower in the wheelchairs with V-shaped seats than in conventional wheelchairs in most comparisons; however, the BS of able-bodied elders was higher in V-shaped seats than in conventional seats. The SS and SPP of stroke patients were significantly higher than those of able-bodied elders in both types of reclining wheelchair, and the BS of stroke patients was significantly higher than that of able-bodied elders only in conventional reclining wheelchairs. Conclusions The use of V-shaped seats in reclining wheelchairs can help reduce the forward sliding and sacral peak pressure of stroke patients

  6. SEAT BELT USE AMONG CAR USERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KULANTHAYAN

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The car is the second (40% most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4% of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective ways to reduce road accident fatalities in Malaysia and consequently the mandatory seat belt law was enforced in the early seventies. Therefore, a study on factors influencing the compliance behaviour of seat belt use among cars is needed as to date no such research has been undertaken in Malaysia. A questionnaire study was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia on the compliance behaviour of car occupants in relation to seat belt use. A total of 237 respondents were interviewed and the data analysed using logistic regression method. Six variables were found to be significant at 5 percent level (p<0.05: seating position, location of travel, education level, speeding, night-time driving and enforcement. Compliance with the seat belt law was higher among drivers, educated car users, in the presence of enforcement activities, travelling in city-center areas and car users with a positive attitude towards the risks of speeding and night driving.

  7. Development of adaptive helicopter seat systems for aircrew vibration mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Zimcik, David G.

    2008-03-01

    Helicopter aircrews are exposed to high levels of whole body vibration during flight. This paper presents the results of an investigation of adaptive seat mount approaches to reduce helicopter aircrew whole body vibration levels. A flight test was conducted on a four-blade helicopter and showed that the currently used passive seat systems were not able to provide satisfactory protection to the helicopter aircrew in both front-back and vertical directions. Long-term exposure to the measured whole body vibration environment may cause occupational health issues such as spine and neck strain injuries for aircrew. In order to address this issue, a novel adaptive seat mount concept was developed to mitigate the vibration levels transmitted to the aircrew body. For proof-of-concept demonstration, a miniature modal shaker was properly aligned between the cabin floor and the seat frame to provide adaptive actuation authority. Adaptive control laws were developed to reduce the vibration transmitted to the aircrew body, especially the helmet location in order to minimize neck and spine injuries. Closed-loop control test have been conducted on a full-scale helicopter seat with a mannequin configuration and a large mechanical shaker was used to provide representative helicopter vibration profiles to the seat frame. Significant vibration reductions to the vertical and front-back vibration modes have been achieved simultaneously, which verified the technical readiness of the adaptive mount approach for full-scale flight test on the vehicle.

  8. Development of a method for rating climate seat comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffelmeier, M.; Classen, E.

    2017-10-01

    The comfort aspect in the vehicle interior is becoming increasingly important. A high comfort level offers the driver a good and secure feeling and has a strong influence on passive traffic safety. One important part of comfort is the climate aspect, especially the microclimate that emerges between passenger and seat. In this research, different combinations of typical seat materials are used. Fourteen woven and knitted fabrics and eight leathers and its substitutes for the face fabric layer, one foam, one non-woven and one 3D spacer for the plus pad layer and for the support layer three foam types with variations in structure and raw material as well as one rubber hair structure were investigated. To characterise this sample set by thermo-physiological aspects (e.g. water vapour resistance Ret, thermal resistance Rct, buffering capacity of water vapour Fd) regular and modified sweating guarded hotplates were used according to DIN EN ISO 11092. The results of the material characterisation confirm the common knowledge that seat covers out of textiles have better water vapour resistance values than leathers and its substitutes. Subject trials in a driving simulator were executed to rate the subjective sensation while driving in a vehicle seat. With a thermal, sweating Manikin (Newton Type, Thermetrics) objective product measurements were carried out on the same seat. Indeed the subject trials show that every test subject has his or her own subjective perception concerning the climate comfort. The results of the subject trials offered the parameters for the Newton measuring method. Respectively the sweating rate, sit-in procedure, ambient conditions and sensor positions on and between the seat layers must be comparable with the subject trials. By taking care of all these parameters it is possible to get repeatable and reliable results with the Newton Manikin. The subjective feelings of the test subjects, concerning the microclimate between seat and passenger, provide

  9. The Study of Fabric Performance for Car Seats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonin Havelka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the investigation of the performance of car seat fabrics in terms of physiological comfort of sitting, specifi cally their water vapour resistance and air permeability. The current work presents an alternative approach to increasing the effectiveness of car seat fabrics through a combination of newly designed middle layer with forced convection achieved by a supplementary suction ventilation device. The supplementary device was designed to measure water vapour permeability by means of the sweating guarded hot plate (SGHP system. It consists of two parts: a frame to grip a tested sample for measurements within the SGHP system and two suction ventilators which are arranged at one end of the mentioned frame in order to provide suction into the tested fabric plane during the SGHP test. The results of this investigation show that water vapour transport is increased by approximately 20% compared to the standard way of measurement by means of SGHP because of forced air flow in the plane of ribbed – channelled structure of the car seat middle layer. The findings of this study have a number of important implications for future practice. The combination of a car seat cover with channelled structure and forced air fl ow improves physiological comfort of sitting which is a key issue for both drivers and manufacturers. The suggested device for forced air flow convection in the plane of a car seat fabric has not yet been part of an actual car seat, however it is possible to use its principles in a smart car seat prototype.

  10. The Surprising Impact of Seat Location on Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Katherine K.; Wieman, Carl E.

    2005-01-01

    Every physics instructor knows that the most engaged and successful students tend to sit at the front of the class and the weakest students tend to sit at the back. However, it is normally assumed that this is merely an indication of the respective seat location preferences of weaker and stronger students. Here we present evidence suggesting that in fact this may be mixing up the cause and effect. It may be that the seat selection itself contributes to whether the student does well or poorly, rather than the other way around. While a number of studies have looked at the effect of seat location on students, the results are often inconclusive, and few, if any, have studied the effects in college classrooms with randomly assigned seats. In this paper, we report on our observations of a large introductory physics course in which we randomly assigned students to particular seat locations at the beginning of the semester. Seat location during the first half of the semester had a noticeable impact on student success in the course, particularly in the top and bottom parts of the grade distribution. Students sitting in the back of the room for the first half of the term were nearly six times as likely to receive an F as students who started in the front of the room. A corresponding but less dramatic reversal was evident in the fractions of students receiving As. These effects were in spite of many unusual efforts to engage students at the back of the class and a front-to-back reversal of seat location halfway through the term. These results suggest there may be inherent detrimental effects of large physics lecture halls that need to be further explored.

  11. Detecting destabilizing wheelchair conditions for maintaining seated posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Anna; Armstrong, Kiley; Loparo, Kenneth; Audu, Musa; Triolo, Ronald

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect and classify potentially destabilizing conditions encountered by manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injuries (SCI) to dynamically increase stability and prevent falls. A volunteer with motor complete T11 paraplegia repeatedly propelled his manual wheelchair over level ground and simulated destabilizing conditions including sudden stops, bumps and rough terrain. Wireless inertial measurement units attached to the wheelchair frame and his sternum recorded associated accelerations and angular velocities. Algorithms based on mean, standard deviation and minimum Mahalanobis distance between conditions were constructed and applied to the data off-line to discriminate between events. Classification accuracy was computed to assess effects of sensor position and potential for automatically selecting a dynamic intervention to best stabilize the wheelchair user. The decision algorithm based on acceleration signals successfully differentiated destabilizing conditions and level over-ground propulsion with classification accuracies of 95.8, 58.3 and 91.7% for the chest, wheelchair and both sensors, respectively. Mahalanobis distance classification based on trunk accelerations is a feasible method for detecting destabilizing events encountered by wheelchair users and may serve as an effective trigger for protective interventions. Incorporating data from wheelchair-mounted sensors decreases the false negative rate. Implications for Rehabilitation SCI has a significant impact on quality of life, compromising the ability to participate in social or leisure activities, and complete other activities of daily living for an independent lifestyle. Using inertial measurement units to build an event classifier for control the actions of a neuroprosthetic device for maintaining seated posture in wheelchair users. Varying muscle activation increases user stability reducing the risk of injury.

  12. Thermal comfort of seats as visualized by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Rosemary Bom Conselho; Pereira, Romeu Rodrigues; Aguilar, Maria Teresa Paulino; Cardoso, Antônio Valadão

    2017-07-01

    Published studies that deal with the question of how the temperature of chair seats influences human activities are few, but the studies considering such a factor, a function of the type of material, could contribute to improvements in the design of chairs. This study evaluates seat temperatures of 8 types of chairs made of different materials. The parts of the furniture that people come into contact with, and the thermal response of the material to heating and cooling have been evaluated. Infrared thermography was used for this, as it is a non-contact technique that does not present any type of risk in the measurement of temperatures. Seats made of synthetic leather (leatherette), wood and polyester fabric were found to have the highest temperatures, and the plywood seat showed the lowest. The study has also revealed that thermography can contribute to studies of thermal comfort of chair seats in addition to determining the most suitable material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of astigmatic axis in the seated and supine positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E M; Talamo, J H; Assil, K K; Petashnick, D E

    1994-01-01

    Refractive error is assessed in the seated position while keratorefractive procedures are performed in the supine position. Since position-induced ocular torsion could yield suboptimal results from improper axis alignment, this study was undertaken to ascertain whether ocular cyclotorsion occurs when a subject moves from a seated to supine position. Fifty eyes of 29 subjects with refractive cylinder greater than 0.50 diopters were enrolled. Refraction was done with a phoropter and the correction was placed in a trial frame using plus cylinder. Astigmatic axis was determined in the seated and supine positions for 32 eyes by utilizing the "rocking the cylinder" technique and for 32 eyes using the Jackson cross cylinder. Both techniques were used for 14 eyes. No statistically-significant difference for cylinder axis measured in the seated versus supine position was observed using the rocking the cylinder (4.3 degrees standard deviation [SD], 3.5 degrees, range 0 degrees to 13 degrees, p = NS) or the Jackson cross cylinder methods (2.3 degrees, SD, 1.9 degrees, range 0 degrees to 7 degrees, p = NS). Approximately 25% of eyes had a change in axis of 7 degrees to 16 degrees. These data suggest that the cylinder axis does not change significantly or predictably when most subjects move from the seated to supine position. The Jackson cross cylinder method seems more accurate and reproducible than the rocking the cylinder technique in determination of astigmatic axis under these circumstances.

  14. Children's and Adults' Comfort Experience of Extra Seat Belts When Riding in the Rear Seat of a Passenger Car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa; Hansson, Ida; Bohman, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore passengers' comfort experience of extra seat belts during on-road driving in the rear seat of a passenger car and to investigate how the use of extra belts affects children's and adults' attitudes to the product. Two different seat belt systems were tested, criss-cross (CC) and backpack (BP), consisting of the standard 3-point belt together with an additional 2-point belt. In total, 32 participants (15 children aged 6-10, 6 youths aged 11-15, and 11 adults aged 20-79, who differed considerably in size, shape, and proportions) traveled for one hour with each system, including city traffic and highway driving. Four video cameras monitored the test subject during the drive. Subjective data regarding emotions and perceived discomfort were collected in questionnaires every 20 min. A semistructured interview was held afterwards. All participant groups accepted the new products and especially the increased feeling of safety (P car. CC was appreciated for its symmetry, comfort, and the perceived feeling of safety. Some participants found CC unpleasant because the belts tended to slip close to the neck, described as a strangling feeling. BP was simpler to use and did not cause annoyance to the neck in the way CC did. Instead, it felt asymmetric and to some extent less safe than CC. Body size and shape affected seat belt fit to a great extent, which in turn affected the experience of comfort, both initially and over time. Perceived safety benefit and experienced comfort were the most determinant factors for the attitude toward the extra seat belts. The extra seat belts were perceived as being better than the participants had expected before the test, and they became more used to them over time. This exploratory study provided valuable knowledge from a user perspective for further development of new seat belt systems in cars. In addition to an increased feeling of safety, seat belt fit and comfort are supplementary influencing

  15. MIT-Skywalker: Evaluating comfort of bicycle/saddle seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Rogerio S; Hamilton, Taya; Daher, Ali R; Hirai, Hiroaki; Krebs, Hermano I

    2017-07-01

    The MIT-Skywalker is a robotic device developed for the rehabilitation of gait and balance after a neurological injury. This device has been designed based on the concept of a passive walker and provides three distinct training modes: discrete movement, rhythmic movement, and balance training. In this paper, we present our efforts to evaluate the comfort of a bicycle/saddle seat design for the system's novel actuated body weight support device. We employed different bicycle and saddle seats and evaluated comfort using objective and subjective measures. Here we will summarize the results obtained from a study of fifteen healthy subjects and one stroke patient that led to the selection of a saddle seat design for the MIT-Skywalker.

  16. School bus transportation for students seated in wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buning, Mary Ellen; Karg, Patricia E

    2011-01-01

    For children with Individualized Education Plans (IEPs), transportation is considered a related service and a part of their education. This paper presents an overview of the current status of wheelchair transportation for students on school buses within the United States. The review includes the school transportation environment for wheelchair-seated students, applicable regulations and voluntary standards, primary safety issues for wheelchair-seated students, and key stakeholders roles in improving wheelchair transportation safety. Future actions to improve wheelchair transportation safety in school transportation are discussed, including the need to improve data collection, mandate payment for and use of RESNA WC19-compliant wheelchairs, improve training for bus operators and attendants, and require specialty certification for school bus operators who transport wheelchair-seated students.

  17. Sitting biomechanics, part II: optimal car driver's seat and optimal driver's spinal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, D D; Harrison, S O; Croft, A C; Harrison, D E; Troyanovich, S J

    2000-01-01

    Driving has been associated with signs and symptoms caused by vibrations. Sitting causes the pelvis to rotate backwards and the lumbar lordosis to reduce. Lumbar support and armrests reduce disc pressure and electromyographically recorded values. However, the ideal driver's seat and an optimal seated spinal model have not been described. To determine an optimal automobile seat and an ideal spinal model of a driver. Information was obtained from peer-reviewed scientific journals and texts, automotive engineering reports, and the National Library of Medicine. Driving predisposes vehicle operators to low-back pain and degeneration. The optimal seat would have an adjustable seat back incline of 100 degrees from horizontal, a changeable depth of seat back to front edge of seat bottom, adjustable height, an adjustable seat bottom incline, firm (dense) foam in the seat bottom cushion, horizontally and vertically adjustable lumbar support, adjustable bilateral arm rests, adjustable head restraint with lordosis pad, seat shock absorbers to dampen frequencies in the 1 to 20 Hz range, and linear front-back travel of the seat enabling drivers of all sizes to reach the pedals. The lumbar support should be pulsating in depth to reduce static load. The seat back should be damped to reduce rebounding of the torso in rear-end impacts. The optimal driver's spinal model would be the average Harrison model in a 10 degrees posterior inclining seat back angle.

  18. Advanced Infant Car Seat Would Increase Highway Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

    2004-01-01

    An advanced infant car seat has been proposed to increase highway safety by reducing the incidence of crying, fussy behavior, and other child-related distractions that divert an adult driver s attention from driving. In addition to a conventional infant car seat with safety restraints, the proposed advanced infant car seat would include a number of components and subsystems that would function together as a comprehensive infant-care system that would keep its occupant safe, comfortable, and entertained, and would enable the driver to monitor the baby without having to either stop the car or turn around to face the infant during driving. The system would include a vibrator with bulb switch to operate; the switch would double as a squeeze toy that would make its own specific sound. A music subsystem would include loudspeakers built into the seat plus digital and analog circuitry that would utilize plug-in memory modules to synthesize music or a variety of other sounds. The music subsystem would include a built-in sound generator that could synthesize white noise or a human heartbeat to calm the baby to sleep. A second bulb switch could be used to control the music subsystem and would double as a squeeze toy that would make a distinct sound. An anti-noise sound-suppression system would isolate the baby from potentially disturbing ambient external noises. This subsystem would include small microphones, placed near the baby s ears, to detect ambient noise. The outputs of the microphone would be amplified and fed to the loudspeakers at appropriate amplitude and in a phase opposite that of the detected ambient noise, such that the net ambient sound arriving at the baby s ears would be almost completely cancelled. A video-camera subsystem would enable the driver to monitor the baby visually while continuing to face forward. One or more portable miniature video cameras could be embedded in the side of the infant car seat (see figure) or in a flip-down handle. The outputs of

  19. Benefits of Seating and Positioning on the Wheelchairs and Factors that Interfere with its Use: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaele Kedma Ribeiro de Moraes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Seating and positioning are an assistive technology resource that aims to improve functional performance in the wheelchair. The aim of this paper was to find in the literature studies that addressed the benefits of seating and positioning in a wheelchair and factors that interfere with the prescription and use of this technology. Articles found that discuss the benefits addressed: the functionality and respiratory function; the pressure ulcer prevention; and user satisfaction and the family with assistive technology. Articles discussing the factors linked to prescription and use of adapting wheelchairs are those that address the environmental factors, components and wheelchair accessories. There are factors involved in the prescription process to achieve its benefits through its use, the prescribed process must have an interdisciplinary and biopsychosocial approach applied individually to each patient.

  20. Booster seat law enforcement : examples from Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of State booster seat laws : (enhanced child restraint laws) and examine the most effective strategies that law enforcement agencies can : use to enforce booster seat laws. The research i...

  1. 75 FR 12726 - Availability of Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Tourism alternate... are chosen based upon their particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they...

  2. Child car seats – a habitat for house dust mites and reservoir for harmful allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Clarke

    2015-02-01

    Child car seats and driver seats are habitats to a range of mite species which can be present in sufficient concentrations to cause or aggravate allergen related illnesses in individuals who are genetically predisposed.

  3. Improved Seat, Console, and Workplace Design: Annotated Bibliography, Integration of the Literature, Accommodation Model, and Seated Operator Reach Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-31

    transmitted through che small areas to the seat, causing high pressure points. This results in reduced blood flow leading to numbness and pain . Soft...some operators to re- current symptoms of incoordination and muscle pain . 5 A-4 3 A 44 ’’I 2,g CATEGORY: WORKPLACE DESIGN AUTHOR: Ellis, D.S. TITLE...the knee, and not so far backward as to exert pressure upon the coccyx . (c) The seat should slope from before backward, a drop of approximately 1 inch

  4. Shock Mitigating Seat Single Impact Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    honeycomb panels manufactured from 5052 aluminum alloy were acquired in three specifications3 as detailed in Table 2. In the table, the shear...details the complete test matrix. 3 Alcore PAA-CORE™ 5052 Aluminum Honeycomb Product Data...with a pneumatically powered brake that is used to prevent rebound. The tower is 15’-8” high with a 37” x 45” aluminum table and a maximum test

  5. Greek Electoral System: Optimal Distribution of the Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitouras, Ch.

    2007-09-01

    The Greek parliamentary elections of 2008 and 2012 will take place according to the electoral low which had been voted by the previous house back in 2004. The parties receive a nation-wide number of seats that have to be distributed in the prefectures. It is a transportation problem where the legislator neglected its complete solution after finding a first random feasible solution.

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Adult Seat Belt Use in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know [PODCAST – 1:20 minutes] Seat Belts- What You Need to Know [PSA – 1:00 minute] On Other Web Sites The Community Guide: Primary Versus Secondary Enforcement Laws MedlinePlus – Motor Vehicle Safety MedlinePlus – Injuries Top of Page Get Email Updates To receive email updates about ...

  7. Restraint use and seating position among children in motor vehicles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive study was used to assess use of child restraints, seating positions of children, driver restraint and vehicle overloading in Bloemfontein in 2007. Two pairs of observers stood at selected sites recording these findings. The study was done over a period of 1 month. Results. A total of 512 children in 374 vehicles ...

  8. Development and initial validation of the Seated Posture Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barks, Lelia; Luther, Stephen L; Brown, Lisa M; Schulz, Brian; Bowen, Mary Elizabeth; Powell-Cope, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Literature shows that some health outcomes (e.g., eating, breathing, and speaking) are directly related to posture. Evidence of outcomes mediated by wheelchair seated posture is limited to interface pressure, physical function, and wheelchair skills and safety. This study's purpose was to develop and validate a rapid, low-burden, paper-pencil assessment of wheelchair seated posture for research use and to test feasibility of its use with a sample of older adults. We used a prospective design and a convenience sample of older adults who were receiving rehabilitation services in a community living center. Forty-nine older wheelchair users participated. Main measures were the Seated Posture Scale (SPS), Modified Ashworth Scale, Barthel Index, Visual Descriptor Scale, scale-content validity index (S-CVI), Cronbach alpha, and test-retest reliability. Rating by six experts yielded the overall content validity score (S-CVI) of 0.744. Total SPS score correlated positively with physical function (Barthel Index, r = 0.46, p Scale, r = -0.44, p = 0.001), supporting SPS construct validity. Internal consistency was 0.66 (Cronbach alpha). Test-retest reliability yielded Pearson product-moment correlations of 0.89 to 0.99. We conclude that the SPS has sufficient preliminary validity and reliability to support its use as an evaluation of wheelchair seated posture in outcomes research.

  9. Designing Train Passenger Seat by Kansei Engineering in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hapsari Sakya Nabila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transport adoption is still major problem in Indonesia. Integrating impression and emotion to service may change the image of public transport, leading to fast adoption rate. As product development technique, Kansei Engineering is well known to facilitate that integration. This paper communicates the implementation of Kansei Engineering (KE in designing train passenger seat in Indonesia. The train between Bandung-Solo (8 hours journey was chosen to be the investigated object. The train was selected to be refurbished by introducing a new passenger seat design, emphasizing on the improvement of passenger experience. As the first step of KE type I technique, travel experience of the existing passengers were taken into the consideration for selecting Kansei words. It was found that the relevant Kansei words to design passenger train seat in Indonesia were: comfort, people-friendly, multifunction, safe, soft, spacious, relaxing, superior, maintainable, strong, producible, minimalist, attractive, modern, unique, and durable. Upon understanding the semantic meaning of those words, physical properties and technical specification were produced by consulting to the related members. Finally, a passenger seat with synthetic leather cover, modular design, foldable table, individual power point, bluesilver color, and adjusted to Indonesian’s anthropometry data was proposed as the final design

  10. Three-dimensional musculoskeletal modelling of the seated row ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adjustments had to be made to the model to solve the forward dynamics simulations; as a result, no muscle forces or contraction values were obtained. This negatively influenced the value of the results as these parameters are important when analysing an exercise. The seated row resistance-training machine's engineered ...

  11. Restraint use and seating position among children in motor vehicles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minibuses, buses and trucks, as well as motor vehicles with tinted or covered windows, were excluded from the study. The following observations were recorded by the researchers for each child in a motor vehicle: seating position of the child, whether child restraint was used and type of restraint, whether restraint was.

  12. 75 FR 4509 - Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... consistent seat belt use estimates. Under the proposed rule, the following roads would be permitted to be...). The outcome of the State's annual Statewide seat belt use survey provides one of the core performance... Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA...

  13. Knowledge, attitude and use of seat belt among commercial drivers in Sokoto Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A O Abiola

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: This study has identified high level of knowledge, positive attitude and reported use of seat belt. It is recommended that public awareness of the safety benefits of seat belts and strong enforcement are necessary to achieve optimal use of seat belt.

  14. The Mutual Impact of Personality Traits on Seating Preference and Educational Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemyari, Camellia; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Ahrari, Iman; Tavana, Samar; Parva, Mohammad; Pakshir, Keyvan; Jafari, Peyman; Sahraian, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the association between students' seating positions and their classroom performance. However, the role of personality traits on seating preference in the classroom has not been well investigated. The aim of the study was to understand how students choose their seats according to their personality traits in a…

  15. 77 FR 19155 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages; Incorporation by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Participation I. FMVSS No. 210 FMVSS No. 210, ``Seat belt assembly anchorages,'' applies to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles (MPVs), trucks, and buses. The standard establishes requirements for seat belt.... 210 and Figure 2 in FMVSS No. 222, ``School bus passenger seating and crash protection''). \\1\\ For lap...

  16. Walk Right In, Sit Right Down: Seating in the College English Literature Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiland, Thomas T.

    2017-01-01

    Seating arrangements in college English Literature courses can have an impact on the learning experience for the student. Students who had completed at least one college-level English literature course at a community college were asked about their experiences in four seating arrangements: traditional rows of seats, Socratic circle/seminar style,…

  17. The use of seat belts and contributing factors : an international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the

  18. Considerations for classroom seating arrangements and the role of teacher characteristics and beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, Mariola; van den Berg, Y.H.M.; Segers, E.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2016-01-01

    As a part of classroom management, teachers face the question of how and where to seat their students. However, it is far from clear what considerations teachers have when making seating arrangements. Therefore, in this study seating arrangement considerations from 50 teachers in grades 4–6 of

  19. Parental Views Regarding Seating and Participation for Young Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolas, Jennifer; Boyle, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the views of parents regarding seating for children with cerebral palsy. Two interviews with parents were conducted. These were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was conducted. This small study outlines three themes: the importance of seating, seating and participation, and the parental role in…

  20. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... bolt holes or the centroid of any other means of attachment to the structure specified in 4.1.3.1... are either: (a) For designated seating positions that are common to the same occupant seat and that... common to the same occupant seat, but that face in the same direction, if the vertical centerline of the...

  1. An ecological model to factors associated with booster seat use: A population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimony Kanat, Sarit; Gofin, Rosa

    2017-11-01

    Belt-positioning booster seat use (BPB) is an effective technology to prevent severe child injury in cases of car crash. However, in many countries, age-appropriate car restraint use for children aged 4-7 years old remains the lowest among all age groups. The aim of this study was to identify the main determinants of BPB use through a comprehensive approach. An ecological model was used to analyze individual, parent-child relationships, and neighborhood characteristics. Parents of children enrolled in the first and second grades completed a self-reported questionnaire (n=745). The data were subjected to multilevel modeling. The first level examined individual and parent-child relationship variables; in addition the second level tested between neighborhood variance. According to parental self- reports, 56.6% of their children had used a BPB on each car trip during the previous month. The results indicated that the determinants positively related to BPB use were individual and parental; namely, the number of children in the family, the parents' car seat belt use, parental knowledge of children's car safety principles, and a highly authoritative parenting style. Children's temperaments and parental supervision were not associated with BPB use. At the neighborhood level, a small difference was found between neighborhoods for BPB users compared to non-users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Deformations of superconformal theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Córdova, Clay; Dumitrescu, Thomas T.; Intriligator, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We classify possible supersymmetry-preserving relevant, marginal, and irrelevant deformations of unitary superconformal theories in d≥3 dimensions. Our method only relies on symmetries and unitarity. Hence, the results are model independent and do not require a Lagrangian description. Two unifying themes emerge: first, many theories admit deformations that reside in multiplets together with conserved currents. Such deformations can lead to modifications of the supersymmetry algebra by central and non-central charges. Second, many theories with a sufficient amount of supersymmetry do not admit relevant or marginal deformations, and some admit neither. The classification is complicated by the fact that short superconformal multiplets display a rich variety of sporadic phenomena, including supersymmetric deformations that reside in the middle of a multiplet. We illustrate our results with examples in diverse dimensions. In particular, we explain how the classification of irrelevant supersymmetric deformations can be used to derive known and new constraints on moduli-space effective actions.

  3. Understanding the association between pressure ulcers and sitting in adults what does it mean for me and my carers? Seating guidelines for people, carers and health & social care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, M; Bartley, C A

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the publication was to develop a practical guide for people, carers and health and social care professionals on how the research and evidence base on pressure ulcer prevention and management can be applied to those who remain seated for extended periods of time. This publication was developed at the request of the Tissue Viability Society in order to revise the original seating guidelines from 2008 as evidence and subsequent care has moved forward in relation to this area. Since 2008, the costs for the prevention and management of pressure ulcers have increased significantly and there is limited published advice from health and social care organisations on seating and preventing pressure ulcers. These guidelines have been written for: Who live or work in primary, secondary, and tertiary settings. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanics of deformable bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerfeld, Arnold Johannes Wilhelm

    1950-01-01

    Mechanics of Deformable Bodies: Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Volume II covers topics on the mechanics of deformable bodies. The book discusses the kinematics, statics, and dynamics of deformable bodies; the vortex theory; as well as the theory of waves. The text also describes the flow with given boundaries. Supplementary notes on selected hydrodynamic problems and supplements to the theory of elasticity are provided. Physicists, mathematicians, and students taking related courses will find the book useful.

  5. Deformed Open Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isar, A.

    2004-09-01

    A master equation for the deformed quantum harmonic oscillator interacting with a dissipative environment, in particular with a thermal bath, is obtained in the microscopic model, using perturbation theory. The coefficients of the master equation depend on the deformation function. The steady state solution of the equation for the density matrix in the number representation is derived and the equilibrium energy of the deformed harmonic oscillator is calculated in the approximation of small deformation. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract and references only.

  6. Dynamic forces over the interface between a seated human body and a rigid seat during vertical whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi; Qiu, Yi; Griffin, Michael J

    2017-08-16

    Biodynamic responses of the seated human body are usually measured and modelled assuming a single point of vibration excitation. With vertical vibration excitation, this study investigated how forces are distributed over the body-seat interface. Vertical and fore-and-aft forces were measured beneath the ischial tuberosities, middle thighs, and front thighs of 14 subjects sitting on a rigid flat seat in three postures with different thigh contact while exposed to random vertical vibration at three magnitudes. Measures of apparent mass were calculated from transfer functions between the vertical acceleration of the seat and the vertical or fore-and-aft forces measured at the three locations, and the sum of these forces. When sitting normally or sitting with a high footrest, vertical forces at the ischial tuberosities dominated the vertical apparent mass. With feet unsupported to give increased thigh contact, vertical forces at the front thighs were dominant around 8Hz. Around 3-7Hz, fore-and-aft forces at the middle thighs dominated the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass. Around 8-10Hz, fore-and-aft forces were dominant at the ischial tuberosities with feet supported but at the front thighs with feet unsupported. All apparent masses were nonlinear: as the vibration magnitude increased the resonance frequencies decreased. With feet unsupported, the nonlinearity in the apparent mass was greater at the front thighs than at the ischial tuberosities. It is concluded that when the thighs are supported on a seat it is not appropriate to assume the body has a single point of vibration excitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Deformation of the Pannonian lithosphere and related tectonic topography: a depth-to-surface analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dombrádi, E.

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprints of deep-seated, lithospheric deformation are often recognised on the surface, contributing to topographic evolution, drainage organisation and mass transport. Interactions between deep and surface processes were investigated in the Carpathian-Pannonian region. The lithosphere beneath the Pannonian basin has formerly been extended, significantly stretched and heated up and thus became extremely weak from a rheological point of view. From Pliocene times onward the ‘crème brulee’ ty...

  8. Determination of crash test pulses and their application to aircraft seat analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Bou, E.; Williams, M. S.; Fasanella, E. L.

    1981-01-01

    Deceleration time histories (crash pulses) from a series of twelve light aircraft crash tests conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) were analyzed to provide data for seat and airframe design for crashworthiness. Two vertical drop tests at 12.8 m/s (42 ft/s) and 36 G peak deceleration (simulating one of the vertical light aircraft crash pulses) were made using an energy absorbing light aircraft seat prototype. Vertical pelvis acceleration measured in a 50 percentile dummy in the energy absorbing seat were found to be 45% lower than those obtained from the same dummy in a typical light aircraft seat. A hybrid mathematical seat-occupant model was developed using the DYCAST nonlinear finite element computer code and was used to analyze a vertical drop test of the energy absorbing seat. Seat and occupant accelerations predicted by the DYCAST model compared quite favorably with experimental values.

  9. Intracrystalline deformation of calcite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bresser, J.H.P. de

    1991-01-01

    It is well established from observations on natural calcite tectonites that intracrystalline plastic mechanisms are important during the deformation of calcite rocks in nature. In this thesis, new data are presented on fundamental aspects of deformation behaviour of calcite under conditions where

  10. Deformation mechanisms in experimentally deformed Boom Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, Guillaume; Schuck, Bernhard; Urai, Janos

    2016-04-01

    Bulk mechanical and transport properties of reference claystones for deep disposal of radioactive waste have been investigated since many years but little is known about microscale deformation mechanisms because accessing the relevant microstructure in these soft, very fine-grained, low permeable and low porous materials remains difficult. Recent development of ion beam polishing methods to prepare high quality damage free surfaces for scanning electron microscope (SEM) is opening new fields of microstructural investigation in claystones towards a better understanding of the deformation behavior transitional between rocks and soils. We present results of Boom Clay deformed in a triaxial cell in a consolidated - undrained test at a confining pressure of 0.375 MPa (i.e. close to natural value), with σ1 perpendicular to the bedding. Experiments stopped at 20 % strain. As a first approximation, the plasticity of the sample can be described by a Mohr-Coulomb type failure envelope with a coefficient of cohesion C = 0.117 MPa and an internal friction angle ϕ = 18.7°. After deformation test, the bulk sample shows a shear zone at an angle of about 35° from the vertical with an offset of about 5 mm. We used the "Lamipeel" method that allows producing a permanent absolutely plane and large size etched micro relief-replica in order to localize and to document the shear zone at the scale of the deformed core. High-resolution imaging of microstructures was mostly done by using the BIB-SEM method on key-regions identified after the "Lamipeel" method. Detailed BIB-SEM investigations of shear zones show the following: the boundaries between the shear zone and the host rock are sharp, clay aggregates and clastic grains are strongly reoriented parallel to the shear direction, and the porosity is significantly reduced in the shear zone and the grain size is smaller in the shear zone than in the host rock but there is no evidence for broken grains. Comparison of microstructures

  11. A seat at the table: redesigning cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevidjon, Brenda

    2014-02-01

    The Institute of Medicine's ([IOM's], 2011) report, The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health, included the key message, "Nurses should be full partners, with physicians and other health professionals, in redesigning health care in the United States" (p. 221). That is a call for nurses to lead at every level-to have a seat at the table when critical decisions are being made. Those decisions extend from clinical care to national policy, and all require the voice of nurses. The annual Gallup (2013) Honesty/Ethics in Professions survey again listed nursing as the most ethical profession. With that trust and the IOM report, among other things, nursing is well positioned to be at many tables. Having a seat is not enough, though. Nurses must contribute to the action at the table.

  12. Design Optimisation and Conrol of a Pilot Operated Seat Valve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Brian; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2004-01-01

    The paper gives an approach for optimisation of the bandwidth of a pilot operated seat valve for mobile applications. Physical dimensions as well as parameters of the implemented control loop are optimised simultaneously. The frequency response of the valve varies as a function of the pressure drop...... across the valve, and it is found to be necessary to scale the controller parameters in the optimised design as a function of pressure drop....

  13. Dynamic Performance Assessment of Side Facing Troop Seats During Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2016-0095 DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF SIDE FACING TROOP SEATS DURING IMPACT Mr. Chris Burneka Mr. Chris...PAGE Using Government drawings, specifications , or other data included in this document for any purpose other than Government procurement does...not in any way obligate the U.S. Government. The fact that the Government formulated or supplied the drawings, specifications , or other data does

  14. Affirmative Action: Reservation Seats untuk Perempuan di Parlemen India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Yunita Kurniaty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to help us understand and analyze women's efforts in the policy-making process to increase their political participation in the constitutional and electoral processes. We can also see the extent to which the values rooted in the patriarchal culture in a society and what can be done and reduce them. Affirmative action is carried out in India by applying the system of reservation seats for women in the Indian Parliament. This is done in India is proven to increase the number of women in the Indian Parliament. By the way there are quotas for women as a strategy for accessing the political arena has growing support among MPs. In this study, Indonesia could get a reservation seats of learning about the system is done. To increase the representation in the "area" is very difficult to be touched by a quota system which is run now, it can be done with reservation seats quota to ensure women's representation in parliament.

  15. Machine for development impact tests in sports seats and similar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, R. M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the stages of development of a machine to perform impact tests in sport seats, seats for spectators and multiple seats. This includes reviews and recommendations for testing laboratories that have needs similar to the laboratory where unfolded this process.The machine was originally developed seeking to meet certain impact tests in accordance with the NBR15925 standards; 15878 and 16031. The process initially included the study of the rules and the election of the tests for which the machine could be developed and yet all reports and outcome of interaction with service providers and raw materials.For operating facility, it was necessary to set entirely the machine control, which included the concept of dialogue with operator, the design of the menu screens and the procedures for submission and registration of results. To ensure reliability in the process, the machine has been successfully calibrated according to the requirements of the Brazilian network of calibration.The criticism to this enterprise covers the technical and economic aspects involved and points out the main obstacles that were needed to overcome.

  16. Assessing ergonomic risks of software: Development of the SEAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, S Camille; Mehta, Ranjana K; Ritchey, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Software utilizing interaction designs that require extensive dragging or clicking of icons may increase users' risks for upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders. The purpose of this research is to develop a Self-report Ergonomic Assessment Tool (SEAT) for assessing the risks of software interaction designs and facilitate mitigation of those risks. A 28-item self-report measure was developed by combining and modifying items from existing industrial ergonomic tools. Data were collected from 166 participants after they completed four different tasks that varied by method of input (touch or keyboard and mouse) and type of task (selecting or typing). Principal component analysis found distinct factors associated with stress (i.e., demands) and strain (i.e., response). Repeated measures analyses of variance showed that participants could discriminate the different strain induced by the input methods and tasks. However, participants' ability to discriminate between the stressors associated with that strain was mixed. Further validation of the SEAT is necessary but these results indicate that the SEAT may be a viable method of assessing ergonomics risks presented by software design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Machine for development impact tests in sports seats and similar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, R M

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the stages of development of a machine to perform impact tests in sport seats, seats for spectators and multiple seats. This includes reviews and recommendations for testing laboratories that have needs similar to the laboratory where unfolded this process.The machine was originally developed seeking to meet certain impact tests in accordance with the NBR15925 standards; 15878 and 16031. The process initially included the study of the rules and the election of the tests for which the machine could be developed and yet all reports and outcome of interaction with service providers and raw materials.For operating facility, it was necessary to set entirely the machine control, which included the concept of dialogue with operator, the design of the menu screens and the procedures for submission and registration of results. To ensure reliability in the process, the machine has been successfully calibrated according to the requirements of the Brazilian network of calibration.The criticism to this enterprise covers the technical and economic aspects involved and points out the main obstacles that were needed to overcome. (paper)

  18. Calcaneo-valgus deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D

    1975-08-01

    A discussion of the essential deformity in calcaneo-valgus feet develops a theme originally put forward in 1961 on the relapsed club foot (Evans 1961). Whereas in the normal foot the medial and lateral columns are about equal in length, in talipes equino-varus the lateral column is longer and in calcaneo-valgus shorter than the medial column. The suggestion is that in the treatment of both deformities the length of the columns be made equal. A method is described of treating calcaneo-valgus deformity by inserting cortical bone grafts taken from the tibia to elongate the anterior end of the calcaneus.

  19. Recent deep-seated coastal landsliding at San Onofre State Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne LiDAR collected during the period 1998-2010 and differential GPS surveys conducted over 2008-2013 show recent reactivation and movement of a large deep-seated coastal landslide at San Onofre State Beach, San Diego County, California. The overall slide complex extends about 700 m alongshore, 150 m inland, and an unknown distance offshore. Differencing digital elevation models and tracking field monuments (benchmarks) provide time series of quantitative topographic landslide changes and new insight in to the slide motion sequences and mechanics. The slide contains several distinct primary and secondary regions moving and deforming at different rates. Primary slide motion includes slow seaward translational motion, rotational slipping, and upward offshore movement. Secondary processes of basal wave erosion and new inland cliffline failures contribute to primary landslide destabilization. The landslide exhibits lithologic and structural controls, is driven by a combination of marine and subaerial processes, influences local beach morphology, and deviates from typical southern California coastal cliff processes which mostly involve shallow landslides and topples. Large-scale, cross-shore slide rotation has recently created new nearshore reefs. Eroded cliff sediments provide a local beach sand source and probably influence local nearshore ecosystems. All known time periods of major historical landslide activity were preceded by elevated seasonal rainfall and analysis suggests elevated rainfall generated primary slide motion as opposed to wave action. As of spring 2013, landslide activity has slowed, but continued positive feedbacks including toe removal by wave activity suggest that future landsliding will probably threaten coastal infrastructure.

  20. Validation of seat-off and seat-on in repeated sit-to-stand movements using a single-body-fixed sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Lummel, R C; Ainsworth, E; Hausdorff, J M; Lindemann, U; Beek, P J; Van Dieën, J H

    2012-01-01

    The identification of chair rise phases is a prerequisite for quantifying sit-to-stand movements. The aim of this study is to validate seat-off and seat-on detection using a single-body-fixed sensor against detection based on chair switches. A single sensor system with three accelerometers and three gyroscopes was fixed around the waist. Synchronized on–off switches were placed under the chair. Thirteen older adults were recruited from a residential care home and fifteen young adults were recruited among college students. Subjects were asked to complete two sets of five trials each. Six features of the trunk movement during seat-off and seat-on were calculated automatically, and a model was developed to predict the moment of seat-off and seat-on transitions. The predictions were validated with leave-one-out cross-validation. Feature extraction failed in two trials (0.7%). For the optimal combination of seat-off predictors, cross-validation yielded a mean error of 0 ms and a mean absolute error of 51 ms. For the best seat-on predictor, cross-validation yielded a mean error of –3 ms and a mean absolute error of 127 ms. The results of this study demonstrate that seat-off and seat-on in repeated sit-to-stand movements can be detected semi-automatically in young and older adults using a one-body-fixed sensor system with an accuracy of 51 and 127 ms, respectively. The use of the ambulatory instrumentation is feasible for non-technically trained personnel. This is an important step in the development of an automated method for the quantification of sit-to-stand movements in clinical practice. (paper)

  1. Management of post burn hand deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabapathy S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor.

  2. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  3. Vibrations in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprahamian, A.

    1992-01-01

    Quadrupole oscillations around a deformed shape give rise to vibrations in deformed nuclei. Single phonon vibrations of K = 0 (β) and K = 2 (γ) are a systematic feature in deformed nuclei, but the existence of multi-phonon vibrations had remained an open question until the recently reported results in 168 Er. In this nucleus, a two-phonon K = 4(γγ) band was observed at approximately 2.5 times the energy of the single γ vibration. The authors have studied several deformed rare-earth nuclei using the ( 4 He,2n) reaction in order to map out the systematic behavior of these multi-phonon vibrations. Recently, they have identified a similar K = 4 band in 154 Gd

  4. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar

    2003-01-01

    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...... a single central section of the object. We use maximum-likelihood-based inference for this purpose and demonstrate the suggested methods on real data....

  5. Multi-leg Seat Inventory Control Based on EMSU and Virtual Bucket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Expected marginal seat revenue (EMSR is a well-known method for airline seat inventory control airlines. However, this method employs a static model to study the dynamic reservation process, and does not take into account the risk tolerance of policy makers. Expected marginal seat utility (EMSU replaces revenue by utility, which addresses the real situation of seat inventory control. However, there is still a lack of multi-leg seat control algorithms based on EMSU. Therefore, using EMSU and bucket algorithms, this paper applies the Markov decision-making process to simulate the flight reservation process and builds a dynamic multi-leg seat inventory control model. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. 49 CFR 571.209 - Standard No. 209; Seat belt assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Hardware means any metal or rigid plastic part of a seat belt assembly. Load-limiter means a seat belt... usage a person, clothing, or webbing shall be free from burrs and sharp edges. (e) Release. A Type 1 or... seating position(s), e.g., “front right”] in [insert specific vehicle make(s) and model(s)]. (l) Usage and...

  7. Active control of an innovative seat suspension system with acceleration measurement based friction estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Donghong; Sun, Shuaishuai; Li, Hongyi; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, an innovative active seat suspension system for vehicles is presented. This seat suspension prototype is built with two low cost actuators each of which has one rotary motor and one gear reducer. A H∞ controller with friction compensation is designed for the seat suspension control system where the friction is estimated and compensated based on the measurement of seat acceleration. This principal aim of this research was to control the low frequency vibration transferred or amplified by the vehicle (chassis) suspension, and to maintain the passivity of the seat suspension at high frequency (isolation vibration) while taking into consideration the trade-off between the active seat suspension cost and its high frequency performance. Sinusoidal excitations of 1-4.5 Hz were applied to test the active seat suspension both when controlled and when uncontrolled and this is compared with a well-tuned passive heavy duty vehicle seat suspension. The results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm within the tested frequencies. Further tests were conducted using the excitations generated from a quarter-car model under bump and random road profiles. The bump road tests indicate the controlled active seat suspension has good transient response performance. The Power Spectral Density (PSD) method and ISO 2631-1 standards were applied to analyse the seat suspension's acceleration under random road conditions. Although some low magnitude and high frequency noise will inevitably be introduced by the active system, the weighted-frequency Root Mean Square (RMS) acceleration shows that this may not have a large effect on ride comfort. In fact, the ride comfort is improved from being an 'a little uncomfortable' to a 'not uncomfortable' level when compared with the well-tuned passive seat suspension. This low cost active seat suspension design and the proposed controller with the easily measured feedback signals are very practical for real

  8. ACES II Seat Roller Study: Findings of Detrimental Friction under High Windblast or Adverse Flight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-12

    of 1500 lbf. 15. SUBJECT TERMS ACES-II, Ejection, Seat, Cam, Roller, Bearing, Friction, CKU-5, Rocket, Catapult , ROCAT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Booster = solid propellant grain in the catapult of a ROCAT Catapult = the telescopic tube phase that lifts the ACES-II ejection seat within the...Criteria (0-1 scaled collation of individual-axis DRI) ROCAT = Rocket Catapult ejection propulsion system SBLAZ (g) = Seat Back Linear Accelerometer

  9. Race, belief in destiny, and seat belt usage: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, I

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 1063 individuals found that when belief in destiny was statistically controlled, differences in seat belt use by race disappeared. Thus, racial differences in seat belt use are statistically accounted for and might be explained by belief in destiny. Efforts to increase seat belt use should target minority groups rather than include them in broadbrush programs. Further, these efforts should take into account this important difference in motivation. PMID:1585969

  10. Impact of seated and standing bicycle riding position on subsequent running performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Randall L.; Ewers, Brendon J.; Cunniffe, Brian; Phelan, Brian; Harrison, Andrew J.; Shafat, Amir

    2008-01-01

    peer-reviewed This study examined the effects of cycling posture on subsequent running performance similar to the transition phase of a triathlon. Experienced, non-elite triathletes completed two trials of a cycle-run transition. During the last three minutes of a 30 minute cycling bout, at power output equal to lactate threshold, subjects either remained seated (SEAT), or alternated seated and standing cycling (30 s at a time; ALT). Heart rate, RPE, minimum and maximum knee angle, stride ...

  11. Active Head Restraints Used to Improve the Car Seats Safety in a Rear Impact Situation, in Accordance with the Requirements of EURO NCAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Solopov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the urgent, presently, problem that is to ensure the best level of the passive safety of car seats with active head restraints, as well as to assess the effectiveness of such constructional designs. This is an impact-related task, to be, as a consequence, essentially nonlinear with large deformations, strains and accelerations.To solve this problem finite element models of three types of seat designs with active head restraints have been developed. When creating the simulation FEM a number of CAD (Computer Aided Design/CAE (Computer Aided Engineering software was used.This work was performed within the framework of the developed technique, which allows an efficient creation of the car seat designs with passive and active head restraints that meet requirements of the passive safety.The results of calculations and experiments allowed us to find that the active head restraint significantly reduced a NIC (Neck Injury Criterion value, namely up to 36.92 (4% when using the active headrest with articulated tilting couch, 29.23 (per 24% when using the active headrest with sliding pad, and 26.15 (31% when using the active head restraint, which is provided with an airbag. We have also managed to achieve significantly reduced head acceleration under impact.It was found that FEM seats with active head restraint, which is provided with an airbag, are the most secure because of the least NIC value under the impact (26.15.Presented in the article materials are used in teaching students at the department “Wheeled vehicles” of scientific and educational complex "Special engineering" in BMSTU.

  12. Shell structure of octupole deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xizhen; Dong Baoguo

    1992-01-01

    A convenient definition of intrinsic frame of an octupole deformed shape was proposed recently. The octupole deformation potential was expanded on the bases of irreducible representations of group O h . Based on the parameterization given in previous paper, the shell structures of octupole deformation which cover all possible octupole deformed shapes were studied

  13. Development of Methodology to Gather Seated Anthropometry Data in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    The Constellation Program is designing a new vehicle based off of new anthropometric requirements. These requirements specify the need to account for a spinal elongation factor for anthropometric measurements involving the spine, such as eye height and seated height. However, to date there is no data relating spinal elongation to a seated posture. Only data relating spinal elongation to stature has been collected in microgravity. Therefore, it was proposed to collect seated height in microgravity to provide the Constellation designers appropriate data for their analyses. This document will describe the process in which the best method to collect seated height in microgravity was developed.

  14. The Effects of Ejection Seat Cushion Design on Physical Fatigue and Cognitive Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pellettiere, Joseph; Parakkat, Julia; Reynolds, David; Sasidharan, Manikandan; El-Zoghbi, Muhamed; Oudenhuijzen, Aernout

    2006-01-01

    .... Subjective comfort survey data and cognitive performance data were gathered along with comparative objective data, including seated pressures, muscular fatigue levels, and lower extremity oxygen saturation...

  15. Car safety seat usage and selection among families attending University Hospital Limerick

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Scully, P

    2016-05-01

    The safest way for children to travel within a car is by provision of a weight-appropriate safety-seat. To investigate this, we conducted a cross-sectional study of adult parents who had children under 12 years, and collected information related to: car use, safety-seat legislation, and type of safety-seat employed. Data were reviewed on 120 children from 60 respondents. Ninety-eight (81.7%) children were transported daily by car. Forty-eight (81.4%) respondents were aware that current safety-seat legislation is based on the weight of the child. One hundred and seven (89.9%) children were restrained during travel using a car safety-seat. One hundred and two (96.2%) safety seats were newly purchased, installed in 82.3% (88) cases by family members with installation instructions fully read in 58 (55.2%) cases. Ninety-nine (83.2%) children were restrained using an appropriate safety-seat for their weight. The results show that four out of five families are employing the most appropriate safety-seat for their child, so providing an effective mechanism to reduce car-related injury. However, the majority of safety-seats are installed by family members, which may have child safety consequences.

  16. SEAT BELT USE AMONG CAR USERS IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    S. KULANTHAYAN

    2004-01-01

    The car is the second (40%) most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4%) of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective wa...

  17. Rear-seat motor vehicle travel in the U.S.: using national data to define a population at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Matthew J; Kent, Richard

    2009-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that the relative protection offered by rear seating in motor vehicle crashes has decreased, potentially reflecting disproportionate advancements in front-seat safety technology. Safe adaptation of advanced front-seat restraint systems for the rear-seat environment will require exposure data that are currently unavailable. This study uses national data to quantify rear-seat occupancy patterns, restraint use, and annual travel exposure in the U.S. in order to support the development of advanced crash protection systems for rear-seat motor vehicle occupants. Data from the 2000-2006 National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System and 2001 National Household Transportation Survey were analyzed in 2008 to quantify occupancy patterns (e.g., seat position, restraint use) and annual person-trips for rear-seat passengers in the U.S. The overall proportion of person-trips by rear-seat occupants is relatively low (12.9%); however national at-risk exposure remains significant (approximately 39 billion annual person-trips). Annual rear-seat travel exposure is similar among children < or = 12 years and adults (18.9 vs 19.1 billion person-trips) despite the fact that children are proportionally much more likely to ride in rear positions (79.3% vs 7.4%). Restraint use among adult rear-seat occupants was also much lower than among front-seat occupants (50.4% vs 82.2%). While rear-seat occupancy is relatively low compared with front-seat occupancy at-risk rear-seat travel by both child and adult passengers in the U.S. remains significant. Restraint use by rear-seat occupants is much lower than that among front-seat passengers, particularly among adults and older children, substantially increasing injury risk. Development of future crash protection systems for rear-seat passengers must account for these exposure patterns to ensure safe and effective integration into production vehicles.

  18. Preventing Ischial Pressure Ulcers: II. Biomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton M. Kaplan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pressure ulcers (PUs are common and debilitating wounds that arise when immobilized patients cannot shift their weight. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES has been investigated for Pressure Ulcer Prevention (PUP for over 20 years. Historically gluteus maximus (GM has been considered an important actuator in attempting to redistribute seated pressures through NMES.

  19. Autogenous Deformation of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autogenous deformation of concrete can be defined as the free deformation of sealed concrete at a constant temperature. A number of observed problems with early age cracking of high-performance concretes can be attributed to this phenomenon. During the last 10 years , this has led to an increased...... focus on autogenous deformation both within concrete practice and concrete research. Since 1996 the interest has been significant enough to hold international, yearly conferences entirely devoted to this subject. The papers in this publication were presented at two consecutive half-day sessions...... at the American Concrete Institute’s Fall Convention in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2002. All papers have been reviewed according to ACI rules. This publication, as well as the sessions, was sponsored by ACI committee 236, Material Science of Concrete. The 12 presentations from 8 different countries indicate...

  20. Packings of deformable spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Shomeek; Peixinho, Jorge

    2011-07-01

    We present an experimental study of disordered packings of deformable spheres. Fluorescent hydrogel spheres immersed in water together with a tomography technique enabled the imaging of the three-dimensional arrangement. The mechanical behavior of single spheres subjected to compression is first examined. Then the properties of packings of a randomized collection of deformable spheres in a box with a moving lid are tested. The transition to a state where the packing withstands finite stresses before yielding is observed. Starting from random packed states, the power law dependence of the normal force versus packing fraction or strain at different velocities is quantified. Furthermore, a compression-decompression sequence at low velocities resulted in rearrangements of the spheres. At larger packing fractions, a saturation of the mean coordination number took place, indicating the deformation and faceting of the spheres.

  1. Child car seats – a habitat for house dust mites and reservoir for harmful allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Clarke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. House dust mites produce allergens which can cause or aggravate diseases such as asthma, eczema and rhinitis. The objectives of this study are to quantify typical house dust mite and Der p 1 allergen levels in child car seats, and to determine external variables that may influence mite populations in cars. [b]Materials and Methods[/b]. Dust samples were collected from the child car seats and driver seats of 106 cars using a portable vacuum sampling pump over a two minute sampling period. Mites were counted and identified and results were expressed as mites per gram (mites/g of dust, while Der p 1 content of samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Questionnaires were completed by participants to identify environmental and behavioural effects on mite populations. Results were analysed using General Linear Model (GLM procedures. [b]Results[/b]. Twelve species of mites, of which nine are known to produce harmful allergens, were recorded from 212 dust samples. Over 80% of drivers’ seats and over 77% of child car seats harboured dust mites with a significant correlation (p = 0.001 between the mites/g of dust and Der p 1 content recovered from each seat. A mean of 53 mites/g of dust per seat was recovered, with a mean Der p 1 level of 1.1µg/g. Over 12% of driver seats and 15% of child car seats contained house dust mite levels sufficient to be risk factors for sensitisation and allergic reactions. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Child car seats and driver seats are habitats to a range of mite species which can be present in sufficient concentrations to cause or aggravate allergen related illnesses in individuals who are genetically predisposed.

  2. Child car seats - a habitat for house dust mites and reservoir for harmful allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David; Gormally, Michael; Sheahan, Jerome; Byrne, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    House dust mites produce allergens which can cause or aggravate diseases such as asthma, eczema and rhinitis. The objectives of this study are to quantify typical house dust mite and Der p 1 allergen levels in child car seats, and to determine external variables that may influence mite populations in cars. Dust samples were collected from the child car seats and driver seats of 106 cars using a portable vacuum sampling pump over a two minute sampling period. Mites were counted and identified and results were expressed as mites per gram (mites/g) of dust, while Der p 1 content of samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Questionnaires were completed by participants to identify environmental and behavioural effects on mite populations. Results were analysed using General Linear Model (GLM) procedures. Twelve species of mites, of which nine are known to produce harmful allergens, were recorded from 212 dust samples. Over 80% of drivers' seats and over 77% of child car seats harboured dust mites with a significant correlation (p = 0.001) between the mites/g of dust and Der p 1 content recovered from each seat. A mean of 53 mites/g of dust per seat was recovered, with a mean Der p 1 level of 1.1µg/g. Over 12% of driver seats and 15% of child car seats contained house dust mite levels sufficient to be risk factors for sensitisation and allergic reactions. Child car seats and driver seats are habitats to a range of mite species which can be present in sufficient concentrations to cause or aggravate allergen related illnesses in individuals who are genetically predisposed.

  3. The benefit of seat belt legislation in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M

    1989-09-01

    Legislation for compulsory wearing of seat belts by car drivers and front seat passengers has been acclaimed as a major public health advance. Reports from other countries, and two recent evaluative studies in the United Kingdom, have suggested that legislation reduces both deaths and injuries. To assess the effect of the UK law 5 years after its implementation, trends in routine data for 1976-1987 have been reviewed. There were two sources of data: mortality statistics, published by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys in the quarterly Monitor DH4, and road accident statistics, recorded by the police and published by the Department of Transport. There is a downward trend in deaths over the period, but the data show little impact from the law. One explanation for this lack of effect is the risk compensation hypothesis, which suggests that "safety" improvements are transferred by drivers into increased performance--the amount and speed of travel. Public health policies need to take into account the complex behavioural interactions between travel and safety choices if they are to affect underlying trends.

  4. Restaurant No. 1 seating capacity increases by 240

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    These days you need patience when looking for a seat in Restaurant No. 1 to eat your lunch. The opening of the new dining room, which will increase the restaurant’s seating capacity by 240, should alleviate the problem and improve service.   The new restaurant area. For the past several years the number of people using Restaurant No. 1 has grown steadily. Now, for a change, the restaurant itself is growing. Luz Lopez-Hernandez, leader of the project in the GS Department, explains: “Enlarging the restaurant has been on the GS Department's agenda for several years, but the project really got off the ground in 2009. Once it was approved and the design completed, construction itself only took seven months.” Seven months later, the restaurant extension is indeed on the verge of opening. One of the people who will be particularly happy is Joël Nallet, who manages the Novae restaurant: “I am thrilled, because until now, even if we managed to increase...

  5. Daylight And Seating Preference In Open-Plan Library Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Keskin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Daylight factor has long been the predominant metric to evaluate daylight performance. Recently, the profession has moved toward annual dynamic daylight metrics such as useful daylight illuminance and daylight autonomy, which are based on absolute values of time varying daylight illuminance for a period of full year. As opposed to static daylight metrics that only concentrate on individual sky conditions, such as the widely used daylight factor, these metrics provide a more comprehensive way to measure illuminance for a wide range of sun positions and sky conditions. Although there is a growing consensus assigning importance to dynamic daylight metrics, there is no common understanding of how to integrate the preference and behaviour of building occupants in assessing the applicability of these metrics. In fact, it is when these occupancy observations and quantitative measurements are taken together that the importance of daylight performance metrics is fully realized. This study seeks to investigate the extent to which the influence of daylight on behaviour can be predicted, and for this the behaviour investigated is seating preferences of occupants in open plan, hot-desking spaces in two university libraries in Sheffield: Western Bank Library and the Information Commons. The results suggest that the association between daylight and seat choice may not be strong, and that any effect is better associated with daylight factor than with useful daylight illuminance or daylight autonomy.

  6. Nanolaminate deformable mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.; Olivier, Scot S.

    2009-04-14

    A deformable mirror formed out of two layers of a nanolaminate foil attached to a stiff substrate is introduced. Deformation is provided by an electrostatic force between two of the layers. The internal stiffness of the structure allows for high-spatial-frequency shapes. The nanolaminate foil of the present invention allows for a high-quality mirror surface. The device achieves high precision in the vertical direction by using foils with accurately controlled thicknesses, but does not require high precision in the lateral dimensions, allowing such mirrors to be fabricated using crude lithography techniques. Such techniques allow structures up to about the meter scale to be fabricated.

  7. The seating mechanics of head-neck modular tapers in vitro: Load-displacement measurements, moisture, and rate effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Eric S; Shenoy, Aarti A; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2017-09-08

    The mechanically assisted crevice corrosion performance of head-neck modular tapers is a significant concern in orthopedic biomaterials. Fretting crevice corrosion processes in modular tapers are thought to be influenced by a wide array of factors including seating mechanics of the junction, hence there is a need for in vitro test methods that can assess their performance. This study presented a test method to directly measure the load-displacement seating mechanics of modular tapers and used this method to compare the seating mechanics for different tapers, moisture, seating loads and seating rates. Seating mechanics were explored whereby the instantaneous load-displacement behavior of the head seating onto the neck is captured and used to define the mechanics of seating. Two distinct taper design/material combinations were assembled wet or dry using axially applied loads (500, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 N) at two loading rates of 100 and 10 4  N/s (n = 5 for each condition) using a servohydraulic test frame. The results showed that pull-off strength scaled with seating load and ranged between 43% and 68% of seating load depending on sample and wetness. Tapers seated wet had higher pull-off strengths (2,200 ± 300 N) than those seated dry (1,800 ± 200 N, p mechanics (load-displacement plots) varied due to sample type and due to wetness with differences in seating energy, seating stiffness, and seating displacement. These results show the detailed mechanics of seating during assembly and provide significant insight into the complex interplay of factors associated with even "ideal" seating (axial, quasistatic) loading. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 9999:1-9, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Development of a Methodology to Gather Seated Anthropometry in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    The Constellation Program's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to accommodate the full population range of crewmembers according to the anthropometry requirements stated in the Human-Systems Integration Requirement (HSIR) document (CxP70024). Seated height is one of many critical dimensions of importance to the CEV designers in determining the optimum seat configuration in the vehicle. Changes in seated height may have a large impact to the design, accommodation, and safety of the crewmembers. Seated height can change due to elongation of the spine when crewmembers are exposed to microgravity. Spinal elongation is the straightening of the natural curvature of the spine and the expansion of inter-vertebral disks. This straightening occurs due to fluid shifts in the body and the lack of compressive forces on the spinal vertebrae. Previous studies have shown that as the natural curvature of the spine straightens, an increase in overall height of 3% of stature occurs which has been the basis of the current HSIR requirements. However due to variations in the torso/leg ratio and impact of soft tissue, data is nonexistent as to how spinal elongation specifically affects the measurement of seated height. In order to obtain this data, an experiment was designed to collect spinal elongation data while in a seated posture in microgravity. The purpose of this study was to provide quantitative data that represents the amount of change that occurs in seated height due to spinal elongation in microgravity environments. Given the schedule and budget constraints of ISS and Shuttle missions and the uniqueness of the problem, a methodology had to be developed to ensure that the seated height measurements were accurately collected. Therefore, simulated microgravity evaluations were conducted to test the methodology and procedures of the experiment. This evaluation obtained seat pan pressure and seated height data to a) ensure that the lap restraint provided sufficient

  9. Nasal Soft-Tissue Triangle Deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2016-08-01

    The soft-tissue triangle is one of the least areas attended to in rhinoplasty. Any postoperative retraction, notching, or asymmetries of soft triangles can seriously affect the rhinoplasty outcome. A good understanding of the risk factors predisposing to soft triangle deformities is necessary to prevent such problems. The commonest risk factors in our study were the wide vertical domal angle between the lateral and intermediate crura, and the increased length of intermediate crus. Two types of soft triangle grafts were described to prevent and treat soft triangle deformities. The used soft triangle grafts resulted in an excellent long-term aesthetic and functional improvement. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Responses of the Q6/Q6s ATD Positioned in Booster Seats in the Far-Side Seat Location of Side Impact Passenger Car and Sled Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylko, Suzanne; Bohman, Katarina; Bussières, Alain

    2015-11-01

    Passenger car side impact crash tests and sled tests were conducted to investigate the influence of booster seats, near-side occupant characteristics and vehicle interiors on the responses of the Q6/Q6s child ATD positioned in the rear, far-side seating location. Data from nine side impact sled tests simulating a EuroNCAP AEMD barrier test were analyzed with data obtained from 44 side impact crash tests. The crash tests included: FMVSS 214 and IIHS MDB, moving car-to-stationary car and moving car-to-moving car. A Q6 or prototype Q6s ATD was seated on the far-side, using a variety of low and high back booster seats. Head and chest responses were recorded and ATD motions were tracked with high-speed videos. The vehicle lateral accelerations resulting from MDB tests were characterized by a much earlier and more rapid rise to peak than in tests where the bullet was another car. The near-side seating position was occupied by a Hybrid III 10-year-old ATD in the sled tests, and a rear or front facing child restraint or a 5th percentile side impact ATD in the crash tests. Head impacts occurred more frequently in vehicles where a forward facing child restraint was present behind the driver seat for both the low and high back booster seats. Pretensioners were found to reduce lateral head displacements in all sled test configurations but the greatest reduction in lateral excursion was obtained with a high back booster seat secured with LATCH and tested in combination with pretensioners.

  11. The Role of Parents and Caregivers in Providing Safe Transportation for Occupants Seated in Wheelchairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lawrence W.; Manary, Miriam; Bertocci, Gina

    2007-01-01

    The responsibility for providing safe transportation for travelers seated in wheelchairs is shared by many stakeholders, including wheelchair and tiedown/restraint manufacturers, vehicle modifiers and equipment installers, transit providers, rehabilitation technology suppliers, wheelchair/seating clinicians, and even informed and responsible…

  12. Effect of seat surface inclination on postural control during reaching in preterm children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna; van der Heide, Jolanda C.; Fock, Johanna M.; Stremmelaar, Elisabeth; van Eykern, Leo A.; Otten, Bert

    Background and Purpose Because it is debatable whether seat surface inclination improves motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP), the effect of seat surface tilting on postural control and quality of reaching was studied. Subjects The subjects were 58 children with CP aged 2 to 11 years

  13. 76 FR 31453 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Single-Occupant Side-Facing Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... apply to that model as well. Conclusion This action affects only certain novel or unusual design... single-occupant side-facing seats: A. The Injury Criteria 1. Existing Criteria: All injury protection criteria of Sec. 25.562(c)(1) through (c)(6) apply to the occupant of a side-facing seat. Head injury...

  14. 77 FR 64797 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ..., pursuant to the council's Charter. The applicant chosen for the citizen-at-large seat should expect to... the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine... applications for the following vacant seats on the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: K...

  15. Pattern of seat belt use and its associated factors among taxi drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Road traffic injuries constitute a major public health concern that demands effective interventions. Use of car seat belts is recommended as an effective intervention to reduce serious and fatal road traffic injuries. The study intended to investigate the pattern of seat belt use and its correlates among taxi drivers in ...

  16. China belting up or down? Seat belt wearing trends in Nanjing and Zhoushan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Li, Dan; Yu, Min; Wang, Jianyue; Zhang, Junhe; Tong, Zhendong; Wu, Ming; Wang, Peihua; Qin, Yu

    2008-11-01

    National seat belt wearing legislation became effective in China May 2004 and associated provincial and city regulations followed. Despite rapid motorisation seat belt studies in China have been scarce. Patterns and trends in urban seat belt wearing were observed for all driver, front and rear seating positions over the years 2005-2007 in two eastern cities Nanjing (Jiangsu Province) and Zhoushan (Zhejiang Province). There were 35,256 vehicles observed in Nanjing, 20,939 in Zhoushan and 95,933 occupants overall. Males dominated all seating positions, especially drivers. Seat belt wearing overall was significantly higher for drivers (49.9% Nanjing, 47.4% Zhoushan) than for front seat passengers (9.1% Nanjing, 1.0% Zhoushan) and virtually nonexistent for rear passengers (0.5% Nanjing, 0.2% Zhoushan). Generally levels declined significantly from year to year (drivers Nanjing 66.7%, 47.7%, 38.6%; Zhoushan 57.4%, 57.9%, 30.6%; front passengers Nanjing 19.2%, 6.6%, 3.2%). Zhoushan wearing did not initially decline, 2006 observations coinciding with anticipation of provincial regulations (July 2006). Observations revealed an absence of child restraints. Pretend wearing/belt tampering was observed almost exclusively in taxi drivers (14.2% of Nanjing taxi drivers, 11.3% of Zhoushan's). Awareness of and attitudes to urban seat belt laws should be investigated, appropriate countermeasures developed and enforcement reassessed.

  17. Flow Characteristics and Sizing of Annular Seat Valves for Digital Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Bech, Michael Møller; Andersen, Torben O.

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the steady-state flow characteristics and power losses of annular seat valves for digital displacement machines. Annular seat valves are promising candidates for active check-valves used in digital displacement fluid power machinery which excels in efficiency in a broad op...

  18. 75 FR 16074 - Availability of Conservation Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Conservation Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of... ONMS is seeking applications for the following vacant seat on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine... 28, 2010. ADDRESSES: Application kits may be obtained from Jennifer Morgan, NOA- Flower Garden Banks...

  19. The effect of asymmetrical limited hip flexion on seating posture, scoliosis and windswept hip distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ágústsson, Atli; Sveinsson, Þórarinn; Rodby-Bousquet, Elisabet

    2017-12-01

    Postural asymmetries with seating problems are common in adults with cerebral palsy. To analyse the prevalence of asymmetrical limited hip flexion (90°. Asymmetrical limited hip flexion affects the seating posture and is associated with scoliosis and windswept hip distortion. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. 78 FR 68748 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Designated Seating Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Volkswagen that sought additional lead time for implementing the new definition of ``designated seating... definition of the term, ``designated seating position,'' as used in the Federal motor vehicle safety... definition. The final rule made the new definition applicable to vehicles manufactured on and after September...

  1. Marginally Deformed Starobinsky Gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, A.; Joergensen, J.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We show that quantum-induced marginal deformations of the Starobinsky gravitational action of the form $R^{2(1 -\\alpha)}$, with $R$ the Ricci scalar and $\\alpha$ a positive parameter, smaller than one half, can account for the recent experimental observations by BICEP2 of primordial tensor modes....

  2. RESEARCH, APPROXIMATION OF CHARACTERISTICS OF PILLOWS OF SEATS AND INFLUENCE ON VIBRATION OF DRIVER OF TRUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Mikhailov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Are considered a situation developed in the field of modelling of fluctuations of vehicles (truck, the attention on low vibroisolation properties of seats is focused. One of the reasons which the weak level of scrutiny of real characteristics of a pillow of a seat is. The technique of tests of pillows of seats is resulted, dependences of change of their parametres on a thickness of a layer pad of a pillow and a rubber category are received.The advanced mathematical model of a pillow of the seat, providing good coincidence of the peak-frequency characteristic in a strip of frequencies of 2–20 Hz and the block-schema of its realisation in package MATLAB\\SIMULIK is offered, allowing more to model fluctuations on a workplace of the driver of a vehicle more precisely. Pillow influence on vibration properties of seats is investigated.

  3. Effect of a Dynamic Seating Surface on Postural Control and Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Erna Rosenlund; Trew, Lisa

    Purpose: The purpose was to investigate if a seating system involving a dynamic material covering the seat back and base improves postural control, alignment and function in children with cerebral palsy and to investigate consequences of adapting The Seated Postural Control Measure to a target...... group with multifunctional disabilities. Relevance: Developing sitting systems for disabled persons is of great importance to avoid sitting problems, to increase the level of functioning and postural control which will have an impact on their daily living and activities. This project takes its starting...... Ethical Committee. Outcome measures were Seated Postural Control Measure (SPCM), which was modified to meet the children’s needs, was used to measure alignment and function. Force Sensitive Applications (FSA) on the seat surfaces was used to measure postural movements and interface pressure. All tests...

  4. Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, B.; Poulsen, H.F.; Lienert, U.

    2006-01-01

    of individual, deeply embedded dislocation structures. During tensile deformation of pure copper, dislocation-free regions were identified. They showed an unexpected intermittent dynamics, for example, appearing and disappearing with proceeding deformation and even displaying transient splitting behavior....... Insight into these processes is relevant for an understanding of the strength and work-hardening of deformed materials....

  5. Seat belt use among car drivers in Iranian safe communities: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamannejad Sabzevari, Javad; Khanjani, Narges; Molaei Tajkooh, Ali; Nabipour, Amir Reza; Sullman, Mark J M

    2016-01-01

    The number of road traffic injuries and fatalities in Iran is high. The aim of the present study was to investigate the rate of drivers' seat belt use and a number of related factors in Kashmar, Bardaskan, and Khalilabad (Iranian Safe Communities). In 2014, driver observations were made at 48 road sites on intercity roads, main streets, side streets, and rural roads in these 3 cities. A total of 10,255 vehicles were observed, with the overall rate of seat belt use being 51.8%. The rates in Kashmar, Bardaskan, and Khalilabad were 51.4, 56.3, and 47.7%, respectively. In Kashmar, the odds of seat belt use were higher among drivers who were female, older, and taxi drivers. Higher use was also found during the afternoon, and lower use was observed on rural roads. In Khalilabad the odds of seat belt use were higher among females, older drivers, taxis, and private car drivers. Seat belt use was also higher on weekends and during the morning but was significantly lower on rural roads. Similarly, in Bardaskan the odds of using a seat belt were higher among females, older drivers, taxis, and private car drivers. Seat belt use was also higher during the afternoon but was significantly lower on rural roads, in comparison to main streets and intercity roads. The rate of seat belt use in these 3 cities was found to be low, despite these cities being designated as International Safe Communities. Therefore, seat belt promotion programs, tougher regulations, stronger enforcement, public awareness campaigns, and more research are needed to promote seat belt use in these Iranian cities.

  6. Optimization of Car Seats in the Interaction of Sitting Man on the Size of the Contact Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martonka, R.; Fliegel, V.

    The crew vehicle, the driver and passengers are in a car in direct interaction with the car seat while driving, which affects a sitting person in many areas such as safety, comfort, a feeling of comfort and customization to individual requirements, ergonomics and variability. All these effects are caused by one or a group of elements used in the construction of the seat. Objective assessment of the requirements for the construction of car seats, regardless of the characteristics of the occupant is not possible to provide a subjective feeling of comfort for any seated person. Therefore, we include in the design of automotive seat occupant's subjective feelings. It is clear that car seats must "adapt" individual characteristics of a seated man (weight, corpulence, age, gender,…). One of the subjective feelings of a man sitting in the seat is comfortable for any seated person defined differently. Correlation was found between comfort seats and contact pressure distribution depending on the weight of a seated man. It is understandable that every sitting person has a different distribution of contact pressure. This has resulted in the same seat each person differently seems comfortable-hard. The research objective is always to ensure maximum contact area for any seated person. Parameter that must be optimized is the hardness of butt pads sitting person (usually polyurethane pad coated fabric cover).In the conventional design seat cushion hardness is fixed, without the possibility of adaptability by the individuality sitting man. This article deals with the assessment, definition and optimization of hardness of pad in the automobile seat, the contact pressure distribution and determining the regulatory range of hardness depending on the weight of a seated man.

  7. Postural deformities in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doherty, K.M.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Peralta, M.C.; Silveira-Moriyama, L.; Azulay, J.P.; Gershanik, O.S.; Bloem, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Postural deformities are frequent and disabling complications of Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonism. These deformities include camptocormia, antecollis, Pisa syndrome, and scoliosis. Recognition of specific postural syndromes might have differential diagnostic value in patients

  8. Social prejudice hindering proper use of car safety seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanburoglu, Mehmet Kenan; Cizmeci, Mehmet Nevzat; Akelma, Ahmet Zulfikar; Orun, Emel; Yesilyurt, Kubra; Tatli, Mustafa Mansur

    2013-12-01

    The compliance of parents with child passenger safety (CPS) has been mainly explained by their level of knowledge. Social, ethnic and cultural factors have not been investigated in detail. This study investigated the rate of compliance of parents with CPS guidelines, as well as the factors hindering it. Parents of infants aged 2-10 days were enrolled. The proportions of families obtaining a car safety seat (CSS; 57%) and complying with CPS recommendations (2%) were very low. Most of the parents thought CSS were harmful for infants (mother, 57%; father, 63%), despite having already purchased one. Parents believed their children to be too small to use CSS and cannot sit in CSS because they should lie flat on their backs at all times. These prejudices may be due to the social and cultural circumstances specific to Turkey, or corresponding findings may be found in countries with similar socioeconomic status. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Airflow Characteristics at the Breathing Zone of a Seated Person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nagano, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    A method for active control over the interaction between the free convection flow around occupant‘s body and locally applied airflow from front on the velocity field at the breathing zone of a seated person was studied. A workplace equipped with personalised ventilation (PV) generating flow from......) was installed below the table board, above the thighs of the manikin, and was used to exhaust the air of the free convection flow coming from the lower body parts of the manikin. The velocity field at the breathing zone was measured with Particle Image Velocimetry consisting of a dual cavity laser and two CCD...... at 4 L/s resulted in the same velocity at the breathing zone as when only PV was used at 6 L/s. The maximum absolu...

  10. Hardfacing materials used in valves for seating and wear surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, W.G.

    1996-12-01

    Most valves and essentially all critical service valves utilize hardfacing materials for seating and wear surfaces to minimize wear and galling. The type of hardfacing materials used, the methods of deposition, and the quality of the final product all contribute to the wear characteristics, required operating force, and life of the final product. Over the last forty years the most prevalent hardfacing materials furnished to the commercial nuclear industry consisted of cobalt base and nickel base materials. In the last several years there has been extensive development and evaluation work performed on iron base hardfacing materials. This presentation will address the wear characteristics of the various materials and the importance of consistent quality of deposited materials necessary to achieve optimum product performance and longevity.

  11. Classroom ecology: relations between seating location, performance, and attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, P Douglas; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta

    2010-10-01

    Data from 70 classes and 1829 students over a period of 15 years were analyzed. Grade and attendance differences were analyzed for five different seating configurations: by row, by column, the front of the room versus the back of the room, the center of the room versus the perimeter of the room, and the middle of the room versus the sides of the room. Results utilizing numeric percentage grades and attendance percentages indicated students sitting in the more central parts of the class had higher percentage grades and attended classes more frequently than those students sitting in the less central parts of the class. Women attended class more frequently than men, yet there were no sex differences on grades.

  12. A parametric model of child body shape in seated postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoung-Keon D; Ebert, Sheila; Reed, Matthew P

    2017-07-04

    The shape of the current physical and computational surrogates of children used for restraint system assessments is based largely on standard anthropometric dimensions. These scalar dimensions provide valuable information on the overall size of the individual but do not provide good guidance on shape or posture. This study introduced the development of a parametric model that statistically predicts individual child body shapes in seated postures with a few given parameters. Surface geometry data from a laser scanner of children ages 3 to 11 (n = 135) were standardized by a 2-level fitting method using intermediate templates. The standardized data were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) to efficiently describe the body shape variance. Parameters such as stature, body mass index, erect sitting height, and 2 posture variables related to torso recline and lumbar spine flexion were associated with the PCA model using regression. When the original scan data were compared with the predictions of the model using the given subject dimensions, the average root mean square error for the torso was 9.5 mm, and the 95th percentile error was 17.35 mm. For the first time, a statistical model of child body shapes in seated postures is available. This parametric model allows the generation of an infinite number of virtual children spanning a wide range of body sizes and postures. The results have broad applicability in product design and safety analysis. Future work is needed to improve the representation of hands and feet and to extend the age range of the model. The model presented in this article is publicly available online through HumanShape.org.

  13. Nonconformities in real-world fatal crashes--electronic stability control and seat belt reminders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Many new safety systems are entering the market. Vision Zero is a safety strategy aiming at the elimination of fatalities and impairing injuries by the use of a holistic model for safe traffic to develop a safe system. The aim of this article is to analyze fatalities in modern cars with respect to the Vision Zero model with special respect to electronic stability control (ESC) systems and modern seat belt reminders (SBRs). The model is used to identify and understand cases where cars with ESC systems lost control and where occupants were unbelted in a seat with seat belt reminders under normal driving conditions. The model for safe traffic was used to analyze in-depth studies of fatal crashes with respect to seat belt use and loss of control. Vehicles from 2003 and later in crashes from January 2004 to mid-2010 were analyzed. The data were analyzed case by case. Cars that were equipped with ESC systems and lost control and occupants not using the seat belt in a seat with a seat belt reminder were considered as nonconformities. A total of 138 fatal crashes involving 152 fatally injured occupants were analyzed. Cars with ESC systems had fewer loss-of-control-relevant cases than cars without ESC systems. Thirteen percent of the ESC-equipped vehicles had loss-of-control-relevant crashes and 36 percent of the cars without ESC systems had loss-of-control-relevant crashes. The analysis indicates that only one car of the 9 equipped with ESC that lost control did it on a road surface with relevant friction when driving within the speed restriction of the road. In seats with seat belt reminders that are in accordance with the European New Car Assessment Programme's (Euro NCAP) protocol, 93 percent of the occupants were using a seat belt. In seats without reminders this number was 74 percent. This study shows that ESC systems result in a very significant reduction in fatal crashes, especially under normal driving conditions. Under extreme driving conditions such as speeding

  14. An Active Seat Controller with Vehicle Suspension Feedforward and Feedback States: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Alfadhli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Active seat suspensions can be used to reduce the harmful vertical vibration of a vehicle’s seat by applying an external force using a closed loop controller. Many of the controllers found in the literature are difficult to implement practically, because they are based on using unavailable or difficult and costly measurements. This paper presents both simulation and experimental studies of five novel, simple, and cost-effective control strategies to be used for an active seat suspension in order to improve ride comfort at low frequencies below 20 Hz. These strategies use available and measurable feedforward (preview information states from the vehicle secondary suspension, as well as feedback states from the seat suspension, together with gains optimised to minimise the occupant vibration. The gains were optimised using a genetic algorithm (GA, with a fitness function based on the seat effective amplitude transmissibility (SEAT factor. Constraints on the control force and the seat suspension stroke were also included in the optimisation algorithm. Simulation and laboratory experimental tests were carried out to assess the performance of the proposed controllers according to the ISO 2631-1 standard, in both the frequency and time domains with a range of different road profiles. The experimental tests were performed using a multi-axis simulation table (MAST and a physical active seat suspension configured as a hardware-in-loop (HIL simulation with a virtual linear quarter vehicle model (QvM. The results demonstrate that the proposed controllers substantially attenuate the vertical vibration at the driver’s seat compared with both a passive and a proportional-integral-derivative (PID active seat suspension and thus improve ride comfort together with reducing vibration-linked health risks. Moreover, experimental results show that employing both feedforward information and feedback vehicle body and seat acceleration signals in the controller

  15. Naturalistic driving study of rear seat child occupants: Quantification of head position using a Kinect™ sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Kim, Jinyong; Loeb, Helen; Kuo, Jonny; Koppel, Sjaan; Bohman, Katarina; Charlton, Judith L

    2016-09-01

    Restraint performance is evaluated using anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) positioned in prescribed, optimal seating positions. Anecdotally, humans-children in particular-assume a variety of positions that may affect restraint performance. Naturalistic driving studies (NDSs), where cameras and other data acquisition systems are placed in a vehicle used by participants during their regular transportation, offer means to collect these data. To date, these studies have used conventional video and analysis methods and, thus, analyses have largely been qualitative. This article describes a recently completed NDS of child occupants in which their position was monitored using a Kinect sensor to quantify their head position throughout normal, everyday driving trips. A study vehicle was instrumented with a data acquisition system to measure vehicle dynamics, a set of video cameras, and a Kinect sensor providing 3D motion capture at 1 Hz of the rear seat occupants. Participant families used the vehicle for all driving trips over 2 weeks. The child occupants' head position was manually identified via custom software from each Kinect color image. The 3D head position was then extracted and its distribution summarized by seat position (left, rear, center) and restraint type (forward-facing child restraint system [FFCRS], booster seat, seat belt). Data from 18 families (37 child occupants) resulted in 582 trips (with children) for analysis. The average age of the child occupants was 45.6 months and 51% were male. Twenty-five child occupants were restrained in FFCRS, 9 in booster seats, and 3 in seat belts. As restraint type moved from more to less restraint (FFCRS to booster seat to seat belt), the range of fore-aft head position increased: 218, 244, and 340 mm on average, respectively. This observation was also true for left-right movement for every seat position. In general, those in the center seat position demonstrated a smaller range of head positions. For the first

  16. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  17. q-Deformed Kink solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.F. de

    2003-01-01

    The q-deformed kink of the λφ 4 -model is obtained via the normalisable ground state eigenfunction of a fluctuation operator associated with the q-deformed hyperbolic functions. The kink mass, the bosonic zero-mode and the q-deformed potential in 1+1 dimensions are found. (author)

  18. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  19. Deformation Theory ( Lecture Notes )

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doubek, M.; Markl, Martin; Zima, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2007), s. 333-371 ISSN 0044-8753. [Winter School Geometry and Physics/27./. Srní, 13.01.2007-20.01.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/2117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : deformation * Mauerer-Cartan equation * strongly homotopy Lie algebra Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  20. Comparative Performance of Rear Facing Child Restraint Systems on the CMVSS 213 Bench and Vehicle Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylko, Suzanne; Locey, Caitlin M.; Garcia-Espana, J. Felipe; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Maltese, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic response of rear-facing child restraint systems (RFCRS) installed on the CMVSS 213 sled bench and a selection of vehicle seats. Thirty-six sled tests were conducted: three models of rear facing CRS with an anthropomorphic test device (ATD) representing a 12 month old child (CRABI) were affixed via lower anchors (LATCH), 3 point belt without CRS base, and 3 point belt with CRS base to one of three vehicle seats or the CMVSS 213 bench seat. All CRS were subjected to an identical sled acceleration pulse. Two types of matched pair analysis: “bench-to-vehicle” and “method of attachment” were conducted. Statistically significant differences were observed in the kinematic responses of the ATD and the CRS. This is the first study to quantify differences between the regulatory bench and vehicle seats on a system level and evaluate the influence of attachment method. Our results show that the difference in RFCRS forward excursion between 3-point belt with base and LATCH installations was between 1 and 7 percent on the bench and 22 to 76 percent on the vehicle seats. When evaluating the dynamic performance of RFCRS, the use of real vehicle seats from vehicles that commonly carry children may provide valuable insight. The findings would require further confirmation using a broader selection of RFCRS and vehicle seats, before generalizable conclusions can be drawn. PMID:24406967

  1. The effect of seating preferences of the medical students on educational achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Parva, Mohammad; Ahrari, Iman; Tavana, Samar; Hemyari, Camellia; Pakshir, Keyvan; Jafari, Peyman; Sahraian, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The seat selection and classroom dynamics may have mutual influence on the student performance and participation in both assigned and random seating arrangement. The aim of the study was to understand the influence of seat selection on educational achievement. The seating positions of the medical students were recorded on an architectural plan during each class session and the means and standard deviations of the students' locations were calculated in X and Y orientations. The locations of the students in the class were analyzed based on three architectural classifications: interactional zone, distance from the board, and access to the aisles. Final exam scores were used to measure the students' educational achievement. Our results demonstrate that there is a statistically significant relationship between the student's locations in the class and their attendance and educational achievements. two factors may effect on educational achievement: student seating in the high interactional zone and minimal changes in seating location. Seating in the high interaction zone was directly associated with higher performance and inversely correlated with the percentage of absences. This observation is consistent with the view that students in the front of the classroom are likely more motivated and interact with the lecturer more than their classmates.

  2. Physiological Motion Axis for the Seat of a Dynamic Office Chair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Roman Peter; Bauer, Christoph Markus; Oetiker, Sarah; Kool, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine and verify the optimal location of the motion axis (MA) for the seat of a dynamic office chair. Background A dynamic seat that supports pelvic motion may improve physical well-being and decrease the risk of sitting-associated disorders. However, office work requires an undisturbed view on the work task, which means a stable position of the upper trunk and head. Current dynamic office chairs do not fulfill this need. Consequently, a dynamic seat was adapted to the physiological kinematics of the human spine. Method Three-dimensional motion tracking in free sitting helped determine the physiological MA of the spine in the frontal plane. Three dynamic seats with physiological, lower, and higher MA were compared in stable upper body posture (thorax inclination) and seat support of pelvic motion (dynamic fitting accuracy). Spinal kinematics during sitting and walking were compared. Results The physiological MA was at the level of the 11th thoracic vertebra, causing minimal thorax inclination and high dynamic fitting accuracy. Spinal motion in active sitting and walking was similar. Conclusion The physiological MA of the seat allows considerable lateral flexion of the spine similar to walking with a stable upper body posture and a high seat support of pelvic motion. Application The physiological MA enables lateral flexion of the spine, similar to walking, without affecting stable upper body posture, thus allowing active sitting while focusing on work. PMID:27150530

  3. Effects of heated seat and foot heater on thermal comfort and heater energy consumption in vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Hajime; Yanagi, Kotaro; Tabata, Koji; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2011-08-01

    Subjective experiments involving 12 different conditions were conducted to investigate the effects of heated seats and foot heaters in vehicles on thermal sensation and thermal comfort. The experimental conditions involved various combinations of the operative temperature in the test room (10 or 20°C), a heated seat (on/off) and a foot heater (room operative temperature +10 or +20°C). The heated seat and foot heater improved the occupant's thermal sensation and comfort in cool environments. The room operative temperature at which the occupants felt a 'neutral' overall thermal sensation was decreased by about 3°C by using the heated seat or foot heater and by about 6°C when both devices were used. Moreover, the effects of these devices on vehicle heater energy consumption were investigated using simulations. As a result, it was revealed that heated seats and foot heaters can reduce the total heater energy consumption of vehicles. Statement of Relevance: Subjective experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of heated seats and foot heaters in vehicles on thermal comfort. The heated seat and foot heater improved the occupant's thermal sensation and comfort in cool environments. These devices can reduce the total heater energy consumption in vehicles.

  4. Measuring static seated pressure distributions and risk for skin pressure ulceration in ice sledge hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Shaun D; Dicianno, Brad E; Berthold, Justin; McCoy, Andrew; Haas, Matthew; Cooper, Rory A

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether sledge hockey players with physical disability have higher average seated pressures compared to non-disabled controls. Fifteen age-matched controls without physical disability and 15 experimental participants with physical disability were studied using a pressure mapping device to determine risk for skin pressure ulceration and the impact of cushioning and knee angle positioning on seated pressure distributions. Regardless of participant group, cushioning, or knee angle, average seated pressures exceeded clinically acceptable seated pressures. Controls had significantly higher average seated pressures than the disability group when knees were flexed, both with the cushion (p = 0.013) and without (p = 0.015). Knee extension showed significantly lower average pressures in controls, both with the cushion (p hockey players utilize positioning with larger knee flexion angles. Implications for Rehabilitation Ice sledge hockey is a fast growing adaptive sport. Adaptive sports have been associated with several positive improvements in overall health and quality of life, though may be putting players at risk for skin ulceration. Measured static seated pressure in sledges greatly exceeds current clinically accepted clinical guidelines. With modern improvements in wheelchair pressure relief/cushioning there are potential methods for improvement of elevated seated pressure in ice hockey sledges.

  5. Biomechanical investigation of prolonged driving in an ergonomically designed truck seat prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Michelle; McKinnon, Colin; Viggiani, Dan; Johnson, Michel J; Callaghan, Jack P; Albert, Wayne J

    2018-03-01

    A postural evaluation during a prolonged driving task was conducted to determine the ergonomic validity of a new freely adjustable truck seat prototype. Twenty participants were recruited to perform two 2-h simulated driving sessions. Postures were assessed using motion capture, accelerometers and pressure pads. Subjective discomfort was also monitored in 15-min increments using ratings of perceived discomfort (RPD) and the Automotive Seating Discomfort Questionnaire. Participants had a more neutral spine posture during the first hour of the drive and reported lower RPDs while sitting in the prototype. Pairing the gluteal backrest panel with the adjustable seat pan helped reduce the average sitting pressure. The industry-standard truck seat may lead to the development of poor whole body posture, and the proposed ergonomic redesign of a new truck seat helped improve sitting posture and reduce perceived discomfort. Practitioner Summary: A new freely adjustable truck seat prototype was compared to an Industry standard seat to assess hypothesised improvements to sitting posture and discomfort for long haul driving. It was found that the adjustable panels in the prototype helped promote spine posture, reduce sitting pressure and improved discomfort ratings.

  6. Nanoscale Deformable Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Karl F.; Sheldon, Douglas J.

    2011-01-01

    Several missions and instruments in the conceptual design phase rely on the technique of interferometry to create detectable fringe patterns. The intimate emplacement of reflective material upon electron device cells based upon chalcogenide material technology permits high-speed, predictable deformation of the reflective surface to a subnanometer or finer resolution with a very high degree of accuracy. In this innovation, a layer of reflective material is deposited upon a wafer containing (perhaps in the millions) chalcogenic memory cells with the reflective material becoming the front surface of a mirror and the chalcogenic material becoming a means of selectively deforming the mirror by the application of heat to the chalcogenic material. By doing so, the mirror surface can deform anywhere from nil to nanometers in spots the size of a modern day memory cell, thereby permitting realtime tuning of mirror focus and reflectivity to mitigate aberrations caused elsewhere in the optical system. Modern foundry methods permit the design and manufacture of individual memory cells having an area of or equal to the Feature (F) size of the design (assume 65 nm). Fabrication rules and restraints generally require the instantiation of one memory cell to another no closer than 1.5 F, or, for this innovation, 90 nm from its neighbor in any direction. Chalcogenide is a semiconducting glass compound consisting of a combination of chalcogen ions, the ratios of which vary according to properties desired. It has been shown that the application of heat to cells of chalcogenic material cause a large alteration in resistance to the range of 4 orders of magnitude. It is this effect upon which chalcogenidebased commercial memories rely. Upon removal of the heat source, the chalcogenide rapidly cools and remains frozen in the excited state. It has also been shown that the chalcogenide expands in volume because of the applied heat, meaning that the coefficient of expansion of chalcogenic

  7. Pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Woodard, Charles R; Buschbacher, Ralph M; Long, William B; Gebhart, Jocelynn H; Ma, Eva K

    2004-01-01

    has been compared to the standard hospital bed as well as to two other commercially available pressure relief mattresses. The most recent advance in pressure ulcer prevention is the development of the ALTERN8* seating system. This seating system provides regular periods of pressure relief and stimulation of blood flow to skin areas while users are seated. By offering the combination of pressure relief therapy and an increase in blood flow, the ALTERN8* reportedly creates an optimum pressure ulcer healing environment. Foam is the most commonly used material for pressure reduction and pressure ulcer prevention and treatment for the mobile individual. For those immobilized individuals who can achieve a passive standing position, a powered wheelchair that allows the individual to achieve a passive standing position is recommended. The beneficial effects of passive standing have been documented by comprehensive scientific studies. These benefits include reduction of seating pressure, decreased bone demineralization, increased blander pressure, enhanced orthostatic circulatory regulation, reduction in muscular tone, decrease in upper extremity muscle stress, and enhanced functional status in general. In the absence of these dynamic alternating pressure seating systems and mattresses, there are enormous medicolegal implications to the healthcare facility. Because there is not sufficient staff to provide pressure relief to rotate the patient every 2 hours in a hospital setting, with the exception of the intensive care unit, the immobile patient is prone to develop pressure ulcers. The cost of caring for these preventable pressure ulcers may now be as high as 60,000 dollars per patient. The occupational physical strain sustained by nursing personnel in rotating their patients has led to occupational back pain in nurses, a major source of morbidity in the healthcare environment.

  8. Compliance with seat belt use in makurdi, Nigeria: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, So; Oluwadiya, Ks; Kortor, Jn; Denen-Akaa, P; Onyemaechi, Noc

    2013-07-01

    Seat belts are designed to reduce injuries due to road crash among vehicle occupants. This study aims to determine the availability of seat belt in vehicles and compliance with seat belt use among vehicle occupants. This was a 24-h direct observational study of seat belt usage among vehicle occupants in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. By direct surveillance and using a datasheet, we observed 500 vehicles and their occupants for seat belt availability and compliance with its use. Chi-square test was used for test of significance between variables. Twenty-five (5.0%) of the observed 500 vehicles had no seat belt at all. Overall, compliance was 277/486 (57.0%). Use of seat belt was highest in the afternoon with 124/194 (64.4%), followed by 111/188 (59.0%) in the morning and 42/95 (44.2%) at night. Compliance was highest among car occupants [209/308 (67.9%)] and private vehicles, and lowest among commercial vehicle occupants. Compliance among female drivers was 77.1% compared with 51.4% among male drivers. Among drivers, the mean age of seat belt users was 38.4 (7.7) years, which was significantly younger than the 41.3 (8.7) years mean age of non-users. Similar figures were obtained among other vehicle occupants. Compared with previous studies, seat belt usage has improved among Nigerian road users, but there is still room for improvement, especially early in the mornings and at nights. Since these were times when law enforcement agencies were not likely to be on the roads, we advocate for improved coverage by enforcement agents to enforce better compliance.

  9. An online means of testing asymmetries in seating preference reveals a bias for airplanes and theaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Michael E R; Thomas, Nicole A; Loetscher, Tobias

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate asymmetrical interactions between humans and their environment using online seat booking sites. Functional differences between the cerebral hemispheres affect the choices people make. For example, when asked to imagine going to a cinema, people preferentially select seats to the right We investigated whether this experimental research generalizes to online booking sites for aircraft and theaters. Occupancy rates for seats taken on the left and right sides were assessed for 100 airline flights with 12,762 available seats and 37 theater performances with 34,456 seats. On the basis of previous research, a rightward bias was predicted for aircraft and theaters. For aircraft, contrary to expectation, occupancy rate was higher for left- compared with right-side seats. For theaters, a rightward bias was observed when the theater was less than half full.The bias was not affected by the orientation of the map. For aircraft, the leftward preference could be attributable to a rightward turning bias or a "feeling" that the port seats are closer to the exit, even though they are not. For theaters, the data demonstrate that the rightward preference observed in earlier studies exists only when the theater is relatively empty. Asymmetrical seating may play an important role in the efficient assimilation of information from the environment, and this role should take this into account when designing effective human-environment interfaces.The online method of assessing seating used in the current study provides an informative and potentially powerful means of assessing asymmetries in human perception and action.

  10. Occupant Kinematics in Simulated Autonomous Driving Vehicle Collisions: Influence of Seating Position, Direction and Angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yuichi; Hayashi, Shigeki; Yamada, Katsunori; Gotoh, Mitsuaki

    2017-11-01

    This two-part study analyzed occupant kinematics in simulated collisions of future automated driving vehicles in terms of seating configuration. In part one, a frontal collision was simulated with four occupants with the front seats reversed. The left front seat occupant was unbelted while the others were belted. In part two of the study, occupant restraint was examined in various seating configurations using a single seat model with a three-point seatbelt. The seat direction with respect to impact was considered as forward, rearward, and lateral facing in 45 degree increments. The effect of seat recline was also studied in the forward-facing and rear-facing cases by assuming three positions: driving position, resting position and relaxed position. Occupants were represented by human body finite element models. The results of part one showed that the front seat (rear-facing) occupants were restrained by the seatback, resulting in T1 forward displacement less than 100 mm; the rear seat occupants were restrained by the seatbelt resulting larger T1 forward displacement more than 500 mm. The results of the part two showed the directional dependence of occupant restraint. Greater T1 displacements were observed when the occupant faced lateral or front oblique. However, the seatbelt provided some restraint in all directions considered. The seatback generated contact force to the occupant when it was in the impact direction, including the lateral directions. The relaxed position allowed increased excursion compared to the driving position when the occupant faced rearward, but the magnitude of this increase was lower with lower impact speed.

  11. Feasibility of closed-loop controller for righting seated posture after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Julie O; Audu, Musa L; Lombardo, Lisa M; Foglyano, Kevin M; Triolo, Ronald J

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) can compromise the ability to maintain an erect seated posture. This study examined the feasibility of a sensor-based threshold controller to automatically modulate stimulation to paralyzed hip and trunk extensor muscles to restore upright sitting from forward leaning postures. Forward trunk tilt was estimated from the anterior-posterior component of gravitational acceleration sensed by a sternum-mounted wireless accelerometer. Stimulation increased if trunk tilt exceeded a specified flexion threshold and ceased once upright sitting was resumed. The controller was verified experimentally in five volunteers with SCI and successfully returned all subjects to upright postures from forward leaning positions. Upper-limb effort exerted while returning to erect posture was significantly reduced (to 7.4% +/- 3.7% of body mass) pooled across all volunteers while using the controller compared with using continuous and no stimulation (p Controller response times were consistent among subjects when applied while sitting with (0.30 +/- 0.05 s) or without a backrest (0.34 +/- 0.11 s). The controller enabled volunteers to lean farther forward (59.7° +/- 16.4°) in wheelchairs without upper-limb effort than with no stimulation. Clinical utility of the system for facilitating reach or preventing falls remains to be determined in future studies.

  12. M2-F1 ejection seat test at South Edwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 was fitted with an ejection seat before the airtow flights began. The project selected the seat used in the T-37 as modified by the Weber Company to use a rocket rather than a ballistic charge for ejection. To test the ejection seat, the Flight Research Center's Dick Klein constructed a plywood mockup of the M2-F1's top deck and canopy. On the first firings, the test was unsuccessful, but on the final test the dummy in the seat landed safely. The M2-F1 ejection seat was later used in the two Lunar Landing Research Vehicles and the three Lunar Landing Training Vehicles. Three of them crashed, but in each case the pilot ejected from the vehicle successfully. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with

  13. Child car seats – a habitat for house dust mites and reservoir for harmful allergens

    OpenAIRE

    David Clarke; Michael Gormally; Jerome Sheahan; Miriam Byrne

    2015-01-01

    [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. House dust mites produce allergens which can cause or aggravate diseases such as asthma, eczema and rhinitis. The objectives of this study are to quantify typical house dust mite and Der p 1 allergen levels in child car seats, and to determine external variables that may influence mite populations in cars. [b]Materials and Methods[/b]. Dust samples were collected from the child car seats and driver seats of 106 cars using a portable vacuum sampling pump o...

  14. Occupant seating anthropometry: body ellipses and contact zones for side-impact protection research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Clyde C.; Viano, David C.

    The study has developed an anthropometric description of seated occupants and determined body regions representing major paths in side-impact crashes. The study has identified five major body ellipses defining the head, shoulder, chest, abdomen and pelvis of seated occupants of various sizes, including the six-year-old child. Body contact zones have been determined for front-seated occupants. These templates provide information for the design of side interiors to improve occupant protection in side-impact crashes by load-transfer and energy-absorption characteristics of biocompatible interiors.

  15. Airline seat inventory control benefiting from currency differentials to enhance revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Love

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop an airline seat inventory control model which will capitalise on currency differentials that exist between city pairs. The approach taken here is to maximise Expected Marginal Seat Revenues as proposed by Belobaba for non-nested fare classes. the basic Expected Marginal Seat Revenue model is extended to explicitly include the effects of overbooking. Data from the South African Airways return flight between Cape Town and London is utilised to demonstrate the model.

  16. Optimal protruding node length of bicycle seats determined using cycling postures and subjective ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lang; Liu, Yi-Nan

    2014-07-01

    This study examined body posture, subjective discomfort, and stability, requiring the participants to ride a stationary bicycle for 20 min (cadence: 60 rpm; workrate: 120 W), using various combinations of two handle heights and five seat-protruding node lengths (PNLs). The results indicated that bicycle handle height significantly influenced body posture, and that seat PNL caused differences in the riders' subjective discomfort and stability scores. The various PNLs affected only the trunk angle (approximately 6°), but had significantly positive (r = 0.994, p bicycle seat designs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. The Central Pamir domes as tracer of gravitational disequilibrium and deformation phases forced by deep-seated lithospheric processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutte, Daniel; Fox, Matthew; Ratschbacher, Lothar

    2017-04-01

    Miocene gneiss domes in the Pamir allow unique insight into crustal-scale processes forming the Asian crust of the Pamir-Tibet Plateau. They were exhumed along normal-sense shear zones in an intermittent phase of N-S extension while earlier and later structures document N-S shortening. Recently, Schmidt et al. (2011), Stearns et al., (2013; 2015), Rutte et al. (a & b, accepted), and Hacker et al. (submitted) established a vast structural, petrologic, and geochronologic dataset for the Central Pamir domes. These studies interpreted the domes as a product of gravitational collapse. The dataset includes (micro)structural observations constraining the mechanism of exhumation, thermobarometry of the metamorphic rocks, petrochronologic data constraining timing of pro- and retrogression, a vast multi-method thermochronometric dataset including age-elevation and age-distance data, dates for normal-sense shear zones and barometric data on intrusive rocks. These data constrain the time-temperature, pressure-temperature, and time-pressure history of the dome rocks. We explore the dataset using one-dimensional thermal models. Our code solves the heat transfer equation and gives a transient solution allowing for variation of the geothermal gradient and thermal diffusivity. At this stage, our models suggest that exponential decay of an initially high exhumation rate of 6 km/Myr at 22 Ma to 0.5km/Myr at 13 Ma best explains the dataset. This suggests a one-time input of gravitational potential energy (GPE) that is successively decaying through crustal extension. Both, Asian crustal foundering or Indian slab breakoff may concur with this result. While the Central Pamir domes extend >400 km along strike of the orogen, little variation in timing of most of exhumation during N-S extension is observed. This suggests that the underlying mechanism - be it crustal foundering or slab breakoff - varied little along strike as well. References Hacker, B.R., Ratschbacher, L., Rutte, D., Stearns, M. A., Malz, N., Stübner, K., Kylander-Clark, A. R. C., Pfänder, J. A., and Everson, A. (submitted) Building the Pamir-Tibet Plateau—Crustal stacking, extensional collapse, and lateral extrusion in the Pamir: 3. Thermobarometry and Petrochronology of Deep Asian Crust. Tectonics Rutte, D., Ratschbacher, L., Schneider, S., Stübner, K., Stearns, M. A., Gulzar, M.A., and Hacker, B. R. (accepted a) Building the Pamir-Tibet Plateau-Crustal Stacking, Extensional Collapse, and Lateral Extrusion in the Central Pamir: 1. Geometry and kinematics. Tectonics Rutte, D., Ratschbacher, L., Khan, J., Stübner, K., Jonckheere, R., Pfänder, J. A., Hacker, B. R., Stearns, M. A., Enkelmann, E., Sperner, B., Tichomirowa, M. (accepted b) Building the Pamir-Tibet Plateau-Crustal Stacking, Extensional Collapse, and Lateral Extrusion in the Central Pamir: 2. Timing and Rates. Tectonics Schmidt J., Hacker B. R., Ratschbacher L., Stübner K., Stearns M., Kylander-Clark A., Cottle J. M., Alexander A., Webb G., Gehrels G. and Minaev V. (2011) Cenozoic deep crust in the Pamir. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 312, 411-421. Available at: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0012821X11006327. Stearns M. A., Hacker B. R., Ratschbacher L., Lee J., Cottle J. M. and Kylander-Clark A. (2013) Synchronous oligocene-miocene metamorphism of the pamir and the north himalaya driven by plate-scale dynamics. Geology 41, 1071-1074. Stearns M. A., Hacker B. R., Ratschbacher L., Rutte D. and Kylander-Clark A. R. C. (2015) Titanite petrochronology of the Pamir gneiss domes: Implications for middle to deep crust exhumation and titanite closure to Pb and Zr diffusion. Tectonics 34, 1-19.

  18. Efficacy of seat-mounted thoracic side airbags in the German vehicle fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylor, Luke; Junge, Mirko; Abanteriba, Sylvester

    2017-11-17

    Thoracic side airbags (tSABs) deploy within close proximity to the occupant. Their primary purpose is to provide a protective cushion between the occupant and the intruding door. To date, various field studies investigating their injury mitigation has been limited and contradicting. The research develops efficacy estimations associated for seat-mounted tSABs in their ability to mitigate injury risk from the German collision environment. A matched cohort study using German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) data was implemented and aims to investigate the efficacy of seat-mounted tSAB units in preventing thoracic injury. Inclusion in the study required a nearside occupant involved in a lateral collision where the target vehicle exhibited a design year succeeding 1990. Collisions whereby a tSAB deployed were matched on a 1:n basis to collisions of similar severity where no airbag was available in the target vehicle. The outcome of interest was an incurred bodily or thoracic regional injury. Through conditional logistic regression, an estimated efficacy value for the deployed tSAB was determined. A total of 255 collisions with the deployed tSAB matched with 414 collisions where no tSAB was present. For the given sample, results indicated that the deployed tSAB was not able to provide an unequivocal benefit to the occupant thoracic region, because individuals exposed to the deployed tSAB were at equal risk of injury (Thorax Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (Tho.MAIS)2+ odds ratio [OR] = 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-2.62; Tho.MAIS3+ OR = 1.15, 95% CI, 0.41-3.18). When attempting to isolate an effect for skeletal injuries, a similar result was obtained. Yet, when the tSAB was coupled with a head curtain airbag, a protective effect became apparent, most noticeable for head/face/neck (HFN) injuries (OR = 0.59, 95% CI, 0.21-1.65). The reduction in occupant HFN injury risk associated with the coupled tSAB and curtain airbag may be attributable to its ability to

  19. Review the Proportion of university seats with body dimensions of students at the School of Public Health of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in 1388

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Safaryvaryani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Educating of students that have the ability to solve society problems, is considered as the most important task of universities. This important issue is achieved through effective education in a safe and stress free environment. Proper design of classroom seats proportional to anthropometric characteristics of students not only can improve academic quality but also prevent musculoskeletal disorders. In addition it may encourage students to practice correct sitting habits. This study was conducted to check the correlation of physical dimensions of students and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder with educational chair dimensions that provided by companies.   Methods   This descriptive - analytical study was performed on 115 students of 18 to 27 years. 15 anthropometric parameters correlated with sitting on the chair were measured by anthropometry page and anthropometric caliper gauge. Dimensions of two Types of seats provided in the classrooms were compared with the standard seat dimensions.   Results   comparison of dimensions confirmed that seat dimension and students dimensions correspond with one another only in elbow length parameter and other parameters were not correspondent with each other. T-Test showed that there are significant  differences between girl and boy parameters.  conclusion   Comparison of the results of measurement of  physical dimensions and chair dimensions with results of emotional dissatisfaction questionnaire and body map chart showed that plastic chair is better than wooden type in term of comfort, chair kind and slope of back rest, and in using plastic chairs students do not have to change their sitting postures; however,  due to incorrect design of foot rest and high effective depth of sea,،  discomfort and pain in lower limbs is higher in plastic chairs when compared with wooden chairs.

  20. Deformable Simplicial Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof

    triangles/tetrahedra marked as outside from those marked as inside. Such an approach allows for robust topological adaptivity. Among other advantages of the deformable simplicial complexes there are: space adaptivity, ability to handle and preserve sharp features, possibility for topology control. We....... One particular advantage of DSC is the fact that as an alternative to topology adaptivity, topology control is also possible. This is exploited in the construction of cut loci on tori where a front expands from a single point on a torus and stops when it self-intersects....

  1. Ulcerative lupus vulgaris over nose, leading to cosmetic deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya A Nair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lupus vulgaris (LV, is a chronic and progressive form of secondary cutaneous tuberculosis. In India, it is commonly seen over buttocks, thighs, and legs whereas involvement of nose is quite rare. Ulcerative variant particularly over nose causes destruction of cartilage, leading to irreversible deformities and contracture. High-index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and prevention of cosmetic deformity. A case of LV over nose in a young male with ulceration is reported who responded well to anti-tubercular therapy, but left with scarring of nose, which could have been prevented if adequate awareness regarding extra-pulmonary cases would have been practiced.

  2. Ulcerative lupus vulgaris over nose, leading to cosmetic deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Pragya A; Mehta, Malay J; Patel, Bhumi B

    2015-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV), is a chronic and progressive form of secondary cutaneous tuberculosis. In India, it is commonly seen over buttocks, thighs, and legs whereas involvement of nose is quite rare. Ulcerative variant particularly over nose causes destruction of cartilage, leading to irreversible deformities and contracture. High-index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and prevention of cosmetic deformity. A case of LV over nose in a young male with ulceration is reported who responded well to anti-tubercular therapy, but left with scarring of nose, which could have been prevented if adequate awareness regarding extra-pulmonary cases would have been practiced.

  3. Quasi-Static and Dynamic Sled Testing of Prototype Commuter Rail Passenger Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-22

    In support of the Federal Railroad Administration?s (FRA) Railroad Equipment Safety Program, tests have been conducted on prototype commuter rail passenger seats which have been designed for improved occupant protection during commuter train accident...

  4. 78 FR 49728 - Availability of Seats for National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Councils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... Fishing (alternate); Mobile Gear Commercial Fishing (primary member); Business Industry (alternate); At... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for... Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC...

  5. Evaluation of Teen Seat Belt Demonstration Projects in Colorado and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Colorado and Nevada initiated multiwave Teen Seat Belt Demonstration Projects in October 2007. Four : waves of paid media and law enforcement activity were conducted over the next year. Three of these waves : were conducted independently of statewide...

  6. 77 FR 16212 - Availability of Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... member and alternate, Tourism member and alternate, Education member and alternate, Chumash member and... particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and...

  7. Expanding the seat belt program strategies toolbox: a starter kit for trying new program ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore alternative strategies for increasing seat belt use. Researchers examined behavior : change strategies proven effective in education, healthcare, advertising, and marketing, and they considered how these : ...

  8. SIT (seated immobility thromboembolism) syndrome: a 21st century lifestyle hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Richard; Heuser, Patricia; Raymond, Nigel

    2005-04-01

    The association between prolonged seated immobility and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is well recognised in relation to travel. In this case series, we report the occurrence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) following prolonged sitting in relation to work and/or recreation. The cases were characterised by the considerable length of time the individuals sat, the extensive nature of the VTE events in young individuals without other recognised risk factors, and the lack of recognition by the attending doctors of seated immobility as the likely major risk factor. While recognising that the association may be coincidental rather than causal, we propose the acronym 'SIT' (seated immobility thromboembolism) syndrome to encompass all forms of seated immobility associated with VTE.

  9. 77 FR 15359 - Availability of Seats for the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine... the following seats on the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council (council): Education... (including snorkeling), Tourism, Maritime History & Interpretation, and Citizen- at-Large. Applicants are...

  10. Evaluation of the May 2005 Click It or Ticket mobilization to increase seat belt use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Click It or Ticket (CIOT) is an intense, short-duration, seat belt publicity and enforcement program. The CIOT May 2005 Mobilization involved approximately $33 million of purchased media. Law enforcement agencies across the Nation reported issuing mo...

  11. 76 FR 291 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Single-Occupant Side-Facing Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... the lower lumbar spinal column. 3. The load limit in the torso in the lateral direction. Human... seats the injury criteria are currently limited to head, spine, and femur loads. The head and lumbar...

  12. 75 FR 42379 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding... the State and Federal management agencies, user groups, researchers, educators, policy makers, and... and is instrumental in helping develop policies, program goals, and identify education, outreach...

  13. 78 FR 14271 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding... federal management agencies, user groups, researchers, educators, policy makers, and other various groups... helping develop policies, program goals, and identify education, outreach, research, long-term monitoring...

  14. Seat belt, DWI, and other traffic violations among recent immigrants in Florida and Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Phase I of this project identified two States, Florida and Tennessee, that maintain information on drivers traffic violations and residency status. : Phase II analyzed State databases to examine seat belt nonuse, DWI, and other traffic safety viol...

  15. Effect of the "Long Term Solution" Seat Pack on Harvard II (CT156) Aircrew Accommodation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    ...). A previous study determined that any increase in seat thickness would likely have repercussions on the ability of the taller individuals to see all of the information displayed by the Electronic...

  16. 78 FR 73506 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Infant Bath Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35) to announce the CPSC's intention to... instructions with infant bath seats thus would be ``usual and customary'' and not within the definition of...

  17. Comparison of interior crashworthiness observed in passenger train accidents and 8G dynamic seat sled tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    The Office of Research and Development of the Federal Railroad Administration conducts engineering research to address protection of passengers and crew during train accidents. This research includes accident investigations and dynamic seat testing t...

  18. Design Method for Fast Switching Seat Valves for Digital Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2014-01-01

    corresponding to the piston movement, which has been shown to facilitate superior part load efficiency combined with high bandwidth compared to traditional displacement machines. However, DD machines need fast switching on-off valves with low pressure loss for efficient operation, especially in fast rotating......Digital Displacement (DD) machines are upcoming technology where the displacement of each pressure chamber is controlled electronically by use of two fast switching seat valves. The effective displacement and operation type (pumping/motoring) may be controlled by manipulating the seat valves...... method for DD seat valves are presented, taking into account the significant aspects related to obtaining efficient DD valves with basis in a given DD machine specifications. The seat area is minimized and the stroke length is minimized to obtain fast switching times while considering the pressure loss...

  19. EVALUATING EXTREMELY LOW FREQUENCY MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE REAR SEATS OF THE ELECTRIC VEHICLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun; Lu, Meng; Wu, Tong; Yang, Lei; Wu, Tongning

    2018-03-23

    In the electric vehicles (EVs), children can sit on a safety seat installed in the rear seats. Owing to their smaller physical dimensions, their heads, generally, are closer to the underfloor electrical systems where the magnetic field (MF) exposure is the greatest. In this study, the magnetic flux density (B) was measured in the rear seats of 10 different EVs, for different driving sessions. We used the measurement results from different heights corresponding to the locations of the heads of an adult and an infant to calculate the induced electric field (E-field) strength using anatomical human models. The results revealed that measured B fields in the rear seats were far below the reference levels by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Although small children may be exposed to higher MF strength, induced E-field strengths were much lower than that of adults due to their particular physical dimensions.

  20. Thermometry system development for thermoradiotherapy of deep-seated tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeev, A. M.; Ivanov, S. M.; Perelstein, E. A.; Polozov, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Therapeutic hyperthermia (including RF hyperthermia) in combination with radiotherapy (called thermoradiotherapy) is one of widely used contemporary cancer treatment methods. The independent electron linac and RF system or their combinations are necessary for effective therapy. Whole-body hyperthermia is used for treatment of metastatic cancer that was spread throughout the body, regional one is used for treatment of part of the body (for instance leg or abdominal cavity). Local hyperthermia with characteristic size of heating volume of 20-100 mm permits to heat tumour without overheating of healthy tissues. The thermometry of deep suited tissues during the hyperthermia process is an important and complex task. Invasive methods as thermistors, optical sensors or thermo-couples can not be widely used because all of them are able to transport tumor cells to the healthy region of the patient body. Distant methods of the temperature measurement such, as radiothermometry and acoustic thermometry can not be used for tissues seated deeper than 5-7 cm. One of possible ways to solve the problem of temperature measurement of the deep suited tissues is discussed in this article: it was proposed to use the same electrodes for RF hyperthermia and thermometry. As known electrodynamics characteristics of tissues are sufficiently depends on temperature. It was proposed to use this effect for active radiothermometry in local hyperthermia. Two opposite RF dipoles can be used as generator and receiver of pick-up signal.

  1. Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brutzel, L.; Dingreville, R.; Bartel, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)

  2. Tilted seat position for non-ambulant individuals with neurological and neuromuscular impairment: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, SM; Porter, D; Pountney, TE

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of tilt-in-space seating on outcomes for people with neurological or neuromuscular impairment who cannot walk. Data sources: Search through electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED). Discussions with researchers who are active in field. Review methods: Selection criteria included interventional studies that investigated the effects of seat tilt on outcome or observational studies that identified outcomes for those who had used tilt-in-space seati...

  3. Effect of Implant Connection Type and Depth on the Seating Accuracy of Hand-Tightened Abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadat, Hakimeh; Belbasi, Simin; Alikhasi, Marzieh; Nazari, Vahideh; Beyabanaki, Elaheh

    2017-12-14

    Improper seating of abutment on the implant is a common problem. This study investigated the effect of the type of implant/abutment interface on the complete seating of the abutments on the head of implants placed at different gingival depths. Three implant systems with three different connections including straight external hexagon, butt-joint internal tri-lobed, and conical internal hexagon were used. Two gingival thicknesses (2 and 7 mm) were created using pink baseplate wax around the straight abutments seated on the implants. After placing the implants in acrylic blocks, the wax was replaced with the gingival mask material to simulate the gingival drape around the implant heads. Afterwards, 15 prosthodontists were asked to hand-tighten the straight abutments in the corresponding implant bodies relying only on their tactile sense. At the final stage, the gingival mask was removed, and the seating quality of the abutments on implant bodies was assessed visually. The effect of implant connection and depth on abutment seating accuracy was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and multiple-comparison tests. No significant difference was found regarding the effect of either depth or connection design on the accuracy of the abutment seating (p > 0.05); however, pairwise comparison of the combined effect of the depth and connection design was significant (p = 0.009). Accuracy of abutment seating on the Nobel Active implants at both 2 and 7 mm depths were significantly better than Replace system with 7 mm depth (p = 0.027). The same results were obtained in comparison between Nobel Active system at both 2 and 7 mm depths with Branemark system with 7 mm depth (p = 0.006). An increase in implant placement depth meant a decrease in accuracy of the abutment seating. The internal conical connection design showed the best result in abutment positioning in deep implants as compared with external and internal butt-joint connection designs. © 2017 by the American College of

  4. Douglas Aircraft Company Advanced Concept Ejection Seat (ACES II). Revision C

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    single place aircraft, ) OGM "PLOYS "A 01, 0t7 0.7 the inertia reel may be initiated by the seat-mounted initiator. Q SoAAc ,INTs o., o., 0, ole Pressure...the switch is selected to -46-DEC PITCH. I160-DEC ROLLI 250 G00 467 "automatic," transmission will commence following seat-man ’FOR THIS CASE, IMPACT

  5. Are toilet seats a vector for transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Mary Anne; Nance, Donna; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2010-01-01

    We studied the bacterial burden on toilet seats in a children's cancer hospital to validate a policy requesting that immunocompromised children use alcohol wipes on the seats prior to use of the toilets. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was recovered from 3.3% of hospital toilets when wipes were not in use. Use of wipes resulted in a 50-fold reduction in mean daily bacterial counts and eliminated MRSA. PMID:19243856

  6. Rotary deformity in degenerative spondylolisthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sung Gwon; Kim, Jeong; Kho, Hyen Sim; Yun, Sung Su; Oh, Jae Hee; Byen, Ju Nam; Kim, Young Chul

    1994-01-01

    We studied to determine whether the degenerative spondylolisthesis has rotary deformity in addition to forward displacement. We have made analysis of difference of rotary deformity between the 31 study groups of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis and 31 control groups without any symptom, statistically. We also reviewed CT findings in 15 study groups. The mean rotary deformity in study groups was 6.1 degree(the standard deviation is 5.20), and the mean rotary deformity in control groups was 2.52 degree(the standard deviation is 2.16)(p < 0.01). The rotary deformity can be accompanied with degenerative spondylolisthesis. We may consider the rotary deformity as a cause of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis in case that any other cause is not detected

  7. Rotary deformity in degenerative spondylolisthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sung Gwon; Kim, Jeong; Kho, Hyen Sim; Yun, Sung Su; Oh, Jae Hee; Byen, Ju Nam; Kim, Young Chul [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    We studied to determine whether the degenerative spondylolisthesis has rotary deformity in addition to forward displacement. We have made analysis of difference of rotary deformity between the 31 study groups of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis and 31 control groups without any symptom, statistically. We also reviewed CT findings in 15 study groups. The mean rotary deformity in study groups was 6.1 degree(the standard deviation is 5.20), and the mean rotary deformity in control groups was 2.52 degree(the standard deviation is 2.16)(p < 0.01). The rotary deformity can be accompanied with degenerative spondylolisthesis. We may consider the rotary deformity as a cause of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis in case that any other cause is not detected.

  8. Neutron halo in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shangui; Meng Jie; Ring, P.; Zhao Enguang

    2010-01-01

    Halo phenomena in deformed nuclei are investigated within a deformed relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov (DRHB) theory. These weakly bound quantum systems present interesting examples for the study of the interdependence between the deformation of the core and the particles in the halo. Contributions of the halo, deformation effects, and large spatial extensions of these systems are described in a fully self-consistent way by the DRHB equations in a spherical Woods-Saxon basis with the proper asymptotic behavior at a large distance from the nuclear center. Magnesium and neon isotopes are studied and detailed results are presented for the deformed neutron-rich and weakly bound nucleus 44 Mg. The core of this nucleus is prolate, but the halo has a slightly oblate shape. This indicates a decoupling of the halo orbitals from the deformation of the core. The generic conditions for the occurrence of this decoupling effects are discussed.

  9. Radiologic evaluation of foot deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlemann, R.; Fischedick, A.R.; Peters, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    In order to analyze foot deformities, the foot is divided into three compartments. Their normal and pathological positions are defined by the alignment of the bones' axes. The various foot deformities can be put down to a malalignment of the particular compartments. X-ray analysis of the malalignment allows a diagnosis to be made. The most important congenital and acquired foot deformities are discussed. (orig.) [de

  10. q-deformed Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Man'ko, V I

    1993-01-01

    Brownian motion may be embedded in the Fock space of bosonic free field in one dimension.Extending this correspondence to a family of creation and annihilation operators satisfying a q-deformed algebra, the notion of q-deformation is carried from the algebra to the domain of stochastic processes.The properties of q-deformed Brownian motion, in particular its non-Gaussian nature and cumulant structure,are established.

  11. Using naturalistic driving data to identify variables associated with infrequent, occasional, and consistent seat belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Ian J; McClafferty, Julie A; Berlin, Sharon P; Hankey, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Seat belt use is one of the most effective countermeasures to reduce traffic fatalities and injuries. The success of efforts to increase use is measured by road side observations and self-report questionnaires. These methods have shortcomings, with the former requiring a binary point estimate and the latter being subjective. The 100-car naturalistic driving study presented a unique opportunity to study seat belt use in that seat belt status was known for every trip each driver made during a 12-month period. Drivers were grouped into infrequent, occasional, or consistent seat belt users based on the frequency of belt use. Analyses were then completed to assess if these groups differed on several measures including personality, demographics, self-reported driving style variables as well as measures from the 100-car study instrumentation suite (average trip speed, trips per day). In addition, detailed analyses of the occasional belt user group were completed to identify factors that were predictive of occasional belt users wearing their belts. The analyses indicated that consistent seat belt users took fewer trips per day, and that increased average trip speed was associated with increased belt use among occasional belt users. The results of this project may help focus messaging efforts to convert occasional and inconsistent seat belt users to consistent users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sitting on a Sloping Seat Does Not Reduce the Strain Sustained by the Postural Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaoui, Alain; Hassaïne, Myriam; Zanone, Pier-Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the effect of a forward sloping seat on posture and muscular activity of the trunk and lower limbs. To this aim, twelve asymptomatic participants were tested in six conditions varying seat slope (0°, 15° forward) and height (high, medium, low). Angular position of head, trunk and pelvis was assessed with an inertial orientation system, and muscular activity of 11 superficial postural muscles located in the trunk and lower limbs was estimated using normalized EMG. Results showed that a forward sloping seat, compared to a flat seat, induced a greater activity of the soleus (p<0.01), vastus lateralis (p<0.05) and vastus medialis (p<0.05), as well a lower hip flexion (p<0.01). In contrast, no significant variation of head, trunk and pelvis angular position was observed according to seat slope. It was concluded that forward sloping seats increase the load sustained by the lower limbs, without a systematic improvement of body posture. PMID:25587989

  13. Evaluation of the seat fastening in the frame of a road bus submitted to frontal impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Walber

    Full Text Available The collective intercity transportation by bus is currently a mean of locomotion much sought after by people. Security in accidents is a very important factor that must be taken into account in design of bus body structure, being the evaluation of passenger safety of this type of vehicle is an important subject that should be checked, because in many accidents occur disconnection between seats and fastening members causing serious passengers injury, often fatal. This work aims at evaluation the behavior of frame fixing of seats of intercity bus bodies, submitted to the frontal impact situation in a rigid wall of 100% offset, through evaluation by finite element method (FEM. This study uses a numerical model corresponding to the body structure and chassis, developed through flexible beam elements, combining with shell elements for the structure of the seats and its fastening members, with the objective of not missing the essential aspects of the problem, allowing the solution with a reduced computational time. The numerical model of bus body and seat was impacted against a rigid wall at a speed of 8.89 m/s, being its validation according to the deceleration curve established by Regulation 80. Then it was gotten the Von Mises stress in fastening members of the seat structure in bus body. It is also presented a proposal to improve the fastening of the seat structure, comparing the results of the stress gotten in the two types fastening submitted to the frontal impact.

  14. "Hot Seat" Questioning: A Technique to Promote and Evaluate Student Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Anthony

    Several approaches have been proposed to include students in classroom dialogue, including "think-pair-share" and "talk to your neighbor." I recently implemented an additional technique in which four students answer questions in a "Hot Seat" at the front of the classroom. An unforeseen by-product of this was student-initiated peer instruction outside of the classroom. A small case study (approximately 50 students) on the effect of the Hot Seat using the midterm exam showed that students were 9.5 +/- 3.2% more likely to correctly answer a question related to material covered while they occupied the Hot Seat. Analysis of the Astronomy Diagnostic Test revealed that they were twice as likely to learn their Hot Seat material. A survey revealed one likely reason: Students typically spent 15-60 additional minutes preparing for class on their two assigned Hot Seat dates. Curiously, students received no significant benefit (2.2 +/- 3.6%) from their second turn in the Hot Seat, possibly reflecting student immunization to its motivational pressure.

  15. The Influence of Tractor-Seat Height above the Ground on Lateral Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gomez-Gil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmers experience whole-body vibrations when they drive tractors. Among the various factors that influence the vibrations to which the driver is exposed are terrain roughness, tractor speed, tire type and pressure, rear axle width, and tractor seat height above the ground. In this paper the influence of tractor seat height above the ground on the lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed is studied by means of a geometrical and an experimental analysis. Both analyses show that: (i lateral vibrations experienced by a tractor driver increase linearly with tractor-seat height above the ground; (ii lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed can equal or exceed vertical vibrations; (iii in medium-size tractors, a feasible 30 cm reduction in the height of the tractor seat, which represents only 15% of its current height, will reduce the lateral vibrations by around 20%; and (iv vertical vibrations are scarcely influenced by tractor-seat height above the ground. The results suggest that manufacturers could increase the comfort of tractors by lowering tractor-seat height above the ground, which will reduce lateral vibrations.

  16. Comparison of respiratory physiologic features when infants are placed in car safety seats or car beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinane, T Bernard; Murphy, Joan; Bass, Joel L; Corwin, Michael J

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the respiratory physiologic features of healthy term infants placed in either a car bed or a car safety seat. Within the first 1 week of life, 67 healthy term infants were recruited and assigned randomly to be monitored in either a car bed (33 infants) or a car safety seat (34 infants). Physiologic data, including oxygen saturation and frequency and type of apnea, were obtained and analyzed in a blinded manner. The groups spent similar amounts of time in the devices (car bed: 71.6 minutes; car seat: 74.2 minutes). The mean oxygen saturation values were not different between the groups (car bed: 97.1%; car seat: 97.3%). The percentages of time with oxygen saturation of car bed: 11.8[corrected]%; car seat: 18.3[corrected]%). In both groups, a number of infants spent high percentages of study time with oxygen saturation of car safety seat group (54%-63% of study time). Values for the 6 infants in the car bed group with the most time at this level were lower (20%-42%). This difference in the duration of oxygen saturation of features of infants in the 2 car safety devices were observed to be similar. Of note, substantial periods of time with oxygen saturation of < 95% were surprisingly common in both groups.

  17. A Case Study: Designing for Sustainability and Reliability in an Automotive Seat Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celalettin Yuce

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, sustainability has been a growing concern for many industries and especially for the transportation sector due to it being the second largest energy consumer and largest contributor of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions within the European Union. New legal restrictions on the emission rates have forced the automotive sector to examine different fuel-efficient technologies. Vehicle weight reduction is one of the most important methods of improving fuel efficiency and reducing CO2 emissions. Accordingly, lighter, safer, more fuel efficient, and environmentally sustainable vehicles are a priority for European authorities. In the present work, the passenger seat structure was considered as the area for lightweighting due to its important role in the mass of commercial vehicles in terms of numbers per vehicle. In addition, seat structures presented the best opportunity for weight reduction using new materials and design techniques. Detailed (3D finite element models of passenger seats were developed for finite element analyses (FEA. To obtain a lightweight and safe seat structure, different materials and thicknesses of profiles were analyzed. Lightweight passenger seat prototypes were developed and an overall 20% weight reduction was achieved including the structural frame, chassis and pillar. In addition, the new passenger seat meets ECE R14 safety norms.

  18. Deformable paper origami optoelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-19

    Deformable optoelectronic devices are provided, including photodetectors, photodiodes, and photovoltaic cells. The devices can be made on a variety of paper substrates, and can include a plurality of fold segments in the paper substrate creating a deformable pattern. Thin electrode layers and semiconductor nanowire layers can be attached to the substrate, creating the optoelectronic device. The devices can be highly deformable, e.g. capable of undergoing strains of 500% or more, bending angles of 25° or more, and/or twist angles of 270° or more. Methods of making the deformable optoelectronic devices and methods of using, e.g. as a photodetector, are also provided.

  19. q-deformed Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogievetsky, O.; Pillin, M.; Schmidke, W.B.; Wess, J.; Zumino, B.

    1993-01-01

    In this lecture I discuss the algebraic structure of a q-deformed four-vector space. It serves as a good example of quantizing Minkowski space. To give a physical interpretation of such a quantized Minkowski space we construct the Hilbert space representation and find that the relevant time and space operators have a discrete spectrum. Thus the q-deformed Minkowski space has a lattice structure. Nevertheless this lattice structure is compatible with the operation of q-deformed Lorentz transformations. The generators of the q-deformed Lorentz group can be represented as linear operators in the same Hilbert space. (orig.)

  20. Deformation behaviour of turbine foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, W.; Klitzing, R.; Pietzonka, R.; Wehr, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of foundation deformation on alignment in turbine generator sets have gained significance with the transition to modern units at the limit of design possibilities. It is therefore necessary to obtain clarification about the remaining operational variations of turbine foundations. Static measurement programmes, which cover both deformation processes as well as individual conditions of deformation are described in the paper. In order to explain the deformations measured structural engineering model calculations are being undertaken which indicate the effect of limiting factors. (orig.) [de

  1. Contracture deformity (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A contracture is a fixed tightening of muscle, tendons, ligaments, or skin. It prevents normal movement of the associated ... injury such as a severe burn can cause contracture of the skin. The skin becomes scarred and ...

  2. Fighting Corruption: A Cross-National Study on the Effect of Reserved Legislative Seats for Ethnic Groups on Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Stendahl, Ludvig

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between reserved seats for ethnic groups in national legislatures and corruption. In 2008, over 30 countries were reserving seats for ethnic groups in their national legislature. The share of seats that was reserved ranged from a 2 percent reserved seats arrangement for a small ethnic minority, to a 100 percent reserved seats power-sharing arrangement between two or more ethnic groups. By applying theories of informal power, this essay hypo...

  3. Preliminary deformation results to 12 GPa pressure using the Deformation-DIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, S.; Li, L.; Durham, W. B.; Wang, Y.; Uchita, T.; Getting, I. C.; Vaughan, M. T.; Weidner, D. J.; Burnley, P.

    2002-12-01

    High-pressure studies of the rheological behavior of Earth materials under high pressures are essential for understanding the dynamics of Earth's interior. However, outside of shock experiments and those in the diamond anvil cell, the highest working pressure for conventional deformation rigs (e.g., triaxial gas-medium apparatus, Griggs solid-medium apparatus) has been about 4 GPa. We report here first results from a new deformation apparatus called the deformation-DIA (D-DIA), a cubic-anvil, solid-medium apparatus specifically designed for constant-pressure deformation and capable of deforming samples at high temperatures (up to 2000 K) to pressures up to 15 GPa. Based on the cubic DIA apparatus, the D-DIA allows independent motion of the two vertical anvils to impose deformation on samples, and at the same time allows reverse motion on the four side anvils, thus preventing pressure from rising during deformation. Preliminary tests have been conducted on samples of NaCl, MgO, and olivine. The cold-pressed samples (1-2 mm in length and 1.2 mm in diameter), hard alumina pistons, and thermocouples form a 6-mm-long deformation column that is inserted into a graphite resistance heater within a 6-mm edge length cubic pressure medium, either pyrophyllite or boron epoxy. The cell is first squeezed hydrostatically to reach desired pressures and then deformed in compression at constant pressure. Experiments are carried out using synchrotron radiation, which makes it possible to measure sample length change and pressure in-situ to levels of x 10-5 to 4 x 10-4 s-1 over shortening strains of 10 - 30% at temperatures of 500 - 1200°C and pressures of 5 - 12 GPa. Pressure is monitored by the location of diffraction peaks of a small amount of well-characterized proxy material (often MgO) in the deformation column. Pressure is controlled manually by metering hydraulic fluid from the main ram (which drives the side anvils) at a rate such that diffraction pattern holds constant as

  4. Deformations of surface singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Szilárd, ágnes

    2013-01-01

    The present publication contains a special collection of research and review articles on deformations of surface singularities, that put together serve as an introductory survey of results and methods of the theory, as well as open problems, important examples and connections to other areas of mathematics. The aim is to collect material that will help mathematicians already working or wishing to work in this area to deepen their insight and eliminate the technical barriers in this learning process. This also is supported by review articles providing some global picture and an abundance of examples. Additionally, we introduce some material which emphasizes the newly found relationship with the theory of Stein fillings and symplectic geometry.  This links two main theories of mathematics: low dimensional topology and algebraic geometry. The theory of normal surface singularities is a distinguished part of analytic or algebraic geometry with several important results, its own technical machinery, and several op...

  5. Modeling school bus seat belt usage: Nested and mixed logit approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Gaurav; Lou, Yingyan

    2013-03-01

    School bus seat belt usage has been of great interest to the school transportation community. Understanding factors that influence students' decisions about wearing seat belts or not is important in determining the most cost-effective ways to improve belt usage rate, and thus the seat belt safety benefits. This paper presents a rigorous empirical analysis on data from Alabama School Bus Pilot Project using discrete choice modeling framework. In order to collect relevant information on individual student-trips, a new data collection protocol is adopted. Three choice alternatives are considered in the study: wearing, not wearing, and improperly wearing seat belts. A student's choice probabilities of these alternatives are modeled as functions of the student's characteristics and trip attributes. The coefficients of the variables in the functions are estimated first using standard multinomial logit model. Moreover, to account for potential correlations among the three choice alternatives and individual-level preference and response heterogeneity among users, nested and mixed logit models are employed in the investigation. Eight significant influence factors are identified by the final models. Their relative impacts are also quantified. The factors include age, gender and the home county of a student, a student's trip length, time of day, seat location, presence and active involvement of bus aide, and two levels of bus driver involvement. The impact of the seat location on students' seat belt usage is revealed for the first time by this study. Both hypotheses that some of the choice alternatives are correlated and that individual-level heterogeneity exists are tested statistically significant. In view of this, the nested and the mixed logit model are recommended over the standard multinomial logit model to describe and predict students' seat belt usage behaviors. The final nested logit model uncovers a correlation between improper wearing and not wearing, indicating

  6. Newborn Parent Based Intervention to Increase Child Safety Seat Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangxiang; Yang, Jingzhen; Cheng, Fuyuan; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS) among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group). The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4%) were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3%) were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3%) were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents’ child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents’ knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the intervention. PMID

  7. Newborn Parent Based Intervention to Increase Child Safety Seat Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangxiang Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group. The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4% were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3% were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3% were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents’ child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents’ knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the

  8. Mid-space-independent deformable image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganj, Iman; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Reuter, Martin; Sabuncu, Mert Rory; Fischl, Bruce

    2017-05-15

    Aligning images in a mid-space is a common approach to ensuring that deformable image registration is symmetric - that it does not depend on the arbitrary ordering of the input images. The results are, however, generally dependent on the mathematical definition of the mid-space. In particular, the set of possible solutions is typically restricted by the constraints that are enforced on the transformations to prevent the mid-space from drifting too far from the native image spaces. The use of an implicit atlas has been proposed as an approach to mid-space image registration. In this work, we show that when the atlas is aligned to each image in the native image space, the data term of implicit-atlas-based deformable registration is inherently independent of the mid-space. In addition, we show that the regularization term can be reformulated independently of the mid-space as well. We derive a new symmetric cost function that only depends on the transformation morphing the images to each other, rather than to the atlas. This eliminates the need for anti-drift constraints, thereby expanding the space of allowable deformations. We provide an implementation scheme for the proposed framework, and validate it through diffeomorphic registration experiments on brain magnetic resonance images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Active Climate Control Seats on Energy Use, Fuel Use, and CO2 Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreutzer, Cory J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rugh, John P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Titov, Eugene V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kekelia, Bidzina [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-28

    A project was developed through collaboration between Gentherm and NREL to determine the impact of climate control seats for light-duty vehicles in the United States. The project used a combination of experimentation and analysis, with experimental results providing critical input to the analysis process. First, outdoor stationary vehicle testing was performed at NREL's facility in Golden, CO using multiple occupants. Two pre-production Ford Focus electric vehicles were used for testing; one containing a standard inactive seat and the second vehicle containing a Gentherm climate control seat. Multiple maximum cool-down and steady-state cooling tests were performed in late summer conditions. The two vehicles were used to determine the increase in cabin temperature when using the climate control seat in comparison to the baseline vehicle cabin temperature with a standard seat at the equivalent occupant whole-body sensation. The experiments estimated that on average, the climate control seats allowed for a 2.61 degrees Celsius increase in vehicle cabin temperature at equivalent occupant body sensation compared to the baseline vehicle. The increased cabin air temperature along with their measured energy usage were then used as inputs to the national analysis process. The national analysis process was constructed from full vehicle cabin, HVAC, and propulsion models previously developed by NREL. In addition, three representative vehicle platforms, vehicle usage patterns, and vehicle registration weighted environmental data were integrated into the analysis process. Both the baseline vehicle and the vehicle with climate control seats were simulated, using the experimentally determined cabin temperature offset of 2.61degrees Celsius and added seat energy as inputs to the climate control seat vehicle model. The U.S. composite annual fuel use savings for the climate control seats over the baseline A/C system was determined to be 5.1 gallons of gasoline per year per

  10. Fraktalnist deformational relief polycrystalline aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.В. Карускевич

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available  The possibility of the fractal geometry method application for the analisys of surface deformation structures under cyclic loading is presented.It is shown, that deformation relief of the alclad aluminium alloyes meets the criteria of the fractality. For the fractal demention estimation the method of  “box-counting”can be applied.

  11. Plastic Deformation of Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2013-01-01

    Plastic deformation of metal surfaces by sliding and abrasion between moving parts can be detrimental. However, when the plastic deformation is controlled for example by applying different peening techniques hard surfaces can be produced which can increase the fracture resistance and fatigue life...

  12. Nuclear deformation at finite temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassid, Y; Gilbreth, C N; Bertsch, G F

    2014-12-31

    Deformation, a key concept in our understanding of heavy nuclei, is based on a mean-field description that breaks the rotational invariance of the nuclear many-body Hamiltonian. We present a method to analyze nuclear deformations at finite temperature in a framework that preserves rotational invariance. The auxiliary-field Monte Carlo method is used to generate a statistical ensemble and calculate the probability distribution associated with the quadrupole operator. Applying the technique to nuclei in the rare-earth region, we identify model-independent signatures of deformation and find that deformation effects persist to temperatures higher than the spherical-to-deformed shape phase-transition temperature of mean-field theory.

  13. Nuclear Deformation at Finite Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassid, Y.; Gilbreth, C. N.; Bertsch, G. F.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation, a key concept in our understanding of heavy nuclei, is based on a mean-field description that breaks the rotational invariance of the nuclear many-body Hamiltonian. We present a method to analyze nuclear deformations at finite temperature in a framework that preserves rotational invariance. The auxiliary-field Monte Carlo method is used to generate a statistical ensemble and calculate the probability distribution associated with the quadrupole operator. Applying the technique to nuclei in the rare-earth region, we identify model-independent signatures of deformation and find that deformation effects persist to temperatures higher than the spherical-to-deformed shape phase-transition temperature of mean-field theory.

  14. Deformation of Man Made Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    We introduce a framework for 3D object deformation with primary focus on man-made objects. Our framework enables a user to deform a model while preserving its defining characteristics. Moreover, our framework enables a user to set constraints on a model to keep its most significant features intact after the deformation process. Our framework supports a semi-automatic constraint setting environment, where some constraints could be automatically set by the framework while others are left for the user to specify. Our framework has several advantages over some state of the art deformation techniques in that it enables a user to add new features to the deformed model while keeping its general look similar to the input model. In addition, our framework enables the rotation and extrusion of different parts of a model.

  15. Compliance with Use of Seat Belt among Commercial Drivers in a Nigerian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwole C. Omolase

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed at determining compliance with use of seat belt among commercial intercity drivers. METHOD: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Owo, South West Nigeria among commercial intercity drivers between June and September, 2009. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee of Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria prior to commencement of this study. The permission of the leadership of Road Transport Workers’ Union was also sought and obtained. Ninety intercity commercial drivers out of the estimated one hundred and sixty intercity commercial drivers in the community were enrolled in this study. Informed consent was obtained from each of the respondents. The data obtained was collated and analyzed with SPSS 15.0.1 statistical soft ware version. RESULTS: Ninety respondents were enrolled in this study. The driving experience of the respondents revealed that most respondents: 53 (58.9% had more than 20 years driving experience. Most respondents;78 (86.7% complied with use of seat belt .The main barrier to compliance with seat belt was short trip;28 (50.9%.Most respondents; 67 (74.4%were in support of penalization of defaulters. The major source of awareness about seat belt was Federal Road Safety Corps;59 (65.6%. CONCLUSION: Most respondents complied with use of seat belt. The major barrier to compliance with seat belt was short trip within the community. The Federal Road Safety Corps should enforce compliance with the use of seat belt most especially within communities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 281-286

  16. Compatibility of booster seats and vehicles in the U.S. market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Julie A; Agnew, Amanda M; Bolte, John H

    2018-05-19

    The objective of this study was to analyze booster and rear vehicle seat dimensions to identify the most frequent compatibility problems. Measurements were collected from 40 high-back and backless boosters and 95 left rear and center rear row seating positions in 50 modern vehicles. Dimensions were compared for 3,800 booster/vehicle seat combinations. For validation and estimation of tolerance and correction factors, 72 booster installations were physically completed and compared with measurement-based compatibility predictions. Dimensions were also compared to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) volumetric envelopes of forward-facing child restraints and boosters. Seat belt buckles in outboard positions accommodated the width of boosters better than center positions (success rates of 85.4 and 34.7%, respectively). Adequate head restraint clearance occurred in 71.9 to 77.2% of combinations, depending on the booster's head support setting. Booster recline angles aligned properly with vehicle seat cushion angles in 71.5% of combinations. In cases of poor angle alignment, booster angles were more obtuse than the vehicle seat angles 97.7% of the time. Head restraint interference exacerbated angle alignment issues. Data indicate success rates above 90% for boosters being fully supported by the length of the seat cushion and for adequate height clearance with the vehicle roofline. Comparison to ISO envelopes indicates that most boosters on the U.S. market are taller and angled more obtusely than ISO target envelopes. This study quantifies some of the common interferences between boosters and vehicles that may complicate booster usage. Data are useful for design and to prioritize specific problem areas.

  17. A joint econometric analysis of seat belt use and crash-related injury severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluru, Naveen; Bhat, Chandra R

    2007-09-01

    This paper formulates a comprehensive econometric structure that recognizes two important issues in crash-related injury severity analysis. First, the impact of a factor on injury severity may be moderated by various observed and unobserved variables specific to an individual or to a crash. Second, seat belt use is likely to be endogenous to injury severity. That is, it is possible that intrinsically unsafe drivers do not wear seat belts and are the ones likely to be involved in high injury severity crashes because of their unsafe driving habits. The preceding issues are considered in the current research effort through the development of a comprehensive model of seat belt use and injury severity that takes the form of a joint correlated random coefficients binary-ordered response system. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of such a model formulation and application not only in the safety analysis literature, but in the econometrics literature in general. The empirical analysis is based on the 2003 General Estimates System (GES) data base. Several types of variables are considered to explain seat belt use and injury severity levels, including driver characteristics, vehicle characteristics, roadway design attributes, environmental factors, and crash characteristics. The results, in addition to confirming the effects of various explanatory variables, also highlight the importance of (a) considering the moderating effects of unobserved individual/crash-related factors on the determinants of injury severity and (b) seat belt use endogeneity. From a policy standpoint, the results suggest that seat belt non-users, when apprehended in the act, should perhaps be subjected to both a fine (to increase the chances that they wear seat belts) as well as mandatory enrollment in a defensive driving course (to attempt to change their aggressive driving behaviors).

  18. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Cullum, N; McInnes, E; Bell-Syer, SE; Legood, R

    2004-01-01

    : Pressure ulcers (also known as bedsores, pressure sores, decubitus ulcers) are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue due to pressure, shear or friction. They are common in the elderly and immobile and costly in financial and human terms. Pressure-relieving beds, mattresses and seat cushions are widely used as aids to prevention in both institutional and non-institutional settings. : This systematic review seeks to answer the following questions: to what extent do press...

  19. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention

    OpenAIRE

    McInnes, E; Bell-Syer, SE; Dumville, JC; Legood, R; Cullum, NA

    2008-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcers (also known as bedsores, pressure sores, decubitus ulcers) are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue due to pressure, shear or friction. They are common in the elderly and immobile and costly in financial and human terms. Pressure-relieving beds, mattresses and seat cushions are widely used as aids to prevention in both institutional and non-institutional settings. Objectives This systematic review seeks to answer the following questions: (1) t...

  20. Primary Enforcement of Mandatory Seat Belt Laws and Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sam; Strumpf, Erin C

    2017-08-01

    Policies that allow directly citing motorists for seat belt non-use (primary enforcement) have been shown to reduce motor vehicle crash deaths relative to secondary enforcement, but the evidence base is dated and does not account for recent improvements in vehicle designs and road safety. The purpose of this study was to test whether recent upgrades to primary enforcement still reduce motor vehicle crash deaths. In 2016, researchers used motor vehicle crash death data from the Fatal Analysis Reporting System for 2000-2014 and calculated rates using both person- and exposure-based denominators. Researchers used a difference-in-differences design to estimate the effect of primary enforcement on death rates, and estimated negative binomial regression models, controlling for age, substance use involvement, fixed state characteristics, secular trends, state median household income, and other state-level traffic safety policies. Models adjusted only for crash characteristics and state-level covariates models showed a protective effect of primary enforcement (rate ratio, 0.88, 95% CI=0.77, 0.98; rate difference, -1.47 deaths per 100,000 population, 95% CI= -2.75, -0.19). After adjustment for fixed state characteristics and secular trends, there was no evidence of an effect of upgrading from secondary to primary enforcement in the whole population (rate ratio, 0.98, 95% CI=0.92, 1.04; rate difference, -0.22, 95% CI= -0.90, 0.46) or for any age group. Upgrading to primary enforcement no longer appears protective for motor vehicle crash death rates. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors associated with rear seating of children in motor vehicles: a study in two low-income, predominantly Hispanic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg-Seth, Jennifer; Hemenway, David; Gallagher, Susan S; Lissy, Karen S; Ross, Julie B

    2004-07-01

    This study examined child seating patterns in two predominantly low-income, Hispanic communities in Massachusetts. The purpose was to determine the factors associated with child rear seating in the community as a whole and for a subset of Hispanic motorists. Five hundred and five vehicles carrying child passengers and no adult other than the driver were observed in parking lots of fast food restaurants and grocery stores. Four hundred and thirty-two vehicle drivers agreed to be interviewed. A child was defined as a passenger younger than age 12 as determined by appearance and height (head below the vehicle headrest when seated). Variables under study included driver gender, age, ethnicity, and educational attainment; driver shoulder belt use; driver perception of passenger-side airbag presence; and the number and ages of children in the car. Overall, 51% of vehicles were observed with all children seated in the rear. In a bivariate analysis, child rear seating was strongly associated with female drivers ( P = 0.01), younger drivers ( P = 0.02) driver shoulder belt use ( P safety behavior (e.g. seat belt use). Messages should be culturally appropriate and should emphasize driver seat belt use in conjunction with rear seating and the importance of rear seating regardless of the presence of a passenger-side airbag.

  2. Research Paper: Impact of Air Seat Cushions and Ball Chairs on Classroom Behavior of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Matin Sadr

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion In the present study, therapy balls and or cushioned chairs for ASD students facilitated in-seat and on-task behaviors and improved classroom performance. It seems that using these alternative seating chairs can satisfy the subjects’ needs to sensory stimuli, and therefore, decreases their sensory seeking behaviors which interferes with their academic achievements. While, using therapy ball chairs for these students may facilitate in-seat behavior and decrease autistic behavior in class, the student’s response to dynamic seating is different individually. Therefore, chair selection must be based on vestibular reaction of the students.

  3. Whole-body Vibration Exposure Intervention among Professional Bus and Truck Drivers: A Laboratory Evaluation of Seat-suspension Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Ryan P; Yost, Michael G; Camp, Janice E; Ching, Randal P

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to seated whole-body vibration (WBV) is one of the leading risk factors for the development of low back disorders. Professional bus and truck drivers are regularly exposed to continuous WBV, since they spend the majority of their working hours driving heavy vehicles. This study measured WBV exposures among professional bus and truck drivers and evaluated the effects of seat-suspension designs using simulated field-collected data on a vibration table. WBV exposures were measured and compared across three different seat designs: an air-ride bus seat, an air-ride truck seat, and an electromagnetically active (EM-active) seat. Air-ride seats use a compressed-air bladder to attenuate vibrations, and they have been in operation throughout the transportation industry for many years. The EM-active seat is a relatively new design that incorporates a microprocessor-controlled actuator to dampen vibration. The vibration table simulated seven WBV exposure scenarios: four segments of vertical vibration and three scenarios that used field-collected driving data on different road surfaces-a city street, a freeway, and a section of rough roadway. The field scenarios used tri-axial WBV data that had been collected at the seat pan and at the driver's sternum, in accordance with ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5. This study found that WBV was significantly greater in the vertical direction (z-axis) than in the lateral directions (x-and y-axes) for each of the three road types and each of the three types of seats. Quantitative comparisons of the results showed that the floor-to-seat-pan transmissibility was significantly lower for the EM-active seat than for either the air-ride bus seat or the air-ride truck seat, across all three road types. This study also demonstrated that seat-suspension designs have a significant effect on the vibrations transmitted to vehicle operators, and the study's results may prove useful in designing future seat suspensions.

  4. Ergonomic Evaluation of Space Shuttle Light-Weight Seat Lever Position and Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, J.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    During a Shuttle flight in the early part of 1999, one of the crewmembers was unable to operate the backrest lever for the light-weight seat in microgravity. It is essential that the crewmembers are able to adjust this back-rest lever, which is titled forward 2 degrees from vertical during launch and then moved backwards to 10 degrees aft of vertical upon reaching orbit. This adjustment is needed to cushion the crewmembers during an inadvertent crash landing situation. The original Shuttle seats, which had seat controls located on the front left and right sides of the seat, were replaced recently with the new light-weight seats. The controls for these new, seats were moved to the night side with one control at the front and the other at the back. While it was uncertain whether the problem encountered was unique to that crewmember or not it was clear to the personnel responsible for maintaining the Shuttle seats that not knowing the cause of the problem posed a safety concern for NASA. Hence the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) of the Johnson Space Center was requested to perform an evaluation of the seat controls and provide NASA with appropriate recommendations on whether the seat lever positions and operations should be modified. The ABF designed an experiment to investigate the amount of pull force exerted by subjects, wearing an unpressurized or pressurized crew launch escape suit, when controls were placed in the front and back (on the right side) of the light-weight seat. Single-axis load cells were attached to the seat levers, which measured the maximum static pull forces that were exerted by the subjects. Twelve subjects, six male and six female, participated in this study. Each subject was asked to perform the pull test at least three times for each combination of lever position and suit pressure conditions. The results from this study showed that as a whole (or in general), the subjects were able to pull on the lever at the back position with

  5. Supersymmetric q-deformed quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traikia, M. H.; Mebarki, N. [Laboratoire de Physique Mathematique et Subatomique, Mentouri University, Constantine (Algeria)

    2012-06-27

    A supersymmetric q-deformed quantum mechanics is studied in the weak deformation approximation of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra. The corresponding supersymmetric q-deformed hamiltonians and charges are constructed explicitly.

  6. On infinitesimal conformai deformations of surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Степановна Федченко

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A new form of basic equations for conformai deformations is found. The equations involve tensor fields of displacement vector only. Conditions for trivial deformations as well as infinitesimal conformai deformations are studied.

  7. On the Modeling of a MEMS Based Capacitive Accelerometer for Measurement of Tractor Seat Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alidoost

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Drivers of heavy vehicles often face with higher amplitudes of frequencies range between 1-80 Hz. Hence, this range of frequency results in temporary or even sometimes permanent damages to the health of drivers. Examples for these problems are damages to the vertebral column and early tiredness, which both reduce the driver’s performance significantly. One solution to this problem is to decrease the imposed vibration to the driver’s seat by developing an active seat system. These systems require an online measuring unit to sense vibrations transferred to the seat. The measuring unit can include a capacitive micro-accelerometer on the basis of MEMS which measure online vibrations on the seat. In this study, the mechanical behavior of a capacitive micro-accelerometer for the vibration range applied to a tractor seat has been simulated. The accelerometer is capable to measure step, impact and harmonic external excitations applied to the system. The results of the study indicate that, with increasing the applied voltage, the system sensitivity also increases, but the measuring range of vibrations decreases and vice versa. The modeled accelerometer, at damping ratio of 0.67 is capable to measure accelerations within the frequency range of lower than 130 Hz.

  8. Evaluating the impact of child safety seat check-up events on parental knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Ashley B; Jones, Ches; Nunez, Casandra

    2002-12-01

    Riding unrestrained is the greatest risk factor for death and injury among children in motor vehicles. Restraining a child can reduce the risk of death for that child by up to 71%. However, despite increased awareness, child safety seat usage rates are still disturbingly low. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact that child safety seat check-up events have on parental knowledge on child safety seats and installation. The subjects for this study were 101 parents/caregivers who attended child safety seat check-up events in northwest Arkansas from May 2000 through June 2001. A 20-item survey was conducted via the telephone. Results showed that the check-up events in northwest Arkansas have had an impact on self-efficacy. The participants of the events were primarily Caucasian and females in the 30-34 age group. Nine of 10 subjects scored in the high knowledge category. Conclusions are that check-up events do have an impact on parental knowledge and are accepted by the target group. Additionally, participants believed that car seats are of great importance and do protect their children in the event of a crash.

  9. How Safe are “Safe” Seats? A Comparison of Voluntary and Compulsory Voting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Fry

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Many observers have expressed concern that low voter turnout reflects an acute shortcoming in democratic politics. One proposed remedy, making voting compulsory, has garnered increasing attention among academics over recent years. Our article focuses on some of the technical properties of compulsory voting rules (CVR while ignoring the philosophical debate over whether voting should be an obligation or a right. Using basic probability analysis, we compare a voluntary voting rule (VVR to a compulsory one. We show that, under certain conditions, an electoral seat or district can become safer – or less competitive – with the imposition of a CVR. We also discuss some political implications of our analysis. For example, when generalized to, say, the national political system, this result implies fewer competitive seats in a CVT compared to a VVR, everything else equal. We contend that, because fewer seats will be “in play” in a CVT, CVRs should exhibit lower turnover of seats. Also, political suppliers can be expected to more narrowly focus their attention – and resources – on this smaller set of competitive seats than we would expect unver a VVR.

  10. A cost benefit analysis of an enhanced seat belt enforcement program in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, G T; Olukoga, I A

    2005-04-01

    To examine whether a program to increase the wearing of seat belts in a South African urban area would be worthwhile in societal terms. A cost benefit analysis of a one year enhanced seat belt enforcement program in eThekwini (Durban) Municipality. Data were drawn from two main sources--a 1998 study of the cost of road crashes in South Africa and, given the absence of other data, a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of various types of interventions to reduce road crash casualties in the United States--and were analyzed using cost benefit analysis. A program designed to enforce greater wearing of seat belts, estimated to cost 2 million rand in one year, could be reasonably expected to increase seat belt usage rates by 16 percentage points and reduce fatalities and injuries by 9.5%. This would result in saved social costs of 13.6 million rand in the following year or a net present value of 11.6 million rand. There would also be favorable consequences for municipal finances. Investment in a program to increase seat belt wearing rates is highly profitable in societal terms.

  11. Validation of the Swedish translation of eating assessment tool (S-EAT-10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Riitta; Safa, Stephanie; Östberg, Per

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion The Swedish Eating Assessment Tool (S-EAT-10) is a reliable and valid self-administered tool in assessment of dysphagia in adult Swedish patients with high internal consistency, reliability, and discriminative validity. The normative data show that a score of 3 or more is abnormal. S-EAT-10 is recommended to be used in preliminary diagnostics of dysphagia. Objective To translate and adapt the EAT-10 for use in the Swedish patient population, and to present norms and measures of discriminative validity and reliability of a Swedish version of the Eating Assessment Tool-10 (S-EAT-10). Methods Prospective consecutive clinical study. In total, 134 community-dwelling adult respondents/controls without dysphagia completed the S-EAT-10, as did 119 patients referred for fiberendoscopic evaluation of swallowing at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Patient vs control status was used as the criterion for discriminative validity assessment by logistic regression analysis. Results The mean S-EAT-10 score was 0.2 (range = 0-3) for controls and 18 (range = 0-38) for patients. Based on a cut-off score of ≥ 3 which was considered to be reflective of abnormalities, sensitivity was 98.5% and specificity 94.1%. Internal consistency reliability was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88), as was test-re-test reliability (ICC = 0.90).

  12. Experimental Investigation of a Temperature-Controlled Car Seat Powered by an Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, H.; Wang, Y. P.; Yuan, X. H.; Deng, Y. D.; Su, C. Q.

    2016-03-01

    To improve the riding comfort and rational utilization of the electrical energy captured by an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG), a temperature-controlled car seat was constructed to adjust the temperature of the car seat surface. Powered by the ATEG and the battery, the seat-embedded air conditioner can improve the riding comfort using a thermoelectric device to adjust the surface temperature of the seat, with an air duct to regulate the cold side and hot side of the thermoelectric device. The performance of the thermoelectric cooler (TEC) and theoretical analysis on the optimum state of the TEC device are put forward. To verify the rationality of the air duct design and to ensure sufficient air supply, the velocity field of the air duct system was obtained by means of the finite element method. To validate the reliability of the numerical simulation, the air velocity around the thermoelectric device was measured by a wind speed transmitter. The performance of the temperature-controlled car seat has been validated and is in good agreement with bench tests and real vehicle tests.

  13. Flow Characteristics and Sizing of Annular Seat Valves for Digital Displacement Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nørgård

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the steady-state flow characteristics and power losses of annular seat valves for digital displacement machines. Annular seat valves are promising candidates for active check-valves used in digital displacement fluid power machinery which excels in efficiency in a broad operating range. To achieve high machine efficiency, the valve flow losses and the required electrical power needed for valve switching should be low. The annular valve plunger geometry, of a valve prototype developed for digital displacement machines, is parametrized by three parameters: stroke length, seat radius and seat width. The steady-state flow characteristics are analyzed using static axi-symmetric computational fluid dynamics. The pressure drops and flow forces are mapped in the valve design space for several different flow rates. The simulated results are compared against measurements using a valve prototype. Using the simulated maps to estimate the flow power losses and a simple generic model to estimate the electric power losses, both during digital displacement operation, optimal designs of annular seat valves, with respect to valve power losses, are derived under several different operating conditions.

  14. The Effect of Cycling Intensity on Cycling Economy During Seated and Standing Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkesteijn, Marco; Jobson, Simon; Hopker, James; Passfield, Louis

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has shown that cycling in a standing position reduces cycling economy compared with seated cycling. It is unknown whether the cycling intensity moderates the reduction in cycling economy while standing. The aim was to determine whether the negative effect of standing on cycling economy would be decreased at a higher intensity. Ten cyclists cycled in 8 different conditions. Each condition was either at an intensity of 50% or 70% of maximal aerobic power at a gradient of 4% or 8% and in the seated or standing cycling position. Cycling economy and muscle activation level of 8 leg muscles were recorded. There was an interaction between cycling intensity and position for cycling economy (P = .03), the overall activation of the leg muscles (P = .02), and the activation of the lower leg muscles (P = .05). The interaction showed decreased cycling economy when standing compared with seated cycling, but the difference was reduced at higher intensity. The overall activation of the leg muscles and the lower leg muscles, respectively, increased and decreased, but the differences between standing and seated cycling were reduced at higher intensity. Cycling economy was lower during standing cycling than seated cycling, but the difference in economy diminishes when cycling intensity increases. Activation of the lower leg muscles did not explain the lower cycling economy while standing. The increased overall activation, therefore, suggests that increased activation of the upper leg muscles explains part of the lower cycling economy while standing.

  15. Reliability and Criterion-Related Validity of the Seated Posture Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barks, Lelia; Garvan, Cynthia; Crane, Barbara; Peterson, Matthew; Brown, Lisa M; Powell-Cope, Gail

    2018-03-19

    Earlier, we reported development and initial testing of a rapid, low burden measure of wheelchair seated posture (the Seated Posture Scale [SPS]) for research and clinical use. The purpose of this study was to test the intrarater reliability, interrater reliability, and criterion related validity of the SPS. We used a descriptive design to test and develop the instrument. We used the method described by Walter, Donner, and Eliasziw to determine 46 participants were needed, from two Veterans Administration nursing homes or CLCs (community living centers). Using a digital goniometer to score rapidly and with two trained raters, we scored individual participants simultaneously and again in succession. For criterion related concurrent validity, we also scored each participant with Section 2 of the Seated Postural Control Measure for Adults. Intrarater reliability, interrater reliability, and criterion related, concurrent validity were assessed using kappa statistics for individual instrument items (and corresponding 95% confidence intervals where appropriate) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for total scores. The intrarater intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was .995; interrater ICC was .80; interrater reliability kappas ranged from -.03 to .80. Criterion-related, concurrent validity kappas ranged from .13 to .91. ICC for total scores was .85. The SPS has sufficient preliminary validity and reliability to support measurement of wheelchair-seated posture in outcomes research and clinical use. In the future, rehabilitation nurses may use the SPS to improve management of wheelchair seated posture, to improve clinical outcomes, particularly for those who do not reposition themselves.

  16. Effectiveness of primary and secondary enforced seat belt laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivara, F P; Thompson, D C; Cummings, P

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relative efficacy of primary and secondary enforced motor vehicle occupant restraint laws on the outcomes of restraint use, crash-related mortality, and crash-related injuries. We used the Cochrane Collaboration search strategy to search the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, National Technical Information Service (NTIS), Psyc-INFO, ERIC, Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Transportation Research Information Service (TRIS), and EI Compendex. The reference lists from each potentially eligible study were checked, and knowledgeable people in the field were contacted, for additional leads to published reports. Studies had to include a comparison of primary enforcement law to no law, secondary enforcement law to no law, or a primary to a secondary law. Any study design was acceptable. Acceptable outcome measures included observed restraint use, and counts or rates of deaths or serious injuries. Data were collected using a standard abstract reporting from. Relative differences in outcomes and absolute differences were calculated when possible. We identified 48 studies for the review. When places or time periods with primary enforcement laws were compared to those without such laws, the relative prevalence of seat belt use ranged from 1.5 to 4.5; the prevalence differences ranged from 10 to 50 per 100 observed drivers. Secondary laws had smaller effects. Two studies evaluated a change in law from secondary to primary enforcement; this was associated with an increase in belt use 6 months later of 5.3 per 100 observed drivers in Louisiana and 18 per 100 drivers in California. Primary enforcement laws were associated with a relative risk of death in MV crashes of .54 to .97. The reduction in mortality associated with secondary enforcement laws was much more modest, with relative risks estimates of .81 to 1.025. Primary enforcement laws were associated with a relative risk of severe injuries of .20 to .89; the

  17. Spacetimes for λ-deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfetsos, Konstadinos [Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens,Athens 15784 (Greece); Thompson, Daniel C. [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel andThe International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-12-29

    We examine a recently proposed class of integrable deformations to two-dimensional conformal field theories. These λ-deformations interpolate between a WZW model and the non-Abelian T-dual of a Principal Chiral Model on a group G or, between a G/H gauged WZW model and the non-Abelian T-dual of the geometric coset G/H. λ-deformations have been conjectured to represent quantum group q-deformations for the case where the deformation parameter is a root of unity. In this work we show how such deformations can be given an embedding as full string backgrounds whose target spaces satisfy the equations of type-II supergravity. One illustrative example is a deformation of the Sl(2,ℝ)/U(1) black-hole CFT. A further example interpolates between the ((SU(2)×SU(2))/(SU(2)))×((SL(2,ℝ)×SL(2,ℝ))/(SL(2,ℝ)))×U(1){sup 4} gauged WZW model and the non-Abelian T-dual of AdS{sub 3}×S{sup 3}×T{sup 4} supported with Ramond flux.

  18. Elastic deformation of soft coatings due to lubrication forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yumo; Tan, Matthew R; Frechette, Joelle

    2017-10-04

    Elastic deformation of rigid materials with soft coatings (stratified materials) due to lubrication forces can alter the interpretation of dynamic surface forces measurements and prevent contact formation between approaching surfaces. Understanding the role of elastic deformation on the process of fluid drainage is necessary, in particular for the case where one (or both) of the interacting materials consists of a rigid substrate with a soft coating. We combine lubrication theory and solid linear elasticity to describe the dynamic of fluid drainage past a compliant stratified boundary. The analysis presented covers the full range of coating thicknesses, from an elastic foundation to a half-space for an incompressible coating. We decouple the individual contributions of the coating thickness and material properties on the elastic deformation, hydrodynamic forces, and fluid film thickness. We obtain a simple expression for the shift in contact position during force measurements that is valid for many experimental conditions. We compare directly the effect of stratification on the out-of-contact deformation to the well-known effect of stratification on indentation. We show that corrections developed for stratification in contact mechanics are not applicable to elastohydrodynamic deformation. Finally, we provide generalized contour maps that can be employed directly to estimate the elastic deformation present in most dynamic surface force measurements.

  19. Deforming tachyon kinks and tachyon potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonso, Victor I.; Bazeia, Dionisio; Brito, Francisco A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate deformation of tachyon potentials and tachyon kink solutions. We consider the deformation of a DBI type action with gauge and tachyon fields living on D1-brane and D3-brane world-volume. We deform tachyon potentials to get other consistent tachyon potentials by using properly a deformation function depending on the gauge field components. Resolutions of singular tachyon kinks via deformation and applications of deformed tachyon potentials to scalar cosmology scenario are discussed

  20. Wheelchair Seating Assessment and Intervention: A Comparison Between Telerehabilitation and Face-to-Face Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Ingrid G; Liu, Lili; Sekulic, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This study compared outcomes of wheelchair seating and positioning interventions provided by telerehabilitation (n=10) and face-to-face (n=20; 10 in each of two comparison groups, one urban and one rural). Comparison clients were matched to the telerehabilitation clients in age, diagnosis, and type of seating components received. Clients and referring therapists rated their satisfaction and identified if seating intervention goals were met. Clients recorded travel expenses incurred or saved, and all therapists recorded time spent providing service. Wait times and completion times were tracked. Clients seen by telerehabilitation had similar satisfaction ratings and were as likely to have their goals met as clients seen face-to-face; telerehabilitation clients saved travel costs. Rural referring therapists who used telerehabilitation spent more time in preparation and follow-up than the other groups. Clients assessed by telerehabilitation had shorter wait times for assessment than rural face-to-face clients, but their interventions took as long to complete. PMID:25945159

  1. Need and Possibilities for Seat Belt Use Promotion in Bashkortostan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadeeva, Leila; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Sussman, Steve; Khusnutdinova, Zolya; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    Bashkortostan is a republic in the Russian Federation with a population of 4.1 million. As with other health behaviors, the prevalence of seat belt use is low, which may account in part for the very high rate of motor-vehicle-related mortality in this republic. The authors discuss the need and potential for translating seat belt promotion programming from other Russian regions and other countries to Bashkortostan. The authors conclude that current policies developed in other countries could work well in the republic, if they are enforced. Meanwhile, initiatives such as the Sakhalin Road Safety Partnership offer great potential for translation in Bashkortostan as well as in other regions with similarly low seat belt use prevalence. PMID:18559882

  2. Optimization of geometry of annular seat valves suitable for Digital Displacement fluid power pumps/motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Daniel; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    Digital Displacement Fluid Power is an upcoming technology setting new standards for the achievable efficiency of fluid power pumps and motors. The core element of the Digital Displacement technology is high performance electronically controlled seat valves, which must exhibit very low flow...... work an annular seat valve suitable for use in Digital Displacement units is considered, and the ring geometry is optimized using finite element analysis including non-linear material behaviour, contact elements and fluid pressure penetrating load, closely reflecting the actual load of the seat valve...... connected to a fluid pressure chamber. The search for optimal design points is conducted using a brute force strategy with subsequent selection of the dominating design points....

  3. Oil Stiction in Fast Switching Annular Seat Valves for Digital Displacement Fluid Power Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2014-01-01

    Digital Displacement (DD) fluid power machines utilizes electronically controlled seat valves connected to pressure chambers to obtain variable displacement with high operational efficiency and high bandwidth. To achieve high efficiency, fast valve switching is essential and all aspects related...... to the dynamic behaviour of the seat valves must be considered to optimize the machine efficiency. A significant effect influencing the valves switching performance is the presence of oil stiction when separating the contact surfaces in valve opening movement. This oil stiction force is limited by cavitation...... for low pressure levels, e.g. valves connected to the low pressure manifold, however for valves operated at higher pressure levels, the oil stiction force is dominating when the separating surfaces are close to contact. This paper presents an analytic solution to the oil stiction force for annular seat...

  4. Concepts and embodiment design of a reentry recumbent seating system for the NASA Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmillan, Scott; Looby, Brent; Devany, Chris; Chudej, Chris; Brooks, Barry

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the generation of a recumbent seating system which will be used by NASA to shuttle astronauts from the Russian space station Mir. We begin by examining the necessity for designing a special couch for the returning astronauts. Next, we discuss the operating conditions and constraints of the recumbent seating system and provide a detailed function structure. After working through the conceptual design process, we came up with ten alternative designs which are presented in the appendices. These designs were evaluated and weighted to systematically determine the best choice for embodiment design. A detailed discussion of all components of the selected system follows with design calculations for the seat presented in the appendices. The report concludes with an evaluation of the resulting design and recommendations for further development.

  5. Analysing of critical force effects of aircraft seat belt using truss elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenc, Marek; Markopoulos, Alexandros; Maršálek, Pavel

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with the mathematical modelling of an aircraft seat belt crash test. The main goal is determination of a time course of the reactions in a lap belt anchoring points and their maximum values. This work was created on the basis of practical requirements from industry. Results are going to be reflected in developing a new type of aircraft seats. We mainly focus on the mathematical modelling of dynamic problems using the finite element method (FEM). Derived procedures are implemented in the Python programming language and are verified by several examples. A final calculation algorithm is applied on the analysis of the safety belt. We consider that a seat belt bending stiffness is very small compared to a tensile stiffness, therefore we used a 2D plane truss element.

  6. Performance robustness of a magnetorheological seat suspension to temperature variations using skyhook control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nicholas L.; Wereley, Norman M.; Choi, Young-Tai; Hiemenz, Gregory J.; Hu, Wei

    2009-03-01

    The harmonic steady-state responses of an MR seat isolator, designed and fabricated at the University of Maryland for the driver/commander seat of the Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV), are measured over a temperature range from 100°C to 1000°C, and the damper behavior is characterized using a variant of the nonlinear Bingham plastic model. The effect of damper self-heating on the model parameters is investigated and the trends with temperature variation are presented. Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate seat isolation performance across a broad frequency spectrum as temperature and payload vary. Conclusions are drawn about the performance robustness to temperature variations of the semi-active skyhook control algorithm typically utilized in vibration isolation problems.

  7. Car seat inspection among children older than 3 years: Using data to drive practice in child passenger safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Amber M; Teddy, Amy J; Macy, Michelle L

    2015-09-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of unintentional death and disability among children 4 years to 12 years of age in the United States. Despite the high risk of injury from motor vehicle crashes in this age group, parental awareness and child passenger safety programs in particular may lack focus on this age group. This is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of child passenger safety seat checklist forms from two Safe Kids coalitions in Michigan (2013) to identify restraint type upon arrival to car seat inspections. Other variables were included if the coalition provided a new child safety seat and if the child had a sibling who underwent a car seat inspection. χ statistics were used to compare change in restraint use on arrival and at departure, the proportion of children attending a car seat inspection event by age, the age category of children by site, the proportion of children with siblings also undergoing a car seat inspection by age, and the distribution of a new child safety seat by age. Data were available from 1,316 Safe Kids Huron Valley and 3,215 Safe Kids Greater Grand Rapids car seat inspections. Just 10.8% of the total seats inspected were booster seats. Child safety seats for infant and young children were more commonly inspected (rear-facing carrier [40.3%], rear-facing convertible [10.2%], and forward-facing [19.3%] car seats). Few children at inspections used a seat belt only (5.4%) or had no restraint (13.8%). Children 4 years and older were found to be in a suboptimal restraint at least 30% of the time. Low proportions of parents use car seat inspections for children in the booster seat age group. The proportion of children departing the inspection in a more protective restraint increased with increasing age. This highlights an area of weakness in child passenger safety programs and signals an opportunity to strengthen efforts on The Booster Age Child. Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III.

  8. Exploring the functional impact of adaptive seating on the lives of individual children and their families: a collective case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, Carly D; Chieu, Ivan B; Howell, Lori; Ryan, Stephen E

    2017-07-01

    This study examined parent-reported change in the functional performance of four school-aged children with wheeled mobility needs who had used a new adaptive seating system for 6 weeks. The collective case study involved four mothers whose children, ages 6-9 years, received a new adaptive seating system for a manual wheelchair or stroller. Mothers completed the Family Impact of Assistive Technology Scale for Adaptive Seating (FIATS-AS) at the time their child received a new seating system, and then after 6 weeks of daily use. Other questionnaires, health records, and semi-structured interviews provided additional data about the seating interventions and their functional effects on individual children and their families. The FIATS-AS detected overall functional gain in one family, and both gains and losses in 2-7 dimensions for all families. Functional status and change scores showed consistency with measures of seating intervention satisfaction, global functional change, and home participation. Interview themes also suggested consistency with change scores, but provided a deeper understanding of important factors that influenced adaptive seating outcomes. This study supports the need to explore further the complexity, temporality and meaningfulness of adaptive seating outcomes in individual children and their families. Implications for Rehabilitation Assistive technology practitioners need to adopt practical measurement strategies that consider the complexity, temporality, and meaningfulness of outcomes to make evidence-informed decisions about how to improve adaptive seating services and interventions. Health measurement scales that measure adaptive seating outcomes for service applications must have adequate levels of reliability and validity, as well as demonstrate responsive to important change over time for individual children and their families. Needs-specific measurement scales provide a promising avenue for understanding functional outcomes for

  9. Editorial: Introduction to the Special Issue ;Slope Tectonics: Inherited Structures, Morphology of Deformation and Catastrophic Failure;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanns, R. L.; Oppikofer, T.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Clague, J. J.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.

    2017-07-01

    The "Conference on Slope Tectonics" has become an international scientific meeting point to present and discuss a variety of topics related to slope deformation and the deposits of related failures. The first conference took place on February 15-16, 2008 at University of Lausanne (Switzerland). It was followed by a second conference on September 6-10, 2011, in Austria (organized by the Geological Survey of Austria) and a third on September 8-12, 2014, in Norway (organized by the Geological Survey of Norway). The two later events included field trips. It has become a tradition that selected papers from these conference are published - papers from the first conference were published by the Geological Society as Special Publication 351 (Jaboyedoff, 2011), and those from the second conference were published in a special issue of Tectonophysics (Baron and Jaboyedoff, 2013). This special issue of Geomorphology is a collection of papers presented at the Norwegian Conference on Slope Tectonics. This collection of papers focuses on the role of tectonics in gravitationally induced rock-slope instabilities. The slopes either deform over long periods as deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD) or more rapidly as rockslides or rock avalanches. The reconstruction of slope deformation is an integral part of the studies captured in this special issue.

  10. Non-linear elastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Ogden, R W

    1997-01-01

    Classic in the field covers application of theory of finite elasticity to solution of boundary-value problems, analysis of mechanical properties of solid materials capable of large elastic deformations. Problems. References.

  11. Anisotropic Ripple Deformation in Phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C; Chen, Changfeng

    2015-05-07

    Two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.

  12. Axisymmetric finite deformation membrane problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, W.W.

    1980-12-12

    Many biomechanic problems involve the analysis of finite deformation axisymmetric membranes. This paper presents the general formulation for solving a class of axisymmetric membrane problems. The material nonlinearity, as well as the geometric nonlinearity, is considered. Two methods are presented to solve these problems. The first method is solving a set of differential equilibrium equations. The governing equations are reduced to three first-order ordinary-differential equations with explicit derivatives. The second method is the Ritz method where a general potential energy functional valid for all axisymmetric deformed positions is presented. The geometric admissible functions that govern the deformed configuration are written in terms of a series with unknown coefficients. These unknown coefficients are determined by the minimum potential energy principle that of all geometric admissible deformed configurations, the equilibrium configuration minimizes the potential energy. Some examples are presented. A comparison between these two methods is mentioned.

  13. Deterritorializing Drawing - transformation/deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2012-01-01

    and deformation as two very different categories. Moves of transformation produce new places or singularities in a series, making a Figure emerge that switches between force and form and between transformation and deformation. Deformation is acted out by sensation, passing from one ‘order’ to another. Bacon...... deformation, about painting the sensation, which is essentially rhythm, making Figure-rhythm relations appear as vibrations that flow through the body - making resonance. Deleuze, with Bergson, argues that art extracts ’a little time in a pure state’ from the everyday repetitions, and thereby opens...... the capacity of the body to be affected by change. The everyday and the ceremonial body, the ordinary and the aberrant movement – these poles generate a passage rather than a difference from the one to the other: from attitude or position to gesture or kinaesthetic twist. Known from without through perception...

  14. Shape Deformations in Atomic Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Hamamoto, Ikuko; Mottelson, Ben R.

    2011-01-01

    The ground states of some nuclei are described by densities and mean fields that are spherical, while others are deformed. The existence of non-spherical shape in nuclei represents a spontaneous symmetry breaking.

  15. Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2010-01-01

    "Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics" mainly consists in a mathematical treatise of approximate theories for thin deformable bodies, including cables, beams, rods, webs, membranes, plates, and shells. The intent of the book is to stimulate more research in the area of nonlinear deformable-body dynamics not only because of the unsolved theoretical puzzles it presents but also because of its wide spectrum of applications. For instance, the theories for soft webs and rod-reinforced soft structures can be applied to biomechanics for DNA and living tissues, and the nonlinear theory of deformable bodies, based on the Kirchhoff assumptions, is a special case discussed. This book can serve as a reference work for researchers and a textbook for senior and postgraduate students in physics, mathematics, engineering and biophysics. Dr. Albert C.J. Luo is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, USA. Professor Luo is an internationally recognized scientist in the field of non...

  16. M theory on deformed superspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Mir

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we will analyze a noncommutative deformation of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory in N=1 superspace formalism. We will then analyze the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetries for this deformed ABJM theory, and its linear as well as nonlinear gauges. We will show that the sum of the gauge fixing term and the ghost term for this deformed ABJM theory can be expressed as a combination of the total BRST and the total anti-BRST variation, in Landau and nonlinear gauges. We will show that in Landau and Curci-Ferrari gauges deformed ABJM theory is invariant under an additional set of symmetry transformations. We will also discuss the effect that the addition of a bare mass term has on this theory.

  17. Transoral robotic surgery in the seated position: Rethinking our operative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Eric J; Van Abel, Kathryn M; Olsen, Kerry D

    2017-01-01

    Transoral surgery (TOS) is commonly performed in a supine patient with an oral retractor. Paradoxically, this strategy can create difficulty with visualizing and accessing pathology at the base of tongue, inferior pharynx, and larynx. We investigate the feasibility of TOS with the patient in the seated position. Pilot study. TOS utilizing the da Vinci Robotic Surgical Xi and Si systems (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) was performed on a fresh cadaver placed in both the traditional supine position and the seated position. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in the seated position was then performed on two patients for a supraglottic laryngectomy and a hypopharyngeal carcinoma resection. Visualization of the entire upper aerodigestive tract was possible in the cadaver and two patients in the seated position. The Si was superior for docking, instrumentation, and assistant access. The minimum operating table height is critical for successful access. Advantages of this position included increased posterior airway/operative space by approximately 2 cm, ability to manipulate the surgical field (nonrigid retraction), and improved visualization. Surgical procedures were completed in comparable times compared with standard TORS procedures. There were no complications related to seated TORS. TORS in the seated position was both safe and effective in this pilot study. It allows the surgeon to optimally operate in the inferior pharynx and larynx without the limitation of line of site access and visualization. A paradigm shift in patient positioning during TOS may allow improved surgical access and even greater patient candidacy. Further clinical investigation into this technique is warranted. NA Laryngoscope, 127:122-126, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. The influence of parental education and other socio-economic factors on child car seat use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rok Simon, Mateja; Korošec, Aleš; Bilban, Marjan

    2017-03-01

    The behaviour of parents in ensuring car passenger safety for their children is associated with socio-economic (SE) status of the family; however, the influence of parental education has rarely been researched and the findings are contradictory. The aim of the study was to clarify whether parental education influences the use of a child car seat during short rides. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in outpatient clinics for children's healthcare across Slovenia. 904 parents of 3-year-old children participated in the study; the response rate was 95.9%. A self-administered questionnaire was used. A binary multiple logistic regression was applied to assess the association between parental unsafe behaviour as dependent variable, and education and other SE factors as independent variables. 14.6% of parents did not use a child car seat during short rides. Families where mother had low or college education had higher odds of the non-use of a child car seat than families where mother had a university education. Single-parent families and those who lived in areas with low or medium SE status also had higher odds of the non-use of a child car seat. Low educational attainment influences parents' behaviour regarding the non-use of a child car seat. Low parental education is not the only risk factor since some highly educated parents also have high odds of unsafe behaviour. All parents should therefore be included in individually tailored safety counselling programmes. SE inequalities could be further reduced with provision of free child car seats for eligible families.

  19. Ergonomic Analysis of Tricycle Sidecar Seats: Basis for Proposed Standard Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Godoy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ergonomics (also called human factors engineering is the study of human characteristics for the appropriate design of the living and work environment. It is applied in various industrial areas which includes transportation.Tricycle being one of the most common means of public transportation in Lipa City has various adaptations to suit the culture, and environment. The purpose of this study is to analyze the variability in design of the tricycles in Lipa City, Philippines and propose a standard ergonomically designed tricycle sidecar seat for a greater population. The study was conducted at 26 tricycle terminals with 232 tricycle samples within Lipa City proper including the public market area where 400 commuters were given questionnaires to determine the risk factors associated with the existing tricycle sidecar seat design. Anthropometric measurements of 100 males and 100 female commuters were obtained together with the sidecar dimensions of 232 tricycles to substantiate the observed variations in design. Using the design for the average and design for the extremes, it was found out that most of the tricycles in Lipa City, Philippines have inappropriate inclined seat and lowered sidecar seat pan height which can result to leg and abdominal pain; narrowed seat pan depth which caused pressure on buttocks and legs; narrowed backrest width which can cause upper and low back pain; low backrest height that can pose upper back pain; which can also result to abdominal pain; inclined backrest and limited vertical clearance which can cause upper back pain and neck pain. The researcher proposed a sidecar seat design standard which can be used by the Land Transportation Office, and Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board to provide ease, comfort, and convenience to the passengers.

  20. No small slam: increasing incidents of genitourinary injury from toilets and toilet seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Allison S; Bagga, Herman S; Tasian, Gregory E; McGeady, James B; McCulloch, Charles E; Blaschko, Sarah D; McAninch, Jack W; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2013-08-01

    To describe the epidemiology of genitourinary (GU) injury from toilets that present to USA Emergency rooms (ERs). The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) is a stratified probability sample of hospital ER visits for USA consumer product-related injuries. NEISS was used to estimate total toilet- and toilet seat-related GU injury for the years 2002-2010, as well as to describe demographics and injury characteristics. Analyses were performed using strata, primary sampling units and sample weights to accommodate the complex sample survey design. Data are reported as national estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) provided. In all, 13 175 (95% CI 10 185-16 165) GU injuries related to toilets presented to ERs during 2002-2010. The most common mechanism involved crush from accidental fall of toilet seat, described in 9011 (68.4%, 95% CI 6907-11 115) cases. Most crush injuries were isolated to the penis (98.1%). Of crush injuries, 81.7% occurred in children aged 2-3 years and 99.3% occurred in the home. Crush injuries increased over the period 2002-2010 (P = 0.017) by ≈100 per year, ending with an estimated 1707 (95% CI 1011-2402) by 2010. Most patients who sustained toilet- and toilet seat-related GU injuries were treated in the ER and then discharged. While penile crush injury related to a toilet seat is an uncommon mechanism of urological injury in children, the number of incidents appears to be rising. These findings support educational efforts and interventions, such as exchange of heavy toilet seats with slow-close toilet seat technology. © 2013 BJU International.

  1. Polygonal deformation bands in sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonellini, Marco; Nella Mollema, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    We report for the first time the occurrence of polygonal faults in sandstone, which is compelling given that layer-bound polygonal fault systems have been observed so far only in fine-grained sediments such as clay and chalk. The polygonal faults are dm-wide zones of shear deformation bands that developed under shallow burial conditions in the lower portion of the Jurassic Entrada Fm (Utah, USA). The edges of the polygons are 1 to 5 meters long. The shear deformation bands are organized as conjugate faults along each edge of the polygon and form characteristic horst-like structures. The individual deformation bands have slip magnitudes ranging from a few mm to 1.5 cm; the cumulative average slip magnitude in a zone is up to 10 cm. The deformation bands heaves, in aggregate form, accommodate a small isotropic horizontal extension (strain Crosscutting relationships are rare. The interactions of the deformation bands are similar to those of mode I opening fractures. Density inversion, that takes place where under-compacted and over-pressurized layers (Carmel Fm) lay below normally compacted sediments (Entrada Sandstone), may be an important process for polygonal deformation bands formation. The gravitational sliding and soft sediment structures typically observed within the Carmel Fm support this hypothesis. Soft sediment deformation may induce polygonal faulting in the section of the Entrada Sandstone just above the Carmel Fm. The permeability of the polygonal deformation bands is approximately 10-14 to 10-13 m2, which is less than the permeability of the host, Entrada Sandstone (range 10-12 to 10-11 m2). The documented fault networks have important implications for evaluating the geometry of km-scale polygonal fault systems in the subsurface, top seal integrity, as well as constraining paleo-tectonic stress regimes.

  2. Unitary deformations of counterdiabatic driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazutaka

    2015-04-01

    We study a deformation of the counterdiabatic-driving Hamiltonian as a systematic strategy for an adiabatic control of quantum states. Using a unitary transformation, we design a convenient form of the driver Hamiltonian. We apply the method to a particle in a confining potential and discrete systems to find explicit forms of the Hamiltonian and discuss the general properties. The method is derived by using the quantum brachistochrone equation, which shows the existence of a nontrivial dynamical invariant in the deformed system.

  3. A novel three-dimensional mesh deformation method based on sphere relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xuan; Li, Shuixiang

    2015-01-01

    In our previous work (2013) [19], we developed a disk relaxation based mesh deformation method for two-dimensional mesh deformation. In this paper, the idea of the disk relaxation is extended to the sphere relaxation for three-dimensional meshes with large deformations. We develop a node based pre-displacement procedure to apply initial movements on nodes according to their layer indices. Afterwards, the nodes are moved locally by the improved sphere relaxation algorithm to transfer boundary deformations and increase the mesh quality. A three-dimensional mesh smoothing method is also adopted to prevent the occurrence of the negative volume of elements, and further improve the mesh quality. Numerical applications in three-dimension including the wing rotation, bending beam and morphing aircraft are carried out. The results demonstrate that the sphere relaxation based approach generates the deformed mesh with high quality, especially regarding complex boundaries and large deformations

  4. A novel three-dimensional mesh deformation method based on sphere relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xuan [Department of Mechanics & Engineering Science, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing, 100094 (China); Li, Shuixiang, E-mail: lsx@pku.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics & Engineering Science, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China)

    2015-10-01

    In our previous work (2013) [19], we developed a disk relaxation based mesh deformation method for two-dimensional mesh deformation. In this paper, the idea of the disk relaxation is extended to the sphere relaxation for three-dimensional meshes with large deformations. We develop a node based pre-displacement procedure to apply initial movements on nodes according to their layer indices. Afterwards, the nodes are moved locally by the improved sphere relaxation algorithm to transfer boundary deformations and increase the mesh quality. A three-dimensional mesh smoothing method is also adopted to prevent the occurrence of the negative volume of elements, and further improve the mesh quality. Numerical applications in three-dimension including the wing rotation, bending beam and morphing aircraft are carried out. The results demonstrate that the sphere relaxation based approach generates the deformed mesh with high quality, especially regarding complex boundaries and large deformations.

  5. Characteristics of the towns in the upper seat of Sighisoara in the middle ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borcoman, M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The young Hungarian Kingdom established in the 10th century aimed from the beginning at occupying Transylvania, the neighboring province across the forests. This was partly done in the next century, but especially through a colonization process of the territory with Szeckler and German population. The territorial organization of the province after the 14th century was done according to two independent administrative areas: The Szecklers’ territory and fundus regius (the territory inhabited by Saxons in Transylvania and under the institutional and administrative form of Seats. One of these, perhaps the oldest, i.e., the Seat of Sighişoara, is treated in our article.

  6. Automated recognition of rear seat occupants' head position using Kinect™ 3D point cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Helen; Kim, Jinyong; Arbogast, Kristy; Kuo, Jonny; Koppel, Sjaan; Cross, Suzanne; Charlton, Judith

    2017-12-01

    Child occupant safety in motor-vehicle crashes is evaluated using Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) seated in optimal positions. However, child occupants often assume suboptimal positions during real-world driving trips. Head impact to the seat back has been identified as one important injury causation scenario for seat belt restrained, head-injured children (Bohman et al., 2011). There is therefore a need to understand the interaction of children with the Child Restraint System to optimize protection. Naturalistic driving studies (NDS) will improve understanding of out-of-position (OOP) trends. To quantify OOP positions, an NDS was conducted. Families used a study vehicle for two weeks during their everyday driving trips. The positions of rear-seated child occupants, representing 22 families, were evaluated. The study vehicle - instrumented with data acquisition systems, including Microsoft Kinect™ V1 - recorded rear seat occupants in 1120 driving 26 trips. Three novel analytical methods were used to analyze data. To assess skeletal tracking accuracy, analysts recorded occurrences where Kinect™ exhibited invalid head recognition among a randomly-selected subset (81 trips). Errors included incorrect target detection (e.g., vehicle headrest) or environmental interference (e.g., sunlight). When head data was present, Kinect™ was correct 41% of the time; two other algorithms - filtering for extreme motion, and background subtraction/head-based depth detection are described in this paper and preliminary results are presented. Accuracy estimates were not possible because of their experimental nature and the difficulty to use a ground truth for this large database. This NDS tested methods to quantify the frequency and magnitude of head positions for rear-seated child occupants utilizing Kinect™ motion-tracking. This study's results informed recent ATD sled tests that replicated observed positions (most common and most extreme), and assessed the validity of child

  7. Body height and arterial pressure in seated and supine young males during +2 G centrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedsen, Sine K.; Eiken, Ola; Kölegård, Roger

    2015-01-01

    by the use of a human centrifuge would increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) more in tall than in short males in the seated position. In short (162-171cm, n=8) and tall (194-203cm, n=10) healthy males (18-41yr), brachial arterial pressure, heart rate (HR) and cardiac output were measured during +2G...... centrifugation, while they were seated upright with the legs kept horizontal (+2Gz). In a separate experiment, the same measurements were done with the subjects supine (+2Gx). During +2Gz MAP increased in the short (22±2 mmHg, P 

  8. Modeling study of seated reach envelopes based on spherical harmonics with consideration of the difficulty ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaozhi; Ren, Jindong; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Qun; Liu, Honghao

    2017-04-01

    Reach envelopes are very useful for the design and layout of controls. In building reach envelopes, one of the key problems is to represent the reach limits accurately and conveniently. Spherical harmonics are proved to be accurate and convenient method for fitting of the reach capability envelopes. However, extensive study are required on what components of spherical harmonics are needed in fitting the envelope surfaces. For applications in the vehicle industry, an inevitable issue is to construct reach limit surfaces with consideration of the seating positions of the drivers, and it is desirable to use population envelopes rather than individual envelopes. However, it is relatively inconvenient to acquire reach envelopes via a test considering the seating positions of the drivers. In addition, the acquired envelopes are usually unsuitable for use with other vehicle models because they are dependent on the current cab packaging parameters. Therefore, it is of great significance to construct reach envelopes for real vehicle conditions based on individual capability data considering seating positions. Moreover, traditional reach envelopes provide little information regarding the assessment of reach difficulty. The application of reach envelopes will improve design quality by providing difficulty-rating information about reach operations. In this paper, using the laboratory data of seated reach with consideration of the subjective difficulty ratings, the method of modeling reach envelopes is studied based on spherical harmonics. The surface fitting using spherical harmonics is conducted for circumstances both with and without seat adjustments. For use with adjustable seat, the seating position model is introduced to re-locate the test data. The surface fitting is conducted for both population and individual reach envelopes, as well as for boundary envelopes. Comparison of the envelopes of adjustable seat and the SAE J287 control reach envelope shows that the latter

  9. Microstructure and properties of 700 MPa grade HSLA steel during high temperature deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xizhang; Huang, Yuming; Lei, Yucheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hot deformation behavior of 700 MPa HSLA steel above 1200 °C in was detailed studied. • Uniform and granular bainite is formed when the deformation amount is 40%. • Deformation resistance value under steady-equilibrium state is about 56 MPa. - Abstract: A high temperature deformation experiment was conducted on a high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel Q690 using Thermecmastor-Z thermal/physical simulator. During the experiment, the specimens were heated from room temperature to 1200 °C with the heating rate of 10 °C/s and 50 °C/s, respectively. The deformation temperature was 1200 °C and the deformation amounts were 0%, 10% and 40%, respectively. The microstructures, stress–strain diagram and hardness were obtained. The results revealed that the microstructure transformation of deformed austenite was quite different from that of the normal situation. With the increasing of deformation amount, more lath-shaped microstructure and less granulous microstructure were observed. The compressive deformation effectively prevented the precipitation of carbides. Larger deformation amount or lower heating rate was conducive to the atomic diffusion, which led to the microstructure uniformity and hardness decreasing. The maximum stress was 68.4 MPa and the steady stress was about 56 MPa

  10. 75 FR 81224 - Availability of Recreational Diving, Oil and Gas Operations and Commercial Fishing Seats for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Recreational Diving, Oil and Gas Operations and Commercial Fishing Seats for the Flower Garden Banks National... Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce DOC). ACTION... seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Recreational Diving, Oil...

  11. Optimizing protection for rear seat occupants : assessing booster performance with realistic belt geometry using the hybrid III 6YO ATD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    A series of sled tests was conducted to examine the performance of booster seats under belt geometries representing the range found in the rear seats of current vehicles. Twelve tests were performed with the standard 6YO Hybrid III ATD and 29 tests w...

  12. Interference of Different Types of Seats on Postural Control System during a Forward-Reaching Task in Individuals with Paraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Daniela Cristina Carvalho; Takara, Kelly; Metring, Nathalia Lopes; Reis, Julia Guimaraes; Cliquet, Alberto, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the influence of different types of wheelchair seats on paraplegic individuals' postural control using a maximum anterior reaching test. Balance evaluations during 50, 75, and 90% of each individual's maximum reach in the forward direction using two different cushions on seat (one foam and one gel) and a no-cushion condition…

  13. 76 FR 64074 - Request for Applications for Vacant Seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... for Vacant Seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office... ONMS is seeking applications for the following six vacant seats on the Flower Garden Banks National.... ADDRESSES: Application kits may be obtained from Jennifer Morgan, NOAA- Flower Garden Banks National Marine...

  14. Explaining state-to-state differences in seat belt use : an analysis of socio-demographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    "Despite the extensive evidence about the benefits of seat belt use, there is a great deal of variation in use within the US. For example, the national average for seat belt use in 2009 was 84 percent while the state-level averages ranged from 68 per...

  15. Deformed configurations, band structures and spectroscopic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... The deformed configurations and rotational band structures in =50 Ge and Se nuclei are studied by deformed Hartree–Fock with quadrupole constraint and angular momentum projection. Apart from the `almost' spherical HF solution, a well-deformed configuration occurs at low excitation. A deformed ...

  16. Associative and Lie deformations of Poisson algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Remm, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Considering a Poisson algebra as a non associative algebra satisfying the Markl-Remm identity, we study deformations of Poisson algebras as deformations of this non associative algebra. This gives a natural interpretation of deformations which preserves the underlying associative structure and we study deformations which preserve the underlying Lie algebra.

  17. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Arun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair

  18. Knowledge and application of correct car seat head restraint usage among chiropractic college interns: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John Am; Burke, Jeanmarie; Gavencak, John; Panwar, Pervinder

    2005-03-01

    Cervical spine injuries sustained in rear-end crashes cost at least $7 billion in insurance claims annually in the United States alone. When positioned correctly, head restraint systems have been proven effective in reducing the risk of whiplash associated disorders. Chiropractors should be knowledgeable about the correct use of head restraint systems to educate their patients and thereby prevent or minimize such injuries. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of correct positioning of car seat head restraints among the interns at our institution. The secondary objective was to determine the same chiropractic interns' knowledge of the correct positioning of car seat head restraints. It was hypothesized that 100 percent of interns would have their head restraint correctly positioned within an acceptable range and that all interns would possess the knowledge to instruct patients in the correct positioning of head restraints. Cross-sectional study of a convenient sample of 30 chiropractic interns from one institution. Interns driving into the parking lot of our health center were asked to volunteer to have measurements taken and to complete a survey. Vertical and horizontal positions of the head restraint were measured using a beam compass. A survey was administered to determine knowledge of correct head restraint position. The results were recorded, entered into a spreadsheet, and analyzed. 13.3 percent of subjects knew the recommended vertical distance and only 20 percent of subjects knew the recommended horizontal distance. Chi Square analyses substantiated that the majority of subjects were unaware of guidelines set forth by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) for the correct positioning of the head restraint (chi(2) (vertical) = 16.13, chi(2) (horizontal) = 10.80, p .05). Interestingly, the 13.3 percent of the subjects who were aware of the vertical plane recommendations did not correctly position their own

  19. Wheelchair Seating Assessment and Intervention: A Comparison between Telerehabilitation and Face-to-Face Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid G Barlow

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study compared outcomes of wheelchair seating and positioning interventions provided by telerehabilitation (n=10 and face-to-face (n=20; 10 in each of two comparison groups, one urban and one rural. Comparison clients were matched to the telerehabilitation clients in age, diagnosis, and type of seating components received. Clients and referring therapists rated their satisfaction and identified if seating intervention goals were met. Clients recorded travel expenses incurred or saved, and all therapists recorded time spent providing service. Wait times and completion times were tracked. Clients seen by telerehabilitation had similar satisfaction ratings and were as likely to have their goals met as clients seen face-to-face; telerehabilitation clients saved travel costs. Rural referring therapists who used telerehabilitation spent more time in preparation and follow-up than the other groups. Clients assessed by telerehabilitation had shorter wait times for assessment than rural face-to-face clients, but their interventions took as long to complete. Keywords: Telerehabilitation, Telehealth, Videoconferencing, Wheelchair Seating, Outcomes, Rehabilitation

  20. Impact of Implementing a Primary Enforcement Seat Belt Law in Florida : A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    On June 30, 2009, Florida implemented a primary seat belt law. The State was already engaged in a Rural : Demonstration Program (RDP) to increase belt usage in rural areas in the northern part of the State and participated : regularly in annual Click...

  1. Estimated medical cost savings in Utah by implementation of a primary seat belt law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This report examines 2007 hospital discharge data reporting cases where the external cause of injury to : a vehicle occupant was a motor vehicle crash to predict the estimated savings to Utah if a primary seat : belt law is implemented. The savings a...

  2. Estimated medical cost savings in Nevada by implementation of a primary seat belt law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    This report examines 2007 hospital discharge data reporting cases where the external cause of injury to a vehicle occupant was a motor vehicle crash to predict the estimated savings to Nevada if a primary seat belt law is implemented. The savings are...

  3. Estimated medical cost savings in Rhode Island by implementation of a primary seat belt law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    This report examines 2006 hospital discharge data reporting cases where the external cause of injury to a vehicle occupant was a motor vehicle crash to predict the estimated savings to Rhode Island if a primary seat belt law is implemented. The savin...

  4. Estimated medical cost savings in Massachusetts by implementation of a primary seat belt law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    This report examines 2006 hospital discharge data reporting cases where the external cause of injury to a vehicle occupant was a motor vehicle crash to predict the estimated savings to Massachusetts if a primary seat belt law is implemented. The savi...

  5. Estimated medical cost savings in Vermont by implementation of a primary seat belt law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    This report examines 2005 hospital discharge data reporting cases where the external cause of injury to a vehicle occupant was a motor vehicle crash to predict the estimated savings to the State of Vermont if a primary seat belt law is implemented. T...

  6. Making Every Seat Count: Space Management at Peak Times in a University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michelle; Dundon, Mary; McCaffrey, Ciara

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the library equivalent of the "towels on deck chairs" phenomenon of students reserving library seats: the practice of leaving personal belongings unattended at a library study space for long periods of time, rendering the desk unavailable for use by others. It presents highly inefficient use of high value academic…

  7. Postural sway parameters in seated balancing; their reliability and relationship with balancing performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dieen, J.H.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Twisk, J.W.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated a representative set of 39 parameters characterizing center of pressure movements (sway) in seated balancing, with the aims to determine test-retest reliability, to clarify the interrelations between these parameters, and to determine which parameters were related to balance

  8. Modelling flow and heat transfer around a seated human body by computational fluid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft; Voigt, Lars Peter Kølgaard

    2003-01-01

    A database (http://www.ie.dtu.dk/manikin) containing a detailed representation of the surface geometry of a seated female human body was created from a surface scan of a thermal manikin (minus clothing and hair). The radiative heat transfer coefficient and the natural convection flow around...

  9. Determining the Relationship of Primary Seat Belt Laws to Minority Ticketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Racial profiling is often raised as an issue when States change their seat belt law from secondary enforcement (i.e., stop only for some other violation) to primary enforcement (i.e., stop for an observed belt law violation alone). Thirteen States ma...

  10. Seatbelt paths of the pregnant women sitting in the rear seat of a motor vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Hitosugi

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Our findings show that because of short height and late term of pregnancy with protrusion of the abdomen, the shoulder belt deviates to the right or left, avoiding the protruded uterus, and subsequently makes contact with the neck. Seatbelt systems for rear seats need to be developed to improve passenger safety, especially for pregnant women.

  11. Effect of realistic vehicle seats, cushion length, and lap belt geometry on child ATD kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This series of sled tests examined the effect of using real vehicle seats on child ATD performance. Cushion length was varied from production length of 450 mm to a shorter length of 350 mm. Lap belt geometry was set to rear, mid, and forward anchorag...

  12. Comfort, experience, physiology and car seat innovation : Theory, Design and Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    The development process of car seats is very complex and many factors have to be considered in the development, such as anthropometry, physiology, safety, design and comfort. A factor making it more complex is the fact that future cars should be more sustainable, making the need for weight reduction

  13. 76 FR 68428 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... serve 3-year terms, pursuant to the council's Charter. The applicant chosen for the citizen-at-large... the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine... applications for the following vacant seats on the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  14. 75 FR 66064 - Availability of Seats for Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries... applications for the following vacant seats on the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Marine Business and Industry, and Citizen-at Large. Both a primary and alternate member will be selected...

  15. 76 FR 53660 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... insertion of a cylinder 10 mm in diameter and 38 mm in length to at least the midpoint of the cylinder along the cylinder's entire length in the actuation portion of the buckle release. A buckle having other... a child almost got strangled by a seat belt. The petitioner further suggested there is a demand for...

  16. Active Prompting to Decrease Cell Phone Use and Increase Seat Belt Use while Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Michael; Helms, Bridgett; Simpson, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    Automobile crashes are the leading cause of death for those aged 3 to 33, with 43,005 (118 per day) Americans killed in 2002 alone. Seat belt use reduces the risk of serious injury in an accident, and refraining from using a cell phone while driving reduces the risk of an accident. Cell phone use while driving increases accident rates, and leads…

  17. Shoulder Pain in Cases of Spinal Injury: Influence of the Position of the Wheelchair Seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner-Pascual, Manuel; Alcanyis-Alberola, Modesto; Millan Gonzalez, Luis; Aguilar-Rodriguez, Marta; Querol, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between shoulder pain and the position of the seat of a wheelchair relative to the ground and to determine the relationship between shoulder pain and structural damage. A transversal study of a patient cohort of 140 patients with grade A and B spinal cord injuries below the T1 vertebra,…

  18. Application of a bus seat buffer to mitigate frontal crash effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisławek, Sebastian; Dziewulski, Paweł; Sławiński, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    The paper considers the problem of coach occupant safety during crash events. The authors present a simple low-cost seat buffer concept which may mitigate the effects of frontal impact. The method of computer simulation was chosen to solve the problem efficiently. The Finite Element Method (FEM) implemented in the LS-DYNA commercial code was used. The testing procedure was based on European Commission regulations, under which vehicles move at a defined speed. Simulations have shown that seat occupants suffer serious trauma during a crash, with the head experiencing relatively high acceleration, thus resulting in an HIC36 of 1490. The installation of a protective buffer mounted on the upper part of the seat reduced the HIC36 to only 510. However, in its current form it does not meet the requirements of the regulations. Further modifications to the overlay shape and structure are essential in order to better improve the deceleration of passengers' bodies. Moreover, a detailed model of seats and their anchorage should be taken into account. A more flexible structure should provide more positive and more accurate results.

  19. 75 FR 66686 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages, School Bus Passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Anchorages, School Bus Passenger Seating and Crash Protection AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... published on October 21, 2008, which upgraded NHTSA's school bus passenger crash protection requirements.... We make clearer the procedure specifying how we will measure the height of school bus passenger torso...

  20. Searching the seat of the soul in Ancient Greek and Byzantine medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykouras, Eleftherios; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Ploumpidis, Demetrios N

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to examine the ancient and medieval concepts about the seat of the mental functions, as exposed in Greek texts from Antiquity to Byzantine times. The review of the philosophical and medical literature from the original ancient Greek language from the Homeric epics to the Holy Fathers of Christianity, as the problem of the seat of the soul remained without a certain answer through the centuries. Primitive concepts attributed great significance to the soul and dictated cannibal behaviours for the possession and eating of the defeated enemy's heart. Mental functions, such as thinking, feeling and mainly those related to affective manifestations, were attributed to the heart and to some other internal organs (liver, diaphragm) from the times of Greek mythology. Philosophy and empirical medicine had underestimated the brain probably because it is a 'silent' organ, contrary to the palpitating heart, with its obvious participations in the emotional reactions. The role of the brain as the mental organ and the seat of emotions has been gradually recognized. The permanent question of the seat of the soul had been for many centuries a critical dispute and the contribution of Greek philosophical and medical thought was decisive for the contemporary transformation of the whole concept.

  1. Reliability and validity of a talent identification test battery for seated and standing Paralympic throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spathis, Jemima Grace; Connick, Mark James; Beckman, Emma Maree; Newcombe, Peter Anthony; Tweedy, Sean Michael

    2015-01-01

    Paralympic throwing events for athletes with physical impairments comprise seated and standing javelin, shot put, discus and seated club throwing. Identification of talented throwers would enable prediction of future success and promote participation; however, a valid and reliable talent identification battery for Paralympic throwing has not been reported. This study evaluates the reliability and validity of a talent identification battery for Paralympic throws. Participants were non-disabled so that impairment would not confound analyses, and results would provide an indication of normative performance. Twenty-eight non-disabled participants (13 M; 15 F) aged 23.6 years (±5.44) performed five kinematically distinct criterion throws (three seated, two standing) and nine talent identification tests (three anthropometric, six motor); 23 were tested a second time to evaluate test-retest reliability. Talent identification test-retest reliability was evaluated using Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots (Limits of Agreement). Spearman's correlation assessed strength of association between criterion throws and talent identification tests. Reliability was generally acceptable (mean ICC = 0.89), but two seated talent identification tests require more extensive familiarisation. Correlation strength (mean rs = 0.76) indicated that the talent identification tests can be used to validly identify individuals with competitively advantageous attributes for each of the five kinematically distinct throwing activities. Results facilitate further research in this understudied area.

  2. Determining the Effectiveness of Alternative Seating Systems for Students with Attention Difficulties: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochenour, Brittany; Poskey, Gail A.

    2017-01-01

    A student's ability to attend in the classroom is an important factor in determining academic success. This systematic review examined the effects of an alternative seating system on improving attention in students with attention difficulties. Databases searched included CINAHL, Medline, PsycINFO, OTSeeker, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar.…

  3. 75 FR 57444 - Extension of Application Period for Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... played a vital role in advising the Sanctuary and NOAA on critical issues. The Stellwagen Bank National.... Renowned for its scenic beauty and remarkable productivity, the sanctuary supports a rich diversity of... Period for Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of...

  4. 76 FR 23793 - Extension of Application Period for Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... establishment, the Council has played a vital role in advising NOAA on critical issues and is currently focused... beauty and remarkable productivity, the sanctuary supports a rich diversity of marine life including 22... Period for Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of...

  5. Measurement of the functional impact of adaptive seating technology in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    Many young children with cerebral palsy have motor impairments that affect their ability to sit and do activities unsupported. They often rely on special adaptive seating devices for postural control and stability. Healthcare practitioners generally accept that these products improve functioning in

  6. 78 FR 2957 - Availability of Seats for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine... applications for the following vacant seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory..., NOAA--Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, 4700 Avenue U, Bldg. 216, Galveston, TX 77551 or...

  7. Nigeria's bid for inclusion in the permanent seat of the security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper also investigates the elements that undermine Nigeria's bid for inclusion in the permanent seat of the Security Council. The paper adopts content analysis in its methodology, with particular focus on secondary data as source of information.. The paper finds out that Nigeria, at present, cannot occupy a permanent ...

  8. 78 FR 11821 - Availability of Seats for the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ...): Recreation, Business/Economic Development, Tourism (primary seat only), Diving (alternate only), Higher... facets of the sanctuary community, including education, research, fishing, diving, tourism, economic... role in council meetings as well as assist in carrying out many volunteer assignments throughout the...

  9. 75 FR 57441 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the... management agencies, user groups, researchers, educators, policy makers, and other various groups that help... helping to develop policies and program goals, and to identify education, outreach, research, long-term...

  10. Seat belt syndrome: Delayed or missed intestinal injuries, a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labib Al-Ozaibi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Clinical signs of intestinal injuries might not be obvious on presentation. In the presence of seat belt sign the possibility of bowl injury must be suspected. Admit the patient for observation even if no clinical or radiological findings are present at presentation.

  11. 41 CFR 301-10.124 - What are coach-class Seating Upgrade Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... traveler's personal choice and therefore is at the traveler's personal expense. An agency travel... Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10... reimburse the additional seat choice fee, according to internal agency policy. [FTR Amdt. 2009-06, 74 FR...

  12. Users in the Driver's Seat: A New Approach to Classifying Teaching Methods in a University Repository

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, Susanne; Oberhuemer, Petra; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Neumann, S., Oberhuemer, P., & Koper, R. (2009). Users in the Driver's Seat: A New Approach to Classifying Teaching Methods in a University Repository. In U. Cress, V. Dimitrova & M. Specht (Eds.), Learning in the Synergy of Multiple Disciplines. Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on

  13. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use of service vehicle drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This study pilot-tested a new application of a technology-based intervention to increase seat belt use. The technology was based on a : contingency in which unbelted drivers experienced sustained haptic feedback to the gas pedal when they exceeded 25...

  14. 77 FR 1618 - Special Conditions: The Boeing Company, Model 767-300; Seats With Inflatable Lapbelts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... successful completion of dynamic tests or by rational analysis based on dynamic tests of a similar type seat... unable to develop a fabric that would meet the inflation requirements for the bag and the flammability requirements of part I, paragraph (a)(1)(ii), of appendix F to part 25. The fabrics that were developed that...

  15. 77 FR 66073 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ...: Recreational/Commercial Fishing and Education seats. Applicants are chosen based upon their particular.... It is one of 13 sanctuaries and protects the wreck of the famed Civil War ironclad, USS Monitor, best... interests and stakeholders, including: Citizen-at-Large, Conservation, Economic Development, Education...

  16. Seat Capacity Selection for an Advanced Short-Haul Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marien, Ty V.

    2016-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the target seat capacity for a proposed advanced short-haul aircraft concept projected to enter the fleet by 2030. This analysis projected the potential demand in the U.S. for a short-haul aircraft using a transportation theory approach, rather than selecting a target seat capacity based on recent industry trends or current market demand. A transportation systems model was used to create a point-to-point network of short-haul trips and then predict the number of annual origin-destination trips on this network. Aircraft of varying seat capacities were used to meet the demand on this network, assuming a single aircraft type for the entire short-haul fleet. For each aircraft size, the ticket revenue and operational costs were used to calculate a total market profitability metric for all feasible flights. The different aircraft sizes were compared, based on this market profitability metric and also the total number of annual round trips and markets served. Sensitivity studies were also performed to determine the effect of changing the aircraft cruise speed and maximum trip length. Using this analysis, the advanced short-haul aircraft design team was able to select a target seat capacity for their design.

  17. Evaluation of a rural demonstration program to increase seat belt use in the Great Lakes Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Six States in the Great Lakes Region (Region 5) participated in a Rural Demonstration Program to increase seat belt : use in rural areas and among high-risk occupants, such as young males and occupants of pickup trucks. These : efforts, which include...

  18. Pattern of Seat Belt and Mobile Phone use while driving in an Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Human error contributes significantly to the occurrence of road traffic accidents (RTAs) and their attendant morbidity and mortality. While driving, distractions such as the use of mobile phones and poor compliance with the use of seat belts play different roles in the occurrence of RTAs and possible injuries arising ...

  19. Plastic deformation of indium nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Kim, Ju-Young; Burek, Michael J.; Greer, Julia R.; Tsui, Ting Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Indium nanopillars display two different deformation mechanisms. → ∼80% exhibited low flow stresses near that of bulk indium. → Low strength nanopillars have strain rate sensitivity similar to bulk indium. → ∼20% of compressed indium nanopillars deformed at nearly theoretical strengths. → Low-strength samples do not exhibit strength size effects. - Abstract: Mechanical properties and morphology of cylindrical indium nanopillars, fabricated by electron beam lithography and electroplating, are characterized in uniaxial compression. Time-dependent deformation and influence of size on nanoscale indium mechanical properties were investigated. The results show two fundamentally different deformation mechanisms which govern plasticity in these indium nanostructures. We observed that the majority of indium nanopillars deform at engineering stresses near the bulk values (Type I), with a small fraction sustaining flow stresses approaching the theoretical limit for indium (Type II). The results also show the strain rate sensitivity and flow stresses in Type I indium nanopillars are similar to bulk indium with no apparent size effects.

  20. Static response of deformable microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Sidhore, Tanmay C.

    2017-11-01

    Microfluidic channels manufactured from PDMS are a key component of lab-on-a-chip devices. Experimentally, rectangular microchannels are found to deform into a non-rectangular cross-section due to fluid-structure interactions. Deformation affects the flow profile, which results in a nonlinear relationship between the volumetric flow rate and the pressure drop. We develop a framework, within the lubrication approximation (l >> w >> h), to self-consistently derive flow rate-pressure drop relations. Emphasis is placed on handling different types of elastic response: from pure plate-bending, to half-space deformation, to membrane stretching. The ``simplest'' model (Stokes flow in a 3D rectangular channel capped with a linearly elastic Kirchhoff-Love plate) agrees well with recent experiments. We also simulate the static response of such microfluidic channels under laminar flow conditions using ANSYSWorkbench. Simulations are calibrated using experimental flow rate-pressure drop data from the literature. The simulations provide highly resolved deformation profiles, which are difficult to measure experimentally. By comparing simulations, experiments and our theoretical models, we show good agreement in many flow/deformation regimes, without any fitting parameters.

  1. Variation between seated and standing/walking postures among male and female call centre operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toomingas Allan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dose and time-pattern of sitting has been suggested in public health research to be an important determinant of risk for developing a number of diseases, including cardiovascular disorders and diabetes. The aim of the present study was to assess the time-pattern of seated and standing/walking postures amongst male and female call centre operators, on the basis of whole-shift posture recordings, analysed and described by a number of novel variables describing posture variation. Methods Seated vs. standing/walking was recorded using dichotomous inclinometers throughout an entire work shift for 43 male and 97 female call centre operators at 16 call centres. Data were analysed using an extensive set of variables describing occurrence of and switches between seated and standing/walking, posture similarity across the day, and compliance with standard recommendations for computer work. Results The majority of the operators, both male and female, spent more than 80% of the shift in a seated posture with an average of 10.4 switches/hour between seated and standing/walking or vice versa. Females spent, on average, 11% of the day in periods of sustained sitting longer than 1 hour; males 4.6% (p = 0.013. Only 38% and 11% of the operators complied with standard recommendations of getting an uninterrupted break from seated posture of at least 5 or 10 minutes, respectively, within each hour of work. Two thirds of all investigated variables showed coefficients of variation between subjects above 0.5. Since work tasks and contractual break schedules were observed to be essentially similar across operators and across days, this indicates that sedentary behaviours differed substantially between individuals. Conclusions The extensive occurrence of uninterrupted seated work indicates that efforts should be made at call centres - and probably in other settings in the office sector - to introduce more physical variation in terms of standing

  2. Energy absorption capability of foam-based composite materials and their applications as seat cushions in aircraft crashworthiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kh. Beheshti, Hamid

    This study is focusing on the application of foam materials in aviation. These materials are being used for acoustic purposes, as padding in the finished interior panels of the aircraft, and as seat cushions. Foams are mostly used in seating applications. Since seat cushion is directly interacting with the body of occupant, it has to be ergonomically comfortable beside of absorbing the energy during the impact. All the seats and seat cushions have to pass regulations defined by Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). In fact, all airplane companies are required to certify the subcomponents of aircrafts before installing them on the main structure, fuselage. Current Federal Aviation Administration Regulations require a dynamic sled test of the entire seat system for certifying the seat cushions. This dynamic testing is required also for replacing the deteriorated cushions with new cushions. This involves a costly and time-consuming certification process. AGATE group has suggested a procedure based on quasi-static testing in order to certify new seat cushions without conducting full-scale dynamic sled testing. AGATE subcomponent methodology involves static tests of the energy-absorbing foam cushions and design validation by conducting a full-scale dynamic seat test. Microscopic and macroscopic studies are necessary to provide a complete understanding about performance of foams during the crash. Much investigation has been done by different sources to obtain the reliable modeling in terms of demonstration of mechanical behavior of foams. However, rate sensitivity of foams needs more attention. A mathematical hybrid dynamic model for the cushion underneath of the human body will be taken into consideration in this research. Analytical and finite element codes such as MADYMO and LS-DYNA codes have the potential to greatly speed up the crashworthy design process, to help certify seats and aircraft to dynamic crash loads, to predict seat and occupant response to impact

  3. Making Deformable Template Models Operational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Rune

    2000-01-01

    for estimation of the model parameters, which applies a combination of a maximum likelihood and minimum distance criterion. Another contribution is a very fast search based initialization algorithm using a filter interpretation of the likelihood model. These two methods can be applied to most deformable template......Deformable template models are a very popular and powerful tool within the field of image processing and computer vision. This thesis treats this type of models extensively with special focus on handling their common difficulties, i.e. model parameter selection, initialization and optimization....... A proper handling of the common difficulties is essential for making the models operational by a non-expert user, which is a requirement for intensifying and commercializing the use of deformable template models. The thesis is organized as a collection of the most important articles, which has been...

  4. Foam rheology at large deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géminard, J.-C.; Pastenes, J. C.; Melo, F.

    2018-04-01

    Large deformations are prone to cause irreversible changes in materials structure, generally leading to either material hardening or softening. Aqueous foam is a metastable disordered structure of densely packed gas bubbles. We report on the mechanical response of a foam layer subjected to quasistatic periodic shear at large amplitude. We observe that, upon increasing shear, the shear stress follows a universal curve that is nearly exponential and tends to an asymptotic stress value interpreted as the critical yield stress at which the foam structure is completely remodeled. Relevant trends of the foam mechanical response to cycling are mathematically reproduced through a simple law accounting for the amount of plastic deformation upon increasing stress. This view provides a natural interpretation to stress hardening in foams, demonstrating that plastic effects are present in this material even for minute deformation.

  5. Modelling and design of a novel air-spring for a suspension seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Marco W.; van Niekerk, Johannes L.

    2010-10-01

    Air-springs used in conjunction with auxiliary volumes provide both spring stiffness and damping. The damping is introduced through the flow restriction connecting the two air volumes. This article presents a simplified model of an air-spring with an auxiliary volume derived from first principles for simulation and design of an air-spring coupled to an auxiliary volume for a suspension seat. Tests were performed on an experimental apparatus to validate the model. The simulation model of the air-spring and auxiliary volume followed the trend predicted by the literature but showed approximately 27% lower transmissibility amplitude and 21% lower system natural frequency than that obtained by tests when using large diameter flow restrictions. This inaccuracy is assumed to be introduced by the simplified mass transfer equations defining the flow restriction between air-spring and auxiliary volume. The model showed closer correlation to the experimental results when the auxiliary volume size was decreased by two-thirds of the volume actually used for the experiment. A procedure, using the developed simulation model, for the design of a prototype air-spring and auxiliary volume, is presented for application in a typical articulated or rigid frame dump truck. The goal of the study was to design a suspension seat for this application and to obtain a SEAT value below 1.1. The design was optimised by varying auxiliary volume size and flow restriction diameters for different loads. A SEAT value of less than 0.9 was achieved, clearly indicating the effectiveness of using an auxiliary volume with an air-spring as seat suspension.

  6. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP1-02: Seated Treatment: Setup Uncertainty Comparable to Supine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarroll, R [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); UT Health Science Center, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX (United States); Beadle, B; Fullen, D; Balter, P; Followill, D; Stingo, F; Yang, J; Court, L [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: For some head and neck patients, positioning in the supine position is not well tolerated. For these patients, treatment in a seated position would be preferred. We have evaluated inter- and intra- fraction uncertainty of patient set-up in a novel treatment chair which is compatible with modern linac designs. Methods: Five head-and-neck cancer patients were positioned in the chair, fitted with immobilization devices, and imaged with orthogonal X-rays. The couch (with chair attached) was rotated to simulate delivery (without actual treatment), another set of images were acquired, providing a measure of intra-fraction displacement. The patient then got off of and back onto the chair and the process was repeated, thus providing a measure of inter-fraction set-up uncertainty. Six sub-regions in the head-and-neck were rigidly registered to evaluate local intra- and interfraction displacement. Image guidance was simulated by first registering one sub-region; the residual displacement of other sub-regions was then measured. Additionally, a patient questionnaire was administered to evaluate tolerance of the seated position. Results: The chair design is such that all advantages of couch motions may be utilized. Average inter- and intrafraction displacements of all sub-regions in the seated position were less than 2 and 3 mm, respectively. When image guidance was simulated, interfraction displacements were reduced by an average of 4 mm, providing comparable setup to the supine position. The enrolled patients, who had no indication for a seated treatment position, reported no preference for the seated or the supine position. Conclusion: The novel chair design provides acceptable inter- and intra-fraction displacement, with reproducibility similar to that observed for patients in the supine position. Such a chair will be utilized for patients who cannot tolerate the supine position and use with CBCT images for planning, in a fixed-beam linac system, and for other

  7. Combination ergotamine and caffeine improves seated blood pressure and presyncopal symptoms in autonomic failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy C Arnold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Severely affected patients with autonomic failure require pressor agents to counteract the blood pressure fall and improve presyncopal symptoms upon standing. Previous studies suggest that combination ergotamine and caffeine may be effective in the treatment of autonomic failure, but the efficacy of this drug has not been evaluated in controlled trials. Therefore, we compared the effects of ergotamine/caffeine on seated blood pressure and orthostatic tolerance and symptoms in 12 primary autonomic failure patients without history of coronary artery disease. Patients were randomized to receive a single oral dose of placebo, midodrine (5-10 mg, or ergotamine and caffeine (1 mg and 100 mg, respectively in a single-blind, crossover study. Blood pressure was measured while patients were seated and after standing for up to 10 minutes, at baseline and at 1 hour post-drug. Ergotamine/caffeine increased seated systolic blood pressure, the primary outcome, compared with placebo (131±19 and 95±12 mmHg, respectively, at 1 hour post-drug; p=0.003 for time effect. Midodrine also significantly increased seated systolic blood pressure (121±19 mmHg at 1 hour post-drug; p=0.015 for time effect versus placebo, but this effect was not different from ergotamine/caffeine (p=0.621. There was no significant effect of either medication on orthostatic tolerance; however, ergotamine/caffeine improved presyncopal symptoms (p=0.034. These findings suggest that combination ergotamine and caffeine elicits a seated pressor response that is similar in magnitude to midodrine, and improves symptoms in autonomic failure. Thus, ergotamine/caffeine could be used as an alternate treatment for autonomic failure, in carefully selected patients without comorbid coronary artery disease.

  8. Non osseous intra-spinal tumors in children and adolescents: spinal column deformity (in french)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, I.; Zeller, R.; Dubousset, J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose of the study. The delay in diagnosis of spinal tumors is not rare. The chief complaint may include pain, walking disability and spinal or limb deformities. The purpose of our study is to analyze the spinal deformities associated with non osseous intra-spinal tumors, to assess the complications of treatment, and to set out a preventive protocol. Methods. The incidence and pattern of spinal deformity was assessed before tumor treatment and ultimately after laminectomy or osteoplastic laminotomy (or lamino-plasty). Results. Among the 9 cases with preexisting spinal deformity, the curve magnitude increased after laminectomy in 4. A kyphotic, kyphoscoliotic or scoliotic deformity developed in 18 cases after surgery for tumor resection. Among these 18 patients, only one had bad an adequate osteoplastic laminotomy. The treatment of spinal deformities was surgical in 12 cases, and done by either posterior or anterior and posterior combined arthrodesis. Discussion. Spinal deformity may be the main complaint of a patient who has intraspinal tumor. Prevention of post-laminectomy spinal deformity is mandatory, and could be done by osteoplastic laminotomy and the use of a brace during a minimum period of 4 to 6 months after surgery. Conclusion. Diagnosis of intraspinal tumors in children and adolescents should be done early, and lamino-arthrectomy should be replaced by osteoplastic laminotomy. (authors)

  9. Seat belt associated central line fracture--a previously unreported complication in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayyda, Salim N S; Roland, Damian; Cade, Alan

    2008-09-01

    Totally implantable venous access devices (TIVAD) are used widely in the management of cystic fibrosis (CF) [Standards of Care: Standards for the clinical care of children and adults with cystic fibrosis in the UK. The Cystic Fibrosis Trust's Clinical Standards and Accreditation Group. Cystic Fibrosis Trust, London, UK, 2001]. They have been shown to be safe and advantageous in the long term administration of intravenous antibiotics [A-Rahman A, Spencer D. Totally implantable vascular access devices for cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003(3)]. However, TIVADs are not without short and long term complications including infections, thrombosis and mechanical failure [Munck A, Malbezin S, Bloch J. Follow up of 452 totally implantable vascular devices in cystic fibrosis patients. Eur Respir J 2004;23:430-4; Aitkin ML, Tonelli ML. Complications of indwelling catheters in cystic fibrosis: a 10-year review. Chest 2000;118:1598-602; Deerojanawong J, Sawyer SM, Fink AM, Stokes KB, Robertson CF. Totally implantable venous access devices in children with cystic fibrosis. Thorax 1998;53:285-89; Rodgers HC, Liddle K, Nixon SJ, Innes JA, Greening AP. Totally implantable venous access devices in cystic fibrosis: complications and patients' opinions. Eur Respir J 1998;12:217-20; Yung B, Campbell IA, Elborn JS, Harvey JS, Shale DJ. Totally implantable venous access devices in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Respir Med 1996;90:353-56; Kariyawasam HH, Pepper JR, Hodson ME, Geddes DM. Experience of totally implantable venous access devices (TIV Ads) in adults with cystic fibrosis over a 13-year period. Respir Med 2000;94:1161-5]. Patients should be counselled prior to TIVAD insertion regarding the risks and instructed on post-operative care of the device to minimise the risks. However it is not routine practice to advise on seating position within the car in relationship to the seatbelt placement over the anterior chest wall. Line failure due to direct pressure from a

  10. Development of a multi-body nonlinear model for a seat-occupant system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Yousof

    A car seat is an important component of today's cars, which directly affects ride comfort experienced by occupants. Currently, the process of ride comfort evaluation is subjective. Alternatively, the ride comfort can be evaluated by a series of objective metrics in the dynamic response of the occupant. From previous studies it is well known that the dynamic behavior of a seat-occupant system is greatly affected by soft nonlinear viscoelastic materials used in the seat cushion. Therefore, in this research, especial attention was given to efficiently modeling the behavior of seat cushion. In the first part of this research, a phenomenological nonlinear viscoelastic foam model was proposed and its ability to capture uniaxial behavior of foam was investigated. The model is based on the assumption that the total stress can be decomposed into the sum of a nonlinear elastic component, modeled by a higher order polynomial of strain, and a nonlinear hereditary type viscoelastic component. System identification procedures were developed to estimate the model parameters using uniaxial cyclic compression data from experiments conducted at different rates on two types of low density polyurethane foams and three types of high density CONFOR foams. The performance of the proposed model was compared to that of other traditional continuum models. For each foam type, it was observed that lower order models are sufficient to describe the uniaxial behavior of the foam compressed at different rates. Although, the estimated model parameters were functions of the input strain rate. Alternatively, higher order comprehensive models, with strain independent parameters, were estimated as well. The estimated comprehensive model predicts foam responses under different compression rates. Also, a methodology was proposed to predict the stress-response of a layered foam system using the estimated models of each foam in the layers. Next, the estimated foam model was incorporated into a single

  11. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han

    2014-07-22

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  12. Polycrystal deformation and single crystal deformation: Dislocation structure and flow stress in copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, X.; Borrego, A.; Pantleon, W.

    2001-01-01

    The relation between the polycrystal deformation and single crystal deformation has been studied for pure polycrystalline copper deformed in tension. The dislocation microstructure has been analyzed for grains of different orientation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and three types...

  13. Deformations of the Almheiri-Polchinski model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyono, Hideki; Okumura, Suguru; Yoshida, Kentaroh [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-03-31

    We study deformations of the Almheiri-Polchinski (AP) model by employing the Yang-Baxter deformation technique. The general deformed AdS{sub 2} metric becomes a solution of a deformed AP model. In particular, the dilaton potential is deformed from a simple quadratic form to a hyperbolic function-type potential similarly to integrable deformations. A specific solution is a deformed black hole solution. Because the deformation makes the spacetime structure around the boundary change drastically and a new naked singularity appears, the holographic interpretation is far from trivial. The Hawking temperature is the same as the undeformed case but the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is modified due to the deformation. This entropy can also be reproduced by evaluating the renormalized stress tensor with an appropriate counter-term on the regularized screen close to the singularity.

  14. The influence of chair seat height on the performance of community-dwelling older adults' 30-second chair stand test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Liang

    2013-06-01

    Although chair seat height affects the performance of sit-to-stand movement, no previous study has examined the influence of chair seat height on the 30-second chair stand test (CST). Fifty-five community-dwelling older adults (age 70.0 ± 6.3 years) performed the test from the standard height of 43 cm and then from five randomly ordered seat heights from 80 to 120 % of each participant's lower leg length. Chair seat height significantly influences the performance of community-dwelling older adults' 30-s CST (F = 57.50, p  0.95) and between the standard and 90 % conditions (p = 0.353). When comparing the scores between the randomly ordered chair seat heights, all comparisons were significantly different (p Chair seat height's relation to the lower leg length should be considered when interpreting 30-s CST scores. Additionally, it is necessary to optimize the chair seat height when using the 30-s CST as an outcome measure for exercise intervention or to screen for people with weaker lower extremities.

  15. Spatiotemporal deformations of reflectionless potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, S. A. R.; Longhi, S.

    2017-08-01

    Reflectionless potentials for classical or matter waves represent an important class of scatteringless systems encountered in different areas of physics. Here we mathematically demonstrate that there is a family of non-Hermitian potentials that, in contrast to their Hermitian counterparts, remain reflectionless even when deformed in space or time. These are the profiles that satisfy the spatial Kramers-Kronig relations. We start by considering scattering of matter waves for the Schrödinger equation with an external field, where a moving potential is observed in the Kramers-Henneberger reference frame. We then generalize this result to the case of electromagnetic waves, by considering a slab of reflectionless material that both is scaled and has its center displaced as an arbitrary function of position. We analytically and numerically demonstrate that the backscattering from these profiles remains zero, even for extreme deformations. Our results indicate the supremacy of non-Hermitian Kramers-Kronig potentials over reflectionless Hermitian potentials in keeping their reflectionless property under deformation and could find applications to, e.g., reflectionless optical coatings of highly deformed surfaces based on perfect absorption.

  16. Deformable Models for Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Leimberg, Denis; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2005-01-01

    A deformable template method for eye tracking on full face images is presented. The strengths of the method are that it is fast and retains accuracy independently of the resolution. We compare the me\\$\\backslash\\$-thod with a state of the art active contour approach, showing that the heuristic...

  17. Simulation of rock deformation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Я. И. Рудаев

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A task of simulating the deformation behavior of geomaterials under compression with account of over-extreme branch has been addressed. The physical nature of rock properties variability as initially inhomogeneous material is explained by superposition of deformation and structural transformations of evolutionary type within open nonequilibrium systems. Due to this the description of deformation and failure of rock is related to hierarchy of instabilities within the system being far from thermodynamic equilibrium. It is generally recognized, that the energy function of the current stress-strain state is a superposition of potential component and disturbance, which includes the imperfection parameter accounting for defects not only existing in the initial state, but also appearing under load. The equation of state has been obtained by minimizing the energy function by the order parameter. The imperfection parameter is expressed through the strength deterioration, which is viewed as the internal parameter of state. The evolution of strength deterioration has been studied with the help of Fokker – Planck equation, which steady form corresponds to rock statical stressing. Here the diffusion coefficient is assumed to be constant, while the function reflecting internal sliding and loosening of the geomaterials is assumed as an antigradient of elementary integration catastrophe. Thus the equation of state is supplemented with a correlation establishing relationship between parameters of imperfection and strength deterioration. While deformation process is identified with the change of dissipative media, coupled with irreversible structural fluctuations. Theoretical studies are proven with experimental data obtained by subjecting certain rock specimens to compression.

  18. Cleft deformities (lip and palate)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    Background: Cleft deformities (lip and palate) have been reported to be the most common congenital craniofacial anomaly in several settings. In Uganda, though two previous studies were conducted to determine the incidence of cleft lip and palate, the estimates obtained from those studies may not be precise given the ...

  19. Deformations of topological open strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, C.; Ma, Whee Ky

    Deformations of topological open string theories are described, with an emphasis on their algebraic structure. They are encoded in the mixed bulk-boundary correlators. They constitute the Hochschild complex of the open string algebra - the complex of multilinear maps on the boundary Hilbert space.

  20. A study on the Horizontal Control of a Seat for Heavy Machinery using a Phase Adjusting Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chae-sil.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a dynamic plant model to simulate the performance of a heavy equipment vehicle seat system. The system controls the transmission of vibration using a phase adjustment control method. First, a dynamic model for the flexible heavy equipment seat is proposed using a commercial multi-body dynamic analysis tool, ADAMS. This model is used as a plant model. Then a phase adjustment control mechanism for reducing the vibration and shock transmitted by the seat is applied to the driving dynamics control plant model. Angle control using the phase adjustment control was confirmed. This technique is expected to be the basis for a future commercial system.

  1. Deformation mechanisms of nanotwinned Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinghang [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The objective of this project is to investigate the role of different types of layer interfaces on the formation of high density stacking fault (SF) in Al in Al/fcc multilayers, and understand the corresponding deformation mechanisms of the films. Stacking faults or twins can be intentionally introduced (via growth) into certain fcc metals with low stacking fault energy (such as Cu, Ag and 330 stainless steels) to achieve high strength, high ductility, superior thermal stability and good electrical conductivity. However it is still a major challenge to synthesize these types of defects into metals with high stacking fault energy, such as Al. Although deformation twins have been observed in some nanocrystalline Al powders by low temperature, high strain rate cryomilling or in Al at the edge of crack tip or indentation (with the assistance of high stress intensity factor), these deformation techniques typically introduce twins sporadically and the control of deformation twin density in Al is still not feasible. This project is designed to test the following hypotheses: (1) Certain type of layer interfaces may assist the formation of SF in Al, (2) Al with high density SF may have deformation mechanisms drastically different from those of coarse-grained Al and nanotwinned Cu. To test these hypotheses, we have performed the following tasks: (i) Investigate the influence of layer interfaces, stresses and deposition parameters on the formation and density of SF in Al. (ii) Understand the role of SF on the deformation behavior of Al. In situ nanoindentation experiments will be performed to probe deformation mechanisms in Al. The major findings related to the formation mechanism of twins and mechanical behavior of nanotwinned metals include the followings: 1) Our studies show that nanotwins can be introduced into metals with high stacking fault energy, in drastic contrast to the general anticipation. 2) We show two strategies that can effectively introduce growth twins in

  2. Treatment of hallux valgus deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraissler, Lukas; Konrads, Christian; Hoberg, Maik; Rudert, Maximilian; Walcher, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Hallux valgus deformity is a very common pathological condition which commonly produces painful disability. It is characterised as a combined deformity with a malpositioning of the first metatarsophalangeal joint caused by a lateral deviation of the great toe and a medial deviation of the first metatarsal bone.Taking the patient's history and a thorough physical examination are important steps. Anteroposterior and lateral weight-bearing radiographs of the entire foot are crucial for adequate assessment in the treatment of hallux valgus.Non-operative treatment of the hallux valgus cannot correct the deformity. However, insoles and physiotherapy in combination with good footwear can help to control the symptoms.There are many operative techniques for hallux valgus correction. The decision on which surgical technique is used depends on the degree of deformity, the extent of degenerative changes of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and the shape and size of the metatarsal bone and phalangeal deviation. The role of stability of the first tarsometatarsal joint is controversial.Surgical techniques include the modified McBride procedure, distal metatarsal osteotomies, metatarsal shaft osteotomies, the Akin osteotomy, proximal metatarsal osteotomies, the modified Lapidus fusion and the hallux joint fusion. Recently, minimally invasive percutaneous techniques have gained importance and are currently being evaluated more scientifically.Hallux valgus correction is followed by corrective dressings of the great toe post-operatively. Depending on the procedure, partial or full weight-bearing in a post-operative shoe or cast immobilisation is advised. Post-operative radiographs are taken in regular intervals until osseous healing is achieved. Cite this article: Fraissler L, Konrads C, Hoberg M, Rudert M, Walcher M. Treatment of hallux valgus deformity. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:295-302. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000005.

  3. Muscle Power during Standing and Seated Trunk Rotations with Different Weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Zemková

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study compares peak and mean power during standing and seated trunk rotations with different weights. Twenty seven fit men completed four trials of trunk rotations in both standing and seated positions with a bar weight of 5.5, 10.5, 15.5, and 20 kg placed on the shoulders. The FiTRO Torso Premium was used to monitor basic biomechanical parameters throughout the movement. Results showed significantly higher peak power during standing than seated trunk rotations at weights of 20 kg (274.4±63.5 vs. 206.4±54.6 W, p=0.004, 15.5 kg (371.2±93.9 vs. 313.5±72.3 W, p=0.007, and 10.5 kg (336.9±77.8 vs. 286.3±66.0 W, p=0.009 but not at 5.5 kg (191.6±46.2 vs. 166.0±37.0 W, p=0.061. Similarly, mean power in the acceleration phase of trunk rotations was significantly higher when performed in standing than seated position at weights of 20 kg (143.2±32.1 vs. 101.9±23.7 W, p=0.008, 15.5 kg (185.1±42.3 vs. 150.4±36.5 W, p=0.019, and 10.5 kg (169.8±40.7 vs. 139.7±31.6 W, p=0.024 but not at 5.5 kg (107.4±29.4 vs. 86.5±21.1 W, p=0.111. Furthermore, peak and mean power during standing trunk rotations significantly correlated with values achieved in the seated position at the weight of 5.5 kg (r=0.684, p=0.027; r=0.676, p=0.033 but not at 10.5 kg (r=0.589, p=0.089; r=0.552, p=0.143, 15.5 kg (r=0.493, p=0.243; r=0.436, p=0.298, and 20 kg (r=0.357, p=0.361; r=0.333, p=0.417. In conclusion, power production is greater during standing as compared to seated trunk rotations, with more pronounced differences at higher weights. This fact has to be taken into account when training and testing the trunk rotational power.

  4. Thorax deformity, joint hypermobility and anxiety disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulsun, M.; Dumlu, K.; Erbas, M.; Yilmaz, Mehmet B.; Pinar, M.; Tonbul, M.; Celik, C.; Ozdemir, B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to evaluate the association between thorax deformities, panic disorder and joint hypermobility. The study includes 52 males diagnosed with thorax deformity, and 40 healthy male controls without thorax deformity, in Tatvan Bitlis and Isparta, Turkey. The study was carried out from 2004 to 2006. The teleradiographic and thoracic lateral images of the subjects were evaluated to obtain the Beighton scores; subjects psychiatric conditions were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-1), and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) was applied in order to determine the anxiety levels. Both the subjects and controls were compared in sociodemographic, anxiety levels and joint mobility levels. In addition, males with joint hypermobility and thorax deformity were compared to the group with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. A significant difference in HAM-A scores was found between the groups with thorax deformity and without. In addition, 21 subjects with thorax deformity met the joint hypermobility criteria in the group with thorax deformity and 7 subjects without thorax deformity met the joint hypermobility criteria in the group without thorax deformity, according to Beighton scoring. The Beighton score of subjects with thorax deformity were significantly different from those of the group without deformity. Additionally, anxiety scores of the males with thorax deformity and joint hypermobility were found higher than males with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. Anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder, have a significantly higher distribution in males subjects with thorax deformity compared to the healthy control group. In addition, the anxiety level of males with thorax deformity and joint hypermobility is higher than males with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. (author)

  5. Highly deformable bones: unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael M; Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Castro-Ceseña, Ana Bertha; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    Multifunctional materials and devices found in nature serve as inspiration for advanced synthetic materials, structures and robotics. Here, we elucidate the architecture and unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse tails that provide prehension as well as protection against predators. The seahorse tail is composed of subdermal bony plates arranged in articulating ring-like segments that overlap for controlled ventral bending and twisting. The bony plates are highly deformable materials designed to slide past one another and buckle when compressed. This complex plate and segment motion, along with the unique hardness distribution and structural hierarchy of each plate, provide seahorses with joint flexibility while shielding them against impact and crushing. Mimicking seahorse armor may lead to novel bio-inspired technologies, such as flexible armor, fracture-resistant structures or prehensile robotics. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Surface deformation of Taipei basin detected by Differential SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Chang, C.; Yen, J.; Lin, M.

    2006-12-01

    Taiwan island is located between the southeastern periphery of the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate. The two converging plates produced very active tectonics, and can be seen by the high seismicity and deformation rate. Taipei, the highest populated area, center of politics, and economics in Taiwan, is in Taipei basin at the northern part of the island. There are several faults in and surrounding the basin, and the city is threatened with a high geological hazard potential that we should keep monitoring the crustal deformation to prevent and mitigate the disaster effect. The aims of our study is to apply the DInSAR technique to determine the surface deformation of Taipei basin area, and discussing the relation between the manifestation of deformation and the tectonically active region, Shanjiao fault. In the past few years, Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) has been proved to be a powerful technique for monitoring the neotectonic activities and natural hazards. High spatial sampling rate of DInSAR technique allows studies of surface deformations with centimeter accuracy. In this area, we used ERS-1/2 SAR images acquired from 1993 to 2005 to generate 10 differential interferograms and processed the data using DIAPASON developed by CNES and SRTM global DEM.From our results, the deformation rate in Taipei is generally high in the western end of the basin along the Shanjiao fault and decrease eastward, while the subsidence center often appeared in the center of the Taipei basin. The neotectonic activity of the Shanjiao fault appeared to be insignificant by itself but it seemed to separate the subsiding basin from the surrounding areas. Further comparison between our DInSAR results and isopach of the Taipei basin revealed that the subsidence centers appeared in the interferograms did not coincide with the location where the sediments are thickest. Our results from differential interferometry will be compared to other geodetic measurements such as the

  7. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  8. CubeSat Deformable Mirror Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the CubeSat Deformable Mirror Demonstration is to characterize the performance of a small deformable mirror over a year in low-Earth orbit. Small form...

  9. Prediction of deformity in spinal tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jutte, Paul; Wuite, Sander; The, Bertram; van Altena, Richard; Veldhuizen, Albert

    Tuberculosis of the spine may cause kyphosis, which may in turn cause late paraplegia, respiratory compromise, and unsightly deformity. Surgical correction therefore may be considered for large or progressive deformities. We retrospectively analyzed clinical and radiographic parameters to predict

  10. Detecting destabilizing wheelchair conditions for maintaining seated posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Anna; Armstrong, Kiley; Loparo, Kenneth; Audu, Musa; Triolo, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to detect and classify potentially destabilizing conditions encountered by manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injuries (SCI) to dynamically increase stability and prevent falls. Methods A volunteer with motor complete T11 paraplegia repeatedly propelled his manual wheelchair over level ground and simulated destabilizing conditions including sudden stops, bumps and rough terrain. Wireless inertial measurement units attached to the wheelchair frame and his sternum recorded associated accelerations and angular velocities. Algorithms based on mean, standard deviation and minimum Mahalanobis distance between conditions were constructed and applied to the data off-line to discriminate between events. Classification accuracy was computed to assess effects of sensor position and potential for automatically selecting a dynamic intervention to best stabilize the wheelchair user. Results The decision algorithm based on acceleration signals successfully differentiated destabilizing conditions and level over-ground propulsion with classification accuracies of 95.8, 58.3 and 91.7% for the chest, wheelchair and both sensors, respectively. Conclusion Mahalanobis distance classification based on trunk accelerations is a feasible method for detecting destabilizing events encountered by wheelchair users and may serve as an effective trigger for protective interventions. Incorporating data from wheelchair-mounted sensors decreases the false negative rate. PMID:28366027

  11. Quantum dynamics of deformed open systems

    CERN Document Server

    Isar, A

    2002-01-01

    A master equation for the deformed quantum harmonic oscillator interacting with a dissipative environment, in particular with a thermal bath, is derived in the microscopic model using perturbation theory . The coefficient of the master equation depend on the deformation function. The steady state solution of the equation for the density matrix in the number representation is obtained and the equilibrium energy of the deformed harmonic oscillator is calculated in the approximation of small deformation. (author)

  12. Hemodynamic responses to seated and supine lower body negative pressure - Comparison with +Gz acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Alvese; Sandler, Harold; Montgomery, Leslie D.

    1992-01-01

    The hemodynamic responses to LBNP in seated subjects and in subjects in supine body positions were compared and were correlated with hemodynamic changes which occurred during a simulated (by centrifugation) Shuttle reentry acceleration with a slow onset rate of 0.002 G/s and during gradual onset exposures to +3 Gz and +4 Gz. Results demonstrate that seated LBNP at a level of -40 mm Hg can serve as a static simulator for changes in the heart rate and in mean blood pressure induced by gradual onset acceleration stress occurring during Shuttle reentry. The findings also provide a rationale for using LBNP during weightlessness as a means of imposing G-loading on the circulation prior to reentry.

  13. Seat belt syndrome with unstable Chance fracture dislocation of the second lumbar vertebra without neurological deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onu, David O; Hunn, Andrew W; Bohmer, Robert D

    2014-01-08

    The seat belt syndrome is a recognised complication of seat belt use in vehicles. Unstable Chance fractures of the spine without neurological deficits have been reported infrequently. We describe a young woman with completely disrupted Chance fracture of the second lumbar vertebra in association with left hemidiaphragmatic rupture/hernia, multiple bowel perforations, splenic capsular tear, left humeral shaft and multiple rib fractures. These injuries which resulted from high-speed vehicle collision and led to death of one of the occupants were readily detected by trauma series imaging. The patient was successfully treated by a dedicated multidisciplinary team which adopted a staged surgical approach and prioritisation of care. There were no manifested neurological or other deficits after 1 year of follow-up. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of such a case in Australasia. We discuss the challenging surgical management, highlighting the role of radiological imaging in such cases and provide a literature review.

  14. Afterloading technique for interstitial irradiation of lesions in deep-seated organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, T.; Kakehi, M.; Kunieda, T.

    1982-01-01

    An afterloading procedure using iridium 192 seeds was developed for the control of both localized primary lesions that are difficult to remove and superficial residual lesions that remain after the partial removal of tumors in relatively inaccessible, deep-seated organs. This technique makes possible the delivery of a minimal radiation dose to lesions in deep-seated organs. Fewer complications result, the seeds can be adjusted at appropriate intervals in proportion to the amount of radioactivity desired, and radiation exposure to personnel can be reduced. This paper describes the techniques and apparatus used to place the seeds in the tubing. Primary lesions of the urinary bladder, the prostate gland, and the esophagus, residual lesions in the brain and lung, and metastases in intrapelvic lymph nodes were treated. No technical difficulties or complications were encountered. Radiation exposures to personnel were minimized. The results indicate that the procedure has practical applications

  15. Seat headrest-incorporated personalized ventilation: Thermal comfort and inhaled air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Ivanova, T.; Stefanova, G.

    2012-01-01

    and 26/26 °C, respectively. Questionnaires were used to collect human responses. Personal exposure effectiveness (the portion of the clean personalized air in inhalation) of up to 99% was measured during the manikin experiments. The results suggest a dramatic improvement of inhaled air quality......The performance of personalized ventilation with seat headrest-mounted air supply terminal devices (ATD), named seat headrest personalized ventilation (SHPV), was studied. Physical measurements using a breathing thermal manikin were taken to identify its ability to provide clean air to inhalation...... depending on design, shape, size and positioning of the ATD, flow rate and temperature of personalized air, room temperature, clothing thermal insulation of the manikin, etc. Tracer gas was mixed with the room air. The air supplied by the SHPV was free of tracer gas. Tracer gas concentration in the air...

  16. Vertical Impact Tests of a Modified F/FB-111 Crew Seat to Evaluate Headrest Position and Restraint Configuration Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    a w e4 4 a D Di -cc - hi *~.0 - -1M ~ ’U~~~~~ %" 0 N 𔃺 0 CI N N N N N M wmU co ~ ~ ~ cc 1= cc w *c a a pj= ’o u.. -2 N ON 4 - - r4 0’%ON N- a td e~M...SEAT PHN Z 502.05 26.46 3866.00 3644.00 11 RT SEAT PAN Z 635.94 2b7 %4 3665.CO 3609.00 12 CT SEAT PAN Z 795.27 24.49 3869.00 36t.8.00 13 TOTAL SEAT 1

  17. A Qualitative Case Study on the Implementation of a Priority Seating Program at an NCAA Division I School

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delich, Joseph R

    2004-01-01

    ...) athletic department's priority seating program. A qualitative case study was the chosen methodology and the use of personal interviews and documents were the primary sources of evidence for data collection...

  18. Development of an Emergency Locking Unit for a Belt-In-Seat (BIS System Using a MEMS Acceleration Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hyun Baek

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an emergency locking unit (ELU for a seat belt retractor which is mounted on the back frame of a vehicle seat. The proposed unit uses a recliner sensor based on a MEMS acceleration sensor and solenoid mechanism. The seat has an upper frame supported to tilt on a lower frame. The retractor in belt in seat (BIS system is supported by the upper frame. The proposed recliner sensor based on a MEMS acceleration sensor comprises orientation means for maintaining a predetermined orientation of emergency relative to the lower frame independently of the force of gravity when the upper frame tilts on the lower frame. Experimental results show that the developed recliner sensor unit operates effectively with respect to rollover angles. Thus, the developed unit will have a considerable potential to offer a new design concept in BIS system.

  19. Simulation of Adaptive Seat Energy Absorber for Military Rotorcraft Crash Safety Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    1 2. Introduction 2 3. Model Development 3 4. Biodynamic Evaluation of Seated Human Model 5 4.1 STH Transmissibility (TR...head ( STH ) transmissibility (TR), and driving- point mechanical (DPM) impedance (10). To evaluate these performance indices, the whole human body model...Vibration module in the software. The frequency step and frequency range of 0.5 Hz, and up to 100 Hz were selected, respectively. 6 4.1 STH

  20. A report of two deep-seated noncutaneous penile tumors: more than meets the eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Thomas, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer is an uncommon primary genitourinary malignancy, the vast majority representing superficial squamous cell carcinomas. However, less common skin cancers, secondary malignancies, mesenchymal neoplasms, and hematopoietic tumors do affect the penis. Medical history, atypical presentation, and deep epicenter of a penile mass may raise question of a nonepithelial neoplasm. We describe and discuss 2 examples of rare deep-seated penile malignancies, leiomyosarcoma and B-cell lymphoma.

  1. Influence of seating styles on head and pelvic vertical movement symmetry in horses ridden at trot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson-Sjodin, Emma; Hernlund, Elin; Pfau, Thilo; Haubro Andersen, Pia; Rhodin, Marie

    2018-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of how a rider's seating style and riding on a circle influences the movement symmetry of the horse's head and pelvis may aid rider and trainer in an early recognition of low grade lameness. Such knowledge is also important during both subjective and objective lameness evaluations in the ridden horse in a clinical setting. In this study, inertial sensors were used to assess how different rider seating styles may influence head and pelvic movement symmetry in horses trotting in a straight line and on the circle in both directions. A total of 26 horses were subjected to 15 different conditions at trot: three unridden conditions and 12 ridden conditions where the rider performed three different seating styles (rising trot, sitting trot and two point seat). Rising trot induced systematic changes in movement symmetry of the horses. The most prominent effect was decreased pelvic rise that occurred as the rider was actively rising up in the stirrups, thus creating a downward momentum counteracting the horses push off. This mimics a push off lameness in the hindlimb that is in stance when the rider sits down in the saddle during the rising trot. On the circle, the asymmetries induced by rising trot on the correct diagonal counteracted the circle induced asymmetries, rendering the horse more symmetrical. This finding offers an explanation to the equestrian tradition of rising on the 'correct diagonal.' In horses with small pre-existing movement asymmetries, the asymmetry induced by rising trot, as well as the circular track, attenuated or reduced the horse's baseline asymmetry, depending on the sitting diagonal and direction on the circle. A push off hindlimb lameness would be expected to increase when the rider sits during the lame hindlimb stance whereas an impact hindlimb lameness would be expected to decrease. These findings suggest that the rising trot may be useful for identifying the type of lameness during subjective lameness assessment of

  2. Burn from car seat heater in a man with paraplegia: case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Cheryl; Gittler, Michelle; Lee, Ray

    2011-01-01

    Objective/background Heated car seats are a common feature in newer automobiles. They are increasingly being recognized as potential hazards as there have been multiple reports of significant burns to its users. The potential for harm is considerably increased in those with impaired sensation with the possibility of a devastating injury. Methods Case report and literature review. Results A 26-year-old male with a T8 ASIA A paraplegia presented to the outpatient clinic for management of a hip burn. Two weeks prior to his visit he was driving a 2004 Jeep Cherokee for approximately 30 minutes. He was unaware that the driver's side seat warmer was set on high. He denied that his seat belt was in direct contact with the skin of his right hip. He presented to an acute care hospital that evening with a hip burn where he was prescribed silver sulfadiazine cream and instructed to apply it until his scheduled follow-up clinic visit. In clinic, the hip wound was unstageable with approximately 95% eschar. A dressing of bismuth tribromophenate in petrolatum was applied to the wound and he was instructed to change the dressing daily. This was later changed to an antimicrobial alginate dressing. The ulcer eventually healed. Conclusions This case illustrates the significant risk of car seat heaters in individuals with spinal cord injuries or neurological impairment who have decreased sensation. Additionally, it highlights an atypical area of potential for burn. Furthermore, it emphasizes the need for a heightened awareness for this unique and dangerous situation. PMID:21756574

  3. Sound, noise and speech at the 9000-seat Holy Trinity Church in Fatima, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    António Pedro Oliveira de Carvalho; Pedro Miguel Aguiar da Silva

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the interior acoustical characterization of the 9,000-seat church of the Holy Trinity in the Sanctuary of Fátima, Portugal, inaugurated in 2007. In situ measurements were held regarding interior sound pressure levels (with and without the HVAC equipment working), NC curves, RASTI (with and without the installed sound system) and reverberation time. The results are presented and commented according to the design values. A comparison is made with other churches in the world ...

  4. Modelling flow and heat transfer around a seated human body by computational fluid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft; Voigt, Lars Peter Kølgaard

    2003-01-01

    A database (http://www.ie.dtu.dk/manikin) containing a detailed representation of the surface geometry of a seated female human body was created from a surface scan of a thermal manikin (minus clothing and hair). The radiative heat transfer coefficient and the natural convection flow around...... of the computational manikin has all surface features of a human being; (2) the geometry is an exact copy of an experimental thermal manikin, enabling detailed comparisons between calculations and experiments....

  5. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy of deep seated bone lesions in two dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, T.; Sakaida, M.; Yamada, M.; Akiyama, H.; Takai, Y.; Sakai, H.; Maruo, K.

    2006-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous core needle biopsies were undertaken for the diagnosis of osteosarcoma in the pelvis (case 1) and myeloma (case 2) in the seventh lumber vertebra which were difficult to targeted by palpation, ultrasound or fluoroscopy. In both cases, enough tissue for pathological diagnosis were obtained without any complication. CT-guided biopsy was thought to be a safe, easy and effective technique for the evaluation of the deep seated bone lesion

  6. Seatbelt use and seat preference among pregnant women in Sapporo, Japan, in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Mamoru; Yamada, Takashi; Kato-Hirayama, Emi; Nishikawa, Akira; Watari, Michiko; Maeda, Nobuhiko; Kogo, Hiromasa; Minakami, Hisanori

    2016-07-01

    This study was performed to determine the rate of pregnant occupants in motor vehicle accidents (MVA) and the frequency of seatbelt use in pregnancy in Japan. A questionnaire survey was conducted at seven centers located in Sapporo, targeting all 3952 women in gestational weeks 35-37 during the study period between June 2013 and January 2014. Information was collected on parity, driver's license, seatbelt use, seat preference, carrying Mother and Child Health Handbook when going out, and experience of occupant MVA during current pregnancy. Women who reported always using a seatbelt were classified as always seatbelt users (ASU). A total of 2420 women who were given questionnaires provided responses (response rate, 61%). Seventy women (2.9%) reported having experienced an occupant MVA during the current pregnancy. MVA rate was significantly lower for ASU than non-ASU (2.6% [55/2097] vs 4.6% [15/323], respectively, P women preferring the rear seat than for other women (1.3% [6/451] vs 3.3% [64/1969], respectively, P = 0.0282). MVA rate tended to be lower for women preferring the rear seat than the front seat (1.7% [10/575] vs 3.3% [60/1845], respectively, P = 0.0637). The number of ASU, 94% (2286/2420) before pregnancy, decreased significantly to 87% (2097/2420) after the current pregnancy (P women toward driving safety may be associated with reduced risk of MVA in pregnancy. There is a need for an intensified campaign to promote seatbelt use among pregnant women. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Radiologic findings of deep seated cerebral arteriovenous malformation with nonvisualization of straight sinus: focused on angiogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jong Boo; Park, Sung Ho; Hong, Jong Won; Kim, Yoo Kyoung; Shin, Mi Jeong; Baik, Seung Kuk; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi

    1999-01-01

    To analyze the radiologic-especially angiographic-findings of deep seated cerebral arteriovenous malformation(AVM) involving nonvisualized straight sinus. In six patients aged between 15 and 53 years with deep seated cerebral AVM, CT and MR images were retrospectively analyzed with regard to the following features : the presence of straight sinus, the location of AVM, and the occurrence of hemorrhage. Angiograms were analyzed for venous drainage routes of AVM, the appearance of veins, the presence of falcine sinus and venous drainage from normal deep brain parenchyme. In four patients who had undergone intravascular embolization therapy, pre- and post- embolization angiograms were compared. CT and MR images showed neither straight sinus nor thrombosis. AVMs were deeply seated in the brain, and in all cases there was cerebral hemorrhage. Angiograms disclosed that venous drainage of all AVMs occurred via the veins of Galen. In one case, venous flow via the falcine sinus to the superior sagittal sinus was noted, but in others, retrograde flow in the deep venous system was observed. Marked collateral routes followed in response to the obstruction of straight sinus included the basal vein of Rosenthal, the internal occipital, internal cerebral, and cerebellar hemispheric veins (which are Galenic afferents), and the inferior sagittal sinus. In all patients, contralateral routes were partially involved. Venous drainage from normal deep parenchyme through the transcerebral veins to the superficial venous system was noted, and in one case, straight sinus which had been observed on an angiogram five years earlier was no longer present. Angiography offers effective evaluation of the dynamic aspect of venous flow in cases involving deep-seated AVM, and of normal deep parenchyme in cases in which AVM involves nonvisualized straight sinus. Before intravascular treatment of AVM, venous flow must be carefully analyzed

  8. Radiologic findings of deep seated cerebral arteriovenous malformation with nonvisualization of straight sinus: focused on angiogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Jong Boo; Park, Sung Ho; Hong, Jong Won; Kim, Yoo Kyoung; Shin, Mi Jeong; Baik, Seung Kuk; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi [Wallace Memorial Baptist Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    To analyze the radiologic-especially angiographic-findings of deep seated cerebral arteriovenous malformation(AVM) involving nonvisualized straight sinus. In six patients aged between 15 and 53 years with deep seated cerebral AVM, CT and MR images were retrospectively analyzed with regard to the following features : the presence of straight sinus, the location of AVM, and the occurrence of hemorrhage. Angiograms were analyzed for venous drainage routes of AVM, the appearance of veins, the presence of falcine sinus and venous drainage from normal deep brain parenchyme. In four patients who had undergone intravascular embolization therapy, pre- and post- embolization angiograms were compared. CT and MR images showed neither straight sinus nor thrombosis. AVMs were deeply seated in the brain, and in all cases there was cerebral hemorrhage. Angiograms disclosed that venous drainage of all AVMs occurred via the veins of Galen. In one case, venous flow via the falcine sinus to the superior sagittal sinus was noted, but in others, retrograde flow in the deep venous system was observed. Marked collateral routes followed in response to the obstruction of straight sinus included the basal vein of Rosenthal, the internal occipital, internal cerebral, and cerebellar hemispheric veins (which are Galenic afferents), and the inferior sagittal sinus. In all patients, contralateral routes were partially involved. Venous drainage from normal deep parenchyme through the transcerebral veins to the superficial venous system was noted, and in one case, straight sinus which had been observed on an angiogram five years earlier was no longer present. Angiography offers effective evaluation of the dynamic aspect of venous flow in cases involving deep-seated AVM, and of normal deep parenchyme in cases in which AVM involves nonvisualized straight sinus. Before intravascular treatment of AVM, venous flow must be carefully analyzed.

  9. Accessing hospital packaged foods and beverages : the importance of a seated posture when eating

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Alison; Tapsell, Linda; Walton, Karen; Yoxall, Alaster

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hospitalised and community dwelling older people (65 years and over), have difficulties opening food and beverage items such as cheese portions and tetra packs served in public hospitals. Previously, the role of hand strength on successful pack opening has been explored in a seated position. However, as many people in hospital eat in bed, this laboratory study examined the differences between participants opening a selection of products both in a hospital bed and a chair.\\ud Metho...

  10. Innovation Toilet and Barriers of Diffusion in Developing Country Case Study: TOTO Electronic Bidet Seat Toilet

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Adhiutama; Michihiko Shinozaki; Seiichi Yoshikubo

    2012-01-01

    The innovation of electronic bidet seat toilet in Japan has diffused to more than sixty percent of Japanese household while it has low rate of diffusion in other countries especially in developing country. From this phenomenon, it is interesting to understand about the barrier of diffusion, which focuses on the adopter categories of diffusion, barrier factors and proposition of key success factors of the diffusion in Indonesia as one of emerging economic and the member of G 20. There have bee...

  11. Combination ergotamine and caffeine improves seated blood pressure and presyncopal symptoms in autonomic failure

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Amy C.; Ramirez, Claudia E.; Choi, Leena; Okamoto, Luis E.; Gamboa, Alfredo; Diedrich, André; Raj, Satish R.; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo; Shibao, Cyndya A.

    2014-01-01

    Severely affected patients with autonomic failure require pressor agents to counteract the blood pressure fall and improve presyncopal symptoms upon standing. Previous studies suggest that combination ergotamine and caffeine may be effective in the treatment of autonomic failure, but the efficacy of this drug has not been evaluated in controlled trials. Therefore, we compared the effects of ergotamine/caffeine on seated blood pressure and orthostatic tolerance and symptoms in 12 primary auto...

  12. Comparative Assessment of Torso and Seat Mounted Restraint Systems using Manikins on the Horizontal Impulse Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Research Device (LARD) instrumented manikins were used in this test program to simulate human response. Data collection on the HIA consisted of manikin...microseconds, the user can freeze objects in motion, eliminate blur, and bring out the image detail needed for successful motion analysis. The camera...not run due to the unavailability of the Neck Protection Device (NPD). Cells MN and ON (no seat cushion), and Cells X and Y (no helmet) were not

  13. Shell effects in the nuclear deformation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, C.K.

    1973-01-01

    A new approach to shell effects in the Strutinsky method for calculating nuclear deformation energy is evaluated and the suggestion of non-conservation of angular momentum in the same method is resolved. Shell effects on the deformation energy in rotational bands of deformed nuclei are discussed. (B.F.G.)

  14. Deformed configurations, band structures and spectroscopic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... Here, we study theoretically the low-lying as well as the excited deformed bands and their electromagnetic properties to search for various structures, spherical and deformed, of the exotic nuclei 82Ge and 84Se by employing the deformed Hartree–Fock (HF) and angular momentum (J) projection method ...

  15. Conformal deformation of Riemann space and torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyzh, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    Method for investigating conformal deformations of Riemann spaces using torsion tensor, which permits to reduce the second ' order equations for Killing vectors to the system of the first order equations, is presented. The method is illustrated using conformal deformations of dimer sphere as an example. A possibility of its use when studying more complex deformations is discussed [ru

  16. Phase space deformations in phantom cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J. L.; Sabido, M.; Yee-Romero, C.

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the physical consequences of general phase space deformations on the minisuperspace of phantom cosmology. Based on the principle of physically equivalent descriptions in the deformed theory, we investigate for what values of the deformation parameters the arising descriptions are physically equivalent. We also construct and solve the quantum model and derive the semiclassical dynamics.

  17. Physiological response in pilot/back-seat man during aerial combat maneuvers in F-4E aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverett, S. D., Jr.; Davis, H. M., Jr.; Winter, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Comparison of objective/subjective physiological data between the pilot and the back-seat man during training within the G maneuvering envelope. It appears that the psychological requirements for the pilot to be mentally alert and physiologically adapted to a continually changing environment places additional responsibility on him to the extent the physiological signs monitored are indicative of a high stress condition and are increased by a significant amount over the back-seat man who is, in most instances, riding passively.

  18. Mapping the zone of eye-height utility for seated and standing observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wraga, M.; Proffitt, D. R.; Kaiser, M. K. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    In a series of experiments, we delimited a region within the vertical axis of space in which eye height (EH) information is used maximally to scale object heights, referred to as the "zone of eye height utility" (Wraga, 1999b Journal of Experimental Psychology, Human Perception and Performance 25 518-530). To test the lower limit of the zone, linear perspective (on the floor) was varied via introduction of a false perspective (FP) gradient while all sources of EH information except linear perspective were held constant. For seated (experiment 1a) observers, the FP gradient produced overestimations of height for rectangular objects up to 0.15 EH tall. This value was taken to be just outside the lower limit of the zone. This finding was replicated in a virtual environment, for both seated (experiment 1b) and standing (experiment 2) observers. For the upper limit of the zone, EH information itself was manipulated by lowering observers' center of projection in a virtual scene. Lowering the effective EH of standing (experiment 3) and seated (experiment 4) observers produced corresponding overestimations of height for objects up to about 2.5 EH. This zone of approximately 0.20-2.5 EH suggests that the human visual system weights size information differentially, depending on its efficacy.

  19. The efficacy of airflow and seat vibration on reducing visually induced motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Bos, Jelte E; Keshavarz, Behrang

    2017-09-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known sensation in virtual environments and simulators, typically characterized by a variety of symptoms such as pallor, sweating, dizziness, fatigue, and/or nausea. Numerous methods to reduce VIMS have been previously introduced; however, a reliable countermeasure is still missing. In the present study, the effect of airflow and seat vibration to alleviate VIMS was investigated. Eighty-two participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups (airflow, vibration, combined airflow and vibration, and control) and then exposed to a 15 min long video of a bicycle ride shot from first-person view. VIMS was measured using the Fast Motion Sickness Scale (FMS) and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ). Results showed that the exposure of airflow significantly reduced VIMS, whereas the presence of seat vibration, in contrast, did not have an impact on VIMS. Additionally, we found that females reported higher FMS scores than males, however, this sex difference was not found in the SSQ scores. Our findings demonstrate that airflow can be an effective and easy-to-apply technique to reduce VIMS in virtual environments and simulators, while vibration applied to the seat is not a successful method.

  20. An evaluation method on seat comfort based on optical motion capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing TAO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To research the sitting posture comfort evaluation method, through the example of comfort evaluation of the ergonomic seat and standard office seat, a methodology is introduced to evaluate the sitting posture comfort combining ergonomics theory. The proposed method is based on optical motion capture system, pressure sensor and JACK software, and TRC file is acquired by using EVART real-time capture software for identifying the spatial motion trail of human body. Then MATLAB software is used to analyze the human body motion data, and the sitting posture angle difference data for human body in different seats is acquired. TRC file is loaded into JACK software, and with the TAT REPORTER of JACK software, muscle force, moment of force and fatigue data, etc. are output, which are compared with the actual measured data from experiments, and ergonomics method is used for the evaluation. The result shows that the method of considering joint angles combining JACK software for data output is effective for evaluating sitting comfort.