WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevents reflected ground

  1. Estimating cotton canopy ground cover from remotely sensed scene reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maas, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    Many agricultural applications require spatially distributed information on growth-related crop characteristics that could be supplied through aircraft or satellite remote sensing. A study was conducted to develop and test a methodology for estimating plant canopy ground cover for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) from scene reflectance. Previous studies indicated that a relatively simple relationship between ground cover and scene reflectance could be developed based on linear mixture modeling. Theoretical analysis indicated that the effects of shadows in the scene could be compensated for by averaging the results obtained using scene reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelengths. The methodology was tested using field data collected over several years from cotton test plots in Texas and California. Results of the study appear to verify the utility of this approach. Since the methodology relies on information that can be obtained solely through remote sensing, it would be particularly useful in applications where other field information, such as plant size, row spacing, and row orientation, is unavailable

  2. Grounded theory: reflections on the emergence vs. forcing debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boychuk Duchscher, Judy E; Morgan, Debra

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare Glaser's model of theory generation, where theory rises directly and rigorously out of the data, devoid of interpretivism, to Strauss's conceptually descriptive approach that encourages directive questioning and supports an interpretive stance. The discovery of grounded theory (GT) was born out of a merger between Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss, the proverbial 'fathers' of GT. Since the co-creation of their approach to theory development through research in 1967, these scholars have taken seemingly divergent paths in further developing and evolving the pragmatic use of GT. Numerous researchers have used GT as a general method, applying it to both quantitative and qualitative research approaches. In this paper we discuss the stages and strategies of data sampling, collection, coding and analysing used by both Glaser and Strauss. Constant comparative analysis is identified as the primary strategy in the integrated coding and analysing stages of this theorizing method, regardless of the researcher's philosophical or research orientation. We also discuss initial or open coding, advanced coding, memoing, and theoretical sampling, with particular attention to comparing and contrasting the descriptive terms and application strategies that have been suggested by both Glaser and Strauss. The reported distinctions in the approach, method, and general intent of GT reflected in this paper are not easy to comprehend. The two methods reflect different basic philosophical paradigms, and therefore represent distinct approaches to GT. Researchers need to be clear about which philosophy and resulting analysis approach they are using, and the effect that approach will have on the research process and outcomes.

  3. To what extent do youth-focused prevention programmes reflect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite considerable effort directed towards youth focused prevention activities in South Africa, little is known about the content of these activities. A major concern is the extent to which substance abuse prevention programmes reflect evidence-based practices (EBPs). This paper reports on the findings from a ...

  4. Reflecting on e-Recruiting Research Using Grounded Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfswinkel, Joost; Furtmueller-Ettinger, Elfriede; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of the e-Recruiting literature through a grounded theory lens. The large number of publications and the increasing diversity of publications on e-Recruiting research, as the most studied area within e-HRM (Electronic Human Resource Management), calls for a

  5. Classic Grounded Theory to Analyse Secondary Data: Reality and Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Andrews

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on the experiences of two researchers and discusses how they conducted a secondary data analysis using classic grounded theory. The aim of the primary study was to explore first-time parents’ postnatal educational needs. A subset of the data from the primary study (eight transcripts from interviews with fathers was used for the secondary data analysis. The objectives of the secondary data analysis were to identify the challenges of using classic grounded theory with secondary data and to explore whether the re-analysis of primary data using a different methodology would yield a different outcome. Through the process of re-analysis a tentative theory emerged on ‘developing competency as a father’. Challenges encountered during this re-analysis included the small dataset, the pre-framed data, and limited ability for theoretical sampling. This re-analysis proved to be a very useful learning tool for author 1(LA, who was a novice with classic grounded theory.

  6. The development of videos in culturally grounded drug prevention for rural native Hawaiian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K; Helm, Susana; McClain, Latoya L; Dinson, Ay-Laina

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt and validate narrative scripts to be used for the video components of a culturally grounded drug prevention program for rural Native Hawaiian youth. Scripts to be used to film short video vignettes of drug-related problem situations were developed based on a foundation of pre-prevention research funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Seventy-four middle- and high-school-aged youth in 15 focus groups adapted and validated the details of the scripts to make them more realistic. Specifically, youth participants affirmed the situations described in the scripts and suggested changes to details of the scripts to make them more culturally specific. Suggested changes to the scripts also reflected preferred drug resistance strategies described in prior research, and varied based on the type of drug offerer described in each script (i.e., peer/friend, parent, or cousin/sibling). Implications for culturally grounded drug prevention are discussed.

  7. Body volume in ground beetles (Carabidae reflects biotope disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langraf Vladimír

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in body size of living organisms can indicate changes in environmental quality. The family Carabidae is frequently used as an indicator of environmental status. We collected ground beetles in 9 Slovakian localities (in the Veporské vrchy Mts and the Juhoslovenská kotlina Basin of various levels of disturbance, and evaluated the volume of individuals. The lowest average body volumes of individual were found for an intensively grazed pasture (locality 5 and a nitrophilous waterside vegetation (locality 6 (1,298 mm3–4,648 mm3 with predominantly macropterous species. We have confirmed the significantly higher average biovolume value of individual Carabidae in less disturbed habitats: a Picea abies plantation (locality 1, a Carpathian oak-hornbeam forest (locality 4 and a Carpathian turkey oak forest (locality 7 (from 9,837 mm3 to 13,038 mm3, where apterous and brachypterous species dominated.

  8. Identifying causes of ground-penetrating radar reflections using time-domain reflectometry and sedimentological analyses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, R.L.; Schlager, W.

    2000-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical technique widely used to study the shallow subsurface and identify various sediment features that reflect electromagnetic waves. However, little is known about the exact cause of GPR reflections because few studies have coupled wave theory to

  9. Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds for Ground Support Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery Eliza L.; Calle, Luz, Marina; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The need to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. CPCs are used as temporary protective coatings and must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different oily film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing. The results for the fifteen CPC systems are presented in this paper.

  10. Applying measured reflection from the ground to simulations of thermal perfromance of solar collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Solar radiation on tilted and vertical surfaces in the Arctic is, in large parts of the year, strongly influenced by reflection from snow. In connection with planning and optimization of energy efficient buildings and solar energy systems in the Arctic, it is important to have an accurate...... and the azimuth of the surface in question. The paper will present an analysis of simulations of the thermal performance of solar collectors using the standard description of the albedo and using the albedo determined by the measurements. It will be elucidated how important an accurate description...... of the reflection from the ground is for the thermal performance of solar collectors....

  11. Modelling of ground penetrating radar data in stratified media using the reflectivity technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, Armando R; Sen, Mrinal K; Stoffa, Paul L

    2008-01-01

    Horizontally layered media are often encountered in shallow exploration geophysics. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) data in these environments can be modelled by techniques that are more efficient than finite difference (FD) or finite element (FE) schemes because the lateral homogeneity of the media allows us to reduce the dependence on the horizontal spatial variables through Fourier transforms on these coordinates. We adapt and implement the invariant embedding or reflectivity technique used to model elastic waves in layered media to model GPR data. The results obtained with the reflectivity and FDTD modelling techniques are in excellent agreement and the effects of the air–soil interface on the radiation pattern are correctly taken into account by the reflectivity technique. Comparison with real wide-angle GPR data shows that the reflectivity technique can satisfactorily reproduce the real GPR data. These results and the computationally efficient characteristics of the reflectivity technique (compared to FD or FE) demonstrate its usefulness in interpretation and possible model-based inversion schemes of GPR data in stratified media

  12. Navigating Grounded Theory:A critical and reflective response to the challenges of using grounded theory in an education PhD

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a critical reflection upon the use of a grounded theory approach within a doctoral study. As well as providing an outline of grounded theory, it begins by noting the existence of some powerful critiques of a grounded theory approach, in particular around the key concepts of ‘theory’, ‘discovery’ and ‘ground’. It is argued that, in some cases, grounded theory struggles to counter these challenges, especially in its ‘purist’ forms. However, with reference to research carried o...

  13. Evaluation of DRM system for reflective crack prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-31

    Reflective cracking in asphalt pavements presents a serious problem for highway agencies : worldwide. A new interlayer membrane system, DRM, which is a proprietary system consisting of : a sealant and an emulsion, was constructed by the Mississippi D...

  14. National Enforcement Initiative: Preventing Animal Waste from Contaminating Surface and Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page describes EPA's goal in preventing animal waste from contaminating surface and ground Water. It is an EPA National Enforcement Initiative. Both enforcement cases, and a map of enforcement actions are provided.

  15. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TA-60 Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) is applicable to operations at the Technical Area -60 (TA-60) Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area off Eniwetok Drive, in Los Alamos County, New Mexico.

  16. The Development of Videos in Culturally Grounded Drug Prevention for Rural Native Hawaiian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; McClain, Latoya L.; Dinson, Ay-Laina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt and validate narrative scripts to be used for the video components of a culturally grounded drug prevention program for rural Native Hawaiian youth. Scripts to be used to film short video vignettes of drug-related problem situations were developed based on a foundation of pre-prevention research funded by the…

  17. Ground-penetrating radar study of the Cena Bog, Latvia: linkage of reflections with peat moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karušs, J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Present work illustrates results of the ground-penetrating radar (GPR study of the Cena Bog, Latvia. Six sub-horizontal reflections that most probably correspond to boundaries between sediments with different electromagnetic properties were identified. One of the reflections corresponds to bog peat mineral bottom interface but the rest are linked to boundaries within the peat body. The radar profiles are incorporated with sediment cores and studies of peat moisture and ash content, and degree of decomposition. Most of the electromagnetic wave reflections are related to changes in peat moisture content. The obtained data show that peat moisture content changes of at least 3 % are required to cause GPR signal reflection. However, there exist reflections that do not correlate with peat moisture content. As a result, authors disagree with a dominant opinion that all reflections in bogs are solely due to changes in volumetric peat moisture content.

  18. Seismic-reflection and ground penetrating radar for environmental site characterization. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumb, R.; Steeples, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    'The project''s goals are threefold: (1) to examine the complementary site-characterization capabilities of modern, three-component shallow-seismic techniques and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) methods at depths ranging from 2 to 8 m at an existing test site; (2) to demonstrate the usefulness of the two methods when used in concert to characterize, in three-dimensions, the cone of depression of a pumping well, which will serve as a proxy site for fluid-flow at an actual, polluted site; and (3) to use the site as an outdoor mesoscale laboratory to validate existing three-dimensional ground-penetrating radar and seismic-reflection computer models developed at the Univ. of Kansas. To do this, useful seismic and GPR data are being collected along the same line(s) and within the same depth range. The principal investigators selected a site in central Kansas as a primary location and, although the site itself is not environmentally sensitive, the location chosen offers particularly useful attributes for this research and will serve as a proxy site for areas that are contaminated. As part of an effort to evaluate the strengths of each method, the authors will repeat the seismic and GPR surveys on a seasonal basis to establish how the complementary information obtained varies over time. Because the water table fluctuates at this site on a seasonal basis, variations in the two types of data over time also can be observed. Such noninvasive in-situ methods of identifying and characterizing the hydrologic flow regimes at contaminated sites support the prospect of developing effective, cost-conscious cleanup strategies in the near future. As of the end of May 1998, the project is on schedule. The first field work was conducted using both of the geophysical survey methods in October of 1997, and the second field survey employed both methods in March of 1998. One of the stated tasks is to reoccupy the same survey line on a quarterly basis for two years to examine change in both

  19. Ground-Based Observations and Modeling of the Visibility and Radar Reflectivity in a Radiation Fog Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, R.; Baltink, K.H.; Hemink, H.J.; Bosveld, F.C.; Moerman, M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of a radiation fog layer at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research(51.97°N, 4.93°E) on 23 March 2011 was observed with ground-based in situ and remote sensing observationsto investigate the relationship between visibility and radar reflectivity. The fog layer thickness

  20. Sagittal Plane Knee Biomechanics and Vertical Ground Reaction Forces Are Modified Following ACL Injury Prevention Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Padua, Darin A.; DiStefano, Lindsay J.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) occur because of excessive loading on the knee. ACL injury prevention programs can influence sagittal plane ACL loading factors and vertical ground reaction force (VGRF). Objective: To determine the influence of ACL injury prevention programs on sagittal plane knee biomechanics (anterior tibial shear force, knee flexion angle/moments) and VGRF. Data Sources: The PubMed database was searched for studies published between January 1988 an...

  1. Determination of the myoglobin states in ground beef using non-invasive reflectance spectrometry and multivariate regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelanovic, Milena; Sørheim, Oddvin; Slinde, Erik; Puolanne, Eero; Isaksson, Tomas; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

    2013-11-01

    Seventy-two samples of ground beef from M. semimembranosus of two 5 and two 1.5year old animals were prepared. Two types of fat tissues from either beef or pork were added to the ground beef. The samples were prepared to contain predominantly deoxymyoglobin (DMb), oxymyoglobin (OMb) and metmyoglobin (MMb) states on surfaces using selected methods based on chemical treatment (for MMb) and oxygen pressure packaging to induce the two other states. Reflectance spectra were measured on ground beef after three storage times. Partial least regression analysis was used to make calibration models of the desired myoglobin states. Validated models using leave-one-sample out cross validation gave, after correction and normalization, prediction errors of about 5%. Long term storage of ground beef was unsuitable for preparing pure MMb states due to gradual reduction of the pigment to DMb, presumably by bacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploration of a Polarized Surface Bidirectional Reflectance Model Using the Ground-Based Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Diner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate characterization of surface reflection is essential for retrieval of aerosols using downward-looking remote sensors. In this paper, observations from the Ground-based Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (GroundMSPI are used to evaluate a surface polarized bidirectional reflectance distribution function (PBRDF model. GroundMSPI is an eight-band spectropolarimetric camera mounted on a rotating gimbal to acquire pushbroom imagery of outdoor landscapes. The camera uses a very accurate photoelastic-modulator-based polarimetric imaging technique to acquire Stokes vector measurements in three of the instrument’s bands (470, 660, and 865 nm. A description of the instrument is presented, and observations of selected targets within a scene acquired on 6 January 2010 are analyzed. Data collected during the course of the day as the Sun moved across the sky provided a range of illumination geometries that facilitated evaluation of the surface model, which is comprised of a volumetric reflection term represented by the modified Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete function plus a specular reflection term generated by a randomly oriented array of Fresnel-reflecting microfacets. While the model is fairly successful in predicting the polarized reflection from two grass targets in the scene, it does a poorer job for two manmade targets (a parking lot and a truck roof, possibly due to their greater degree of geometric organization. Several empirical adjustments to the model are explored and lead to improved fits to the data. For all targets, the data support the notion of spectral invariance in the angular shape of the unpolarized and polarized surface reflection. As noted by others, this behavior provides valuable constraints on the aerosol retrieval problem, and highlights the importance of multiangle observations.

  3. Reflecting on the challenges of choosing and using a grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Kathleen; Tilki, Mary; Taylor, Georgina

    2014-11-01

    To explore three different approaches to grounded theory and consider some of the possible philosophical assumptions underpinning them. Grounded theory is a comprehensive yet complex methodology that offers a procedural structure that guides the researcher. However, divergent approaches to grounded theory present dilemmas for novice researchers seeking to choose a suitable research method. This is a methodology paper. This is a reflexive paper that explores some of the challenges experienced by a PhD student when choosing and operationalising a grounded theory approach. Before embarking on a study, novice grounded theory researchers should examine their research beliefs to assist them in selecting the most suitable approach. This requires an insight into the approaches' philosophical assumptions, such as those pertaining to ontology and epistemology. Researchers need to be clear about the philosophical assumptions underpinning their studies and the effects that different approaches will have on the research results. This paper presents a personal account of the journey of a novice grounded theory researcher who chose a grounded theory approach and worked within its theoretical parameters. Novice grounded theory researchers need to understand the different philosophical assumptions that influence the various grounded theory approaches, before choosing one particular approach.

  4. Three-dimensional fusion of spaceborne and ground radar reflectivity data using a neural network-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Leilei; Wang, Zhuihui; Xu, Fen

    2018-03-01

    The spaceborne precipitation radar onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite (TRMM PR) can provide good measurement of the vertical structure of reflectivity, while ground radar (GR) has a relatively high horizontal resolution and greater sensitivity. Fusion of TRMM PR and GR reflectivity data may maximize the advantages from both instruments. In this paper, TRMM PR and GR reflectivity data are fused using a neural network (NN)-based approach. The main steps included are: quality control of TRMM PR and GR reflectivity data; spatiotemporal matchup; GR calibration bias correction; conversion of TRMM PR data from Ku to S band; fusion of TRMM PR and GR reflectivity data with an NN method; interpolation of reflectivity data that are below PR's sensitivity; blind areas compensation with a distance weighting-based merging approach; combination of three types of data: data with the NN method, data below PR's sensitivity and data within compensated blind areas. During the NN fusion step, the TRMM PR data are taken as targets of the training NNs, and gridded GR data after horizontal downsampling at different heights are used as the input. The trained NNs are then used to obtain 3D high-resolution reflectivity from the original GR gridded data. After 3D fusion of the TRMM PR and GR reflectivity data, a more complete and finer-scale 3D radar reflectivity dataset incorporating characteristics from both the TRMM PR and GR observations can be obtained. The fused reflectivity data are evaluated based on a convective precipitation event through comparison with the high resolution TRMM PR and GR data with an interpolation algorithm.

  5. Ground-Based VIS/NIR Reflectance Spectra of 25143 Itokawa: What Hayabusa will See and How Ground-Based Data can Augment Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Faith; Abell, P. A.; Jarvis, K. S.

    2004-01-01

    Planning for the arrival of the Hayabusa spacecraft at asteroid 25143 Itokawa includes consideration of the expected spectral information to be obtained using the AMICA and NIRS instruments. The rotationally-resolved spatial coverage the asteroid we have obtained with ground-based telescopic spectrophotometry in the visible and near-infrared can be utilized here to address expected spacecraft data. We use spectrophotometry to simulate the types of data that Hayabusa will receive with the NIRS and AMICA instruments, and will demonstrate them here. The NIRS will cover a wavelength range from 0.85 m, and have a dispersion per element of 250 Angstroms. Thus, we are limited in coverage of the 1.0 micrometer and 2.0 micrometer mafic silicate absorption features. The ground-based reflectance spectra of Itokawa show a large component of olivine in its surface material, and the 2.0 micrometer feature is shallow. Determining the olivine to pyroxene abundance ratio is critically dependent on the attributes of the 1.0- and 2.0 micrometer features. With a cut-off near 2,1 micrometer the longer edge of the 2.0- feature will not be obtained by NIRS. Reflectance spectra obtained using ground-based telescopes can be used to determine the regional composition around space-based spectral observations, and possibly augment the longer wavelength spectral attributes. Similarly, the shorter wavelength end of the 1.0 micrometer absorption feature will be partially lost to the NIRS. The AMICA filters mimic the ECAS filters, and have wavelength coverage overlapping with the NIRS spectral range. We demonstrate how merging photometry from AMICA will extend the spectral coverage of the NIRS. Lessons learned from earlier spacecraft to asteroids should be considered.

  6. The use of ground reflecting boards in measuring wind turbine noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, A.R.; Mackinnon, A.; Benson, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives an account of an experimental programme to assess the ground microphone measurement technique which can potentially increase the accuracy, reliability and confidence in wind turbine noise emission measurements. It shows that a 1 m diameter circular board can achieve acceptable accuracy and, since it is significantly more practical to use, could readily be adopted for international standards. (author)

  7. Ground magnetic studies along a regional seismic-reflection profile across Bare Mountain, Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Ponce, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Ground magnetic data were collected along a 26-km-long regional seismic-reflection profile in southwest Nevada that starts in the Amargosa Desert, crosses Bare Mountain, Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain, and ends in Midway Valley. Parallel ground magnetic profiles were also collected about 100 m to either side of the western half of the seismic-reflection line. The magnetic data indicate that the eastern half of Crater Flat is characterized by closely-spaced faulting (1--2 km) in contrast to the western half of Crater Flat. Modeling of the data indicates that the Topopah Spring Tuff is offset about 250 m on the Solitario Canyon fault and about 50 m on the Ghost Dance fault. These estimates of fault offset are consistent with seismic-reflection data and geologic mapping. A broad magnetic high of about 500--600 nT is centered over Crater Flat. Modeling of the magnetic data indicates that the source of this high is not thickening and doming of the Bullfrog Tuff, but more likely lies below the Bullfrog Tuff. Possible source lithologies for this magnetic high include altered argillite of the Eleana Formation, Cretaceous or Tertiary intrusions, and mafic sills

  8. Teaching Theory Construction With Initial Grounded Theory Tools: A Reflection on Lessons and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmaz, Kathy

    2015-12-01

    This article addresses criticisms of qualitative research for spawning studies that lack analytic development and theoretical import. It focuses on teaching initial grounded theory tools while interviewing, coding, and writing memos for the purpose of scaling up the analytic level of students' research and advancing theory construction. Adopting these tools can improve teaching qualitative methods at all levels although doctoral education is emphasized here. What teachers cover in qualitative methods courses matters. The pedagogy presented here requires a supportive environment and relies on demonstration, collective participation, measured tasks, progressive analytic complexity, and accountability. Lessons learned from using initial grounded theory tools are exemplified in a doctoral student's coding and memo-writing excerpts that demonstrate progressive analytic development. The conclusion calls for increasing the number and depth of qualitative methods courses and for creating a cadre of expert qualitative methodologists. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Ground, Warmth, and Light: Facilitating Conditions for Reflection and Transformative Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mälkki, Kaisu; Green, Larry

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we look into the conditions in which dialogue could be utilized to facilitate transformative learning and reflection. We explore the notion of a safe and accepting learning environment from the relational and phenomenological viewpoint, and analyze what it actually means and how it may be developed. We understand facilitating…

  10. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) reflecting environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivula, Matti J

    2011-01-01

    Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in 'natural' conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as 'indicators' - a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1) Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2) Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3) Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and 'ecosystem health'. (4) Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5) Carabids reflect variation in 'natural' conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6) Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7) Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because they are diverse

  11. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae reflecting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Koivula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in ‘natural’ conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as ‘indicators’ − a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1 Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2 Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3 Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and ‘ecosystem health’. (4 Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5 Carabids reflect variation in ‘natural’ conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6 Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7 Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because

  12. A continuum of approaches toward developing culturally focused prevention interventions: from adaptation to grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio F; Steiker, Lori K Holleran; Dustman, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a conceptual model of methods used to develop culturally focused interventions. We describe a continuum of approaches ranging from non-adapted/surface-structure adapted programs to culturally grounded programs, and present recent examples of interventions resulting from the application of each of these approaches. The model has implications for categorizing culturally focused prevention efforts more accurately, and for gauging the time, resources, and level of community engagement necessary to develop programs using each of the different methods. The model also has implications for funding decisions related to the development and evaluation of programs, and for planning of participatory research approaches with community members.

  13. Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Embree

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideally, editorials are written one to two months before publication in the Journal. It was my turn to write this one. I had planned to write the first draft the evening after my clinic on Tuesday, September 11. It didn't get done that night or during the next week. Somehow, the topic that I had originally chosen just didn't seem that important anymore as I, along my friends and colleagues, reflected on the changes that the events of that day were likely to have on our lives.

  14. A reflection on the application of grounded theory in the exploration of the experiences of informal carers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Jeggels

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reflect on the application of a qualitative research method that presents novice researchers with a variety of challenges. It is suggested that prospective users of the grounded theory method should seek guidance from experts in the field. However, to find these experts has proved to be quite challenging. The research topic lends itself to a qualitative study in general using the grounded theory method in particular. A qualitative approach was followed to describe the experiences of informal carers within their unique contexts. The guidelines of Strauss and Corbin (1990,1998 formed the basis for the development of the grounded theory. The challenges that will be described in a fair amount of detail in this paper include: an understanding of interpretive research paradigms, the philosophical underpinning of the method; its focus on social context; the inductive data analysis processes that allows for the emergence of a substantive theory from empirical data. Prospective scholars should also recognize that grounded theorists follow different approaches to the application of the method. Some subscribe to the traditions of the founders (Glaser & Strauss, 1967, while others choose the analytical rules and procedures proposed by the followers of the method (Strauss & Corbin, 1990,1998. In this paper I reflect on the application of the grounded theory method to explore the experiences of informal carers during the transition of the elderly from hospital to home. The research outcomes showed that informal carers were facilitating care during the transition of the elderly from hospital to home by revealing the link between facilitating care, the basic social process, and other categories associated with informal health care. These categories include: the prior relationship between the carer and the elderly, the traumatic incident, the need for role fitting, maintenance- and repair care, as well as, the consequences of

  15. Integrating Seismic Reflection and Ground Penetrating Radar Data at the Marine Corps Air Station, Beaufort, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, A. D.; Knapp, C. C.; Waddell, M. G.

    2006-12-01

    Extensive work has been performed at the Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) in Beaufort South Carolina to characterize the subsurface and generate a groundwater flow model for an assessment of MCAS aquifer vulnerability and contamination potential using various hydrogeological and geophysical techniques such as slug tests, vertical seismic profiling (VSP), borehole geophysics, vertical electrical soundings, and seismic reflection surveys. The goal of the additional research is to integrate the existing seismic reflection data with newly acquired GPR data in order to: (1) demonstrate the effectiveness of the GPR as a tool for site characterization and (2) obtain hydrogeophysical parameters in a heterogeneous environment. The primary focus of the MCAS Beaufort groundwater flow model is to understand the interaction between the unconsolidated clastic Pleistocene sediments and the underlying Eocene Ocala Limestone, which is the primary aquifer. GPR data were collected along the transect of seismic reflection line MCAS-2 which is a total length of approximately 1700 m with a recording length of 500 ms. There are several wells along the profile that were utilized for hydrogeological and geophysical calibration. Preliminary GPR data were collected adjacent to ground water monitor well BFT-2368, using the 50 and 100 MHz frequency antennas, and consisted of three reflection profiles that vary in length from approximately 210 to 240 m. Comparison of the GPR and seismic data illustrate that the two applications complement one another with respect to resolution. Where GPR data contain better detail (more continuous reflectors) in the shallow subsurface, the seismic data contain less detail but deeper reflections. We are using the seismic attributes such as acoustic impedance, and the dielectric properties estimated from the GPR data in order to make assessments on hydrogeological parameters such as porosity and further, hydraulic conductivity.

  16. Avoiding genetically modified foods in GMO Ground Zero: A reflective self-narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sachi

    2015-05-01

    I engage in a reflective self-narrative of my experience attempting to maintain a diet free of genetically modified organisms. Social tension over the genetically modified organism industry in Hawai'i, United States, has led to public debates over jobs and social identities. Drawing on local media sources, grassroots organizations, and blog posts, I describe the way this tension has shaped my experience with food, eating, and being with others as a genetically modified organism avoider. I utilize discursive positioning to make sense of my experiences by locating them within the ongoing public conversations that give structure to the daily lives of Hawai'i's residents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Ground Reaction Force in Sit-to-stand Movement Reflects Lower Limb Muscle Strength and Power in Community-dwelling Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taishi Tsuji

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Ground reaction force parameters in an STS movement can accurately reflect the dynamic strength and power in the lower limbs, which is approximately equal to or better than the strength and power reflected by the five-times STS test.

  18. Combined fluorescence, reflectance, and ground measurements of a stressed Norway spruce forest for forest damage assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banninger, C.

    1991-01-01

    The detection and monitoring of stress and damage in forested areas is of utmost importance to forest managers for planning purposes. Remote sensing are the most suitable means to obtain this information. This requires that remote sensing data employed in a forest survey be properly chosen and utilized for their ability to measure canopy spectral features directly related to key tree and canopy properties that are indicators of forest health and vitality. Plant reflectance in the visible to short wave IR regions (400 to 2500 nm) provides information on its biochemical, biophysical, and morphological make up, whereas plant fluorescence in the 400 to 750 nm region is more indicative of the capacity and functioning of its photosynthetic apparatus. A measure of both these spectral properties can be used to provide an accurate assessment of stress and damage within the forest canopy. Foliar chlorophyll and nitrogen are essential biochemical constituents required for the proper functioning and maintenance of a plant's biological processes. Chlorophyll-a is the prime reactive center for photosynthesis, by which a plant converts CO2 and H2O into necessary plant products. Nitrogen forms an important component of the amino-acids, enzymes, proteins, alkaloids, and cyanogenic compounds that make up a plant, including its pigments. Both chlorophyll and nitrogen have characteristic absorption features in the visible to short wave IR region. By measuring the wavelength position and depth of these features and the fluorescence response of the foliage, the health and vitality of a canopy can be ascertained. Examples for a stressed Norway spruce forest in south-eastern Austria are presented.

  19. Places of Faith: A Reflection on Landscape of Manila Cathedral Plaza de Roma and Istiqlal Mosque Sacred Grounds of Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujalte, MM; Navarra, N.

    2017-10-01

    Crossing boundaries of faith from Manila to Jakarta, this study is to classify the open spaces in their sacred grounds according to its characteristics, elements, use of space and hierarchy of importance in landscape design approach. The reflection of their religious landscape in preserving the traditional, and exploring the non-traditional aspect of their landscape design in global setting is carried out thru a spatial analysis for Plaza de Roma of Manila Cathedral and the sacred grounds of Istiqlal Mosque. The design framework would tackle: concepts, planning approach, functional symbolic values, and aesthetics used. The data and information are all examined based on observation, historical background, analyses, and literature content in determining spatial functions. Finally, when results are completed, this will give a better understanding on the importance of open areas in Manila and Jakarta’s sacred spaces; paving way for a better sense of comfort in spiritual contemplation. This will also help reveal the commonalities in spiritual practices between Islam and Christianity, and the role of landscape in their religion and faith.

  20. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan - TA-60 Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-60 Roads and Grounds and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60 Roads and Grounds and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  1. Interpretation of the distortion of ground-penetrating radar propagated and reflected waves - development of a multi-frequency tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollender, F.

    1999-01-01

    Within the framework of research for waste disposal in deep geological formations, the French agency for nuclear waste management (ANDRA) has to dispose of non-destructive investigation methods to characterize the medium. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) could be used for this purpose in the case of granitic sites. The work presented here deals with this geophysical method. The classical interpretation of GPR data consists in the localization of geological discontinuities by signal amplitude or arrival time analysis. The main objective of our studies is the interpretation of the radar wave distortion (due to propagation and reflection phenomena), not only to localize discontinuities but also to contribute to their identification. Three preliminary studies have been carried out in order to understand on the one hand, the complexity of the electromagnetic phenomena in the geological medium at radar frequency, and on the other hand, the radar equipment constraints. First, the dispersion and the attenuation characterized by a Q variable factor of the GPR waves are shown with the support of dielectric laboratory measurements. A model, which only requires three parameters, is proposed in order to describe this behavior. Second, the radiation patterns of borehole radar antenna are studied. We show that the amplitude and frequency content of the emitted signal are variable versus the emission angle. An analytical method is proposed to study these phenomena. Finally, instrumental drifts of GPR equipment are studied. Emission time, sampling frequency and amplitude fluctuations are described. These elements are taken into account for the processing of propagated signals by tomographic inversion. Medium anisotropy and borehole trajectory errors are inserted in algorithms in order to cancel artifacts which compromised the previous interpretation. A pre-processing method, based on wave separation algorithm, is applied on data in order to increase tomogram resolution. A new

  2. Embodied Revelation: A Classic Grounded Theory of Heart Failure Patient Decision Making Surrounding Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Barton-Caro Ph.D.,

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to explain the complex decision making process of heart failure (HF) patients considering primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of death for people with HF as well as the primary cause of death in the United States (US). ICDs represent the standard of care as the only effective therapy for primary prevention of SCD. However, a significant proportion of quali...

  3. Prevention of ground-water quality degradation during reclamation of a uraniferous lignite mine, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, R.L.; Anderson, G.S.; Hill, S.R.; Burgess, J.L.; Wald, J.D.; Patrick, D.P.; Hall, R.L.; Unseth, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    About 590,000 pounds of uranium oxide were recovered from 85,000 tons of lignite in at least 16 North Dakota pits between 1955 and 1967. Because uranium salts in the overburden generally were not recovered, spoil piles at abandoned mine sites contain elevated uranium contents. Reclamation of these mines is required to eliminate public hazards due to elevated radiation and toxic-element levels. A pilot reclamation project was implemented at one abandoned mine pit in northwestern Stark County. Basically, the reclamation involved the replacement of spoil material into the pits from which it was removed. Based on analyses of drill-hole cutting samples obtained from 2-foot depth increments on a 50-foot grid over the 7.25-acre spoil pile, spoil material with radium-226 concentrations exceeding 5 picocuries per gram above background or with uranium concentrations exceeding 5 times background was identified and mapped in three dimensions. This ''most-contaminated'' spoil material was selectively replaced in the mine pits above the water table to prevent dissolution of uranium salts and under a minimum of 5 feed of cover to minimize postreclamation surface-radiation levels. Similarly, areas of spoils with specific conductance greater than 5,000 microsiemens per centimeter were replaced at least 6 feet below the postreclamation ground surface to promote revegetation and above the water table to prevent enrichment of dissolved-solids concentrations in the aquifer. Finally, replaced zones of high radioactivity and soluble salts were capped with clay from the base of an adjacent pit; and the surface topography was mounded to minimize infiltration that might introduce radioactive and other soluble salts into the aquifer

  4. Radar Reflectivity and Specific Attenuation in Melting Layer measured with Ground-based Ka-Radar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Kaneko, Yuki; Nakagawa, Katsuhiko; Furukawa, Kinji; Suzuki, Kenji

    2017-04-01

    The scattering/attenuation characteristics of Ka-band radiowaves are measured with a dual Ka-band radar system whichi has been developed by JAXA. The dual Ka-band radar system consists of two nearly identical Ka-band FM-CW radars, and the precipitation systems between two radars are observed in opposite directions. From this experiment, equivalent radar reflectivity (Ze) and specific attenuation (k) are simultaneously obtained. Since calculation of k includes double differences along the radio path, the result is sensitive to the experimental parameters. Parameter tunings in data analysis including small change of radar elevation angles, etc are applied. After the parameter tuning, the k and Ze are reasonably obtained for clear melting layers, where Ze has a shape of a shelf, and k had a peak at the shoulder of the shelf. The results are qualitatively consistent with ground-based particle measurements. The results are used to evaluate the scattering/attenuation assumptions in the dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) aboard the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core satellite.

  5. Embodied Revelation: A Classic Grounded Theory of Heart Failure Patient Decision Making Surrounding Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Barton-Caro Ph.D.,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to explain the complex decision making process of heart failure (HF patients considering primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD therapy. Sudden cardiac death (SCD is the leading cause of death for people with HF as well as the primary cause of death in the United States (US. ICDs represent the standard of care as the only effective therapy for primary prevention of SCD. However, a significant proportion of qualifying HF patients declines this invasive, yet life-saving device. The grounded theory is of Embodied revelation. The threat of SCD for ICD candidates consists of four stages: living in conscious denial, heightening of awareness, sanctioning ICD therapy, and living in new assurance. The first stage ends abruptly with the critical juncture of grasping the threat of SCD. This grounded theory has implications for research, nursing and medical practice, as well as bioethical considerations.

  6. Evaluation of drought and UV radiation impacts on above-ground biomass of mountain grassland by spectral reflectance and thermal imaging techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, Kateřina; Klem, Karel; Holub, Petr; Rapantová, Barbora; Urban, Otmar

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, 1-2 (2016), s. 21-30 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : above-ground biomass * drought stress * grassland * UV radiation * precipitation * spectral reflectance * thermal imaging Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. Tip-over prevention through heuristic reactive behaviors for unmanned ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talke, Kurt; Kelley, Leah; Longhini, Patrick; Catron, Garret

    2014-06-01

    Skid-steer teleoperated robots are commonly used by military and civilian crews to perform high-risk, dangerous and critical tasks such as bomb disposal. Their missions are often performed in unstructured environments with irregular terrain, such as inside collapsed buildings or on rough terrain covered with a variety of media, such as sand, brush, mud, rocks and debris. During such missions, it is often impractical if not impossible to send another robot or a human operator to right a toppled robot. As a consequence, a robot tip-over event usually results in mission failure. To make matters more complicated, such robots are often equipped with heavy payloads that raise their centers of mass and hence increase their instability. Should the robot be equipped with a manipulator arm or flippers, it may have a way to self-right. The majority of manipulator arms are not designed for and are likely to be damaged during self-righting procedures, however, which typically have a low success rate. Furthermore, those robots not equipped with manipulator arms or flippers have no self-righting capabilities. Additionally, due to the on-board camera frame of reference, the video feed may cause the robot to appear to be on at level ground, when it actually may be on a slope nearing tip-over. Finally, robot operators are often so focused on the mission at hand they are oblivious to their surroundings, similar to a kid playing a video game. While this may not be an issue in the living room, it is not a good scenario to experience on the battlefield. Our research seeks to remove tip-over monitoring from the already large list of tasks an operator must perform. An autonomous tip-over prevention behavior for a mobile robot with a static payload has been developed, implemented and experimentally validated on two different teleoperated robotic platforms. Suitable for use with both teleoperated and autonomous robots, the prevention behavior uses the force-angle stability measure

  8. REFLECTIONS ON BEHAVIORAL CRISES PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION IN SPECIAL EDUCATION SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland PAULAUSKAS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of civilization made crises an inseparable part of our lives. Crises manifest themselves in almost all social areas and organizations, including educational institutions. The goals of the article are to present a theoretical model of normal, deviant and antisocial behaviors, and discuss the psycho-social characteristics of emotionally disturbed adolescents situated in a residential special education school in the United States. The article also gives an analysis of their most prevalent behavioral crises, escalation stages, as well as nonviolent crisis prevention and intervention strategies. The methods that were used include scientific literature review, analysis of statistical information supplied from different government sources, review and analysis of student records, as well as the author’s analytical reflections in working with emotionally disturbed youngsters in residential special education schools in the United States.The results of the study indicate that scientists from different fields use different terminology to describe socially nonconforming behaviors. The author presents a theoretical model of normal, deviant and antisocial behavior that could enhance better understanding and identification of high risk situations and conduct leading to serious crises. The analysis of student records revealed that most of the adolescents situated in special education residential schools are diagnosed with a number of mental health problems. This suggests that the currently prevailing care and education paradigm in the special education residential schools should shift to a more comprehensive treatment paradigm. The article also discusses the pros and cons of nonviolent crisis intervention. It is the author’s opinion that all special education schools serving children with emotional disorders should adopt one of the nonviolent crisis intervention models and develop and implement crisis management policies, plans and procedures.

  9. Prevention of suicide among adolescents and young people: reflecting on the experience of Western models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Bovina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze various preventive and proactive suicide programs, which operate in a number of Western countries. We consider various measures implemented under the auspices of the WHO, as well as in the framework of the European Alliance Against Depression. Following J. Henden, wediscuss three types of suicide prevention: primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary prevention covers the population as a whole – suicide prevention is to promote the value of health and life. This type of prevention is addressed to a wide audience, including teenagers and young adults groups. Secondary prevention is aimed at those who have attempted to commit suicide, because the presence of attempts is a significant feature that allows to predict next attempts. Tertiary prevention is addressed to suicider’s close circle, it aims at help the suicider’s relatives to survive this event, use the appropriate ways of coping with the tragic situation.

  10. Concomitant Use of Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for Quantification of Multiple Adulterants in Roasted and Ground Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Reis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed the joint use of Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR and Partial Least Square (PLS regression for the simultaneous quantification of four adulterants (coffee husks, spent coffee grounds, barley, and corn in roasted and ground coffee. Roasted coffee samples were intentionally blended with the adulterants, at adulteration levels ranging from 0.5 to 66% w/w. A robust methodology was implemented in which the identification of outliers was carried out. High correlation coefficients (0.99 for both calibration and validation coupled with low degrees of error (0.69% for calibration; 2.00% for validation confirmed that FTIR-ATR can be a valuable analytical tool for quantification of adulteration in roasted and ground coffee. This method is simple, fast, and reliable for the proposed purpose.

  11. The Learning Process of Supervisees Who Engage in the Reflecting Team Model within Group Supervision: A Grounded Theory Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, Rebecca Lynn

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, counselor educators have begun to incorporate the use of the reflecting team process with the training of counselors. Specifically, the reflecting team has been used in didactic courses (Cox, 2003; Landis & Young, 1994; Harrawood, Wilde & Parmanand, 2011) and in supervision (Cox, 1997; Prest, Darden, & Keller, 1990;…

  12. Getting behind closed doors : Reflections on legislation to prevent domestic violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römkens, R.; Lünnemann, K.

    2008-01-01

    The call for preventive interventions to curb domestic violence is becoming stronger. The barring order has been launched as an innovative approach to preventing domestic violence. It allows the police to temporarily bar the perpetrator of domestic violence from entering his or her home, as a way to

  13. "Talking about child sexual abuse would have helped me": Young people who sexually abused reflect on preventing harmful sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, Gemma; Humphreys, Cathy; Hamilton, Bridget

    2017-08-01

    Harmful sexual behavior carried out by children and young people accounts for about half of all child sexual abuse perpetration. The aim of this study was to draw on the insights of young people who had been sexually abusive to enhance the current prevention agenda. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 14 young people and six treatment-providing workers. Sampling was purposive and the young people had previously completed a treatment program for harmful sexual behaviour in Victoria, Australia. The young people were approached as experts based on their previous experience of engaging in harmful sexual behavior. At the same time, their past abusive behavior was not condoned or minimised. Constructivist Grounded Theory was used to analyse the qualitative data. Opportunities for preventing harmful sexual behavior were the focus of the interviews with young people and workers. The research identified three opportunities for prevention, which involved acting on behalf of children and young people to: reform their sexuality education; redress their victimization experiences; and help their management of pornography. These opportunities could inform the design of initiatives to enhance the prevention agenda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reflections on involuntary treatment in the prevention of fatal anorexia nervosa: A review of five cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Janni Schmidt; Brixen, Kim; Andries, Alin

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Involuntary treatment in the prevention of fatal anorexia nervosa (AN) is still controversial. METHOD: Five fatal cases of AN were identified out of 1,160 patients who attended a specialized eating disorder unit between 1994 and 2006. Information on inpatient, ambulatory, and emergency...

  15. Cross-evaluation of reflectivity from the space-borne precipitation radar and multi-type ground-based weather radar network in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lingzhi; Yang, Rongfang; Wen, Yixin; Chen, Lin; Gou, Yabin; Li, Ruiyi; Zhou, Qing; Hong, Yang

    2017-11-01

    China operational weather radar network consists of more than 200 ground-based radars (GR(s)). The lack of unified calibrators often result in poor mosaic products as well as its limitation in radar data assimilation in numerical models. In this study, radar reflectivity and precipitation vertical structures observed from space-borne TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission) PR (precipitation radar) and GRs are volumetrically matched and cross-evaluated. It is found that observation of GRs is basically consistent with that of PR. For their overlapping scanning regions, the GRs are often affected by the beam blockage for complex terrain. The statistics show the better agreement among S band A type (SA) radars, S band B type (SB) radars and PR, as well as poor performance of S band C type (SC) radars. The reflectivity offsets between GRs and PR depend on the reflectivity magnitudes: They are positive for weak precipitation and negative for middle and heavy precipitation, respectively. Although the GRs are quite consistent with PR for large sample, an individual GR has its own fluctuated biases monthly. When the sample number is small, the bias statistics may be determined by a single bad GR in a group. Results from this study shed lights that the space-borne precipitation radars could be used to quantitatively calibrate systematic bias existing in different GRs in order to improve the consistency of ground-based weather radar network across China, and also bears the promise to provide a robust reference even form a space and ground constellation network for the dual-frequency precipitation radars onboard the satellites anticipated in the near future.

  16. Dumping Ground or Effective Alternative: Dropout Prevention Programs in Urban Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Cori

    1998-01-01

    An alternative dropout-prevention program is examined from the students' perspectives. Findings from interviews and observations suggest that the program is effective in keeping the students in school but does little to help the students develop daily living and social skills. Policy implications are discussed and suggestions for future research…

  17. Ground measurements of the hemispherical-directional reflectance of Arctic snow covered tundra for the validation of satellite remote sensing products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, C. P.; Marks, A. A.; Green, P.; Mac Arthur, A.; Fox, N.; King, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Surface albedo is the hemispherical and wavelength integrated reflectance over the visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared regions of the solar spectrum. The albedo of Arctic snow can be in excess of 0.8 and it is a critical component in the global radiation budget because it determines the proportion of solar radiation absorbed, and reflected, over a large part of the Earth's surface. We present here our first results of the angularly resolved surface reflectance of Arctic snow at high solar zenith angles (~80°) suitable for the validation of satellite remote sensing products. The hemispherical directional reflectance factor (HDRF) of Arctic snow covered tundra was measured using the GonioRAdiometric Spectrometer System (GRASS) during a three-week field campaign in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, in March/April 2013. The measurements provide one of few existing HDRF datasets at high solar zenith angles for wind-blown Arctic snow covered tundra (conditions typical of the Arctic region), and the first ground-based measure of HDRF at Ny-Ålesund. The HDRF was recorded under clear sky conditions with 10° intervals in view zenith, and 30° intervals in view azimuth, for several typical sites over a wavelength range of 400-1500 nm at 1 nm resolution. Satellite sensors such as MODIS, AVHRR and VIIRS offer a method to monitor the surface albedo with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, snow reflectance is anisotropic and is dependent on view and illumination angle and the wavelength of the incident light. Spaceborne sensors subtend a discrete angle to the target surface and measure radiance over a limited number of narrow spectral bands. Therefore, the derivation of the surface albedo requires accurate knowledge of the surfaces bidirectional reflectance as a function of wavelength. The ultimate accuracy to which satellite sensors are able to measure snow surface properties such as albedo is dependant on the accuracy of the BRDF model, which can only be assessed

  18. Bankruptcy Prevention: New Effort to Reflect on Legal and Social Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliestik, Tomas; Misankova, Maria; Valaskova, Katarina; Svabova, Lucia

    2017-04-10

    Every corporation has an economic and moral responsibility to its stockholders to perform well financially. However, the number of bankruptcies in Slovakia has been growing for several years without an apparent macroeconomic cause. To prevent a rapid denigration and to prevent the outflow of foreign capital, various efforts are being zealously implemented. Robust analysis using conventional bankruptcy prediction tools revealed that the existing models are adaptable to local conditions, particularly local legislation. Furthermore, it was confirmed that most of these outdated tools have sufficient capability to warn of impending financial problems several years in advance. A novel bankruptcy prediction tool that outperforms the conventional models was developed. However, it is increasingly challenging to predict bankruptcy risk as corporations have become more global and more complex and as they have developed sophisticated schemes to hide their actual situations under the guise of "optimization" for tax authorities. Nevertheless, scepticism remains because economic engineers have established bankruptcy as a strategy to limit the liability resulting from court-imposed penalties.

  19. Sagittal Plane Knee Biomechanics and Vertical Ground Reaction Forces Are Modified Following ACL Injury Prevention Programs: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, Darin A; Distefano, Lindsay J

    2009-03-01

    Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) occur because of excessive loading on the knee. ACL injury prevention programs can influence sagittal plane ACL loading factors and vertical ground reaction force (VGRF). To determine the influence of ACL injury prevention programs on sagittal plane knee biomechanics (anterior tibial shear force, knee flexion angle/moments) and VGRF. The PubMed database was searched for studies published between January 1988 and June 2008. Reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. Studies were included that evaluated healthy participants for knee flexion angle, sagittal plane knee kinetics, or VGRF after performing a multisession training program. Two individuals reviewed all articles and determined which articles met the selection criteria. Approximately 4% of the articles fulfilled the selection criteria. Data were extracted regarding each program's duration, frequency, exercise type, population, supervision, and testing procedures. Means and variability measures were recorded to calculate effect sizes. One reviewer extracted all data and assessed study quality using PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database). A second reviewer (blinded) verified all information. There is moderate evidence to indicate that knee flexion angle, external knee flexion moment, and VGRF can be successfully modified by an ACL injury prevention program. Programs utilizing multiple exercises (ie, integrated training) appear to produce the most improvement, in comparison to that of single-exercise programs. Knee flexion angle was improved following integrated training (combined balance and strength exercises or combined plyometric and strength exercises). Similarly, external knee flexion moment was improved following integrated training consisting of balance, plyometric, and strength exercises. VGRF was improved when incorporating supervision with instruction and feedback on proper technique. ACL injury prevention programs that are aimed at

  20. Derivation of the Cramér-Rao Bound in the GNSS-Reflectometry Context for Static, Ground-Based Receivers in Scenarios with Coherent Reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Miguel Angel; Botteron, Cyril; Farine, Pierre-André

    2016-12-05

    The use of the reflected Global Navigation Satellite Systems' (GNSS) signals in Earth observation applications, referred to as GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R), has been already studied for more than two decades. However, the estimation precision that can be achieved by GNSS-R sensors in some particular scenarios is still not fully understood yet. In an effort to partially fill this gap, in this paper, we compute the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) for the specific case of static ground-based GNSS-R receivers and scenarios where the coherent component of the reflected signal is dominant. We compute the CRB for GNSS signals with different modulations, GPS L1 C/A and GPS L5 I/Q, which use binary phase-shift keying, and Galileo E1 B/C and E5, using the binary offset carrier. The CRB for these signals is evaluated as a function of the receiver bandwidth and different scenario parameters, such as the height of the receiver or the properties of the reflection surface. The CRB computation presented considers observation times of up to several tens of seconds, in which the satellite elevation angle observed changes significantly. Finally, the results obtained show the theoretical benefit of using modern GNSS signals with GNSS-R techniques using long observation times, such as the interference pattern technique.

  1. Expanding the value of qualitative theories of illness experience in clinical practice: a grounded theory of secondary heart disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ononeze, V; Murphy, A W; MacFarlane, A; Byrne, M; Bradley, C

    2009-06-01

    Qualitative theories of illness experience are about the individual interpretations of the psychosocial and cultural aspects of living with illness. Thus, they contribute to a better understanding of health and health care provision. In this paper, we examine how a grounded theory (GT) of heart disease experience can inform secondary prevention. In-depth interviews of individual experience of heart disease were conducted with 26 patients, using GT iterative data collection and analysis framework. A GT was compiled from data and examined within a sociocultural framework to ascertain how experience influenced health behaviour. Despite individual contextual variations, the theory of 'keeping it going' describes the study sample's common attitude to living with heart disease. The theory was adequate in explaining secondary cardiac behaviour, because it identified the aspects of patients' beliefs and attitudes which are key to effective secondary prevention. The assessment of the impact of illness experience on health behaviour within a sociocultural framework helped to articulate the strong influence of social and contextual factors. The study offers an appropriate explanatory framework for encouraging health behaviour change. It emphasizes the importance of interventions being relevant to individual perceptions and interpretations. It provides a framework for designing and evaluating cardiac interventions and the theoretical principles which underpin them.

  2. Failure of preventive measures against radon penetration from the ground in a new-built family house - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neznal, M.; Neznal, M.; Jiranek, M.; Fronka, A.

    2006-01-01

    A system of preventive protection of houses against radon penetration from the ground [1] has been in operation for more than 15 years in the Czech Republic. The determination of a so-called radon index of the building site represents the first step. The assessment is based on measurements of soil gas radon concentration and on the determination of soil permeability. During the years, the method was modified several times, especially the recommendation dealing with the classification of soil permeability, but the base remains stable: The soil characteristics are measured in-situ and protective measures are designed with respect to the measured properties of the soil and to the dwelling design. The site-specific, individual approach should enable to propose an optimal preventive strategy corresponding to local conditions. If the radon index is other than low (i.e. medium, or high), the building must be protected against radon in accordance with the Czech Atomic Law. Protective measures should be designed and installed according to the Czech National Standard [2]. Basic principles of the protection can be summarized in the following way: If the radon index of a building site is low, no special provisions are required. Normal damp-proofing that is designed in accordance with hydro-geological conditions provides sufficient building protection. Nevertheless, the insulation has to be installed over the whole ground area of the building. It is also recommended that the corridor with stairs leading from the underground floor to the upper floors should be separated by the door. In case of medium radon index of a building site, each high-quality and long life damp-proofing, with the measured radon diffusion coefficient, may be considered as radon-proof insulation in compliance with C.S.N. 73 06 01. A required insulation thickness is calculated using the known value of radon diffusion coefficient. The insulation must be laid down continuously on the whole area of the

  3. The effects of grounding (earthing) on inflammation, the immune response, wound healing, and prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oschman, James L; Chevalier, Gaétan; Brown, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Multi-disciplinary research has revealed that electrically conductive contact of the human body with the surface of the Earth (grounding or earthing) produces intriguing effects on physiology and health. Such effects relate to inflammation, immune responses, wound healing, and prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this report is two-fold: to 1) inform researchers about what appears to be a new perspective to the study of inflammation, and 2) alert researchers that the length of time and degree (resistance to ground) of grounding of experimental animals is an important but usually overlooked factor that can influence outcomes of studies of inflammation, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. Specifically, grounding an organism produces measurable differences in the concentrations of white blood cells, cytokines, and other molecules involved in the inflammatory response. We present several hypotheses to explain observed effects, based on current research results and our understanding of the electronic aspects of cell and tissue physiology, cell biology, biophysics, and biochemistry. An experimental injury to muscles, known as delayed onset muscle soreness, has been used to monitor the immune response under grounded versus ungrounded conditions. Grounding reduces pain and alters the numbers of circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes, and also affects various circulating chemical factors related to inflammation.

  4. "I Always Feel Like I Have to Rush…" Pet Owner and Small Animal Veterinary Surgeons' Reflections on Time during Preventative Healthcare Consultations in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belshaw, Zoe; Robinson, Natalie J; Dean, Rachel S; Brennan, Marnie L

    2018-02-08

    Canine and feline preventative healthcare consultations can be more complex than other consultation types, but they are typically not allocated additional time in the United Kingdom (UK). Impacts of the perceived length of UK preventative healthcare consultations have not previously been described. The aim of this novel study was to provide the first qualitative description of owner and veterinary surgeon reflections on time during preventative healthcare consultations. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 14 veterinary surgeons and 15 owners about all aspects of canine and feline preventative healthcare consultations. These qualitative data were thematically analysed, and four key themes identified. This paper describes the theme relating to time and consultation length. Patient, owner, veterinary surgeon and practice variables were recalled to impact the actual, versus allocated, length of a preventative healthcare consultation. Preventative healthcare consultations involving young, old and multi-morbid animals and new veterinary surgeon-owner partnerships appear particularly susceptible to time pressures. Owners and veterinary surgeons recalled rushing and minimizing discussions to keep consultations within their allocated time. The impact of the pace, content and duration of a preventative healthcare consultation may be influential factors in consultation satisfaction. These interviews provide an important insight into the complex nature of preventative healthcare consultations and the behaviour of participants under different perceived time pressures. These data may be of interest and relevance to all stakeholders in dog and cat preventative healthcare.

  5. Adapting school-based substance use prevention curriculum through cultural grounding: a review and exemplar of adaptation processes for rural schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Margaret; Hecht, Michael L; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice L; Syvertsen, Amy K; Graham, John W; Pettigrew, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    A central challenge facing twenty-first century community-based researchers and prevention scientists is curriculum adaptation processes. While early prevention efforts sought to develop effective programs, taking programs to scale implies that they will be adapted, especially as programs are implemented with populations other than those with whom they were developed or tested. The principle of cultural grounding, which argues that health message adaptation should be informed by knowledge of the target population and by cultural insiders, provides a theoretical rational for cultural regrounding and presents an illustrative case of methods used to reground the keepin' it REAL substance use prevention curriculum for a rural adolescent population. We argue that adaptation processes like those presented should be incorporated into the design and dissemination of prevention interventions.

  6. Ground-ice stable isotopes and cryostratigraphy reflect late Quaternary palaeoclimate in the Northeast Siberian Arctic (Oyogos Yar coast, Dmitry Laptev Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Opel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To reconstruct palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironmental conditions in the northeast Siberian Arctic, we studied late Quaternary permafrost at the Oyogos Yar coast (Dmitry Laptev Strait. New infrared-stimulated luminescence ages for distinctive floodplain deposits of the Kuchchugui Suite (112.5 ± 9.6 kyr and thermokarst-lake deposits of the Krest Yuryakh Suite (102.4 ± 9.7 kyr, respectively, provide new substantial geochronological data and shed light on the landscape history of the Dmitry Laptev Strait region during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 5. Ground-ice stable-isotope data are presented together with cryolithological information for eight cryostratigraphic units and are complemented by data from nearby Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island. Our combined record of ice-wedge stable isotopes as a proxy for past winter climate conditions covers about 200 000 years and is supplemented by stable isotopes of pore and segregated ice which reflect annual climate conditions overprinted by freezing processes. Our ice-wedge stable-isotope data indicate substantial variations in northeast Siberian Arctic winter climate conditions during the late Quaternary, in particular between glacial and interglacial times but also over the last millennia to centuries. Stable isotope values of ice complex ice wedges indicate cold to very cold winter temperatures about 200 kyr ago (MIS7, very cold winter conditions about 100 kyr ago (MIS5, very cold to moderate winter conditions between about 60 and 30 kyr ago, and extremely cold winter temperatures during the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS2. Much warmer winter conditions are reflected by extensive thermokarst development during MIS5c and by Holocene ice-wedge stable isotopes. Modern ice-wedge stable isotopes are most enriched and testify to the recent winter warming in the Arctic. Hence, ice-wedge-based reconstructions of changes in winter climate conditions add substantial information to those derived from

  7. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  8. The effects of grounding (earthing on inflammation, the immune response, wound healing, and prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oschman JL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available James L Oschman,1 Gaétan Chevalier,2 Richard Brown3 1Nature’s Own Research Association, Dover, NH, USA; 2Developmental and Cell Biology Department, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Human Physiology Department, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA Abstract: Multi-disciplinary research has revealed that electrically conductive contact of the human body with the surface of the Earth (grounding or earthing produces intriguing effects on physiology and health. Such effects relate to inflammation, immune responses, wound healing, and prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this report is two-fold: to 1 inform researchers about what appears to be a new perspective to the study of inflammation, and 2 alert researchers that the length of time and degree (resistance to ground of grounding of experimental animals is an important but usually overlooked factor that can influence outcomes of studies of inflammation, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. Specifically, grounding an organism produces measurable differences in the concentrations of white blood cells, cytokines, and other molecules involved in the inflammatory response. We present several hypotheses to explain observed effects, based on current research results and our understanding of the electronic aspects of cell and tissue physiology, cell biology, biophysics, and biochemistry. An experimental injury to muscles, known as delayed onset muscle soreness, has been used to monitor the immune response under grounded versus ungrounded conditions. Grounding reduces pain and alters the numbers of circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes, and also affects various circulating chemical factors related to inflammation. Keywords: chronic inflammation, immune system, wound repair, white blood cells, macrophages, autoimmune disorders

  9. TRMM Ground Validation Calibrated QC Radar Reflectivity Full Volume Scan L1C 1 hour V7 (TRMM_1C51UW) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the University of Washington TRMM Ground Validation products. Files are in "Universal Format", described in BAMS, Vol 61, No 11, November...

  10. TRMM Ground Validation Radar Site 3D Reflectivity L2 1 hour V7 (TRMM_2A55UW) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the University of Washington TRMM Ground Validation products. Multiple-level cartesian grid containing output of NCAR SPRINT interpolation of...

  11. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  12. Intricacies and strategies for the implementation of new technologies in radiotherapy: Reflections on the meaning and prevention of the error

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espejo-Villalobos, J. D.; Franco-Cabrera, M. C.; Estrada-Hernandez, C.; Quintero-Castelan, M. S. [Centro Medico Hospital San Jose -TEC Salud, Department of Radiothrapy. Av. Ignacio Morones Prieto 3000 Pte. Col. Los Doctores, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, 64710 (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    When facing the challenge of implementing new technologies in Radiotherapy, a reflection on philosophical and ethical principles is in order for the Medical Physicist to assume a reality of increased risks of harm to the patient. A series of ideas from philosophers and clinical professionals are reviewed to encourage an increased awareness of our ethical responsibility towards patients that entrust us with their hopes for alleviating their disease.

  13. Intricacies and strategies for the implementation of new technologies in radiotherapy: Reflections on the meaning and prevention of the error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejo-Villalobos, J. D.; Franco-Cabrera, M. C.; Estrada-Hernandez, C.; Quintero-Castelan, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    When facing the challenge of implementing new technologies in Radiotherapy, a reflection on philosophical and ethical principles is in order for the Medical Physicist to assume a reality of increased risks of harm to the patient. A series of ideas from philosophers and clinical professionals are reviewed to encourage an increased awareness of our ethical responsibility towards patients that entrust us with their hopes for alleviating their disease.

  14. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  15. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Nick; Lee, James

    2010-05-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an ‘‘environmentally friendly'' fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O3), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O3 concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O3 concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (109) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  16. Advances in the Science, Treatment, and Prevention of the Disease of Obesity: Reflections From a Diabetes Care Editors' Expert Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefalu, William T; Bray, George A; Home, Philip D; Garvey, W Timothy; Klein, Samuel; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Hu, Frank B; Raz, Itamar; Van Gaal, Luc; Wolfe, Bruce M; Ryan, Donna H

    2015-08-01

    As obesity rates increase, so too do the risks of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and numerous other detrimental conditions. The prevalence of obesity in U.S. adults more than doubled between 1980 and 2010, from 15.0 to 36.1%. Although this trend may be leveling off, obesity and its individual, societal, and economic costs remain of grave concern. In June 2014, a Diabetes Care Editors' Expert Forum convened to review the state of obesity research and discuss the latest prevention initiatives and behavioral, medical, and surgical therapies. This article, an outgrowth of the forum, offers an expansive view of the obesity epidemic, beginning with a discussion of its root causes. Recent insights into the genetic and physiological factors that influence body weight are reviewed, as are the pathophysiology of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction and the concept of metabolically healthy obesity. The authors address the crucial question of how much weight loss is necessary to yield meaningful benefits. They describe the challenges of behavioral modification and predictors of its success. The effects of diabetes pharmacotherapies on body weight are reviewed, including potential weight-neutral combination therapies. The authors also summarize the evidence for safety and efficacy of pharmacotherapeutic and surgical obesity treatments. The article concludes with an impassioned call for researchers, clinicians, governmental agencies, health policymakers, and health-related industries to collectively embrace the urgent mandate to improve prevention and treatment and for society at large to acknowledge and manage obesity as a serious disease.

  17. Advances in the Science, Treatment, and Prevention of the Disease of Obesity: Reflections From a Diabetes Care Editors’ Expert Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A.; Home, Philip D.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Klein, Samuel; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Hu, Frank B.; Raz, Itamar; Van Gaal, Luc; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Ryan, Donna H.

    2015-01-01

    As obesity rates increase, so too do the risks of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and numerous other detrimental conditions. The prevalence of obesity in U.S. adults more than doubled between 1980 and 2010, from 15.0 to 36.1%. Although this trend may be leveling off, obesity and its individual, societal, and economic costs remain of grave concern. In June 2014, a Diabetes Care Editors’ Expert Forum convened to review the state of obesity research and discuss the latest prevention initiatives and behavioral, medical, and surgical therapies. This article, an outgrowth of the forum, offers an expansive view of the obesity epidemic, beginning with a discussion of its root causes. Recent insights into the genetic and physiological factors that influence body weight are reviewed, as are the pathophysiology of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction and the concept of metabolically healthy obesity. The authors address the crucial question of how much weight loss is necessary to yield meaningful benefits. They describe the challenges of behavioral modification and predictors of its success. The effects of diabetes pharmacotherapies on body weight are reviewed, including potential weight-neutral combination therapies. The authors also summarize the evidence for safety and efficacy of pharmacotherapeutic and surgical obesity treatments. The article concludes with an impassioned call for researchers, clinicians, governmental agencies, health policymakers, and health-related industries to collectively embrace the urgent mandate to improve prevention and treatment and for society at large to acknowledge and manage obesity as a serious disease. PMID:26421334

  18. Contemporary Reflections on the Safety of Long-Term Aspirin Treatment for the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanaroff, Alexander C.; Roe, Matthew T.

    2018-01-01

    Aspirin has been the cornerstone of therapy for the secondary prevention treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease since landmark trials were completed in the late 1970s and early 1980s that demonstrated the efficacy of aspirin for reducing the risk of ischemic events. Notwithstanding the consistent benefits demonstrated with apirin for both acute and chronic cardiovascular disease, there are a number of toxicities associated with aspirin that have been showcased by recent long-term clinical trials that have included an aspirin monotherapy arm. As an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, aspirin impairs gastric mucosal protective mechanisms. Prior trials have shown that up to 15–20% of patients developed gastrointestinal symptoms with aspirin monotherapy and roughly 1% of patients per year had a clinically significant bleeding event, including 1 in 1000 patients who suffered an intracranial or fatal bleed. These risks have been shown to be compounded for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), who are also treated with other anti-thrombotic agents during the acute care/procedural period, as well as for an extended time period afterwards. Given observations of substantial increases in bleeding rates from many prior long-term clinical trials that have evaluated aspirin together with other oral platelet inhibitors or oral anti-coagulants, the focus of contemporary research has pivoted towards tailored anti-thrombotic regimens that attempt to either shorten the duration of exposure to aspirin or replace aspirin with an alternative anti-thrombotic agent. While these shifts are occurring, the safety profile of aspirin when used for the secondary prevention treatment of patients with established cardiovascular disease deserves further consideration. PMID:27028617

  19. Quality investigation of building structure using ground penetrating radar (GPR) as an early study to prevent severe structural damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumai, M. Fariz; Fernando, Stephen; Nugroho, Gatot; Natania, Kana; Widodo

    2017-07-01

    Many infrastructures in Indonesia suffered damage in a short period of time. It proves that there are still many buildings in Indonesia which have questionable quality so a method is needed for checking the quality of the building. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a method used to describe the structure of the building on the inside that cannot be seen from the outside in this case Parahyangan Reksa Raga (PASAGA) Bridge was examined with 19.7 m × 3.3 m × 1.5 m dimension. Thismethod uses propagation of electromagnetic wave, which will give Radargram response inside a building based on the characteristics of the medium such as magnetic permeability, electric permittivity and electrical conductivity. GPR method is one of geophysical method which is effective, efficient, and environmentally friendly. The measurements were carried out using MALA RAMAC X3M device with frequency 800 MHz. The results show thatindication of fractures was found at less than 1 m depth in the structure from the Radargram display of PASAGA Bridge and supported by the observation data on the surface.

  20. Moving alcohol prevention research forward-Part II: new directions grounded in community-based system dynamics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Lemke, Michael K; Barry, Adam E; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller

    2018-02-01

    Given the complexity of factors contributing to alcohol misuse, appropriate epistemologies and methodologies are needed to understand and intervene meaningfully. We aimed to (1) provide an overview of computational modeling methodologies, with an emphasis on system dynamics modeling; (2) explain how community-based system dynamics modeling can forge new directions in alcohol prevention research; and (3) present a primer on how to build alcohol misuse simulation models using system dynamics modeling, with an emphasis on stakeholder involvement, data sources and model validation. Throughout, we use alcohol misuse among college students in the United States as a heuristic example for demonstrating these methodologies. System dynamics modeling employs a top-down aggregate approach to understanding dynamically complex problems. Its three foundational properties-stocks, flows and feedbacks-capture non-linearity, time-delayed effects and other system characteristics. As a methodological choice, system dynamics modeling is amenable to participatory approaches; in particular, community-based system dynamics modeling has been used to build impactful models for addressing dynamically complex problems. The process of community-based system dynamics modeling consists of numerous stages: (1) creating model boundary charts, behavior-over-time-graphs and preliminary system dynamics models using group model-building techniques; (2) model formulation; (3) model calibration; (4) model testing and validation; and (5) model simulation using learning-laboratory techniques. Community-based system dynamics modeling can provide powerful tools for policy and intervention decisions that can result ultimately in sustainable changes in research and action in alcohol misuse prevention. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. HEALING OF THE CANOE: PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF A CULTURALLY GROUNDED INTERVENTION TO PREVENT SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND PROMOTE TRIBAL IDENTITY FOR NATIVE YOUTH IN TWO PACIFIC NORTHWEST TRIBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Dennis M.; Thomas, Lisa Rey; Sigo, Robin Little Wing; Price, Laura; Lonczak, Heather; Lawrence, Nigel; Ahvakana, Katie; Austin, Lisette; Lawrence, Albie; Price, Joseph; Purser, Abby; Bagley, Lenora

    2015-01-01

    Using Community-Based and tribal Participatory Research (CBPR/TPR) approaches, an academic-tribal partnership between the University of Washington Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute and the Suquamish and Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribes developed a culturally grounded social skills intervention to promote increased cultural belonging and prevent substance abuse among tribal youth. Participation in the intervention, which used the Canoe Journey as a metaphor for life, was associated with increased hope, optimism, and self-efficacy and with reduced substance use, as well as with higher levels of cultural identity and knowledge about alcohol and drugs among high school-age tribal youth. These results provide preliminary support for the intervention curricula in promoting positive youth development, an optimistic future orientation, and the reduction of substance use among Native youth. PMID:25768390

  2. Suicide in Illinois, 2005-2010: A reflection of patterns and risks by age groups and opportunities for targeted prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLone, Suzanne G; Loharikar, Anagha; Sheehan, Karen; Mason, Maryann

    2016-10-01

    Suicide accounts for two thirds of all deaths from intentional or violence-related injury and is a leading cause of death in the United States. Patterns of suicide have been well described among high-risk groups, but few studies have compared the circumstances related to suicides across all age groups. We sought to understand the epidemiology of suicide cases in Illinois and to characterize the risks and patterns for suicide among different age groups. We used suicide data collected from the Illinois Violent Death Reporting System to assess demographics, method of suicide, circumstances, and mental health status among different age groups. Between 2005 and 2010, 3,016 suicides were reported; 692 (23%) were female, and the median age (n = 3,013) was 45 years (range, 10-98 years). The most common method/weapon types were hanging/strangulation (33%), firearm (32%) and poisoning (21%). Hanging was more common (74%) among young people aged 10 to 19 years, while firearm use was more common among elderly persons age 65 years and older (55%). The percentage of victims within an age group experiencing a crisis within two weeks before committing suicide was highest among 10- to 14-year-olds, while the risk factor of having a family member or friend die in the past 5 years was highest among older victims. The final analysis demonstrated age-related trends in suicide in Illinois, suggesting prevention programs should tailor services by age. Epidemiologic study, level IV.

  3. Reflections on How a University Binge Drinking Prevention Initiative Supports Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral for Student Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson-Boersma, Danielle; Butt, Peter; Dell, Colleen Anne

    2015-09-01

    What's Your Cap: Know When to Put a Lid on Drinking (WYC) is a student-led and research-based binge-drinking prevention campaign at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada. It was formed to encourage a culture of alcohol moderation on the university campus through peer-to-peer engagement that emphasizes promotional items and activities of interest to students. Since its development in 2011, WYC has been guided by a logic model that promotes: 1) perceived and actual student drinking norms on campus; 2) benefits of a student-led initiative; and 3) merits of working with community partners. With the release of a clinical guide in Canada for alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral (SBIR) in 2013, WYC was prompted to consider whether it is a form of population-based SBIR. SBIR is commonly undertaken in the substance use field by health care practitioners, and this paper shares the potential for a student-based SBIR modification on a university campus.

  4. THE REFLECTION OF PROCEDURAL GUILT IN THE CRIMINAL PROCEDURE PROVISIONS. LIABILITY FOR UNJUST CONDEMNATION OR FOR TAKING PREVENTIVE MEASURES UNLAWFULLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZA EMANUELA OPREA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the criminal proceedings of some law states the wrongful sentencing of individuals is very rare, having a comprehensive system of procedural safeguards which prevent such a situation. The purpose of the criminal proceedings is to punish only the culprits, the Criminal Procedure code frontispiece being stated the idea that no innocent person should be held criminally liable. By achieving this aspect of purpose is ensured observance of legality and the rule of law. All the basic rules and the whole organization of the criminal trial are polarized around this major goal of justice. Also the professional qualification level of those summoned to administer criminal justice in the modern state to minimizes the risk of judiciar miscarriages. The deep humanism of our law requires though the regulation of those procedural arrangements, through which in the event of an act of injustice, the wrongly convicted is able to obtain prompt repairs that society owes them. A very important aspect related to the evolution over time of the regulation of this institution, is that in its doctrine of integration in the European Union, Romania has adopted a series of laws and regulations designed to ensure our legislation’s alignment with the relevant legislation of the countries from the European community and to ensure the compliance with the European Convention on Human Rights. This process is still ongoing, therefore the establishment and the subsequent modification of the special procedure concerning the remedies for the material or moral damage in the event of unjust sentence or unlawful deprivation of liberty was based on the desire to avoid the conviction situation of the Romanian state by the international courts for failure to comply with the Art. 5 paragraph 5 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms that 'any individual who is the victim of arrest or detention in conditions contrary to the provisions of this article

  5. Report of a case of cyberplagiarism - and reflections on detecting and preventing academic misconduct using the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    applied. There is a striking gap between what is technically possible and what is in widespread use. As a consequence of the case described in this report, JMIR has taken the lead in applying information technology to prevent and fight plagiarism by routinely checking new submissions for evidence of cyberplagiarism. PMID:11720923

  6. Spatial genetic structure of bristle-thighed curlews (Numenius tahitiensis): breeding area differentiation not reflected on the non-breeding grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Williams, Ian S.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds occupy geographically and ecologically disparate areas during their annual cycle with conditions on breeding and non-breeding grounds playing separate and important roles in population dynamics. We used data from nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA control region loci to assess the breeding and non-breeding spatial genetic structure of a transoceanic migrant shorebird, the bristle-thighed curlew. We found spatial variance in the distribution of allelic and haplotypic frequencies between the curlew's two breeding areas in Alaska but did not observe this spatial structure throughout its non-breeding range on low-lying tropical and subtropical islands in the Central Pacific (Oceania). This suggests that the two breeding populations do not spatially segregate during the non-breeding season. Lack of migratory connectivity is likely attributable to the species' behavior, as bristle-thighed curlews exhibit differential timing of migration and some individuals move among islands during non-breeding months. Given the detrimental impact of many past and current human activities on island ecosystems, admixture of breeding populations in Oceania may render the bristle-thighed curlew less vulnerable to perturbations there, as neither breeding population will be disproportionally affected by local habitat losses or by stochastic events. Furthermore, lack of migratory connectivity may enable bristle-thighed curlews to respond to changing island ecosystems by altering their non-breeding distribution. However, availability of suitable non-breeding habitat for curlews in Oceania is increasingly limited on both low-lying and high islands by habitat loss, sea level rise, and invasive mammalian predators that pose a threat to flightless and flight-compromised curlews during the molting period.

  7. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    Reflection has moved from the margins to the mainstream in supervision. Notions of reflection have become well established since the late 1980s. These notions have provided useful framing devices to help conceptualize some important processes in guidance and counseling. However, some applications...... of these notions have distorted their original connotations and taken an excessively instrumentalistic and individualistic approach to their use. This paper will argue that we are, in the 2000s, seeing a questioning of an overly instrumentalistic and individualistic view of learning and development previously...... associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier views...

  8. Draft of the new sanitary regulations for water recreational areas: the ground for inclusion of some requirements for the prevention of parasitic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Николай Гаврилович Щербань

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to ground an inclusion of requirements for prevention of parasitic diseases into previously elaborated draft of the new sanitary regulations “eco-hygienic requirements for setting, keeping and organizing the routine of functioning of recreational areas of the water bodies”.Materials and methods: the state of the sand pollution was evaluated on the next indicators: the salts of heavy metals, organic compounds, pathogenic germs, helminthiasises harmful for humans. Laboratory investigations of sand were carried out before the beginning of the swimming season and also in the period of its most pollution (semination during the season and after the end of it.Results. On the parasitologic indicators the sand pollution in the beach areas of Kharkov region is in average more than 7% of the general number of assays during the last 5 years. On the sanitary-chemical indicators the sand pollution was absent and on microbiological ones – insignificant. An existing normative base that regulates the requirements for the conditions of recreation and sanitation on the water bodies doesn’t includes the full list of requirements for prevention of the parasitologic diseases, these requirements are presented in the large number of documents, it is imperfect and need changes. That’s why it is necessary to add into the new sanitary regulations the laboratory investigations of the sand (soil of the beaches while realization of the sanitary-parasitologic oversight on the recreational water bodies. Carrying out investigations it is necessary to take into account the 4 periods of semination of the sand with parasitogenic causative agents: 1 – the main one (March-May, 2. – the current summer one (June-August, 3. – the main autumn one (September-November, 4. – the sporadic period of the casual pollution (December-February. 

  9. Composition of Cypripedium calceolus (Orchidaceae) seeds analyzed by attenuated total reflectance IR spectroscopy: in search of understanding longevity in the ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsberg, Søren; Rasmussen, Hanne N; Kodahl, Nete

    2013-10-01

    Orchid seeds are minute and covered with a thin coat, yet they often have a long life after dispersal. They are notorious for low and irregular germination, in nature as well as in vitro. Since orchids are often rare species of conservational and commercial interest, reproduction by seeds is an important concern. The purpose of this study was to learn more about the resilience of these highly specialized seeds and stimulatory processes toward germination. • We studied testa and embryos of Cypripedium calceolus to identify natural components in intact seeds and the impact of 7 yr in soil in its natural habitat. We also analyzed the effects of Ca(OCl)2, used technically to enhance germination for cultivation in vitro. For the first time with this kind of plant material, we used attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, an ideal method for minute sample sizes and surface selectivity. Thus, we could link treatments with changes in seed surface chemistry. • A lignin-like polymer is an essential testa component that undergoes degradation by soil or hypochlorite processes. In both cases, we found a build-up of CaCO3 on the testa, which could interact with lignin to enhance germination. Very minor changes occurred in embryo reserve nutrient content after a long sojourn underground, which supports their continued viability. • We suggest that degradation of lignin and enrichment of the testa surface with CaCO3 are important stimulants of germination both in the habitat and during laboratory sowing.

  10. Grounding evidence-based approaches to cancer prevention in the community: a case study of mammography barriers in underserved African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highfield, Linda; Bartholomew, L Kay; Hartman, Marieke A; Ford, M Molly; Balihe, Philomene

    2014-11-01

    When community health planners select an evidence-based intervention that has been developed and tested in one situation and adapt it for use in a different situation or community, best practice suggests needs assessment and formative research in the new setting. Cancer prevention planners who are interested in adopting and adapting evidence-based approaches need to base their choices on a sound understanding of the health or behavioral risk problem in which they mean to intervene. This requires a balancing act of weighing community information against a broader perspective from the scientific literature and using the combination to identify and adapt an evidence-based intervention program that is likely to be effective in the new setting. This report is a case study of a community and organizational assessment conducted as a foundation for selecting and recommending adaptation of an evidence-based intervention for improving mammography appointment attendance. We used an inductive sequential exploratory mixed-methods design to inform this process. The process provides a model for formative research grounding evidence-based practice for cancer control planners. Future studies that incorporate findings from needs assessment into the adaptation of the selected intervention program may promote the effective dissemination of evidence-based programs. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  11. Interpretation of the distortion of ground-penetrating radar propagated and reflected waves - development of a multi-frequency tomography; Interpretation de la distorsion des signaux georadar propages et reflechis. Developpement d'une tomographie par bandes de frequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollender, F

    1999-07-01

    Within the framework of research for waste disposal in deep geological formations, the French agency for nuclear waste management (ANDRA) has to dispose of non-destructive investigation methods to characterize the medium. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) could be used for this purpose in the case of granitic sites. The work presented here deals with this geophysical method. The classical interpretation of GPR data consists in the localization of geological discontinuities by signal amplitude or arrival time analysis. The main objective of our studies is the interpretation of the radar wave distortion (due to propagation and reflection phenomena), not only to localize discontinuities but also to contribute to their identification. Three preliminary studies have been carried out in order to understand on the one hand, the complexity of the electromagnetic phenomena in the geological medium at radar frequency, and on the other hand, the radar equipment constraints. First, the dispersion and the attenuation characterized by a Q variable factor of the GPR waves are shown with the support of dielectric laboratory measurements. A model, which only requires three parameters, is proposed in order to describe this behavior. Second, the radiation patterns of borehole radar antenna are studied. We show that the amplitude and frequency content of the emitted signal are variable versus the emission angle. An analytical method is proposed to study these phenomena. Finally, instrumental drifts of GPR equipment are studied. Emission time, sampling frequency and amplitude fluctuations are described. These elements are taken into account for the processing of propagated signals by tomographic inversion. Medium anisotropy and borehole trajectory errors are inserted in algorithms in order to cancel artifacts which compromised the previous interpretation. A pre-processing method, based on wave separation algorithm, is applied on data in order to increase tomogram resolution. A new

  12. “I Always Feel Like I Have to Rush…” Pet Owner and Small Animal Veterinary Surgeons’ Reflections on Time during Preventative Healthcare Consultations in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Belshaw

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Canine and feline preventative healthcare consultations can be more complex than other consultation types, but they are typically not allocated additional time in the United Kingdom (UK. Impacts of the perceived length of UK preventative healthcare consultations have not previously been described. The aim of this novel study was to provide the first qualitative description of owner and veterinary surgeon reflections on time during preventative healthcare consultations. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 14 veterinary surgeons and 15 owners about all aspects of canine and feline preventative healthcare consultations. These qualitative data were thematically analysed, and four key themes identified. This paper describes the theme relating to time and consultation length. Patient, owner, veterinary surgeon and practice variables were recalled to impact the actual, versus allocated, length of a preventative healthcare consultation. Preventative healthcare consultations involving young, old and multi-morbid animals and new veterinary surgeon-owner partnerships appear particularly susceptible to time pressures. Owners and veterinary surgeons recalled rushing and minimizing discussions to keep consultations within their allocated time. The impact of the pace, content and duration of a preventative healthcare consultation may be influential factors in consultation satisfaction. These interviews provide an important insight into the complex nature of preventative healthcare consultations and the behaviour of participants under different perceived time pressures. These data may be of interest and relevance to all stakeholders in dog and cat preventative healthcare.

  13. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  14. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  15. Reflected Glory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  16. Reflective photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Goeke, Ronald S.

    2018-03-06

    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflective segments having standard film thicknesses.

  17. European model code of safe practice for the prevention of ground and surface water pollution by oil from storage tanks and during the transport of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The code outlines general requirements for pollution prevention and provides guidelines for corrosion protection of mild steel tanks, pipe and fitting assemblies, and for storage tank installations. The transportation and delivery of petroleum fuels are discussed, and operating procedures are suggested.

  18. Reflections on the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.

    2003-01-01

    Reflections on the field of special education offer six ideas: (1) the value of science; (2) the continuing value of separate and special education for some students; (3) the continuing importance of prevention; (4) the importance of academic instruction; (5) the importance of social justice for the poor; and (6) a renewed emphasis on human…

  19. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  20. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  1. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning...

  2. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... such campaigns, New Jersey Democrat Linda Stender's and that of Democratic Congressman Jim Himes of Connecticut, who both ran for Congress in 2008. Rasmus Kleis Nielsen examines how American political operatives use "personalized political communication" to engage with the electorate, and weighs the implications...... of ground war tactics for how we understand political campaigns and what it means to participate in them. He shows how ground wars are waged using resources well beyond those of a given candidate and their staff. These include allied interest groups and civic associations, party-provided technical...

  3. Annex 3: BRIDGESIM, a simulation tool for the system design of bridge heating for ice prevention with solar heat stored in a seasonal ground duct store

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahud, D.

    2006-12-15

    This is the Annex 3 of the annual report 2006 of the Serso project. This appendix provides details on the BRIDGESIM simulation tool for the simulation of a bridge heating system that uses heat stored in summer in a long-term diffusive borehole store to ensure an ice-free surface on a road bridge in winter. The operation of the control system which controls the heating system is described. The simulation tool is described and the various input parameters are discussed, as is the parametrisation of the tool itself. These parameters include not only timescales but also data on the borehole heat exchangers, data on the buried heating pipes in the road surface, thermal conductivity of the circulating heat-transfer fluid, ground parameters, intermediate water tank parameters and many other related data. The running of the simulation and output data are also described. Outputs are also presented in graphical form.

  4. Ship Collision and Grounding Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2010-01-01

    It is the purpose of the paper to present a review of prediction and analysis tools for collision and grounding analyses and to outline a probabilistic procedure whereby these tools can be used by the maritime industry to develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human......, environmental and economic costs of collision and grounding events. The main goal of collision and grounding research should be to identify the most economic risk control options associated with prevention and mitigation of collision and grounding events...

  5. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2017-01-01

    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...... and analyze the security properties of different families of coupling permutations. Finally, we concentrate on the case of reflection block ciphers and, as an illustration, we provide concrete examples of key schedules corresponding to several coupling permutations, which lead to new variants of the block...

  6. The "Aachen fall prevention App" - a Smartphone application app for the self-assessment of elderly patients at risk for ground level falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasche, Peter; Mertens, Alexander; Bröhl, Christina; Theis, Sabine; Seinsch, Tobias; Wille, Matthias; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Knobe, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Fall incidents are a major problem for patients and healthcare. The "Aachen Fall Prevention App" (AFPA) represents the first mobile Health (mHealth) application (app) empowering older patients (persons 50+ years) to self-assess and monitor their individual fall risk. Self-assessment is based on the "Aachen Fall Prevention Scale," which consists of three steps. First, patients answer ten standardized yes-no questions (positive criterion ≥ 5 "Yes" responses). Second, a ten-second test of free standing without compensatory movement is performed (positive criterion: compensatory movement). Finally, during the third step, patients rate their subjective fall risk on a 10-point Likert scale, based on the results of steps one and two. The purpose of this app is (1) to offer a low-threshold service through which individuals can independently monitor their individual fall risk and (2) to collect data about how a patient-centered mHealth app for fall risk assessment is used in the field. The results represent the first year of an ongoing field study. From December 2015 to December 2016, 197 persons downloaded the AFPA (iOS ™ and Android ™ ; free of charge). N  = 111 of these persons voluntarily shared their data and thereby participated in the field study. Data from a final number of n  = 79 persons were analyzed due to exclusion criteria (age, missing objective fall risk, missing self-assessment). The objective fall risk and the self-assessed subjective risk measured by the AFPA showed a significant positive relationship. The "Aachen Fall Prevention App" (AFPA) is an mHealth app released for iOS and Android. This field study revealed the AFPA as a promising tool to raise older adults' awareness of their individual fall risk by means of a low-threshold patient-driven fall risk assessment tool.

  7. Preventing and controlling land subsidence in Shanghai -towards more integrated and effective land use and ground water governance in the Yangtze Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Liping

    2016-04-01

    The Yangtze Delta, covers 210,700 square kilometers and with 156 million inhabitants (NRDC, 2010; The National Bureau of Statistics, 2011), is one of the areas most severely affected by land subsidence in China. Up to 2012, the area with cumulative subsidence above 200 mm in Yangtze Delta has been closed to 10,000 square kilometers. Shanghai, located at the estuary of the Yangtze River and with a population of 23 million, is the most densely populated city in Yangtze Delta (The National Bureau of Statistics, 2011). Since 1921, the recorded cumulative subsidence has been 200 to 300 mm in the central area of the city (Chai, Shen, Zhu, & Zhang, 2005). Excessive pumping of groundwater is considered to be the leading reason, accounts for nearly 70%, of the city's land subsidence, the weight of skyscrapers and global warming also play hefty roles (30%) (Springer, 2012). Research has shown that the main method to control land subsidence in Shanghai is to prevent groundwater from dropping (Chai, Shen, Zhu, & Zhang, 2005), the city has made great efforts in this regard since 1965 (the beginning of the so-called "control period"), for example, it has been recharging underground water through 121 wells with more than 60,000 tons every day since 2012 (Chinadaily, 2012). It is a huge burden considering the city has been suffering from a shortage of fresh water. In 2013, with the other two provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang in Yangtze Delta, Shanghai signed a delta cooperation agreement on the prevention and control of land subsidence and jointly issued a Prevention and Control Planning on Land Subsidence in Yangtze Delta (2014-2020), which aims to establish a long-effect mechanism in the delta scope. This research aims to analyze and assess the land and groundwater governance arrangements related to land subsidence in the Yangtze Delta in general and Shanghai in specific, in order to develop optimizing adaptation strategies and associated governance arrangements. It examines the

  8. Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo; Matthies, Larry; Bellutta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A water body s surface can be modeled as a horizontal mirror. Water detection based on sky reflections and color variation are complementary. A reflection coefficient model suggests sky reflections dominate the color of water at ranges > 12 meters. Water detection based on sky reflections: (1) geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground (2) predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. Water detection has been integrated on XUVs.

  9. ‘Do not eat those apples; they’ve been on the ground!’: polio epidemics and preventive measures, Sweden 1880s-1940s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelsson, Per

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article will address how Swedish scientists, physicians and public health officers tried to combat the polio epidemics in the pre-vaccine era. It shows that once polio was considered as an epidemic disease the preventive measures used were based on the hindrance of other infectious diseases. It also illustrates how epidemiological and laboratory studies to some degree affected the thoughts of how polio should be prevented, and that Swedish ideas and experiences differed from those put forward in the USA.

    Este artículo trata sobre cómo los científicos, médicos y funcionarios de la sanidad pública de Suecia intentaron combatir la epidemia de la polio en la era anterior a la vacuna y expone que en cuanto la polio fue considerada como una epidemia, las medidas preventivas que se aplicaron se basaban en las de otras enfermedades contagiosas. También ilustra en qué medida los estudios epidemiológicos y los análisis de laboratorio influyeron en la manera de prevenir la polio y también demuestra que las opiniones y experiencias en Suecia eran diferentes a las de los Estados Unidos.

  10. The minimum data set pressure ulcer indicator: does it reflect differences in care processes related to pressure ulcer prevention and treatment in nursing homes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates-Jensen, Barbara M; Cadogan, Mary; Osterweil, Dan; Levy-Storms, Lené; Jorge, Jennifer; Al-Samarrai, Nahla; Grbic, Valena; Schnelle, John F

    2003-09-01

    To determine whether nursing homes (NHs) that score in the extreme quartiles of pressure ulcer (PU) prevalence as reported on the Minimum Data Set (MDS) PU quality indicator provide different PU care. Descriptive, cohort. Sixteen NHs. Three hundred twenty-nine NH residents at risk for PU development as determined by the PU Resident Assessment Protocol of the MDS. : Sixteen care process quality indicators (10 specific to PU care processes, five related to nutrition, and one related to incontinence management) were scored using medical record data, direct human observation, interviews, and data from wireless thigh movement monitors. There were no differences between homes with low- and high-PU prevalence rates reported on the MDS PU quality indicator on most care processes. NHs with high PU prevalence rates used pressure-reduction surfaces more frequently and were better at documentation of four wound characteristics when PUs were present. No measure of PU care processes was better in low-PU NHs. Neither low- nor high-PU prevalence NHs routinely repositioned residents every 2 hours, even though 2-hour repositioning was documented in the medical record for nearly all residents. The assumption that homes with fewer PUs and thus low PU prevalence according to the MDS PU quality indicator are providing better PU care was not supported in this sample. NHs that scored low on the MDS PU quality indicator did not provide significantly better care than NHs that scored high. All NHs could improve PU prevention, as evidenced by the poor performance on prevention care processes by low- and high-PU NHs. The MDS PU quality indicator is not a useful measure of the quality of PU care in NHs and can be misleading if not presented with an explanation of the meaning of the indicator.

  11. Grounded Intersectionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marfelt, Mikkel Mouritz

    2016-01-01

    grounded approach to studying differences. This provides an opportunity, for scholars and practitioners, to reassess possible a priori given assumptions, and open up to new explorations beyond conventional identity theorization. Social implications – The paper suggests a need for an empirically grounded...... approach to studying social differences, which would not only create an opportunity to reassess common assumptions but also open up for explorations beyond conventional identity theorizations. Originality/value – The framework departs from traditional (critical) diversity scholarship, as it is process...

  12. Future challenges for occupational health services can be prevented by proactive collaboration with the companies using the services: a participatory and reflection project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydell, Marie; Hildingh, Cathrine; Söderbom, Arne; Ziegert, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    There is clearly a need for research in the field of occupational health service (OHS) for applying new perspectives. Proactive collaboration is needed between the OHSs and the companies. The customers of the companies using the services should be able to safeguard themselves from the health problems caused by the work environment through proactive collaboration with the OHSs. The main purpose of this interdisciplinary study was to explore how the stakeholders reflected to create and agree on core values for future challenges in OHS, as seen from the perspectives of OHS professionals and customer companies. An action research process was conducted. This study was divided into three phases. In phase I, the data were collected from interviews and diaries of interdisciplinary occupational health professionals (n=12). A focus group that sampled the eight managers of the customer companies was also included. In phase II, a questionnaire was developed with 24 questions focusing on examining the future challenges for OHS. The questionnaire was sent to customer companies (n=116). In phase III, a scoping review was undertaken. Three categories emerged from the analysis: "Balancing complex situations" clarified the complexity regarding senior employees; "Working with a proactive approach" indicated the need for working with a new proactive approach supporting sustainable health; and "Collaborate internally and externally" showed good relationships between the customer and the OHS, which is a mutual responsibility to both the partners. The results outlined that it is necessary to take action to apply new proactive health promotions, with a focus on workplace health promotion. The results also indicated that interventions for senior employees are of importance. This study was done in collaboration with the stakeholders from the occupational health care service center and the managers from the customer companies. The use of a participatory research design, including close

  13. Reflectance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Cooper, K.; Randolph, M.

    1984-01-01

    A classical description of the one dimensional radiative transfer treatment of vegetation canopies was completed and the results were tested against measured prairie (blue grama) and agricultural canopies (soybean). Phase functions are calculated in terms of directly measurable biophysical characteristics of the canopy medium. While the phase functions tend to exhibit backscattering anisotropy, their exact behavior is somewhat more complex and wavelength dependent. A Monte Carlo model was developed that treats soil surfaces with large periodic variations in three dimensions. A photon-ray tracing technology is used. Currently, the rough soil surface is described by analytic functions and appropriate geometric calculations performed. A bidirectional reflectance distribution function is calculated and, hence, available for other atmospheric or canopy reflectance models as a lower boundary condition. This technique is used together with an adding model to calculate several cases where Lambertian leaves possessing anisotropic leaf angle distributions yield non-Lambertian reflectance; similar behavior is exhibited for simulated soil surfaces.

  14. Modeling soil moisture-reflectance

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Etienne; Decamps, Henri

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Spectral information on soil is not easily available as vegetation and farm works prevent direct observation of soil responses. However, there is an increasing need to include soil reflectance values in spectral unmixing algorithms or in classification approaches. In most cases, the impact of soil moisture on the reflectance is unknown and therefore ignored. The objective of this study was to model reflectance changes due to soil moisture in a real field situation usin...

  15. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  16. Future challenges for occupational health services can be prevented by proactive collaboration with the companies using the services: a participatory and reflection project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydell M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Marie Lydell,1 Cathrine Hildingh,1 Arne Söderbom,2 Kristina Ziegert1 1Center of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI, School of Social and Health Sciences, 2Center for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL, School of Economics, Technology and Science, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden Background: There is clearly a need for research in the field of occupational health service (OHS for applying new perspectives. Proactive collaboration is needed between the OHSs and the companies. The customers of the companies using the services should be able to safeguard themselves from the health problems caused by the work environment through proactive collaboration with the OHSs. Objective: The main purpose of this interdisciplinary study was to explore how the stakeholders reflected to create and agree on core values for future challenges in OHS, as seen from the perspectives of OHS professionals and customer companies. Methodology: An action research process was conducted. This study was divided into three phases. In phase I, the data were collected from interviews and diaries of interdisciplinary occupational health professionals (n=12. A focus group that sampled the eight managers of the customer companies was also included. In phase II, a questionnaire was developed with 24 questions focusing on examining the future challenges for OHS. The questionnaire was sent to customer companies (n=116. In phase III, a scoping review was undertaken. Results: Three categories emerged from the analysis: “Balancing complex situations” clarified the complexity regarding senior employees; “Working with a proactive approach” indicated the need for working with a new proactive approach supporting sustainable health; and “Collaborate internally and externally” showed good relationships between the customer and the OHS, which is a mutual responsibility to both the partners. Conclusion: The results outlined that it is necessary to

  17. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Jochen and Werner Heisenberg. Personal Reflections Volume 10 Issue 1 January 2005 pp 93-96. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/01/0093-0096. Resonance – Journal of ...

  18. PERSONAL REFLECTIONS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Resonance journal of science education. April 2015 Volume 20 Number 4. GENERALARTICLES ... Development of. Probability Theory. K B Athreya. Classroom. Tutorial on Phyloge- netic Inference –1. Felix Bast. 360. 346. 286. PERSONAL REFLECTIONS. 368 The Road to IISc. M L Munjal (Transcribed by Maneesh Kunte).

  19. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  20. Benjamin's Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Nägele

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin‘s reading of Hölderlin in one of his earliest essays already delineates some of the major constellations of his thought. Searching for the ground of language and of poetic language in particular, Benjamin sets out to lay the ground for the possibility of literary criticism. His text enters into a specific relationship with Hölderlin's theory of poetics and poetic language. The movement of this search leads through a metaphoric relationship of "surface" and "depth" toward an ever-receding ground that can be articulated ultimately only in relation to a non-representable abyss (Abgrund . A new topography of surface and writing emerges and replaces the surface/depth relationship. Both Hölderlin's poetics and Benjamin's criticism develop a model of representation based on a radical rethinking of writing and script, marked by a "cut" or "caesura" as the precondition of representation and of the possibility of any "thing" represented. In the recurring motif of waking up, Benjamin marks the threshold of that caesura and connects it at the same time with a specific trait of modern aesthetics as embodied in Kafka's work.

  1. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    A prominent strand within current migration research argues that, to understand the participation of immigrants in their host societies, we must focus on their incorporation into the cities in which they settle. This article narrows the perspective further by focusing on the role that immigrants...... play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements...

  2. Reflective Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel Jørgensen, Andriette

    2016-01-01

    In Breve fra min Have (Letters from my Garden), the Swedish landscape architect, Sven-Ingvar Andersson, produces dialogues about his garden to a wide circle of friends, colleagues, deceased and still living acquaintances such as Karen Blixen, Gertrude Stein, C. Th. Sørensen, Albrecht Dürer, Peter...... Høeg etetera. The dialogues work as a tool of reflection in terms of providing opportunity to examine his own beliefs, to explore the possible reasons for engaging in a particular activity. On the basis of Sven-Ingvar Andersson’s book a teaching program at the Aarhus School of Architecture provides...

  3. Inspiring Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining...... life is not free from fluctuations, cycles, disruptions, crises and destructions both human and ecological. Innovation research ought to position itself to address environmental, financial and economic crises. The third is innovation research for development by addressing not only poverty erdaication...

  4. GPM Ground Validation Cloud Radar System (CRS) OLYMPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Cloud Radar System (CRS) OLYMPEX dataset provides radar reflectivity and Doppler velocity data collected during the Olympic Mountain...

  5. Specular Reflection from Rough Surfaces Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Kensei; Kim, Alvin; Cho, Hayley; Timofejev, Timofej; Walecki, Wojciech J.; Klep, James; Edelson, Amy S.; Walecki, Abigail S.; Walecki, Eve S.; Walecki, Peter S.

    2016-01-01

    In his beautiful paper, Hasan Fakhruddin reported observations of mirror-like reflections in the rough surface of a ground glass plate. Similar effects have been recently employed for metrology of the roughness of optical diffusers used in modern light emitting device illumination systems. We report the observations of specular reflection in…

  6. Characterization of waste rock associated with acid drainage at the Penn Mine, California, by ground-based visible to short-wave infrared reflectance spectroscopy assisted by digital mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, S.I.C.; Brimhall, G.H.; Alpers, Charles N.; Swayze, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Prior to remediation at the abandoned Cu-Zn Penn Mine in the Foothills massive sulfide belt of the Sierra Nevada, CA, acid mine drainage (AMD) was created, in part, by the subaerial oxidation of sulfides exposed on several waste piles. To support remediation efforts, a mineralogical study of the waste piles was undertaken by acquiring reflectance spectra (measured in the visible to short-wave infrared range of light (0.35-2.5 ??m) using a portable, digitally integrated pen tablet PC mapping system with differential global positioning system and laser rangefinder support. Analysis of the spectral data made use of a continuum removal and band-shape comparison method, and of reference spectral libraries of end-member minerals and mineral mixtures. Identification of secondary Fe-bearing minerals focused on band matching in the region between 0.43 and 1.3 ??m. Identification of sheet and other silicates was based on band-shape analysis in the region between 1.9 and 2.4 ??m. Analysis of reflectance spectra of characterized rock samples from the mine helped in gauging the spectral response to particle size and mixtures. The resulting mineral maps delineated a pattern of accumulation of secondary Fe minerals, wherein centers of copiapite and jarosite that formed at low pH (<3) were surrounded successively by goethite and hematite, which mark progressive increases in pH. This pattern represents the evolution of acid solutions discharged from the pyritic waste piles and the subsequent accumulation of secondary precipitates by hydrolysis reactions. The results highlight the high capacity of the pyritic waste to release further acid mine drainage into the environment, as well as the effectiveness of the mapping method to detect subtle changes in surface mineralogy and to produce maps useful to agencies responsible for remediating the site. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating Autonomous Ground-Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    Evaluating Autonomous Ground-Robots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Anthony Finn; Adam Jacoff; Mike...these metrics against the detailed choreography of the challenge to prevent teams ‘gaming’ the result (i.e. devising technical solutions that were

  8. Postmodernity Grounded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stipe Grgas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The following contribution to a discussion that purports to “rethink the humanities” stems from the field of American Studies which has, since its beginnings, challenged and put pressure on disciplinary borders and institutional structures of both the humanities and the social sciences. The approaches it has espoused has led observers to see it as a domain of inquiry where virtually anything goes. One of the explanations that has been put forth to account for the heterogeneity of both the research agendas and the multiplicity of methods within American Studies is the dynamics of demography within the United States and the way that this dynamic has impacted both the enrollment statistics at American universities and the diversifications of its teaching staff. According to this oft-repeated view, the research agenda of American Studies reflects the stages of empowerment of the different groups making up the United States polity. Although one would be hard put not to acknowledge these, distinctly American, developments, on the present occasion my point of departure is a more general rationale which American Studies, like other disciplines today, rely upon when setting their research agenda and deploying their methods: in simplest terms, they harbor a desire and feel a need for relevancy.

  9. High-altitude electromagnetic pulse environment over the lossy ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yanzhao; Wang Zanji

    2003-01-01

    The electromagnetic field above ground produced by an incident high-altitude electromagnetic pulse plane wave striking the ground plane was described in this paper in terms of the Fresnel reflection coefficients and the numerical FFT. The pulse reflected from the ground plane always cancel the incident field for the horizontal field component, but the reflected field adds to the incident for the vertical field component. The results of several cases for variations in the observation height, angle of incidence and lossy ground electrical parameters were also presented showing different e-field components above the earth

  10. ‘Leaving no one behind’: reflections on the design of community-based HIV prevention for migrants in Johannesburg’s inner-city hostels and informal settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Scorgie

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unmanaged urban growth in southern and eastern Africa has led to a growth of informal housing in cities, which are home to poor, marginalised populations, and associated with the highest HIV prevalence in urban areas. This article describes and reflects on the authors’ experiences in designing and implementing an HIV intervention originally intended for migrant men living in single-sex hostels of inner-city Johannesburg. It shows how formative research findings were incorporated into project design, substantially shifting the scope of the original project. Methods Formative research activities were undertaken to better understand the demand- and supply-side barriers to delivering HIV prevention activities within this community. These included community mapping, a baseline survey (n = 1458 and client-simulation exercise in local public sector clinics. The intervention was designed and implemented in the study setting over a period of 18 months. Implementation was assessed by way of a process evaluation of selected project components. Results The project scope expanded to include women living in adjacent informal settlements. Concurrent sexual partnerships between these women and male hostel residents were common, and HIV prevalence was higher among women (56% than men (24%. Overwhelmingly, hostel residents were internal migrants from another province, and most felt ‘alienated’ from the rest of the city. While men prioritised the need for jobs, women were more concerned about water, sanitation, housing and poverty alleviation. Most women (70% regarded their community as unsafe (cf. 47% of men. In the final intervention, project objectives were modified and HIV prevention activities were embedded within a broader health and development focus. ‘Community health clubs’ were established to build residents’ capacity to promote health and longer term well-being, and to initiate and sustain change within their

  11. A Reflective Look at Reflecting Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, Rebecca L.; Stinchfield, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed existing literature and research on the reflecting team process. There is a dearth of empirical research that explores the reflecting team process and the outcome of counseling that uses reflecting teams. Implications of using reflecting teams for counselors, counselor educators, and clients will be discussed. A call for…

  12. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzold, D.E.; Goward, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the mid latitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 μm, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future. (author)

  13. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Donald E.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the midlatitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 microns, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future.

  14. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  15. Ground roll attenuation by synchrosqueezed curvelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Chen, Yangkang; Ma, Jianwei

    2018-04-01

    Ground roll is a type of coherent noise in land seismic data that has low frequency, low velocity and high amplitude. It damages reflection events that contain important information about subsurface structures, hence the removal of ground roll is a crucial step in seismic data processing. A suitable transform is needed for removal of ground roll. Curvelet transform is an effective sparse transform that optimally represents seismic events. In addition, the curvelets can provide a multiscale and multidirectional decomposition of the input data in time-frequency and angular domain, which can help distinguish between ground roll and useful signals. In this paper, we apply synchrosqueezed curvelet transform (SSCT) for ground roll attenuation. The synchrosqueezing technique in SSCT is used to precisely reallocate the energy of local wave vectors in order to separate ground roll from the original data with higher resolution and higher fidelity. Examples of synthetic and field seismic data reveal that SSCT performs well in the suppression of aliased and non-aliased ground roll while preserving reflection waves, in comparison with high-pass filtering, wavelet and curvelet methods.

  16. Personal Professional Reflection as Interdisciplinary Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Oksana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of professional reflection as interdisciplinary problem is the necessary condition of quality analysis for personal professional becoming. Personal becoming in a profession is related to forming the necessary professional skills of a person, behaviour stereotypes which is the area of pedagogics. Reflection processes are inalienable part of self-knowledge of a person which result must lead to his self-perfection (including professional one and studying within the psychology increasingly. Thus the aim of the article is to ground the determination of professional reflection as an interdisciplinary problem in pedagogics and psychology.

  17. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Calle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  18. Grounded Contextual Reasoning enabling Innovative Mobile Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kranenburg, H.; Salden, Alfons; Broens, T.H.F.; Koolwaaij, Johan

    2005-01-01

    This paper reflects our findings on the technological feasibility of a mobile service scenario. We will show that despite the scenario being quite ordinary for endusers, the required service support functionality is rather complex. The realisation hinges on intricate grounded contextual reasoning

  19. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  20. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, Barney G.

    2007-01-01

    In meinem Beitrag greife ich zurück auf den ausgezeichneten und inspirierenden Artikel von CHARMAZ zu konstruktivistischer Grounded Theory, um an diesem Beispiel zu diskutieren, dass und warum die Grounded Theory kein konstruktivistisches Unterfangen ist. Ich versuche zu zeigen, dass "konstruktivistische Daten" bzw. konstruktivistische Anwendungen der Grounded Theory, sofern sie überhaupt existieren bzw. sinnvoll sein könnten, nur einen verschwindend kleinen Teil der Grounded Theory ausmachen...

  1. Reflectivity, Reflexivity and Situated Reflective Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malthouse, Richard; Roffey-Barentsen, Jodi; Watts, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an aspect of reflective practice referred to as situated reflective practice. The overarching theory is derived from social theories of structuration and reflexivity. In particular, from Giddens' theory of structuration, which sees social life as an interplay of agency and structure. Discussion of the research reported here…

  2. Communication, concepts and grounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain

  3. Reflection Positive Doubles

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffe, Arthur; Janssens, Bas

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce reflection positive doubles, a general framework for reflection positivity, covering a wide variety of systems in statistical physics and quantum field theory. These systems may be bosonic, fermionic, or parafermionic in nature. Within the framework of reflection positive doubles, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for reflection positivity. We use a reflection-invariant cone to implement our construction. Our characterization allows for a direct interpretation in t...

  4. Developing the reflective teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, J M; Chernomas, W M

    1997-06-01

    The conceptual issues and research findings surrounding the meaning and use of reflection are examined in this paper and serve as a foundation for discussing significant assumptions and beliefs regarding the use of reflection in nursing education. The strengths and limitations of reflection are discussed. The paper links current knowledge about reflection to the development of reflective thinking and its use by nurse educators and suggests strategies to enhance this development.

  5. Grounded theory in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher J; Lingard, Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research in general and the grounded theory approach in particular, have become increasingly prominent in medical education research in recent years. In this Guide, we first provide a historical perspective on the origin and evolution of grounded theory. We then outline the principles underlying the grounded theory approach and the procedures for doing a grounded theory study, illustrating these elements with real examples. Next, we address key critiques of grounded theory, which continue to shape how the method is perceived and used. Finally, pitfalls and controversies in grounded theory research are examined to provide a balanced view of both the potential and the challenges of this approach. This Guide aims to assist researchers new to grounded theory to approach their studies in a disciplined and rigorous fashion, to challenge experienced researchers to reflect on their assumptions, and to arm readers of medical education research with an approach to critically appraising the quality of grounded theory studies.

  6. Rigour and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance and demonstrate rigour in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory is sometimes criticised for a lack of rigour. Beck (1993) identified credibility, auditability and fittingness as the main standards of rigour for qualitative research methods. These criteria were evaluated for applicability to a Straussian grounded theory study and expanded or refocused where necessary. The author uses a Straussian grounded theory study (Cooney, In press) to examine how the revised criteria can be applied when conducting a grounded theory study. Strauss and Corbin (1998b) criteria for judging the adequacy of a grounded theory were examined in the context of the wider literature examining rigour in qualitative research studies in general and grounded theory studies in particular. A literature search for 'rigour' and 'grounded theory' was carried out to support this analysis. Criteria are suggested for enhancing and demonstrating the rigour of a Straussian grounded theory study. These include: cross-checking emerging concepts against participants' meanings, asking experts if the theory 'fit' their experiences, and recording detailed memos outlining all analytical and sampling decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRACTICE: The criteria identified have been expressed as questions to enable novice researchers to audit the extent to which they are demonstrating rigour when writing up their studies. However, it should not be forgotten that rigour is built into the grounded theory method through the inductive-deductive cycle of theory generation. Care in applying the grounded theory methodology correctly is the single most important factor in ensuring rigour.

  7. MODIS/Terra Surface Reflectance 8-Day L3 Global 250m SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Surface Reflectance products provide an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance as it would be measured at ground level in the absence of atmospheric...

  8. MODIS/Terra Surface Reflectance 8-Day L3 Global 500m SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Surface Reflectance products provide an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance as it would be measured at ground level in the absence of atmospheric...

  9. MODIS/Terra Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 250m SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Surface Reflectance products provide an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance as it would be measured at ground level in the absence of atmospheric...

  10. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  11. Reflection Positivity for Parafermions

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffe, Arthur; Pedrocchi, Fabio L.

    2014-01-01

    We establish reflection positivity for Gibbs trace states for a class of gauge-invariant, reflection-invariant Hamiltonians describing parafermion interactions on a lattice. We relate these results to recent work in the condensed-matter physics literature.

  12. Temperature-reflection I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGady, David A.

    2017-01-01

    that T-reflection is unrelated to time-reversal. Finally, we study the interplay between T-reflection and perturbation theory in the anharmonic harmonic oscillator in quantum mechanics and in Yang-Mills in four-dimensions. This is the first in a series of papers on temperature-reflections.......In this paper, we revisit the claim that many partition functions are invariant under reflecting temperatures to negative values (T-reflection). The goal of this paper is to demarcate which partition functions should be invariant under T-reflection, and why. Our main claim is that finite......-temperature path integrals for quantum field theories (QFTs) should be T-reflection invariant. Because multi-particle partition functions are equal to Euclidean path integrals for QFTs, we expect them to be T-reflection invariant. Single-particle partition functions though are often not invariant under T...

  13. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    a methodological reflective approach that provides space for taking seriously uncertainties experienced in the field as these can be a catalyst for learning and sharpening our theoretical and empirical skills as action researchers. Through first-person inquiry, we investigate how our reflective conversations...... gradually evolved into second-person inquiry. We argue that enacting second-person reflective conversations renders alternative strategies for handling uncertainties through articulation of the tacit assumptions within particular empirical situations. Finally, we argue that reflective conversations should...

  14. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  15. Reflecting on Masters Dissertations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I reflect on my own practice as a supervisor of taught postgraduate students. By outlining my own process of reflection I demonstrate that, despite some minor issues, Brew & Peseta's (2004) ten criteria for good supervisory practice of research postgraduates can be used as tool with which to reflect upon and improve one's…

  16. Can Turnitin come to the rescue: From teachers' reflections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Bheki Khoza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a qualitative critical action research of six Grade 12 high school teachers who used Turnitin as part of their assessment processes. Turnitin submissions, one-on-one semi-structured interviews, observation and reflective activities were used for data production/generation. This article concluded that although Turnitin did not help teachers to prevent all learner acts of plagiarism, it did scare the learners away from any obvious act of plagiarism. Teachers and learners became aware of technology as the 'servant', not the 'master'. Grounded analysis was used to generate two themes for this study. This study tried to explore the teachers' reflections of Turnitin used in assessing their learners' work. Purposive sampling was used in selecting the only six Grade 12 teachers who used Turnitin at a school in Durban. This article consequently recommends the use of 'Assessment, Educating to avoid and Turnitin' framework in any integration of hard-ware/soft-ware (HW/SW resources.

  17. Hot Ground Vibration Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...

  18. REFLECTING TOGETHER: REFLECTIVE FUNCTIONING AS A FOCUS FOR DEEPENING GROUP SUPERVISION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Mary Claire; Reynolds, Diane; Talbot, Bronwyn

    2016-11-01

    This article proposes how group reflective supervision, informed by the theory of reflective functioning, may provide a powerful method for developing reflective capacity of staff serving families, infants, and young children in multidisciplinary settings. An explanation of reflective functioning, related research, and its relevance to relational treatment and preventive intervention are discussed. Other approaches to reflective practice are referenced. We describe the necessary tension and encounters with distressing affect that mark reflective supervision groups using this focus. In addition, we identify areas of heightened difficulty in infant family work and describe how a group supervision process that enables use of self alongside perspectives of others may address these challenges while leading to increased reflective capacity among participants. Finally, we touch on relevant research on group supervision and parameters of size and focus, and highlight facilitation skills needed to create group safety and coherence. Areas for further study are proposed. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. VISUAL INSPECTION OF WATER LEAKAGE FROM GROUND PENETRATING RADAR RADARGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Halimshah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR as a non-destructive method to correctly and efficiently detect mains water leaks has been examined. Several experiments were designed and conducted to prove that GPR can be used as tool for water leakage detection. These include instrument validation test and soil compaction test to clarify the maximum dry density (MDD of soil and simulation studies on water leakage at a test bed consisting of PVC pipe burying in sand to a depth of 40 cm. Data from GPR detection are processed using the Reflex 2D software. Identification of water leakage was visually inspected from the anomalies in the radargram based on GPR reflection coefficients. The results have ascertained the capability and effectiveness of the GPR in detecting water leakage which could help avoiding difficulties with other leak detection methods.

  20. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities

  1. Reflections on researching rape resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E

    2014-03-01

    This article provides a retrospective account of my experience embarking on research about women's resistance to rape, including reflections on personal and professional experiences related to studying this topic. I discuss factors inspiring my interest, including pioneering feminist rape researchers, my experience as a woman living with the reality and fear of rape, and influential mentors who facilitated my career development as a scholar in graduate school and beyond. I weave this narrative together with my thoughts about how the study of resistance relates to other important issues in the field of sexual assault including alcohol, recovery, and prevention.

  2. Absorbed Energy in Ship Collisions and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    Minorsky's well-known empirical formula, which relates the absorbed energy to the destroyed material volume, has been widely used in analyses of high energy collision and grounding accidents for nearly 40 years. The advantage of the method is its apparent simplcity. Obviously, its drawback...... collisions and grounding. The developed expressions reflect the structural arrangement, the material properties and different damage patterns.The present method is validated against a large number of existing experimental results and detailed numerical simulation results. Applications to full-sale ship...

  3. Grounding Headphones for Protection Against ESD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, John; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    A simple alternative technique has been devised protecting delicate equipment against electrostatic discharge (ESD) in settings in which workers wear communication headsets. In the original setting in which the technique was devised, the workers who wear the headsets also wear anti-ESD grounding straps on their wrists. The alternative technique eliminates the need for the wrist grounding straps by providing for grounding through the headsets. In place of the electrically insulating foam pads on the headsets, one installs pads made of electrically conductive foam like that commonly used to protect electronic components. Grounding wires are attached to the conductive foam pads, then possibly to the shielding cable which may be grounded to the backshell on the connector. The efficacy of this technique in protecting against ESD has been verified in experiments. The electrical resistance of the pads is a few megohms - about the same as that of a human body between the fingers of opposite hands and, hence, low enough for grounding. The only drawback of the technique is that care must be taken to place the foam pads in contact with the user s skin: any hair that comes between the foam pads and the skin must be pushed aside because hair is electrically insulating and thus prevents adequate grounding.

  4. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wifalin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  5. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  6. Research on Integrated Geophysics Detect Potential Ground Fissure in City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, R.

    2017-12-01

    North China confined aquifer lied 70 to 200 meters below the earth's surface has been exploited for several decades, which resulted in confined water table declining and has generated a mass of ground fissure. Some of them has reached the surface and the other is developing. As it is very difficult to stop the ground fissure coming into being, measures of avoiding are often taken. It brings great potential risk to urban architecture and municipal engineering. It is very important to find out specific distribution and characteristic of potential ground fissure in city with high resolution. The ground fissure is concealed, therefor, geophysical method is an important technology to detecting concealed ground fissure. However, it is very difficult to detect the characteristics of the superficial part of ground fissure directly, as it lies dozens of meters below and has only scores of centimeters fault displacement. This paper studies applied ground penetration radar, surface wave and shallow refleciton seismic to detect ground fissure. It sets up model of surface by taking advantage of high resolution of ground penetrating radar data, constrains Reilay wave inversion and improves its resolution. The high resolution reflection seismic is good at detecting the geology structure. The data processing and interpretation technique is developmented to avoid the pitfall and improve the aliability of the rusult. The experiment has been conducted in Shunyi District, Beijing in 2016. 5 lines were settled to collect data of integrated geophysical method. Development zone of concealed ground fissure was found and its ultra shallow layer location was detected by ground penetrating radar. A trial trench of 6 meters in depth was dug and obvious ground fissure development was found. Its upper end was 1.5 meters beneath the earth's surface with displacement of 0.3 meters. The favorable effect of this detection has provided a new way for detecting ground fissure in cities of China, such

  7. Reshaping Time: Recommendations for Suicide Prevention in LBGT Populations. Reflections on "Suicide and Suicide Risk in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Populations: Review and Recommendations" from Journal of Homosexuality 58(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Clare

    2016-01-01

    This article serves as one of the supplementary pieces of this special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," in which we take a solipsistic turn to "map" the Journal of Homosexuality itself. Here, the author examines the journal's 2011 consensus recommendations for the prevention of LGBT suicide. Invoking the axiom approach of Eve Kosovsky Sedgwick's seminal Epistemology of the Closet, the author argues that merely offering practical guidelines at the level of the demonstrative and the instructive may not be sufficient models to address the urgency of suicide rates in LGBTQ youth populations.

  8. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Grounding the Translation: Intertwining analysis and translation in cross-language grounded theory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Shklarov, MD, RSW, PhD Candidate

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory research in cross-language, cross-cultural context is associated with the challenges of linguistic sensitivity of conceptualization. The author, a bilingual researcher, offers reflection on her experience of doing grounded theory research, assuming a dual role of a theorist and a translator. The reflection is based on self-observations. Grounding the translation is shown to be acheived through the strategy of intertwining the activities of translation and conceptual analysis, performed by one person. The two activities are inseparable in time and take place along with constant comparison across language boundaries. Intertwining requires that theoretical sensitivity of the researcher be enriched with the sensitivity to linguistic and cultural meanings. Intertwining, through revealing differences between linguistic meanings or language structures, facilitates the emergence of concepts and theoretical categories from the very act of translation. Combining the functions of translation and analysis and using the strategy of intertwining worked effectively for this researcher.

  10. Preventing School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

    2011-01-01

    School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…

  11. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2016-01-01

    and physical bodies are constantly broken with technology. Perception and reflection are in synergy. Reflection means etymologically to bend back, to mirror, and to think. My presentation will take its point of departure in this etymology and make perspectives to modern use of refection in digital media. I......Human experience is based on everything that surrounds us. Not the physical reality, but our perception of and reflection on it. This perception and reflection - presence, intimacy and materiality - are transformed by telematics: Separate rooms can be merged, and the boundaries between our virtual...... will take a look at the establishing of the modern self and possibilities of self-reflection, too. My examples will be from the so-called dark-selfies and from a new selfie form, which merge the present with the previous progressing into the future. I will discuss the media reflections as loos and/or gain...

  12. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2016-01-01

    Human experience is based on everything that surrounds us. Not the physical reality, but our perception of and reflection on it. This perception and reflection - presence, intimacy and materiality - are transformed by telematics: Separate rooms can be merged, and the boundaries between our virtua....... As another but short viewpoint telepresence, Skype, will be discussed, where new screen types, presence and reflections are established. In a perspective, I debate my term sore-society in relation to my topic and especially the dark selfies....

  13. Water Detection Based on Object Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2012-01-01

    Water bodies are challenging terrain hazards for terrestrial unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) for several reasons. Traversing through deep water bodies could cause costly damage to the electronics of UGVs. Additionally, a UGV that is either broken down due to water damage or becomes stuck in a water body during an autonomous operation will require rescue, potentially drawing critical resources away from the primary operation and increasing the operation cost. Thus, robust water detection is a critical perception requirement for UGV autonomous navigation. One of the properties useful for detecting still water bodies is that their surface acts as a horizontal mirror at high incidence angles. Still water bodies in wide-open areas can be detected by geometrically locating the exact pixels in the sky that are reflecting on candidate water pixels on the ground, predicting if ground pixels are water based on color similarity to the sky and local terrain features. But in cluttered areas where reflections of objects in the background dominate the appearance of the surface of still water bodies, detection based on sky reflections is of marginal value. Specifically, this software attempts to solve the problem of detecting still water bodies on cross-country terrain in cluttered areas at low cost.

  14. Correlation of S-Band Weather Radar Reflectivity and ACTS Propagation Data in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Eric E.; Flikkema, Paul G.; Henning, Rudolf E.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work has shown that Ka-band attenuation due to rainfall and corresponding S-band reflectivity are highly correlated. This paper reports on work whose goal is to determine the feasibility of estimation and, by extension, prediction of one parameter from the other using the Florida ACTS propagation terminal (APT) and the nearby WSR-88D S-band Doppler weather radar facility operated by the National Weather Service. This work is distinguished from previous efforts in this area by (1) the use of a single-polarized radar, preventing estimation of the drop size distribution (e.g., with dual polarization) and (2) the fact that the radar and APT sites are not co-located. Our approach consists of locating the radar volume elements along the satellite slant path and then, from measured reflectivity, estimating the specific attenuation for each associated path segment. The sum of these contributions yields an estimation of the millimeter-wave attenuation on the space-ground link. Seven days of data from both systems are analyzed using this procedure. The results indicate that definite correlation of S-band reflectivity and Ka-band attenuation exists even under the restriciton of this experiment. Based on these results, it appears possible to estimate Ka-band attenuation using widely available operational weather radar data. Conversely, it may be possible to augment current radar reflectivity data and coverage with low-cost attenuation or sky temperature data to improve the estimation of rain rates.

  15. Shallow ground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This guidebook outlines the factors to be considered in site selection, design, operation, shut-down and surveillance as well as the regulatory requirements of repositories for safe disposal of radioactive waste in shallow ground. No attempt is made to summarize the existing voluminous literature on the many facets of radioactive waste disposal. In the context of this guidebook, shallow ground disposal refers to the emplacement of radioactive waste, with or without engineered barriers, above or below the ground surface, where the final protective covering is of the order of a few metres thick. Deep geological disposal and other underground disposal methods, management of mill tailings and disposal into the sea have been or will be considered in other IAEA publications. These guidelines have been made sufficiently general to cover a broad variety of climatic, hydrogeological and biological conditions. They may need to be interpreted or modified to reflect local conditions and national regulations

  16. Rape prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/sexual- ...

  17. Dengue Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This photograph ... medications to treat a dengue infection. This makes prevention the most important step, and prevention means avoiding ...

  18. Reflections on pandemics, past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchat, Anne

    2011-06-01

    The author reflects on her personal experiences during the 2009 H1N1 influenza, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemics. The roles played by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention related to pregnancy-associated influenza during the 2009 pandemic are described. Risk communication principles are summarized and resources provided. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  19. Reflection Positivity and Monotonicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, Gordon; Jaffe, Arthur Michael

    2008-01-01

    We prove general reflection positivity results for both scalar fields and Dirac fields on a Riemannian manifold, and comment on applications to quantum field theory. As another application, we prove the inequality \\(C_D \\leq C_N\\) between Dirichlet and Neumann covariance operators on a manifold with a reflection.

  20. Media for Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article develops the concept media for reflection in the interest of conceptualizing the interpretative frames that enable and limit reflection in management and leadership education. The concept ‘media for reflection’ allows us to conceptualize the social and cultural mediation of reflectio...

  1. [Review of digital ground object spectral library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hu; Zhou, Ding-Wu

    2009-06-01

    A higher spectral resolution is the main direction of developing remote sensing technology, and it is quite important to set up the digital ground object reflectance spectral database library, one of fundamental research fields in remote sensing application. Remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics, and quantitative analysis has been developed to a new stage. The present article summarized and systematically introduced the research status quo and development trend of digital ground object reflectance spectral libraries at home and in the world in recent years. Introducing the spectral libraries has been established, including desertification spectral database library, plants spectral database library, geological spectral database library, soil spectral database library, minerals spectral database library, cloud spectral database library, snow spectral database library, the atmosphere spectral database library, rocks spectral database library, water spectral database library, meteorites spectral database library, moon rock spectral database library, and man-made materials spectral database library, mixture spectral database library, volatile compounds spectral database library, and liquids spectral database library. In the process of establishing spectral database libraries, there have been some problems, such as the lack of uniform national spectral database standard and uniform standards for the ground object features as well as the comparability between different databases. In addition, data sharing mechanism can not be carried out, etc. This article also put forward some suggestions on those problems.

  2. Plague Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Reduce rodent habitat around your ...

  3. Illumination compensation in ground based hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Alexander; Underwood, James

    2017-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has emerged as an important tool for analysing vegetation data in agricultural applications. Recently, low altitude and ground based hyperspectral imaging solutions have come to the fore, providing very high resolution data for mapping and studying large areas of crops in detail. However, these platforms introduce a unique set of challenges that need to be overcome to ensure consistent, accurate and timely acquisition of data. One particular problem is dealing with changes in environmental illumination while operating with natural light under cloud cover, which can have considerable effects on spectral shape. In the past this has been commonly achieved by imaging known reference targets at the time of data acquisition, direct measurement of irradiance, or atmospheric modelling. While capturing a reference panel continuously or very frequently allows accurate compensation for illumination changes, this is often not practical with ground based platforms, and impossible in aerial applications. This paper examines the use of an autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) to gather high resolution hyperspectral imaging data of crops under natural illumination. A process of illumination compensation is performed to extract the inherent reflectance properties of the crops, despite variable illumination. This work adapts a previously developed subspace model approach to reflectance and illumination recovery. Though tested on a ground vehicle in this paper, it is applicable to low altitude unmanned aerial hyperspectral imagery also. The method uses occasional observations of reference panel training data from within the same or other datasets, which enables a practical field protocol that minimises in-field manual labour. This paper tests the new approach, comparing it against traditional methods. Several illumination compensation protocols for high volume ground based data collection are presented based on the results. The findings in this paper are

  4. On slippery ground:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    2018-01-01

    , as researchers, found ourselves on slippery and emotionally charged ground. Using a critical, reflexive approach informed by poststructuralism, our ambition was to deconstruct gaps between rhetoric and practice and critique normative understandings of the nature of ethically sound coproduction processes...

  5. Reflection: A Socratic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Seggelen-Damen, Inge C M; Van Hezewijk, René; Helsdingen, Anne S; Wopereis, Iwan G J H

    2017-12-01

    Reflection is a fuzzy concept. In this article we reveal the paradoxes involved in studying the nature of reflection. Whereas some scholars emphasize its discursive nature, we go further and underline its resemblance to the self-biased dialogue Socrates had with the slave in Plato's Meno . The individual and internal nature of the reflection process creates difficulty for studying it validly and reliably. We focus on methodological issues and use Hans Linschoten's view of coupled systems to identify, analyze, and interpret empirical research on reflection. We argue that researchers and research participants can take on roles in several possible system couplings. Depending on who controls the manipulation of the stimulus, who controls the measuring instrument, who interprets the measurement and the response, different types of research questions can be answered. We conclude that reflection may be validly studied by combining different couplings of experimenter, manipulation, stimulus, participant, measurement, and response.

  6. Grounding, shielding, and bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catrysse, J.

    1991-06-01

    In the electromagnetic compatibility design (EMC) of systems and circuits, both grounding and shielding are related to the coupling mechanisms of the system with (radiated) electromagnetic fields. Grounding is more related to the source or victim circuit (or system) and determines the characteristic of the coupling mechanism between fields and currents/voltages. Shielding is a way of interacting in the radiation path of an electromagnetic field. The basic principles and practical design rules are discussed.

  7. Ubuntu feminism: Tentative reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drucilla Cornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The starting-point for the article is to provide a brief background on the Ubuntu Project that Prof. Drucilla Cornell convened in 2003; most notably the interviews conducted in Khayamandi, the support of a sewing collective, and the continued search to launch an Ubuntu Women�s Centre. The article will reflect on some of the philosophical underpinnings of ubuntu, whereafter debates in Western feminism will be revisited. Ubuntu feminism is suggested as a possible response to these types of feminisms. The authors support an understanding of ubuntu as critique and ubuntu feminism accordingly as a critical intervention that recalls a politics of refusal. The article ends by raising the importance of thinking about spatiality through ubuntu, and vice versa. It may seem strange to title an article Ubuntu feminism when feminism itself has often been identified as a European or Western idea. But, this article will argue that ubuntu offers conceptions of transindividuality and ways of social belonging that could respond in a meaningful way to some of European feminism�s own dilemmas and contradictions. Famously, one of the most intense debates in feminism was between those who defended an ethic of care in a relational view of the self, on one side, and those feminists who held on to more traditional conceptions of justice, placing an emphasis on individuality and autonomy, on the other side. The authors will suggest that ubuntu could address this tension in feminism. Thus, in this article the focus will not simply be on ubuntu, in order to recognise that there are other intellectual heritages worthy of consideration, other than those in Europe and the United States. It will also take a next step in arguing that ubuntu may be a better standpoint entirely from which to continue thinking about what it means to be a human being, as well as how to conceive of the integral interconnection human beings all have with one another. This connection through

  8. Review and Application of Ship Collision and Grounding Analysis Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2010-01-01

    It is the purpose of the paper to present a review of prediction and analysis tools for collision and grounding analyses and to outline a probabilistic procedure for which these tools can be used by the maritime industry to develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human......, environmental and economic costs of collision and grounding events. The main goal of collision and grounding research should be to identify the most economic risk control options associated with prevention and mitigation of collision and grounding events....

  9. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  10. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 250m SIN Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) Surface Reflectance products are an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance as it would be measured at ground level in the...

  11. Research of grounding capacitive current of neutral non-grounding auxiliary system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shan; Liu Li; Huang Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    In the domestic and abroad standards, the grounding capacitive current limitation in the non-grounding electric auxiliary system is less than 10 A. Limiting capacitive current in the standard aims to speed up the arc extinguishing to reduce the duration of arc over-voltage, but not to prevent the arc producing, The arc over-voltage harm is related to the multiple, frequency and duration of the over-voltage. When the insulation vulnerabilities appear in the equipment, the arc over-voltage may result in insulation vulnerabilities of the electrical equipment breakdown, which leads to multiple, short-circuit accidents. The cable connector, accessory and electromotor winding are all insulation vulnerabilities. Setting the arc suppression coil which can counteract the grounding capacitive current makes the arc vanish quickly. Using the casting bus which remarkably reduces the ground capacitance of the electric transmission line makes the equipment safer. (authors)

  12. Uma reflexão acerca da prevenção da violência a partir de um estudo sobre a agressividade humana A reflection about prevention of violence based on a study on human aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Vasconcelos de Andrade

    2009-04-01

    of aggressiveness offer us the possibility to propose actions which are not restricted to the control and correction of such manifestations, but can be more efficient in preventing the irruption and reproduction of violent situations for considering the social context in which they emerge and the subjective experiences involved.

  13. Reflective Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhijian

    increased by a bias field. When the bias field is larger than a critical field E_ {rm HP*}, the transient planar texture is no longer observed. The relaxation process is adequately explained by using a model in which the liquid crystals relax from the homeotropic to transient planar texture through a conic helical structure. In reflective cholesteric displays, the reflected color is controlled by the pitch length of the liquid crystals. Multicolor displays can be achieved by using cholesteric liquid crystals with photo adjusted pitch lengths. In order to make stable colors, inter-pixel diffusion must be prevented. This dissertation demonstrates that polymer dispersed cholesteric material is a very good approach for this purpose. Through phase separation, rigid polymer walls are formed which isolate the cholesteric liquid crystals. Cholesteric liquid crystals with different pitch lengths are achieved by using photo tunable materials and irradiating different doses of UV light into different pixels. High definition multicolor reflective cholesteric displays are feasible by using the polymer dispersed cholesteric material.

  14. Reflections on Miniature Golf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Nancy Norem; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes a transformational geometry project in which groups of students explore symmetry, reflections, translations, rotations, and dilations to design and create one hole of miniature golf large enough to play on. Includes unit plan for transformational geometry. (MKR)

  15. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  16. Reflectance Reference Targets (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Spectral reflectance measurements of flat field targets as reference points representative of pseudo-invariant targets as measured by Spectron SE590...

  17. Reflectance Reference Targets (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral reflectance measurements of flat field targets as reference points representative of pseudo-invariant targets as measured by Spectron SE590 spectrophotometer

  18. Thoughts on Reflection (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been some acknowledgement in the published literature that reflection is a crucial element of the evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP model we have adopted (Booth 2004, 2006; Grant 2007; Helliwell 2007. As we work through a problem and try to incorporate the best available evidence into our decision making, reflection is required at several stages, including the very identification of the problem through to our assessment of the process itself and what we have learned in order to inform future practice. However, reflection and reflective writing have not fully been integrated into the process we espouse, and very little has been done to look more closely at this element of the model and how it can be integrated into professional learning.In a recently published research article, Sen (2010 confirms the relationship between reflection and several aspects of professional practice. These include critical review and decision making, two aspects that are tied closely to the evidence based process. Sen notes: Students were more likely to show evidence of learning, self‐development, the ability to review issues crucially, awareness of their own mental functions, ability to make decision [sic] and being empowered when they had mastered the art of reflective practice and the more deeply analytical reflective writing. (p.84 EBLIP (the journal tries to incorporate elements of reflection within the articles we publish. While we clearly believe in the need for our profession to do quality research and publish that research so that it can be accessible to practitioners, we also know that research cannot be looked at in isolation. Our evidence summaries are one way of reflecting critically on previously published research, and in the same vein, our classics bring older research studies back to the foreground. This work needs to continue to be discussed and looked at for its impact on our profession.More directly, the Using

  19. Decommissioning and decontamination (burial ground stabilization) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The decommissioning and decontamination of retired Hanford facilities and the future use of surrounding landscapes require isolation of contaminated wastes from the biosphere. Burial ground stabilization studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of physical barriers for isolating contaminated wastes in shallow-land burial sites from plants and animals. This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of using a layer of loose rock between the waste and the surface soil covering to prevent both plant root and animal penetrations

  20. Grounding of space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosela, P. A.; Fertis, D. G.; Shaker, F. J.

    1992-01-01

    Space structures, such as the Space Station solar arrays, must be extremely light-weight, flexible structures. Accurate prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes is essential for determining the structural adequacy of components, and designing a controls system. The tension pre-load in the 'blanket' of photovoltaic solar collectors, and the free/free boundary conditions of a structure in space, causes serious reservations on the use of standard finite element techniques of solution. In particular, a phenomenon known as 'grounding', or false stiffening, of the stiffness matrix occurs during rigid body rotation. This paper examines the grounding phenomenon in detail. Numerous stiffness matrices developed by others are examined for rigid body rotation capability, and found lacking. A force imbalance inherent in the formulations examined is the likely cause of the grounding problem, suggesting the need for a directed force formulation.

  1. Ground motion predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loux, P.C.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  2. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.

    2014-01-01

    we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...

  3. Grounding Anger Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that drew me to grounded theory from the beginning was Glaser and Strauss’ assertion in The Discovery of Grounded Theory that it was useful as a “theoretical foothold” for practical applications (p. 268. From this, when I was a Ph.D student studying under Glaser and Strauss in the early 1970s, I devised a GT based approach to action I later came to call “grounded action.” In this short paper I’ll present a very brief sketch of an anger management program I developed in 1992, using grounded action. I began my research by attending a two-day anger management training workshop designed for training professionals in the most commonly used anger management model. Like other intervention programs I had seen, this model took a psychologizing and pathologizing approach to the issue. Following this, I sat through the full course of an anger management program that used this model, observing the reactions of the participants and the approach of the facilitator. Following each session I conducted open-ended interviews with most of the participants, either individually or in groups of two or three. I had also done previous research in counseling and social work contexts that turned out to be very relevant to an anger management program design.

  4. Nuclear ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negele, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear ground state is surveyed theoretically, and specific suggestions are given on how to critically test the theory experimentally. Detailed results on 208 Pb are discussed, isolating several features of the charge density distributions. Analyses of 208 Pb electron scattering and muonic data are also considered. 14 figures

  5. Collison and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, G.; Ji, C.; Kuhala, P.

    2006-01-01

    COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence...

  6. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  7. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground...

  8. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  9. The Reflective Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    Private foundations and cultural philanthropy by élites is viewed with increasing skepticism in recent years, begging the question of the extent to which foundations reflect on their role vis a vis wider societal norms. Through the prism of the New Carlsberg Foundation, financed by the brewery...... Carlsberg A/S, the paper seeks to elucidate the way in which one culturally significant foundation from Denmark has reflected on - and legitimated - its work and investments at critical moments in the past decades. The paper indicates a foundation with a high degree of reflection on the wider societal...... pressures, and position as a mediator between culture and capital. The paper draws inspiration from the institutional logics perspective and Boltanski and Thévenot’s convention theoretical work, to analyse the legitimations pursued by the foundation....

  10. Fully reflective photon sieve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenbo; Hu, Yongxiang; MacDonnell, David G.; Kim, Hyun Jung; Weimer, Carl; Baize, Rosemary R.

    2018-02-01

    Photon sieves (PS) have many applications and various designs in focusing light. However, a traditional PS only has a light transmissivity up to ∼25% and a focusing efficiency up to ∼7%, which hinder the application of them in many fields, especially for satellite remote sensing. To overcome these inherent drawbacks of traditional PSs, a concept of reflective photon sieve is developed in this work. This reflective photon sieve is based on a transparent membrane backed by a mirror. The transparent membrane is optimally a fully transparent material sheet with given refractive index and designed geometric thickness which has an optical thickness of a quarter incident wavelength (i.e. an anti-reflective coating). The PS-patterned pinholes are made on the transparent membrane. The design makes the light reflected from pinholes and that from zones of membrane material have 180° phase difference. Thus, light incident on this optical device is reflected and focused on its focal point. This device can have a reflectivity of ∼100% and a focusing efficiency of ∼50% based on numerical simulation. This device functions similar to a concave focusing mirror but can preserve the phase feature of light (such as that for the light with orbital angular momentum). It also has excellent wavelength-dependent property, which can exclude most of the undesired light from the focal point. A thin sheet of this component can perform the joint function of lenses and gratings/etalons in the optical path of a remote sensing system, thus is suitable for controling/filtering light in compact instruments such as satellite sensors. This concept is validated by the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) modeling and a lab prototype in this study.

  11. Preventing Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan Fordney

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the beginning counselor with an overview of prevention concepts. Prevention is a relatively new emphasis in community efforts to stem the rising costs of substance abuse and other high-risk behaviors. The paper discusses agent, host, and environmental prevention models and how they relate to causal theories…

  12. Reflections and Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reflections and Interpretations is an anthology on The Freedom Writers’ methodology. It is an anthology for all those with a professional need for texts explaining, not only how The Freedom Writers’ tools are being used, but also why they work so convincingly well. It is not an anthology of guide......Reflections and Interpretations is an anthology on The Freedom Writers’ methodology. It is an anthology for all those with a professional need for texts explaining, not only how The Freedom Writers’ tools are being used, but also why they work so convincingly well. It is not an anthology...

  13. Reflecting telescope optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Raymond N

    2004-01-01

    R.N. Wilson's two-volume treatise on reflecting telescope optics has become a classic in its own right. It is intended to give a complete treatment of the subject, addressing professionals in research and industry as well as students of astronomy and amateur astronomers. This first volume, Basic Design Theory and its Historical Development, is devoted to the theory of reflecting telescope optics and systematically recounts the historical progress. The author's approach is morphological, with strong emphasis on the historical development. The book is richly illustrated including spot-diagrams a

  14. Postscript: Delving into Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Noffke

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Although, the authors presented an earlier version of the paper, "The Dimensions of Reflection: A Conceptual and Contextual Analysis", at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, April, 1988, they did not have a chance to publish the paper till today. This postscript is about why the paper stayed as an “unpublished” conference paper for so long. Editors believe that the authors’ reflection on their academic journey with the paper in the postscript could be seen as an outstanding practical exemplar, a moral-political narrative of how to shape and create well-formed academic lives and identities.

  15. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2018-01-01

    Reflecting has a double meaning, mirroring and thinking. The seminar will investigate how these two meanings intervene in each other. As we perceive we are already in pre-refectory state, and thinking involves a lot of not only thoughts, but also of senses and sensing, wherefrom our thoughts starts...... and where our thoughts ends. How are our reflections in the digital age? Human experience is based on everything that surrounds us. Not only the physical reality, but also our perception of it. This perception, which consists of presence, intimacy and materiality, is being transformed by digital technology...

  16. Invisibility via reflecting coating

    OpenAIRE

    Burdzy, Krzysztof; Kulczycki, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    We construct a subset $A$ of the unit disc with the following properties. (i) The set $A$ is the finite union of disjoint line segments. (ii) The shadow of $A$ is arbitrarily close to the shadow of the unit disc in "most" directions. (iii) If the line segments are considered to be mirrors reflecting light according to the classical law of specular reflection then most light rays hitting the set emerge on the other side of the disc moving along a parallel line and shifted by an arbitrarily sma...

  17. Using seismic reflection to locate a tracer testing complex south of Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryder, Levi

    Tracer testing in the fractured volcanic aquifer near Yucca Mountain, and in the alluvial aquifer south of Yucca Mountain, Nevada has been conducted in the past to determine the flow and transport properties of groundwater in those geologic units. However, no tracer testing has been conducted across the alluvium/volcanic interface. This thesis documents the investigative process and subsequent analysis and interpretations used to identify a location suitable for installation of a tracer testing complex, near existing Nye County wells south of Yucca Mountain. The work involved evaluation of existing geologic data, collection of wellbore seismic data, and a detailed surface seismic reflection survey. Borehole seismic data yielded useful information on alluvial P-wave velocities. Seismic reflection data were collected over a line of 4.5-km length, with a 10-m receiver and shot spacing. Reflection data were extensively processed to image the alluvium/volcanic interface. A location for installation of an alluvial/volcanic tracer testing complex was identified based on one of the reflectors imaged in the reflection survey; this site is located between existing Nye County monitoring wells, near an outcrop of Paintbrush Tuff. Noise in the reflection data (due to some combination of seismic source signal attenuation, poor receiver-to-ground coupling, and anthropogenic sources) were sources of error that affected the final processed data set. In addition, in some areas low impedance contrast between geologic units caused an absence of reflections in the data, complicating the processing and interpretation. Forward seismic modeling was conducted using Seismic Un*x; however, geometry considerations prevented direct comparison of the modeled and processed data sets. Recommendations for additional work to address uncertainties identified during the course of this thesis work include: drilling additional boreholes to collect borehole seismic and geologic data; reprocessing a

  18. A Theory-Grounded Measure of Adolescents’ Response to a Media Literacy Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kathryn; Yanovitzky, Itzhak; Carpenter, Amanda; Banerjee, Smita C.; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Hecht, Michael L.; Elek, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Media literacy interventions offer promising avenues for the prevention of risky health behaviors among children and adolescents, but current literature remains largely equivocal about their efficacy. The primary objective of this study was to develop and test theoretically-grounded measures of audiences’ degree of engagement with the content of media literacy programs based on the recognition that engagement (and not participation per se) can better explain and predict individual variations in the effects of these programs. We tested the validity and reliability of a measure of engagement with two different samples of 10th grade high school students who participated in a pilot and actual test of a brief media literacy curriculum. Four message evaluation factors (involvement, perceived novelty, critical thinking, personal reflection) emerged and demonstrate acceptable reliability. PMID:28042522

  19. Philosophical Paradigms, Grounded Theory, and Perspectives on Emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merry-Jo D. Levers

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present a plausible framework to initiate discussion regarding the concept of emergence in grounded theory. Using ontological and epistemological positions to develop three research paradigms, and applying these paradigms to various uptakes of grounded theory demonstrates differences in the definition of emergence. Discovery emergence is presented as a unidirectional relationship between the constituent parts (data and the emergent property (theory observed by an external postpositivist grounded theorist. Mechanistic emergence is presented as having a bidirectional relationship between the constituent part (data and the emergent property (theory observed by an external constructionist grounded theorist. Finally, reflective emergence is presented as having a bidirectional relationship between the constituent parts (data and the emergent property (theory interpreted by an interpretivist grounded theorist.

  20. Thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) show microstructural bone loss during hibernation but preserve bone macrostructural geometry and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Stoll, Danielle M; Mantila, Emily R; Fahrner, Bryna K; Carey, Hannah V; Donahue, Seth W

    2011-04-15

    Lack of activity causes bone loss In most animals. Hibernating bears have physiological processes to prevent cortical and trabecular bone loss associated with reduced physical activity, but different mechanisms of torpor among hibernating species may lead to differences in skeletal responses to hibernation. There are conflicting reports regarding whether small mammals experience bone loss during hibernation. To investigate this phenomenon, we measured cortical and trabecular bone properties in physically active and hibernating juvenile and adult 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, previous genus name Spermophilus). Cortical bone geometry, strength and mineral content were similar in hibernating compared with active squirrels, suggesting that hibernation did not cause macrostructural cortical bone loss. Osteocyte lacunar size increased (linear regression, P=0.001) over the course of hibernation in juvenile squirrels, which may indicate an osteocytic role in mineral homeostasis during hibernation. Osteocyte lacunar density and porosity were greater (+44 and +59%, respectively; Phibernating compared with active squirrels, which may reflect a decrease in osteoblastic activity (per cell) during hibernation. Trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia was decreased (-20%; P=0.028) in hibernating compared with physically active adult squirrels, but was not different between hibernating and active juvenile squirrels. Taken together, these data suggest that 13-lined ground squirrels may be unable to prevent microstructural losses of cortical and trabecular bone during hibernation, but importantly may possess a biological mechanism to preserve cortical bone macrostructure and strength during hibernation, thus preventing an increased risk of bone fracture during remobilization in the spring.

  1. Reflections on Software Research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 8. Reflections on Software Research. Dennis M Ritchie. Classics Volume 17 Issue 8 August 2012 pp 810-816. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/08/0810-0816. Author Affiliations.

  2. Lights, Camera, Reflection!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourlam, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    There are many ways to critique teaching, but few are more effective than video. Personal reflection through the use of video allows one to see what really happens in the classrooms--good and bad--and provides a visual path forward for improvement, whether it be in one's teaching, work with a particular student, or learning environment. This…

  3. Onward: Reflections on Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kimberley Buster

    2018-01-01

    The author has been blessed with great mentors throughout her career. When she was invited to participate in the Leadership University of Mary Washington (UMW), a mentoring program at her institution, she did not hesitate to say yes. In this article, the author shares her reflections on mentoring.

  4. Aluminum: Reflective Aluminum Chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recca, L.

    1999-01-29

    This fact sheet reveals how the use of reflective aluminum chips on rooftops cuts down significantly on heat absorption, thus decreasing the need for air conditioning. The benefits, including energy savings that could reach the equivalent of 1.3 million barrels of oil annually for approximately 100,000 warehouses, are substantial.

  5. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...

  6. Reflective Abstraction and Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Philip

    Piaget's theory of reflective abstraction can supplement cognitive science models of representation by specifying both the act of construction and the component steps through which knowers pass as they acquire knowledge. But, while approaches suggested by cognitive science supplement Piaget by awakening researchers to the role of auxiliary factors…

  7. Value reflected health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a value-reflected approach in health education by demonstrating the nature of professional competence development connected to this approach. It is based on findings from two three-year health educational development projects carried out by school health nurses...... develop pedagogical competences in health education improving school childrens’ health....

  8. Reflecting Contemporary Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, design research has been the object of growing attention in universities and academies throughout the world. The present paper addresses the heterogeneous character of design research and the current need for reflection on the various approaches and interests. For this purpose, t...

  9. Ground vortex flow field investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Richard E.; Delfrate, John H.; Eshleman, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Flow field investigations were conducted at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flow Visualization Facility (water tunnel) to investigate the ground effect produced by the impingement of jets from aircraft nozzles on a ground board in a STOL operation. Effects on the overall flow field with both a stationary and a moving ground board were photographed and compared with similar data found in other references. Nozzle jet impingement angles, nozzle and inlet interaction, side-by-side nozzles, nozzles in tandem, and nozzles and inlets mounted on a flat plate model were investigated. Results show that the wall jet that generates the ground effect is unsteady and the boundary between the ground vortex flow field and the free-stream flow is unsteady. Additionally, the forward projection of the ground vortex flow field with a moving ground board is one-third less than that measured over a fixed ground board. Results also showed that inlets did not alter the ground vortex flow field.

  10. Reflection in learning at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Steen Høyrup

    2006-01-01

    Three domains and approaches of learning - adult learning, problem-solving and cirtical reflection theory are used as different lenses through which the question: what is reflection and how is reflection related to learning, - are interpreted.......Three domains and approaches of learning - adult learning, problem-solving and cirtical reflection theory are used as different lenses through which the question: what is reflection and how is reflection related to learning, - are interpreted....

  11. Grounding and shielding circuits and interference

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Applies basic field behavior in circuit design and demonstrates how it relates to grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design This book connects the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory to the problems of interference in all types of electronic design. The text covers power distribution in facilities, mixing of analog and digital circuitry, circuit board layout at high clock rates, and meeting radiation and susceptibility standards. The author examines the grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design and applies basic physics to circuit behavior. The sixth edition of this book has been updated with new material added throughout the chapters where appropriate. The presentation of the book has also been rearranged in order to reflect the current trends in the field.

  12. TOPEX ground data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, S. N.; Yamarone, C. A., Jr.

    The TOPEX Project is a proposed oceanographic mission to measure the topography of the sea surface for a period of three years. This mission is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Measurements of topography are used to study ocean currents, tides, bathymetry and the oceanic geoid. Several of the primary goals of this mission are to process and verify the altimetric data, and distribute them within days to the science investigators. This paper describes the TOPEX end-to-end ground data system. In addition to controlling the TOPEX satellite, the ground data system has been designed to minimize the time from data acquisition to science processing and data distribution. A centralized design supports the favorable response time of the system and also allows for operational efficiencies. Networking of real time and non-real time elements of the data system provides for more effective data processing.

  13. Ground motion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.

    1969-01-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  14. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Typically, ground staff scheduling is centrally planned for each terminal in an airport. The advantage of this is that the staff is efficiently utilized, but a disadvantage is that staff spends considerable time walking between stands. In this paper a decentralized approach for ground staff...... scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the staff scheduling is planned decentralized for each zone. The advantage of this approach is that the staff...... work in a smaller area of the terminal and thus spends less time walking between stands. When planning decentralized the allocation of stands to flights influences the staff scheduling since the workload in a zone depends on which flights are allocated to stands in the zone. Hence solving the problem...

  15. Andreev bound states. Some quasiclassical reflections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y., E-mail: yiriolin@illinois.edu; Leggett, A. J. [University of Illinois at Urhana-Champaign, Dept. of Physics (United States)

    2014-12-15

    We discuss a very simple and essentially exactly solvable model problem which illustrates some nice features of Andreev bound states, namely, the trapping of a single Bogoliubov quasiparticle in a neutral s-wave BCS superfluid by a wide and shallow Zeeman trap. In the quasiclassical limit, the ground state is a doublet with a splitting which is proportional to the exponentially small amplitude for “normal” reflection by the edges of the trap. We comment briefly on a prima facie paradox concerning the continuity equation and conjecture a resolution to it.

  16. Remodeling Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines my concerns with Qualitative Data Analysis’ (QDAnumerous remodelings of Grounded Theory (GT and the subsequent eroding impact. I cite several examples of the erosion and summarize essential elements of classic GT methodology. It is hoped that the article will clarify my concerns with the continuing enthusiasm but misunderstood embrace of GT by QDA methodologists and serve as a preliminary guide to novice researchers who wish to explore the fundamental principles of GT.

  17. Multiple View Stereo by Reflectance Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Sujung; Kim, Seong Dae; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg

    2012-01-01

    we argue that a visual metric based on a surface reflectance model should be founded on more observations than the degrees of freedom (dof) of the reflectance model. If (partly) specular surfaces are to be handled, this implies a model with at least two dof. In this paper, we propose to construct...... visual metrics of more than one dof using the DAISY methodology, which compares favorably to the state of the art in the experiments carried out. These experiments are based on a novel data set of eight scenes with diffuse and specular surfaces and accompanying ground truth. The performance of six...... different visual metrics based on the DAISY framework is investigated experimentally, addressing whether a visual metric should be aggregated from a set of minimal images, which dof is best, or whether a combination of one and two dof should be used. Which metric performs best is dependent on the viewed...

  18. ReflectED: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motteram, Gary; Choudry, Sophina; Kalambouka, Afroditi; Hutcheson, Graeme; Barton, Hutcheson

    2016-01-01

    The ReflectED programme was developed by Rosendale Primary School to improve pupils' metacognition--their ability to think about and manage their own learning. This includes the skills of setting and monitoring goals, assessing progress, and identifying personal strengths and challenges. ReflectED consists of 28, weekly, half-hour lessons, which…

  19. Ethical reflection and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a

  20. Airports, Hotel, and Ground Transportation Information | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airports in and near Washington, DC Reagan National (DCA)  Approximate 30 minute drive from Rockville* Has its own Metro stop on the blue and yellow lines in Virginia NOTE: This airport may be the closest and easiest option if not renting a car or do not want to pay for an airport cab/shuttle.   Dulles International (IAD) |

  1. Superradiance or total reflection?

    CERN Document Server

    László, András

    2014-01-01

    Numerical evolution of massless scalar fields on Kerr background is studied. The initial data specifications are chosen to have compact support separated from the ergoregion and to yield nearly monochromatic incident wave packets. The initial data is also tuned to maximize the effect of superradiance. Evidences are shown indicating that instead of the anticipated energy extraction from black hole the incident radiation fail to reach the ergoregion rather it suffers a nearly perfect reflection.

  2. Wave Reflections from Breakwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    reflector (e.g., Thornton and Calhoun 1972; Mansard and Funke 1980; Yokoki et al. 1992). The interpretation of these measurements is complicated owing to...breaks down at the frequency where the wavelength is equal to twice the sensor spacing. Mansard and Funke (1980) overcame this problem by applying a...Wave Data." J. Phys. Oceanogr., 9(2), 373-381. Mansard , E. P. D. and E. R. Funke, 1980: "The Measurement of Incident and Reflected Spectra Using a

  3. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  4. Teachers’ way of reflecting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lea

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to insights on teachers’ thinking and practice by building partly on the large amount of prior research in the field of continuing professional development (in line with ISATT), and partly on examples from an empirical small-scale study executed in Denmark. The purpose......-ers’ reflections on practice. Based on this model, the paper provides a proposal regarding how to work with teachers’ professional development and learning processes. Educational implications and future research directions are discussed....

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise ...

  7. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 ...

  8. The application of epoxy resin coating in grounding grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Chen, Z. R.; Xi, L. J.; Wang, X. Y.; Wang, H. F.

    2018-01-01

    Epoxy resin anticorrosion coating is widely used in grounding grid corrosion protection because of its wide range of materials, good antiseptic effect and convenient processing. Based on the latest research progress, four kinds of epoxy anticorrosive coatings are introduced, which are structural modified epoxy coating, inorganic modified epoxy coating, organic modified epoxy coating and polyaniline / epoxy resin composite coating. In this paper, the current research progress of epoxy base coating is analyzed, and prospected the possible development direction of the anti-corrosion coating in the grounding grid, which provides a reference for coating corrosion prevention of grounding materials.

  9. NuSTAR on-ground calibration I: Imaging quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt; Madsen, Kristin K.; Brejnholt, Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    metrology provided surface maps of the reflecting surfaces. Several flight coated mirrors were brought to BNL for scattering measurements. The information from both sources is fed to a raytracing code that is tested against the on-ground calibration data. The code is subsequently used for predicting...... the imaging properties for X-ray sources at infinite distance. © 2012 SPIE....

  10. Review of commonly used remote sensing and ground-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review provides an overview of the use of remote sensing data, the development of spectral reflectance indices for detecting plant water stress, and the usefulness of field measurements for ground-truthing purposes. Reliable measurements of plant water stress over large areas are often required for management ...

  11. Reflection and teaching: a taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Henk; Cowan, John

    2009-01-01

    A major problem in teaching reflection is that educational objectives for reflection in terms of student behaviour are lacking. Therefore a taxonomy of reflection has been developed based on Bloom’s taxonomy. Reflective assignments can then be better focused on any chosen educational objectives. The

  12. Reflection Revisited: The Class Collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Through the regular use of what Donald Schon has termed reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action, students can learn to improve their "reflection-in-presentation," in Kathleen Blake Yancey's term. Students are often asked to do this type of reflection-in-presentation as a capstone to first-year or basic writing courses. However, a number of…

  13. Broken Reflection Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugari, Steven Louis

    1992-01-01

    We have carried out a search for broken reflection symmetry in the exotic nucleus ^{114 }Xe. Evidence for broken reflection symmetry has been previously observed in the actinide region, most notably Ra-Th nuclei, and more recently in the neutron rich nuclei ^{144}Ba, ^{146}Ce, and ^{146,148}Nd. This evidence has been discussed in terms of two conceptually different theoretical frameworks, namely alpha clustering and octupole deformation. The alpha clustering model makes global predictions of the relative strengths of enhanced electric dipole (E1) transitions characteristic of broken reflection symmetry, and predicts a dependence on isospin divided by nuclear mass (N-Z) ^2/A^2 of the reduced transition probability, B(E1), where A is the nuclear mass number and N and Z are, respectively, the neutron and proton number. The nuclei studied previously have approximately the same value of (N-Z)^2/A ^2 between 0.033 and 0.05. In ^ {114}Xe this parameter is much different, (N-Z)^2/A^2 =.0028, allowing for a test of the prediction. On the other hand, the octupole model description is less straightforward. Two terms contributing to the calculation of reduced transition strengths are based on the collective liquid drop model of nuclei and have a global dependence on A^2 Z^2. A third term, however, depends explicitly on the shell model description of the valence nucleons and can be large enough to remove this global dependence. The nucleus ^{114}Xe was produced in the heavy ion fusion evaporation reaction ^{60}Ni(^ {58}Ni,2p2n)^{114 }Xe in two separate measurements at Daresbury Laboratory and at Yale University. The nucleus was identified by means of a recoil mass spectrometer in the first reaction and by detection of evaporated neutrons in the second. Gamma ray spectra were collected in coincidence with these triggers using similar gamma detector setups. Information on the angular distributions of the gamma rays was collected for at least three separate angles in each

  14. BOREAS TE-09 in situ Understory Spectral Reflectance within the NSA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains forest understory spectral reflectance data collected by BOREAS TE-09 at the ground level in the Old Jack Pine, Young Jack Pine nd Young Aspen boreal forest...

  15. BOREAS TE-09 in situ Understory Spectral Reflectance within the NSA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Contains forest understory spectral reflectance data collected by BOREAS TE-09 at the ground level in the Old Jack Pine, Young Jack Pine nd Young Aspen...

  16. Simulated earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, E.H.; Gasparini, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews current methods for generating synthetic earthquake ground motions. Emphasis is on the special requirements demanded of procedures to generate motions for use in nuclear power plant seismic response analysis. Specifically, very close agreement is usually sought between the response spectra of the simulated motions and prescribed, smooth design response spectra. The features and capabilities of the computer program SIMQKE, which has been widely used in power plant seismic work are described. Problems and pitfalls associated with the use of synthetic ground motions in seismic safety assessment are also pointed out. The limitations and paucity of recorded accelerograms together with the widespread use of time-history dynamic analysis for obtaining structural and secondary systems' response have motivated the development of earthquake simulation capabilities. A common model for synthesizing earthquakes is that of superposing sinusoidal components with random phase angles. The input parameters for such a model are, then, the amplitudes and phase angles of the contributing sinusoids as well as the characteristics of the variation of motion intensity with time, especially the duration of the motion. The amplitudes are determined from estimates of the Fourier spectrum or the spectral density function of the ground motion. These amplitudes may be assumed to be varying in time or constant for the duration of the earthquake. In the nuclear industry, the common procedure is to specify a set of smooth response spectra for use in aseismic design. This development and the need for time histories have generated much practical interest in synthesizing earthquakes whose response spectra 'match', or are compatible with a set of specified smooth response spectra

  17. Ground System Extensibility Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Greene, E.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners, such as NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS), NOAA's current POES, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of national and international missions, including command and control, mission management, data acquisition and routing, and environmental data processing and distribution. The current suite of CGS-supported missions has demonstrated the value of interagency and international partnerships to address global observation needs. With its established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS is extensible to a wider array of potential new missions. This paper will describe how the inherent scalability and extensibility of the CGS enables the addition of these new missions, with an eye on global enterprise needs in the 2020's and beyond.

  18. Patterns in Frozen Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallet, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Fletcher, R. C.

    2005-12-01

    The expansion and contraction of ice-cemented soils, due to seasonal and shorter term temperature fluctuations, or to the growth and decay of ice lenses in soils, produce some of the most striking geometric patterns in nature. These patterns, known as patterned ground, have diverse surface expressions including local relief, soil cracks, size-segregated mineral material, and spatial variations in vegetation density and species composition. They can be subdivided into sorted patterns, which range in size from 0.1 to 3 m and are defined by spatial differentiation of soil material according to grain size, and non-sorted patterns that may be 10's of meters in size. The processes underlying the pattern development have been elucidated through detailed observations and measurements in the field, as well as instructive numerical simulations. Substantial mechanistic insight has also been gained from recent advances in the fundamental physics of ice in porous media and in the nonlinear dynamics of granular media. Current research activity is focused on polygonal patterned ground in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica where distinct 10 to 30 m polygons are ubiquitous; they are characteristically outlined by vertical cracks that become infilled with wedges of sand. This patterned ground is of particular interest because it resembles patterns seen on the surface of Mars and because a long-term, high-resolution record exists of soil temperatures and thermal strains. The crack network, which is very similar to the networks of contraction cracks in drying mud and other contracting materials, self-organizes through interactions between thermal stresses, fracture, and the evolving pattern of cracks bounding the polygons. Initially, these cracks tend to curve to join pre-existing cracks at right angles due to the influence of these early cracks on the stress field. The evolution of the patterns toward 5 or 6-sided polygons with straight-sided cracks that join at symmetric triple junctions

  19. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground......-scale questionnaire survey with unique population-wide employer-employee data. We find evidence of a direct and positive influence of hiring decisions (proxied by common educational background), and the training and job rotation of employees on delegation. Moreover, we find a positive interaction between common...... educational background and job rotation....

  20. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  1. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1979-01-01

    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width...... and the splitting increased rapidly as the transition temperature was approached in accordance with the predictions of the RPA-theory. The dispersion is analysed in terms of a phenomenological model using interactions up to the fourth nearest neighbour....

  2. Designing as Middle Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian; Binder, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical background in this chapter is science and technology studies and actor network theory, enabling investigation of heterogeneity, agency and perfor-mative effects through ‘symmetric’ analysis. The concept of design is defined as being imaginative and mindful to a number of actors in...... research is an articulation of design activity taking place as a middle ground and as an intermixture between a ‘scientific’ regime of knowledge transfer and a capital ‘D’ ‘Designerly’ regime of authoring....

  3. Dynamic Time Warping Distance Method for Similarity Test of Multipoint Ground Motion Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingmin Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The reasonability of artificial multi-point ground motions and the identification of abnormal records in seismic array observations, are two important issues in application and analysis of multi-point ground motion fields. Based on the dynamic time warping (DTW distance method, this paper discusses the application of similarity measurement in the similarity analysis of simulated multi-point ground motions and the actual seismic array records. Analysis results show that the DTW distance method not only can quantitatively reflect the similarity of simulated ground motion field, but also offers advantages in clustering analysis and singularity recognition of actual multi-point ground motion field.

  4. Radar Studies of Subglacial Lake Whillans and the Whillans Ice Stream Grounding Zone, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes ground-based, gridded, ice-penetrating radar thickness and basal reflection power, along with GPS coordinates, for two areas of Whillans Ice...

  5. GPM Ground Validation NASA S-Band Dual Polarimetric (NPOL) Doppler Radar OLYMPEX V2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NASA S-Band Dual Polarimetric (NPOL) Doppler Radar OLYMPEX V2 dataset consists of rain rate, reflectivity, Doppler velocity, and other...

  6. GPM Ground Validation NOAA X-band Polarimetric Radar (NOXP) IPHEx V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NOAA X-band dual-Polarimetric radar (NOXP) IPHEx dataset consists of differential reflectivity, differential phase shift, co-polar cross...

  7. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  8. Empirical ground motion prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Archuleta

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available New methods of site-specific ground motion prediction in the time and frequency domains are presented. A large earthquake is simulated as a composite (linear combination of observed small earthquakes (subevents assuming Aki-Brune functional models of the source time functions (spectra. Source models incorporate basic scaling relations between source and spectral parameters. Ground motion predictions are consistent with the entire observed seismic spectrum from the lowest to the highest frequencies. These methods are designed to use all the available empirical Green’s functions (or any subset of observations at a site. Thus a prediction is not biased by a single record, and different possible source-receiver paths are taken into account. Directivity is accounted for by adjusting the apparent source duration at each site. Our time-series prediction algorithm is based on determination of a non-uniform distribution of rupture times of subevents. By introducing a specific rupture velocity we avoid the major problem of deficiency of predictions around the main event's corner frequency. A novel notion of partial coherence allows us to sum subevents' amplitude spectra directly without using any information on their rupture times and phase histories. Predictions by this spectral method are not Jependent on details of rupture nucleation and propagation, location of asperities and other predominantly phase-affecting factors, responsible for uncertainties in time-domain simulations.

  9. Reflections on the Goldwater Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2017-06-01

    The APA's Goldwater Rule, precluding psychiatrists from rendering opinions to the media about public figures whom they have not examined, has often engendered controversy. Here, I consider the justifications for the rule, how well they stand up to criticism, and the extent, if any, to which modifications might be called for. Although embarrassment to the profession is often cited as the basis for the Rule, it reflects more substantive concerns, including the risk of harm to living persons and discouraging persons in need of treatment from seeking psychiatric attention. The most potent criticisms of the Rule are that it discourages public education about mental illness and its effects and precludes legitimate scholarly endeavors by psychiatrists studying foreign leaders, historical figures, and others. However, there are many ways of providing education about mental illness without violating the Rule, and read properly, it should not prevent legitimate historical investigation, though some clarification of the Rule on this point might be helpful. Even psychiatrists who seek to aid policymakers in dealing with international or domestic threats should not find that the Rule interferes with their efforts. On balance, the Goldwater Rule continues to be an important underpinning of ethical behavior by psychiatrists. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  10. Matter reflects Antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Bianconi, A.; Cristiano, A.; Leali, M.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Venturelli, L.; Zurlo, N.

    2008-01-01

    It is common belief that the interaction between antimatter and ordinary solid matter is dominated by annihilation. However, non-destructive processes may play a relevant role too. One century ago E. Rutherford wrote about the "diffuse reflection" of alpha and beta particles by thin layers of different metals: "The observations ... of Geiger and Marsden on the scattering of alpha rays indicate that some of the alpha particles must suffer a deflexion of more than a right angle at a single encounter.... It will be shown that the main deductions from the theory are independent of whether the central charge is supposed to be positive or negative". Although the theory of electromagnetic scattering is in first approximation independent of the relative sign of the colliding particles, in the case where projectile antiprotons are shot against a wall of solid matter the Rutherford diffuse reflection mechanism competes with the annihilation process. So it is not obvious at all that a relevant part of an antiproton beam...

  11. Reflection, Interrogatory, Provocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, W.E.

    2016-01-01

    This invited paper advances a framing context for considering next steps in HOF and organizational culture in light of the presentations and discussions that occur during the conference. Many of the contributions during the conference will represent results of scholarly research, structured investigations, or formal organizational improvement efforts. This contribution is intended as informal reflection by a 40-year nuclear veteran on themes from other presentations considering questions such as: ''Where do we think we are?, Are we better off as an industry based on what we have done?, Where do we think we need to go?, What do we think we need to do?, and, Why do we think these things?'' Our coming together on this occasion marks 30 years since the publication of INSAG-l. As we reflect on the past, perhaps it is time to pose a series of questions. Are we sustainers of a mature technology that is in some places declining and being replaced by other energy sources? If we consider nuclear a mature technology, should we focus most on operational excellence with renewed attention to managing the unexpected? Or, is innovation still a vital part of our industry?

  12. Normative grounds of health care practice in Brazilian nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Selma Regina de; Piccoli, Talita; Ruoff, Andriela Backes; Ribeiro, Janara Caroline; Sousa, Fernando Miguel de

    2016-01-01

    to understand the normative grounds of health care practice in Brazilian nursing. qualitative study with the use of document research, carried out based on resolutions of the Federal Nursing Council. From a total of 263 resolutions, in the period from 1975 to 2015, 38 which were in accordance with the objective of the study were selected. three analytical categories were systematized: Normative grounds of health care practice by the nursing team, under coordination/supervision of the nurse; Normative grounds of the care performed privately by the nurse; and Management and administrative aspects which affect and permeate the practice of health care in nursing. the set of normative grounds of health care practice by the nursing team leads to the reflection on the possible overlapping of attributions between professional levels and requires expansion to the other fields of nursing which are coherent with the health care network model.

  13. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  14. On slippery ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn; Jakobsen, Helle Nordentoft

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to discuss the ethical complexity and dilemmas, which arise in the coproduction of knowledge between researchers and other participants. Design/methodology/approach The starting-point for the article is a narrative from a conference we attended where we......, as researchers, found ourselves on slippery and emotionally charged ground. Using a critical, reflexive approach informed by poststructuralism, our ambition was to deconstruct gaps between rhetoric and practice and critique normative understandings of the nature of ethically sound coproduction processes...... in collaborative research. More specifically, at the conference, we sought to expose and discuss the gap between our good intentions and our own practice as researchers in a collaborative research project at a major hospital. However, instead of reflexive discussions with the research community, we experienced...

  15. Reflection and Non-Reflection of Particle Wavepackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Timothy; Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Exact closed-form solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation are obtained, describing the propagation of wavepackets in the neighbourhood of a potential. Examples given include zero reflection, total reflection and partial reflection of the wavepacket, for the sech[superscript 2]x/a, 1/x[superscript 2] and delta(x) potentials,…

  16. GROUNDED THEORY METHODOLOGY and GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH in TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    ARIK, Ferhat; ARIK, Işıl Avşar

    2016-01-01

    This research discusses the historical development of the Grounded Theory Methodology, which is one of the qualitative research method, its transformation over time and how it is used as a methodology in Turkey. The Grounded Theory which was founded by Strauss and Glaser, is a qualitative methodology based on inductive logic to discover theories in contrast with the deductive understanding which is based on testing an existing theory in sociology. It is possible to examine the Grounded Theory...

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back ... in very slightly. Hold a ball directly in front of you. Keep your abdominal muscles tight and ...

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  19. Prevent Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Prevent Shingles Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... that can result in vision loss. Older Adults & Shingles As you get older, you are more likely ...

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! ...

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle ... Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis ...

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient ... the floor; rotate from side to side. Repeat 10 times. Check with your physician; if you are ...

  4. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient ... popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts ...

  5. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  6. Using a synthesised technique for grounded theory in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Yu; Boore, Jennifer Rp

    2009-08-01

    To introduce a synthesised technique for using grounded theory in nursing research. Nursing increasingly uses grounded theory for a broadened perspective on nursing practice and research. Nurse researchers have choices in how to choose and use grounded theory as a research method. These choices come from a deep understanding of the different versions of grounded theory, including Glaser's classic grounded theory and Strauss and Corbin's later approach. Grounded theory related literature review was conducted. This is a methodological review paper. Nursing researchers intent on using a grounded theory methodology should pay attention to the theoretical discussions including theoretical sampling, theoretical sensitivity, constant comparative methods and asking questions, keeping memoranda diagramming, identification of a core category and a resultant explanatory theory. A synthesised approach is developed for use, based on Strauss and Corbin's style of sampling and memoranda writing, but selecting theoretical coding families, that differ from the paradigm model of Strauss and Corbin, from the wide range suggested by Glaser. This led to the development of a multi-step synthesised approach to grounded theory data analysis based on the works of Glaser, Charmaz and Strauss and Corbin. The use of this synthesised approach provides a true reflection of Glaser's idea of 'emergence of theory from the data' and Strauss and Corbin's style of sampling and memoranda writing is employed. This multi-step synthesised method of data analysis maintains the philosophical perspective of grounded theory. This method indicates how grounded theory has developed, where it might go next in nursing research and how it may continue to evolve.

  7. Can Turnitin come to the rescue: From teachers' reflections? | Bheki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article concluded that although Turnitin did not help teachers to prevent all learner acts of plagiarism, it did scare the learners away from any obvious act of plagiarism. Teachers and learners became aware of technology as the 'servant', not the 'master'. Grounded analysis was used to generate two themes for this study ...

  8. The Reflective Methodologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Bjørg

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a focus on inclusion and vulnerable children has reignited discussions about the quality of pedagogical work. It has also initiated processes of change that have challenged the Danish kindergarten tradition and the identity of the pedagogue in a number of different ways. In this ......In recent years, a focus on inclusion and vulnerable children has reignited discussions about the quality of pedagogical work. It has also initiated processes of change that have challenged the Danish kindergarten tradition and the identity of the pedagogue in a number of different ways...... in which the practical sense and tacit knowledge are related to questions of power and social actors’ strategies for positioning themselves within a social space. This demands a particular focus on the historical effect of the concept of ‘the reflective practitioner’ as a symbolic marker of identity...

  9. Reflections on Conformal Spectra

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ0 of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ0 as well as for large Δ0. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function. (based on 1510.08772 with Kim & Ooguri). This seminar will be given via videolink

  10. Reflections on academic video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thommy Eriksson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As academics we study, research and teach audiovisual media, yet rarely disseminate and mediate through it. Today, developments in production technologies have enabled academic researchers to create videos and mediate audiovisually. In academia it is taken for granted that everyone can write a text. Is it now time to assume that everyone can make a video essay? Using the online journal of academic videos Audiovisual Thinking and the videos published in it as a case study, this article seeks to reflect on the emergence and legacy of academic audiovisual dissemination. Anchoring academic video and audiovisual dissemination of knowledge in two critical traditions, documentary theory and semiotics, we will argue that academic video is in fact already present in a variety of academic disciplines, and that academic audiovisual essays are bringing trends and developments that have long been part of academic discourse to their logical conclusion.

  11. Quantitative Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted A.G. Steemers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging is a non-destructive optical analysis technique that can for instance be used to obtain information from cultural heritage objects unavailable with conventional colour or multi-spectral photography. This technique can be used to distinguish and recognize materials, to enhance the visibility of faint or obscured features, to detect signs of degradation and study the effect of environmental conditions on the object. We describe the basic concept, working principles, construction and performance of a laboratory instrument specifically developed for the analysis of historical documents. The instrument measures calibrated spectral reflectance images at 70 wavelengths ranging from 365 to 1100 nm (near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared. By using a wavelength tunable narrow-bandwidth light-source, the light energy used to illuminate the measured object is minimal, so that any light-induced degradation can be excluded. Basic analysis of the hyperspectral data includes a qualitative comparison of the spectral images and the extraction of quantitative data such as mean spectral reflectance curves and statistical information from user-defined regions-of-interest. More sophisticated mathematical feature extraction and classification techniques can be used to map areas on the document, where different types of ink had been applied or where one ink shows various degrees of degradation. The developed quantitative hyperspectral imager is currently in use by the Nationaal Archief (National Archives of The Netherlands to study degradation effects of artificial samples and original documents, exposed in their permanent exhibition area or stored in their deposit rooms.

  12. Reflective Practices for Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus Kuswandono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on reflective practice in teacher education are increasingly getting more attention at least in the last 2 decades. This article discusses concepts of reflection and how it is implemented in educating pre-service teachers on their early stage of professional learning. The purposes of doing the reflection for pre-service teachers are not only for illuminating their professional learning experiences, but also to critically reflect their vocation as teachers, including the values which may be dictated to them through rigid regulations. Reflection in teacher education is crucial as it connects well with learning in that learners use reflection to exercise their mind and to evaluate their learning experiences. Besides, this article also highlights some perceived difficulties to implement reflective practice, as well as ways how to promote reflection.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2012.150102

  13. Students’ Learning through Reflective Journaling

    OpenAIRE

    Alvyda Liuolienė; Regina Metiūnienė

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to get acquainted with the types of journals used in education to help students to learn. The paper presents some ways of fostering student’s learning through reflective journaling. It also describes the key aspects of a new method ARRIVE cycle in connection with teachers preparation to use reflective journals in a classroom. The article also presents self-assessment in reflective journaling and students’ need to self-evaluate their learning process. Reflective journ...

  14. Performance Based Criteria for Ship Collision and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2009-01-01

    The paper outlines a probabilistic procedure whereby the maritime industry can develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human, environmental and economic costs of collision and grounding events and identify the most economic risk control options associated with prevention...

  15. The Use of Psychological Foundations To Inform Teaching for Critical Reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Kathleen S.

    This paper considers the theoretical positions that ground teacher education programs and asks whether these theories reflect the experiences and voices of all society or merely those of the dominant culture. The paper proposes the incorporation of elements of critical pedagogy as taught by Paulo Freire and reflective thinking according to John…

  16. Ground-water travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.; Grisak, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Travel Time Subgroup are presented

  17. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaughan , T.F.

    1999-02-26

    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  18. Reflections on nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The author looks back on his more than 70 years of familiarity with Americans involved in warfare, noting their loyal support for our country's objectives. Drawing on the Einstein equation, his own visits to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and current literature, he, as a physician, belatedly concurs with those who look on the use of nuclear weapons as irrational and untenable. Their employment under present circumstances would create a ''final epidemic'' to be avoided only by prevention. He suggests that medical perceptions must be considered by our national leaders in assessing the many factors that he hopes will lead to rational answers to this urgent, highly complex, and vital enigma. He cites physicians' efforts to help in finding answers and asks that his colleagues consider the issues with attention to the gravity of the situation and act according to their best judgment

  19. Radiation health consequences for astronauts: mechanisms, monitoring and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyfakh, E.

    During space flights crews are exposed chronically to uneven irradiation of enhanced bioefficiency following with significant elevation for chromosomal aberrations as minimum. To protect in space rationally monitoring and preventing of health radiogenic individual primary consequences for astronauts are of high importance. Majority of Chernobyl-touched population has some common etiologic radiogenic mechanisms and radioloads with astronauts ones during long-term missions and former is able to be used well as the close ground-level model. Primary radiogenic deviations. Two radiogenic pathologies as lipoperoxic ( LP ) stress with coupled deficits for essential bioantioxidants ( BAO ) were typical for chronic low-dose Chernobyl-touched contingents. When BAO expenditure had led to their subnormal levels, radiogenic free radical chain -b ranched LP processes occurred in vivo hyperbolically. Catabolites and their free radicals of the abnormal LP cascade are known to be toxic, mutagenic / carcinogenic and teratogenic factors as such, as they are for retinol and tocopherol deficiencies. Both coupled pathogenic factors interrelated synergistically. Simultaneous dysbalances for LP and / or BAO systems were evaluated as the cause and markers for metabolic disregulations. Human LP stress was proved to be the most radiosensible known marker to mo nitor least invasively of blood microsamples in a ground lab via the developed PC Program. But for capsule conditions the best approach is assumed to be LP monitoring via skin ultraweak green-blue chemiluminescence ( CL ) caused by recombination of peroxyl radicals. CL from surfaces of organs was embedded first ( E. Neyfakh, 1964 - 71 ) to reflect their internal LP velocities in vivo and it is the non-invasive on-line simple method of the highest sensitivity, supplying with data transmissible to the ground directly. Related deviations. a) Radiogenic hypermutagenesis: LP catabolites and their free radicals are responsible for direct DNA

  20. Getting grounded: using Glaserian grounded theory to conduct nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Cheri Ann

    2010-03-01

    Glaserian grounded theory is a powerful research methodology for understanding client behaviour in a particular area. It is therefore especially relevant for nurse researchers. Nurse researchers use grounded theory more frequently than other qualitative analysis research methods because of its ability to provide insight into clients' experiences and to make a positive impact. However, there is much confusion about the use of grounded theory.The author delineates key components of grounded theory methodology, areas of concern, and the resulting implications for nursing knowledge development. Knowledge gained from Glaserian grounded theory research can be used to institute measures for enhancing client-nurse relationships, improving quality of care, and ultimately improving client quality of life. In addition, it can serve to expand disciplinary knowledge in nursing because the resulting substantive theory is a middle-range theory that can be subjected to later quantitative testing.

  1. Reflexiones iniciales = Initial Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Romanos de Tiratel

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se establece el significado de los sustantivos que forman el título de la revista: información, cultura y sociedad. Luego se reflexiona sobre la significación e importancia que tiene la creación de una revista especializada para el Instituto de Investigaciones Bibliotecológicas de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la Universidad de Buenos Aires y se delinean sus principales características. Para finalizar se presentan los artículos del fascículo inicial y se agradece a personas e instituciones que posibilitaron la publicación de la revista = The editor provides the meaning of nouns that form the title of the journal: information, culture and society. Then she reflects on the significance and importance of creating a scientific journal for the Instituto de Investigaciones Bibliotecológicas at the Facultad de Filosofía y Letras at the Universidad de Buenos Aires and outlines its main features. In the end, she presents the articles making up the initial issue and thanked individuals and institutions that made possible the publication of the journal

  2. Areal seismic reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bading, R.

    1977-01-01

    Areal seismic-reflection-survey techniques lead to areally equally spaced density of seismic subsurface information, whereby the miniumum spacing may be as narrow as 10 m, compared to the relatively wide gridding based on conventional line-seismic surveys. The seismic data bank reulting from an areal survey - as a consequence of the narrowly and equally spaced density of the subsurface points - allows the extraction of: 1) arbitrarily selectable plane seismic sections presenting the true image of the subsurface structure after 3 D-migration processing; 2) large series in arbitrary direction of subsequent seismic cross-section, socalled echelon profiles. The immense informational density enables for interpretation without need of interpolations, leading to up-to-now unusual reliability. - The variety in types of building-block systems of the field survey methods grants optimum adaption to the respective exploration target. Application of multichannel recording instruments is the prerequisite of economy. The areas covered up-to-now with this kind of seismic field survey extended to about 10 - 20 km 2 each time. (orig.) [de

  3. Reflective Questioning in Management Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge C. M. van Seggelen-Damen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reflective questioning is a critical activity in management learning and education. This article describes research on the nature of reflective questioning in groups of management students working on final MSc projects. Drawing on content analysis of recorded meetings, we identify the following key dimensions of reflective questioning: provocation, need for cognition, epistemology, locus of cognition, logic, heuristics, level of abstraction, and cognitive complexity. The data suggest that individual reflection by students and collective reflection in group meetings are highly complementary in management education. In particular, individual reflection by students combined with meetings that support and provoke collective reflection may create substantial synergies between individual and collective learning. We also discuss the implications of these findings for management education.

  4. Holographic reflector for reflective LCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Atsushi; Murillo-Mora, Luis M.; Iwata, Fujio

    1997-05-01

    We describe a new holographic optical element to improve the image's quality of a reflective liquid crystal displays (LCDs). This new holographic reflector consists basically of 2 layers: a volume type transmission hologram layer and a metallic reflection layer. Compared with conventional reflectors for reflective LCDs, a high optical efficiency can be obtained because the hologram is able to concentrate the reflected light to the observer's eyes. Also, it avoids the problems of glare in the LCDs by deviating the reflected incident light (used for display) away from the direction of the direct reflection light. The transmission hologram's low wavelength selectivity permits us to obtain a near white color reflector for reflective LCDs which for multiple applications is the preferable color for the background.

  5. Wave propagation in damage assessment of ground anchors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, B.; Rucka, M.

    2015-07-01

    The inspection possibilities of ground anchors are limited to destructive test such as pull-out test. Guided wave propagation gives an opportunity to develop an inspection system dedicated to determine the condition of inspected element without violation of their integrity. In this paper the experimental study on wave propagation in laboratory models of ground anchors are presented. Experiments were conducted for different bonding lengths and different frequencies of excitation. Waves were generated by a piezoelectric actuator and the laser vibrometry technique was used to register velocity signals. For all tested anchors it was possible to identify the boundary between steel and concrete based on the registered reflections in wave propagation signals.

  6. Grounding as a Side-Effect of Grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Staffan

    2018-01-22

    In relation to semantics, "grounding" has (at least) two relevant meanings. "Symbol grounding" is the process of connecting symbols (e.g., words) to perception and the world. "Communicative grounding" is the process of interactively adding to common ground in dialog. Strategies for grounding in human communication include, crucially, strategies for resolving troubles caused by various kinds of miscommunication. As it happens, these two processes of grounding are closely related. As a side-effect of grounding an utterance, dialog participants (DPs) may adjust the meanings they assign to linguistic expressions, in a process of semantic coordination. Meanings of at least some expressions (e.g., concrete nouns) include perceptual aspects which enable DPs to classify entities as falling under the expression or not based on their perception of those entities. We show how perceptual grounding of symbols can be achieved in a process of interactively adding to common ground. This requires that perceptual aspects of meaning can be updated as a result of participating in linguistic interaction, thereby enabling fine-grained semantic coordination of perceptually grounded linguistic meanings. A formal semantics for low-level perceptual aspects of meaning is presented, tying these together with the logical-inferential aspects of meaning traditionally studied in formal semantics. The key idea is to model perceptual meanings as classifiers of perceptual input. This requires a framework where intensions are (a) represented independently of extensions, and (b) structured objects which can be modified as a result of learning. We use Type Theory with Records (TTR), a formal semantics framework which starts from the idea that information and meaning are founded on our ability to perceive and classify the world, that is, to perceive objects and situations as being of types. As an example of our approach, we show how a simple classifier of spatial information based on the Perceptron can

  7. The role of pride in women with anorexia nervosa: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faija, Cintia L; Tierney, Stephanie; Gooding, Patricia A; Peters, Sarah; Fox, John R E

    2017-12-01

    Theory and clinical literature suggest that pride may play an important role in the maintenance of restrictive eating disorders. A grounded theory study explored experiences of, and reflections on, pride among women with a current or past diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. This is a qualitative study using grounded theory. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 21 women recruited from an eating disorder unit in England, and from a UK self-help organization. Grounded theory from a constructivist lens was used. Analysis involved coding, constant comparison, and memo-writing. Pride evolves over the course of anorexia nervosa. Two overarching conceptual categories were identified: 'pride becoming intertwined with anorexia' and 'pride during the journey towards recovery'. These categories encompassed different forms of pride: 'alluring pride', 'toxic pride', 'pathological pride', 'anorexia pride', 'shameful pride', 'recovery pride', and 'resilient pride'. Initially, pride contributed to self-enhancement and buffered negative emotions. As the condition progressed, pride became a challenge to health and interfered with motivation to change. During recovery, perceptions of pride altered as a healthy approach to living ensued. The evolving nature of pride plays a central role in development, maintenance, and treatment of anorexia nervosa. Understanding of pride and its role in psychotherapeutic work with this client group may increase motivation to change and promote recovery. Future work should investigate whether tackling pride in eating disorders increases treatment efficacy and reduces the risk of relapsing. Pride associated with anorexia appeared to evolve in nature. During early stages of the eating disorder, it stopped people from seeking help. Later on, it prevented them from seeing pride in healthy domains of life (outside anorexia). Over time, pride in anorexia became an overwhelming emotion that interfered with motivation to change. It is important for

  8. Ground state robustness as an evolutionary design principle in signaling networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Kartal

    Full Text Available The ability of an organism to survive depends on its capability to adapt to external conditions. In addition to metabolic versatility and efficient replication, reliable signal transduction is essential. As signaling systems are under permanent evolutionary pressure one may assume that their structure reflects certain functional properties. However, despite promising theoretical studies in recent years, the selective forces which shape signaling network topologies in general remain unclear. Here, we propose prevention of autoactivation as one possible evolutionary design principle. A generic framework for continuous kinetic models is used to derive topological implications of demanding a dynamically stable ground state in signaling systems. To this end graph theoretical methods are applied. The index of the underlying digraph is shown to be a key topological property which determines the so-called kinetic ground state (or off-state robustness. The kinetic robustness depends solely on the composition of the subdigraph with the strongly connected components, which comprise all positive feedbacks in the network. The component with the highest index in the feedback family is shown to dominate the kinetic robustness of the whole network, whereas relative size and girth of these motifs are emphasized as important determinants of the component index. Moreover, depending on topological features, the maintenance of robustness differs when networks are faced with structural perturbations. This structural off-state robustness, defined as the average kinetic robustness of a network's neighborhood, turns out to be useful since some structural features are neutral towards kinetic robustness, but show up to be supporting against structural perturbations. Among these are a low connectivity, a high divergence and a low path sum. All results are tested against real signaling networks obtained from databases. The analysis suggests that ground state robustness may

  9. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report. In-Situ Bioremediation of MTBE in Ground Water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Karen

    2003-01-01

    ... (methyl-tert-butyl-ether) and other dissolved gasoline components. It was implemented at the Naval Base Ventura County, Port Hueneme, CA to prevent further contamination of ground water by MTBE leaching from gasoline contaminated soils...

  10. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included by...

  11. English for Airport Ground Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes part of a European Commission Leonardo project that aimed to design a multimedia course for English language learners seeking work as ground staff in European airports. The structural-functional analysis of the dialogues written from the course showed that, across the four trades explored (security guards, ground handlers,…

  12. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included...

  13. Grounded Theory: Research as Praxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnotto, Joyce Neff

    In the mid-1960s, social scientists Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss developed grounded theory as a systematic and rigorous method of qualitative data analysis leading to "the discovery of theory from data." In grounded theory, the researcher applies a set of coding procedures to the data until a provisional theory emerges inductively.…

  14. Grounding experiments on soft bottoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sterndorff, M.J.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    To verify a theoretical analysis procedure for calculation of the hull girder response of ships running aground, a series of large-scale ship grounding experiments was performed on an artificial island made of engineered fill. The tests were conducted by running a condemned fishing vessel up...... for grounding on soft bottoms....

  15. Why Common Ground Thinking Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Modesto (California) City Schools discovered common-ground thinking during a crisis over a safe-schools policy. Instead of shunning controversy, schools should face issues, invite all stakeholders, get training, formulate and approve policy, and train staff and the community to understand common-ground (religious neutrality) thinking. (MLH)

  16. Set-theoretical reflection equation: Classification of reflection maps

    OpenAIRE

    Caudrelier, V.; Crampe, N.; Zhang, Q. C.

    2012-01-01

    The set-theoretical reflection equation and its solutions, the reflection maps, recently introduced by two of the authors, is presented in general and then applied in the context of quadrirational Yang-Baxter maps. We provide a method for constructing reflection maps and we obtain a classification of solutions associated to all the families of quadrirational Yang-Baxter maps that have been classified recently.

  17. Electrochemical stabilization of clayey ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzhanitzin, B.A.; Sokoloff, V.P.

    1947-01-01

    Recently developed new methods of stabilization of weak grounds (e.g. the silicate treatment) are based on injection of chemical solutions into the ground. Such methods are applicable accordingly only to the kinds of ground that have the coefficient of filtration higher than 2 meters per 24 hours and permit penetration of the chemical solutions under pressure. This limit, however, as it is shown by our experience in construction, excludes a numerous and an important class of grounds, stabilization of which is indispensable in many instances. For example, digging of trenches and pits in clayey, silty, or sandy ground shows that all these types act like typical "floaters" (sluds? -S) in the presence of the ground water pressure. There were several instances in the canalization of the city of Moskow where the laying of trenches below the ground water level has led to extreme difficulties with clayey and silty ground. Similar examples could be cited in mining, engineering hydrology, and railroad construction. For these reasons, the development of methods of stabilizing such difficult types of ground has become an urgent problem of our day. In 1936, the author began his investigations, at the ground Stabilization Laboratory of VODGEO Institute, with direct electrical current as the means of stabilization of grounds. Experiments had shown that a large number of clayey types, following passage of direct electrical current, undergoes a transformation of its physico-chemical properties. It was established that the (apparent -S) density of the ground is substantially increased in consequence of the application of direct electrical current. The ground loses also its capacity to swell and to soften in water. Later, after a more detailed study of the physico-chemical mechanism of the electrical stabilization, it became possible to develop the method so as to make it applicable to sandy and silty as well as to clayey ground. By this time (1941, S.), the method has already been

  18. Grounded action: Achieving optimal and sustainable change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, Ph.D.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Grounded action is the application and extension of grounded theory for the purpose of designing and implementing practical actions such as interventions, program designs, action models, social and organizational policies, and change initiatives. Grounded action is grounded theory with an added action component in which actions are systematically derived from a systematically derived explanatory grounded theory. Actions are grounded in the grounded theory in the same way that grounded theories are grounded in data. Grounded actionwas designed by the authors to address complex, multi-dimensionalorganizational and social problems and issues.

  19. Reflections on contemporary psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRILL, N Q

    1956-11-01

    Valid data on the effectiveness of preventive programs in psychiatry are badly needed but cannot be obtained until reliable statistics on incidence and frequency of emotional disorders are available. There is a suggestion that clear cut neuroses are less frequent but an equally strong suggestion that psychosomatic disorders are increasing in frequency. There is a tendency to look upon the increasing freedom of some aspects of our culture as a great advance over Victorian rigidity and restraint-but to what extent is this related to seeming increases in delinquency?Parents seem to have become increasingly fearful of disciplining, training or frustrating children as a result of what is considered psychiatric teaching. Psychiatry has the responsibility for correcting such a misunderstanding. Psychotherapists who have not resolved their own dependency needs are in no position to help others with the dependency problems which underlie their neurotic difficulties. Psychotherapy involves more than just arranging the world to accommodate itself to the patient (which occasionally needs to be done). The patient too, has a responsibility for his illness and its treatment and must learn that life is characterized by the need to take some chances, by dangers, difficulties, frustrations and unknowns, as well as pleasures, safety, comfort and the familiar. The responsibility for meeting the need for psychiatric services belongs to all of medicine and not just to psychiatry.

  20. Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES ... The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND ...

  2. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  3. HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, ...

  4. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Prevention ...

  5. A Study of Reflected Sonic Booms Using Airborne Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Samuel R.; Cliatt, Larry J.

    2017-01-01

    In support of ongoing efforts to bring commercial supersonic flight to the public, the Sonic Booms in Atmospheric Turbulence (SonicBAT) flight test conducted at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center. During this test, airborne sonic boom measurements were made using an instrumented TG-14 motor glider, called the Airborne Acoustic Measurement Platform (AAMP).During the flight program, the AAMP was consistently able to measure the sonic boom wave that was reflected off of the ground, in addition to the incident wave, resulting in the creation of a completely unique data set of airborne sonic boom reflection measurements.

  6. Topology optimization problems for reflection and dissipation of elastic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2007-01-01

    This paper is devoted to topology optimization problems for elastic wave propagation. The objective of the study is to maximize the reflection or the dissipation in a finite slab of material for pressure and shear waves in a range of frequencies. The optimized designs consist of two or three...... material phases: a host material and scattering and/or absorbing inclusions. The capabilities of the optimization algorithm are demonstrated with two numerical examples in which the reflection and dissipation of ground-borne wave pulses are maximized....

  7. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...... regulations for design of bottom compartment layout with regard to grounding damages are largely based on statistical damage data. New and updated damage statistics holding 930 grounding accident records has been investigated. The bottom damage statistics is compared to current regulations for the bottom...... compartment layout, in an attempt to determine the probability of exceeding the design requirements. Distributions for the extent of damage, such as damage length, height and width, are determined. Furthermore, attempts are made at identifying the governing grounding scenarios and deriving a formula...

  8. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...... loads during grounding on plane, sloping, sandy bottoms for six different designs of fast monohull ships made from steel, aluminium or GRP sandwich materials. The results show that the effect of the hull flexibility is to reduce the overall dynamic sectional loads on the hull girder. The considered...... numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...

  9. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

  10. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of Earth tempering as a practice and of specific Earth sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground are included. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 20 locations in the United States.

  11. Optical Reflection Spectroscopy of GEO Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Cardona, Tammaso; Lederer, Susan M.; Cowardin, Heather; Abercromby, Kira J.; Barker, Edwin S.; Bedard, Donald

    2013-01-01

    We report on optical reflection spectroscopy of geosynchronous (GEO) objects in the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN) catalog. These observations were obtained using imaging spectrographs on the 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. Our goal is to determine the composition of these objects by comparing these spectral observations with ground-based laboratory measurements of spacecraft materials. The observations are all low resolution (1 nm after smoothing) obtained through a 5 arcsecond wide slit and using a grism as the dispersing element. The spectral range covered was from 450 nm to 800 nm. All spectra were flux calibrated using observations of standard stars with the exact same instrumental setup. An effort was made to obtain all observations within a limited range of topocentric phase angle, although the solar incident angle is unknown due to the lack of any knowledge of the attitude of the observed surface at the time of observation.

  12. Acute burns management: placement reflections of a children's nursing student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sara; Hunt, Jane

    2018-03-07

    Reflection can help nurses make sense of their clinical surroundings and understand risks, challenges and opportunities. Learning the art required for reflective practice begins as a student when critical reflection is particularly important during practice placements. A suitable reflective framework is provided by Rolfe et al ( 2011 ). Adopting this framework, this article draws on the placement experiences of a second-year undergraduate children's nursing student in an acute setting, caring for a toddler with 13% partial and full-thickness burns. The decisions made about assessing and monitoring homeostasis, overall fluid and pain management, infection prevention and potential safeguarding concerns are explored. Reflecting on clinical experience provides students with invaluable transferable skills. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  13. Initial observations of cloud-to-ground lightning activity in microburst producing storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechler, Dennis E.; Goodman, Steven J.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary observations of cloud-to-ground lightning activity associated with wet microburst producing storms observed during the summer of 1986 near Huntsville, AL are presented. Reflectivity and velocity measurements obtained from two 10 cm Doppler radars are used to identify and characterize the microburst windshears and their parent clouds. A four-station lightning location network is used to characterize the ground discharges produced by these storms. Results show cloud-to-ground flashes preceding the microburst onset by 0 - 28 minutes and suggest that any storm in a microburst environment that produces a discharge to ground has the potential to generate an intense downdraft.

  14. Advantages of Electromagnetic Interferometry Applied to Ground-Penetrating Radar : Non-Destructive Inspection and Characterization of the Subsurface Without Transmitting Anything

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feld, R.

    2017-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a non-destructive method that images the subsurface using radar. A transmitter generates a radar pulse. This signal propagates into the ground where it reflects against subsurface heterogeneities, and travels back to the surface. A receiver records the reflected

  15. Atlas of soil reflectance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.; Biehl, L. L.; Robinson, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    A compendium of soil spectral reflectance curves together with soil test results and site information is presented in an abbreviated manner listing those soil properties most important in influencing soil reflectance. Results are presented for 251 soils from 39 states and Brazil. A narrative key describes relationships between soil parameters and reflectance curves. All soils are classified according to the U.S. soil taxonomy and soil series name for ease of identification.

  16. Reflective practice in conservation education

    OpenAIRE

    Manti, Panagiota; Henderson, Jane; Watkinson, David

    2011-01-01

    Higher education should develop the core blueprint for the critical and reflective thinking that conservation professionals will employ and further develop during the remainder of their career. This paper defines and discusses reflective practice in conservation education using examples drawn from teaching and assessment methods in place at Cardiff University. Feedback reveals the challenges that students face in developing reflective thinking and the difficulty of offering evidence for this....

  17. SE-590 Landscape Reflectances (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bidirectional spectal reflectance factors of landscape elements (litter, soil, bark, scrubs & grasses, leaves) measured by Spectron SE590 spectroradiometer

  18. Students’ Learning through Reflective Journaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvyda Liuolienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to get acquainted with the types of journals used in education to help students to learn. The paper presents some ways of fostering student’s learning through reflective journaling. It also describes the key aspects of a new method ARRIVE cycle in connection with teachers preparation to use reflective journals in a classroom. The article also presents self-assessment in reflective journaling and students’ need to self-evaluate their learning process. Reflective journaling as central to students’ self-evaluation is described as a means of fostering metacognition.

  19. Studies of the Reflection, Refraction and Internal Reflection of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanchester, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive apparatus and associated experiments are described for studying the basic laws of reflection and refraction of light at an air-glass interface, and multiple internal reflections within a glass block. In order to motivate students and encourage their active participation, a novel technique is described for determining the refractive…

  20. Postgraduate Education to Support Organisation Change: A Reflection on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jim; Keegan, Anne; Stevens, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore how teaching and assessing reflective learning skills can support postgraduate practitioners studying organisational change and explores the challenges for tutors in assessing these journals. Design/methodology/approach: Assessment criteria were developed from the literature on reflective practice and…

  1. Cultivating Reflective Practitioners in Technology Preparation: Constructing TPACK through Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liangyue

    2014-01-01

    Teaching is a complex profession, which is further complicated by the integration of technology into classrooms. Reflection can help teachers unpack the complexity in their practice. Reflection can be an effective instructional strategy in helping preservice teachers develop technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK), the complex and…

  2. Reflection and Reflective Practice Discourses in Coaching: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushion, Christopher J.

    2018-01-01

    Reflection and reflective practice is seen as an established part of coaching and coach education practice. It has become a "taken-for-granted" part of coaching that is accepted enthusiastically and unquestioningly, and is assumed to be "good" for coaching and coaches. Drawing on sociological concepts, a primarily Foucauldian…

  3. Antarctic grounding-line migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T.; Konrad, H.; Shepherd, A.; Gilbert, L.; Hogg, A.; McMillan, M.; Muir, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge of grounding-line position is critical for quantifying ice discharge into the ocean, as a boundary condition for numerical models of ice flow, and as an indicator of ice sheet stability. Although geological investigations have documented extensive grounding-line retreat since the period of the Last Glacial Maximum, observations of grounding line migration during the satellite era are restricted to a handful of locations. We combine satellite altimeter observations of ice-elevation change and airborne measurements of ice geometry to track movement of the Antarctic Ice Sheet grounding line. Based on these data, we estimate that 22%, 3%, and 10% of the West Antarctic, East Antarctic, and Antarctic Peninsula ice sheet grounding lines are retreating at rates faster than the typical pace since the Last Glacial Maximum, and that the continent loses over 200 km2 of grounded-ice area per year. Although by far the fastest rates of retreat occurred in the Amundsen Sea Sector, the Pine Island Glacier grounding line has stabilized - likely as a consequence of abated ocean forcing during the survey period.

  4. Ethical aspects of obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Have, Marieke

    2014-04-01

    Programs to prevent overweight and obesity are needed in order to improve individual and public health, to support informed choice and to diminish the societal costs associated with overweight. However, lifestyle interventions frequently evoke ethical debate. The potential ethical pitfalls that arise with respect to the prevention of overweight regard consequences for physical health, psychosocial well-being, equality, informed choice, social and cultural values, privacy, the attributions of responsibilities and liberty. For doctors in gastroenterology, it is important to be aware of these ethical pitfalls, either because they apply directly to questions in the consulting-room, or because they help to create awareness of the societal context a patient lives in. An ethical framework is being presented to show which ethical issues play a role in obesity prevention and how they can be prevented, followed by reflection on the ethical issues in interventions and in policy and media debate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Infrared reflectance spectra: effects of particle size, provenance and preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yin-Fong; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Blake, Thomas A.; Forland, Brenda M.; Szecsody, J. E.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2014-10-01

    We have recently developed methods for making more accurate infrared total and diffuse directional - hemispherical reflectance measurements using an integrating sphere. We have found that reflectance spectra of solids, especially powders, are influenced by a number of factors including the sample preparation method, the particle size and morphology, as well as the sample origin. On a quantitative basis we have investigated some of these parameters and the effects they have on reflectance spectra, particularly in the longwave infrared. In the IR the spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: In general, upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from strong surface scattering, i.e. rays that are reflected from the surface without bulk penetration, whereas downward-going peaks are due to either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signals reflected from solids usually encompass all such effects, but with strong dependencies on particle size and preparation. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 - 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to observe the effects on the spectral features: Bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions between 5 and 500 microns. The median particle size is demonstrated to have large effects on the reflectance spectra. For certain minerals we also observe significant spectral change depending on the geologic origin of the sample. All three such effects (particle size, preparation and provenance) result in substantial change in the reflectance spectra for solid materials; successful identification algorithms will require sufficient flexibility to account for these parameters.

  6. Application of Low Voltage High Resistance Grounding in Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong-Koo Chang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most nuclear power plants now utilize solid grounded low voltage systems. For safety and reliability reasons, the low voltage (LV high resistance grounding (HRG system is also increasingly used in the pulp and paper, petroleum and chemical, and semiconductor industries. Fault detection is easiest and fastest with a solidly grounded system. However, a solidly grounded system has many limitations such as severe fault damage, poor reliability on essential circuits, and electrical noise caused by the high magnitude of ground fault currents. This paper will briefly address the strengths and weaknesses of LV grounding systems. An example of a low voltage HRG system in the LV system of a nuclear power plant will be presented. The HRG system is highly recommended for LV systems of nuclear power plants if sufficient considerations are provided to prevent nuisance tripping of ground fault relays and to avoid the deterioration of system reliability.

  7. A dispensação de medicamentos: uma reflexão sobre o processo para prevenção, identificação e resolução de problemas relacionados à farmacoterapia The dispensation of medicines: a reflection for prevention, identification and solution of drug related problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayani Galato

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A dispensação faz parte do processo de atenção à saúde e deve ser considerada como uma ação integrada do farmacêutico com os outros profissionais da saúde, em especial, com os prescritores. A construção do processo de dispensação partiu da reflexão teórica inicial dos professores do Estágio Supervisionado em Farmácia e desenvolveu-se durante a prática de docência na Farmácia-Escola, por meio de uma reflexão epistemológica. Neste contexto, são apresentadas as etapas do processo de atendimento farmacêutico diante de uma prescrição com ênfase na prevenção, identificação e resolução de problemas relacionados à farmacoterapia. A dispensação inicia-se pela análise da prescrição com a identificação do sujeito que está sendo atendido, pois isto determina os caminhos tomados neste processo. Outra contribuição é sobre a negociação da disponibilidade de tempo para a realização das orientações necessárias para o uso do medicamento. Deve-se, também, identificar se há a experiência com os medicamentos pelo paciente, possibilitando desta forma a avaliação da efetividade e segurança. Finalmente, neste trabalho levanta-se a necessidade do farmacêutico atuar na farmacovigilância. As habilidades de comunicação e o conhecimento do farmacêutico sobre as doenças que acometem os pacientes são considerados requisitos para que seja possível a identificação dos problemas relacionados à farmacoterapia.Dispensation is part of the process of health attention and should be considered an integrated action with other health professionals, especially the prescribers. In the present work the construction of the dispensing process started with a theoretical reflection by teachers of the Pharmaceutic Supervised Internship and was developed along the teaching practice that took place in the School Pharmacy, through epistemological reflection. In this context, the stages of pharmaceutical service process are

  8. Ground Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-31

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  9. Ground Control System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric Loros

    2001-01-01

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  10. Acoustic Resonance between Ground and Thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Matsumura

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-low frequency acoustic waves called "acoustic gravity waves" or "infrasounds" are theoretically expected to resonate between the ground and the thermosphere. This resonance is a very important phenomenon causing the coupling of the solid Earth, neutral atmosphere, and ionospheric plasma. This acoustic resonance, however, has not been confirmed by direct observations. In this study, atmospheric perturbations on the ground and ionospheric disturbances were observed and compared with each other to confirm the existence of resonance. Atmospheric perturbations were observed with a barometer, and ionospheric disturbances were observed using the HF Doppler method. An end point of resonance is in the ionosphere, where conductivity is high and the dynamo effect occurs. Thus, geomagnetic observation is also useful, so the geomagnetic data were compared with other data. Power spectral density was calculated and averaged for each month. Peaks appeared at the theoretically expected resonance frequencies in the pressure and HF Doppler data. The frequencies of the peaks varied with the seasons. This is probably because the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere varies with the seasons, as does the reflection height of infrasounds. These results indicate that acoustic resonance occurs frequently.

  11. The grounded theory of "trust building".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Monir; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Mohammadi, Eesa; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing importance of spiritual care, the delivery of spiritual care is still an area of disagreement among healthcare providers. To develop a grounded theory about spiritual care delivery based on Iranian nurses' perceptions and experiences. A grounded theory approach: A qualitative study using the grounded theory approach. Participants and research context: Data were collected through holding 27 interviews with 25 participants (17 staff nurses, 3 physicians, 3 patients, 1 family member, and 1 nurse assistant). The study setting was the Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex. Sampling was started purposively and continued theoretically. Data analysis was performed by the method proposed by Strauss and Corbin. Ethical consideration: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Tarbiat Modares University and the agreement of the administrators of the study setting was got before starting the study. The core category of the study was "Trust building" which reflected the nature of spiritual care delivery by nurses. Trust building was the result of eight main categories or strategies including creating a positive mentality at hospital admission, understanding patients in care circumstances, having a caring presence, adhering to care ethics, developing meaningful relationships, promoting positive thinking and energy, establishing effective communication with patients, and attempting to create a safe therapeutic environment. Poor interprofessional coordination negatively affected this process while living toward developing greater cognizance of divinity and adhering to the principles of professional ethics facilitated it. The outcome of the process was to gain a sense of partial psychological security. The "Trust building" theory can be used as a guide for describing and expanding nurses' roles in spiritual care delivery, developing care documentation systems and clinical guidelines, and planning educational programs for nursing students and staff nurses.

  12. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  13. The reflective surface of the MAGIC telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doro, M.; Bastieri, D.; Biland, A.; Dazzi, F.; Font, L.; Garczarczyk, M.; Ghigo, M.; Giro, E.; Goebel, F.; Kosyra, R.; Lorenz, E.; Mariotti, M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Peruzzo, L.; Pareschi, G.; Zapatero, J.

    2008-09-01

    The atmospheric Cherenkov telescope MAGIC for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy is operating since late 2003 on the Canary island of La Palma. Its 17 m diameter mirror is composed of 964 square all-aluminum mirrors of ˜0.5m side, making up a parabola of 236 m2 area. Each mirror is composed of a sandwich of two thin aluminum layers interspaced by a honeycomb structure that ensures rigidity, high temperature conductivity and low weight. The surface of each raw blank is diamond milled to provide high reflectivity and a slightly different focal length to fit the overall parabolic shape of the reflector. We report about the stability and performance of the surface exposed to the atmosphere for over 3 years. For the construction of the clone of the first telescope, dubbed MAGIC II, major improvements of the design and performance of the reflective surface were required. Given the good experience with aluminum mirrors, a similar assembly was tested, but the area was increased to 1 m2, which allowed to skip the inter-alignment of four mirrors within a panel and to reduce substantially the weight. The increased rigidity of the mirror unit resulted in an improved focussing quality. In addition, a second class of mirrors will be installed in the outermost part of the reflector, namely glass mirrors obtained by cold-slumping replica technique. Details on the construction of both type MAGIC II new mirrors and the 17 m reflector will be presented.

  14. 46 CFR 129.375 - System grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.375 System grounding. (a) If a grounded distribution system... nonmetallic vessel with a grounded distribution system, the common ground plate must have— (1) Only one... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System grounding. 129.375 Section 129.375 Shipping COAST...

  15. Ethical Reflections on Becoming Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Pamela Bolotin

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes narratives written in a culminating graduate seminar on reflective practice by 36 new secondary teachers who were asked to consider their moral beliefs, moral values and system of ethics as they reflected on their recent student teaching experiences. The findings explore how the participants depicted their constructed moral…

  16. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  17. Reflection: A Casualty of Modularisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadman, Kate; Clack, Elaine; Lethbridge, Zena; Millward, Jennifer; Morris, Jenny; Redwood, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 54 nursing lecturers and 244 students using modularized curriculum and analysis of curriculum documentation indicated that only 3 of 13 modules refer explicitly to reflective practice. Students identified lectures and group work as strategies for learning reflection; lecturers cited tutorials, groups, and cases. Most…

  18. Alternatives for ground water cleanup

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    .... Yet recent studies question whether existing technologies can restore contaminated ground water to drinking water standards, which is the goal for most sites and the result expected by the public...

  19. Imaging of Moving Ground Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rihaczek, A

    1996-01-01

    ... requires that use be made of the complex image. The yaw/pitch/roll/bounce/flex motion of a moving ground vehicle demands that different motion compensations be applied to different parts of the vehicle...

  20. Ground Water and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; hide

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  1. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the AES Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project is to demonstrate cost efficient cryogenic operations on a relevant...

  2. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0038 TITLE: Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Albert I. King CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...CONTRACT NUMBER Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-2-0038 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Albert King, John...TR-7340). Army research lab Aberdeen proving ground MD weapons and materials research directorate. (2015) 11. Reneer, D.V., Hisel, R.D., Hoffman

  3. Reflection measurements for luminescent powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, R. E.

    2018-04-01

    Luminescent materials are useful in applications varying from lighting and display technologies to document security features and medical research, amongst many others. Measurement of the excitation range is an important consideration, and absorption bands are often determined from a decrease in the measured diffuse reflectance of the material using a ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. Such a system may provide questionable results when used to measure the reflectance of a luminescence material, which is demonstrated for a Tb doped silica phosphor, because the system cannot differentiate between the reflected light and luminescence. It is shown that more reliable results are achieved for this phosphor by measuring the reflectance using a synchronous zero-offset scan in a fluorescence spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. This method is therefore recommended instead of traditional reflectance measurements using a UV-vis spectrophotometer for luminescent powders.

  4. Storytelling: A Guided Reflection Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Pamela L; Butell, Sue S; Epeneter, Beverly Jean; Langford, Cheryl Anne; Taylor, Jana Doughty

    2016-03-01

    Reflective practice is a mode of inquiry in the authors' baccalaureate nursing program. To increase students' ability to "think like a nurse," the Reflective Practice Storytelling Guide was developed to facilitate discussion during weekly clinical seminars in the students' final clinical course. To evaluate the effectiveness of this guided activity, students were asked to provide feedback to specific questions following each seminar when the reflective presence activity was utilized. Common themes emerged from the storytellers and the members of the group. Themes identified in the responses of the storytellers included role development and formation and the value of team support. Learning themes that emerged from the participants included communication, teamwork, clinical judgment, patient-centered care, use of resources, ethical and legal parameters in practice, and patient safety. Utilizing a guided reflection activity resulted in the students experiencing a broader, deeper understanding of reflective professional practice. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Bragg Reflection Waveguide: Anti-Mirror Reflection and Light Slowdown

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, G. G.; Zapasskii, V. S.; Kapitonov, Yu. V.; Ovsyankin, V. V.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the light group velocity reduction in dielectric Bragg reflection waveguide structures (SiO$_2$/TiO$_2$) in the vicinity of the cutoff frequency is studied experimentally. The effect of anti-mirror reflection, specific for the Bragg reflection waveguides, is described and employed for detection of "slow light". The experiments were performed with the use of the Ti:sapphire laser pulses ~ 100 fs in length. The group index $n_g \\sim$ 30 with a fractional pulse delay (normalized to...

  6. Flexible propulsors in ground effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Daniel B; Smits, Alexander J; Lauder, George V

    2014-01-01

    We present experimental evidence for the hydrodynamic benefits of swimming ‘in ground effect’, that is, near a solid boundary. This situation is common to fish that swim near the substrate, especially those that are dorsoventrally compressed, such as batoids and flatfishes. To investigate flexible propulsors in ground effect, we conduct force measurements and particle image velocimetry on flexible rectangular panels actuated at their leading edge near the wall of a water channel. For a given actuation mode, the panels swim faster near the channel wall while maintaining the same propulsive economy. In conditions producing net thrust, panels produce more thrust near the ground. When operating in resonance, swimming near the ground can also increase propulsive efficiency. Finally, the ground can act to suppress three-dimensional modes, thereby increasing thrust and propulsive efficiency. The planform considered here is non-biological, but the hydrodynamic benefits are likely to apply to more complex geometries, especially those where broad flexible propulsors are involved such as fish bodies and fins. Such fish could produce more thrust by swimming near the ground, and in some cases do so more efficiently. (paper)

  7. GPM GROUND VALIDATION DUAL-FREQUENCY DUAL-POLARIZED DOPPLER RADAR (D3R) IFLOODS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Dual-frequency Dual-polarized Doppler Radar (D3R) IFloodS data set contain radar reflectivity and doppler velocity measurements. The D3R...

  8. GPM Ground Validation Dual-frequency Dual-polarized Doppler Radar (D3R) OLYMPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation OLYMPEX Dual-frequency Dual-polarized Doppler Radar (D3R) dataset contains radar reflectivity and doppler velocity measurements. The D3R...

  9. GPM GROUND VALIDATION DUAL-FREQUENCY DUAL-POLARIZED DOPPLER RADAR (D3R) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Dual-frequency Dual-polarized Doppler Radar (D3R) GCPEx and IFloodS data sets contain radar reflectivity and doppler velocity measurements....

  10. Allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  11. The influence of particle size on infrared reflectance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Richardson, Robert L.

    2014-06-01

    Reflectance spectra of solids are influenced by the absorption coefficient and index of refraction as well as particle size and morphology. In the infrared, spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: in general, the upwardgoing peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from surface scattering, which are rays that have reflected from the surface without penetration, whereas downward-going peaks result from either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated into the sample to be absorbed or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signal reflected from solids usually encompasses all these effects which include dependencies on particle size, morphology and sample density. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 - 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to understand the effects on the spectral features as a function of the mean grain size of the sample. The bulk materials were ground and sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions: 0-45, 45-90, 90-180, 180-250, 250-500, and >500 microns. The directional-hemispherical spectra were recorded using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere to measure the reflectance for all of the particle-size fractions. We have studied both organic and inorganic materials, but this paper focuses on inorganic salts, NaNO3, in particular. Our studies clearly show that particle size has an enormous influence on the measured reflectance spectra for bulk materials and that successful identification requires sufficient representative reflectance data so as to include the particle size(s) of interest. Origins of the effects are discussed.

  12. Constructive reflection: getting the best out of reflective learning

    OpenAIRE

    Thanaraj, Ann

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a constructive reflective model that offers students a layered and developmental approach to embed learning and the application of learning within the seemingly constantly changing professional environment. The model is different from other popular reflective practice frameworks because it embraces the influences of personal epistemology of assumptions and consciousness and recognises how our identity, values, opinion and experiences impacts on the way we react or behave i...

  13. Shock Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The electrician pictured is installing a General Electric Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI), a device which provides protection against electrical shock in the home or in industrial facilities. Shocks due to defective wiring in home appliances or other electrical equipment can cause severe burns, even death. As a result, the National Electrical Code now requires GFIs in all new homes constructed. This particular type of GFI employs a sensing element which derives from technology acquired in space projects by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, producer of sensors for GE and other manufacturers of GFI equipment. The sensor is based on the company's experience in developing miniaturized circuitry for space telemetry and other spacecraft electrical systems; this experience enabled SCI to package interruptor circuitry in the extremely limited space available and to produce sensory devices at practicable cost. The tiny sensor measures the strength of the electrical current and detects current differentials that indicate a fault in the functioning of an electrical system. The sensing element then triggers a signal to a disconnect mechanism in the GFI, which cuts off the current in the faulty circuit.

  14. Use of Ground Penetrating Radar to Study Gradient Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, A.

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is often used to solve different problems of applied geophysics including the hydrological ones. This work was motivated by detection of weak reflections in the body of water observed during the surveys on the freshwater lakes using GPR. The same reflections were first analyzed by John Bradford in 2007. These reflections can arise from the thermal gradient layer or thermocline due to different dielectric permittivity of cold and warm water. We employed physical and mathematical modeling to identify the properties of such thermoclines. We have constructed a special GPR stand to study the gradient media in our laboratory. The stand consists of a water-filled plastic tank and plastic tubes, which gather the cold water under the warm water. Our stand allows for changing parameters of the gradient layer, such as limits of dielectric permittivity and the thickness of the gradient layer. GPR antenna was placed slightly under the water surface to remove the parasitic reflections. To visualize the thermal distribution, an infrared camera and thermal sensors were used. Analysis of the GPR traces after physical modeling, performed in the MATLAB environment, allows us to locate the weak reflection from the gradient layer. We observed that (i) the change of the gradient boundary values alters the amplitude of the signal, (ii) the arrival time of the impulse reflected from the gradient layer corresponds to the arrival time of the impulse reflected from the top boundary of this layer, and (iii) the shape of the signal reflected from the gradient layer coincides with the shape of the signal reflected from the non-gradient boundary between two bodies. The quantitative properties of thermocline can be determined using amplitude analysis of GPR signals. Finally, the developed methods were successfully applied to real field data.

  15. Ground Enterprise Management System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Emergent Space Technologies Inc. proposes to develop the Ground Enterprise Management System (GEMS) for spacecraft ground systems. GEMS will provide situational...

  16. E. Coli: Preventing Outbreaks at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Mary D.

    1996-01-01

    One strain of E. coli is not usually found in foods, but has been related to consumption of undercooked ground beef. Symptoms are stomach cramps and diarrhea, and 2-7% of infections lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome, which is life threatening. Camps can prevent outbreaks by avoiding uncooked meat on overnight campouts and requiring appropriate…

  17. Crime prevention and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Lone Bæk

    of such a preventive work aiming at creating trustful relations between the school and the children and focusing on children’s democracy understandings, experienced discrimination and peer pressure. Furthermore, the school are to activate children’s reflections on existential questions and their empathy with others...... social and cultural categorizations that marks what is legitimate and illegitimate behavior (Øland 2007, 2012; Bourdieu and Passeron 2006). The school as an institution plays a significant role in these studies and include studies of working class boys meeting with the school's middle and upper class...... standards (Willis 1977) and bilingual pupils' meeting with 'Danishness' through the teachers’ Danish middle class values (Gilliam 2009). The studies mark the school as an actor in societal social and cultural conflicts and are all concerned with differentiation and marginalization processes. Therefore...

  18. Fundamental of ground penetrating radar in environmental and engineering applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rivero

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR is a high frequency electromagnetic sounding technique that has been developed to investigate the shallow subsurface using the contrast of dielectric properties. The method operates on the simple principle that electromagnetic waves, emitted from a transmitter antenna, are reflected from buried objects and detected at another antenna, acting as receiver. GPR data is presented in the form of time-distance plots that are analogous to conventional reflection seismic records, and in fact the method has many similarities to seismic reflection method with a pulse of electromagnetic energy substituting for the elastic (seismic energy. Nevertheless, the principles and theory of the method are based on the wave equation derived from Maxwell's equations for electromagnetic wave propagation. This paper has been written for tutorial purposes, and it is hoped that it will provide the reader with a good outline of GPR presenting an overview of its theoretical basis, guidelines for interpretation and some practical field examples.

  19. Imaging sensor systems for air to ground surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bruce A.; Penn, Joseph A.

    2006-05-01

    Automated aerial surveillance and detection of hostile ground events, and the tracking of the perpetrators have become of critical importance in the prevention and control of insurgent uprisings and the global war on terror. Yet a basic understanding of the limitations of sensor system coverage as a function of aerial platform position and attitude is often unavailable to program managers and system administrators. In an effort to better understand this problem we present some of the design tradeoffs for two applications: 1) a 360° viewing focal-plane array sensor system modeled for low altitude aerostat applications, and 2) a fixed diameter area of constant surveillance modeled for high altitude fixed wing aircraft applications. Ground coverage requirement tradeoffs include the number of sensors, sensor footprint geometry, footprint coverage variability as a function of platform position and attitude, and ground surface modeling. Event location specification includes latitude, longitude, altitude for the pixel centroid and corners, and line-of-sight centroid range.

  20. Rotating preventers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangedahl, M.J.; Stone, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs

  1. Worldwide Marine Seismic Reflection Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a large volume of both Analog and Digital seismic reflection data. Currently only a limited number of lines are available online. Digital data include...

  2. Inverse problem in neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiao-Lin; Felcher, G.P.; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    1991-05-01

    Reflectance and transmittance of neutrons from a thin film deposited on a bulk substrate are derived from solution of Schroedinger wave equation in the material medium with an optical potential. A closed-form solution for the complex reflectance and transmittance is obtained in an approximation where the curvature of the scattering length density profile in the film is small. This closed-form solution reduces to all the known approximations in various limiting cases and is shown to be more accurate than the existing approximations. The closed-form solution of the reflectance is used as a starting point for an inversion algorithm whereby the reflectance data are inverted by a matrix iteration scheme to obtain the scattering length density distribution in the film. A preliminary test showed that the inverted profile is accurate for the linear scattering length density distribution but falls short in the case of an exponential distribution. 30 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  3. Reflective Methodology: The Beginning Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Ronald K.; Siefert, Thomas E.

    1970-01-01

    Offers a variety of specific techniques which will help the beginning teacher to implement reflective methodology and create an inquiry-centered classroom atmosphere, at the same time meeting the many more pressing demands of first-year teaching. (JES)

  4. Planar Reflection of Gaseous Detonations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damazo, Jason Scott

    Pipes containing flammable gaseous mixtures may be subjected to internal detonation. When the detonation normally impinges on a closed end, a reflected shock wave is created to bring the flow back to rest. This study built on the work of Karnesky (2010) and examined deformation of thin-walled stainless steel tubes subjected to internal reflected gaseous detonations. A ripple pattern was observed in the tube wall for certain fill pressures, and a criterion was developed that predicted when the ripple pattern would form. A two-dimensional finite element analysis was performed using Johnson-Cook material properties; the pressure loading created by reflected gaseous detonations was accounted for with a previously developed pressure model. The residual plastic strain between experiments and computations was in good agreement. During the examination of detonation-driven deformation, discrepancies were discovered in our understanding of reflected gaseous detonation behavior. Previous models did not accurately describe the nature of the reflected shock wave, which motivated further experiments in a detonation tube with optical access. Pressure sensors and schlieren images were used to examine reflected shock behavior, and it was determined that the discrepancies were related to the reaction zone thickness extant behind the detonation front. During these experiments reflected shock bifurcation did not appear to occur, but the unfocused visualization system made certainty impossible. This prompted construction of a focused schlieren system that investigated possible shock wave-boundary layer interaction, and heat-flux gauges analyzed the boundary layer behind the detonation front. Using these data with an analytical boundary layer solution, it was determined that the strong thermal boundary layer present behind the detonation front inhibits the development of reflected shock wave bifurcation.

  5. Work flow of signal processing data of ground penetrating radar case of rigid pavement measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Gunawan

    2015-04-01

    The signal processing of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) requires a certain work flow to obtain good results. Even though the Ground Penetrating Radar data looks similar with seismic reflection data, but the GPR data has particular signatures that the seismic reflection data does not have. This is something to do with coupling between antennae and the ground surface. Because of this, the GPR data should be treated differently from the seismic signal data processing work flow. Even though most of the processing steps still follow the same work flow of seismic reflection data such as: filtering, predictive deconvolution etc. This paper presents the work flow of GPR processing data on rigid pavement measurements. The processing steps start from raw data, de-Wow process, remove DC and continue with the standard process to get rid of noises i.e. filtering process. Some radargram particular features of rigid pavement along with pile foundations are presented.

  6. Work flow of signal processing data of ground penetrating radar case of rigid pavement measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handayani, Gunawan [The Earth Physics and Complex Systems Research Group (Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung Indonesia) gunawanhandayani@gmail.com (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    The signal processing of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) requires a certain work flow to obtain good results. Even though the Ground Penetrating Radar data looks similar with seismic reflection data, but the GPR data has particular signatures that the seismic reflection data does not have. This is something to do with coupling between antennae and the ground surface. Because of this, the GPR data should be treated differently from the seismic signal data processing work flow. Even though most of the processing steps still follow the same work flow of seismic reflection data such as: filtering, predictive deconvolution etc. This paper presents the work flow of GPR processing data on rigid pavement measurements. The processing steps start from raw data, de-Wow process, remove DC and continue with the standard process to get rid of noises i.e. filtering process. Some radargram particular features of rigid pavement along with pile foundations are presented.

  7. Work flow of signal processing data of ground penetrating radar case of rigid pavement measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handayani, Gunawan

    2015-01-01

    The signal processing of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) requires a certain work flow to obtain good results. Even though the Ground Penetrating Radar data looks similar with seismic reflection data, but the GPR data has particular signatures that the seismic reflection data does not have. This is something to do with coupling between antennae and the ground surface. Because of this, the GPR data should be treated differently from the seismic signal data processing work flow. Even though most of the processing steps still follow the same work flow of seismic reflection data such as: filtering, predictive deconvolution etc. This paper presents the work flow of GPR processing data on rigid pavement measurements. The processing steps start from raw data, de-Wow process, remove DC and continue with the standard process to get rid of noises i.e. filtering process. Some radargram particular features of rigid pavement along with pile foundations are presented

  8. Typhoon-Induced Ground Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouyen, M.; Canitano, A.; Chao, B. F.; Hsu, Y.-J.; Steer, P.; Longuevergne, L.; Boy, J.-P.

    2017-11-01

    Geodetic instruments now offer compelling sensitivity, allowing to investigate how solid Earth and surface processes interact. By combining surface air pressure data, nontidal sea level variations model, and rainfall data, we systematically analyze the volumetric deformation of the shallow crust at seven borehole strainmeters in Taiwan induced by 31 tropical cyclones (typhoons) that made landfall to the island from 2004 to 2013. The typhoon's signature consists in a ground dilatation due to air pressure drop, generally followed by a larger ground compression. We show that this compression phase can be mostly explained by the mass loading of rainwater that falls on the ground and concentrates in the valleys towards the strainmeter sensitivity zone. Further, our analysis shows that borehole strainmeters can help quantifying the amount of rainwater accumulating and flowing over a watershed during heavy rainfalls, which is a useful constraint for building hydrological models.

  9. Compensation for incoherent ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigeru, Takeda; Hiroshi, Matsumoto; Masakazu, Yoshioka; Yasunori, Takeuchi; Kikuo, Kudo [KEK, High Energy Alccelerator Research Organization (Japan); Tsuneya, Tsubokawa [National Astronomical Observatory, Mizusawa Astrogeodynamics Observatory (Japan); Mitsuaki, Nozaki; Kiyotomo, Kawagoe [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1999-07-01

    The power spectrum density and coherence function for ground motions are studied for the construction of the next generation electron-positron linear collider. It should provide a center of mass energy between 500 GeV-1 TeV with luminosity as high as 10{sup 33} to 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. Since the linear collider has a relatively slow repetition rate, large number of particles and small sizes of the beam should be generated and preserved in the machine to obtain the required high luminosity. One of the most critical parameters is the extremely small vertical beam size at the interaction point, thus a proper alignment system for the focusing and accelerating elements of the machine is necessary to achieve the luminosity. We describe recent observed incoherent ground motions and an alignment system to compensate the distortion by the ground motions. (authors)

  10. Free Swimming in Ground Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran-Carney, Jackson; Wagenhoffer, Nathan; Zeyghami, Samane; Moored, Keith

    2017-11-01

    A free-swimming potential flow analysis of unsteady ground effect is conducted for two-dimensional airfoils via a method of images. The foils undergo a pure pitching motion about their leading edge, and the positions of the body in the streamwise and cross-stream directions are determined by the equations of motion of the body. It is shown that the unconstrained swimmer is attracted to a time-averaged position that is mediated by the flow interaction with the ground. The robustness of this fluid-mediated equilibrium position is probed by varying the non-dimensional mass, initial conditions and kinematic parameters of motion. Comparisons to the foil's fixed-motion counterpart are also made to pinpoint the effect that free swimming near the ground has on wake structures and the fluid-mediated forces over time. Optimal swimming regimes for near-boundary swimming are determined by examining asymmetric motions.

  11. Treating and Preventing Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  12. 46 CFR 183.376 - Grounded distribution systems (neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....376 Section 183.376 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER... propulsion, power, lighting, or distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral... generator to ground before the generator is connected to the bus, except the neutral of an emergency power...

  13. 46 CFR 120.376 - Grounded distribution systems (Neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....376 Section 120.376 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS... distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral grounded. (c) The neutral or each...

  14. Ground-truth measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, R.; Seliga, T. A.; Lhermitte, R. M.; Nystuen, J. A.; Cherry, S.; Bringi, V. N.; Blackmer, R.; Heymsfield, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Ground-truth measurements of precipitation and related weather events are an essential component of any satellite system designed for monitoring rainfall from space. Such measurements are required for testing, evaluation, and operations; they provide detailed information on the actual weather events, which can then be compared with satellite observations intended to provide both quantitative and qualitative information about them. Also, very comprehensive ground-truth observations should lead to a better understanding of precipitation fields and their relationships to satellite data. This process serves two very important functions: (a) aiding in the development and interpretation of schemes of analyzing satellite data, and (b) providing a continuing method for verifying satellite measurements.

  15. Relapse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S M; Wasserman, D A; Havassy, B E

    1991-01-01

    Although knowledge about relapse prevention is still at an early stage, the extant data highlight the importance of several constructs. 1. Motivation for abstinence remains central. The construct itself is often clouded because of its association with mystical notions such as willpower and self-control. We know that manipulation of environmental events can increase motivation. These interventions are effective, however, only as long as the contingencies are in effect. We need to develop and evaluate strategies for transferring contingency management to the natural environment, that is, to institutions and groups that can perpetuate them for the long term. Also, clarification of the kinds of abstinence goals needed to prevent relapse is important. 2. Coping skills have been studied by several investigators, but research on these, except for job-finding skills, is not encouraging. The skills usually taught may be too basic. Skills training oriented to complex targets, such as building nondrug-using networks, may be useful and should be further explored. 3. Social support is clearly important, yet we do not know how best to use it to promote abstinence. The little research available suggests that both familial and nonfamilial systems should be mobilized. We need to define abstinence-promoting supportive behaviors, identify and engage important support systems in treatment, and help patients expand their nondrug-using contacts. 4. Negative affect may be causally related to relapse. We need to continue efforts to identify dysphoric patients and develop interventions to ameliorate dysphoria concurrent with drug abuse treatment (cf. Zweben and Smith 1989). 5. Drug cue reactivity and extinction to drug cues have been demonstrated in the laboratory. What is needed in this promising line of research are (1) investigation of cues and cue-reactivity phenomena in the natural environment or in conditions closely mimicking that environment and (2) extinction methods that transfer

  16. Some New Reflections on Mr. Palomar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolami, O.

    2009-08-01

    The character Mr. Palomar, the alter-ego of the Italian author Italo Calvino, appeared for the first time in 1975 on the pages of the ``Il Corriere della Sera'', and then more or less regularly till its debut as a book in 1983. Through illuminating thoughts and reflections based on observations, for instance, of sea waves, Mr. Palomar discovers that they induce a peaceful and inspirational state of mind that prevents coronary and mental illnesses, and also holds the key to capturing the complexity of the world reducing it into its most elementary mechanisms. In this contribution I will survey some of Mr. Palomar's thoughts while he observes the sky and speculate on others that he might have explored if he shared our contemporary knowledge of the cosmos. I will also discuss the thoughts of other authors on how, cosmological thinking affects the human condition.

  17. Ground Deformation Detection Using China’s ZY-3 Stereo Imagery in an Opencast Mining Area

    OpenAIRE

    Wenmin Hu; Lixin Wu; Wei Zhang; Bin Liu; Jiaxing Xu

    2017-01-01

    Detection and extraction of mining-induced ground deformation can be used to understand the deformation process and space distribution and to estimate the deformation laws and trends. This study focuses on the application of ground deformation detection and extraction combined with digital surface model (DSM), derived from China’s ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3) satellite stereo imagery and the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer global digital elevation model (ASTER GDEM) data. A ...

  18. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2004-04-01

    Apr 1, 2004 ... cytogenetics, and marshals evidence supporting his hypothesis that adverse climatic conditions may, in fact, lead to ... dominant seed ferns, Cordaiteae, giant lycopods and calamiles now giving place to a more modern type .... Nicotiana, Oenothera, Petunia, Pisum, Secale, Syringa and Zea. The cytological ...

  19. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    interdependency of biological and cultural evolution in humans. the distinction between notions of equality of individuals ... enormously the range of utilizable food supplies, and learned to make use of a variety of energy sources. ... However, natural selection does not ineluctably depend on any of these things. Birch has.

  20. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    selection; new genes arise through mutation, sexual recombination creates new combina- tions of genes, and natural selection acts to multiply the successful genetic ..... eugenic laws; it is perhaps not over optimistic to hope that spreading biological education and understanding may be a real help. Make persons whose ...

  1. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The following article by Norbert Wiener makes two points - the first explains the possibility of making computer programs 'human like' by building in learning and adaptfvity in them; the second cautions us on the danger that may arise due to the large difference in time constant between human thinking and action and ...

  2. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is the physicists who have been thrown most violently off stride, who have left academic pursuits for the ... increasingly necessary for progress, and the effort to bridge between disciplines is correspondingly superficial. Professionally our methods of transmitting and reviewing the results of research are generations old and ...

  3. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pumped' by displacement of the center of gravity of the person sitting or standing on it. Back in Europe (1925). In the fall of 1925 I read in some journal that an International Congress on Mechanics was to be held in. Zurichthe following autumn.

  4. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    He quickly succumbed to a serious heart ailment and died in October 1902. His sad fate did not permit him even to suspect that two years later his son would lay the foundation of his future greatness and fame by solving an urgent problem in physics. But Albert Einstein's mother was still able to enjoy her son's importance.

  5. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    responsibility of updating the various chapters of the book to incorporate the latest developments. I was also given a task in .... time for all of us in his group, and we used to go out and attend to some of our personal work. However, we all used to be ... Roger was of the same age as me, but much superior in his knowledge of ...

  6. Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Vikkelsø, Signe

    2012-01-01

    -readings of two classic, but partially forgotten contributions within organization theory – the work of Wilfred R. Bion on group assumptions and the work of Elliott Jaques on ‘requisite organisation’ – we suggest that contemporary discussion of organizational change could benefit considerably from regaining...... be theorized, categorized, evaluated and acted upon without further specification. In this article, we argue that this combination of absolutism and abstraction has some unfortunate consequences for the precise assessment and practical management of particular organizational changes. Based on re...

  7. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    human being - creativity and freedom - presupposing the existence of a human mind. His views, in turn, originate from his thinking about the nature of language which has been exercising his mind from the late. f0I1ies. Chomsky'S prominence as a socio-political thinker has completely overshadowed his professional status ...

  8. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    looking back, such a burst of creativity from a single mind in a single year is probably unparalled in our times. The 1905 volume of Annalen de, Physik stands to tell us that all this really happened. Ra;a,am Nityananda. Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560 080, India. Why does this magnificent applied science, which ...

  9. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2004-04-01

    Apr 1, 2004 ... We may conveniently speak of it as the Gondwana revolution, after the southern ... The Idea of Mutation Applied to Fossil Forms: A French Theory of Meta- morphosis. Grand'Eury, with his ... Another ingenious theory we owe to the distinguished French palaeo botanist Paul. Bertrand. According to him not ...

  10. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, the machine techniques of the present day have invaded the latter fields as well, ... of operation of modern machines. ..... Man and Slave. The problem, and it is a moral problem, with which we are here faced is very close to one of the great problems of slavery. Let us grant that slayery is bad because it is cruel. It is,.

  11. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    losing conflict to which his assumption of the best possible strategy on the part of his enemy would have doomed him. In assessing not merely the material and .... operate at a higher and higher psychological level, the catastrophe foreseen by Butler of the dominance of the machine comes nearer and nearer. The human ...

  12. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    arrangement gave preferential treatment to the "better classes" which could afford better schooling for ... common people. Hermann Einstein, it seems) showed a marked inclination for math- ematics, and would have liked to pursue studies in this or some related field. ... meaning nature that could refuse nothing to anyone.

  13. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mental health. Science has provided the swiftest communication between individuals; it has provided a record of ideas and has enabled man to manipulate and to make extracts from that record so that knowledge ... more reliably than any human operator and thousands of times as fast - there are plenty of mechanical aids ...

  14. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With their vision and foresight, these two great scientists realized the importance of this new and expanding field of radio physics and electronics ..... electronics, magnetron fabrication, and ionospheric investigations from artificial satellite beacon studies were carried out with significant achievements, which were duly recog-.

  15. 30 CFR 77.801 - Grounding resistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding resistors. 77.801 Section 77.801...-Voltage Distribution § 77.801 Grounding resistors. The grounding resistor, where required, shall be of the proper ohmic value to limit the voltage drop in the grounding circuit external to the resistor to not...

  16. 14 CFR 417.109 - Ground safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground safety. 417.109 Section 417.109... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Launch Safety Responsibilities § 417.109 Ground safety. (a) Ground safety... 417.115(c), and subpart E of this part provide launch operator ground safety requirements. ...

  17. The Radon Book. Preventive measures in new buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavensjoe, Bertil; Aakerblom, Gustav

    2004-01-01

    This book describes in text and picture how one can prevent that the radon concentrations in new buildings become to high. The book's centre of gravity lies on how to build in order to prevent that radon gas from the ground enters the building. The book contains extensive information about ground radon and how to examine the ground before constructing a new building. Release of radon from ground water and construction material is treated, as well as technology for measurement of radon and gamma radiation. The book presents current threshold values/recommended values for radon and the authorities' regulations and recommendations. The book is directed to persons who professionally need knowledge about radon and how to prevent that radon is accumulated in new buildings

  18. High Throughput Determination of Plant Height, Ground Cover, and Above-Ground Biomass in Wheat with LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Jimenez-Berni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Crop improvement efforts are targeting increased above-ground biomass and radiation-use efficiency as drivers for greater yield. Early ground cover and canopy height contribute to biomass production, but manual measurements of these traits, and in particular above-ground biomass, are slow and labor-intensive, more so when made at multiple developmental stages. These constraints limit the ability to capture these data in a temporal fashion, hampering insights that could be gained from multi-dimensional data. Here we demonstrate the capacity of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR, mounted on a lightweight, mobile, ground-based platform, for rapid multi-temporal and non-destructive estimation of canopy height, ground cover and above-ground biomass. Field validation of LiDAR measurements is presented. For canopy height, strong relationships with LiDAR (r2 of 0.99 and root mean square error of 0.017 m were obtained. Ground cover was estimated from LiDAR using two methodologies: red reflectance image and canopy height. In contrast to NDVI, LiDAR was not affected by saturation at high ground cover, and the comparison of both LiDAR methodologies showed strong association (r2 = 0.92 and slope = 1.02 at ground cover above 0.8. For above-ground biomass, a dedicated field experiment was performed with destructive biomass sampled eight times across different developmental stages. Two methodologies are presented for the estimation of biomass from LiDAR: 3D voxel index (3DVI and 3D profile index (3DPI. The parameters involved in the calculation of 3DVI and 3DPI were optimized for each sample event from tillering to maturity, as well as generalized for any developmental stage. Individual sample point predictions were strong while predictions across all eight sample events, provided the strongest association with biomass (r2 = 0.93 and r2 = 0.92 for 3DPI and 3DVI, respectively. Given these results, we believe that application of this system will provide new

  19. High Throughput Determination of Plant Height, Ground Cover, and Above-Ground Biomass in Wheat with LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Berni, Jose A; Deery, David M; Rozas-Larraondo, Pablo; Condon, Anthony Tony G; Rebetzke, Greg J; James, Richard A; Bovill, William D; Furbank, Robert T; Sirault, Xavier R R

    2018-01-01

    Crop improvement efforts are targeting increased above-ground biomass and radiation-use efficiency as drivers for greater yield. Early ground cover and canopy height contribute to biomass production, but manual measurements of these traits, and in particular above-ground biomass, are slow and labor-intensive, more so when made at multiple developmental stages. These constraints limit the ability to capture these data in a temporal fashion, hampering insights that could be gained from multi-dimensional data. Here we demonstrate the capacity of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), mounted on a lightweight, mobile, ground-based platform, for rapid multi-temporal and non-destructive estimation of canopy height, ground cover and above-ground biomass. Field validation of LiDAR measurements is presented. For canopy height, strong relationships with LiDAR ( r 2 of 0.99 and root mean square error of 0.017 m) were obtained. Ground cover was estimated from LiDAR using two methodologies: red reflectance image and canopy height. In contrast to NDVI, LiDAR was not affected by saturation at high ground cover, and the comparison of both LiDAR methodologies showed strong association ( r 2 = 0.92 and slope = 1.02) at ground cover above 0.8. For above-ground biomass, a dedicated field experiment was performed with destructive biomass sampled eight times across different developmental stages. Two methodologies are presented for the estimation of biomass from LiDAR: 3D voxel index (3DVI) and 3D profile index (3DPI). The parameters involved in the calculation of 3DVI and 3DPI were optimized for each sample event from tillering to maturity, as well as generalized for any developmental stage. Individual sample point predictions were strong while predictions across all eight sample events, provided the strongest association with biomass ( r 2 = 0.93 and r 2 = 0.92) for 3DPI and 3DVI, respectively. Given these results, we believe that application of this system will provide new

  20. Basin scale management of surface and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.C.; Al-Sharif, M.

    1993-01-01

    An important element in the economic development of many regions of the Great Plains is the availability of a reliable water supply. Due to the highly variable nature of the climate through out much of the Great Plains region, non-controlled stream flow rates tend to be highly variable from year to year. Thus, the primary water supply has tended towards developing ground water aquifers. However, in regions where shallow ground water is extracted for use, there exists the potential for over drafting aquifers to the point of depleting hydraulically connected stream flows, which could adversely affect the water supply of downstream users. To prevent the potential conflict that can arise when a basin's water supply is being developed or to control the water extractions within a developed basin requires the ability to predict the effect that water extractions in one region will have on water extractions from either surface or ground water supplies else where in the basin. This requires the ability to simulate ground water levels and stream flows on a basin scale as affected by changes in water use, land use practices and climatic changes within the basin. The outline for such a basin scale surface water-ground water model has been presented in Tracy (1991) and Tracy and Koelliker (1992), and the outline for the mathematical programming statement to aid in determining the optimal allocation of water on a basin scale has been presented in Tracy and Al-Sharif (1992). This previous work has been combined into a computer based model with graphical output referred to as the LINOSA model and was developed as a decision support system for basin managers. This paper will present the application of the LINOSA surface-ground water management model to the Rattlesnake watershed basin that resides within Ground Water Management District Number 5 in south central Kansas

  1. Polio and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Photo Collections Videos Polio Today → Polio + Prevention Polio + Prevention Polio and prevention Polio is a crippling and ... a child for life. Learn more about polio + prevention The Virus The Vaccines The Communities Related resources ...

  2. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) The NIDDK-sponsored Diabetes Prevention ... Diabetes Prevention Program for those who are eligible. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) DPP Goal The DPP looked ...

  3. Deep Seismic Reflection Profiling in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attoh, K.; Brown, L. D.

    2006-05-01

    Africa represents one of the true frontiers for systematic deep seismic reflection profiling of the type pioneered by COCORP, LITHOPROBE, BIRPS, DEKORP, and ECORS in the northern hemisphere. However, there have been a number of notable individual surveys that have sampled key components of the African lithosphere, and several systematic regional geophysical initiatives which suggest African is fertile ground for future efforts. Among the latter are the KRISP refraction/wide-angle program to probe the East African Rift system in the 1990's, the Kaapvaal Experiment to image the deep lithosphere with passive techniques and most recently the EAGLE active/passive experiments in the Afar. Examples of true multichannel deep reflection surveys to delineate crustal structure include the transects of the Limpopo Belt, a Neoarchean mobile zone that sutures the Kaapval and Zimbabwe cratons, deep oil prospecting surveys in the Nosop basin of southern Botswana that reveal dramatic basement reflectors off the NW margin of the Kaapvaal craton, and most recently deep vibroseis surveys within the Kaapvaal craton that indicate a crustal stack of tectonic slivers as well as tectonic shingling of the upper mantle. The passive margin of western Africa, with its strategic oil resources, has been a target of several deep studies using marine seismic surveys, including the PROBE initiative of the late 1980's and more recent deep surveys offshore Angola. Reprocessing of lines from oil exploration grids reveal Proterozoic mid-lower crustal features offshore of Ghana. Among the potentially rich targets for future surveys in Africa are the West African and Congo cratons and their suturing Pan-African (Neoproterozoic) mobile belts. This suite of cratonic lithosphere elements is largely largely untouched by modern high resolution seismic methodologies. New initiatives such as LEGENDS ( targeting the East African Orogen) and exploitation of existing oil industry seismic data for deep information

  4. Reflecting on the role of literature in qualitative public administration research:learning from grounded theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); N. Karsten (Niels)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhen undertaking qualitative research, public administration scholars must walk a thin line between being theoretically sensitive and imposing preconceived ideas on their work. This article identifies opportunities and pitfalls in using literature in qualitative public administration

  5. Does the Worm Live in the Ground? Reflections on Native American Spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Wilbur, Michael P.

    1999-01-01

    Describes Native American spirituality through the four basic cultural elements of Medicine, Harmony, Relation, and Vision. With these elements in mind, practical implications for counseling are offered concerning greeting, hospitality, silence, space, eye contact, intention, and collaboration. States that once a counselor has some understanding…

  6. Roadmap grounded as 'visual portray' : Reflecting on an artifact and metaphor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonse, W.L.; Buijs, J.A.; Hultink, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Artifacts Design representations and presentations of work, strategic thinking, and business processes. Main theme Design!? - related by research program on Design Roadmapping, at the Industrial Design Engineering Faculty.

  7. COMPILATION OF GROUND WATER MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The full report presents an overview of currently available computer-based simulation models for ground-water flow, solute and heat transport, and hydrogeochemistry in both porous media and fractured rock. Separate sections address multiphase flow and related chemical species tra...

  8. Maintenance Sourcebook: Landscaping and Grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Carol; Gomulka, Ken; Harper, Wayne; Conry, Terry

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that facility managers need continual education in many subjects to keep their campuses in excellent condition, highlighting four areas related to landscaping and maintenance: landscaping care; athletic field care; grounds care; and equipment care. Lists of relevant professional organizations are included. (SM)

  9. The ground stones from Sphinx

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řídký, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 21 (2017), s. 39-42 ISSN 1369-5770 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA17-03207S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Sudan * Mesolithic * ground stones Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  10. Evaluation of multimodal ground cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Lecuyer, Anatole; Serafin, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an array of results on the perception of ground surfaces via multiple sensory modalities,with special attention to non visual perceptual cues, notably those arising from audition and haptics, as well as interactions between them. It also reviews approaches to combining synth...

  11. TARDEC's Intelligent Ground Systems overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaster, Jeffrey F.

    2009-05-01

    The mission of the Intelligent Ground Systems (IGS) Area at the Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) is to conduct technology maturation and integration to increase Soldier robot control/interface intuitiveness and robotic ground system robustness, functionality and overall system effectiveness for the Future Combat System Brigade Combat Team, Robotics Systems Joint Project Office and game changing capabilities to be fielded beyond the current force. This is accomplished through technology component development focused on increasing unmanned ground vehicle autonomy, optimizing crew interfaces and mission planners that capture commanders' intent, integrating payloads that provide 360 degree local situational awareness and expanding current UGV tactical behavior, learning and adaptation capabilities. The integration of these technology components into ground vehicle demonstrators permits engineering evaluation, User assessment and performance characterization in increasingly complex, dynamic and relevant environments to include high speed on road or cross country operations, all weather/visibility conditions and military operations in urban terrain (MOUT). Focused testing and experimentation is directed at reducing PM risk areas (safe operations, autonomous maneuver, manned-unmanned collaboration) and transitioning technology in the form of hardware, software algorithms, test and performance data, as well as User feedback and lessons learned.

  12. Directional reflectance factor distributions of a cotton row crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, D. S.; Newcomb, W. W.; Schutt, J. B.; Pinter, P. J., Jr.; Jackson, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The directional reflectance factor distribution spanning the entire exitance hemisphere was measured for a cotton row crop (Gossypium barbadense L.) with 39 percent ground cover. Spectral directional radiances were taken in NOAA satellite 7 AVHRR bands 1 and 2 using a three-band radiometer with restricted 12 deg full angle field of view at half peak power points. Polar co-ordinate system plots of directional reflectance factor distributions and three-dimensional computer graphic plots of scattered flux were used to study the dynamics of the directional reflectance factor distribution as a function of spectral band, geometric structure of the scene, solar zenith and azimuth angles, and optical properties of the leaves and soil. The factor distribution of the incomplete row crops was highly polymodal relative to that for complete vegetation canopies. Besides the enhanced reflectance for the antisolar point, a reflectance minimum was observed towards the forwardscatter direction in the principle plane of the sun. Knowledge of the mechanics of the observed dynamics of the data may be used to provide rigorous validation for two- or three-dimensional radiative transfer models, and is important in interpreting aircraft and satellite data where the solar angle varies widely.

  13. Assessing Reflection: Understanding Skill Development through Reflective Learning Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathro, Virginia; O'Kane, Paula; Gilbertson, Deb

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to suggest ways in which business educators can interact successfully with reflective learning journals (RLJs). Specifically, the research was interested in how students used RLJs and how educators assessed these RLJs. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 31 RLJs, submitted as part of an international…

  14. Audible reflection density for different late reflection criteria in rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Donata; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    For reasonably accurate but practical auralizations, some simplifications and approximations are needed. The main issue in the present investigation is that the reflection density of a room impulse response, in theory, increases so fast as a quadratic function of the elapsed time, even assuming...

  15. Estimation of Nitrogen Vertical Distribution by Bi-Directional Canopy Reflectance in Winter Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wenjiang; Yang, Qinying; Pu, Ruiliang; Yang, Shaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    Timely measurement of vertical foliage nitrogen distribution is critical for increasing crop yield and reducing environmental impact. In this study, a novel method with partial least square regression (PLSR) and vegetation indices was developed to determine optimal models for extracting vertical foliage nitrogen distribution of winter wheat by using bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) data. The BRDF data were collected from ground-based hyperspectral reflectance measuremen...

  16. A comparison of basal reflectivity and ice velocity in East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Jacobel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based radio echo sounding data acquired along the 1700 km US-ITASE traverse have been used to determine ice attenuation and relative basal reflectivity across the major catchments funneling ice from East Antarctica to the Ross Ice Shelf. We find that basal reflectivity varies locally by up to 40 dB which we interpret as due to changes in the phase state at the bed. Some, though not all, areas of high local reflectivity are observed to have flat-lying bed reflections indicative of sub-glacial lakes. We compare basal reflectivity to ice balance velocity and find a general association of higher flow speeds with high radar reflection strength. This set of observations from two independent remotely sensed geophysical data sets extends the range of field observations to the interior of East Antarctica and confirms the importance of basal lubrication on modulating the ice dynamics of the largest ice sheet on the planet.

  17. Challenges to estimating whole forest root biomass with ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnor, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past two decades, substantial technical advances have been made in detecting tree roots with ground penetrating radar (GPR). Under favorable soil dielectric conditions, root location, depth, diameter and mass estimates are possible in the field. With careful notation of survey lines, three dimensional reconstructions of root architecture may also be achieved. The technique has been very useful for quantifying lateral root biomass in silvicultural studies, but is not yet a standalone technique for estimating root biomass in forests. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the limitations of GPR in the field to stimulate discussion on how to overcome these challenges. Under field conditions, surface-based antennas with frequencies of 400 to 1500 MHz cannot detect fine roots (detected. Lack of automation of data processing and interpretation steps currently makes data analysis arduous and in some cases subject to interpretation by an expert user. Forests have a high degree of heterogeneity in surface conditions (e.g., holes, soil moisture, stems, woody and herbaceous plants) that may prevent antennas from coupling with the surface to propagate EM waves and receive reflections. What is the potential for open source data analysis programs to be developed and shared? How will new digital, multi-frequency antennas improve resolution? Can air launched antennas be developed that have both the depth penetration and resolution to detect roots? Are purpose-designed bore hole antenna needed for imaging taproots?

  18. Radar characteristics of cloud-to-ground lightning producing storms in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechler, D. E.; Goodman, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    The interrelation between cloud-to-ground lightning, convective rainfall, and the environment in Central Florida storms is examined. The rain flux, storm area, and ground discharge rates are computed within the outlined area. Time-height cross sections of maximum dBZ values at each level for two storms are shown. The multicellular nature of these storms is readily apparent. The cloud-to-ground lightning activity occurs mainly where high reflectivity values (30-40 dBZ) extend above 7 km.

  19. Reflection of curved shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-09-01

    Shock curvatures are related to pressure gradients, streamline curvatures and vorticity in flows with planar and axial symmetry. Explicit expressions, in an influence coefficient format, are used to relate post-shock pressure gradient, streamline curvature and vorticity to pre-shock gradients and shock curvature in steady flow. Using higher order, von Neumann-type, compatibility conditions, curved shock theory is applied to calculate the flow near singly and doubly curved shocks on curved surfaces, in regular shock reflection and in Mach reflection. Theoretical curved shock shapes are in good agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations and experiment.

  20. Assessment of surface and subsurface ground disturbance due to underground mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khair, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents highlights of the research carried out at West Virginia University in order to assess surface and subsurface ground disturbance due to longwall mining. Extensive instrumentation and measurements have been made over three longwall mines in northern West Virginia during a three-year period. Various monitoring techniques including full profile borehole extensometer, full profile borehole inclinometers, time domain reflectometry, sonic reflection technique, a unique mechanical grouting method, photographic and visual observations, standard surveying, and water-level measurements were utilized. The paper's emphasis is first on surface ground movement and its impact on integrity of surface ground and structures and second on type and magnitude of subsurface ground movements associated with mine geometry and geology. A subsidence prediction model based on implementation of both mechanisms of ground movement around the excavation and the geologic and geotechnical properties of the rock/coal surrounding the excavation has been developed. 8 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  1. Fragments on teachers' reflective practicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Predrag Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available in many historical and comparative overviews of the works, in which there is an analytical discussion of the dominant pedagogical theories in the twentieth century, John Dewey (Dewey, 1933 is referred to as the founder and creator of the concept of reflection (reflective thought and knowledge in practice. Reflection as a concept is understood as the forms and the form of problem solving, as well as continuously thinking about the causes of problems in situations in situ, including active and systematically and consistently changing connecting ideas with solutions to the problems and situations that preceded them (Hatton & Smith, 1995. Reflective thinking is the most general level to tackle practical problems, allowing the ''recommended'' doubts and confusion before proposing possible solutions to the problem. Dewey wrote about a reflective action which refers to the use of solutions to the problem and to thinking through the course of the action. in later works of the authors who have dealt with this problem, an unambiguous link can be observed between the so-called ''professional'' action and the reflection on action which, in this cyclical relationship, leads to visible changes (Zeichner & Gore, 1984. Already at first glance, this implies a connection with experiential learning and adult position of observation and reflection in various models of experiential learning, which will be discussed later. it would be useful to compare this method with a cyclic action of routine as an expression of impulse, tradition and authority. Reflective action, as opposed to the routine, is a consistently and carefully thought-out action (practice reflection, which is an ''awakened'' knowledge and belief, and that is an expression of openness, accountability and commitment. We are ready for reflection, says Schon, when the ''knowledge-in-action'' - a kind of knowledge that professionals notice when it is acted spontaneously - occurs suddenly and unintentionally

  2. Near-ground cooling efficacies of trees and high-albedo surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-05-01

    Daytime summer urban heat islands arise when the prevalence of dark-colored surfaces and lack of vegetation make a city warmer than neighboring countryside. Two frequently-proposed summer heat island mitigation measures are to plant trees and to increase the albedo (solar reflectivity) of ground surfaces. This dissertation examines the effects of these measures on the surface temperature of an object near the ground, and on solar heating of air near the ground. Near-ground objects include people, vehicles, and buildings. The variation of the surface temperature of a near-ground object with ground albedo indicates that a rise in ground albedo will cool a near-ground object only if the object`s albedo exceeds a critical value. This critical value of object albedo depends on wind speed, object geometry, and the height of the atmospheric thermal boundary layer. It ranges from 0.15 to 0.37 for a person. If an object has typical albedo of 0.3, increasing the ground albedo by.

  3. Andreev reflections and the quantum physics of black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Sreenath K.; Jordan, Andrew N.

    2017-12-01

    We establish an analogy between superconductor-metal interfaces and the quantum physics of a black hole, using the proximity effect. We show that the metal-superconductor interface can be thought of as an event horizon and Andreev reflection from the interface is analogous to the Hawking radiation in black holes. We describe quantum information transfer in Andreev reflection with a final state projection model similar to the Horowitz-Maldacena model for black hole evaporation. We also propose the Andreev reflection analogue of Hayden and Preskill's description of a black hole final state, where the black hole is described as an information mirror. The analogy between crossed Andreev reflections and Einstein-Rosen bridges is discussed: our proposal gives a precise mechanism for the apparent loss of quantum information in a black hole by the process of nonlocal Andreev reflection, transferring the quantum information through a wormhole and into another universe. Given these established connections, we conjecture that the final quantum state of a black hole is exactly the same as the ground state wave function of the superconductor/superfluid in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity; in particular, the infalling matter and the infalling Hawking quanta, described in the Horowitz-Maldacena model, forms a Cooper pairlike singlet state inside the black hole. A black hole evaporating and shrinking in size can be thought of as the analogue of Andreev reflection by a hole where the superconductor loses a Cooper pair. Our model does not suffer from the black hole information problem since Andreev reflection is unitary. We also relate the thermodynamic properties of a black hole to that of a superconductor, and propose an experiment which can demonstrate the negative specific heat feature of black holes in a growing/evaporating condensate.

  4. Use of HRSC-A for sampling bidirectional reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukko, Antero; Hyyppä, Juha; Kuittinen, Risto

    This paper describes a method for sampling bidirectional reflectance information from multiangular airborne images. The method uses high resolution surface models to determinate the location of the imaged point on the ground and the orientation of the measured surface fragment. Since natural surfaces scatter incident radiation anisotropically, viewing and illumination conditions play a critical role in the interpretation of remotely sensed images. Thus, directionally defined reflectance data are needed for the modelling and correction of bidirectional effects on airborne optical images. Two test sites were imaged with a wide range of viewing azimuth angles at two different times. A high resolution HRSC-A stereo camera was used for image acquisition. Algorithms were implemented to reconstruct the image acquisition and retrieve the image samples from the HRSC-A image data. Combined with GPS and INS data, automatically derived high resolution digital surface models, including vegetation canopies, houses, etc., were used to determine the viewing and illumination geometry on the target surface. The brightness of a sample point was recorded as a measure for reflectance. A large number of directionally defined samples and a wide angular range of sample geometry were obtained. The images were first classified. Sampled reflectance data were verified by investigating the bidirectional reflectance of five agricultural and forest targets. Errors affecting the data quality, such as angular uncertainty, were studied. The multiangular image data, the developed sampling methods and the obtained bidirectional dataset proved to be applicable in investigations of bidirectional reflectance effects of natural targets. Airborne imagery combined with high resolution digital surface models permit extensive investigation of the bidirectional reflectance of a wide range of natural objects and large habitats.

  5. Innovative RDWT: a new DWT-based method with applications for seismic ground roll attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irani Mehr, Mohammad; Riahi, Mohammad Ali; Goudarzi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    The presence of noise in seismic data is inevitable. In land seismic data acquisition, ground roll noise masks reflection events so that observation of reflection events is not usually easy to interpret. It is the exploration seismologist's task to attenuate ground roll to improve the data quality and to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. Investigations have suggested that the wavelet transform is an efficient tool for such a purpose. In this study, a new type of discrete wavelet transform, known as the rational-dilation wavelet transform (RDWT), is used to attenuate ground roll. Compared with the common DWTs, the RDWT offers a wide range of redundancies and Q-factors (wavelet centre frequency/bandwidth), to help the user choose an appropriate Q-factor, and hence provides more satisfactory results in ground roll attenuation while better preserving the signal. In this transform, the Q-factor is determined by selecting a number of parameters. True parameter selection results in better performance of ground roll attenuation. Depending on the nature of the ground roll, the parameters may vary in each shot-gather. Due to the over-completeness of the transformation, aliasing is less problematic compared to other DWTs. This paper discusses and indicates the advantages and capability of RDWT, by applying it to synthetic and real shot-gathered data with the purpose of ground roll attenuation, and compares the results with the application of f–k and band-pass filters. (paper)

  6. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  7. Creative reflection in industrial design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, J.K.; Verbrugge, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation is a reflection of the writer on his career as an industrial designer of Demand-Driven Design for a period of approximately 25 years. This period is exposed with a discussion of five designs. The projects are introduced by developments in the surrounding design landscape, such as

  8. Specular neutron reflectivity and beyond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A polarized neutron reflectometer for vertical samples is available at Dhruva reactor guide hall, Trombay. The reflectometer has been designed for horizontal scattering vector. It uses a position-sensitive detector for obtaining the reflectivity pattern. This arrangement allows one to obtain diffuse or off-specular intensity around ...

  9. Negative Reflecting Meta-Mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Li, Dong; Gao, Dongxing; Zhang, Aofang; Hu, Bowei; Yang, Pei; Lei, Zhenya; Li, Jiacheng

    2017-07-18

    Using the gradient phase discontinuities that meta-mirrors provide, we show that the incident wave can be reflected anomalously with a broad angle range of negative reflections. Such reversed behaviors promote the immediate applications for the planar meta-mirrors to steer the signals more arbitrarily and the convex meta-mirrors to focus and collimate electromagnetic fields. We practically implement these negative reflecting meta-mirrors through an arrangement of subwavelength ring patches and generate the desired phase distribution by also considering the incident angle. Finally, the experiments are carried out to verify the functionality of the convex meta-mirror firstly, and the performances of the planar meta-mirror are also tested by further building up a dual reflector system with the demonstration of obtaining the plane wave from the convex meta-mirror and then having the well collimated beam negative reflected by the planar meta-mirror. The proposed design should be readily applicable to a wide range of electromagnetic problems, especially for devising smart planar illusion devices, and highly directive antennas mounting on convex surfaces of various platforms.

  10. Vegetables, Coctails & Reflections / Marco Laimre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laimre, Marko, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Pealkirja "Vegetables, Coctails & Reflections" kandis Tallinna Kunstihoones 8.04.-28.05.2006 avatud Elin Kardi, Marko Mäetamme, Marco Laimre ja Andres Tali ühisnäitusel "Vägivald ja propaganda" Marco Laimre installatsioon. Marco Laimre esinemine raadiosaates "kunst.er" Klassikaraadios 16.04.2006

  11. Reflections on the Gordon Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haertel, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background:This brief reflection on the work of the Gordon Commission calls out significant themes and implications found in the various papers authored by the commissioners and other scholars, especially those included in this special issue of Teachers College Record. Purpose: The forward-looking vision of the Gordon Commission is contrasted with…

  12. Rejoinder to TESE Reflection Pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Fred

    1996-01-01

    Reflects on the differing viewpoints in previous articles addressing the preparation of special education teachers. Discusses the need for the special education field to continue to use effective instructional strategies and share them with general education change agents to better the lives of all children. (CR)

  13. Reflections on Teaching: Meaningful Scribbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Fay

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her reflections on teaching and learning. The author's teaching philosophy is rooted in her studies of developmental psychology and educational psychology. The theoretical approach most compatible with her view of teaching and learning advocates a contextualist and interactionist view that Tharp and Gallimore…

  14. REFLECTION IN RUSSIAN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, J.M.C.; Tomic, W.

    2008-01-01

    The present article explores the theoretical underpinnings upon which Russian psychologists base their analysis of reflection. The intention is to arrive at a clearer understanding of their research aims and research methods, and to explore the relevance of their research to educational practice.

  15. Reflections on a Disco Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2016-01-01

    A disco ball is a spherical object covered with small plane mirrors. When light reflects on these mirrors, it is scattered in many directions, producing a novel effect. The mirror globe is usually set to rotate, creating a profusion of moving spots (Fig. 1). In this article, we present a geometrical description of the movement of these spots and…

  16. Specular neutron reflectivity and beyond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. E-mail: sbasu@barc.gov. ... Measurement of specular reflectivity of neutrons from a surface, due to step change in refractive index ... coherent scattering length density for neutron–nuclear interaction in the material. This difference makes ...

  17. Reflections on Visual Field Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth D. Tunnell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes ongoing visual field research by focusing on its self-reflective and auto-ethnographic components. Photographs and field notes are presented and personal encounters from the field are described. Recognizing the symbiotic order of the personal and political, the author details confrontations and emotions from ongoing efforts at recording visually.

  18. Reflections on Visual Field Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth D. Tunnell

    2012-01-01

    This article describes ongoing visual field research by focusing on its self-reflective and auto-ethnographic components. Photographs and field notes are presented and personal encounters from the field are described. Recognizing the symbiotic order of the personal and political, the author details confrontations and emotions from ongoing efforts at recording visually.

  19. Reflective Reconstruction of Visual Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    objects. The teacher used a range of visual materials including video clips, diagrams, student drawings, and student produced 3D models, each endowed with unique material and visual dimensions. The teacher activated those through talking, writing, drawing and working with artifacts and purposefully...... recorded conversations with individual students to be able to reflect on and track the children’s progression in understanding....

  20. Gamma camera with reflectivity mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention there is provided a radiographic camera comprising: a scintillator; a plurality of photodectors positioned to face said scintillator; a plurality of masked regions formed upon a face of said scintillator opposite said photdetectors and positioned coaxially with respective ones of said photodetectors for decreasing the amount of internal reflection of optical photons generated within said scintillator. (auth)

  1. Specular neutron reflectivity and beyond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A polarized neutron reflectometer for vertical samples is available at Dhruva reactor guide hall, Trombay. The reflectometer has been designed for horizontal scattering vector. It uses a position-sensitive detector for obtaining the reflectivity pattern. This arrangement allows one to obtain diffuse or off-specular ...

  2. Grounded theory in music therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare

    2012-01-01

    Grounded theory is one of the most common methodologies used in constructivist (qualitative) music therapy research. Researchers use the term "grounded theory" when denoting varying research designs and theoretical outcomes. This may be challenging for novice researchers when considering whether grounded theory is appropriate for their research phenomena. This paper examines grounded theory within music therapy research. Grounded theory is briefly described, including some of its "contested" ideas. A literature search was conducted using the descriptor "music therapy and grounded theory" in Pubmed, CINAHL PsychlNFO, SCOPUS, ERIC (CSA), Web of Science databases, and a music therapy monograph series. A descriptive analysis was performed on the uncovered studies to examine researched phenomena, grounded theory methods used, and how findings were presented, Thirty music therapy research projects were found in refereed journals and monographs from 1993 to "in press." The Strauss and Corbin approach to grounded theory dominates the field. Descriptors to signify grounded theory components in the studies greatly varied. Researchers have used partial or complete grounded theory methods to examine clients', family members', staff, music therapy "overhearers," music therapists', and students' experiences, as well as music therapy creative products and professional views, issues, and literature. Seven grounded theories were offered. It is suggested that grounded theory researchers clarify what and who inspired their design, why partial grounded theory methods were used (when relevant), and their ontology. By elucidating assumptions underpinning the data collection, analysis, and findings' contribution, researchers will continue to improve music therapy research using grounded theory methods.

  3. EFFECT OF NATURAL AND COMMERCIAL SURFACTANTS ON THE SURVIVAL AND SORPTION OF BACTERIOPHAGES IN GROUND WATER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an increasing concern about the protection of ground water from contamination by enteric viruses and the prevention of outbreaks of waterborne diseases. This study was undertaken to determine the processes that control viral transport in soil and ground water. In this ...

  4. Design of power cable grounding wire anti-theft monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xisheng; Lu, Peng; Wei, Niansheng; Hong, Gang

    2018-01-01

    In order to prevent the serious consequences of the power grid failure caused by the power cable grounding wire theft, this paper presents a GPRS based power cable grounding wire anti-theft monitoring device system, which includes a camera module, a sensor module, a micro processing system module, and a data monitoring center module, a mobile terminal module. Our design utilize two kinds of methods for detecting and reporting comprehensive image, it can effectively solve the problem of power and cable grounding wire box theft problem, timely follow-up grounded cable theft events, prevent the occurrence of electric field of high voltage transmission line fault, improve the reliability of the safe operation of power grid.

  5. Grounding Visual Explanations (Extended Abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Lisa Anne; Hu, Ronghang; Darrell, Trevor; Akata, Zeynep

    2017-01-01

    Existing models which generate textual explanations enforce task relevance through a discriminative term loss function, but such mechanisms only weakly constrain mentioned object parts to actually be present in the image. In this paper, a new model is proposed for generating explanations by utilizing localized grounding of constituent phrases in generated explanations to ensure image relevance. Specifically, we introduce a phrase-critic model to refine (re-score/re-rank) generated candidate e...

  6. Inverter Ground Fault Overvoltage Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Andy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chakraborty, Sudipta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chebahtah, Justin [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States); Wang, Trudie [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States); McCarty, Michael [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2015-08-12

    This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient overvoltages created by several commercial PV inverters during ground fault conditions. For this work, a test plan developed by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Load rejection overvoltage test results were reported previously in a separate technical report.

  7. Radon determination in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S.

    1991-08-01

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and 226 Ra- supported 222 Rn. Some of them were also studied for 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  8. Radon determination in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S

    1991-08-15

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and {sup 226} Ra- supported {sup 222} Rn. Some of them were also studied for {sup 234} U/ {sup 238} U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  9. Ground Optical Lightning Detector (GOLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John, Jr.; Simmons, David

    A photometer developed to characterize lightning from the ground is discussed. The detector and the electronic signal processing and data storage systems are presented along with field data measured by the system. The discussion will include improvements that will be incorporated to enhance the measurement of lightning and the data storage capability to record for many days without human involvement. Finally, the calibration of the GOLD system is presented.

  10. Development, implementation and evaluation of a process to prevent and combat workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandmark, Margaretha; Rahm, Gullbritt

    2014-11-01

    Our objective was to develop and implement an intervention program in collaboration with workplace personnel, to evaluate the process as a vehicle to prevent and combat bullying. The project emanates from a community-based participatory approach. We obtained data from individual and focus group interviews. We used grounded theory methodology, and made a comparative analysis before and after the intervention. Focus group interviews at the three first meetings indicated that those best positioned to prevent and combat bullying were the immediate supervisors, in collaboration with co-workers and upper management. The goal of zero tolerance toward bullying can be achieved if all concerned work together, using a humanistic value system, an open workplace atmosphere, group collaboration and conflict resolution. We developed an intervention, including lecturers and reflection groups, which ultimately resulted in an action plan. Focus group interviews at the fourth meeting, after the implementation, showed that employees were then more aware of bullying problems; the atmosphere at the workplace improved; the collaboration between and within the group was stronger; and the supervisor worked continuously to prevent and combat bullying, using the humanistic values suggested. We propose additional systematic work to implement our action plan and a conflict resolution system. The anti-bullying program implementation in the workplace achieved some success, but the intervention process is ongoing. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  11. Ground-State of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Emily; Carey, Mike; Fessatidis, Vassilios; Mancini, Jay D.; Bowen, Samuel P.

    2002-03-01

    The study of the ground-state properties of molecular systems has long been the focus of both quantum chemists as well as physicists. In general, most of the calculational methods are dependent on the use of high-power computers to generate large basis states. Such schemes as the full-configuration-interaction method, coupled-pair functionals and its modification, Moller-Plesset perturbation theory as well as both the restricted and unrestricted Hartree-Fock schemes have been used not only for ground-state calculations but also to calculate electron correlation energies. In general such schemes are limited to those basis which are constructed from single Slatter determinant. Here we wish to study the ground-state of water as well as hydrogen fluoride using the recently developed canonical sequence scheme which is a calculational cousin of the Connected Moments Expansion of Cioslowski. Comparisons are then made with other methods [for example P.J. Knowles Chem. Phys. Lett. 134, 512 (1987)].

  12. Grounding information security in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana; Antunes, Luis; Chadwick, David; Correia, Ricardo

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to show that grounded theory (GT), together with mixed methods, can be used to involve healthcare professionals in the design and enhancement of access control policies to Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems. The mixed methods applied for this research included, in this sequence, focus groups (main qualitative method that used grounded theory for the data analysis) and structured questionnaires (secondary quantitative method). Results showed that the presented methodology can be used to involve healthcare professionals in the definition of access control policies to EMR systems and explore these issues in a diversified and integrated way. The methodology allowed for the generation of great amounts of data in the beginning of the study and in a short time span. Results from the applied methodology revealed a first glimpse of the theories to be generated and integrated, with future research, into access control policies. The methodological research described in this paper is very rarely, if ever, applied in developing security tools such as access control. Nevertheless, it can be an effective way of involving healthcare professionals in the definition and enhancement of access control policies and in making information security more grounded into their workflows and daily practices. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radon in ground water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.L.; Lee, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    In September 1986, the System Water Quality Department of the American Water Works Service Co. began conducting a radon survey that was designed to determine the levels of radon in American ground water supplies, and to assess the radon removal efficiency of existing treatment processes such as filtration through granular activated carbon (GAC) and various forms of aeration. The survey found that companies in the northeastern part of the country experienced the highest levels of radon in ground water supplies. The highest concentrations were in individual wells in New Hampshire, Maryland, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and California. The analytical results from the occurrence phase of the survey seemed to correlate well with the known geology of the aquifer materials from which samples of ground water were drawn. The highest levels were associated with formations of uranium-bearing granitic rocks. GAC can effectively reduce radon concentrations in drinking water supplies to very low levels. However, the amount of contact time within the carbon bed required to do so would be prohibitive to many water utilities from an operational and economic standpoint. Further, disposal of the spent GAC as a low-level radioactive waste may be required. Aeration is very effective in the removal of radon from drinking water. Packed tower aerators achieved > 95% reduction in radon concentrations and conventional cascading tray aerators achieved > 75% reduction in radon concentrations. 7 refs., 6 tabs

  14. Can Turnitin come to the rescue: From teachers' reflections?

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Bheki Khoza

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative critical action research of six Grade 12 high school teachers who used Turnitin as part of their assessment processes. Turnitin submissions, one-on-one semi-structured interviews, observation and reflective activities were used for data production/generation. This article concluded that although Turnitin did not help teachers to prevent all learner acts of plagiarism, it did scare the learners away from any obvious act of plagiarism. Teachers and learners b...

  15. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  16. Poethical: Breaking Ground for Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krojer, Jo; Holge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2008-01-01

    Departing from a methodological experiment performed by the authors, this article reflects on and discusses issues of ethics and politics in poetic strategies of "representation". In relation to the experiment the article questions how to conceive the notion of connectedness between empirical time and the reconstruction of it in poststructuralist…

  17. Occurrence and Magnitude of High Reflectance Materials on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuno, R. G.; Boyd, A. K.; Robinson, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    We utilize a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) 643 nm photometrically normalized (30°, 0°, 30°; i, e, g) reflectance map to investigate the occurrence and origin of high reflectance materials on the Moon. Compositional differences (mainly iron and titanium content) and maturity state (e.g. Copernican crater rays and swirls) are the predominant factors affecting reflectance variations observed on the Moon. Therefore, comparing reflectance values of different regions yields insight into the composition and relative exposure age of lunar materials. But an accurate comparison requires precise reflectance values normalized across every region being investigated. The WAC [1] obtains monthly near-global ground coverage, each month's observations acquired with different lighting conditions. Boyd et al. [2] utilized a geologically homogeneous subset [0°N to 90°N, 146°E to 148°E] of the WAC observations to determine an equation that describes how viewing and lighting angles affect reflectance values. A normalized global reflectance map was generated by applying the local empirical solution globally, with photometric angles derived from the WAC Global Lunar Digital Terrain Model (DTM)(GLD100) [3]. The GLD100 enables accurate correction of reflectance differences caused by local topographic undulations at the scale of 300 meters. We compare reflectance values across the Moon within 80°S to 80°N latitude. The features with the highest reflectance are steep crater walls within Copernican aged craters, such as the walls of Giordano Bruno, which have normalized reflectance values up to 0.35. Near-impact ejecta of some craters have high reflectance values, such as Virtanen (0.22). There are also broad relatively flat features with high reflectance, such as the 900-km Thales-Compton region (0.24) and the 600-km extent of Anaxagoras (Copernican age) ejecta (0.20). Since the interior of Anaxagoras contains occurrences of pure anorthosite [4], the high

  18. Preventive Ethics Through Expanding Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Anita; MacDonald, Lisa Mei-Hwa; Unger, David

    2016-03-01

    Healthcare institutions have been making increasing efforts to standardize consultation methodology and to accredit both bioethics training programs and the consultants accordingly. The focus has traditionally been on the ethics consultation as the relevant unit of ethics intervention. Outcome measures are studied in relation to consultations, and the hidden assumption is that consultations are the preferred or best way to address day-to-day ethical dilemmas. Reflecting on the data from an internal quality improvement survey and the literature, we argue that having general ethics education as a key function of ethics services may be more important in meeting the contemporaneous needs of acute care settings. An expanded and varied ethics education, with attention to the time constraints of healthcare workers' schedules, was a key recommendation brought forward by survey respondents. Promoting ethical reflection and creating a culture of ethics may serve to prevent ethical dilemmas or mitigate their effects.

  19. Integrity inspection of main access tunnel using ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M. A.; Abas, A. A.; Arifin, M. H.; Ismail, M. N.; Othman, N. A.; Setu, A.; Ahmad, M. R.; Shah, M. K.; Amin, S.; Sarah, T.

    2017-11-01

    This paper discusses the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey performed to determine the integrity of wall of tunnel at a hydroelectric power generation facility. GPR utilises electromagnetic waves that are transmitted into the medium of survey. Any reflectors in the medium will reflect the transmitted waves and picked up by the GPR antenna. The survey was done using MALA GeoScience RAMAC CUII with 250MHz antenna. Survey was done on the left, the crown and the right walls of the underground tunnels. Distance was measured using wheel encoders. The results of the survey is discussed in this paper.

  20. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for Detection of Underground Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohd Kamal Shah Shamsuddin; Wan Zainal Abidin; Awang Sarfarudin Awang Putra

    2011-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) utilizes an electromagnetic microwave that is transmitted into the matter under investigation. Any objects with different dielectric properties from the medium of the matter under investigation will reflect the waves and will be picked up by the receivers embedded in the antenna. We have applied GPR in various application such as concrete inspection, underground utility detection, grave detection, archaeology, oil contamination of soil, soil layer thickness measurement and etc. This paper will give general findings of the application of GPR to provide solutions to the industry and public. The results of the GPR surveys will be discussed. (author)

  1. The ground water chemical characteristics of Beishan area-the China's potential high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tianxiao; Guo Yonghai

    2004-01-01

    The ground water chemical characteristics have impact on nuclide migration in high level waste repository, so the study on the ground water chemical characteristics is an important aspect in site screening and characterization. The geochemical modeling of the reaction trend between ground water and solid phase, the water-rock interaction modeling of the formation and evolution of ground water chemistry, the modeling of the reaction between ground water and nuclear waste are all carried out in this paper to study the ground water chemical characteristics in Beishan area. The study illustrates that the ground water chemical characteristics in Beishan area is favorable to the disposal of high level nuclear waste and to prevent the nuclides migration. (author)

  2. Accounting reflection of expenses on goods quality: theoretical and methodic support

    OpenAIRE

    Пархоменко, В. М.

    2011-01-01

    Peculiarities of accounting reflection and legal support of expenses on goods quality have been researched. Ways of their improvement on the basis of developed methods of accounting for expenses on quality have been suggested as well as the stages of their performance have been grounded 

  3. Social Learning, Natural Resource Management, and Participatory Activities: A reflection on construct development and testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodela, R.

    2014-01-01

    This analysis reflects on the use of multidimensional constructs for the study of social learning in natural resource management. Insight from deliberative democracy and adult learning literature are used to ground the identified four dimensions (the moral dimension the cognitive dimension, the

  4. Preventing Philippine Eagle hunting: what are we missing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayson Ibanez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Two pieces of information are minimally required to conserve endangered raptor species — (i an estimate of its remaining global population, and (ii the main factors responsible for its decline. Data suggest that no more than 400 adult pairs of the Critically Endangered Philippine Eagle could remain in the wild. As to what is causing population decline, shooting and hunting continue to be the primary factor while forest habitat loss is another. This paper reflects on the growing incident of human-caused deaths in Philippine Eagles, prominently on Mindanao Island where estimates suggest more than half of the eagle’s wild population exists. By analyzing data from eagle rescues, surveys, and field monitoring through radio and satellite tracking techniques, this paper shows that shooting and trapping is a “clear and present” danger which may potentially drive the population to extinction even when suitable forest habitats still exist. Cases of death within the last decade show that the nature and/or extent of law enforcement, conservation education, and population and habitat monitoring fall short of being effective deterrents to eagle persecution in the wild. We review emerging theories on wildlife crime and cases of community-based species conservation to justify a holistic and grounded approach to preventing eagle poaching as an alternative to the conservation status quo. 

  5. Problem posing reflections and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Stephen I

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the editors' collaborative teaching at Harvard in the late 1960s, they produced a ground-breaking work -- The Art Of Problem Posing -- which related problem posing strategies to the already popular activity of problem solving. It took the concept of problem posing and created strategies for engaging in that activity as a central theme in mathematics education. Based in part upon that work and also upon a number of articles by its authors, other members of the mathematics education community began to apply and expand upon their ideas. This collection of thirty readings is a tes

  6. Reflection group on 'Expert Culture'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2000-01-01

    As part of SCK-CEN's social sciences and humanities programme, a reflection group on 'Expert Culture' was established. The objectives of the reflection group are: (1) to clarify the role of SCK-CEN experts; (2) to clarify the new role of expertise in the evolving context of risk society; (3) to confront external views and internal SCK-CEN experiences on expert culture; (4) to improve trust building of experts and credibility of SCK-CEN as a nuclear actor in society; (5) to develop a draft for a deontological code; (6) to integrate the approach in training on assertivity and communication; (7) to create an output for a topical day on the subject of expert culture. The programme, achievements and perspectives of the refection group are summarised

  7. AntiReflection Coating D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIKEN, DANIEL J.

    1999-01-01

    Analytical expressions used to optimize AR coatings for single junction solar cells are extended for use in monolithic, series interconnected multi-junction solar cell AR coating design. The result is an analytical expression which relates the solar cell performance (through J(sub sc)) directly to the AR coating design through the device reflectance. It is also illustrated how AR coating design be used to provide an additional degree of freedom for current matching multi-junction devices

  8. Airport Ground Resource Planning Tool, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort undertakes the creation of an Airport Ground Resource Planning (AGRP) tool. Little or no automation is currently available to support airport ground...

  9. The Future of Ground Fire Support Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beckinger, Robert

    2002-01-01

    .... The potential of these and future systems, such as armed Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and micro-robotic platforms, signal the demise of at least ground fire support systems if not conventional ground forces...

  10. Three dimensional analysis on lateral flow of liquefied ground and its mitigation by sheet pile walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Towhata, I.

    2005-01-01

    Since the design policy of countermeasures to liquefaction is currently prevention of liquefaction, conventional liquefaction analysis aims to predict the possibility of liquefaction at a target site. However, quantitative prediction of ground flow by liquefaction has been studied for new design policy that allows the deformation of liquefied ground if it is not critical. This paper presents a method for prediction of the ground deformation related liquefaction by viscous fluid model. Furthermore, the mitigation effect of a sheet pile wall is assessed by modeling a sheet pile wall as an elastic beam.

  11. Ground penetrating radar images of selected fluvial deposits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghe, J. van den; Overmeeren, R.A. van

    1999-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys have been carried out in order to characterise reflection patterns and to assess the method's potential for imaging palaeofluvial sediments in the Mass-Rhine former confluence area in the southern Netherlands. The results show that the deposits of meandering,

  12. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  13. Culturally Responsive Teaching in the Context of Mathematics: A Grounded Theory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Emily P.; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2012-01-01

    In this grounded theory case study, four interconnected, foundational cornerstones of culturally responsive mathematics teaching (CRMT), communication, knowledge, trust/relationships, and constant reflection/revision, were systematically unearthed to develop an initial working theory of CRMT that directly informs classroom practice. These…

  14. Revisiting Symbolic Interactionism as a Theoretical Framework Beyond the Grounded Theory Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Charlotte; Thorne, Sally; Midtgaard, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The tight bond between grounded theory (GT) and symbolic interactionism (SI) is well known within the qualitative health research field. We aimed to disentangle this connection through critical reflection on the conditions under which it might add value as an underpinning to studies outside the GT...

  15. Aerosol single scattering albedo estimated across China from a combination of ground and satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon Ho Lee; Zhanqing Li; Man Sing Wong; Jinyuan Xin; Wang Yuesi; Wei Min Hao; Fengsheng Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Single scattering albedo (SSA) governs the strength of aerosols in absorbing solar radiation, but few methods are available to directly measure this important quantity. There currently exist many ground-based measurements of spectral transmittance from which aerosol optical thickness (AOT) are retrieved under clear sky conditions. Reflected radiances at the top of the...

  16. Empirically grounding grounded cognition: the case of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsel, Ben D; Urbach, Thomas P; Kutas, Marta

    2014-10-01

    Grounded cognition theories hold that the neural states involved in experiencing objects play a direct functional role in representing and accessing object knowledge from memory. However, extant data marshaled to support this view are also consistent with an opposing view that perceptuo-motor activations occur only following access to knowledge from amodal memory systems. We provide novel discriminating evidence for the functional involvement of visuo-perceptual states specifically in accessing knowledge about an object's color. We recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) while manipulating the visual contrast of monochromatic words ("lime") in a semantic decision task: responses were made for valid colors ("green") and locations ("kitchen") and withheld for invalid colors and locations. Low contrast delayed perceptual processing for both color and location. Critically, low contrast slowed access to color knowledge only. This finding reveals that the visual system plays a functional role in accessing object knowledge and uniquely supports grounded views of cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cost-effectiveness and performance of overlay systems in Illinois, volume 1 : effectiveness assessment of HMA overlay interlayer systems used to retard reflective cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This project evaluated the ability of interlayer systems used in HMA overlays to retard reflective cracking. Field : crack surveys and forensic investigation, including video imaging and ground penetrating radar surveys as well : as laboratory testin...

  18. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely as white men to die from stomach cancer. Stomach Cancer Prevention Key Points Avoiding risk factors and increasing ... factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent stomach cancer. Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain ...

  19. Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Metin [Environ Holdings Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Yavuzturk, Cy [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States); Pinder, George [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.

  20. Identification of resonant earthquake ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonant ground motion has been observed in earthquake records measured at several parts of the world. This class of ground motion is characterized by its energy being contained in a narrow frequency band. This paper develops measures to quantify the frequency content of the ground motion using the entropy ...